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Sample records for euclidean distance transform

  1. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo; Kittler, J.; van den Broek, Egon; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number

  2. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED): A new class of adaptable distance transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; van den Broek, Egon

    2014-01-01

    A new unique class of foldable distance transforms of digital images (DT) is introduced, baptized: Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transforms. FEED class algorithms calculate the DT starting directly from the definition or rather its inverse. The principle of FEED class algorithms is

  3. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) : A new class of adaptable distance transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    2014-01-01

    A new unique class of foldable distance transforms of digital images (DT) is introduced, baptized: Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transforms. FEED class algorithms calculate the DT startingdirectly from the definition or rather its inverse. The principle of FEED class algorithms is introduced,

  4. Efficient gamma index calculation using fast Euclidean distance transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Mingli; Lu Weiguo; Chen Quan; Ruchala, Kenneth; Olivera, Gustavo [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, WI 53717 (United States)], E-mail: wlu@tomotherapy.com

    2009-04-07

    The gamma index is a tool for dose distribution comparison. It combines both dose difference (DD) and distance to agreement (DTA) into a single quantity. Though it is an effective measure, making up for the inadequacy of DD or DTA alone, its calculation can be very time-consuming. For a k-D space with N quantization levels in each dimension, the complexity of the exhaustive search is O(N{sup 2k}). In this work, we proposed an efficient method that reduces the complexity from O(N{sup 2k}) to O(N{sup k}M), where M is the number of discretized dose values and is comparable to N. More precisely, by embedding the reference dose distribution in a (k+1)-D spatial-dose space, we can use fast Euclidean distance transform with linear complexity to obtain a table of gamma indices evaluated over a range of the (k+1)-D spatial-dose space. Then, to obtain gamma indices for the test dose distribution, it requires only table lookup with complexity O(N{sup k}). Such a table can also be used for other test dose distributions as long as the reference dose distribution is the same. Simulations demonstrated the efficiency of our proposed method. The speedup for 3D gamma index calculation is expected to be on the order of tens of thousands (from O(N{sup 6}) to O(N{sup 3}M)) if N is a few hundreds, which makes clinical usage of the 3D gamma index feasible. A byproduct of the gamma index table is that the gradient of the gamma index with respect to either the spatial or dose dimension can be easily derived. The gradient can be used to identify the main causes of the discrepancy from the reference distribution at any dose point in the test distribution or incorporated in treatment planning and machine parameter optimization.

  5. The Euclidean distance degree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.; Horobet, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Sturmfels, B.; Thomas, R.R.; Zhi, L.; Watt, M.

    2014-01-01

    The nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low rank matrices, the Eckart-Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of such nearest

  6. A linear-time algorithm for Euclidean feature transform sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    2007-01-01

    The Euclidean distance transform of a binary image is the function that assigns to every pixel the Euclidean distance to the background. The Euclidean feature transform is the function that assigns to every pixel the set of background pixels with this distance. We present an algorithm to compute the

  7. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  8. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  9. PERBANDINGAN EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE DENGAN CANBERRA DISTANCE PADA FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendhy Rachmat Wurdianarto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan ilmu pada dunia komputer sangatlah pesat. Salah satu yang menandai hal ini adalah ilmu komputer telah merambah pada dunia biometrik. Arti biometrik sendiri adalah karakter-karakter manusia yang dapat digunakan untuk membedakan antara orang yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Salah satu pemanfaatan karakter / organ tubuh pada setiap manusia yang digunakan untuk identifikasi (pengenalan adalah dengan memanfaatkan wajah. Dari permasalahan diatas dalam pengenalan lebih tentang aplikasi Matlab pada Face Recognation menggunakan metode Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Model pengembangan aplikasi yang digunakan adalah model waterfall. Model waterfall beriisi rangkaian aktivitas proses yang disajikan dalam proses analisa kebutuhan, desain menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language, inputan objek gambar diproses menggunakan Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Kesimpulan yang dapat ditarik adalah aplikasi face Recognation menggunakan metode euclidean Distance dan Canverra Distance terdapat kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing. Untuk kedepannya aplikasi tersebut dapat dikembangkan dengan menggunakan objek berupa video ataupun objek lainnya.   Kata kunci : Euclidean Distance, Face Recognition, Biometrik, Canberra Distance

  10. Euclidean distance geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liberti, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook, the first of its kind, presents the fundamentals of distance geometry:  theory, useful methodologies for obtaining solutions, and real world applications. Concise proofs are given and step-by-step algorithms for solving fundamental problems efficiently and precisely are presented in Mathematica®, enabling the reader to experiment with concepts and methods as they are introduced. Descriptive graphics, examples, and problems, accompany the real gems of the text, namely the applications in visualization of graphs, localization of sensor networks, protein conformation from distance data, clock synchronization protocols, robotics, and control of unmanned underwater vehicles, to name several.  Aimed at intermediate undergraduates, beginning graduate students, researchers, and practitioners, the reader with a basic knowledge of linear algebra will gain an understanding of the basic theories of distance geometry and why they work in real life.

  11. Three Dimensional Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (3D-FEED) Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latecki, L.J.; Schouten, Theo E.; Mount, D.M.; Kuppens, Harco C.; Wu, A.Y.; van den Broek, Egon

    2006-01-01

    In image and video analysis, distance maps are frequently used. They provide the (Euclidean) distance (ED) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. Recently, the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation was launched. In this paper, we present the three dimensional (3D) version of

  12. Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

    2014-01-01

    Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p

  13. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

  14. Timed Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (tFEED) maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Schouten, Theo E.; Laplante, Philip A.; Kuppens, Harco; van den Broek, Egon

    2005-01-01

    In image and video analysis, distance maps are frequently used. They provide the (Euclidean) distance (ED) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. In a naive implementation, each object pixel feeds its (exact) ED to each background pixel; then the minimum of these values denotes the ED to

  15. Change of Measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heymann Y.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cosmological distances is approached using a method based on the propagation of light in an expanding Universe. From the chan ge of measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances, a formula is deri ved to compute distances as a function of redshift. This formula is identical to Matti g’s formula (with q 0 = 1 / 2 which is based on Friedmann’s equations of general relativi ty.

  16. Optimal Embeddings of Distance Regular Graphs into Euclidean Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Vallentin (Frank)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we give a lower bound for the least distortion embedding of a distance regular graph into Euclidean space. We use the lower bound for finding the least distortion for Hamming graphs, Johnson graphs, and all strongly regular graphs. Our technique involves semidefinite

  17. The Euclidean distance degree of an algebraic variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.; Horobet, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Sturmfels, B.; Thomas, R.R.

    2013-01-01

    The nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low rank matrices, the Eckart-Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of such nearest

  18. The Euclidean distance degree of an algebraic variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, J.; Horobet, E.; Ottaviani, G.; Sturmfels, B.; Thomas, R.R.

    The nearest point map of a real algebraic variety with respect to Euclidean distance is an algebraic function. For instance, for varieties of low-rank matrices, the Eckart–Young Theorem states that this map is given by the singular value decomposition. This article develops a theory of such nearest

  19. Complex networks in the Euclidean space of communicability distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2012-06-01

    We study the properties of complex networks embedded in a Euclidean space of communicability distances. The communicability distance between two nodes is defined as the difference between the weighted sum of walks self-returning to the nodes and the weighted sum of walks going from one node to the other. We give some indications that the communicability distance identifies the least crowded routes in networks where simultaneous submission of packages is taking place. We define an index Q based on communicability and shortest path distances, which allows reinterpreting the “small-world” phenomenon as the region of minimum Q in the Watts-Strogatz model. It also allows the classification and analysis of networks with different efficiency of spatial uses. Consequently, the communicability distance displays unique features for the analysis of complex networks in different scenarios.

  20. Speckle Suppression by Weighted Euclidean Distance Anisotropic Diffusion

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    Fengcheng Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To better reduce image speckle noise while also maintaining edge information in synthetic aperture radar (SAR images, we propose a novel anisotropic diffusion algorithm using weighted Euclidean distance (WEDAD. Presented here is a modified speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD method, which constructs a new edge detection operator using weighted Euclidean distances. The new edge detection operator can adaptively distinguish between homogenous and heterogeneous image regions, effectively generate anisotropic diffusion coefficients for each image pixel, and filter each pixel at different scales. Additionally, the effects of two different weighting methods (Gaussian weighting and non-linear weighting of de-noising were analyzed. The effect of different adjustment coefficient settings on speckle suppression was also explored. A series of experiments were conducted using an added noise image, GF-3 SAR image, and YG-29 SAR image. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can not only significantly suppress speckle, thus improving the visual effects, but also better preserve the edge information of images.

  1. Squared Euclidean distance: a statistical test to evaluate plant community change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Sylvia R. Mori

    1993-01-01

    The concepts and a procedure for evaluating plant community change using the squared Euclidean distance (SED) resemblance function are described. Analyses are based on the concept that Euclidean distances constitute a sample from a population of distances between sampling units (SUs) for a specific number of times and SUs. With different times, the distances will be...

  2. A heuristic derivation of Minkowski distance and Lorentz transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassani, Sadri

    2008-01-01

    Students learn new abstract concepts best when these concepts are connected through a well-designed analogy, to familiar ideas. Since the concept of the relativistic spacetime distance is highly abstract, it would be desirable to connect it to the familiar Euclidean distance, but present the latter in such a way that it makes a transparent contact with the former. Starting with some intuitive and 'obvious' assumptions concerning distance in one dimension, we 'derive' the two-dimensional Euclidean distance between two points in terms of their coordinates. Then, assuming the invariance of this distance, we deduce the (familiar) two-dimensional orthogonal coordinate transformation. We present the derivation in such a way that the transition to spacetime becomes 'self-evident.' Thus, following exactly the same procedure, we derive the Minkowskian distance and the corresponding transformation that respects the invariance of that distance, i.e., the Lorentz transformation

  3. Steiner tree heuristic in the Euclidean d-space using bottleneck distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Stephan Sloth; Winter, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most efficient heuristics for the Euclidean Steiner minimal tree problem in the d-dimensional space, d ≥2, use Delaunay tessellations and minimum spanning trees to determine small subsets of geometrically close terminals. Their low-cost Steiner trees are determined and concatenated...... in a greedy fashion to obtain a low cost tree spanning all terminals. The weakness of this approach is that obtained solutions are topologically related to minimum spanning trees. To avoid this and to obtain even better solutions, bottleneck distances are utilized to determine good subsets of terminals...

  4. Detecting Malicious Nodes in Medical Smartphone Networks Through Euclidean Distance-Based Behavioral Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Li, Wenjuan; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    and healthcare personnel. The underlying network architecture to support such devices is also referred to as medical smartphone networks (MSNs). Similar to other networks, MSNs also suffer from various attacks like insider attacks (e.g., leakage of sensitive patient information by a malicious insider......). In this work, we focus on MSNs and design a trust-based intrusion detection approach through Euclidean distance-based behavioral profiling to detect malicious devices (or called nodes). In the evaluation, we collaborate with healthcare organizations and implement our approach in a real simulated MSN...

  5. Identifikasi Huruf Kapital Tulisan Tangan Menggunakan Linear Discriminant Analysis dan Euclidean Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septa Cahyani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The human ability to recognize a variety of objects, however complex the object, is the special ability that humans possess. Any normal human will have no difficulty in recognizing handwriting objects between an author and another author. With the rapid development of digital technology, the human ability to recognize handwriting objects has been applied in a program known as Computer Vision. This study aims to create identification system different types of handwriting capital letters that have different sizes, thickness, shape, and tilt (distinctive features in handwriting using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Euclidean Distance methods. LDA is used to obtain characteristic characteristics of the image and provide the distance between the classes becomes larger, while the distance between training data in one class becomes smaller, so that the introduction time of digital image of handwritten capital letter using Euclidean Distance becomes faster computation time (by searching closest distance between training data and data testing. The results of testing the sample data showed that the image resolution of 50x50 pixels is the exact image resolution used for data as much as 1560 handwritten capital letter data compared to image resolution 25x25 pixels and 40x40 pixels. While the test data and training data testing using the method of 10-fold cross validation where 1404 for training data and 156 for data testing showed identification of digital image handwriting capital letter has an average effectiveness of the accuracy rate of 75.39% with the average time computing of 0.4199 seconds.

  6. Correlation among genetic, Euclidean, temporal, and herd ownership distances of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus strains in Quebec, Canada

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    Lambert Marie-Ève

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a viral disease that has a major economic impact for the swine industry. Its control is mostly directed towards preventing its spread which requires a better understanding of the mechanisms of transmission of the virus between herds. The objectives of this study were to describe the genetic diversity and to assess the correlation among genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership to better understand pathways of transmission. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted on sites located in a high density area of swine production in Quebec. Geographical coordinates (longitude/latitude, date of submission and ownership were obtained for each site. ORF5 sequencing was attempted on PRRSV positive sites. Proportion of pairwise combinations of strains having ≥98% genetic homology were analysed according to Euclidean distances and ownership. Correlations between genetic, Euclidean and temporal distances and ownership were assessed using Mantel tests on continuous and binary matrices. Sensitivity of the correlations between genetic and Euclidean as well as temporal distances was evaluated for different Euclidean and temporal distance thresholds. An ORF5 sequence was identified for 132 of the 176 (75% PRRSV positive sites; 122 were wild-type strains. The mean (min-max genetic, Euclidean and temporal pairwise distances were 11.6% (0–18.7, 15.0 km (0.04-45.7 and 218 days (0–852, respectively. Significant positive correlations were observed between genetic and ownership, genetic and Euclidean and between genetic and temporal binary distances. The relationship between genetic and ownership suggests either common sources of animals or semen, employees, technical services or vehicles, whereas that between genetic and Euclidean binary distances is compatible with area spread of the virus. The latter correlation was observed only up to 5 km. Conclusions This study

  7. A ROBUST METHOD FOR STEREO VISUAL ODOMETRY BASED ON MULTIPLE EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE CONSTRAINT AND RANSAC ALGORITHM

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    Q. Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual Odometry (VO is a critical component for planetary robot navigation and safety. It estimates the ego-motion using stereo images frame by frame. Feature points extraction and matching is one of the key steps for robotic motion estimation which largely influences the precision and robustness. In this work, we choose the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB features by considering both accuracy and speed issues. For more robustness in challenging environment e.g., rough terrain or planetary surface, this paper presents a robust outliers elimination method based on Euclidean Distance Constraint (EDC and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC algorithm. In the matching process, a set of ORB feature points are extracted from the current left and right synchronous images and the Brute Force (BF matcher is used to find the correspondences between the two images for the Space Intersection. Then the EDC and RANSAC algorithms are carried out to eliminate mismatches whose distances are beyond a predefined threshold. Similarly, when the left image of the next time matches the feature points with the current left images, the EDC and RANSAC are iteratively performed. After the above mentioned, there are exceptional remaining mismatched points in some cases, for which the third time RANSAC is applied to eliminate the effects of those outliers in the estimation of the ego-motion parameters (Interior Orientation and Exterior Orientation. The proposed approach has been tested on a real-world vehicle dataset and the result benefits from its high robustness.

  8. Euclidean distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses of multi-day auditory event-related potentials: a longitudinal stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durato, M. V.; Albano, A. M.; Rapp, P. E.; Nawang, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

  9. Euclidean distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses of multi-day auditory event-related potentials: a longitudinal stability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durato, M V; Nawang, S A; Albano, A M; Rapp, P E

    2015-01-01

    The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. (paper)

  10. Euclidean distance can identify the mannitol level that produces the most remarkable integral effect on sugarcane micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Daviel; Hernández, L Ázaro; Yabor, Lourdes; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Tebbe, Christoph C; Papenbrock, Jutta; Lorenzo, José Carlos

    2018-03-15

    Plant scientists usually record several indicators in their abiotic factor experiments. The common statistical management involves univariate analyses. Such analyses generally create a split picture of the effects of experimental treatments since each indicator is addressed independently. The Euclidean distance combined with the information of the control treatment could have potential as an integrating indicator. The Euclidean distance has demonstrated its usefulness in many scientific fields but, as far as we know, it has not yet been employed for plant experimental analyses. To exemplify the use of the Euclidean distance in this field, we performed an experiment focused on the effects of mannitol on sugarcane micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors. Five mannitol concentrations were compared: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM. As dependent variables we recorded shoot multiplication rate, fresh weight, and levels of aldehydes, chlorophylls, carotenoids and phenolics. The statistical protocol which we then carried out integrated all dependent variables to easily identify the mannitol concentration that produced the most remarkable integral effect. Results provided by the Euclidean distance demonstrate a gradually increasing distance from the control in function of increasing mannitol concentrations. 200 mM mannitol caused the most significant alteration of sugarcane biochemistry and physiology under the experimental conditions described here. This treatment showed the longest statistically significant Euclidean distance to the control treatment (2.38). In contrast, 50 and 100 mM mannitol showed the lowest Euclidean distances (0.61 and 0.84, respectively) and thus poor integrated effects of mannitol. The analysis shown here indicates that the use of the Euclidean distance can contribute to establishing a more integrated evaluation of the contrasting mannitol treatments.

  11. A Fuzzy Neural Network Based on Non-Euclidean Distance Clustering for Quality Index Model in Slashing Process

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    Yuxian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality index model in slashing process is difficult to build by reason of the outliers and noise data from original data. To the above problem, a fuzzy neural network based on non-Euclidean distance clustering is proposed in which the input space is partitioned into many local regions by the fuzzy clustering based on non-Euclidean distance so that the computation complexity is decreased, and fuzzy rule number is determined by validity function based on both the separation and the compactness among clusterings. Then, the premise parameters and consequent parameters are trained by hybrid learning algorithm. The parameters identification is realized; meanwhile the convergence condition of consequent parameters is obtained by Lyapunov function. Finally, the proposed method is applied to build the quality index model in slashing process in which the experimental data come from the actual slashing process. The experiment results show that the proposed fuzzy neural network for quality index model has lower computation complexity and faster convergence time, comparing with GP-FNN, BPNN, and RBFNN.

  12. Mixed Volume and Distance Geometry Techniques for Counting Euclidean Embeddings of Rigid Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.Z. Emiris; E.P. Tsigaridas; A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios); A. Mucherino (Antonio); C. Lavor; L. Liberti; N. Maculan

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractA graph G is called generically minimally rigid in Rd if, for any choice of sufficiently generic edge lengths, it can be embedded in Rd in a finite number of distinct ways, modulo rigid transformations. Here, we deal with the problem of determining tight bounds on the number of such

  13. Transforming distance education curricula through distributive leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Keppell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a core leadership strategy for transforming learning and teaching in distance education through flexible and blended learning. It focuses on a project centred on distributive leadership that involves collaboration, shared purpose, responsibility and recognition of leadership irrespective of role or position within an organisation. Distributive leadership was a core principle in facilitating the transformation of learning and teaching through a Teaching Fellowship Scheme that empowered leaders across a regional distance education university. In parallel, a design-based research project analysed the perceptions of the Teaching Fellows in relation to blended learning, time/space, peer learning, innovation and equity issues in relation to distance education.

  14. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

    2017-01-01

    It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

  15. A Streaming Distance Transform Algorithm for Neighborhood-Sequence Distances

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    Nicolas Normand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe an algorithm that computes a “translated” 2D Neighborhood-Sequence Distance Transform (DT using a look up table approach. It requires a single raster scan of the input image and produces one line of output for every line of input. The neighborhood sequence is specified either by providing one period of some integer periodic sequence or by providing the rate of appearance of neighborhoods. The full algorithm optionally derives the regular (centered DT from the “translated” DT, providing the result image on-the-fly, with a minimal delay, before the input image is fully processed. Its efficiency can benefit all applications that use neighborhood- sequence distances, particularly when pipelined processing architectures are involved, or when the size of objects in the source image is limited.

  16. Stereo matching using epipolar distance transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiong; Ahuja, Narendra

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple but effective image transform, called the epipolar distance transform, for matching low-texture regions. It converts image intensity values to a relative location inside a planar segment along the epipolar line, such that pixels in the low-texture regions become distinguishable. We theoretically prove that the transform is affine invariant, thus the transformed images can be directly used for stereo matching. Any existing stereo algorithms can be directly used with the transformed images to improve reconstruction accuracy for low-texture regions. Results on real indoor and outdoor images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed transform for matching low-texture regions, keypoint detection, and description for low-texture scenes. Our experimental results on Middlebury images also demonstrate the robustness of our transform for highly textured scenes. The proposed transform has a great advantage, its low computational complexity. It was tested on a MacBook Air laptop computer with a 1.8 GHz Core i7 processor, with a speed of about 9 frames per second for a video graphics array-sized image.

  17. Euclidean supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bernard; Reys, Valentin

    2017-12-01

    Supergravity with eight supercharges in a four-dimensional Euclidean space is constructed at the full non-linear level by performing an off-shell time-like reduction of five-dimensional supergravity. The resulting four-dimensional theory is realized off-shell with the Weyl, vector and tensor supermultiplets and a corresponding multiplet calculus. Hypermultiplets are included as well, but they are themselves only realized with on-shell supersymmetry. We also briefly discuss the non-linear supermultiplet. The off-shell reduction leads to a full understanding of the Euclidean theory. A complete multiplet calculus is presented along the lines of the Minkowskian theory. Unlike in Minkowski space, chiral and anti-chiral multiplets are real and supersymmetric actions are generally unbounded from below. Precisely as in the Minkowski case, where one has different formulations of Poincaré supergravity upon introducing different compensating supermultiplets, one can also obtain different versions of Euclidean supergravity.

  18. Generalized Distance Transforms and Skeletons in Graphics Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strzodka, R.; Telea, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for computing generalized distance transforms and skeletons of two-dimensional objects using graphics hardware. Our method is based on the concept of footprint splatting. Combining different splats produces weighted distance transforms for different metrics, as well as the

  19. Scaling limits of Euclidean quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enss, V.

    1981-01-01

    The author studies the long-distance and short-distance behaviour of generalized random processes which arise in Euclidean Boson field theories. Among them are Wick-polynomials of free fields and P(PHI) 2 -models. (Auth.)

  20. Transformation of Correspondence Education into Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Velej

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1957 the Correspondence-Education Centre Univerzum has been involved in correspondence education, which - as a matter of principle - uses the written word as a basic and predorninam medium of instruction, ensuring a two­ directional communication between the teacher and the student. Following the world-wide trends in adult education, the institution has gradually updated its teaching methods by incorporating correspondence-consulting and correspondence-seminar methods. As a result of the forceful development of new technologies and media the written word has become only one among many media of instruction, replacing the concept of correspon­ dence education with that of distance education. Although the latter hasa num­ ber of advantages, it is rather difficult to implement. ln view of its role and in the interese of its own development, the Correspondence-Education Centre Univerzum is forced to effect the transition to distance education. In order to be able to effectively adopt new methods, extensive training has been organised for the teaching staff, the results of which are encouraging. They enable us to plan further changes and improvements of our methods of instruction.

  1. Learning Euclidean Embeddings for Indexing and Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Athitsos, Vassilis; Alon, Joni; Sclaroff, Stan; Kollios, George

    2004-01-01

    BoostMap is a recently proposed method for efficient approximate nearest neighbor retrieval in arbitrary non-Euclidean spaces with computationally expensive and possibly non-metric distance measures...

  2. A general algorithm for computing distance transforms in linear time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, A.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Hesselink, W.H.; Goutsias, J; Vincent, L; Bloomberg, DS

    2000-01-01

    A new general algorithm fur computing distance transforms of digital images is presented. The algorithm consists of two phases. Both phases consist of two scans, a forward and a backward scan. The first phase scans the image column-wise, while the second phase scans the image row-wise. Since the

  3. Spacetime and Euclidean geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-04-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.

  4. Non-euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Coxeter, HSM

    1965-01-01

    This textbook introduces non-Euclidean geometry, and the third edition adds a new chapter, including a description of the two families of 'mid-lines' between two given lines and an elementary derivation of the basic formulae of spherical trigonometry and hyperbolic trigonometry, and other new material.

  5. Optimized curve design for image analysis using localized geodesic distance transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Billy; Niska, Harri; Pöllänen, Irene; Ikonen, Tiia; Haataja, Keijo; Toivanen, Pekka; Tolonen, Teemu

    2015-03-01

    We consider geodesic distance transformations for digital images. Given a M × N digital image, a distance image is produced by evaluating local pixel distances. Distance Transformation on Curved Space (DTOCS) evaluates shortest geodesics of a given pixel neighborhood by evaluating the height displacements between pixels. In this paper, we propose an optimization framework for geodesic distance transformations in a pattern recognition scheme, yielding more accurate machine learning based image analysis, exemplifying initial experiments using complex breast cancer images. Furthermore, we will outline future research work, which will complete the research work done for this paper.

  6. Non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kulczycki, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This accessible approach features two varieties of proofs: stereometric and planimetric, as well as elementary proofs that employ only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes a systematic exposition of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.Starting with fundamental assumptions, the author examines the theorems of Hjelmslev, mapping a plane into a circle, the angle of parallelism and area of a polygon, regular polygons, straight lines and planes in space, and the horosphere. Further development of the theory covers hyperbolic functions, the geometry of suff

  7. Analysis in Euclidean space

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Developed for an introductory course in mathematical analysis at MIT, this text focuses on concepts, principles, and methods. Its introductions to real and complex analysis are closely formulated, and they constitute a natural introduction to complex function theory.Starting with an overview of the real number system, the text presents results for subsets and functions related to Euclidean space of n dimensions. It offers a rigorous review of the fundamentals of calculus, emphasizing power series expansions and introducing the theory of complex-analytic functions. Subsequent chapters cover seq

  8. Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomás

    2009-01-02

    Invisibility and negative refraction are both applications of transformation optics where the material of a device performs a coordinate transformation for electromagnetic fields. The device creates the illusion that light propagates through empty flat space, whereas in physical space, light is bent around a hidden interior or seems to run backward in space or time. All of the previous proposals for invisibility require materials with extreme properties. Here we show that transformation optics of a curved, non-Euclidean space (such as the surface of a virtual sphere) relax these requirements and can lead to invisibility in a broad band of the spectrum.

  9. Texture classification using non-Euclidean Minkowski dilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florindo, Joao B.; Bruno, Odemir M.

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a new method to extract meaningful descriptors of gray-scale texture images using Minkowski morphological dilation based on the Lp metric. The proposed approach is motivated by the success previously achieved by Bouligand-Minkowski fractal descriptors on texture classification. In essence, such descriptors are directly derived from the morphological dilation of a three-dimensional representation of the gray-level pixels using the classical Euclidean metric. In this way, we generalize the dilation for different values of p in the Lp metric (Euclidean is a particular case when p = 2) and obtain the descriptors from the cumulated distribution of the distance transform computed over the texture image. The proposed method is compared to other state-of-the-art approaches (such as local binary patterns and textons for example) in the classification of two benchmark data sets (UIUC and Outex). The proposed descriptors outperformed all the other approaches in terms of rate of images correctly classified. The interesting results suggest the potential of these descriptors in this type of task, with a wide range of possible applications to real-world problems.

  10. Non-euclidean simplex optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    Geometric optimization techniques useful for studying chemical equilibrium traditionally rely upon principles of euclidean geometry, but such algorithms may also be based upon principles of a non-euclidean geometry. The sequential simplex method is adapted to the hyperbolic plane, and application of optimization to problems such as the potentiometric titration of plutonium is suggested

  11. Transformational plane geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Umble, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

  12. Improvement in quality testing of Braille printer output with Euclidean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on quality testing of Braille printed paper using calibrated camera by detecting dots and measuring the Euclidean distances between them with equal gap, vertically and horizontally. For higher accuracy, camera calibration is essential to observe a planar checker board pattern from different distances and ...

  13. Distance breached or distance transformed? Dilemmas of simulated and banal closeness in humanitarian communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen; Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    Social media have been argued to have transformed humanitarian communication and those involved in it. Networked humanitarian organizations are supposedly more open and transparent (Kanter and Fine 2010) and their “audiences” too are networked and "cause-wired" (Watson 2009), implying an unpreced......Social media have been argued to have transformed humanitarian communication and those involved in it. Networked humanitarian organizations are supposedly more open and transparent (Kanter and Fine 2010) and their “audiences” too are networked and "cause-wired" (Watson 2009), implying...

  14. Micrononcasual Euclidean wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enatsu, H.; Takenaka, A.; Okazaki, M.

    1978-01-01

    A theory which describes the internal attributes of hadrons in terms of space-time wave functions is presented. In order to develop the theory on the basis of a rather realistic model, covariant wave equations are first derived for the deuteron, in which the co-ordinates of the centre of mass of two nucleons can be defined unambiguously. Then the micro-noncasual behaviour of virtual mesons mediating between the two nucleons is expressed by means of wave functions depending only on the relative Euclidean co-ordinates with respect to the centre of mass of the two nucleons; the wave functions are assumed to obey the 0 4 and SU 2 x SU 2 groups. The properties of the wave functions under space inversion, time reversal and particle-antiparticle conjugation are investigated. It is found that the internal attributes of the mesons, such as spin, isospin, strangeness, intrinsic parity, charge parity and G-parity are explained consistently. The theory is applicable also to the case of baryons

  15. Uniform Page Migration Problem in Euclidean Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanj Khorramian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The page migration problem in Euclidean space is revisited. In this problem, online requests occur at any location to access a single page located at a server. Every request must be served, and the server has the choice to migrate from its current location to a new location in space. Each service costs the Euclidean distance between the server and request. A migration costs the distance between the former and the new server location, multiplied by the page size. We study the problem in the uniform model, in which the page has size D = 1 . All request locations are not known in advance; however, they are sequentially presented in an online fashion. We design a 2.75 -competitive online algorithm that improves the current best upper bound for the problem with the unit page size. We also provide a lower bound of 2.732 for our algorithm. It was already known that 2.5 is a lower bound for this problem.

  16. Large parallel volumes of finite and compact sets in d-dimensional Euclidean space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen; Kiderlen, Markus

    The r-parallel volume V (Cr) of a compact subset C in d-dimensional Euclidean space is the volume of the set Cr of all points of Euclidean distance at most r > 0 from C. According to Steiner’s formula, V (Cr) is a polynomial in r when C is convex. For finite sets C satisfying a certain geometric...

  17. Transformational leadership in the local police in Spain: a leader-follower distance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Octavio; Lila, Marisol; Tomás, Inés; Castillo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Based on the transformational leadership theory (Bass, 1985), the aim of the present study was to analyze the differences in leadership styles according to the various leading ranks and the organizational follower-leader distance reported by a representative sample of 975 local police members (828 male and 147 female) from Valencian Community (Spain). Results showed differences by rank (p leadership in all the variables examined (transformational-leadership behaviors, transactional-leadership behaviors, laissez-faire behaviors, satisfaction with the leader, extra effort by follower, and perceived leadership effectiveness). By contrast, the least optimal profiles were presented by intendents. Finally, the maximum distance (five ranks) generally yielded the most optimal profiles, whereas the 3-rank distance generally produced the least optimal profiles for all variables examined. Outcomes and practical implications for the workforce dimensioning are also discussed.

  18. Long-distance super-resolution imaging assisted by enhanced spatial Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Heng-He; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2015-09-07

    A new gradient-index (GRIN) lens that can realize enhanced spatial Fourier transform (FT) over optically long distances is demonstrated. By using an anisotropic GRIN metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion, evanescent wave in free space can be transformed into propagating wave in the metamaterial and then focused outside due to negative-refraction. Both the results based on the ray tracing and the finite element simulation show that the spatial frequency bandwidth of the spatial FT can be extended to 2.7k(0) (k(0) is the wave vector in free space). Furthermore, assisted by the enhanced spatial FT, a new long-distance (in the optical far-field region) super-resolution imaging scheme is also proposed and the super resolved capability of λ/5 (λ is the wavelength in free space) is verified. The work may provide technical support for designing new-type high-speed microscopes with long working distances.

  19. Ideas of space. Euclidean, non-Euclidean and relativistic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J

    1979-01-01

    An historical and chronological account of mathematics is presented in which familiarity with simple equations and elements of trigonometry is needed but no specialist knowledge is assumed although difficult problems are discussed. By discussion of the difficulties and confusions it is hoped to understand mathematics as a dynamic activity. Beginning with early Greek mathematics, the Eastern legacy and the transition to deductive and geometric thinking the problem of parallels is then encountered and discussed. The second part of the book takes the story from Wallis, Saccheri and Lambert through to its resolution by Gauss, Lobachevskii, Bolyai, Riemann and Bettrami. The background of the 19th century theory of surfaces is given. The third part gives an account of Einstein's theories based on what has gone before, moving from a Newtonian-Euclidean picture to an Einsteinian-nonEuclidean one. A brief account of gravitation, the nature of space and black holes concludes the book.

  20. Asymptotic analysis of fundamental solutions of Dirac operators on even dimensional Euclidean spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, A.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze the short distance asymptotic behavior of some quantities formed out of fundamental solutions of Dirac operators on even dimensional Euclidean spaces with finite dimensional matrix-valued potentials. (orig.)

  1. Periodic anti-phases. Long distance antiphase-order transformations (1961); Antiphases periodiques. Transformation antiphase-ordre a grande distance (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauptman, A; Kleinberger, R; Okuzumi, H; Perio, P; Tournarie, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Periodic anti-phases are ordered structures in which the movable elements alternates regularly between two available sites, in one or two directions. We study in the present work two particular properties of periodic anti-phases : 1- The irrationality or the continuous variation of the periodic anti-phase. 2- The reversible transition between the anti-phase state and that of long distance order. We have calculated the distribution of the diffracted amplitudes for the 'rational statistic' model. They can easily be identified and the two types of diagram observed are presented. For the long distance anti-phase-order transformation, we propose a model in which a domain grows laterally at the expense of the other. Calculation shows that in this case certain order reflections re-appear accompanied by extra satellites whose amplitude is not proportional to that of the pure anti-phase satellites, the opposite of the case of a double diffraction. The irreversible evolution of Au{sub 3}Mn alloys is then described; in this case interactions between domains of different type occur. Finally a diagram for the alloy Au{sub 3}Mn is given; the anti-phase boundaries are made up of 130 planes. (authors) [French] Les antiphases periodiques sont des structures ordonnees dans lesquelles l'element ordonnable alterne regulierement entre deux sites disponibles, suivant une ou deux directions. Nous etudions, dans le travail presente, deux proprietes particulieres des antiphases periodiques: 1- L'irrationalite ou la variation continue de la periode d'antiphase. 2- La transition reversible entre l'etat antiphase et l'etat d'ordre a grande distance. Nous avons calcule la distribution des amplitudes diffractees pour le modele 'rationnel statistique'. Elles sont facilement identifiables et les deux types de diagrammes observes sont presentes. Pour la transformation antiphase-ordre a longue distance, nous proposons un modele de croissance laterale d'un domaine au detriment de l'autre. Le calcul

  2. Euclidean geometry and its subgeometries

    CERN Document Server

    Specht, Edward John; Calkins, Keith G; Rhoads, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present a modern development of Euclidean geometry from independent axioms, using up-to-date language and providing detailed proofs. The axioms for incidence, betweenness, and plane separation are close to those of Hilbert. This is the only axiomatic treatment of Euclidean geometry that uses axioms not involving metric notions and that explores congruence and isometries by means of reflection mappings. The authors present thirteen axioms in sequence, proving as many theorems as possible at each stage and, in the process, building up subgeometries, most notably the Pasch and neutral geometries. Standard topics such as the congruence theorems for triangles, embedding the real numbers in a line, and coordinatization of the plane are included, as well as theorems of Pythagoras, Desargues, Pappas, Menelaus, and Ceva. The final chapter covers consistency and independence of axioms, as well as independence of definition properties. There are over 300 exercises; solutions to many of the...

  3. The non-Euclidean revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    1986-01-01

    How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America. "Trudeau meets the challenge of reaching a broad audience in clever ways...(The book) is a good addition to our literature o...

  4. Variational submanifolds of Euclidean spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupka, D.; Urban, Z.; Volná, J.

    2018-03-01

    Systems of ordinary differential equations (or dynamical forms in Lagrangian mechanics), induced by embeddings of smooth fibered manifolds over one-dimensional basis, are considered in the class of variational equations. For a given non-variational system, conditions assuring variationality (the Helmholtz conditions) of the induced system with respect to a submanifold of a Euclidean space are studied, and the problem of existence of these "variational submanifolds" is formulated in general and solved for second-order systems. The variational sequence theory on sheaves of differential forms is employed as a main tool for the analysis of local and global aspects (variationality and variational triviality). The theory is illustrated by examples of holonomic constraints (submanifolds of a configuration Euclidean space) which are variational submanifolds in geometry and mechanics.

  5. Properties of octagonal distance transformation (ODT) and its application to recognition of rib images of chest radiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Tatsuya; Yokoi, Shigeki; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Fukumura, Teruo.

    1980-01-01

    Digital image processing and image pattern recognition have lately become important, and are utilized in every field. The processing techniques common to these applications include smoothing, thinning, threshold processing, distance transformation, edge detection, etc. This paper describes the distance transformation, specifically the transformation based on octagonal distance (ODT). As the distance transformation, diamond distance or square distance has been employed so far, but these have the disadvantage of great deviation from the Euclid distance, and the octagonal distance transformation is considered to prevent such deviation. First, the basic concept and the definition of symbols are given, the octagonal distance skeleton (ODS) is defined, and the possibility of restoring original figure from the ODS is indicated. Next, the sequential algorithm is given, which executes the ODT and the inverse transformation to restore the original figure from the ODS by scanning on the figure 4 times. As an example of the application, the identification of rib images in chest radiograms is adopted, and the capability of reducing the effect of blood vessel images and noises by combining ODT with thinning or other processing, without quadratic function approximation, is described. (J.P.N.)

  6. Quantum algorithms on Walsh transform and Hamming distance for Boolean functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhengwei; Qiu, Daowen; Cai, Guangya

    2018-06-01

    Walsh spectrum or Walsh transform is an alternative description of Boolean functions. In this paper, we explore quantum algorithms to approximate the absolute value of Walsh transform W_f at a single point z0 (i.e., |W_f(z0)|) for n-variable Boolean functions with probability at least 8/π 2 using the number of O(1/|W_f(z_{0)|ɛ }) queries, promised that the accuracy is ɛ , while the best known classical algorithm requires O(2n) queries. The Hamming distance between Boolean functions is used to study the linearity testing and other important problems. We take advantage of Walsh transform to calculate the Hamming distance between two n-variable Boolean functions f and g using O(1) queries in some cases. Then, we exploit another quantum algorithm which converts computing Hamming distance between two Boolean functions to quantum amplitude estimation (i.e., approximate counting). If Ham(f,g)=t≠0, we can approximately compute Ham( f, g) with probability at least 2/3 by combining our algorithm and {Approx-Count(f,ɛ ) algorithm} using the expected number of Θ( √{N/(\\lfloor ɛ t\\rfloor +1)}+√{t(N-t)}/\\lfloor ɛ t\\rfloor +1) queries, promised that the accuracy is ɛ . Moreover, our algorithm is optimal, while the exact query complexity for the above problem is Θ(N) and the query complexity with the accuracy ɛ is O(1/ɛ 2N/(t+1)) in classical algorithm, where N=2n. Finally, we present three exact quantum query algorithms for two promise problems on Hamming distance using O(1) queries, while any classical deterministic algorithm solving the problem uses Ω(2n) queries.

  7. Random walks in Euclidean space

    OpenAIRE

    Varjú, Péter Pál

    2012-01-01

    Consider a sequence of independent random isometries of Euclidean space with a previously fixed probability law. Apply these isometries successively to the origin and consider the sequence of random points that we obtain this way. We prove a local limit theorem under a suitable moment condition and a necessary non-degeneracy condition. Under stronger hypothesis, we prove a limit theorem on a wide range of scales: between e^(-cl^(1/4)) and l^(1/2), where l is the number of steps.

  8. Noncommutative products of Euclidean spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Violette, Michel; Landi, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    We present natural families of coordinate algebras on noncommutative products of Euclidean spaces R^{N_1} × _R R^{N_2} . These coordinate algebras are quadratic ones associated with an R -matrix which is involutive and satisfies the Yang-Baxter equations. As a consequence, they enjoy a list of nice properties, being regular of finite global dimension. Notably, we have eight-dimensional noncommutative euclidean spaces R4 × _R R4 . Among these, particularly well behaved ones have deformation parameter u \\in S^2 . Quotients include seven spheres S7_u as well as noncommutative quaternionic tori TH_u = S^3 × _u S^3 . There is invariance for an action of {{SU}}(2) × {{SU}}(2) on the torus TH_u in parallel with the action of U(1) × U(1) on a `complex' noncommutative torus T^2_θ which allows one to construct quaternionic toric noncommutative manifolds. Additional classes of solutions are disjoint from the classical case.

  9. Optimal recovery of linear operators in non-Euclidean metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipenko, K Yu [Moscow State Aviation Technological University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-31

    The paper looks at problems concerning the recovery of operators from noisy information in non-Euclidean metrics. A number of general theorems are proved and applied to recovery problems for functions and their derivatives from the noisy Fourier transform. In some cases, a family of optimal methods is found, from which the methods requiring the least amount of original information are singled out. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  10. Clustering by Partitioning around Medoids using Distance-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    outperforms both the Euclidean and Manhattan distance metrics in certain situations. KEYWORDS: PAM ... version of a dataset, compare the quality of clusters obtained from the Euclidean .... B. Theoretical Framework and Methodology.

  11. Application of affinity propagation algorithm based on manifold distance for transformer PD pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, B. G.; Huo, K. X.; Yao, Z. F.; Lou, J.; Li, X. Y.

    2018-03-01

    It is one of the difficult problems encountered in the research of condition maintenance technology of transformers to recognize partial discharge (PD) pattern. According to the main physical characteristics of PD, three models of oil-paper insulation defects were set up in laboratory to study the PD of transformers, and phase resolved partial discharge (PRPD) was constructed. By using least square method, the grey-scale images of PRPD were constructed and features of each grey-scale image were 28 box dimensions and 28 information dimensions. Affinity propagation algorithm based on manifold distance (AP-MD) for transformers PD pattern recognition was established, and the data of box dimension and information dimension were clustered based on AP-MD. Study shows that clustering result of AP-MD is better than the results of affinity propagation (AP), k-means and fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM). By choosing different k values of k-nearest neighbor, we find clustering accuracy of AP-MD falls when k value is larger or smaller, and the optimal k value depends on sample size.

  12. Improved target detection algorithm using Fukunaga-Koontz transform and distance classifier correlation filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A.; Alam, M. S.; Aslan, M. S.

    2006-05-01

    Often sensor ego-motion or fast target movement causes the target to temporarily go out of the field-of-view leading to reappearing target detection problem in target tracking applications. Since the target goes out of the current frame and reenters at a later frame, the reentering location and variations in rotation, scale, and other 3D orientations of the target are not known thus complicating the detection algorithm has been developed using Fukunaga-Koontz Transform (FKT) and distance classifier correlation filter (DCCF). The detection algorithm uses target and background information, extracted from training samples, to detect possible candidate target images. The detected candidate target images are then introduced into the second algorithm, DCCF, called clutter rejection module, to determine the target coordinates are detected and tracking algorithm is initiated. The performance of the proposed FKT-DCCF based target detection algorithm has been tested using real-world forward looking infrared (FLIR) video sequences.

  13. Dynamic hyperbolic geometry: building intuition and understanding mediated by a Euclidean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Armella, Luis; Brady, Corey; Elizondo-Ramirez, Rubén

    2018-05-01

    This paper explores a deep transformation in mathematical epistemology and its consequences for teaching and learning. With the advent of non-Euclidean geometries, direct, iconic correspondences between physical space and the deductive structures of mathematical inquiry were broken. For non-Euclidean ideas even to become thinkable the mathematical community needed to accumulate over twenty centuries of reflection and effort: a precious instance of distributed intelligence at the cultural level. In geometry education after this crisis, relations between intuitions and geometrical reasoning must be established philosophically, rather than taken for granted. One approach seeks intuitive supports only for Euclidean explorations, viewing non-Euclidean inquiry as fundamentally non-intuitive in nature. We argue for moving beyond such an impoverished approach, using dynamic geometry environments to develop new intuitions even in the extremely challenging setting of hyperbolic geometry. Our efforts reverse the typical direction, using formal structures as a source for a new family of intuitions that emerge from exploring a digital model of hyperbolic geometry. This digital model is elaborated within a Euclidean dynamic geometry environment, enabling a conceptual dance that re-configures Euclidean knowledge as a support for building intuitions in hyperbolic space-intuitions based not directly on physical experience but on analogies extending Euclidean concepts.

  14. Euclidean supersymmetry, twisting and topological sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.; Lindstroem, U.; Santos, L. Melo dos; Zabzine, M.; Unge, R. von

    2008-01-01

    We discuss two dimensional N-extended supersymmetry in Euclidean signature and its R-symmetry. For N = 2, the R-symmetry is SO(2) x SO(1, 1), so that only an A-twist is possible. To formulate a B-twist, or to construct Euclidean N = 2 models with H-flux so that the target geometry is generalised Kahler, it is necessary to work with a complexification of the sigma models. These issues are related to the obstructions to the existence of non-trivial twisted chiral superfields in Euclidean superspace.

  15. Local algebras in Euclidean quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Francesco.

    1975-06-01

    The general structure of the local observable algebras of Euclidean quantum field theory is described, considering the very simple examples of the free scalar field, the vector meson field, and the electromagnetic field. The role of Markov properties, and the relations between Euclidean theory and Hamiltonian theory in Minkowski space-time are especially emphasized. No conflict appears between covariance (in the Euclidean sense) and locality (in the Markov sense) on one hand and positive definiteness of the metric on the other hand [fr

  16. The elements of non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, D MY

    2012-01-01

    Renowned for its lucid yet meticulous exposition, this classic allows students to follow the development of non-Euclidean geometry from a fundamental analysis of the concept of parallelism to more advanced topics. 1914 edition. Includes 133 figures.

  17. Axioms for Euclidean Green's functions. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterwalder, K.; Schrader, R.

    1975-01-01

    We give new (necessary and) sufficient conditions for Euclidean Green's functions to have analytic continuations to a relativistic field theory. These results extend and correct a previous paper. (orig.) [de

  18. Constructive curves in non-Euclidean planes

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, Ákos G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we overview the theory of conics and roulettes in four non-Euclidean planes. We collect the literature about these classical concepts, from the eighteenth century to the present, including papers available only on arXiv. The comparison of the four non-Euclidean planes, in terms of the known results on conics and roulettes, reflects only the very subjective view of the author.

  19. Reduction of product platform complexity by vectorial Euclidean algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Israel Aguilera; Guzman, Alejandro A. Lozano

    2013-01-01

    In traditional machine, equipment and devices design, technical solutions are practically independent, thus increasing designs cost and complexity. Overcoming this situation has been tackled just using designer's experience. In this work, a product platform complexity reduction is presented based on a matrix representation of technical solutions versus product properties. This matrix represents the product platform. From this matrix, the Euclidean distances among technical solutions are obtained. Thus, the vectorial distances among technical solutions are identified in a new matrix of order of the number of technical solutions identified. This new matrix can be reorganized in groups with a hierarchical structure, in such a way that modular design of products is now more tractable. As a result of this procedure, the minimum vector distances are found thus being possible to identify the best technical solutions for the design problem raised. Application of these concepts is shown with two examples.

  20. Assessment of the Log-Euclidean Metric Performance in Diffusion Tensor Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Charmi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Appropriate definition of the distance measure between diffusion tensors has a deep impact on Diffusion Tensor Image (DTI segmentation results. The geodesic metric is the best distance measure since it yields high-quality segmentation results. However, the important problem with the geodesic metric is a high computational cost of the algorithms based on it. The main goal of this paper is to assess the possible substitution of the geodesic metric with the Log-Euclidean one to reduce the computational cost of a statistical surface evolution algorithm. Materials and Methods: We incorporated the Log-Euclidean metric in the statistical surface evolution algorithm framework. To achieve this goal, the statistics and gradients of diffusion tensor images were defined using the Log-Euclidean metric. Numerical implementation of the segmentation algorithm was performed in the MATLAB software using the finite difference techniques. Results: In the statistical surface evolution framework, the Log-Euclidean metric was able to discriminate the torus and helix patterns in synthesis datasets and rat spinal cords in biological phantom datasets from the background better than the Euclidean and J-divergence metrics. In addition, similar results were obtained with the geodesic metric. However, the main advantage of the Log-Euclidean metric over the geodesic metric was the dramatic reduction of computational cost of the segmentation algorithm, at least by 70 times. Discussion and Conclusion: The qualitative and quantitative results have shown that the Log-Euclidean metric is a good substitute for the geodesic metric when using a statistical surface evolution algorithm in DTIs segmentation.

  1. Fuzzy Euclidean wormholes in de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pisin; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: r04244003@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-07-01

    We investigate Euclidean wormholes in Einstein gravity with a massless scalar field in de Sitter space. Euclidean wormholes are possible due to the analytic continuation of the time as well as complexification of fields, where we need to impose the classicality after the Wick-rotation to the Lorentzian signatures. For some parameters, wormholes are preferred than Hawking-Moss instantons, and hence wormholes can be more fundamental than Hawking-Moss type instantons. Euclidean wormholes can be interpreted in three ways: (1) classical big bounce, (2) either tunneling from a small to a large universe or a creation of a collapsing and an expanding universe from nothing, and (3) either a transition from a contracting to a bouncing phase or a creation of two expanding universes from nothing. These various interpretations shed some light on challenges of singularities. In addition, these will help to understand tensions between various kinds of quantum gravity theories.

  2. Does apartment's distance to an in-built transformer room predict magnetic field exposure levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; Goris, Kelly; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that magnetic field exposure in apartments located directly on top or adjacent to transformer rooms is higher compared with exposure in apartments located further away from the transformer rooms. It is unclear whether this also translates into exposure contrast among individuals living in these apartments. We performed spot measurements of magnetic fields in 35 apartments in 14 apartment buildings with an in-built transformer and additionally performed 24-h personal measurements in a subsample of 24 individuals. Apartments placed directly on top of or adjacent to a transformer room had on average exposures of 0.42 μT, apartments on the second floor on top of a transformer room, or sharing a corner or edge with the transformer room had 0.11 μT, and apartments located further away from the transformer room had levels of 0.06 μT. Personal exposure levels were approximately a factor 2 lower compared with apartment averages, but still showed exposure contrasts, but only for those individuals who live in the apartments directly on top or adjacent to a transformer room compared with those living further away, with 0.23 versus 0.06 μT for personal exposure when indoors, respectively. A classification of individuals into 'high' and 'low' exposed based on the location of their apartment within a building with an in-built transformer is possible and could be applied in future epidemiological studies.

  3. Products of Snowflaked Euclidean Lines Are Not Minimal for Looking Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Matthieu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that products of snowflaked Euclidean lines are not minimal for looking down. This question was raised in Fractured fractals and broken dreams, Problem 11.17, by David and Semmes. The proof uses arguments developed by Le Donne, Li and Rajala to prove that the Heisenberg group is not minimal for looking down. By a method of shortcuts, we define a new distance d such that the product of snowflaked Euclidean lines looks down on (RN , d, but not vice versa.

  4. Lorentz violations and Euclidean signature metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero G, J. Fernando; Villasenor, Eduardo J.S.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the families of effective actions considered by Jacobson et al. to study Lorentz invariance violations contain a class of models that represent pure general relativity with a Euclidean signature. We also point out that some members of this family of actions preserve Lorentz invariance in a generalized sense

  5. Majorization in Euclidean Geometry and Beyond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 466, 1 February (2015), s. 233-240 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Majorization * Doubly stochastic matrix * Euclidean simplex * Star * Regular simplex * Volume of a simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2015

  6. Intrinsic Regularization in a Lorentz invariant non-orthogonal Euclidean Space

    OpenAIRE

    Tornow, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the Lorentz transformations can be derived for a non-orthogonal Euclidean space. In this geometry one finds the same relations of special relativity as the ones known from the orthogonal Minkowski space. In order to illustrate the advantage of a non-orthogonal Euclidean metric the two-point Green’s function at x = 0 for a self-interacting scalar field is calculated. In contrast to the Minkowski space the one loop mass correction derived from this function gives a convergent r...

  7. On construction of two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds embedded into enveloping Euclidean (pseudo-Euclidean) space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveliev, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the algebraic approach a construction of exactly integrable two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds embedded into enveloping Euclidean (pseudo-Euclidean) space Rsub(N) of an arbitrary dimension is presented. The construction is based on a reformulation of the Gauss, Peterson-Codazzi and Ricci equations in the form of a Lax-type representation in two-dimensional space. Here the Lax pair operators take the values in algebra SO(N)

  8. Modelling non-Euclidean movement and landscape connectivity in highly structured ecological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Christopher; Fuller, Angela K.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Movement is influenced by landscape structure, configuration and geometry, but measuring distance as perceived by animals poses technical and logistical challenges. Instead, movement is typically measured using Euclidean distance, irrespective of location or landscape structure, or is based on arbitrary cost surfaces. A recently proposed extension of spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models resolves this issue using spatial encounter histories of individuals to calculate least-cost paths (ecological distance: Ecology, 94, 2013, 287) thereby relaxing the Euclidean assumption. We evaluate the consequences of not accounting for movement heterogeneity when estimating abundance in highly structured landscapes, and demonstrate the value of this approach for estimating biologically realistic space-use patterns and landscape connectivity.

  9. Euclidean wormholes with minimally coupled scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruz, Soumendranath; Modak, Bijan; Debnath, Subhra; Sanyal, Abhik Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A detailed study of quantum and semiclassical Euclidean wormholes for Einstein's theory with a minimally coupled scalar field has been performed for a class of potentials. Massless, constant, massive (quadratic in the scalar field) and inverse (linear) potentials admit the Hawking and Page wormhole boundary condition both in the classically forbidden and allowed regions. An inverse quartic potential has been found to exhibit a semiclassical wormhole configuration. Classical wormholes under a suitable back-reaction leading to a finite radius of the throat, where the strong energy condition is satisfied, have been found for the zero, constant, quadratic and exponential potentials. Treating such classical Euclidean wormholes as an initial condition, a late stage of cosmological evolution has been found to remain unaltered from standard Friedmann cosmology, except for the constant potential which under the back-reaction produces a term like a negative cosmological constant. (paper)

  10. Calculus and analysis in Euclidean space

    CERN Document Server

    Shurman, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    The graceful role of analysis in underpinning calculus is often lost to their separation in the curriculum. This book entwines the two subjects, providing a conceptual approach to multivariable calculus closely supported by the structure and reasoning of analysis. The setting is Euclidean space, with the material on differentiation culminating in the inverse and implicit function theorems, and the material on integration culminating in the general fundamental theorem of integral calculus. More in-depth than most calculus books but less technical than a typical analysis introduction, Calculus and Analysis in Euclidean Space offers a rich blend of content to students outside the traditional mathematics major, while also providing transitional preparation for those who will continue on in the subject. The writing in this book aims to convey the intent of ideas early in discussion. The narrative proceeds through figures, formulas, and text, guiding the reader to do mathematics resourcefully by marshaling the skil...

  11. Euclidean fields: vector mesons and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffelholz, J.

    1979-01-01

    Free transverse vector fields of mass >= 0 are studied. The model is related to the usual free vector meson and electromagnetic quantum field theories by extension of the field operators from transverse to arbitrary test functions. The one-particle states in transverse gauge and their localization are described. Reflexion positivity is proved and derived are free Feynman-Kac-Nelson formulas. An Euclidean approach to a photon field in a spherical world using dilatation covariance and inversions is given

  12. Matrices and Graphs in Euclidean Geometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2005), s. 51-58 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Euclidean space * Gram matrix * biorthogonal bases * simplex * interior angle * Steiner circumscribed ellipsoid * right simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/14.html

  13. Multivariate Welch t-test on distances

    OpenAIRE

    Alekseyenko, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Permutational non-Euclidean analysis of variance, PERMANOVA, is routinely used in exploratory analysis of multivariate datasets to draw conclusions about the significance of patterns visualized through dimension reduction. This method recognizes that pairwise distance matrix between observations is sufficient to compute within and between group sums of squares necessary to form the (pseudo) F statistic. Moreover, not only Euclidean, but arbitrary distances can be used. This method...

  14. Hubble expansion in a Euclidean framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1979-01-01

    There now seems to be strong evidence for a non-cosmological interpretation of the QSO redshift - in any case, so strong that it is of interest to investigate the consequences. The purpose of this paper is to construct a model of the Hubble expansion which is as far as possible from the conventional Big Bang model without coming in conflict with any well-established observational results (while introducing no new laws of physics). This leads to an essentially Euclidean metagalactic model (see Table I) with very little mass outside one-third or half of the Hubble radius. The total kinetic energy of the Hubble expansion need only to be about 5% of the rest mass energy. Present observations support backwards in time extrapolation of the Hubble expansion to a 'minimum size galaxy' Rsub(m), which may have any value in 0 26 cm. Other arguments speak in favor of a size close to the upper value, say Rsub(m) = 10 26 cm (Table II). As this size is probably about 100 times the Schwarzschild limit, an essentially Euclidean description is allowed. The kinetic energy of the Hubble expansion may derive from an intense QSO-like activity in the minimum size metagalaxy, with an energy release corresponding to the annihilation of a few solar masses per galaxy per year. Some of the conclusions based on the Big Bang hypothesis are criticized and in several cases alternative interpretations are suggested. A comparison between the Euclidean and the conventional models is given in Table III. (orig.)

  15. Exploring Concepts of Geometry not Euclidean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ambrozi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With this article we intend to propose different situations of teaching and learning, how they can be applied in schools, mediated by the use of concrete materials and Geogebra software, emphasizing the use of technology in the classroom, that this proposal has the role of assisting in the conceptualization and identification of elements of non-Euclidean geometry. In addition, this short course is designed to be a time of current and continuing education for teachers, with activities to be developed with dynamic geometry and based on the theory of Conceptual Fields of Vergnaud.

  16. Bochner-Riesz means on Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Shanzhen

    2013-01-01

    This book mainly deals with the Bochner-Riesz means of multiple Fourier integral and series on Euclidean spaces. It aims to give a systematical introduction to the fundamental theories of the Bochner-Riesz means and important achievements attained in the last 50 years. For the Bochner-Riesz means of multiple Fourier integral, it includes the Fefferman theorem which negates the Disc multiplier conjecture, the famous Carleson-Sjölin theorem, and Carbery-Rubio de Francia-Vega's work on almost everywhere convergence of the Bochner-Riesz means below the critical index. For the Bochner-Riesz means o

  17. Euclidean approach to the inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how the Euclidean approach can be used to study the inflationary universe. Although this formulation may appear counterintuitive in some respects, it has the advantage that it defines a definite quantum state and provides a framework for calculating quantities of interest such as correlation functions or tunnelling probabilities. By contrast, in the more usual approach in real Lorentzian spacetime, it is not so clear what the quantum state should be or how to evaluate such quantities. (author)

  18. Introduction to non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Harold E

    2012-01-01

    One of the first college-level texts for elementary courses in non-Euclidean geometry, this concise, readable volume is geared toward students familiar with calculus. A full treatment of the historical background explores the centuries-long efforts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate and their triumphant conclusion. Numerous original exercises form an integral part of the book.Topics include hyperbolic plane geometry and hyperbolic plane trigonometry, applications of calculus to the solutions of some problems in hyperbolic geometry, elliptic plane geometry and trigonometry, and the consistenc

  19. Non-Euclidean Geometry and Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of misunderstandings and mathematical errors are involved in the currently accepted theory of the gravitational field generated by an isotropic spherical mass. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a short account of the rigorous mathematical theory and exhibit a new formulation of the problem. The solution of the corresponding equations of gravitation points out several new and unusual features of the stationary gravitational field which are related to the non-Euclidean structure of the space. Moreover it precludes the black hole from being a mathematical and physical notion.

  20. Improved training for target detection using Fukunaga-Koontz transform and distance classifier correlation filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakary, M. I.; Alam, M. S.; Aslan, M. S.

    2008-03-01

    In a FLIR image sequence, a target may disappear permanently or may reappear after some frames and crucial information such as direction, position and size related to the target are lost. If the target reappears at a later frame, it may not be tracked again because the 3D orientation, size and location of the target might be changed. To obtain information about the target before disappearing and to detect the target after reappearing, distance classifier correlation filter (DCCF) is trained manualy by selecting a number of chips randomly. This paper introduces a novel idea to eliminates the manual intervention in training phase of DCCF. Instead of selecting the training chips manually and selecting the number of the training chips randomly, we adopted the K-means algorithm to cluster the training frames and based on the number of clusters we select the training chips such that a training chip for each cluster. To detect and track the target after reappearing in the field-ofview ,TBF and DCCF are employed. The contduced experiemnts using real FLIR sequences show results similar to the traditional agorithm but eleminating the manual intervention is the advantage of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Statistical mechanics, gravity, and Euclidean theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursaev, Dmitri V.

    2002-01-01

    A review of computations of free energy for Gibbs states on stationary but not static gravitational and gauge backgrounds is given. On these backgrounds wave equations for free fields are reduced to eigenvalue problems which depend non-linearly on the spectral parameter. We present a method to deal with such problems. In particular, we demonstrate how some results of the spectral theory of second-order elliptic operators, such as heat kernel asymptotics, can be extended to a class of non-linear spectral problems. The method is used to trace down the relation between the canonical definition of the free energy based on summation over the modes and the covariant definition given in Euclidean quantum gravity. As an application, high-temperature asymptotics of the free energy and of the thermal part of the stress-energy tensor in the presence of rotation are derived. We also discuss statistical mechanics in the presence of Killing horizons where canonical and Euclidean theories are related in a non-trivial way

  2. On the scaling limits in the Euclidean (quantum) field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielerak, R.

    1983-01-01

    The author studies the concept of scaling limits in the context of the constructive field theory. He finds that the domain of attraction of a free massless Euclidean scalar field in the two-dimensional space time contains almost all Euclidean self-interacting models of quantum fields so far constructed. The renormalized scaling limit of the Wick polynomials of several self-interacting Euclidean field theory models are shown to be the same as in the free field theory. (Auth.)

  3. Statistical 2D and 3D shape analysis using Non-Euclidean Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Wrobel, Mark Christoph

    2002-01-01

    We address the problem of extracting meaningful, uncorrelated biological modes of variation from tangent space shape coordinates in 2D and 3D using non-Euclidean metrics. We adapt the maximum autocorrelation factor analysis and the minimum noise fraction transform to shape decomposition. Furtherm......We address the problem of extracting meaningful, uncorrelated biological modes of variation from tangent space shape coordinates in 2D and 3D using non-Euclidean metrics. We adapt the maximum autocorrelation factor analysis and the minimum noise fraction transform to shape decomposition....... Furthermore, we study metrics based on repated annotations of a training set. We define a way of assessing the correlation between landmarks contrary to landmark coordinates. Finally, we apply the proposed methods to a 2D data set consisting of outlines of lungs and a 3D/(4D) data set consisting of sets...

  4. Founding Gravitation in 4D Euclidean Space-Time Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Franz-Guenter

    2010-01-01

    The Euclidean interpretation of special relativity which has been suggested by the author is a formulation of special relativity in ordinary 4D Euclidean space-time geometry. The natural and geometrically intuitive generalization of this view involves variations of the speed of light (depending on location and direction) and a Euclidean principle of general covariance. In this article, a gravitation model by Jan Broekaert, which implements a view of relativity theory in the spirit of Lorentz and Poincare, is reconstructed and shown to fulfill the principles of the Euclidean approach after an appropriate reinterpretation.

  5. Polynomial degree reduction in the discrete L2-norm equals best Euclidean approximation of h-Bézier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    We show that the best degree reduction of a given polynomial P from degree n to m with respect to the discrete (Formula presented.)-norm is equivalent to the best Euclidean distance of the vector of h-Bézier coefficients of P from the vector

  6. Euclidean supergravity and multi-centered solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Sabra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In ungauged supergravity theories, the no-force condition for BPS states implies the existence of stable static multi-centered solutions. The first solutions to Einstein–Maxwell theory with a positive cosmological constant describing an arbitrary number of charged black holes were found by Kastor and Traschen. Generalisations to five and higher dimensional theories were obtained by London. Multi-centered solutions in gauged supergravity, even with time-dependence allowed, have yet to be constructed. In this letter we construct supersymmetry-preserving multi-centered solutions for the case of D=5, N=2 Euclidean gauged supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. Higher dimensional Einstein–Maxwell multi-centered solutions are also presented.

  7. Euclidean Monte Carlo simulation of nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montvay, Istvan; Bonn Univ.; Urbach, Carsten

    2011-05-01

    We present an exploratory study of chiral effective theories of nuclei with methods adopted from lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD). We show that the simulations in the Euclidean path integral approach are feasible and that we can determine the energy of the two nucleon state. By varying the parameters and the simulated volumes phase shifts can be determined in principle and hopefully tuned to their physical values in the future. The physical cut-off of the theory is realised by blocking of the lattice fields. By keeping this physical cut-off fixed in physical units the lattice cut-off can be changed and in this way the lattice artefacts can be eliminated. (orig.)

  8. The relation between Euclidean and Lorentzian 2D quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambjørn, J.; Correia, J.; Kristjansen, C.; Loll, R.

    1999-01-01

    Starting from 2D Euclidean quantum gravity, we show that one recovers 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity by removing all baby universes. Using a peeling procedure to decompose the discrete, triangulated geometries along a one-dimensional path, we explicitly associate with each Euclidean space-time a

  9. Euclidean null controllability of perturbed infinite delay systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euclidean null controllability of perturbed infinite delay systems with limited control. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... The results are established by placing conditions on the perturbation function which guarantee that, if the linear control base system is completely Euclidean controllable, then the perturbed system ...

  10. Euclidean null controllability of nonlinear infinite delay systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sufficient conditions for the Euclidean null controllability of non-linear delay systems with time varying multiple delays in the control and implicit derivative are derived. If the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable and if the control system is controllable, then the non-linear infinite delay system is Euclidean null ...

  11. Euclidean null controllability of linear systems with delays in state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sufficient conditions are developed for the Euclidean controllability of linear systems with delay in state and in control. Namely, if the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable and the control equation proper, then the control system is Euclidean null controllable. Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...

  12. Extended supersymmetry in four-dimensional Euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Sherry, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    Since the generators of the two SU(2) groups which comprise SO(4) are not Hermitian conjugates of each other, the simplest supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Euclidean space more closely resembles the N=2 than the N=1 supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Minkowski space. An extended supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Euclidean space is considered in this paper; its structure resembles that of N=4 supersymmetry in four-dimensional Minkowski space. The relationship of this algebra to the algebra found by dimensionally reducing the N=1 supersymmetry algebra in ten-dimensional Euclidean space to four-dimensional Euclidean space is examined. The dimensional reduction of N=1 super Yang-Mills theory in ten-dimensional Minkowski space to four-dimensional Euclidean space is also considered

  13. Minimal Paths in the City Block: Human Performance on Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwyn, Amy L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment is reported comparing human performance on two kinds of visually presented traveling salesperson problems (TSPs), those reliant on Euclidean geometry and those reliant on city block geometry. Across multiple array sizes, human performance was near-optimal in both geometries, but was slightly better in the Euclidean format. Even so,…

  14. Automated segmentation and isolation of touching cell nuclei in cytopathology smear images of pleural effusion using distance transform watershed method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Khin Yadanar; Choomchuay, Somsak; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2017-06-01

    The automated segmentation of cell nuclei is an essential stage in the quantitative image analysis of cell nuclei extracted from smear cytology images of pleural fluid. Cell nuclei can indicate cancer as the characteristics of cell nuclei are associated with cells proliferation and malignancy in term of size, shape and the stained color. Nevertheless, automatic nuclei segmentation has remained challenging due to the artifacts caused by slide preparation, nuclei heterogeneity such as the poor contrast, inconsistent stained color, the cells variation, and cells overlapping. In this paper, we proposed a watershed-based method that is capable to segment the nuclei of the variety of cells from cytology pleural fluid smear images. Firstly, the original image is preprocessed by converting into the grayscale image and enhancing by adjusting and equalizing the intensity using histogram equalization. Next, the cell nuclei are segmented using OTSU thresholding as the binary image. The undesirable artifacts are eliminated using morphological operations. Finally, the distance transform based watershed method is applied to isolate the touching and overlapping cell nuclei. The proposed method is tested with 25 Papanicolaou (Pap) stained pleural fluid images. The accuracy of our proposed method is 92%. The method is relatively simple, and the results are very promising.

  15. Postoperative radiotherapy for glioma: improved delineation of the clinical target volume using the geodesic distance calculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanFang Yan

    Full Text Available OBJECTS: To introduce a new method for generating the clinical target volume (CTV from gross tumor volume (GTV using the geodesic distance calculation for glioma. METHODS: One glioblastoma patient was enrolled. The GTV and natural barriers were contoured on each slice of the computer tomography (CT simulation images. Then, a graphic processing unit based on a parallel Euclidean distance transform was used to generate the CTV considering natural barriers. Three-dimensional (3D visualization technique was applied to show the delineation results. Speed of operation and precision were compared between this new delineation method and the traditional method. RESULTS: In considering spatial barriers, the shortest distance from the point sheltered from these barriers equals the sum of the distance along the shortest path between the two points; this consists of several segments and evades the spatial barriers, rather than being the direct Euclidean distance between two points. The CTV was generated irregularly rather than as a spherical shape. The time required to generate the CTV was greatly reduced. Moreover, this new method improved inter- and intra-observer variability in defining the CTV. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the traditional CTV delineation, this new method using geodesic distance calculation not only greatly shortens the time to modify the CTV, but also has better reproducibility.

  16. Spinors in euclidean field theory, complex structures and discrete symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss fermions for arbitrary dimensions and signature of the metric, with special emphasis on euclidean space. Generalized Majorana spinors are defined for d=2,3,4,8,9mod8, independently of the signature. These objects permit a consistent analytic continuation of Majorana spinors in Minkowski space to euclidean signature. Compatibility of charge conjugation with complex conjugation requires for euclidean signature a new complex structure which involves a reflection in euclidean time. The possible complex structures for Minkowski and euclidean signature can be understood in terms of a modulo two periodicity in the signature. The concepts of a real action and hermitean observables depend on the choice of the complex structure. For a real action the expectation values of all hermitean multi-fermion observables are real. This holds for arbitrary signature, including euclidean space. In particular, a chemical potential is compatible with a real action for the euclidean theory. We also discuss the discrete symmetries of parity, time reversal and charge conjugation for arbitrary dimension and signature.

  17. Quaternion analyticity and conformally Kaehlerian structure in Euclidean gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.; Chia-Hsiung Tze

    1984-01-01

    Starting from the fact that the d = 4 Euclidean flat spacetime is conformally related to the Kaehler manifold H 2 xS 2 , we show the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric to be conformally related to another Kaehler manifold M 2 xS 2 with M 2 being conformal to H 2 in two dimensions. Both metrics which are conformally Kaehlerian, are form-invariant under the infinite parameter Fueter group, the Euclidean counterpart of Milne's group of clock regraduation. The associated Einstein's equations translate into Fueter's quaternionic analyticity. The latter leads to an infinite number of local continuity equations. (orig.)

  18. New solutions of euclidean SU(2) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.

    1983-08-01

    New solutions of the Euclidean SU(2) gauge theory having finite field strength everywhere are presented. The solutions are self dual or antidual and constitute a two-parameter family which includes the instantons. (author)

  19. On the invariant theory of Weingarten surfaces in Euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganchev, Georgi; Mihova, Vesselka

    2010-01-01

    On any Weingarten surface in Euclidean space (strongly regular or rotational), we introduce locally geometric principal parameters and prove that such a surface is determined uniquely up to a motion by a special invariant function, which satisfies a natural nonlinear partial differential equation. This result can be interpreted as a solution to the Lund-Regge reduction problem for Weingarten surfaces in Euclidean space. We apply this theory to fractional-linear Weingarten surfaces and obtain the nonlinear partial differential equations describing them.

  20. Physical interpretation and geometrical representation of constant curvature surfaces in Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catoni, Francesco; Cannata, Roberto; Zampetti, Paolo

    2005-08-01

    The Riemann and Lorentz constant curvature surfaces are investigated from an Euclidean point of view. The four surfaces (constant positive and constant negative curvatures with definite and non-definite fine elements) are represented as surfaces in a Riemannian or in a particular semi-Riemannian flat space and it is shown that the complex and the hyperbolic numbers allow to obtain the same equations for the corresponding Riemann and Lorentz surfaces, respectively. Moreover it is shown that the geodesics on the Lorentz surfaces states, from a physical point of view, a link between curvature and fields. This result is obtained just as a consequence of the space-time geometrical symmetry, without invoking the famous Einstein general relativity postulate [it

  1. Flexible intuitions of Euclidean geometry in an Amazonian indigene group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; Pica, Pierre; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2011-01-01

    Kant argued that Euclidean geometry is synthesized on the basis of an a priori intuition of space. This proposal inspired much behavioral research probing whether spatial navigation in humans and animals conforms to the predictions of Euclidean geometry. However, Euclidean geometry also includes concepts that transcend the perceptible, such as objects that are infinitely small or infinitely large, or statements of necessity and impossibility. We tested the hypothesis that certain aspects of nonperceptible Euclidian geometry map onto intuitions of space that are present in all humans, even in the absence of formal mathematical education. Our tests probed intuitions of points, lines, and surfaces in participants from an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, as well as adults and age-matched children controls from the United States and France and younger US children without education in geometry. The responses of Mundurucu adults and children converged with that of mathematically educated adults and children and revealed an intuitive understanding of essential properties of Euclidean geometry. For instance, on a surface described to them as perfectly planar, the Mundurucu's estimations of the internal angles of triangles added up to ∼180 degrees, and when asked explicitly, they stated that there exists one single parallel line to any given line through a given point. These intuitions were also partially in place in the group of younger US participants. We conclude that, during childhood, humans develop geometrical intuitions that spontaneously accord with the principles of Euclidean geometry, even in the absence of training in mathematics. PMID:21606377

  2. Some nonunitary, indecomposable representations of the Euclidean algebra e(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Andrew; De Guise, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The Euclidean group E(3) is the noncompact, semidirect product group E(3)≅R 3 x SO(3). It is the Lie group of orientation-preserving isometries of three-dimensional Euclidean space. The Euclidean algebra e(3) is the complexification of the Lie algebra of E(3). We construct three distinct families of finite-dimensional, nonunitary representations of e(3) and show that each representation is indecomposable. The representations of the first family are explicitly realized as subspaces of the polynomial ring F[X,Y,Z] with the action of e(3) given by differential operators. The other families are constructed via duals and tensor products of the representations within the first family. We describe subrepresentations, quotients and duals of these indecomposable representations.

  3. Growth Modeling of Human Mandibles using Non-Euclidean Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Wrobel, Mark

    2003-01-01

    From a set of 31 three-dimensional CT scans we model the temporal shape and size of the human mandible. Each anatomical structure is represented using 14851 semi-landmarks, and mapped into Procrustes tangent space. Exploratory subspace analyses are performed leading to linear models of mandible...... shape evolution in Procrustes space. The traditional variance analysis results in a one-dimensional growth model. However, working in a non-Euclidean metric results in a multimodal model with uncorrelated modes of biological variation. The applied non-Euclidean metric is governed by the correlation...... structure of the estimated noise in the data. The generative models are compared, and evaluated on the basis of a cross validation study. The new non-Euclidean analysis is completely data driven. It not only gives comparable results w.r.t. to previous studies of the mean modelling error, but in addition...

  4. Measuring and testing dependence by correlation of distances

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Bakirov, Nail K.

    2007-01-01

    Distance correlation is a new measure of dependence between random vectors. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but unlike the classical definition of correlation, distance correlation is zero only if the random vectors are independent. The empirical distance dependence measures are based on certain Euclidean distances between sample elements rather than sample moments, yet have a compact representation analogous to the clas...

  5. TOPSIS with statistical distances: A new approach to MADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Babu Vommi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple attribute decision making (MADM methods are very useful in choosing the best alternative among the available finite but conflicting alternatives. TOPSIS is one of the MADM methods, which is simple in its methodology and logic. In TOPSIS, Euclidean distances of each alternative from the positive and negative ideal solutions are utilized to find the best alternative. In literature, apart from Euclidean distances, the city block distances have also been tried to find the separations measures. In general, the attribute data are distributed with unequal ranges and also possess moderate to high correlations. Hence, in the present paper, use of statistical distances is proposed in place of Euclidean distances. Procedures to find the best alternatives are developed using statistical and weighted statistical distances respectively. The proposed methods are illustrated with some industrial problems taken from literature. Results show that the proposed methods can be used as new alternatives in MADM for choosing the best solutions.

  6. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Lars Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  7. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  8. What if? Exploring the multiverse through Euclidean wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Krämer, Manuel; Morais, João; Robles-Pérez, Salvador

    2017-10-01

    We present Euclidean wormhole solutions describing possible bridges within the multiverse. The study is carried out in the framework of third quantisation. The matter content is modelled through a scalar field which supports the existence of a whole collection of universes. The instanton solutions describe Euclidean solutions that connect baby universes with asymptotically de Sitter universes. We compute the tunnelling probability of these processes. Considering the current bounds on the energy scale of inflation and assuming that all the baby universes are nucleated with the same probability, we draw some conclusions about which universes are more likely to tunnel and therefore undergo a standard inflationary era.

  9. What if? Exploring the multiverse through Euclidean wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Kraemer, Manuel; Morais, Joao; Robles-Perez, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    We present Euclidean wormhole solutions describing possible bridges within the multiverse. The study is carried out in the framework of third quantisation. The matter content is modelled through a scalar field which supports the existence of a whole collection of universes. The instanton solutions describe Euclidean solutions that connect baby universes with asymptotically de Sitter universes. We compute the tunnelling probability of these processes. Considering the current bounds on the energy scale of inflation and assuming that all the baby universes are nucleated with the same probability, we draw some conclusions about which universes are more likely to tunnel and therefore undergo a standard inflationary era. (orig.)

  10. What if? Exploring the multiverse through Euclidean wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain); Kraemer, Manuel [University of Szczecin, Institute of Physics, Szczecin (Poland); Morais, Joao [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); Robles-Perez, Salvador [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain)

    2017-10-15

    We present Euclidean wormhole solutions describing possible bridges within the multiverse. The study is carried out in the framework of third quantisation. The matter content is modelled through a scalar field which supports the existence of a whole collection of universes. The instanton solutions describe Euclidean solutions that connect baby universes with asymptotically de Sitter universes. We compute the tunnelling probability of these processes. Considering the current bounds on the energy scale of inflation and assuming that all the baby universes are nucleated with the same probability, we draw some conclusions about which universes are more likely to tunnel and therefore undergo a standard inflationary era. (orig.)

  11. UN MODÈLE PLATONICIEN (EUCLIDIEN-PROJECTIF) POUR LA THÉORIE DE LA RELATIVITÉ RESTREINTE A Platonic model (Euclidean-projective) for the special theory of relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Jégat , Alain

    2014-01-01

    The usual framework for Einstein’s special theory of relativity is the pseudo-euclidean spacetime proposed by Hermann Minkowski. This article aims at proposing a different model.The framework is an euclidean four-dimensional space in which all the objects move regularly (it means that, between two observations, whatever their trajectories, they cover the same distance), but where the events are seen in projection according to a privileged direction, as we are going to explain. The remark, rat...

  12. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  13. Solution for a bipartite Euclidean traveling-salesman problem in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Sergio; Di Gioacchino, Andrea; Gherardi, Marco; Malatesta, Enrico M.

    2018-05-01

    The traveling-salesman problem is one of the most studied combinatorial optimization problems, because of the simplicity in its statement and the difficulty in its solution. We characterize the optimal cycle for every convex and increasing cost function when the points are thrown independently and with an identical probability distribution in a compact interval. We compute the average optimal cost for every number of points when the distance function is the square of the Euclidean distance. We also show that the average optimal cost is not a self-averaging quantity by explicitly computing the variance of its distribution in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, we prove that the cost of the optimal cycle is not smaller than twice the cost of the optimal assignment of the same set of points. Interestingly, this bound is saturated in the thermodynamic limit.

  14. What does the Euclidean pseudoparticle do in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, I.

    1978-08-01

    Self dual pseudoparticle solutions for the classical Yang--Mills field equation with finite action have been constructed in Minkowski space. It is shown that the topological structures apparent in Euclidean space are no longer present in Minkowski space. Topological charges become fractional leading to the unquantized axial charge violation in the process involving fermions. 17 references

  15. Euclidean self-dual Yang-Mills field configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, G.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of a large class of regular and singular Euclidean self-dual Yang-Mills field configurations is reduced to the solution of a set of linear algebraic equations. The matrix of the coefficients is a polynomial functions of x and the rules for its construction are elementary. (author)

  16. The toroidal Hausdorff dimension of 2d Euclidean quantum gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjorn, Jan; Budd, Timothy George

    2013-01-01

    The lengths of shortest non-contractible loops are studied numerically in 2d Euclidean quantum gravity on a torus coupled to conformal field theories with central charge less than one. We find that the distribution of these geodesic lengths displays a scaling in agreement with a Hausdorff dimension...

  17. Algebraic Methods for Counting Euclidean Embeddings of Rigid Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.Z. Emiris; E.P. Tsigaridas; A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios); E.R. Gasner

    2009-01-01

    textabstract The study of (minimally) rigid graphs is motivated by numerous applications, mostly in robotics and bioinformatics. A major open problem concerns the number of embeddings of such graphs, up to rigid motions, in Euclidean space. We capture embeddability by polynomial systems

  18. Fisher type inequalities for Euclidean t-designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsarte, Ph.; Seidel, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The notion of a Euclidean t-design is analyzed in the framework of appropriate inner product spaces of polynomial functions. Some Fisher type inequalities are obtained in a simple manner by this method. The same approach is used to deal with certain analogous combinatorial designs.

  19. Superconvergent perturbation theory for euclidean scalar field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushveridze, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the bare (unrenormalized) correlation functions in the euclidean scalar field theories can be expanded in a series whose terms, being computable in a relatively simple way, are free from ultraviolet and infrared divergencies. This series is convergent (divergent) for finite (infinite) values of the correlation functions. (orig.)

  20. The Role of Structure in Learning Non-Euclidean Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuth, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    How do people learn novel mathematical information that contradicts prior knowledge? The focus of this thesis is the role of structure in the acquisition of knowledge about hyperbolic geometry, a non-Euclidean geometry. In a series of three experiments, I contrast a more holistic structure--training based on closed figures--with a mathematically…

  1. Euclidean Primes Have the Minimum Number of Primitive Roots

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2008), s. 121-127 ISSN 0972-5555 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Euclidean primes * Fermat primes * Sophie Germain primes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. Travel Distance and Transformation of Injected Emulsified Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles in the Subsurface During Two and Half Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effe...

  3. Derivatives, forms and vector fields on the κ-deformed Euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, Marija; Moeller, Lutz; Tsouchnika, Efrossini

    2004-01-01

    The model of κ-deformed space is an interesting example of a noncommutative space, since it allows a deformed symmetry. In this paper, we present new results concerning different sets of derivatives on the coordinate algebra of κ-deformed Euclidean space. We introduce a differential calculus with two interesting sets of one-forms and higher-order forms. The transformation law of vector fields is constructed in accordance with the transformation behaviour of derivatives. The crucial property of the different derivatives, forms and vector fields is that in an n-dimensional spacetime there are always n of them. This is the key difference with respect to conventional approaches, in which the differential calculus is (n + 1)-dimensional. This work shows that derivative-valued quantities such as derivative-valued vector fields appear in a generic way on noncommutative spaces

  4. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  5. The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...... geometries. We give results on the minimum distances of the codes....

  6. Biharmonic Submanifolds with Parallel Mean Curvature Vector in Pseudo-Euclidean Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yu, E-mail: yufudufe@gmail.com [Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, School of Mathematics and Quantitative Economics (China)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate biharmonic submanifolds in pseudo-Euclidean spaces with arbitrary index and dimension. We give a complete classification of biharmonic spacelike submanifolds with parallel mean curvature vector in pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We also determine all biharmonic Lorentzian surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector field in pseudo-Euclidean spaces.

  7. Biharmonic Submanifolds with Parallel Mean Curvature Vector in Pseudo-Euclidean Spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate biharmonic submanifolds in pseudo-Euclidean spaces with arbitrary index and dimension. We give a complete classification of biharmonic spacelike submanifolds with parallel mean curvature vector in pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We also determine all biharmonic Lorentzian surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector field in pseudo-Euclidean spaces

  8. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  9. An adaptive distance measure for use with nonparametric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, D. R.; Hines, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Distance measures perform a critical task in nonparametric, locally weighted regression. Locally weighted regression (LWR) models are a form of 'lazy learning' which construct a local model 'on the fly' by comparing a query vector to historical, exemplar vectors according to a three step process. First, the distance of the query vector to each of the exemplar vectors is calculated. Next, these distances are passed to a kernel function, which converts the distances to similarities or weights. Finally, the model output or response is calculated by performing locally weighted polynomial regression. To date, traditional distance measures, such as the Euclidean, weighted Euclidean, and L1-norm have been used as the first step in the prediction process. Since these measures do not take into consideration sensor failures and drift, they are inherently ill-suited for application to 'real world' systems. This paper describes one such LWR model, namely auto associative kernel regression (AAKR), and describes a new, Adaptive Euclidean distance measure that can be used to dynamically compensate for faulty sensor inputs. In this new distance measure, the query observations that lie outside of the training range (i.e. outside the minimum and maximum input exemplars) are dropped from the distance calculation. This allows for the distance calculation to be robust to sensor drifts and failures, in addition to providing a method for managing inputs that exceed the training range. In this paper, AAKR models using the standard and Adaptive Euclidean distance are developed and compared for the pressure system of an operating nuclear power plant. It is shown that using the standard Euclidean distance for data with failed inputs, significant errors in the AAKR predictions can result. By using the Adaptive Euclidean distance it is shown that high fidelity predictions are possible, in spite of the input failure. In fact, it is shown that with the Adaptive Euclidean distance prediction

  10. Double peak-induced distance error in short-time-Fourier-transform-Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers event detection and the recovery method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifei; Luo, Linqing; Li, Bo; Guo, Linfeng; Yan, Jize; Soga, Kenichi

    2015-10-01

    The measured distance error caused by double peaks in the BOTDRs (Brillouin optical time domain reflectometers) system is a kind of Brillouin scattering spectrum (BSS) deformation, discussed and simulated for the first time in the paper, to the best of the authors' knowledge. Double peak, as a kind of Brillouin spectrum deformation, is important in the enhancement of spatial resolution, measurement accuracy, and crack detection. Due to the variances of the peak powers of the BSS along the fiber, the measured starting point of a step-shape frequency transition region is shifted and results in distance errors. Zero-padded short-time-Fourier-transform (STFT) can restore the transition-induced double peaks in the asymmetric and deformed BSS, thus offering more accurate and quicker measurements than the conventional Lorentz-fitting method. The recovering method based on the double-peak detection and corresponding BSS deformation can be applied to calculate the real starting point, which can improve the distance accuracy of the STFT-based BOTDR system.

  11. Synthetic medical studies on atomic bomb survivors exposed in short distances, 15. Detection of transforming gene(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Kontani, Nobuko; Yokoro, Kenjiro; Takimoto, Yasuo; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Hattori, Takao

    1988-03-01

    In an effort to search for biological significance of chromosome aberration observed in bone marrow cells and peripheral lymphocytes, the presence of transforming genes in the DNA of bone marrow cells was examined in four healthy A-bomb survivors (Group I), three with preleukemia (Group II), and nine with leukemia (Group III). In Group I exposed at 300 - 500 m from the hypocenter, estimated radiation doses ranged from 565 to 667 cGy; and randomly abnormal karyotypes ranged from 30.7 % to 48.3 %. In Group II exposed at 800 m, in which estimated radiation doses were 300 - 600 cGy, one survivor had a complicated karyotype abnormality; and in the two others, abnormal clones were partly observed. Group III, which was exposed at 800 - 2,000 m and had estimated doses of 20 - 200 cGy, consisted of acute lymphoid leukemia (one), acute myeloid leukemia (five), and chronic myeloid leukemia (three). The patient with acute lymphoid leukemia had a complicated karyotype abnormality. N-ras genes were observed not only in seven acute or chronic leukemic patients but also in three healthy survivors. This may have important implications for the mechanism of leukemic transformation. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. Estimation of cardiac motion in cine-MRI sequences by correlation transform optical flow of monogenic features distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Liu, Wanyu; Wang, Liang; Liu, Zhengjun; Croisille, Pierre; Delachartre, Philippe; Clarysse, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Cine-MRI is widely used for the analysis of cardiac function in clinical routine, because of its high soft tissue contrast and relatively short acquisition time in comparison with other cardiac MRI techniques. The gray level distribution in cardiac cine-MRI is relatively homogenous within the myocardium, and can therefore make motion quantification difficult. To ensure that the motion estimation problem is well posed, more image features have to be considered. This work is inspired by a method previously developed for color image processing. The monogenic signal provides a framework to estimate the local phase, orientation, and amplitude, of an image, three features which locally characterize the 2D intensity profile. The independent monogenic features are combined into a 3D matrix for motion estimation. To improve motion estimation accuracy, we chose the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation as a matching measure, and implemented a bilateral filter for denoising and edge-preservation. The monogenic features distance is used in lieu of the color space distance in the bilateral filter. Results obtained from four realistic simulated sequences outperformed two other state of the art methods even in the presence of noise. The motion estimation errors (end point error) using our proposed method were reduced by about 20% in comparison with those obtained by the other tested methods. The new methodology was evaluated on four clinical sequences from patients presenting with cardiac motion dysfunctions and one healthy volunteer. The derived strain fields were analyzed favorably in their ability to identify myocardial regions with impaired motion.

  13. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr

    1996-01-01

    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  14. Lie sphere transformations and the focal sets of hyper-surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyske, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    Isoparametric hypersurfaces of euclidean or spherical space are those with constant principal curvatures. The image of the hypersurface under a conformal transformation of the ambient space will no longer be isoparametric, but will be Dupin: the principal curvatures will be constant in the principal directions. Dupin hypersurfaces are closely related to taut hypersurfaces, for which almost every distance function is a perfect Morse function (the number of critical points is the minimum for the topology of the hypersurface). A weaker concept is tightness, for which almost every linear height function is required to be a perfect Morse function. Dupin and taut hypersurfaces are preserved not just under conformal, or Moebuius, transformations but also under the more general Lie sphere transformations. Roughly speaking, these are generated by Moebius transformations and parallel transformations. The purpose of this thesis is to study certain taut or Dupin hypersurfaces under Lie sphere transformations including the effect on the focal set. The thesis is divided into four sections. After the introduction, the method of studying hypersurfaces as Lie sphere objects is developed. The third section extends the concepts of tightness and tautness of semi-euclidean space. The final section shows that if a hypersurface is the Lie sphere image of certain standard constructions (tubes, cylinders, and rotations), the resulting family of curvature spheres is taut in the Lie quadric

  15. Euclidean to Minkowski Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, J.; Frederico, T.; Karmanov, V.A.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method to reconstruct the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space given the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude - or alternatively the light-front wave function - as input. The method is based on the numerical inversion of the Nakanishi integral representation and computing the corresponding weight function. This inversion procedure is, in general, rather unstable, and we propose several ways to considerably reduce the instabilities. In terms of the Nakanishi weight function, one can easily compute the BS amplitude, the LF wave function and the electromagnetic form factor. The latter ones are very stable in spite of residual instabilities in the weight function. This procedure allows both, to continue the Euclidean BS solution in the Minkowski space and to obtain a BS amplitude from a LF wave function. (orig.)

  16. Tunneling in expanding Universe: Euclidean and Hamiltonian approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.S.; Linde, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of the false vacuum decay in de Sitter space and in the inflationary Universe, and also the theory of the Universe creation ''from nothing'' are discussed. This explained why tunneling in the inflationary Universe differs from that in de Sitter space and cannot be exactly homogeneous. It is shown that in several important cases the Euclidean approach should be considerably modified or is absolutely inapplicable for the description of tunneling in the expanding Universe and of the process of the quantum creation of the Universe. The Hamiltonian approach to the theory of tunneling in expanding Universe is developed. The results obtained by this method are compared with the results obtained by the Euclidean approach

  17. Euclidean to Minkowski Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, J. [Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Frederico, T. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Karmanov, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    We propose a method to reconstruct the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space given the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude - or alternatively the light-front wave function - as input. The method is based on the numerical inversion of the Nakanishi integral representation and computing the corresponding weight function. This inversion procedure is, in general, rather unstable, and we propose several ways to considerably reduce the instabilities. In terms of the Nakanishi weight function, one can easily compute the BS amplitude, the LF wave function and the electromagnetic form factor. The latter ones are very stable in spite of residual instabilities in the weight function. This procedure allows both, to continue the Euclidean BS solution in the Minkowski space and to obtain a BS amplitude from a LF wave function. (orig.)

  18. Euclidean scalar field theory in the bilocal approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, S.; Polonyi, J.; Steib, I.

    2018-04-01

    The blocking step of the renormalization group method is usually carried out by restricting it to fluctuations and to local blocked action. The tree-level, bilocal saddle point contribution to the blocking, defined by the infinitesimal decrease of the sharp cutoff in momentum space, is followed within the three dimensional Euclidean ϕ6 model in this work. The phase structure is changed, new phases and relevant operators are found, and certain universality classes are restricted by the bilocal saddle point.

  19. General Nth order integrals of motion in the Euclidean plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, S; Winternitz, P

    2015-01-01

    The general form of an integral of motion that is a polynomial of order N in the momenta is presented for a Hamiltonian system in two-dimensional Euclidean space. The classical and the quantum cases are treated separately, emphasizing both the similarities and the differences between the two. The main application will be to study Nth order superintegrable systems that allow separation of variables in the Hamilton–Jacobi and Schrödinger equations, respectively. (paper)

  20. Shape anisotropy: tensor distance to anisotropy measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; El-Hilo, Saba; Atkins, M. S.

    2011-03-01

    Fractional anisotropy, defined as the distance of a diffusion tensor from its closest isotropic tensor, has been extensively studied as quantitative anisotropy measure for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images (DT-MRI). It has been used to reveal the white matter profile of brain images, as guiding feature for seeding and stopping in fiber tractography and for the diagnosis and assessment of degenerative brain diseases. Despite its extensive use in DT-MRI community, however, not much attention has been given to the mathematical correctness of its derivation from diffusion tensors which is achieved using Euclidean dot product in 9D space. But, recent progress in DT-MRI has shown that the space of diffusion tensors does not form a Euclidean vector space and thus Euclidean dot product is not appropriate for tensors. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust rotationally invariant diffusion anisotropy measure derived using the recently proposed Log-Euclidean and J-divergence tensor distance measures. An interesting finding of our work is that given a diffusion tensor, its closest isotropic tensor is different for different tensor distance metrics used. We demonstrate qualitatively that our new anisotropy measure reveals superior white matter profile of DT-MR brain images and analytically show that it has a higher signal to noise ratio than fractional anisotropy.

  1. Some Properties of the Distance Function and a Conjecture of De Giorgi

    OpenAIRE

    Eminenti, Manolo; Mantegazza, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the geometric properties of the high derivatives of the distance function from a submanifold of the Euclidean space. In particular, we show some relations with the second fundamental form and its covariant derivatives of independent interest. As an application we prove a conjecture of Ennio De Giorgi on the evolution of submanifolds of the Euclidean space by the gradient of functionals depending on the derivatives of the distance function.

  2. Polynomial degree reduction in the discrete L2-norm equals best Euclidean approximation of h-Bézier coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-06-04

    We show that the best degree reduction of a given polynomial P from degree n to m with respect to the discrete (Formula presented.)-norm is equivalent to the best Euclidean distance of the vector of h-Bézier coefficients of P from the vector of degree raised h-Bézier coefficients of polynomials of degree m. Moreover, we demonstrate the adequacy of h-Bézier curves for approaching the problem of weighted discrete least squares approximation. Applications to discrete orthogonal polynomials are also presented. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  3. Spinors and supersymmetry in four-dimensional Euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Sherry, T.N.

    2001-01-01

    Spinors in four-dimensional Euclidean space are treated using the decomposition of the Euclidean space SO(4) symmetry group into SU(2)xSU(2). Both 2- and 4-spinor representations of this SO(4) symmetry group are shown to differ significantly from the corresponding spinor representations of the SO(3, 1) symmetry group in Minkowski space. The simplest self conjugate supersymmetry algebra allowed in four-dimensional Euclidean space is demonstrated to be an N=2 supersymmetry algebra which resembles the N=2 supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Minkowski space. The differences between the two supersymmetry algebras gives rise to different representations; in particular an analysis of the Clifford algebra structure shows that the momentum invariant is bounded above by the central charges in 4dE, while in 4dM the central charges bound the momentum invariant from below. Dimensional reduction of the N=1 SUSY algebra in six-dimensional Minkowski space (6dM) to 4dE reproduces our SUSY algebra in 4dE. This dimensional reduction can be used to introduce additional generators into the SUSY algebra in 4dE. Well known interpolating maps are used to relate the N=2 SUSY algebra in 4dE derived in this paper to the N=2 SUSY algebra in 4dM. The nature of the spinors in 4dE allows us to write an axially gauge invariant model which is shown to be both Hermitian and anomaly-free. No equivalent model exists in 4dM. Useful formulae in 4dE are collected together in two appendixes

  4. Convergent perturbation expansions for Euclidean quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Pordt, A.

    1984-09-01

    Mayer perturbation theory is designed to provide computable convergent expansions which permit calculation of Greens functions in Euclidean Quantum Field Theory to arbitrary accuracy, including 'nonperturbative' contributions from large field fluctuations. Here we describe the expansions at the example of 3-dimensional lambdaphi 4 -theory (in continuous space). They are not essentially more complicated than standard perturbation theory. The n-th order term is expressed in terms of 0(n)-dimensional integrals, and is of order lambda 4 if 4k-3<=n<=4k. (orig.)

  5. Euclidean D-branes and higher-dimensional gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, B.S.; Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Spence, B.; O'Loughlin, M.

    1997-07-01

    We consider euclidean D-branes wrapping around manifolds of exceptional holonomy in dimensions seven and eight. The resulting theory on the D-brane-that is, the dimensional reduction of 10-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory-is a cohomological field theory which describes the topology of the moduli space of instantons. The 7-dimensional theory is an N T =2 (or balanced) cohomological theory given by an action potential of Chern-Simons type. As a by-product of this method, we construct a related cohomological field theory which describes the monopole moduli space on a 7-manifold of G 2 holonomy. (author). 22 refs, 3 tabs

  6. The G_Newton --> 0 Limit of Euclidean Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Smolin, Lee

    1992-01-01

    Using the Ashtekar formulation, it is shown that the G_{Newton} --> 0 limit of Euclidean or complexified general relativity is not a free field theory, but is a theory that describes a linearized self-dual connection propagating on an arbitrary anti-self-dual background. This theory is quantized in the loop representation and, as in the full theory, an infinite dimnensional space of exact solutions to the constraint is found. An inner product is also proposed. The path integral is constructed...

  7. Multi-stability in folded shells: non-Euclidean origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    Both natural and man-made structures benefit from having multiple mechanically stable states, from the quick snapping motion of hummingbird beaks to micro-textured surfaces with tunable roughness. Rather than discuss special fabrication techniques for creating bi-stability through material anisotropy, in this talk I will present several examples of how folding a structure can modify the energy landscape and thus lead to multiple stable states. Using ideas from origami and differential geometry, I will discuss how deforming a non-Euclidean surface can be done either continuously or discontinuously, and explore the effects that global constraints have on the ultimate stability of the surface.

  8. ILUCG algorithm which minimizes in the Euclidean norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petravic, M.; Kuo-Petravic, G.

    1978-07-01

    An algroithm is presented which solves sparse systems of linear equations of the form Ax = Y, where A is non-symmetric, by the Incomplete LU Decomposition-Conjugate Gradient (ILUCG) method. The algorithm minimizes the error in the Euclidean norm vertical bar x/sub i/ - x vertical bar 2 , where x/sub i/ is the solution vector after the i/sup th/ iteration and x the exact solution vector. The results of a test on one real problem indicate that the algorithm is likely to be competitive with the best existing algorithms of its type

  9. A Class of Weingarten Surfaces in Euclidean 3-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The class of biconservative surfaces in Euclidean 3-space 3 are defined in (Caddeo et al., 2012 by the equation A(grad H=-H grad H for the mean curvature function H and the Weingarten operator A. In this paper, we consider the more general case that surfaces in 3 satisfying A(grad H=kH grad H for some constant k are called generalized bi-conservative surfaces. We show that this class of surfaces are linear Weingarten surfaces. We also give a complete classification of generalized bi-conservative surfaces in 3.

  10. A strong coupling simulation of Euclidean quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.; Hamburg Univ.

    1984-12-01

    Relying on Regge calculus a systematic numerical investigation of models of 4d Euclidean gravity is proposed. The scale a = 1 0 is set by fixing the expectation value of a length. Possible universality of such models is discussed. The strong coupling limit is defined by taking Planck mass msub(p) -> 0 (in units of 1 0 -1 ). The zero order approximation msub(p) = 0 is called 'fluctuating space' and investigated numerically in two 4d models. Canonical dimensions are realized and both models give a negative expectation value for the scalar curvature density. (orig.)

  11. Multivariate correlation analysis technique based on euclidean distance map for network traffic characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Zhiyuan; Jamdagni, Aruna; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Liu, Ren Ping; Qing, Sihan; Susilo, Willy; Wang, Guilin; Liu, Dongmei

    2011-01-01

    The quality of feature has significant impact on the performance of detection techniques used for Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack. The features that fail to provide accurate characterization for network traffic records make the techniques suffer from low accuracy in detection. Although researches

  12. On the Schroedinger representation of the Euclidean quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, U.

    1987-04-01

    The theme of the present thesis is the Schroedinger representation of the Euclidean quantum field theory: We define the time development of the quantum field states as functional integral in a novel, mathematically precise way. In the following we discuss the consequences which result from this approach to the Euclidean quantum field theory. Chapter 1 introduces the theory of abstract Wiener spaces which is here proved as suitable mathematical tool for the treatment of the physical problems. In chapter 2 the diffusion theory is formulated in the framework of abstract Wiener spaces. In chapter 3 we define the field functional ψ 5 u, t 7 as functional integral, determine the functional differential equation which ψ satisfies (Schroedinger equation), and summarize the consequences resulting from this. Chapter 4 is dedicated to the attempt to determine the kernel of the time-development operator, by the knowledge of which the time development of each initial state is fixed. In chapter 5 the consequences of the theory presented in chapter 3 and 4 are discussed by means of simple examples. In chapter 6 the renormalization which results for the φ 4 potential from the definition of the functional integral in chapter 3 is calculated up to the first-order perturbation theory, and it is shown that the problems in the Symanzik renormalization procedure can be removed. (orig./HSI) [de

  13. Euclidean and Minkowski space formulations of linearized gravitational potential in various gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    We show that there exists a unitary map connecting linearized theories of gravitational potential in vacuum, formulated in various covariant gauges and noncovariant radiation gauge. The free Euclidean gravitational potentials in covariant gauges satisfy the Markov property of Nelson, but are nonreflexive. For the noncovariant radiation gauge, the corresponding Euclidean field is reflexive but it only satisfies the Markov property with respect to special half spaces. The Feynman--Kac--Nelson formula is established for the Euclidean gravitational potential in radiation gauge

  14. Isometric immersions and embeddings of locally Euclidean metrics in R2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabitov, I Kh

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of isometric immersions and embeddings of two-dimensional locally Euclidean metrics in the Euclidean plane. We find explicit formulae for the immersions of metrics defined on a simply connected domain and a number of sufficient conditions for the existence of isometric embeddings. In the case when the domain is multiply connected we find necessary conditions for the existence of isometric immersions and classify the cases when the metric admits no isometric immersion in the Euclidean plane

  15. SLE as a Mating of Trees in Euclidean Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Nina; Sun, Xin

    2018-05-01

    The mating of trees approach to Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) in the random geometry of Liouville quantum gravity (LQG) has been recently developed by Duplantier et al. (Liouville quantum gravity as a mating of trees, 2014. arXiv:1409.7055). In this paper we consider the mating of trees approach to SLE in Euclidean geometry. Let {η} be a whole-plane space-filling SLE with parameter {κ > 4} , parameterized by Lebesgue measure. The main observable in the mating of trees approach is the contour function, a two-dimensional continuous process describing the evolution of the Minkowski content of the left and right frontier of {η} . We prove regularity properties of the contour function and show that (as in the LQG case) it encodes all the information about the curve {η} . We also prove that the uniform spanning tree on {Z^2} converges to SLE8 in the natural topology associated with the mating of trees approach.

  16. Curvature-driven morphing of non-Euclidean shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulla, Matteo; Stoop, Norbert; Jiang, Xin; Holmes, D. P.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate how thin structures change their shape in response to non-mechanical stimuli that can be interpreted as variations in the structure's natural curvature. Starting from the theory of non-Euclidean plates and shells, we derive an effective model that reduces a three-dimensional stimulus to the natural fundamental forms of the mid-surface of the structure, incorporating expansion, or growth, in the thickness. Then, we apply the model to a variety of thin bodies, from flat plates to spherical shells, obtaining excellent agreement between theory and numerics. We show how cylinders and cones can either bend more or unroll, and eventually snap and rotate. We also study the nearly isometric deformations of a spherical shell and describe how this shape change is ruled by the geometry of a spindle. As the derived results stem from a purely geometrical model, they are general and scalable.

  17. Buckling transition and boundary layer in non-Euclidean plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Efi; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz

    2009-07-01

    Non-Euclidean plates are thin elastic bodies having no stress-free configuration, hence exhibiting residual stresses in the absence of external constraints. These bodies are endowed with a three-dimensional reference metric, which may not necessarily be immersible in physical space. Here, based on a recently developed theory for such bodies, we characterize the transition from flat to buckled equilibrium configurations at a critical value of the plate thickness. Depending on the reference metric, the buckling transition may be either continuous or discontinuous. In the infinitely thin plate limit, under the assumption that a limiting configuration exists, we show that the limit is a configuration that minimizes the bending content, among all configurations with zero stretching content (isometric immersions of the midsurface). For small but finite plate thickness, we show the formation of a boundary layer, whose size scales with the square root of the plate thickness and whose shape is determined by a balance between stretching and bending energies.

  18. Defects and boundary layers in non-Euclidean plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmer, J A; Venkataramani, S C

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of non-Euclidean plates with constant negative Gaussian curvature using the Föppl–von Kármán reduced theory of elasticity. Motivated by recent experimental results, we focus on annuli with a periodic profile. We prove rigorous upper and lower bounds for the elastic energy that scales like the thickness squared. In particular we show that are only two types of global minimizers—deformations that remain flat and saddle shaped deformations with isolated regions of stretching near the edge of the annulus. We also show that there exist local minimizers with a periodic profile that have additional boundary layers near their lines of inflection. These additional boundary layers are a new phenomenon in thin elastic sheets and are necessary to regularize jump discontinuities in the azimuthal curvature across lines of inflection. We rigorously derive scaling laws for the width of these boundary layers as a function of the thickness of the sheet. (paper)

  19. Geometry through history Euclidean, hyperbolic, and projective geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Meighan I

    2018-01-01

    Presented as an engaging discourse, this textbook invites readers to delve into the historical origins and uses of geometry. The narrative traces the influence of Euclid’s system of geometry, as developed in his classic text The Elements, through the Arabic period, the modern era in the West, and up to twentieth century mathematics. Axioms and proof methods used by mathematicians from those periods are explored alongside the problems in Euclidean geometry that lead to their work. Students cultivate skills applicable to much of modern mathematics through sections that integrate concepts like projective and hyperbolic geometry with representative proof-based exercises. For its sophisticated account of ancient to modern geometries, this text assumes only a year of college mathematics as it builds towards its conclusion with algebraic curves and quaternions. Euclid’s work has affected geometry for thousands of years, so this text has something to offer to anyone who wants to broaden their appreciation for the...

  20. Euclidean mirrors: enhanced vacuum decay from reflected instantons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akal, Ibrahim; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid

    2018-05-01

    We study the tunnelling of virtual matter–antimatter pairs from the quantum vacuum in the presence of a spatially uniform, time-dependent electric background composed of a strong, slow field superimposed with a weak, rapid field. After analytic continuation to Euclidean spacetime, we obtain from the instanton equations two critical points. While one of them is the closing point of the instanton path, the other serves as an Euclidean mirror which reflects and squeezes the instanton. It is this reflection and shrinking which is responsible for an enormous enhancement of the vacuum pair production rate. We discuss how important features of two different mechanisms can be analysed and understood via such a rotation in the complex plane. (a) Consistent with previous studies, we first discuss the standard assisted mechanism with a static strong field and certain weak fields with a distinct pole structure in order to show that the reflection takes place exactly at the poles. We also discuss the effect of possible sub-cycle structures. We extend this reflection picture then to weak fields which have no poles present and illustrate the effective reflections with explicit examples. An additional field strength dependence for the rate occurs in such cases. We analytically compute the characteristic threshold for the assisted mechanism given by the critical combined Keldysh parameter. We discuss significant differences between these two types of fields. For various backgrounds, we present the contributing instantons and perform analytical computations for the corresponding rates treating both fields nonperturbatively. (b) In addition, we also study the case with a nonstatic strong field which gives rise to the assisted dynamical mechanism. For different strong field profiles we investigate the impact on the critical combined Keldysh parameter. As an explicit example, we analytically compute the rate by employing the exact reflection points. The validity of the predictions

  1. Euclidean mirrors. Enhanced vacuum decay from reflected instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2017-06-15

    We study the tunneling of virtual matter-antimatter pairs from the quantum vacuum in the presence of a spatially uniform temporal electric background composed of of a strong slow field superimposed with a weak rapid field. After analytic continuation to Euclidean spacetime we obtain from the instanton equations two critical points. While one of them is the closing point of the instanton path, the other serves as an Euclidean mirror which reflects and squeezes the instanton. It is this reflection and shrinking which is responsible for an enormous enhancement of the vacuum pair production rate. We discuss how important features of this mechanism can be analysed and understood via such a rotation in the complex plane. Consistent with previous studies, we consider certain examples where we apply weak fields with a distinct pole structure in order to show that the reflection takes place exactly at the poles. We also discuss the effect of possible sub-cycle structures. We extend this reflection picture to fields which have no poles present and illustrate the effective reflections with explicit examples. An additional field strength dependence for the rate occurs in such cases. We analytically compute the characteristic threshold for this mechanism given by the critical combined Keldysh parameter. We discuss significant differences between these two types of fields. For various backgrounds, we present the contributing instantons and perform analytical computations for the corresponding rates treating both fields nonperturbatively. The validity of the results is confirmed by numerical computations. Considering different profiles for the strong field, we also discuss its impact on the critical combined Keldysh parameter.

  2. Uniqueness of Gibbs states and global Markov property for Euclidean fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krohn, R.

    1981-01-01

    The authors briefly discuss the proof of the uniqueness of solutions of the DLR equations (uniqueness of Gibbs states) in the class of regular generalized random fields (in the sense of having second moments bounded by those of some Euclidean field), for the Euclidean fields with trigonometric interaction. (Auth.)

  3. Non-euclidean simplex optimization. [Application to potentiometric titration of Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1977-08-15

    Geometric optimization techniques useful for studying chemical equilibrium traditionally rely upon principles of euclidean geometry, but such algorithms may also be based upon principles of a non-euclidean geometry. The sequential simplex method is adapted to the hyperbolic plane, and application of optimization to problems such as the potentiometric titration of plutonium is suggested.

  4. A general Euclidean connection for so(n,m) lie algebra and the algebraic approach to scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    We obtain a general Euclidean connection for so(n,m). This Euclidean connection allows an algebraic derivation of the S matrix and it reduces to the known one in suitable circumstances. (author). 8 refs

  5. Distance of Sample Measurement Points to Prototype Catalog Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Perram, John

    2006-01-01

    We discuss strategies for comparing discrete data points to a catalog (reference) curve by means of the Euclidean distance from each point to the curve in a pump's head H vs. flow Qdiagram. In particular we find that a method currently in use is inaccurate. We propose several alternatives...

  6. $O(N)$ model in Euclidean de Sitter space: beyond the leading infrared approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Nacir, Diana López; Trombetta, Leonardo G

    2016-01-01

    We consider an $O(N)$ scalar field model with quartic interaction in $d$-dimensional Euclidean de Sitter space. In order to avoid the problems of the standard perturbative calculations for light and massless fields, we generalize to the $O(N)$ theory a systematic method introduced previously for a single field, which treats the zero modes exactly and the nonzero modes perturbatively. We compute the two-point functions taking into account not only the leading infrared contribution, coming from the self-interaction of the zero modes, but also corrections due to the interaction of the ultraviolet modes. For the model defined in the corresponding Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime, we obtain the two-point functions by analytical continuation. We point out that a partial resummation of the leading secular terms (which necessarily involves nonzero modes) is required to obtain a decay at large distances for massless fields. We implement this resummation along with a systematic double expansion in an effective coupling c...

  7. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  8. Entropy, extremality, euclidean variations, and the equations of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Lewkowycz, Aitor

    2018-01-01

    We study the Euclidean gravitational path integral computing the Rényi entropy and analyze its behavior under small variations. We argue that, in Einstein gravity, the extremality condition can be understood from the variational principle at the level of the action, without having to solve explicitly the equations of motion. This set-up is then generalized to arbitrary theories of gravity, where we show that the respective entanglement entropy functional needs to be extremized. We also extend this result to all orders in Newton's constant G N , providing a derivation of quantum extremality. Understanding quantum extremality for mixtures of states provides a generalization of the dual of the boundary modular Hamiltonian which is given by the bulk modular Hamiltonian plus the area operator, evaluated on the so-called modular extremal surface. This gives a bulk prescription for computing the relative entropies to all orders in G N . We also comment on how these ideas can be used to derive an integrated version of the equations of motion, linearized around arbitrary states.

  9. Non-Euclidean Geometry, Nontrivial Topology and Quantum Vacuum Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii A. Sitenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Space out of a topological defect of the Abrikosov–Nielsen–Olesen (ANO vortex type is locally flat but non-Euclidean. If a spinor field is quantized in such a space, then a variety of quantum effects are induced in the vacuum. On the basis of the continuum model for long-wavelength electronic excitations originating in the tight-binding approximation for the nearest-neighbor interaction of atoms in the crystal lattice, we consider quantum ground-state effects in Dirac materials with two-dimensional monolayer structures warped into nanocones by a disclination; the nonzero size of the disclination is taken into account, and a boundary condition at the edge of the disclination is chosen to ensure self-adjointness of the Dirac–Weyl Hamiltonian operator. We show that the quantum ground-state effects are independent of the disclination size, and we find circumstances in which they are independent of parameters of the boundary condition.

  10. Biased discriminant euclidean embedding for content-based image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng

    2010-02-01

    With many potential multimedia applications, content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has recently gained more attention for image management and web search. A wide variety of relevance feedback (RF) algorithms have been developed in recent years to improve the performance of CBIR systems. These RF algorithms capture user's preferences and bridge the semantic gap. However, there is still a big room to further the RF performance, because the popular RF algorithms ignore the manifold structure of image low-level visual features. In this paper, we propose the biased discriminative Euclidean embedding (BDEE) which parameterises samples in the original high-dimensional ambient space to discover the intrinsic coordinate of image low-level visual features. BDEE precisely models both the intraclass geometry and interclass discrimination and never meets the undersampled problem. To consider unlabelled samples, a manifold regularization-based item is introduced and combined with BDEE to form the semi-supervised BDEE, or semi-BDEE for short. To justify the effectiveness of the proposed BDEE and semi-BDEE, we compare them against the conventional RF algorithms and show a significant improvement in terms of accuracy and stability based on a subset of the Corel image gallery.

  11. Euclidean quantum field theory and the Hawking effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapedes, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Complex analytic continuation in a time variable in order to define a Feynman propagator is investigated in a general relativistic context. When external electric fields are present a complex analytic continuation in the electric charge is also introduced. The new Euclidean formalism is checked by reproducing Schwinger's special relativistic result for pair creation by an external, homogenous, electric field, and then applied to the Robinson-Bertotti universe. The Robinson-Bertotti universe, although unphysical, provides an interesting theoretical laboratory in which to investigate quantum effects, much as the unphysical Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) universe does for purely classical general relativity. A conformally related problem of pair creation by a supercritically charged nucleus is also considered, and a sensible resolution is obtained to this classic problem. The essential mathematical point throughout is the use of the Feynman path-integral form of the propagator to motivate replacing hyperbolic equations by elliptic equations. The unique, bounded solution for the elliptic Green's function is then analytically continued back to physical values to define the Feynman Green's function

  12. Euclidean supersymmetric solutions with the self-dual Weyl tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Nozawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We explore the Euclidean supersymmetric solutions admitting the self-dual gauge field in the framework of N=2 minimal gauged supergravity in four dimensions. According to the classification scheme utilizing the spinorial geometry or the bilinears of Killing spinors, the general solution preserves one quarter of supersymmetry and is described by the Przanowski–Tod class with the self-dual Weyl tensor. We demonstrate that there exists an additional Killing spinor, provided the Przanowski–Tod metric admits a Killing vector that commutes with the principal one. The proof proceeds by recasting the metric into another Przanowski–Tod form. This formalism enables us to show that the self-dual Reissner–Nordström–Taub–NUT–AdS metric possesses a second Killing spinor, which has been missed over many years. We also address the supersymmetry when the Przanowski–Tod space is conformal to each of the self-dual ambi-toric Kähler metrics. It turns out that three classes of solutions are all reduced to the self-dual Carter family, by virtue of the nondegenerate Killing–Yano tensor.

  13. Numerical evaluation of tensor Feynman integrals in Euclidean kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluza, J.; Kajda [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, T.; Yundin, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    For the investigation of higher order Feynman integrals, potentially with tensor structure, it is highly desirable to have numerical methods and automated tools for dedicated, but sufficiently 'simple' numerical approaches. We elaborate two algorithms for this purpose which may be applied in the Euclidean kinematical region and in d=4-2{epsilon} dimensions. One method uses Mellin-Barnes representations for the Feynman parameter representation of multi-loop Feynman integrals with arbitrary tensor rank. Our Mathematica package AMBRE has been extended for that purpose, and together with the packages MB (M. Czakon) or MBresolve (A. V. Smirnov and V. A. Smirnov) one may perform automatically a numerical evaluation of planar tensor Feynman integrals. Alternatively, one may apply sector decomposition to planar and non-planar multi-loop {epsilon}-expanded Feynman integrals with arbitrary tensor rank. We automatized the preparations of Feynman integrals for an immediate application of the package sectordecomposition (C. Bogner and S. Weinzierl) so that one has to give only a proper definition of propagators and numerators. The efficiency of the two implementations, based on Mellin-Barnes representations and sector decompositions, is compared. The computational packages are publicly available. (orig.)

  14. FAST DISCRETE CURVELET TRANSFORM BASED ANISOTROPIC FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR IRIS RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol D. Rahulkar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The feature extraction plays a very important role in iris recognition. Recent researches on multiscale analysis provide good opportunity to extract more accurate information for iris recognition. In this work, a new directional iris texture features based on 2-D Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT is proposed. The proposed approach divides the normalized iris image into six sub-images and the curvelet transform is applied independently on each sub-image. The anisotropic feature vector for each sub-image is derived using the directional energies of the curvelet coefficients. These six feature vectors are combined to create the resultant feature vector. During recognition, the nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance has been used for authentication. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been tested on two different databases namely UBIRIS and MMU1. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach.

  15. Variational estimates for the mass gap of SU(2) Euclidean lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this letter is to report on the progress made in our understanding of series expansions for the masses in lattice gauge theories by the application of variational techniques to the Euclidean SU(2) lattice gauge theory. (Auth.)

  16. Euclidean action for vacuum decay in a de Sitter universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.; Demetrian, M.

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of the action of the instantons describing vacuum decay in a de Sitter is investigated. For a near-to-limit instanton (a Coleman-de Luccia instanton close to some Hawking-Moss instanton) we find approximate formulas for the Euclidean action by expanding the scalar field and the metric of the instanton in the powers of the scalar field amplitude. The order of the magnitude of the correction to the Hawking-Moss action depends on the order of the instanton (the number of crossings of the barrier by the scalar field): for instantons of odd and even orders the correction is of the fourth and third order in the scalar field amplitude, respectively. If a near-to-limit instanton of the first order exists in a potential with the curvature at the top of the barrier greater than 4x(Hubble constant) 2 , which is the case if the fourth derivative of the potential at the top of the barrier is greater than some negative limit value, the action of the instanton is less than the Hawking-Moss action and, consequently, the instanton determines the outcome of the vacuum decay if no other Coleman-de Luccia instanton is admitted by the potential. A numerical study shows that for the quartic potential the physical mode of the vacuum decay is given by the Coleman-de Luccia instanton of the first order also in the region of parameters in which the potential admits two instantons of the second order

  17. A Framework for Generalising the Newton Method and Other Iterative Methods from Euclidean Space to Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, Jonathan H.

    2012-01-01

    The Newton iteration is a popular method for minimising a cost function on Euclidean space. Various generalisations to cost functions defined on manifolds appear in the literature. In each case, the convergence rate of the generalised Newton iteration needed establishing from first principles. The present paper presents a framework for generalising iterative methods from Euclidean space to manifolds that ensures local convergence rates are preserved. It applies to any (memoryless) iterative m...

  18. Classical and quantum integrability of 2D dilaton gravities in Euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamin, L; Grumiller, D; Kummer, W; Vassilevich, D V

    2005-01-01

    Euclidean dilaton gravity in two dimensions is studied exploiting its representation as a complexified first order gravity model. All local classical solutions are obtained. A global discussion reveals that for a given model only a restricted class of topologies is consistent with the metric and the dilaton. A particular case of string motivated Liouville gravity is studied in detail. Path integral quantization in generic Euclidean dilaton gravity is performed non-perturbatively by analogy to the Minkowskian case

  19. Euclidean Geometry Codes, minimum weight words and decodable error-patterns using bit-flipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn; Jonsson, Bergtor

    2005-01-01

    We determine the number of minimum wigth words in a class of Euclidean Geometry codes and link the performance of the bit-flipping decoding algorithm to the geometry of the error patterns.......We determine the number of minimum wigth words in a class of Euclidean Geometry codes and link the performance of the bit-flipping decoding algorithm to the geometry of the error patterns....

  20. Linearization of Euclidean Norm Dependent Inequalities Applied to Multibeam Satellites Design

    OpenAIRE

    Camino , Jean-Thomas; Artigues , Christian; Houssin , Laurent; Mourgues , Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Euclidean norm computations over continuous variables appear naturally in the constraints or in the objective of many problems in the optimization literature, possibly defining non-convex feasible regions or cost functions. When some other variables have discrete domains, it positions the problem in the challenging Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) class. For any MINLP where the nonlinearity is only present in the form of inequality constraints involving the Euclidean norm, we propo...

  1. General Rotational Surfaces in Pseudo-Euclidean 4-Space with Neutral Metric

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksieva, Yana; Milousheva, Velichka; Turgay, Nurettin Cenk

    2016-01-01

    We define general rotational surfaces of elliptic and hyperbolic type in the pseudo-Euclidean 4-space with neutral metric which are analogous to the general rotational surfaces of C. Moore in the Euclidean 4-space. We study Lorentz general rotational surfaces with plane meridian curves and give the complete classification of minimal general rotational surfaces of elliptic and hyperbolic type, general rotational surfaces with parallel normalized mean curvature vector field, flat general rotati...

  2. Measuring the Accuracy of Simple Evolving Connectionist System with Varying Distance Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khowarizmi; Sitompul, O. S.; Suherman; Nababan, E. B.

    2017-12-01

    Simple Evolving Connectionist System (SECoS) is a minimal implementation of Evolving Connectionist Systems (ECoS) in artificial neural networks. The three-layer network architecture of the SECoS could be built based on the given input. In this study, the activation value for the SECoS learning process, which is commonly calculated using normalized Hamming distance, is also calculated using normalized Manhattan distance and normalized Euclidean distance in order to compare the smallest error value and best learning rate obtained. The accuracy of measurement resulted by the three distance formulas are calculated using mean absolute percentage error. In the training phase with several parameters, such as sensitivity threshold, error threshold, first learning rate, and second learning rate, it was found that normalized Euclidean distance is more accurate than both normalized Hamming distance and normalized Manhattan distance. In the case of beta fibrinogen gene -455 G/A polymorphism patients used as training data, the highest mean absolute percentage error value is obtained with normalized Manhattan distance compared to normalized Euclidean distance and normalized Hamming distance. However, the differences are very small that it can be concluded that the three distance formulas used in SECoS do not have a significant effect on the accuracy of the training results.

  3. On approximately fair cost allocation in Euclidean TSP games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, U.; Fekete, Sándor P.; Hochstättler, Winfried; Kern, Walter

    1998-01-01

    We consider the problem of allocating the cost of an optimal traveling salesman tour in a fair way among the nodes visited; in particular, we focus on the case where the distance matrix of the underlying TSP problem satisfies the triangle inequality. We thereby use the model of TSP games in the

  4. Characterization of separability and entanglement in (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional systems by single-qubit and single-qutrit unitary transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the geometric characterization of pure state bipartite entanglement of (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional composite quantum systems. To this aim, we analyze the relationship between states and their images under the action of particular classes of local unitary operations. We find that invariance of states under the action of single-qubit and single-qutrit transformations is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability. We demonstrate that in the (2xD)-dimensional case the von Neumann entropy of entanglement is a monotonic function of the minimum squared Euclidean distance between states and their images over the set of single qubit unitary transformations. Moreover, both in the (2xD)- and in the (3xD)-dimensional cases the minimum squared Euclidean distance exactly coincides with the linear entropy [and thus as well with the tangle measure of entanglement in the (2xD)-dimensional case]. These results provide a geometric characterization of entanglement measures originally established in informational frameworks. Consequences and applications of the formalism to quantum critical phenomena in spin systems are discussed

  5. Video surveillance using distance maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    2006-02-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors. To obtain fully controlled test environments, an artificial development center for robot navigation is introduced in which several parameters can be set (e.g., number of objects, trajectories and type and amount of noise). In the videos, for each following frame, movement of stationary objects is detected and pixels of moving objects are located from which moving objects are identified in a robust way. An Exact Euclidean Distance Map (E2DM) is utilized to determine accurately the distances between moving and stationary objects. Together with the determined distances between moving objects and the detected movement of stationary objects, this provides the input for detecting unwanted situations in the scene. Further, each intelligent object (e.g., a robot), is provided with its E2DM, allowing the object to plan its course of action. Timing results are specified for each program block of the processing chain for 20 different setups. So, the current paper presents extensive, experimentally controlled research on real-time, accurate, and robust motion detection for video surveillance, using E2DMs, which makes it a unique approach.

  6. Multiplicative Structure and Hecke Rings of Generator Matrices for Codes over Quotient Rings of Euclidean Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Matsui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider codes over Euclidean domains modulo their ideals. In the first half of the study, we deal with arbitrary Euclidean domains. We show that the product of generator matrices of codes over the rings mod a and mod b produces generator matrices of all codes over the ring mod a b , i.e., this correspondence is onto. Moreover, we show that if a and b are coprime, then this correspondence is one-to-one, i.e., there exist unique codes over the rings mod a and mod b that produce any given code over the ring mod a b through the product of their generator matrices. In the second half of the study, we focus on the typical Euclidean domains such as the rational integer ring, one-variable polynomial rings, rings of Gaussian and Eisenstein integers, p-adic integer rings and rings of one-variable formal power series. We define the reduced generator matrices of codes over Euclidean domains modulo their ideals and show their uniqueness. Finally, we apply our theory of reduced generator matrices to the Hecke rings of matrices over these Euclidean domains.

  7. Epileptic Seizure Detection with Log-Euclidean Gaussian Kernel-Based Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shasha; Zhou, Weidong; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Epileptic seizure detection plays an important role in the diagnosis of epilepsy and reducing the massive workload of reviewing electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. In this work, a novel algorithm is developed to detect seizures employing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based sparse representation (SR) in long-term EEG recordings. Unlike the traditional SR for vector data in Euclidean space, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR framework is proposed for seizure detection in the space of the symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices, which form a Riemannian manifold. Since the Riemannian manifold is nonlinear, the log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel function is applied to embed it into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) for performing SR. The EEG signals of all channels are divided into epochs and the SPD matrices representing EEG epochs are generated by covariance descriptors. Then, the testing samples are sparsely coded over the dictionary composed by training samples utilizing log-Euclidean Gaussian kernel-based SR. The classification of testing samples is achieved by computing the minimal reconstructed residuals. The proposed method is evaluated on the Freiburg EEG dataset of 21 patients and shows its notable performance on both epoch-based and event-based assessments. Moreover, this method handles multiple channels of EEG recordings synchronously which is more speedy and efficient than traditional seizure detection methods.

  8. modelling distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Love

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance predicting functions may be used in a variety of applications for estimating travel distances between points. To evaluate the accuracy of a distance predicting function and to determine its parameters, a goodness-of-fit criteria is employed. AD (Absolute Deviations, SD (Squared Deviations and NAD (Normalized Absolute Deviations are the three criteria that are mostly employed in practice. In the literature some assumptions have been made about the properties of each criterion. In this paper, we present statistical analyses performed to compare the three criteria from different perspectives. For this purpose, we employ the ℓkpθ-norm as the distance predicting function, and statistically compare the three criteria by using normalized absolute prediction error distributions in seventeen geographical regions. We find that there exist no significant differences between the criteria. However, since the criterion SD has desirable properties in terms of distance modelling procedures, we suggest its use in practice.

  9. Multivariate Welch t-test on distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseyenko, Alexander V

    2016-12-01

    Permutational non-Euclidean analysis of variance, PERMANOVA, is routinely used in exploratory analysis of multivariate datasets to draw conclusions about the significance of patterns visualized through dimension reduction. This method recognizes that pairwise distance matrix between observations is sufficient to compute within and between group sums of squares necessary to form the (pseudo) F statistic. Moreover, not only Euclidean, but arbitrary distances can be used. This method, however, suffers from loss of power and type I error inflation in the presence of heteroscedasticity and sample size imbalances. We develop a solution in the form of a distance-based Welch t-test, [Formula: see text], for two sample potentially unbalanced and heteroscedastic data. We demonstrate empirically the desirable type I error and power characteristics of the new test. We compare the performance of PERMANOVA and [Formula: see text] in reanalysis of two existing microbiome datasets, where the methodology has originated. The source code for methods and analysis of this article is available at https://github.com/alekseyenko/Tw2 Further guidance on application of these methods can be obtained from the author. alekseye@musc.edu. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. On the Convergence and Law of Large Numbers for the Non-Euclidean Lp -Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livadiotis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and proves two important theorems that compose the Law of Large Numbers for the non-Euclidean L p -means, known to be true for the Euclidean L 2 -means: Let the L p -mean estimator, which constitutes the specific functional that estimates the L p -mean of N independent and identically distributed random variables; then, (i the expectation value of the L p -mean estimator equals the mean of the distributions of the random variables; and (ii the limit N → ∞ of the L p -mean estimator also equals the mean of the distributions.

  11. Scalar Green's functions in an Euclidean space with a conical-type line singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, M.E.X.; Linet, B.

    1994-01-01

    In an Euclidean space with a conical-type line singularity, we determine the Green's function for a charged massive scalar field interacting with a magnetic flux running through the line singularity. We give an integral expression of the Green's function and a local form in the neighbourhood of the point source, where it is the sum of the usual Green's function in Euclidean space and a regular term. As an application, we derive the vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the massless case for an arbitrary magnetic flux. (orig.)

  12. On Euclidean connections for su(1,1), suq(1,1) and the algebraic approach to scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    We obtain a general Euclidean connection for su(1,1) and suq(1,1) algebras. Our Euclidean connection allows an algebraic derivation for the S matrix. These algebraic S matrices reduce to the known ones in suitable circumstances. Also, we obtain a map between su(1,1) and su q (1,1) representations. (author). 8 refs

  13. Optimization of coffee (Coffea arabica transformation parameters using uidA and hpt genes: effect of osmotic pre-treatment, helium pressure and target distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés M Gatica

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to optimize the biolistic delivery parameters that affect the DNA delivery and stable expression of marker genes into coffee tissues (Coffea arabica. L. cvs. Caturra and Catuaí. The effect of osmotic preculture length, osmotic concentration of medium, Helium pressure and target distance on transient expression of the uidA gene in coffee leaves and somatic embryos were tested. The highest transient uidA expression was obtained when Caturra (18.3±2.8 and Catuaí (6.8±2.0 leaves and Catuaí embryos (80.0±7.4 were cultured for 5h on Yasuda medium complemented with 0.5M Mannitol +0.5M Sorbitol. The combination of 1100psi and a target distance of 9cm resulted in the highest number of blue spots per Caturra leaf segment (23.6±3.9, whereas for the Catuaí variety the combination of 1100psi and a target distance of six (10.2±1.9 and nine (8.2±1.9 cm gave the highest number of blue spots per leaf segment. The optimized protocol was tested with pCAMBIA 1 301 (uidA gene and the hpt gene, pCAMBIA 1 305.2 (uidA version GUSPlus ™ and the hpt gene and pCAMBIA 1 301-BAR (uidA gene and the bar gene. The highest number of blue spots was obtained when Caturra (54.6±5.7 and Catuaí (28.9±4.3 leaves were bombarded with pCAMBIA 1 305.2. Selection of bombarded coffee tissues with 100mg/l hygromicyn caused the oxidation of tissues. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 151-160. Epub 2009 November 30.La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo optimizar los parámetros que afectan la incorporación y expresión de genes marcadores mediante biobalística en segmentos de hoja y embriones somáticos de café (Coffea arabica. L. cvs. Caturra y Catuaí. La mayor expresión transitoria del gen uidA en segmentos de hoja de Caturra (18.3±2.8 y Catuaí (6.8±2.0 y embriones somáticos de Catuaí (80.0±7.4 se obtuvo al cultivar los explantes por cinco horas previo al bombardeo en el medio Yasuda complementado con 0.5M mannitol+0.5M sorbitol

  14. The positive action conjecture and asymptotically euclidean metrics in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.W.; Pope, C.N.

    1979-01-01

    The positive action conjecture requires that the action of any asymptotically Euclidean 4-dimensional Riemannian metric be positive, vanishing if and only if the space is flat. Because any Ricci flat, asymptotically Euclidean metric has zero action and is local extremum of the action which is a local minimum at flat space, the conjecture requires that there are no Ricci flat asymptotically Euclidean metrics other than flat space, which would establish that flat space is the only local minimum. We prove this for metrics on R 4 and a large class of more complicated topologies and for self-dual metrics. We show that if Rsupμsubμ >= 0 there are no bound states of the Dirac equation and discuss the relevance to possible baryon non-conserving processes mediated by gravitational instantons. We conclude that these are forbidden in the lowest stationary phase approximation. We give a detailed discussion of instantons invariant under an SU(2) or SO(3) isometry group. We find all regular solutions, none of which is asymptotically Euclidean and all of which possess a further Killing vector. In an appendix we construct an approximate self-dual metric on K3 - the only simply connected compact manifold which admits a self-dual metric. (orig.) [de

  15. Usability Evaluation of an Augmented Reality System for Teaching Euclidean Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gonzalez, Anabel; Chi-Poot, Angel; Uc-Cetina, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies that has demonstrated to be an efficient technological tool to enhance learning techniques. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of an AR system for teaching Euclidean vectors in physics and mathematics. The goal of this pedagogical tool is to facilitate user's…

  16. Convex hull and tour crossings in the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem : implications for human performance studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van I.; Stege, U.; Schactman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Recently there has been growing interest among psychologists in human performance on the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem (E-TSP). A debate has been initiated on what strategy people use in solving visually presented E-TSP instances. The most prominent hypothesis is the convex-hull

  17. Mayer expansions for Euclidean lattice field theory: Convergence properties and relation with perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordt, A.

    1985-10-01

    The author describes the Mayer expansion in Euclidean lattice field theory by comparing it with the statistical mechanics of polymer systems. In this connection he discusses the Borel summability and the analyticity of the activities on the lattice. Furthermore the relations between renormalization and the Mayer expansion are considered. (HSI)

  18. Loci of points in the Euclidean plane are deter- mined from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Loci of points in the Euclidean plane are deter- mined from prescribed relations of the points with given points, and/or, lines. The depen- dence of these relations on parameters lead to the differential equations representing the fam- ily of loci under concern. Incidentally most of the differential equations thus obtained are non ...

  19. Faster exact algorithms for computing Steiner trees in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Brazil, Marcus; Winter, Pawel

    The Euclidean Steiner tree problem asks for a network of minimum total length interconnecting a finite set of points in d-dimensional space. For d ≥ 3, only one practical algorithmic approach exists for this problem --- proposed by Smith in 1992. A number of refinements of Smith's algorithm have...

  20. Non-Euclidean spacetime structure and the two-slit experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    A simple mathematical model for the two-slit experiment is given to account for the wave-particle duality. Subsequently, the various solutions are interpreted via the experimental evidence as a property of the underlying non-Euclidean spacetime topology and geometry at the quantum level

  1. Characterizations of Space Curves According to Bishop Darboux Vector in Euclidean 3-Space E3

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin KOCAYIGIT; Ali OZDEMIR

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we obtained some characterizations of space curves according to Bihop frame in Euclidean 3-space E3 by using Laplacian operator and Levi-Civita connection. Furthermore, we gave the general differential equations which characterize the space curves according to the Bishop Darboux vector and the normal Bishop Darboux vector.

  2. Self-dual solutions to Euclidean Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.

    1979-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction to two approaches towards understanding the classical Yang-Mills field equations. On the one hand, the work of Atiyah and Ward showed that the self-dual equations, which are non-linear, could be regarded as a set of linear equations which turned out to be related to each other by Baecklund transformations. Fundamental to their procedure was the observation that the information carried by the vector potential could be coded into the structure of certain analytic vector bundles over a three dimensional projective space. The classification of these bundles and the subsequent recovery of the gauge field led to the infinite set of ansaetze, corresponding to the sets of linear equation mentioned already. On the other hand, Atiyah, Hitchin, Drinfeld and Manin have recently constructed, completely algebraically, the bundles of interest and indicated how the Yang-Mills potential may be obtained. Remarkably, their construction differs very little as the gauge group is changed (to any of the classical compact groups) and, uses only the elementary operations of linear algebra to yield potentials as rational functions of the spatial coordinates. (Auth.)

  3. Pattern recognition in complex activity travel patterns : comparison of Euclidean distance, signal-processing theoretical, and multidimensional sequence alignment methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joh, C.H.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The application of a multidimensional sequence alignment method for classifying activity travel patterns is reported. The method was developed as an alternative to the existing classification methods suggested in the transportation literature. The relevance of the multidimensional sequence alignment

  4. Quantification of the efficiency of segmentation methods on medical images by means of non-euclidean distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, J; Moler, E; Ballarin, V

    2007-01-01

    To quantify the efficiency of a segmentation method, it is necessary to do some validation experiments, consisting generally in comparing the result obtained against the expected result. The most direct method for validation is the comparison of a simple visual inspection between the automatic segmentation and a segmentation obtained manually by a specialist, but this method does not guarantee robustness. This work presents a new similarity parameter between a segmented object and a control object, that combines a measurement of spatial similarity through the Hausdorff metrics and the difference in the contour areas based on the symmetric difference between sets

  5. Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Ali; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Goedecker, Stefan; Lill, Markus A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices

  6. Mahalanobis Distance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    defined by. (1) where the superfix T denotes matrix transpose, L denotes the common (nonsingular) covariance matrix of X in each group G 1 and G 2" It can be seen ... standard deviation. The quadratic form (1) has the effect of transforming the variables to uncorrelated standardised variables. Yand computing the (squared) ...

  7. Distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Pucelj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.

  8. Singular Minkowski and Euclidean solutions for SU(2) Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, D.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is examined a solution to the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system, which is a trivial mathematical extension of recently discovered Schwarzschild- like solutions (Singleton D., Phys. Rev. D, 51 (1955) 5911). Physically, however, this new solution has drastically different properties from the Schwarzschild-like solutions. It is also studied a new classical solution for Euclidean SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Again this new solution is a mathematically trivial extension of the Belavin-Polyakov-Schwartz-Tyupkin (BPST) (Belavin A. A. et al., Phys. Lett. B, 59 (1975) 85) instanton, but is physically very different. Unlike the usual instanton solution, the present solution is singular on a sphere of arbitrary radius in Euclidean space. Both of these solutions are infinite-energy solutions, so their practical value is somewhat unclear. However, they may be useful in exploring some of the mathematical aspects of classical Yang-Mills theory

  9. Membrane paradigm and entropy of black holes in the Euclidean action approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2011-01-01

    The membrane paradigm approach to black holes fixes in the vicinity of the event horizon a fictitious surface, the stretched horizon, so that the spacetime outside remains unchanged and the spacetime inside is vacuum. Using this powerful method, several black hole properties have been found and settled, such as the horizon's viscosity, electrical conductivity, resistivity, as well as other properties. On the other hand, the Euclidean action approach to black hole spacetimes has been very fruitful in understanding black hole entropy. Combining both the Euclidean action and membrane paradigm approaches, a direct derivation of the black hole entropy is given. In the derivation, it is considered that the only fields present are the gravitational and matter fields, with no electric field.

  10. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Revathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax, and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures.

  11. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathy, M; Saravanan, R

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures.

  12. Structure functions at small xBj in a Euclidean field theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebecker, A.; Meggiolaro, E.; Nachtmann, O.

    2000-01-01

    The small-x Bj limit of deep inelastic scattering is related to the high-energy limit of the forward Compton amplitude in a familiar way. We show that the analytic continuation of this amplitude in the energy variable is calculable from a matrix element in Euclidean field theory. This matrix element can be written as a Euclidean functional integral in an effective field theory. Its effective Lagrangian has a simple expression in terms of the original Lagrangian. The functional integral expression obtained can, at least in principle, be evaluated using genuinely non-perturbative methods, e.g., on the lattice. Thus, a fundamentally new approach to the long-standing problem of structure functions at very small x Bj seems possible. We give arguments that the limit x Bj →0 corresponds to a critical point of the effective field theory where the correlation length becomes infinite in one direction

  13. The non-Euclidean revolution with an introduction by H.S.M. Coxeter

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    2001-01-01

    How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America.

  14. From Euclidean to Minkowski space with the Cauchy-Riemann equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimeno-Segovia, Mercedes; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.

    2008-01-01

    We present an elementary method to obtain Green's functions in non-perturbative quantum field theory in Minkowski space from Green's functions calculated in Euclidean space. Since in non-perturbative field theory the analytical structure of amplitudes often is unknown, especially in the presence of confined fields, dispersive representations suffer from systematic uncertainties. Therefore, we suggest to use the Cauchy-Riemann equations, which perform the analytical continuation without assuming global information on the function in the entire complex plane, but only in the region through which the equations are solved. We use as example the quark propagator in Landau gauge quantum chromodynamics, which is known from lattice and Dyson-Schwinger studies in Euclidean space. The drawback of the method is the instability of the Cauchy-Riemann equations against high-frequency noise,which makes it difficult to achieve good accuracy. We also point out a few curious details related to the Wick rotation. (orig.)

  15. The Euclidean three-point function in loop and perturbative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovelli, Carlo; Zhang Mingyi

    2011-01-01

    We compute the leading order of the three-point function in loop quantum gravity, using the vertex expansion of the Euclidean version of the new spin foam dynamics, in the region of γ < 1. We find results consistent with Regge calculus in the limit γ → 0, j → ∞. We also compute the tree-level three-point function of perturbative quantum general relativity in position space and discuss the possibility of directly comparing the two results.

  16. Transformation optics with artificial Riemann sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2013-11-01

    The two original versions of ‘invisibility’ cloaks (Leonhardt 2006 Science 312 1777-80 and Pendry et al 2006 Science 312 1780-2) show perfect cloaking but require unphysical singularities in material properties. A non-Euclidean version of cloaking (Leonhardt 2009 Science 323 110-12) was later presented to address these problems, using a very complicated non-Euclidean geometry. In this work, we combine the two original approaches to transformation optics into a more general concept: transformation optics with artificial Riemann sheets. Our method is straightforward and can be utilized to design new kinds of cloaks that can work not only in the realm of geometric optics but also using wave optics. The physics behind this design is similar to that of the conformal cloak for waves. The resonances in the interior region make the phase delay disappear and induce the cloaking effect. Numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results.

  17. Transformation optics with artificial Riemann sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2013-01-01

    The two original versions of ‘invisibility’ cloaks (Leonhardt 2006 Science 312 1777–80 and Pendry et al 2006 Science 312 1780–2) show perfect cloaking but require unphysical singularities in material properties. A non-Euclidean version of cloaking (Leonhardt 2009 Science 323 110–12) was later presented to address these problems, using a very complicated non-Euclidean geometry. In this work, we combine the two original approaches to transformation optics into a more general concept: transformation optics with artificial Riemann sheets. Our method is straightforward and can be utilized to design new kinds of cloaks that can work not only in the realm of geometric optics but also using wave optics. The physics behind this design is similar to that of the conformal cloak for waves. The resonances in the interior region make the phase delay disappear and induce the cloaking effect. Numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results. (paper)

  18. The imaginary-time path integral and non-time-reversal-invariant saddle points of the Euclidean action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, I.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss new bounce-like (but non-time-reversal-invariant) solutions to Euclidean equations of motion, which we dub boomerons. In the Euclidean path integral approach to quantum theories, boomerons make an imaginary contribution to the vacuum energy. The fake vacuum instability can be removed by cancelling boomeron contributions against contributions from time reversed boomerons (anti-boomerons). The cancellation rests on a sign choice whose significance is not completely understood in the path integral method. (orig.)

  19. Evaluating the impact of distance measures on deforestation simulations in the fluvial landscapes of amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2014-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibility in our study area. The most accurate simulation is achieved when time distance to market center is used in association with distance to transport network and additional landscape variables. Although traditional Euclidean measures result in clearly lower simulation accuracy when used separately, the combination of two complementary Euclidean measures enhances simulation accuracy significantly. Our results highlight the need for site and context sensitive selection of accessibility variables. More sophisticated accessibility measures can potentially improve LUCC models' spatial accuracy, which often remains low.

  20. Supersymmetry on a euclidean spacetime lattice 1. A target theory with four supercharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Andrew G.; Kaplan, David B.; Katz, Emanuel; Uensal, Mithat

    2003-01-01

    We formulate a euclidean spacetime lattice whose continuum limit is (2,2) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions, a theory which possesses four supercharges and an anomalous global chiral symmetry. The lattice action respects one exact supersymmetry, which allows the target theory to emerge in the continuum limit without fine-tuning. Our method exploits an orbifold construction described previously for spatial lattices in Minkowski space, and can be generalized to more complicated theories with additional supersymmetry and more spacetime dimensions. (author)

  1. The stochastic versus the Euclidean approach to quantum fields on a static space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.F.; de Falco, D.

    1986-01-01

    Equations are presented which modify the definition of the Gaussian field in the Rindler chart in order to make contact with the Wightman state, the Hartle-Hawking state, and the Euclidean field. By taking Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes the authors have chosen, in the sense of stochastic mechanics, to place precisely the Fulling modes in their harmonic oscillator ground state. In this respect, together with the periodicity of Minkowski space-time, the authors observe that the covariance of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process can be obtained by analytical continuation of the Wightman function of the harmonic oscillator at zero temperature

  2. Constant curvature black holes in Einstein AdS gravity: Euclidean action and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminot, Pablo; Olea, Rodrigo; Petrov, Alexander N.

    2018-03-01

    We compute the Euclidean action for constant curvature black holes (CCBHs), as an attempt to associate thermodynamic quantities to these solutions of Einstein anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity. CCBHs are gravitational configurations obtained by identifications along isometries of a D -dimensional globally AdS space, such that the Riemann tensor remains constant. Here, these solutions are interpreted as extended objects, which contain a (D -2 )-dimensional de-Sitter brane as a subspace. Nevertheless, the computation of the free energy for these solutions shows that they do not obey standard thermodynamic relations.

  3. Absence of even-integer ζ-function values in Euclidean physical quantities in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Matthias; Miravitllas, Ramon

    2018-04-01

    At order αs4 in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, even-integer ζ-function values are present in Euclidean physical correlation functions like the scalar quark correlation function or the scalar gluonium correlator. We demonstrate that these contributions cancel when the perturbative expansion is expressed in terms of the so-called C-scheme coupling αˆs which has recently been introduced in Ref. [1]. It is furthermore conjectured that a ζ4 term should arise in the Adler function at order αs5 in the MS ‾-scheme, and that this term is expected to disappear in the C-scheme as well.

  4. Exact Boson-Fermion Duality on a 3D Euclidean Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Yuan; Son, Jun Ho; Wang, Chao; Raghu, S.

    2018-01-01

    The idea of statistical transmutation plays a crucial role in descriptions of the fractional quantum Hall effect. However, a recently conjectured duality between a critical boson and a massless two-component Dirac fermion extends this notion to gapless systems. This duality sheds light on highly nontrivial problems such as the half-filled Landau level, the superconductor-insulator transition, and surface states of strongly coupled topological insulators. Although this boson-fermion duality has undergone many consistency checks, it has remained unproven. We describe the duality in a nonperturbative fashion using an exact UV mapping of partition functions on a 3D Euclidean lattice.

  5. Green's functions in Bianchi type-I spaces. Relation between Minkowski and Euclidean approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhbinder, I.L.; Kirillova, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    A theory is considered for a free scalar field with a conformal connection in a curved space-time with a Bianchi type-I metric. A representation is obtained for the Green's function G∼ in in in the form of an integral of a Schwinger-DeWitt kernel along a contour in a plane of complex-valued proper time. It is shown how as transition may be accomplished from Green's functions in space with the Euclidean signature to Green's functions in space with Minkowski signature and vice versa

  6. Comparing two distance measures in the spatial mapping of food deserts: The case of Petržalka, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilková Kristína

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years or so, researchers’ attention to the issue of food deserts has increased in the geographical literature. Accessibility to large-scale retail units is one of the essential and frequently-used indicators leading to the identification and mapping of food deserts. Numerous accessibility measures of various types are available for this purpose. Euclidean distance and street network distance rank among the most frequently-used approaches, although they may lead to slightly different results. The aim of this paper is to compare various approaches to the accessibility to food stores and to assess the differences in the results gained by these methods. Accessibility was measured for residential block centroids, with applications of various accessibility measures in a GIS environment. The results suggest a strong correspondence between Euclidean distance and a little more accurate street network distance approach, applied in the case of the urban environment of Bratislava-Petržalka, Slovakia.

  7. Single and multiple object tracking using log-euclidean Riemannian subspace and block-division appearance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Li, Xi; Luo, Wenhan; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Maybank, Stephen; Zhang, Zhongfei

    2012-12-01

    Object appearance modeling is crucial for tracking objects, especially in videos captured by nonstationary cameras and for reasoning about occlusions between multiple moving objects. Based on the log-euclidean Riemannian metric on symmetric positive definite matrices, we propose an incremental log-euclidean Riemannian subspace learning algorithm in which covariance matrices of image features are mapped into a vector space with the log-euclidean Riemannian metric. Based on the subspace learning algorithm, we develop a log-euclidean block-division appearance model which captures both the global and local spatial layout information about object appearances. Single object tracking and multi-object tracking with occlusion reasoning are then achieved by particle filtering-based Bayesian state inference. During tracking, incremental updating of the log-euclidean block-division appearance model captures changes in object appearance. For multi-object tracking, the appearance models of the objects can be updated even in the presence of occlusions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed tracking algorithm obtains more accurate results than six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  8. Constraint algebra in Smolin's G →0 limit of 4D Euclidean gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2018-05-01

    Smolin's generally covariant GNewton→0 limit of 4d Euclidean gravity is a useful toy model for the study of the constraint algebra in loop quantum gravity (LQG). In particular, the commutator between its Hamiltonian constraints has a metric dependent structure function. While a prior LQG-like construction of nontrivial anomaly free constraint commutators for the model exists, that work suffers from two defects. First, Smolin's remarks on the inability of the quantum dynamics to generate propagation effects apply. Second, the construction only yields the action of a single Hamiltonian constraint together with the action of its commutator through a continuum limit of corresponding discrete approximants; the continuum limit of a product of two or more constraints does not exist. Here, we incorporate changes in the quantum dynamics through structural modifications in the choice of discrete approximants to the quantum Hamiltonian constraint. The new structure is motivated by that responsible for propagation in an LQG-like quantization of paramatrized field theory and significantly alters the space of physical states. We study the off shell constraint algebra of the model in the context of these structural changes and show that the continuum limit action of multiple products of Hamiltonian constraints is (a) supported on an appropriate domain of states, (b) yields anomaly free commutators between pairs of Hamiltonian constraints, and (c) is diffeomorphism covariant. Many of our considerations seem robust enough to be applied to the setting of 4d Euclidean gravity.

  9. Non-Euclidean geometry and curvature two-dimensional spaces, volume 3

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, James W

    2017-01-01

    This is the final volume of a three volume collection devoted to the geometry, topology, and curvature of 2-dimensional spaces. The collection provides a guided tour through a wide range of topics by one of the twentieth century's masters of geometric topology. The books are accessible to college and graduate students and provide perspective and insight to mathematicians at all levels who are interested in geometry and topology. Einstein showed how to interpret gravity as the dynamic response to the curvature of space-time. Bill Thurston showed us that non-Euclidean geometries and curvature are essential to the understanding of low-dimensional spaces. This third and final volume aims to give the reader a firm intuitive understanding of these concepts in dimension 2. The volume first demonstrates a number of the most important properties of non-Euclidean geometry by means of simple infinite graphs that approximate that geometry. This is followed by a long chapter taken from lectures the author gave at MSRI, wh...

  10. Simple Motion Pursuit and Evasion Differential Games with Many Pursuers on Manifolds with Euclidean Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamurat Kuchkarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider pursuit and evasion differential games of a group of m pursuers and one evader on manifolds with Euclidean metric. The motions of all players are simple, and maximal speeds of all players are equal. If the state of a pursuer coincides with that of the evader at some time, we say that pursuit is completed. We establish that each of the differential games (pursuit or evasion is equivalent to a differential game of m groups of countably many pursuers and one group of countably many evaders in Euclidean space. All the players in any of these groups are controlled by one controlled parameter. We find a condition under which pursuit can be completed, and if this condition is not satisfied, then evasion is possible. We construct strategies for the pursuers in pursuit game which ensure completion the game for a finite time and give a formula for this time. In the case of evasion game, we construct a strategy for the evader.

  11. Two-stage sparse coding of region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels to detect saliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Cai; Zhang, Ping

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel bottom-up saliency detection algorithm from the perspective of covariance matrices on a Riemannian manifold. Each superpixel is described by a region covariance matrix on Riemannian Manifolds. We carry out a two-stage sparse coding scheme via Log-Euclidean kernels to extract salient objects efficiently. In the first stage, given background dictionary on image borders, sparse coding of each region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels is performed. The reconstruction error on the background dictionary is regarded as the initial saliency of each superpixel. In the second stage, an improvement of the initial result is achieved by calculating reconstruction errors of the superpixels on foreground dictionary, which is extracted from the first stage saliency map. The sparse coding in the second stage is similar to the first stage, but is able to effectively highlight the salient objects uniformly from the background. Finally, three post-processing methods-highlight-inhibition function, context-based saliency weighting, and the graph cut-are adopted to further refine the saliency map. Experiments on four public benchmark datasets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall and mean absolute error, and demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Noncommutative Geometry of the Moyal Plane: Translation Isometries, Connes' Distance on Coherent States, Pythagoras Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinetti, Pierre; Tomassini, Luca

    2013-10-01

    We study the metric aspect of the Moyal plane from Connes' noncommutative geometry point of view. First, we compute Connes' spectral distance associated with the natural isometric action of on the algebra of the Moyal plane . We show that the distance between any state of and any of its translated states is precisely the amplitude of the translation. As a consequence, we obtain the spectral distance between coherent states of the quantum harmonic oscillator as the Euclidean distance on the plane. We investigate the classical limit, showing that the set of coherent states equipped with Connes' spectral distance tends towards the Euclidean plane as the parameter of deformation goes to zero. The extension of these results to the action of the symplectic group is also discussed, with particular emphasis on the orbits of coherent states under rotations. Second, we compute the spectral distance in the double Moyal plane, intended as the product of (the minimal unitization of) by . We show that on the set of states obtained by translation of an arbitrary state of , this distance is given by the Pythagoras theorem. On the way, we prove some Pythagoras inequalities for the product of arbitrary unital and non-degenerate spectral triples. Applied to the Doplicher- Fredenhagen-Roberts model of quantum spacetime [DFR], these two theorems show that Connes' spectral distance and the DFR quantum length coincide on the set of states of optimal localization.

  13. Spatial generalised linear mixed models based on distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Oscar O; Mateu, Jorge; Melo, Carlos E

    2016-10-01

    Risk models derived from environmental data have been widely shown to be effective in delineating geographical areas of risk because they are intuitively easy to understand. We present a new method based on distances, which allows the modelling of continuous and non-continuous random variables through distance-based spatial generalised linear mixed models. The parameters are estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, which is a feasible and a useful technique. The proposed method depends on a detrending step built from continuous or categorical explanatory variables, or a mixture among them, by using an appropriate Euclidean distance. The method is illustrated through the analysis of the variation in the prevalence of Loa loa among a sample of village residents in Cameroon, where the explanatory variables included elevation, together with maximum normalised-difference vegetation index and the standard deviation of normalised-difference vegetation index calculated from repeated satellite scans over time. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. A fixed point approach to the Green's functions of PHI42: Local exsistence of the Borel transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, J.; Iagolnitzer, D.

    1981-01-01

    We prove the existence at small μ of a unique solution of the system B = M(B) to be satisfied by the set of Borel transformed euclidean Green's functions of a PHI 4 2 theory, μ being the Borel conjugate variable of the coupling lambda. As a byproduct, a new proof of convergence of the Borel transformed perturbative series is obtained. (orig.)

  15. Exploring Cloud Computing for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wu; Cernusca, Dan; Abdous, M'hammed

    2011-01-01

    The use of distance courses in learning is growing exponentially. To better support faculty and students for teaching and learning, distance learning programs need to constantly innovate and optimize their IT infrastructures. The new IT paradigm called "cloud computing" has the potential to transform the way that IT resources are utilized and…

  16. Perturbative renormalization of composite operators via flow equations. Pt. 2. Short distance expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut); Kopper, C. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)

    1993-04-01

    We give a rigorous and very detailed derivation of the short distance expansion for a product of two arbitrary composite operators in the framework of the perturbative Euclidean massive [Phi][sub 4][sup 4]. The technically almost trivial proof rests on an extension of the differential flow equation method to Green functions with bilocal insertions, for which we also establish a set of generalized Zimmermann identities and Lowenstein rules. (orig.).

  17. Pythagoras's theorem on a two-dimensional lattice from a `natural' Dirac operator and Connes's distance formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian; Song, Xing-Chang

    2001-07-01

    One of the key ingredients of Connes's noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric (Connes's distance) on the pure state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by Dimakis et al, whose Connes distance recovers the linear distance on an one-dimensional lattice, to the two-dimensional case. This Dirac operator has the local eigenvalue property and induces a Euclidean distance on this two-dimensional lattice, which is referred to as `natural'. This kind of Dirac operator can be easily generalized into any higher-dimensional lattices.

  18. Superintegrability in two-dimensional Euclidean space and associated polynomial solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr; Pogosyan, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    In this work we examine the basis functions for those classical and quantum mechanical systems in two dimensions which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. We do this for the corresponding systems defined in Euclidean space and on the two dimensional sphere. We present all of these cases from a unified point of view. In particular, all of the spectral functions that arise via variable separation have their essential features expressed in terms of their zeros. The principal new results are the details of the polynomial base for each of the nonsubgroup base, not just the subgroup cartesian and polar coordinate case, and the details of the structure of the quadratic algebras. We also study the polynomial eigenfunctions in elliptic coordinates of the N-dimensional isotropic quantum oscillator. 28 refs., 1 tab

  19. Clear evidence of a continuum theory of 4D Euclidean simplicial quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, H.S.; Horata, S.; Yukawa, T.

    2002-01-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) simplicial quantum gravity coupled to both scalar fields (N X ) and gauge fields (N A ) has been studied using Monte-Carlo simulations. The matter dependence of the string susceptibility exponent γ (4) is estimated. Furthermore, we compare our numerical results with Background-Metric-Independent (BMI) formulation conjectured to describe the quantum field theory of gravity in 4D. The numerical results suggest that the 4D simplicial quantum gravity is related to the conformal gravity in 4D. Therefore, we propose a phase structure in detail with adding both scalar and gauge fields and discuss the possibility and the property of a continuum theory of 4D Euclidean simplicial quantum gravity

  20. Bayesian Approach to Spectral Function Reconstruction for Euclidean Quantum Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Yannis; Rothkopf, Alexander

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel approach to the inference of spectral functions from Euclidean time correlator data that makes close contact with modern Bayesian concepts. Our method differs significantly from the maximum entropy method (MEM). A new set of axioms is postulated for the prior probability, leading to an improved expression, which is devoid of the asymptotically flat directions present in the Shanon-Jaynes entropy. Hyperparameters are integrated out explicitly, liberating us from the Gaussian approximations underlying the evidence approach of the maximum entropy method. We present a realistic test of our method in the context of the nonperturbative extraction of the heavy quark potential. Based on hard-thermal-loop correlator mock data, we establish firm requirements in the number of data points and their accuracy for a successful extraction of the potential from lattice QCD. Finally we reinvestigate quenched lattice QCD correlators from a previous study and provide an improved potential estimation at T=2.33TC.

  1. Non-perturbative BRST quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in Curci-Ferrari gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. D.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we address the issue of the non-perturbative quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. In particular, we construct a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for this gauge, which takes into account the presence of gauge copies as well as the dynamical formation of dimension-two condensates. This action enjoys a non-perturbative BRST symmetry recently proposed in Capri et al. (Phys. Rev. D 92(4), 045039. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.045039 arXiv:1506.06995 [hep-th], 2015). Finally, we pay attention to the gluon propagator in different space-time dimensions.

  2. Non-perturbative BRST quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in Curci-Ferrari gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.D.; Sobreiro, R.F.; Sorella, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the issue of the non-perturbative quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. In particular, we construct a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for this gauge, which takes into account the presence of gauge copies as well as the dynamical formation of dimension-two condensates. This action enjoys a non-perturbative BRST symmetry recently proposed in Capri et al. (Phys. Rev. D 92(4), 045039. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.92.045039. arXiv:1506.06995 [hepth], 2015). Finally, we pay attention to the gluon propagator in different space-time dimensions. (orig.)

  3. Non-perturbative BRST quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in Curci-Ferrari gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.D. [UFF, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam (Germany); UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sobreiro, R.F. [UFF, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Sorella, S.P. [UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper we address the issue of the non-perturbative quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. In particular, we construct a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for this gauge, which takes into account the presence of gauge copies as well as the dynamical formation of dimension-two condensates. This action enjoys a non-perturbative BRST symmetry recently proposed in Capri et al. (Phys. Rev. D 92(4), 045039. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.92.045039. arXiv:1506.06995 [hepth], 2015). Finally, we pay attention to the gluon propagator in different space-time dimensions. (orig.)

  4. Hadronic vacuum polarization in QCD and its evaluation in Euclidean spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rafael, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a new technique to evaluate integrals of QCD Green's functions in the Euclidean based on their Mellin-Barnes representation. We present as a first application the evaluation of the lowest order hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon 1/2 (gμ-2 )HVP≡aμHVP . It is shown that with a precise determination of the slope and curvature of the HVP function at the origin from lattice QCD (LQCD), one can already obtain a result for aμHVP which may serve as a test of the determinations based on experimental measurements of the e+e- annihilation cross section into hadrons.

  5. New results on embeddings of polyhedra and manifolds in Euclidean spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repovs, D; Skopenkov, A B

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to present several classical results on embeddings and isotopies of polyhedra and manifolds in R m . We also describe the revival of interest in this beautiful branch of topology and give an account of new results, including an improvement of the Haefliger-Weber theorem on the completeness of the deleted product obstruction to embeddability and isotopy of highly connected manifolds in R m (Skopenkov) as well as the unimprovability of this theorem for polyhedra (Freedman, Krushkal, Teichner, Segal, Skopenkov, and Spiez) and for manifolds without the necessary connectedness assumption (Skopenkov). We show how algebraic obstructions (in terms of cohomology, characteristic classes, and equivariant maps) arise from geometric problems of embeddability in Euclidean spaces. Several classical and modern results on completeness or incompleteness of these obstructions are stated and proved. By these proofs we illustrate classical and modern tools of geometric topology (engulfing, the Whitney trick, van Kampen and Casson finger moves, and their generalizations)

  6. Euler numbers of four-dimensional rotating black holes with the Euclidean signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhengze

    2003-01-01

    For a black hole's spacetime manifold in the Euclidean signature, its metric is positive definite and therefore a Riemannian manifold. It can be regarded as a gravitational instanton and a topological characteristic which is the Euler number to which it is associated. In this paper we derive a formula for the Euler numbers of four-dimensional rotating black holes by the integral of the Euler density on the spacetime manifolds of black holes. Using this formula, we obtain that the Euler numbers of Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes are 2. We also obtain that the Euler number of the Kerr-Sen metric in the heterotic string theory with one boost angle nonzero is 2, which is in accordance with its topology

  7. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals

  8. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Christopher D; Grigoriev, Roman O

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals.

  9. Linear embeddings of finite-dimensional subsets of Banach spaces into Euclidean spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, James C

    2009-01-01

    This paper treats the embedding of finite-dimensional subsets of a Banach space B into finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces. When the Hausdorff dimension of X − X is finite, d H (X − X) k are injective on X. The proof motivates the definition of the 'dual thickness exponent', which is the key to proving that a prevalent set of such linear maps have Hölder continuous inverse when the box-counting dimension of X is finite and k > 2d B (X). A related argument shows that if the Assouad dimension of X − X is finite and k > d A (X − X), a prevalent set of such maps are bi-Lipschitz with logarithmic corrections. This provides a new result for compact homogeneous metric spaces via the Kuratowksi embedding of (X, d) into L ∞ (X)

  10. Euclidean scalar Green function in a higher dimensional global monopole space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    We construct the explicit Euclidean scalar Green function associated with a massless field in a higher dimensional global monopole space-time, i.e., a (1+d)-space-time with d≥3 which presents a solid angle deficit. Our result is expressed in terms of an infinite sum of products of Legendre functions with Gegenbauer polynomials. Although this Green function cannot be expressed in a closed form, for the specific case where the solid angle deficit is very small, it is possible to develop the sum and obtain the Green function in a more workable expression. Having this expression it is possible to calculate the vacuum expectation value of some relevant operators. As an application of this formalism, we calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the square of the scalar field, 2 (x)> Ren , and the energy-momentum tensor, μν (x)> Ren , for the global monopole space-time with spatial dimensions d=4 and d=5

  11. A relationship between scalar Green functions on hyperbolic and Euclidean Rindler spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Z

    2007-01-01

    We derive a formula connecting in any dimension the Green function on the (D + 1)-dimensional Euclidean Rindler space and the one for a minimally coupled scalar field with a mass m in the D-dimensional hyperbolic space. The relation takes a simple form in the momentum space where the Green functions are equal at the momenta (p 0 , p) for Rindler and (m,p-hat) for hyperbolic space with a simple additive relation between the squares of the mass and the momenta. The formula has applications to finite temperature Green functions, Green functions on the cone and on the (compactified) Milne spacetime. Analytic continuations and interacting quantum fields are briefly discussed

  12. Euclidean scalar Green's functions near the black hole and black brane horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Z

    2009-01-01

    We discuss approximations of the Riemannian geometry near the horizon. If a (D + 1)-dimensional manifold N has a bifurcate Killing horizon then we approximate N by a product of the two-dimensional Rindler space R 2 and a (D - 1)-dimensional Riemannian manifold M. We obtain approximate formulae for scalar Green's functions. We study the behavior of the Green's functions near the horizon and their dimensional reduction. We show that if M is compact then the Green's function near the horizon can be approximated by the Green's function of the two-dimensional quantum field theory. The correction term is exponentially small away from the horizon. We extend the results to black brane solutions of supergravity in 10 and 11 dimensions. The near-horizon geometry can be approximated by N=AdS p xS q . We discuss the Euclidean Green's functions on N and their behavior near the horizon.

  13. Diffusionless phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejman, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered

  14. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Li

    Full Text Available Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health.

  15. Hyperbolic Cosines and Sines Theorems for the Triangle Formed by Arcs of Intersecting Semicircles on Euclidean Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Yamaleev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hyperbolic cosines and sines theorems for the curvilinear triangle bounded by circular arcs of three intersecting circles are formulated and proved by using the general complex calculus. The method is based on a key formula establishing a relationship between exponential function and the cross-ratio. The proofs are carried out on Euclidean plane.

  16. Hoelder continuity properties of Euclidean fields in some models of Markovian and non-Markovian field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Z.

    1981-01-01

    In the usual models of Euclidean field theory the Schwinger functions are moments of a positive measure. In this paper the author discusses the basic properties of the measure μ, i.e. properties of the sample paths of the random field. (Auth.)

  17. Contaminant classification using cosine distances based on multiple conventional sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Che, Han; Smith, Kate; Chang, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Emergent contamination events have a significant impact on water systems. After contamination detection, it is important to classify the type of contaminant quickly to provide support for remediation attempts. Conventional methods generally either rely on laboratory-based analysis, which requires a long analysis time, or on multivariable-based geometry analysis and sequence analysis, which is prone to being affected by the contaminant concentration. This paper proposes a new contaminant classification method, which discriminates contaminants in a real time manner independent of the contaminant concentration. The proposed method quantifies the similarities or dissimilarities between sensors' responses to different types of contaminants. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using data from contaminant injection experiments in a laboratory and compared with a Euclidean distance-based method. The robustness of the proposed method was evaluated using an uncertainty analysis. The results show that the proposed method performed better in identifying the type of contaminant than the Euclidean distance based method and that it could classify the type of contaminant in minutes without significantly compromising the correct classification rate (CCR).

  18. Analytic processing of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Galyer, Darin

    2018-01-01

    How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame? To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A method for assigning species into groups based on generalized Mahalanobis distance between habitat model coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.J.; Heglund, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat association models are commonly developed for individual animal species using generalized linear modeling methods such as logistic regression. We considered the issue of grouping species based on their habitat use so that management decisions can be based on sets of species rather than individual species. This research was motivated by a study of western landbirds in northern Idaho forests. The method we examined was to separately fit models to each species and to use a generalized Mahalanobis distance between coefficient vectors to create a distance matrix among species. Clustering methods were used to group species from the distance matrix, and multidimensional scaling methods were used to visualize the relations among species groups. Methods were also discussed for evaluating the sensitivity of the conclusions because of outliers or influential data points. We illustrate these methods with data from the landbird study conducted in northern Idaho. Simulation results are presented to compare the success of this method to alternative methods using Euclidean distance between coefficient vectors and to methods that do not use habitat association models. These simulations demonstrate that our Mahalanobis-distance- based method was nearly always better than Euclidean-distance-based methods or methods not based on habitat association models. The methods used to develop candidate species groups are easily explained to other scientists and resource managers since they mainly rely on classical multivariate statistical methods. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  1. Non-Euclidean phasor analysis for quantification of oxidative stress in ex vivo human skin exposed to sun filters using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseiran, Sam; Roider, Elisabeth M.; Wang, Hequn; Suita, Yusuke; Murphy, Michael; Fisher, David E.; Evans, Conor L.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical sun filters are commonly used as active ingredients in sunscreens due to their efficient absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Yet, it is known that these compounds can photochemically react with UV light and generate reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in vitro, though this has yet to be validated in vivo. One label-free approach to probe oxidative stress is to measure and compare the relative endogenous fluorescence generated by cellular coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and flavin adenine dinucleotides. However, chemical sun filters are fluorescent, with emissive properties that contaminate endogenous fluorescent signals. To accurately distinguish the source of fluorescence in ex vivo skin samples treated with chemical sun filters, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy data were processed on a pixel-by-pixel basis using a non-Euclidean separation algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance and validated on simulated data. Applying this method, ex vivo samples exhibited a small oxidative shift when exposed to sun filters alone, though this shift was much smaller than that imparted by UV irradiation. Given the need for investigative tools to further study the clinical impact of chemical sun filters in patients, the reported methodology may be applied to visualize chemical sun filters and measure oxidative stress in patients' skin.

  2. Fast Transform Decoding Of Nonsystematic Reed-Solomon Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Trieu-Kie; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Shiozaki, A.; Reed, Irving S.

    1992-01-01

    Fast, efficient Fermat number transform used to compute F'(x) analogous to computation of syndrome in conventional decoding scheme. Eliminates polynomial multiplications and reduces number of multiplications in reconstruction of F'(x) to n log (n). Euclidean algorithm used to evaluate F(x) directly, without going through intermediate steps of solving error-locator and error-evaluator polynomials. Algorithm suitable for implementation in very-large-scale integrated circuits.

  3. Non-Hermitian systems of Euclidean Lie algebraic type with real energy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjib; Fring, Andreas; Mathanaranjan, Thilagarajah

    2014-07-01

    We study several classes of non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems, which can be expressed in terms of bilinear combinations of Euclidean-Lie algebraic generators. The classes are distinguished by different versions of antilinear (PT)-symmetries exhibiting various types of qualitative behaviour. On the basis of explicitly computed non-perturbative Dyson maps we construct metric operators, isospectral Hermitian counterparts for which we solve the corresponding time-independent Schrödinger equation for specific choices of the coupling constants. In these cases general analytical expressions for the solutions are obtained in the form of Mathieu functions, which we analyze numerically to obtain the corresponding energy spectra. We identify regions in the parameter space for which the corresponding spectra are entirely real and also domains where the PT symmetry is spontaneously broken and sometimes also regained at exceptional points. In some cases it is shown explicitly how the threshold region from real to complex spectra is characterized by the breakdown of the Dyson maps or the metric operator. We establish the explicit relationship to models currently under investigation in the context of beam dynamics in optical lattices.

  4. Anthropology in the post-Euclidean State, or from textual to oral anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luigi Palmisano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The actual crisis of anthropology is examined in relation to its wide public success. Anthropology has prospered and the anthropologists have proliferated becoming more specific. But the theoretical debate has come to a halt over the last decades. The article suggests that both the methodology and the form of expression of the ethnographic report have developed and then become crystallized around actual protocols. A critique of the dichotomy Subject/Object, namely the key discussion about the notion of Otherness, is here reexamined as the testimony for an immanent “non-protocolar” character of anthropology. This critique together with the end of anthropology as tekhne, i.e. as protocolar activity, will allow anthropology to go on enhancing many other social and non social sciences. The article discusses the re-definition of anthropology in the context of Daseinanalysis and, therefore the changing relation between man and power, that is between the social actor and the post-Euclidean State in the era of the tekhne.

  5. Maximally-localized position, Euclidean path-integral, and thermodynamics in GUP quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S.; Esguerra, Jose Perico H.

    2018-04-01

    In dealing with quantum mechanics at very high energies, it is essential to adapt to a quasiposition representation using the maximally-localized states because of the generalized uncertainty principle. In this paper, we look at maximally-localized states as eigenstates of the operator ξ = X + iβP that we refer to as the maximally-localized position. We calculate the overlap between maximally-localized states and show that the identity operator can be expressed in terms of the maximally-localized states. Furthermore, we show that the maximally-localized position is diagonal in momentum-space and that the maximally-localized position and its adjoint satisfy commutation and anti-commutation relations reminiscent of the harmonic oscillator commutation and anti-commutation relations. As application, we use the maximally-localized position in developing the Euclidean path-integral and introduce the compact form of the propagator for maximal localization. The free particle momentum-space propagator and the propagator for maximal localization are analytically evaluated up to quadratic-order in β. Finally, we obtain a path-integral expression for the partition function of a thermodynamic system using the maximally-localized states. The partition function of a gas of noninteracting particles is evaluated. At temperatures exceeding the Planck energy, we obtain the gas' maximum internal energy N / 2 β and recover the zero heat capacity of an ideal gas.

  6. Training for Distance Teaching through Distance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorath, Jill; Harris, Simon; Encinas, Fatima

    2002-01-01

    Describes a mixed-mode bachelor degree course in English language teaching at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico) that was designed to help practicing teachers write appropriate distance education materials by giving them the experience of being distance students. Includes a course outline and results of a course evaluation. (Author/LRW)

  7. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  8. On the Averaging of Cardiac Diffusion Tensor MRI Data: The Effect of Distance Function Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakidis, Archontis; Melkus, Gerd; Yang, Guang; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) allows a unique insight into the microstructure of highly-directional tissues. The selection of the most proper distance function for the space of diffusion tensors is crucial in enhancing the clinical application of this imaging modality. Both linear and nonlinear metrics have been proposed in the literature over the years. The debate on the most appropriate DT-MRI distance function is still ongoing. In this paper, we presented a framework to compare the Euclidean, affine-invariant Riemannian and log-Euclidean metrics using actual high-resolution DT-MRI rat heart data. We employed temporal averaging at the diffusion tensor level of three consecutive and identically-acquired DT-MRI datasets from each of five rat hearts as a means to rectify the background noise-induced loss of myocyte directional regularity. This procedure is applied here for the first time in the context of tensor distance function selection. When compared with previous studies that used a different concrete application to juxtapose the various DT-MRI distance functions, this work is unique in that it combined the following: (i) Metrics were judged by quantitative –rather than qualitative– criteria, (ii) the comparison tools were non-biased, (iii) a longitudinal comparison operation was used on a same-voxel basis. The statistical analyses of the comparison showed that the three DT-MRI distance functions tend to provide equivalent results. Hence, we came to the conclusion that the tensor manifold for cardiac DT-MRI studies is a curved space of almost zero curvature. The signal to noise ratio dependence of the operations was investigated through simulations. Finally, the “swelling effect” occurrence following Euclidean averaging was found to be too unimportant to be worth consideration. PMID:27754986

  9. On the averaging of cardiac diffusion tensor MRI data: the effect of distance function selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakidis, Archontis; Melkus, Gerd; Yang, Guang; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) allows a unique insight into the microstructure of highly-directional tissues. The selection of the most proper distance function for the space of diffusion tensors is crucial in enhancing the clinical application of this imaging modality. Both linear and nonlinear metrics have been proposed in the literature over the years. The debate on the most appropriate DT-MRI distance function is still ongoing. In this paper, we presented a framework to compare the Euclidean, affine-invariant Riemannian and log-Euclidean metrics using actual high-resolution DT-MRI rat heart data. We employed temporal averaging at the diffusion tensor level of three consecutive and identically-acquired DT-MRI datasets from each of five rat hearts as a means to rectify the background noise-induced loss of myocyte directional regularity. This procedure is applied here for the first time in the context of tensor distance function selection. When compared with previous studies that used a different concrete application to juxtapose the various DT-MRI distance functions, this work is unique in that it combined the following: (i) metrics were judged by quantitative—rather than qualitative—criteria, (ii) the comparison tools were non-biased, (iii) a longitudinal comparison operation was used on a same-voxel basis. The statistical analyses of the comparison showed that the three DT-MRI distance functions tend to provide equivalent results. Hence, we came to the conclusion that the tensor manifold for cardiac DT-MRI studies is a curved space of almost zero curvature. The signal to noise ratio dependence of the operations was investigated through simulations. Finally, the ‘swelling effect’ occurrence following Euclidean averaging was found to be too unimportant to be worth consideration.

  10. Clustering by Partitioning around Medoids using Distance-Based Similarity Measures on Interval-Scaled Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Nkweteyim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is reported in this paper, the results of a study of the partitioning around medoids (PAM clustering algorithm applied to four datasets, both standardized and not, and of varying sizes and numbers of clusters. The angular distance proximity measure in addition to the two more traditional proximity measures, namely the Euclidean distance and Manhattan distance, was used to compute object-object similarity. The data used in the study comprise three widely available datasets, and one that was constructed from publicly available climate data. Results replicate some of the well known facts about the PAM algorithm, namely that the quality of the clusters generated tend to be much better for small datasets, that the silhouette value is a good, even if not perfect, guide for the optimal number of clusters to generate, and that human intervention is required to interpret generated clusters. Additionally, results also indicate that the angular distance measure, which traditionally has not been widely used in clustering, outperforms both the Euclidean and Manhattan distance metrics in certain situations.

  11. KM-FCM: A fuzzy clustering optimization algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen ZU

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional fuzzy clustering algorithm uses Euclidean distance as the similarity criterion, which is disadvantageous to the multidimensional data processing. In order to solve this situation, Mahalanobis distance is used instead of the traditional Euclidean distance, and the optimization of fuzzy clustering algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance is studied to enhance the clustering effect and ability. With making the initialization means by Heuristic search algorithm combined with k-means algorithm, and in terms of the validity function which could automatically adjust the optimal clustering number, an optimization algorithm KM-FCM is proposed. The new algorithm is compared with FCM algorithm, FCM-M algorithm and M-FCM algorithm in three standard data sets. The experimental results show that the KM-FCM algorithm is effective. It has higher clustering accuracy than FCM, FCM-M and M-FCM, recognizing high-dimensional data clustering well. It has global optimization effect, and the clustering number has no need for setting in advance. The new algorithm provides a reference for the optimization of fuzzy clustering algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance.

  12. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  13. Bianchi-Baecklund transformations, conservation laws, and linearization of various field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau Wang, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The discussion includes: the Sine-Gordon equation, parametric Bianchi-Baecklund transformations and the derivation of local conservation laws; chiral fields, parametric Bianchi-Baecklund transformations, local and non-local conservation laws, and linearization; super chiral fields, a parallel development similar to the chiral field; and self-dual Yang-Mills fields in 4-dimensional Euclidean space; loop-cpace chiral equations, parallel development but with subtlety

  14. Pythagoras's theorem on a two-dimensional lattice from a 'natural' Dirac operator and Connes's distance formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Jian [Theory Group, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: jdai@mail.phy.pku.edu.cn; Song Xingchang [Theory Group, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: songxc@ibm320h.phy.pku.edu.cn

    2001-07-13

    One of the key ingredients of Connes's noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric (Connes's distance) on the pure state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by Dimakis et al, whose Connes distance recovers the linear distance on an one-dimensional lattice, to the two-dimensional case. This Dirac operator has the local eigenvalue property and induces a Euclidean distance on this two-dimensional lattice, which is referred to as 'natural'. This kind of Dirac operator can be easily generalized into any higher-dimensional lattices. (author)

  15. Brownian distance covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    Distance correlation is a new class of multivariate dependence coefficients applicable to random vectors of arbitrary and not necessarily equal dimension. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but generalize and extend these classical bivariate measures of dependence. Distance correlation characterizes independence: it is zero if and only if the random vectors are independent. The notion of covariance with...

  16. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  17. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  18. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  19. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  20. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  1. Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation revisited: is the phase transition really 1st order?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Forcrand, Philippe de

    2015-01-01

    The transition between the two phases of 4D Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(92)90709-D) was long believed to be of second order until in 1996 first order behavior was found for sufficiently large systems (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(96)00214-3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01277-4). However, one may wonder if this finding was affected by the numerical methods used: to control volume fluctuations, in both studies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(96)00214-3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01277-4) an artificial harmonic potential was added to the action and in (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01277-4) measurements were taken after a fixed number of accepted instead of attempted moves which introduces an additional error. Finally the simulations suffer from strong critical slowing down which may have been underestimated. In the present work, we address the above weaknesses: we allow the volume to fluctuate freely within a fixed interval; we take measurements after a fixed number of attempted moves; and we overcome critical slowing down by using an optimized parallel tempering algorithm (http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-5468/2010/01/P01020). With these improved methods, on systems of size up to N_4=64k 4-simplices, we confirm that the phase transition is 1"s"t order. In addition, we discuss a local criterion to decide whether parts of a triangulation are in the elongated or crumpled state and describe a new correspondence between EDT and the balls in boxes model. The latter gives rise to a modified partition function with an additional, third coupling. Finally, we propose and motivate a class of modified path-integral measures that might remove the metastability of the Markov chain and turn the phase transition into 2"n"d order.

  2. Dynamic virtual fixture on the Euclidean group for admittance-type manipulator in deforming environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongwen; Zhu, Qingsong; Xiong, Jing; Wang, Lei

    2014-04-27

    In a deforming anatomic environment, the motion of an instrument suffers from complex geometrical and dynamic constraints, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery therefore requires more sophisticated skills for surgeons. This paper proposes a novel dynamic virtual fixture (DVF) to enhance the surgical operation accuracy of admittance-type medical robotics in the deforming environment. A framework for DVF on the Euclidean Group SE(3) is presented, which unites rotation and translation in a compact form. First, we constructed the holonomic/non-holonomic constraints, and then searched for the corresponded reference to make a distinction between preferred and non-preferred directions. Second, different control strategies are employed to deal with the tasks along the distinguished directions. The desired spatial compliance matrix is synthesized from an allowable motion screw set to filter out the task unrelated components from manual input, the operator has complete control over the preferred directions; while the relative motion between the surgical instrument and the anatomy structures is actively tracked and cancelled, the deviation relative to the reference is compensated jointly by the operator and DVF controllers. The operator, haptic device, admittance-type proxy and virtual deforming environment are involved in a hardware-in-the-loop experiment, human-robot cooperation with the assistance of DVF controller is carried out on a deforming sphere to simulate beating heart surgery, performance of the proposed DVF on admittance-type proxy is evaluated, and both human factors and control parameters are analyzed. The DVF can improve the dynamic properties of human-robot cooperation in a low-frequency (0 ~ 40 rad/sec) deforming environment, and maintain synergy of orientation and translation during the operation. Statistical analysis reveals that the operator has intuitive control over the preferred directions, human and the DVF controller jointly control the

  3. Bayesian Maximum Entropy space/time estimation of surface water chloride in Maryland using river distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Prahlad; Serre, Marc L

    2016-12-01

    Widespread contamination of surface water chloride is an emerging environmental concern. Consequently accurate and cost-effective methods are needed to estimate chloride along all river miles of potentially contaminated watersheds. Here we introduce a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) space/time geostatistical estimation framework that uses river distances, and we compare it with Euclidean BME to estimate surface water chloride from 2005 to 2014 in the Gunpowder-Patapsco, Severn, and Patuxent subbasins in Maryland. River BME improves the cross-validation R 2 by 23.67% over Euclidean BME, and river BME maps are significantly different than Euclidean BME maps, indicating that it is important to use river BME maps to assess water quality impairment. The river BME maps of chloride concentration show wide contamination throughout Baltimore and Columbia-Ellicott cities, the disappearance of a clean buffer separating these two large urban areas, and the emergence of multiple localized pockets of contamination in surrounding areas. The number of impaired river miles increased by 0.55% per year in 2005-2009 and by 1.23% per year in 2011-2014, corresponding to a marked acceleration of the rate of impairment. Our results support the need for control measures and increased monitoring of unassessed river miles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Higher order BLG supersymmetry transformations from 10-dimensional super Yang Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John [Alumnus of Physics Department, Imperial College,South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Low, Andrew [Physics Department, Wimbledon High School,Mansel Road, London, SW19 4AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-26

    We study a Simple Route for constructing the higher order Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson theory - both supersymmetry transformations and Lagrangian - starting from knowledge of only the 10-dimensional Super Yang Mills Fermion Supersymmetry transformation. We are able to uniquely determine the four-derivative order corrected supersymmetry transformations, to lowest non-trivial order in Fermions, for the most general three-algebra theory. For the special case of Euclidean three-algbera, we reproduce the result presented in arXiv:1207.1208, with significantly less labour. In addition, we apply our method to calculate the quadratic fermion terms in the higher order BLG fermion supersymmetry transformation.

  5. Traversing psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  7. Surface Design Based on Discrete Conformal Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Carlos; Santangelo, Christian; Vouga, Etienne

    Conformal transformations are angle-preserving maps from one domain to another. Although angles are preserved, the lengths between arbitrary points are not generally conserved. As a consequence there is always a given amount of distortion associated to any conformal map. Different uses of such transformations can be found in various fields, but have been used by us to program non-uniformly swellable gel sheets to buckle into prescribed three dimensional shapes. In this work we apply circle packings as a kind of discrete conformal map in order to find conformal maps from the sphere to the plane that can be used as nearly uniform swelling patterns to program non-Euclidean sheets to buckle into spheres. We explore the possibility of tuning the area distortion to fit the experimental range of minimum and maximum swelling by modifying the boundary of the planar domain through the introduction of different cutting schemes.

  8. Distance-transitive graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite

  9. Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…

  10. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2009-01-01

    Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.

  11. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  12. Reprint of "Two-stage sparse coding of region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels to detect saliency".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Cai; Zhang, Ping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel bottom-up saliency detection algorithm from the perspective of covariance matrices on a Riemannian manifold. Each superpixel is described by a region covariance matrix on Riemannian Manifolds. We carry out a two-stage sparse coding scheme via Log-Euclidean kernels to extract salient objects efficiently. In the first stage, given background dictionary on image borders, sparse coding of each region covariance via Log-Euclidean kernels is performed. The reconstruction error on the background dictionary is regarded as the initial saliency of each superpixel. In the second stage, an improvement of the initial result is achieved by calculating reconstruction errors of the superpixels on foreground dictionary, which is extracted from the first stage saliency map. The sparse coding in the second stage is similar to the first stage, but is able to effectively highlight the salient objects uniformly from the background. Finally, three post-processing methods-highlight-inhibition function, context-based saliency weighting, and the graph cut-are adopted to further refine the saliency map. Experiments on four public benchmark datasets show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of precision, recall and mean absolute error, and demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  14. Einstein at a distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambourne, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines the challenges and rewards that can arise when the teaching of Einsteinian physics has to be accomplished by means of distance education. The discussion is mainly based on experiences gathered over the past 35 years at the UK Open University, where special and general relativity, relativistic cosmology and other aspects of Einsteinian physics, have been taught at a variety of levels, and using a range of techniques, to students studying at a distance.

  15. Long distance quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  16. On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Let B (“black”) and W (“white”) be disjoint compact test sets in the d-dimensional Euclidean space and consider the volume of all its simultaneous shifts keeping B inside and W outside a compact set A. If the union of B and W is rescaled by a factor tending to zero, then the rescaled volume...... for the hit-or-miss function. Secondly, in a design based setting, different random digitizations of a deterministic set A are treated. It is shown how the number of configurations in such a digitization is related to the surface area measure of A as the lattice distance converges to zero....

  17. Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

  18. Dual transformations of the non-abelian fields in Minkowsky, Euclid, and Galilei-Newton spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolkaehev, E.A.; Kurochkin, Y.A.; Trequbovich, A.Y.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that the generalization of the Yang-Mills equations in Minkowsky space to the case of the biquaternions over dual and double numbers enables one to define the corresponding representations of the Galilei and SO(4) groups in a rather natural way. it makes construction of the non-Abelian field equations in Euclidean and Galilei-Newton spaces possible and proves their invariance under generalized dual transformations by use of the analogy with the Abelian gauge

  19. Geometric influences of a particle confined to a curved surface embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Long; Jiang, Hua; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-08-01

    In the spirit of the thin-layer quantization approach, we give the formula of the geometric influences of a particle confined to a curved surface embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space. The geometric contributions can result from the reduced commutation relation between the acted function depending on normal variable and the normal derivative. According to the formula, we obtain the geometric potential, geometric momentum, geometric orbital angular momentum, geometric linear Rashba, and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. As an example, a truncated cone surface is considered. We find that the geometric orbital angular momentum can provide an azimuthal polarization for spin, and the sign of the geometric Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling can be flipped through the inclination angle of generatrix.

  20. Renormalized G-convolution of n-point functions in quantum field theory. I. The Euclidean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Jacques; Manolessou-Grammaticou, Marietta.

    1977-01-01

    The notion of Feynman amplitude associated with a graph G in perturbative quantum field theory admits a generalized version in which each vertex v of G is associated with a general (non-perturbative) nsub(v)-point function Hsup(nsub(v)), nsub(v) denoting the number of lines which are incident to v in G. In the case where no ultraviolet divergence occurs, this has been performed directly in complex momentum space through Bros-Lassalle's G-convolution procedure. The authors propose a generalization of G-convolution which includes the case when the functions Hsup(nsub(v)) are not integrable at infinity but belong to a suitable class of slowly increasing functions. A finite part of the G-convolution integral is then defined through an algorithm which closely follows Zimmermann's renormalization scheme. The case of Euclidean four-momentum configurations is only treated

  1. The Euclidean scalar Green function in the five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein magnetic monopole space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present, in a integral form, the Euclidean Green function associated with a massless scalar field in the five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein magnetic monopole superposed to a global monopole, admitting a nontrivial coupling between the field with the geometry. This Green function is expressed as the sum of two contributions: the first one related with uncharged component of the field, is similar to the Green function associated with a scalar field in a four-dimensional global monopole space-time. The second contains the information of all the other components. Using this Green function it is possible to study the vacuum polarization effects on this space-time. Explicitly we calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation value * (x)Φ(x)> Ren , which by its turn is also expressed as the sum of two contributions

  2. Backlund transformations as canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, A.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Toda and Wadati as well as Kodama and Wadati have shown that the Backlund transformations, for the exponential lattice equation, sine-Gordon equation, K-dV (Korteweg de Vries) equation and modifies K-dV equation, are canonical transformation. It is shown that the Backlund transformation for the Boussinesq equation, for a generalized K-dV equation, for a model equation for shallow water waves and for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are also canonical transformations [pt

  3. Distance Teaching on Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...

  4. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore);…

  5. Fast Computing for Distance Covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Xiaoming; Szekely, Gabor J.

    2014-01-01

    Distance covariance and distance correlation have been widely adopted in measuring dependence of a pair of random variables or random vectors. If the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation is implemented directly accordingly to its definition then its computational complexity is O($n^2$) which is a disadvantage compared to other faster methods. In this paper we show that the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation of real valued random variables can be...

  6. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot's number of degrees of freedom. In addition

  7. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...

  8. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  9. Determining average yarding distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

  10. Prospect of Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Monsurur; Karim, Reza; Byramjee, Framarz

    2015-01-01

    Many educational institutions in the United States are currently offering programs through distance learning, and that trend is rising. In almost all spheres of education a developing country like Bangladesh needs to make available the expertise of the most qualified faculty to her distant people. But the fundamental question remains as to whether…

  11. 80537 based distance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1999-01-01

    A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...

  12. Landscape features influence gene flow as measured by cost-distance and genetic analyses: a case study for giant pandas in the Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fuwen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene flow maintains genetic diversity within a species and is influenced by individual behavior and the geographical features of the species' habitat. Here, we have characterized the geographical distribution of genetic patterns in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca living in four isolated patches of the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling Mountains. Three geographic distance definitions were used with the "isolation by distance theory": Euclidean distance (EUD, least-cost path distance (LCD defined by food resources, and LCD defined by habitat suitability. Results A total of 136 genotypes were obtained from 192 fecal samples and one blood sample, corresponding to 53 unique genotypes. Geographical maps plotted at high resolution using smaller neighborhood radius definitions produced large cost distances, because smaller radii include a finer level of detail in considering each pixel. Mantel tests showed that most correlation indices, particularly bamboo resources defined for different sizes of raster cell, were slightly larger than the correlations calculated for the Euclidean distance, with the exception of Patch C. We found that natural barriers might have decreased gene flow between the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling regions. Conclusions Landscape features were found to partially influence gene flow in the giant panda population. This result is closely linked to the biological character and behavior of giant pandas because, as bamboo feeders, individuals spend most of their lives eating bamboo or moving within the bamboo forest. Landscape-based genetic analysis suggests that gene flow will be enhanced if the connectivity between currently fragmented bamboo forests is increased.

  13. THE FLUENCE AND DISTANCE DISTRIBUTIONS OF FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedantham, H. K.; Ravi, V.; Hallinan, G.; Shannon, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRB) are millisecond-duration radio pulses with apparent extragalactic origins. All but two of the FRBs have been discovered using the Parkes dish, which employs multiple beams formed by an array of feed horns on its focal plane. In this paper, we show that (i) the preponderance of multiple-beam detections and (ii) the detection rates for varying dish diameters can be used to infer the index α of the cumulative fluence distribution function (the log N –log F function: α = 1.5 for a non-evolving population in a Euclidean universe). If all detected FRBs arise from a single progenitor population, multiple-beam FRB detection rates from the Parkes telescope yield the constraint 0.52 < α < 1.0 with 90% confidence. Searches at other facilities with different dish sizes refine the constraint to 0.5 < α < 0.9. Our results favor FRB searches with smaller dishes, because for α < 1 the gain in field of view for a smaller dish is more important than the reduction in sensitivity. Further, our results suggest that (i) FRBs are not standard candles, and (ii) the distribution of distances to the detected FRBs is weighted toward larger distances. If FRBs are extragalactic, these results are consistent with a cosmological population, which would make FRBs excellent probes of the baryonic content and geometry of the universe.

  14. Distance-Based Phylogenetic Methods Around a Polytomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ruth; Sullivant, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Distance-based phylogenetic algorithms attempt to solve the NP-hard least-squares phylogeny problem by mapping an arbitrary dissimilarity map representing biological data to a tree metric. The set of all dissimilarity maps is a Euclidean space properly containing the space of all tree metrics as a polyhedral fan. Outputs of distance-based tree reconstruction algorithms such as UPGMA and neighbor-joining are points in the maximal cones in the fan. Tree metrics with polytomies lie at the intersections of maximal cones. A phylogenetic algorithm divides the space of all dissimilarity maps into regions based upon which combinatorial tree is reconstructed by the algorithm. Comparison of phylogenetic methods can be done by comparing the geometry of these regions. We use polyhedral geometry to compare the local nature of the subdivisions induced by least-squares phylogeny, UPGMA, and neighbor-joining when the true tree has a single polytomy with exactly four neighbors. Our results suggest that in some circumstances, UPGMA and neighbor-joining poorly match least-squares phylogeny.

  15. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  16. A latent class distance association model for cross-classified data with a categorical response variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, José Fernando; de Rooij, Mark; Heiser, Willem J

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we propose a latent class distance association model for clustering in the predictor space of large contingency tables with a categorical response variable. The rows of such a table are characterized as profiles of a set of explanatory variables, while the columns represent a single outcome variable. In many cases such tables are sparse, with many zero entries, which makes traditional models problematic. By clustering the row profiles into a few specific classes and representing these together with the categories of the response variable in a low-dimensional Euclidean space using a distance association model, a parsimonious prediction model can be obtained. A generalized EM algorithm is proposed to estimate the model parameters and the adjusted Bayesian information criterion statistic is employed to test the number of mixture components and the dimensionality of the representation. An empirical example highlighting the advantages of the new approach and comparing it with traditional approaches is presented. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. SEEDLING DISCRIMINATION USING SHAPE FEATURES DERIVED FROM A DISTANCE TRANSFORM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard Giselsson, Thomas; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Midtiby, Henrik

    NN, Naive-Bayes, Linear SVM, Non-linear SVM). A set of well known features is used for comparison. This feature set will be referred to as Standard Feature Set (SFS). The used dataset consisted of 139 samples of Corn Flower (Centaura cyanus L.) and 63 samples of Night Shade (Solanum nigrum L.). The highest...

  18. Distance between images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, J. A.; Le Moigne, J.; Packer, C. V.

    1992-01-01

    Comparing two binary images and assigning a quantitative measure to this comparison finds its purpose in such tasks as image recognition, image compression, and image browsing. This quantitative measurement may be computed by utilizing the Hausdorff distance of the images represented as two-dimensional point sets. In this paper, we review two algorithms that have been proposed to compute this distance, and we present a parallel implementation of one of them on the MasPar parallel processor. We study their complexity and the results obtained by these algorithms for two different types of images: a set of displaced pairs of images of Gaussian densities, and a comparison of a Canny edge image with several edge images from a hierarchical region growing code.

  19. THE EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCE DATABASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Helene M.; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2009-01-01

    A database can be accessed on the Web at http://edd.ifa.hawaii.edu that was developed to promote access to information related to galaxy distances. The database has three functional components. First, tables from many literature sources have been gathered and enhanced with links through a distinct galaxy naming convention. Second, comparisons of results both at the levels of parameters and of techniques have begun and are continuing, leading to increasing homogeneity and consistency of distance measurements. Third, new material is presented arising from ongoing observational programs at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, radio telescopes at Green Bank, Arecibo, and Parkes and with the Hubble Space Telescope. This new observational material is made available in tandem with related material drawn from archives and passed through common analysis pipelines.

  20. Distance to Cure

    OpenAIRE

    Capachi, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Distance to Cure A three-part television series by Casey Capachi www.distancetocure.com   Abstract   How far would you go for health care? This three-part television series, featuring two introductory segments between each piece, focuses on the physical, cultural, and political obstacles facing rural Native American patients and the potential of health technology to break down those barriers to care.   Part one,Telemedici...

  1. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  2. Ultrametric Distance in Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mark D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phrase structure trees have a hierarchical structure. In many subjects, most notably in taxonomy such tree structures have been studied using ultrametrics. Here syntactical hierarchical phrase trees are subject to a similar analysis, which is much simpler as the branching structure is more readily discernible and switched. The ambiguity of which branching height to choose, is resolved by postulating that branching occurs at the lowest height available. An ultrametric produces a measure of the complexity of sentences: presumably the complexity of sentences increases as a language is acquired so that this can be tested. All ultrametric triangles are equilateral or isosceles. Here it is shown that X̅ structure implies that there are no equilateral triangles. Restricting attention to simple syntax a minimum ultrametric distance between lexical categories is calculated. A matrix constructed from this ultrametric distance is shown to be different than the matrix obtained from features. It is shown that the definition of C-COMMAND can be replaced by an equivalent ultrametric definition. The new definition invokes a minimum distance between nodes and this is more aesthetically satisfying than previous varieties of definitions. From the new definition of C-COMMAND follows a new definition of of the central notion in syntax namely GOVERNMENT.

  3. Tolerance-Based Feature Transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance-based feature transforms (TFTs) assign to each pixel in an image not only the nearest feature pixels on the boundary (origins), but all origins from the minimum distance up to a user-defined tolerance. In this paper, we compare four simple-to-implement methods for computing TFTs on binary

  4. Single-Image Distance Measurement by a Smart Mobile Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangwen; Fang, Xianyong; Shen, Jianbing; Wang, Linbo; Shao, Ling

    2017-12-01

    Existing distance measurement methods either require multiple images and special photographing poses or only measure the height with a special view configuration. We propose a novel image-based method that can measure various types of distance from single image captured by a smart mobile device. The embedded accelerometer is used to determine the view orientation of the device. Consequently, pixels can be back-projected to the ground, thanks to the efficient calibration method using two known distances. Then the distance in pixel is transformed to a real distance in centimeter with a linear model parameterized by the magnification ratio. Various types of distance specified in the image can be computed accordingly. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Henning Kappel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany. After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium. Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing

  6. Multi-resolution Shape Analysis via Non-Euclidean Wavelets: Applications to Mesh Segmentation and Surface Alignment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hwa; Chung, Moo K; Singh, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of 3-D shape meshes is a fundamental problem in computer vision, graphics, and medical imaging. Frequently, the needs of the application require that our analysis take a multi-resolution view of the shape's local and global topology, and that the solution is consistent across multiple scales. Unfortunately, the preferred mathematical construct which offers this behavior in classical image/signal processing, Wavelets, is no longer applicable in this general setting (data with non-uniform topology). In particular, the traditional definition does not allow writing out an expansion for graphs that do not correspond to the uniformly sampled lattice (e.g., images). In this paper, we adapt recent results in harmonic analysis, to derive Non-Euclidean Wavelets based algorithms for a range of shape analysis problems in vision and medical imaging. We show how descriptors derived from the dual domain representation offer native multi-resolution behavior for characterizing local/global topology around vertices. With only minor modifications, the framework yields a method for extracting interest/key points from shapes, a surprisingly simple algorithm for 3-D shape segmentation (competitive with state of the art), and a method for surface alignment (without landmarks). We give an extensive set of comparison results on a large shape segmentation benchmark and derive a uniqueness theorem for the surface alignment problem.

  7. Classification of sand samples according to radioactivity content by the use of euclidean and rough sets techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Monsef, M.M.; Kozae, A.M.; Seddeek, M.K.; Medhat, T.; Sharshar, T.; Badran, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Form the geological point of view, the origin and transport of black and normal sands is particularly important. Black and normal sands came to their places along the Mediterranean-sea coast after transport by some natural process. Both types of sands have different radiological properties. This study is, therefore, attempts to use mathematical methods to classify Egyptian sand samples collected from 42 locations in an area of 40 x 19 km 2 based on their radioactivity contents. The use of all information resulted from the experimental measurements of radioactivity contents as well as some other parameters can be a time and effort consuming task. So that the process of eliminating unnecessary attributes is of prime importance. This elimination process of the superfluous attributes that cannot affect the decision was carried out. Some topological techniques to classify the information systems resulting from the radioactivity measurements were then carried out. These techniques were applied in Euclidean and quasi-discrete topological cases. While there are some applications in environmental radioactivity of the former case, the use of the quasi-discrete in the so-called rough set information analysis is new in such a study. The mathematical methods are summarized and the results and their radiological implications are discussed. Generally, the results indicate no radiological anomaly and it supports the hypothesis previously suggested about the presence of two types of sand in the studied area

  8. Shaping of arm configuration space by prescription of non-Euclidean metrics with applications to human motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biess, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The study of the kinematic and dynamic features of human arm movements provides insights into the computational strategies underlying human motor control. In this paper a differential geometric approach to movement control is taken by endowing arm configuration space with different non-Euclidean metric structures to study the predictions of the generalized minimum-jerk (MJ) model in the resulting Riemannian manifold for different types of human arm movements. For each metric space the solution of the generalized MJ model is given by reparametrized geodesic paths. This geodesic model is applied to a variety of motor tasks ranging from three-dimensional unconstrained movements of a four degree of freedom arm between pointlike targets to constrained movements where the hand location is confined to a surface (e.g., a sphere) or a curve (e.g., an ellipse). For the latter speed-curvature relations are derived depending on the boundary conditions imposed (periodic or nonperiodic) and the compatibility with the empirical one-third power law is shown. Based on these theoretical studies and recent experimental findings, I argue that geodesics may be an emergent property of the motor system and that the sensorimotor system may shape arm configuration space by learning metric structures through sensorimotor feedback.

  9. An improved model for whole genome phylogenetic analysis by Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changchuan; Yau, Stephen S-T

    2015-10-07

    DNA sequence similarity comparison is one of the major steps in computational phylogenetic studies. The sequence comparison of closely related DNA sequences and genomes is usually performed by multiple sequence alignments (MSA). While the MSA method is accurate for some types of sequences, it may produce incorrect results when DNA sequences undergone rearrangements as in many bacterial and viral genomes. It is also limited by its computational complexity for comparing large volumes of data. Previously, we proposed an alignment-free method that exploits the full information contents of DNA sequences by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), but still with some limitations. Here, we present a significantly improved method for the similarity comparison of DNA sequences by DFT. In this method, we map DNA sequences into 2-dimensional (2D) numerical sequences and then apply DFT to transform the 2D numerical sequences into frequency domain. In the 2D mapping, the nucleotide composition of a DNA sequence is a determinant factor and the 2D mapping reduces the nucleotide composition bias in distance measure, and thus improving the similarity measure of DNA sequences. To compare the DFT power spectra of DNA sequences with different lengths, we propose an improved even scaling algorithm to extend shorter DFT power spectra to the longest length of the underlying sequences. After the DFT power spectra are evenly scaled, the spectra are in the same dimensionality of the Fourier frequency space, then the Euclidean distances of full Fourier power spectra of the DNA sequences are used as the dissimilarity metrics. The improved DFT method, with increased computational performance by 2D numerical representation, can be applicable to any DNA sequences of different length ranges. We assess the accuracy of the improved DFT similarity measure in hierarchical clustering of different DNA sequences including simulated and real datasets. The method yields accurate and reliable phylogenetic trees

  10. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  11. Distance Metric Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    whereBψ is any Bregman divergence and ηt is the learning rate parameter. From (Hall & Willett, 2015) we have: Theorem 1. G` = max θ∈Θ,`∈L ‖∇f(θ)‖ φmax = 1...Kullback-Liebler divergence between an initial guess of the matrix that parameterizes the Mahalanobis distance and a solution that satisfies a set of...Bregman divergence and ηt is the learning rate parameter. M̂0, µ̂0 are initialized to some initial value. In [18] a closed-form algorithm for solving

  12. Thyroid lesions diagnosis by Fourier transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albero, Felipe Guimaraes

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common disorder, with 4-7% of incidence in the Brazilian population. Although the fine needle aspiration (FNA) is an accurate method for thyroid tumors diagnosis, the discrimination between benign and malignant neoplasm is currently not possible in some cases with high incidence of false negative diagnosis, leading to a surgical intervention due to the risk of carcinomas. The aim of this study was to verify if the Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can contribute to the diagnosis of thyroid carcinomas and goiters, using samples of tissue and aspirates. Samples of FNA, homogenates and tissues of thyroid nodules with histopathological diagnosis were obtained and prepared for FTIR spectroscopy analysis. The FNA and homogenates samples were measured by μ-FTIR (between 950 . 1750 cm -1 ), at a nominal resolution of 4 cm -1 and 120 scans). Tissue samples were analyzed directly by ATR-FTIR technique, at a resolution 2 cm -1 , with 60 scans in the same region. All spectra were corrected by the baseline and normalized by amides area (1550-1640 cm -1 ) in order to minimize variations of sample homogeneity. Then, spectra were converted into second derivatives using the Savitzk-Golay algorithm with a 13 points window. The Ward's minimum variance algorithm and Euclidean distances among the points were used for cluster analysis. Some FNA samples showed complex spectral pattern. All samples showed some cell pellets and large amount of hormone, represented by the bands of 1545 and 1655 cm -1 . Bands in 1409, 1412, 1414, 1578 and 1579 cm -1 were also found, indicating possible presence of sugar, DNA, citric acid or metabolic products. In this study, it was obtained an excellent separation between goiter and malign lesion for the samples of tissues, with 100% of specificity in specific cluster and 67% sensibility and 50 of specificity. In homogenate and FNA samples this sensibility and specificity were lower, because among these samples, it were

  13. Predicting pathologic tumor response to chemoradiotherapy with histogram distances characterizing longitudinal changes in 18F-FDG uptake patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shan; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Yongxue; Chen, Wengen; D’Souza, Warren D.; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A family of fluorine-18 (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) features based on histogram distances is proposed for predicting pathologic tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). These features describe the longitudinal change of FDG uptake distribution within a tumor. Methods: Twenty patients with esophageal cancer treated with CRT plus surgery were included in this study. All patients underwent PET/CT scans before (pre-) and after (post-) CRT. The two scans were first rigidly registered, and the original tumor sites were then manually delineated on the pre-PET/CT by an experienced nuclear medicine physician. Two histograms representing the FDG uptake distribution were extracted from the pre- and the registered post-PET images, respectively, both within the delineated tumor. Distances between the two histograms quantify longitudinal changes in FDG uptake distribution resulting from CRT, and thus are potential predictors of tumor response. A total of 19 histogram distances were examined and compared to both traditional PET response measures and Haralick texture features. Receiver operating characteristic analyses and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to assess their predictive ability. Results: Among all tested histogram distances, seven bin-to-bin and seven crossbin distances outperformed traditional PET response measures using maximum standardized uptake value (AUC = 0.70) or total lesion glycolysis (AUC = 0.80). The seven bin-to-bin distances were: L2 distance (AUC = 0.84), χ2 distance (AUC = 0.83), intersection distance (AUC = 0.82), cosine distance (AUC = 0.83), squared Euclidean distance (AUC = 0.83), L1 distance (AUC = 0.82), and Jeffrey distance (AUC = 0.82). The seven crossbin distances were: quadratic-chi distance (AUC = 0.89), earth mover distance (AUC = 0.86), fast earth mover distance (AUC = 0.86), diffusion distance (AUC = 0.88), Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance (AUC = 0.88), quadratic form distance

  14. Security Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    ... adjustment. With American military forces engaged around the world in both combat and stabilization operations, the need for rigorous and critical analysis of security transformation has never been greater...

  15. Effect of Image Linearization on Normalized Compression Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jonathan; Wu, Jia Jie; Furst, Jacob; Rogers, John; Raicu, Daniela

    Normalized Information Distance, based on Kolmogorov complexity, is an emerging metric for image similarity. It is approximated by the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) which generates the relative distance between two strings by using standard compression algorithms to compare linear strings of information. This relative distance quantifies the degree of similarity between the two objects. NCD has been shown to measure similarity effectively on information which is already a string: genomic string comparisons have created accurate phylogeny trees and NCD has also been used to classify music. Currently, to find a similarity measure using NCD for images, the images must first be linearized into a string, and then compared. To understand how linearization of a 2D image affects the similarity measure, we perform four types of linearization on a subset of the Corel image database and compare each for a variety of image transformations. Our experiment shows that different linearization techniques produce statistically significant differences in NCD for identical spatial transformations.

  16. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  17. Covariant Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, cohe...

  18. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  19. The system-dynamic and evolutionary non-Euclidean approach and the 'Lobachevsky-Poincare programme' idea for its successive realization in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubelev, E.G.; Kuchin, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    The necessity of creating mesophysics is motivated on the basis of a general likeness of the description of many phenomena and processes in micro- and macroworld. For a general and detailed investigation of the former in modern high energy physics (HEP), the Absolute (arising from Minkovsky and irrespective of any reference system) universal approach is used. Its two conceptually new branches are non-linear system-dynamic and non-Euclidean evolutionary ones. They are complementary ones and completely adequate to an extreme complexity of directly unobservable HEP objects. Some primary problems of them are briefly made clear on the basis of synergetics principles and HEP's internal Lobachevsky-Euclidean geometry. They are noted as the primary content of the Lobachevsky-Poincare Programme (LPP) the idea of which has been proposed recently for their successive solution

  20. Metric distances derived from cosine similarity and Pearson and Spearman correlations

    OpenAIRE

    van Dongen, Stijn; Enright, Anton J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate two classes of transformations of cosine similarity and Pearson and Spearman correlations into metric distances, utilising the simple tool of metric-preserving functions. The first class puts anti-correlated objects maximally far apart. Previously known transforms fall within this class. The second class collates correlated and anti-correlated objects. An example of such a transformation that yields a metric distance is the sine function when applied to centered data.

  1. Distance collaborations with industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.

    1998-06-01

    The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.

  2. Fault Diagnosis of Supervision and Homogenization Distance Based on Local Linear Embedding Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the problems of uneven distribution of reality fault samples and dimension reduction effect of locally linear embedding (LLE algorithm which is easily affected by neighboring points, an improved local linear embedding algorithm of homogenization distance (HLLE is developed. The method makes the overall distribution of sample points tend to be homogenization and reduces the influence of neighboring points using homogenization distance instead of the traditional Euclidean distance. It is helpful to choose effective neighboring points to construct weight matrix for dimension reduction. Because the fault recognition performance improvement of HLLE is limited and unstable, the paper further proposes a new local linear embedding algorithm of supervision and homogenization distance (SHLLE by adding the supervised learning mechanism. On the basis of homogenization distance, supervised learning increases the category information of sample points so that the same category of sample points will be gathered and the heterogeneous category of sample points will be scattered. It effectively improves the performance of fault diagnosis and maintains stability at the same time. A comparison of the methods mentioned above was made by simulation experiment with rotor system fault diagnosis, and the results show that SHLLE algorithm has superior fault recognition performance.

  3. Clifford coherent state transforms on spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Pei; Mourão, José; Nunes, João P.; Qian, Tao

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a one-parameter family of transforms, U(m)t,t > 0, from the Hilbert space of Clifford algebra valued square integrable functions on the m-dimensional sphere, L2(Sm , dσm) ⊗Cm+1, to the Hilbert spaces, ML2(R m + 1 ∖ { 0 } , dμt) , of solutions of the Euclidean Dirac equation on R m + 1 ∖ { 0 } which are square integrable with respect to appropriate measures, dμt. We prove that these transforms are unitary isomorphisms of the Hilbert spaces and are extensions of the Segal-Bargman coherent state transform, U(1) :L2(S1 , dσ1) ⟶ HL2(C ∖ { 0 } , dμ) , to higher dimensional spheres in the context of Clifford analysis. In Clifford analysis it is natural to replace the analytic continuation from Sm to SCm as in (Hall, 1994; Stenzel, 1999; Hall and Mitchell, 2002) by the Cauchy-Kowalewski extension from Sm to R m + 1 ∖ { 0 } . One then obtains a unitary isomorphism from an L2-Hilbert space to a Hilbert space of solutions of the Dirac equation, that is to a Hilbert space of monogenic functions.

  4. Resistance Distances in Vertex-Face Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Yingmin; Chen, Haiyan

    2018-01-01

    The computation of two-point resistances in networks is a classical problem in electric circuit theory and graph theory. Let G be a triangulation graph with n vertices embedded on an orientable surface. Define K(G) to be the graph obtained from G by inserting a new vertex vϕ to each face ϕ of G and adding three new edges (u, vϕ), (v, vϕ) and (w, vϕ), where u, v and w are three vertices on the boundary of ϕ. In this paper, using star-triangle transformation and resistance local-sum rules, explicit relations between resistance distances in K(G) and those in G are obtained. These relations enable us to compute resistance distance between any two points of Kk(G) recursively. As explanation examples, some resistances in several networks are computed, including the modified Apollonian network and networks constructed from tetrahedron, octahedron and icosahedron, respectively.

  5. Towards an intelligent environment for distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Morales

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mainstream distance learning nowadays is heavily influenced by traditional educational approaches that produceshomogenised learning scenarios for all learners through learning management systems. Any differentiation betweenlearners and personalisation of their learning scenarios is left to the teacher, who gets minimum support from the system inthis respect. This way, the truly digital native, the computer, is left out of the move, unable to better support the teachinglearning processes because it is not provided with the means to transform into knowledge all the information that it storesand manages. I believe learning management systems should care for supporting adaptation and personalisation of bothindividual learning and the formation of communities of learning. Open learner modelling and intelligent collaborativelearning environments are proposed as a means to care. The proposal is complemented with a general architecture for anintelligent environment for distance learning and an educational model based on the principles of self-management,creativity, significance and participation.

  6. Interactive Distance Learning in Connecticut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, Jesse John; Murphy, Robert J.

    This paper provides an overview of distance learning activities in Connecticut and addresses the feasibility of such activities. Distance education programs have evolved from the one dimensional electronic mail systems to the use of sophisticated digital fiber networks. The Middlesex Distance Learning Consortium has developed a long-range plan to…

  7. Distance covariance for stochastic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsui, Muneya; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2017-01-01

    The distance covariance of two random vectors is a measure of their dependence. The empirical distance covariance and correlation can be used as statistical tools for testing whether two random vectors are independent. We propose an analog of the distance covariance for two stochastic processes...

  8. DISTANCES TO DARK CLOUDS: COMPARING EXTINCTION DISTANCES TO MASER PARALLAX DISTANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Stead, Joseph J.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    We test two different methods of using near-infrared extinction to estimate distances to dark clouds in the first quadrant of the Galaxy using large near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey) surveys. Very long baseline interferometry parallax measurements of masers around massive young stars provide the most direct and bias-free measurement of the distance to these dark clouds. We compare the extinction distance estimates to these maser parallax distances. We also compare these distances to kinematic distances, including recent re-calibrations of the Galactic rotation curve. The extinction distance methods agree with the maser parallax distances (within the errors) between 66% and 100% of the time (depending on method and input survey) and between 85% and 100% of the time outside of the crowded Galactic center. Although the sample size is small, extinction distance methods reproduce maser parallax distances better than kinematic distances; furthermore, extinction distance methods do not suffer from the kinematic distance ambiguity. This validation gives us confidence that these extinction methods may be extended to additional dark clouds where maser parallaxes are not available.

  9. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  10. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  11. Quantitative Comparison of Tolerance-Based Feature Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2006-01-01

    Tolerance-based feature transforms (TFTs) assign to each pixel in an image not only the nearest feature pixels on the boundary (origins), but all origins from the minimum distance up to a user-defined tolerance. In this paper, we compare four simple-to-implement methods for computing TFTs for binary images. Of these, two are novel methods and two extend existing distance transform algorithms. We quantitatively and qualitatively compare all algorithms on speed and accuracy of both distance and...

  12. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  13. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  14. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  15. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  16. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  17. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  18. Zernike Basis to Cartesian Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathar, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    The radial polynomials of the 2D (circular) and 3D (spherical) Zernike functions are tabulated as powers of the radial distance. The reciprocal tabulation of powers of the radial distance in series of radial polynomials is also given, based on projections that take advantage of the orthogonality of the polynomials over the unit interval. They play a role in the expansion of products of the polynomials into sums, which is demonstrated by some examples. Multiplication of the polynomials by the angular bases (azimuth, polar angle) defines the Zernike functions, for which we derive transformations to and from the Cartesian coordinate system centered at the middle of the circle or sphere.

  19. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot\\'s number of degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning, and in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1000-link multi-loop systems of varying topology in less than a second. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Evaluation of gene-expression clustering via mutual information distance measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimon Oded

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The definition of a distance measure plays a key role in the evaluation of different clustering solutions of gene expression profiles. In this empirical study we compare different clustering solutions when using the Mutual Information (MI measure versus the use of the well known Euclidean distance and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Relying on several public gene expression datasets, we evaluate the homogeneity and separation scores of different clustering solutions. It was found that the use of the MI measure yields a more significant differentiation among erroneous clustering solutions. The proposed measure was also used to analyze the performance of several known clustering algorithms. A comparative study of these algorithms reveals that their "best solutions" are ranked almost oppositely when using different distance measures, despite the found correspondence between these measures when analysing the averaged scores of groups of solutions. Conclusion In view of the results, further attention should be paid to the selection of a proper distance measure for analyzing the clustering of gene expression data.

  1. Revolution in Communication Technologies: Impact on Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies have transformed the way the world lives and thinks. Education, especially, Distance Education is no different. While the technologies per se are an important factor, the social milieus in which these technologies are implemented are equally important. Technological convergence in the Indian context…

  2. Are contemporary tourists consuming distance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    2012. Background The background for this research, which explores how tourists represent distance and whether or not distance can be said to be consumed by contemporary tourists, is the increasing leisure mobility of people. Travelling for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives is increasing...... of understanding mobility at a conceptual level, and distance matters to people's manifest mobility: how they travel and how far they travel are central elements of their movements. Therefore leisure mobility (indeed all mobility) is the activity of relating across distance, either through actual corporeal...... metric representation. These representations are the focus for this research. Research Aim and Questions The aim of this research is thus to explore how distance is being represented within the context of leisure mobility. Further the aim is to explore how or whether distance is being consumed...

  3. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  4. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  5. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  6. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  7. Distance : between deixis and perspectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Meermann, Anastasia; Sonnenhauser, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Discussing exemplary applications of the notion of distance in linguistic analysis, this paper shows that very different phenomena are described in terms of this concept. It is argued that in order to overcome the problems arising from this mixup, deixis, distance and perspectivity have to be distinguished and their interrelations need to be described. Thereby, distance emerges as part of a recursive process mediating between situation-bound deixis and discourse-level perspectivity. This is i...

  8. A New Form of the Spherical Expansion of Zonal Functions and Fourier Transforms of SO(d-Finite Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Bezubik

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent results obtained by the authors (partly in collaboration with A. Dabrowska concerning expansions of zonal functions on Euclidean spheres into spherical harmonics and some applications of such expansions for problems involving Fourier transforms of functions with rotational symmetry. The method used to derive the expansion formula is based entirely on differential methods and completely avoids the use of various integral identities commonly used in this context. Some new identities for the Fourier transform are derived and as a byproduct seemingly new recurrence relations for the classical Bessel functions are obtained.

  9. Electrical transformer handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. THE DISTANCE TO M104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    M104 (NGC 4594; the Sombrero galaxy) is a nearby, well-studied elliptical galaxy included in scores of surveys focused on understanding the details of galaxy evolution. Despite the importance of observations of M104, a consensus distance has not yet been established. Here, we use newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging to measure the distance to M104 based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our measurement yields the distance to M104 to be 9.55 ± 0.13 ± 0.31 Mpc equivalent to a distance modulus of 29.90 ± 0.03 ± 0.07 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. The most discrepant previous results are due to Tully–Fisher method distances, which are likely inappropriate for M104 given its peculiar morphology and structure. Our results are part of a larger program to measure accurate distances to a sample of well-known spiral galaxies (including M51, M74, and M63) using the TRGB method.

  11. THE DISTANCE TO M51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-20

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.

  12. The Distance to M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

  14. Social Distance and Intergenerational Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, I. Jane; Booth, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to a sample of adults to assess the extent of social distance between people of different ages. The findings suggest that the greater the age difference (younger or older) between people, the greater the social distance they feel. (Author)

  15. Quality Content in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  16. Virtual Bioinformatics Distance Learning Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno

    2004-01-01

    Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…

  17. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

    2016-01-01

    and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

  18. Cognitive Styles and Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean

    1999-01-01

    Considers how to adapt the design of distance education to students' cognitive styles. Discusses cognitive styles, including field dependence versus independence, holistic-analytic, sensory preference, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's Learning Style Model; and the characteristics of distance education, including technology. (Contains 92…

  19. Distance Learning: Practice and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatkovic, Nevenka; Sehanovic, Jusuf; Ruzic, Maja

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the European processes of integrated and homogeneous education, the paper presents the essential viewpoints and questions covering the establishment and development of "distance learning" (DL) in Republic of Croatia. It starts from the advantages of distance learning versus traditional education taking into account…

  20. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  1. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  2. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  3. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  4. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

  5. Comparing alternative approaches to measuring the geographical accessibility of urban health services: Distance types and aggregation-error issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Mylène

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, geographical accessibility of urban resources for population living in residential areas has received an increased focus in urban health studies. Operationalising and computing geographical accessibility measures depend on a set of four parameters, namely definition of residential areas, a method of aggregation, a measure of accessibility, and a type of distance. Yet, the choice of these parameters may potentially generate different results leading to significant measurement errors. The aim of this paper is to compare discrepancies in results for geographical accessibility of selected health care services for residential areas (i.e. census tracts computed using different distance types and aggregation methods. Results First, the comparison of distance types demonstrates that Cartesian distances (Euclidean and Manhattan distances are strongly correlated with more accurate network distances (shortest network and shortest network time distances across the metropolitan area (Pearson correlation greater than 0.95. However, important local variations in correlation between Cartesian and network distances were observed notably in suburban areas where Cartesian distances were less precise. Second, the choice of the aggregation method is also important: in comparison to the most accurate aggregation method (population-weighted mean of the accessibility measure for census blocks within census tracts, accessibility measures computed from census tract centroids, though not inaccurate, yield important measurement errors for 5% to 10% of census tracts. Conclusion Although errors associated to the choice of distance types and aggregation method are only important for about 10% of census tracts located mainly in suburban areas, we should not avoid using the best estimation method possible for evaluating geographical accessibility. This is especially so if these measures are to be included as a dimension of the

  6. The distance-decay function of geographical gravity model: Power law or exponential law?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The distance-decay exponent of the gravity model is a fractal dimension. •Entropy maximization accounts for the gravity model based on power law decay. •Allometric scaling relations relate gravity models with spatial interaction models. •The four-parameter gravity models have dual mathematical expressions. •The inverse power law is the most probable distance-decay function. -- Abstract: The distance-decay function of the geographical gravity model is originally an inverse power law, which suggests a scaling process in spatial interaction. However, the distance exponent of the model cannot be reasonably explained with the ideas from Euclidean geometry. This results in a dimension dilemma in geographical analysis. Consequently, a negative exponential function was used to replace the inverse power function to serve for a distance-decay function. But a new puzzle arose that the exponential-based gravity model goes against the first law of geography. This paper is devoted for solving these kinds of problems by mathematical reasoning and empirical analysis. New findings are as follows. First, the distance exponent of the gravity model is demonstrated to be a fractal dimension using the geometric measure relation. Second, the similarities and differences between the gravity models and spatial interaction models are revealed using allometric relations. Third, a four-parameter gravity model possesses a symmetrical expression, and we need dual gravity models to describe spatial flows. The observational data of China's cities and regions (29 elements indicative of 841 data points) in 2010 are employed to verify the theoretical inferences. A conclusion can be reached that the geographical gravity model based on power-law decay is more suitable for analyzing large, complex, and scale-free regional and urban systems. This study lends further support to the suggestion that the underlying rationale of fractal structure is entropy maximization. Moreover

  7. Tracking frequency laser distance gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.D.; Reasenberg, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require laser distance gauges of substantially improved performance. We describe a laser gauge, based on Pound-Drever-Hall locking, in which the optical frequency is adjusted to maintain an interferometer's null condition. This technique has been demonstrated with pm performance. Automatic fringe hopping allows it to track arbitrary distance changes. The instrument is intrinsically free of the nm-scale cyclic bias present in traditional (heterodyne) high-precision laser gauges. The output is a radio frequency, readily measured to sufficient accuracy. The laser gauge has operated in a resonant cavity, which improves precision, can suppress the effects of misalignments, and makes possible precise automatic alignment. The measurement of absolute distance requires little or no additional hardware, and has also been demonstrated. The proof-of-concept version, based on a stabilized HeNe laser and operating on a 0.5 m path, has achieved 10 pm precision with 0.1 s integration time, and 0.1 mm absolute distance accuracy. This version has also followed substantial distance changes as fast as 16 mm/s. We show that, if the precision in optical frequency is a fixed fraction of the linewidth, both incremental and absolute distance precision are independent of the distance measured. We discuss systematic error sources, and present plans for a new version of the gauge based on semiconductor lasers and fiber-coupled components

  8. Reducing the distance in distance-caregiving by technology innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazelle E Benefield

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lazelle E Benefield1, Cornelia Beck21College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; 2Pat & Willard Walker Family Memory Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USAAbstract: Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1 the elder and the family caregiver(s may reside in the same household; or 2 the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation.Keywords: caregiving, family, distance, technology, elders

  9. Equivalence of massive propagator distance and mathematical distance on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filk, T.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the assignment of distance according to the massive propagator method and according to the mathematical definition (length of minimal path) on arbitrary graphs with a bound on the degree leads to equivalent large scale properties of the graph. Especially, the internal scaling dimension is the same for both definitions. This result holds for any fixed, non-vanishing mass, so that a really inequivalent definition of distance requires the limit m → 0

  10. A Novel Parallel Algorithm for Edit Distance Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Murtaza Yousaf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The edit distance between two sequences is the minimum number of weighted transformation-operations that are required to transform one string into the other. The weighted transformation-operations are insert, remove, and substitute. Dynamic programming solution to find edit distance exists but it becomes computationally intensive when the lengths of strings become very large. This work presents a novel parallel algorithm to solve edit distance problem of string matching. The algorithm is based on resolving dependencies in the dynamic programming solution of the problem and it is able to compute each row of edit distance table in parallel. In this way, it becomes possible to compute the complete table in min(m,n iterations for strings of size m and n whereas state-of-the-art parallel algorithm solves the problem in max(m,n iterations. The proposed algorithm also increases the amount of parallelism in each of its iteration. The algorithm is also capable of exploiting spatial locality while its implementation. Additionally, the algorithm works in a load balanced way that further improves its performance. The algorithm is implemented for multicore systems having shared memory. Implementation of the algorithm in OpenMP shows linear speedup and better execution time as compared to state-of-the-art parallel approach. Efficiency of the algorithm is also proven better in comparison to its competitor.

  11. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others

  12. Language distance and tree reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2008-08-01

    Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.

  13. Polymer deposition morphology by electrospray deposition - Modifications through distance variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, K.; Schulze, R.-D.; Friedrich, J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray deposition (ESD) of highly diluted polymers was examined with regard to the deposited surface structure. Only the flight distance (flight time) onto the resulting deposited surface was varied from 20 to 200 mm. An apparatus without any additional heating or gas flows was used. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyallylamine (PAAm) in methanol were deposited on Si wafers. The polymer layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, derivatization reactions and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a grazing incidence unit. SEM images illustrated the changing structures of PAA and PAAm. For PAA the deposited structure changed from a smooth film (20 mm) to a film with individual droplets on the coated surface (100 mm and 200 mm), while for PAAm individual droplets can be seen at all distances. The ESD process with cascades of splitting droplets slows down for PAA after distances greater than 40 mm. In contrast, the ESD process for PAAm is nearly stopped within the first flight distance of 20 mm. Residual solvent analysis showed that most of the solvent evaporated within the first 20 mm capillary-sample distance. - Highlights: • We deposited polyacrylic acid and polyallylamine by electrospray ionization (ESI). • The morphology in dependence of flight distance (20 mm to 200 mm) was analyzed. • The amount of residual solvent after deposition was determined. • ESI-process slows down for polyacrylic acid after 40 mm flight distance. • ESI-Process is complete for polyallylamine within the first 20 mm

  14. An Initialization Method Based on Hybrid Distance for k-Means Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Xiangfen; Li, Shunbao; Zhang, Yuping

    2017-11-01

    The traditional [Formula: see text]-means algorithm has been widely used as a simple and efficient clustering method. However, the performance of this algorithm is highly dependent on the selection of initial cluster centers. Therefore, the method adopted for choosing initial cluster centers is extremely important. In this letter, we redefine the density of points according to the number of its neighbors, as well as the distance between points and their neighbors. In addition, we define a new distance measure that considers both Euclidean distance and density. Based on that, we propose an algorithm for selecting initial cluster centers that can dynamically adjust the weighting parameter. Furthermore, we propose a new internal clustering validation measure, the clustering validation index based on the neighbors (CVN), which can be exploited to select the optimal result among multiple clustering results. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing initialization methods on real-world data sets and demonstrates the adaptability of the proposed algorithm to data sets with various characteristics.

  15. Water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiangjun; Shao, Fengjing; Wu, Shunyao; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Si

    2017-07-01

    Water quality assessment is crucial for assessment of marine eutrophication, prediction of harmful algal blooms, and environment protection. Previous studies have developed many numeric modeling methods and data driven approaches for water quality assessment. The cluster analysis, an approach widely used for grouping data, has also been employed. However, there are complex correlations between water quality variables, which play important roles in water quality assessment but have always been overlooked. In this paper, we analyze correlations between water quality variables and propose an alternative method for water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance. Further, we cluster water quality data collected form coastal water of Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea of China, and apply clustering results to evaluate its water quality. To evaluate the validity, we also cluster the water quality data with cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance, which are widely adopted by previous studies. The results show that our method is more suitable for water quality assessment with many correlated water quality variables. To our knowledge, it is the first attempt to apply Mahalanobis distance for coastal water quality assessment.

  16. Forestry transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2003-01-01

    State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

  17. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  18. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  19. The challenge of global water access monitoring: evaluating straight-line distance versus self-reported travel time among rural households in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeff C; Russel, Kory C; Davis, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Support is growing for the incorporation of fetching time and/or distance considerations in the definition of access to improved water supply used for global monitoring. Current efforts typically rely on self-reported distance and/or travel time data that have been shown to be unreliable. To date, however, there has been no head-to-head comparison of such indicators with other possible distance/time metrics. This study provides such a comparison. We examine the association between both straight-line distance and self-reported one-way travel time with measured route distances to water sources for 1,103 households in Nampula province, Mozambique. We find straight-line, or Euclidean, distance to be a good proxy for route distance (R(2) = 0.98), while self-reported travel time is a poor proxy (R(2) = 0.12). We also apply a variety of time- and distance-based indicators proposed in the literature to our sample data, finding that the share of households classified as having versus lacking access would differ by more than 70 percentage points depending on the particular indicator employed. This work highlights the importance of the ongoing debate regarding valid, reliable, and feasible strategies for monitoring progress in the provision of improved water supply services.

  20. Academy Distance Learning Tools (IRIS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...

  1. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  2. Distance Education in Technological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor, New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode, joining hands with private initiatives and making a presence in foreign waters, are some of the hallmarks of the open and distance education (ODE institutions in developing countries. The compilation of twenty six essays on themes as applicable to ODE has resulted in the book, “Distance Education in Technological Age”. These essays follow a progressive style of narration, starting from describing conceptual framework of distance education, how the distance education was emerged on the global scene and in India, and then goes on to discuss emergence of online distance education and research aspects in ODE. The initial four chapters provide a detailed account of historical development and growth of distance education in India and State Open University and National Open University Model in India . Student support services are pivot to any distance education and much of its success depends on how well the support services are provided. These are discussed from national and international perspective. The issues of collaborative learning, learning on demand, life long learning, learning-unlearning and re-learning model and strategic alliances have also given due space by the authors. An assortment of technologies like communication technology, domestic technology, information technology, mass media and entertainment technology, media technology and educational technology give an idea of how these technologies are being adopted in the open universities. The study

  3. Distance Education in Technological Age

    OpenAIRE

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-01-01

    Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor), New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode...

  4. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubykalo, A; Espinoza, A; Alvarado Flores, R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  5. Equivalence Testing of Complex Particle Size Distribution Profiles Based on Earth Mover's Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Absar, Mohammad; Choi, Stephanie; Kozak, Darby; Shen, Meiyu; Weng, Yu-Ting; Zhao, Liang; Lionberger, Robert

    2018-04-12

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is an important property of particulates in drug products. In the evaluation of generic drug products formulated as suspensions, emulsions, and liposomes, the PSD comparisons between a test product and the branded product can provide useful information regarding in vitro and in vivo performance. Historically, the FDA has recommended the population bioequivalence (PBE) statistical approach to compare the PSD descriptors D50 and SPAN from test and reference products to support product equivalence. In this study, the earth mover's distance (EMD) is proposed as a new metric for comparing PSD particularly when the PSD profile exhibits complex distribution (e.g., multiple peaks) that is not accurately described by the D50 and SPAN descriptor. EMD is a statistical metric that measures the discrepancy (distance) between size distribution profiles without a prior assumption of the distribution. PBE is then adopted to perform statistical test to establish equivalence based on the calculated EMD distances. Simulations show that proposed EMD-based approach is effective in comparing test and reference profiles for equivalence testing and is superior compared to commonly used distance measures, e.g., Euclidean and Kolmogorov-Smirnov distances. The proposed approach was demonstrated by evaluating equivalence of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion PSDs that were manufactured under different conditions. Our results show that proposed approach can effectively pass an equivalent product (e.g., reference product against itself) and reject an inequivalent product (e.g., reference product against negative control), thus suggesting its usefulness in supporting bioequivalence determination of a test product to the reference product which both possess multimodal PSDs.

  6. Isomap transform for segmenting human body shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveri, P; Sarro, K J; Marchente, M; Barros, R M L

    2011-09-01

    Segmentation of the 3D human body is a very challenging problem in applications exploiting volume capture data. Direct clustering in the Euclidean space is usually complex or even unsolvable. This paper presents an original method based on the Isomap (isometric feature mapping) transform of the volume data-set. The 3D articulated posture is mapped by Isomap in the pose of Da Vinci's Vitruvian man. The limbs are unrolled from each other and separated from the trunk and pelvis, and the topology of the human body shape is recovered. In such a configuration, Hoshen-Kopelman clustering applied to concentric spherical shells is used to automatically group points into the labelled principal curves. Shepard interpolation is utilised to back-map points of the principal curves into the original volume space. The experimental results performed on many different postures have proved the validity of the proposed method. Reliability of less than 2 cm and 3° in the location of the joint centres and direction axes of rotations has been obtained, respectively, which qualifies this procedure as a potential tool for markerless motion analysis.

  7. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  8. Measuring distances between complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Roberto F.S.; Miranda, Jose G.V.; Pinho, Suani T.R.; Lobao, Thierry Petit

    2008-01-01

    A previously introduced concept of higher order neighborhoods in complex networks, [R.F.S. Andrade, J.G.V. Miranda, T.P. Lobao, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 046101] is used to define a distance between networks with the same number of nodes. With such measure, expressed in terms of the matrix elements of the neighborhood matrices of each network, it is possible to compare, in a quantitative way, how far apart in the space of neighborhood matrices two networks are. The distance between these matrices depends on both the network topologies and the adopted node numberings. While the numbering of one network is fixed, a Monte Carlo algorithm is used to find the best numbering of the other network, in the sense that it minimizes the distance between the matrices. The minimal value found for the distance reflects differences in the neighborhood structures of the two networks that arise only from distinct topologies. This procedure ends up by providing a projection of the first network on the pattern of the second one. Examples are worked out allowing for a quantitative comparison for distances among distinct networks, as well as among distinct realizations of random networks

  9. Computing Distances between Probabilistic Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tracol

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present relaxed notions of simulation and bisimulation on Probabilistic Automata (PA, that allow some error epsilon. When epsilon is zero we retrieve the usual notions of bisimulation and simulation on PAs. We give logical characterisations of these notions by choosing suitable logics which differ from the elementary ones, L with negation and L without negation, by the modal operator. Using flow networks, we show how to compute the relations in PTIME. This allows the definition of an efficiently computable non-discounted distance between the states of a PA. A natural modification of this distance is introduced, to obtain a discounted distance, which weakens the influence of long term transitions. We compare our notions of distance to others previously defined and illustrate our approach on various examples. We also show that our distance is not expansive with respect to process algebra operators. Although L without negation is a suitable logic to characterise epsilon-(bisimulation on deterministic PAs, it is not for general PAs; interestingly, we prove that it does characterise weaker notions, called a priori epsilon-(bisimulation, which we prove to be NP-difficult to decide.

  10. Distance sampling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S

    2015-01-01

    In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

  11. Distance Adaptive Tensor Discriminative Geometry Preserving Projection for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiang Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in dimensionality reduction techniques for face recognition, however, the traditional dimensionality reduction algorithms often transform the input face image data into vectors before embedding. Such vectorization often ignores the underlying data structure and leads to higher computational complexity. To effectively cope with these problems, a novel dimensionality reduction algorithm termed distance adaptive tensor discriminative geometry preserving projection (DATDGPP is proposed in this paper. The key idea of DATDGPP is as follows: first, the face image data are directly encoded in high-order tensor structure so that the relationships among the face image data can be preserved; second, the data-adaptive tensor distance is adopted to model the correlation among different coordinates of tensor data; third, the transformation matrix which can preserve discrimination and local geometry information is obtained by an iteration algorithm. Experimental results on three face databases show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other representative dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  12. Overlapping community detection based on link graph using distance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Li-Jun

    2018-01-01

    The distance dynamics model was recently proposed to detect the disjoint community of a complex network. To identify the overlapping structure of a network using the distance dynamics model, an overlapping community detection algorithm, called L-Attractor, is proposed in this paper. The process of L-Attractor mainly consists of three phases. In the first phase, L-Attractor transforms the original graph to a link graph (a new edge graph) to assure that one node has multiple distances. In the second phase, using the improved distance dynamics model, a dynamic interaction process is introduced to simulate the distance dynamics (shrink or stretch). Through the dynamic interaction process, all distances converge, and the disjoint community structure of the link graph naturally manifests itself. In the third phase, a recovery method is designed to convert the disjoint community structure of the link graph to the overlapping community structure of the original graph. Extensive experiments are conducted on the LFR benchmark networks as well as real-world networks. Based on the results, our algorithm demonstrates higher accuracy and quality than other state-of-the-art algorithms.

  13. Application of Technology in Project-Based Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mehrabian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Present technology and the accessibility of internet have made distance learning easier, more efficient, and more convenient for students. This technology allows instructors and students to communicate asynchronously, at times and locations of their own choosing, by exchanging printed or electronic information. The use of project-based approach is being recognized in the literature as a potential component of courses in the faculties of engineering, science, and technology. Instructors may have to restructure their course differently to accommodate and facilitate the effectiveness of distance learning. A project-based engineering course, traditionally taught in a classroom settings using live mode at the College of Engineering and Computer Sciences at the University of Central Florida (UCF has been transformed to a distance course taught using distance modes. In this case, pedagogical transitions and adjustments are required, in particular for obtaining an optimal balance between the course material and the project work. Project collaboration in groups requires communication, which is possible with extensive utilization of new information and communication technology, such as virtual meetings. This paper discusses the course transition from live to distance modes and touches on some issues as they relate to the effectiveness of this methodology and the lessons learned from its application within different context. More specifically, this discussion includes the benefit of implementing project-based work in the domain of the distance learning courses.

  14. Inversion: A Most Useful Kind of Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, Vladimir

    1992-01-01

    The transformation assigning to every point its inverse with respect to a circle with given radius and center is called an inversion. Discusses inversion with respect to points, circles, angles, distances, space, and the parallel postulate. Exercises related to these topics are included. (MDH)

  15. Combined study of the gluon and ghost condensates μ2> and abccbcc> in Euclidean SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in the Landau gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capri, M.A.L.; Lemes, V.E.R.; Sobreiro, R.F.; Sorella, S.P.; Dudal, D.; Verschelde, H.; Gracey, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The ghost condensate abc c b c c > is considered together with the gluon condensate μ 2 > in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theories quantized in the Landau gauge. The vacuum polarization ceases to be transverse due to the nonvanishing condensate abc c b c c >. The gluon propagator itself remains transverse. By polarization effects, this ghost condensate induces then a splitting in the gluon mass parameter, which is dynamically generated through μ 2 >. The obtained effective masses are real when μ 2 > is included in the analysis. In the absence of μ 2 >, the already known result that the ghost condensate induces effective tachyonic masses is recovered. At the one-loop level, we find that the effective diagonal mass becomes smaller than the off-diagonal one. This might serve as an indication for some kind of Abelian dominance in the Landau gauge, similar to what happens in the maximal Abelian gauge

  16. Simulating the Euclidean time Schroedinger equations using an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube: Application to the t-J model of high-Tc superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, M.D.; Barnes, T.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1993-01-01

    We describe a Monte Carlo simulation of a dynamical fermion problem in two spatial dimensions on an Intel iPSC/860 hypercube. The problem studied is the determination of the dispersion relation of a dynamical hole in the t-J model of the high temperature superconductors. Since this problem involves the motion of many fermions in more than one spatial dimensions, it is representative of the class of systems that suffer from the ''minus sign problem'' of dynamical fermions which has made Monte Carlo simulation very difficult. We demonstrate that for small values of the hole hopping parameter one can extract the entire hole dispersion relation using the GRW Monte Carlo algorithm, which is a simulation of the Euclidean time Schroedinger equation, and present results on 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 lattices. Generalization to physical hopping parameter values wig only require use of an improved trial wavefunction for importance sampling

  17. Geodesic distance in planar graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the exact generating function for planar maps (genus zero fatgraphs) with vertices of arbitrary even valence and with two marked points at a fixed geodesic distance. This is done in a purely combinatorial way based on a bijection with decorated trees, leading to a recursion relation on the geodesic distance. The latter is solved exactly in terms of discrete soliton-like expressions, suggesting an underlying integrable structure. We extract from this solution the fractal dimensions at the various (multi)-critical points, as well as the precise scaling forms of the continuum two-point functions and the probability distributions for the geodesic distance in (multi)-critical random surfaces. The two-point functions are shown to obey differential equations involving the residues of the KdV hierarchy

  18. Adaptive Distance Protection for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    is adopted to accelerate the tripping speed of the relays on the weak lines. The protection methodology is tested on a mid-voltage microgrid network in Aalborg, Denmark. The results show that the adaptive distance protection methodology has good selectivity and sensitivity. What is more, this system also has......Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation resources, more and more microgrids can be found in distribution systems. This paper proposes a phasor measurement unit based distance protection strategy for microgrids in distribution system. At the same time, transfer tripping scheme...

  19. Project-based Collaborative learning in distance education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten; Bajard, Christine; Helbo, Jan

    2004-01-01

    ) programme indicates, however, that adjustments are required in transforming the on-campus model to distance education. The main problem is that while project work is an excellent regulator of the learning process for on-campus students, this does not seem to be the case for off-campus students. Consequently......This article describes the experiences drawn from an experiment in transferring positive experience with a project-organised on-campus engineering programme to a technology supported distance education programme. Three years of experience with the Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII......, didactic adjustments have been made based on feedback, in particular from evaluation questionnaires. This process has been very constructive in approaching the goal: a successful model for project organized learning in distance education....

  20. Zernike Basis to Cartesian Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathar, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The radial polynomials of the 2D (circular and 3D (spherical Zernike functions are tabulated as powers of the radial distance. The reciprocal tabulation of powers of the radial distance in series of radial polynomials is also given, based on projections that take advantage of the orthogonality of the polynomials over the unit interval. They play a role in the expansion of products of the polynomials into sums, which is demonstrated by some examples. Multiplication of the polynomials by the angular bases (azimuth, polar angle defines the Zernike functions, for which we derive transformations to and from the Cartesian coordinate system centered at the middle of the circle or sphere.

  1. Zernike basis to cartesian transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathar R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The radial polynomials of the 2D (circular and 3D (spherical Zernike functions are tabulated as powers of the radial distance. The reciprocal tabulation of powers of the radial distance in series of radial polynomials is also given, based on projections that take advantage of the orthogonality of the polynomials over the unit interval. They play a role in the expansion of products of the polynomials into sums, which is demonstrated by some examples. Multiplication of the polynomials by the angular bases (azimuth, polar angle defines the Zernike functions, for which we derive transformations to and from the Cartesian coordinate system centered at the middle of the circle or sphere.

  2. Directional sound radiation from substation transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybee, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presented the results of a study in which acoustical measurements at two substations were analyzed to investigate the directional behaviour of typical arrays having 2 or 3 transformers. Substation transformers produce a characteristic humming sound that is caused primarily by vibration of the core at twice the frequency of the power supply. The humming noise radiates predominantly from the tank enclosing the core. The main components of the sound are harmonics of 120 Hz. Sound pressure level data were obtained for various directions and distances from the arrays, ranging from 0.5 m to over 100 m. The measured sound pressure levels of the transformer tones displayed substantial positive and negative excursions from the calculated average values for many distances and directions. The results support the concept that the directional effects are associated with constructive and destructive interference of tonal sound waves emanating from different parts of the array. Significant variations in the directional sound pattern can occur in the near field of a single transformer or an array, and the extent of the near field is significantly larger than the scale of the array. Based on typical dimensions for substation sites, the distance to the far field may be much beyond the substation boundary and beyond typical setbacks to the closest dwellings. As such, the directional sound radiation produced by transformer arrays introduces additional uncertainty in the prediction of substation sound levels at dwellings within a few hundred meters of a substation site. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Biolistic transformation of Scoparia dulcis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Kota; Muralikrishna, Narra; Kumar, Kalva Bharath; Raghu, Ellendula; Mahender, Aileni; Kiranmayee, Kasula; Yashodahara, Velivela; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report for the first time, the optimized conditions for microprojectile bombardment-mediated genetic transformation in Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis L.), a Plantaginaceae medicinal plant species. Transformation was achieved by bombardment of axenic leaf segments with Binary vector pBI121 harbouring β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) as a reporter and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (npt II) as a selectable marker. The influence of physical parameters viz., acceleration pressure, flight distance, gap width & macroprojectile travel distance of particle gun on frequency of transient GUS and stable (survival of putative transformants) expressions have been investigated. Biolistic delivery of the pBI121 yielded the best (80.0 %) transient expression of GUS gene bombarded at a flight distance of 6 cm and rupture disc pressure/acceleration pressure of 650 psi. Highest stable expression of 52.0 % was noticed in putative transformants on RMBI-K medium. Integration of GUS and npt II genes in the nuclear genome was confirmed through primer specific PCR. DNA blot analysis showed more than one transgene copy in the transformed plantlet genomes. The present study may be used for metabolic engineering and production of biopharmaceuticals by transplastomic technology in this valuable medicinal plant.

  4. Steiner Distance in Graphs--A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    For a connected graph $G$ of order at least $2$ and $S\\subseteq V(G)$, the \\emph{Steiner distance} $d_G(S)$ among the vertices of $S$ is the minimum size among all connected subgraphs whose vertex sets contain $S$. In this paper, we summarize the known results on the Steiner distance parameters, including Steiner distance, Steiner diameter, Steiner center, Steiner median, Steiner interval, Steiner distance hereditary graph, Steiner distance stable graph, average Steiner distance, and Steiner ...

  5. Partial distance correlation with methods for dissimilarities

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Distance covariance and distance correlation are scalar coefficients that characterize independence of random vectors in arbitrary dimension. Properties, extensions, and applications of distance correlation have been discussed in the recent literature, but the problem of defining the partial distance correlation has remained an open question of considerable interest. The problem of partial distance correlation is more complex than partial correlation partly because the squared distance covari...

  6. The Edit Distance as a Measure of Perceived Rhythmic Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Post

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ‘edit distance’ (or ‘Levenshtein distance’ measure of distance between two data sets is defined as the minimum number of editing operations – insertions, deletions, and substitutions – that are required to transform one data set to the other (Orpen and Huron, 1992. This measure of distance has been applied frequently and successfully in music information retrieval, but rarely in predicting human perception of distance. In this study, we investigate the effectiveness of the edit distance as a predictor of perceived rhythmic dissimilarity under simple rhythmic alterations. Approaching rhythms as a set of pulses that are either onsets or silences, we study two types of alterations. The first experiment is designed to test the model’s accuracy for rhythms that are relatively similar; whether rhythmic variations with the same edit distance to a source rhythm are also perceived as relatively similar by human subjects. In addition, we observe whether the salience of an edit operation is affected by its metric placement in the rhythm. Instead of using a rhythm that regularly subdivides a 4/4 meter, our source rhythm is a syncopated 16-pulse rhythm, the son. Results show a high correlation between the predictions by the edit distance model and human similarity judgments (r = 0.87; a higher correlation than for the well-known generative theory of tonal music (r = 0.64. In the second experiment, we seek to assess the accuracy of the edit distance model in predicting relatively dissimilar rhythms. The stimuli used are random permutations of the son’s inter-onset intervals: 3-3-4-2-4. The results again indicate that the edit distance correlates well with the perceived rhythmic dissimilarity judgments of the subjects (r = 0.76. To gain insight in the relationships between the individual rhythms, the results are also presented by means of graphic phylogenetic trees.

  7. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  8. Gesture Interaction at a Distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore, from a perspective of human behavior, which gestures are suited to control large display surfaces from a short distance away; why that is so; and, equally important, how such an interface can be made a reality. A well-known example of the type of interface that is

  9. Communication Barriers in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme; Altinay, Fahriye; Altinay, Zehra

    2003-01-01

    Communication is a key concept as being the major tool for people in order to satisfy their needs. It is an activity which refers as process and effective communication requires qualified communication with the elimination of communication barriers. As it is known, distance education is a new trend by following contemporary facilities and tools…

  10. Distance Education Technologies in Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 schools ... Mobile Technology in Non-formal Distance Education 192 ..... in the design and application of e-learning strategies, the need to standardise and ...... library providing access to over 20,000 journals and thesis databases, and 6,000 ...

  11. Interaction in Distance Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses' attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through "The Scale of Attitudes of…

  12. Student Monitoring in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Peter; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a computerized monitoring system for distance education students at Athabasca University designed to solve the problems of tracking student performance. A pilot project for tutors is described which includes an electronic conferencing system and electronic mail, and an evaluation currently in progress is briefly discussed. (LRW)

  13. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

  14. The mean distance to the nth neighbour in a uniform distribution of random points: an application of probability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Pratip; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2008-01-01

    We study different ways of determining the mean distance (r n ) between a reference point and its nth neighbour among random points distributed with uniform density in a D-dimensional Euclidean space. First, we present a heuristic method; though this method provides only a crude mathematical result, it shows a simple way of estimating (r n ). Next, we describe two alternative means of deriving the exact expression of (r n ): we review the method using absolute probability and develop an alternative method using conditional probability. Finally, we obtain an approximation to (r n ) from the mean volume between the reference point and its nth neighbour and compare it with the heuristic and exact results

  15. Computational Analysis of Distance Operators for the Iterative Closest Point Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio Mora

    Full Text Available The Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm is currently one of the most popular methods for rigid registration so that it has become the standard in the Robotics and Computer Vision communities. Many applications take advantage of it to align 2D/3D surfaces due to its popularity and simplicity. Nevertheless, some of its phases present a high computational cost thus rendering impossible some of its applications. In this work, it is proposed an efficient approach for the matching phase of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm. This stage is the main bottleneck of that method so that any efficiency improvement has a great positive impact on the performance of the algorithm. The proposal consists in using low computational cost point-to-point distance metrics instead of classic Euclidean one. The candidates analysed are the Chebyshev and Manhattan distance metrics due to their simpler formulation. The experiments carried out have validated the performance, robustness and quality of the proposal. Different experimental cases and configurations have been set up including a heterogeneous set of 3D figures, several scenarios with partial data and random noise. The results prove that an average speed up of 14% can be obtained while preserving the convergence properties of the algorithm and the quality of the final results.

  16. Logical and Geometrical Distance in Polyhedral Aristotelian Diagrams in Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Demey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aristotelian diagrams visualize the logical relations among a finite set of objects. These diagrams originated in philosophy, but recently, they have also been used extensively in artificial intelligence, in order to study (connections between various knowledge representation formalisms. In this paper, we develop the idea that Aristotelian diagrams can be fruitfully studied as geometrical entities. In particular, we focus on four polyhedral Aristotelian diagrams for the Boolean algebra B 4 , viz. the rhombic dodecahedron, the tetrakis hexahedron, the tetraicosahedron and the nested tetrahedron. After an in-depth investigation of the geometrical properties and interrelationships of these polyhedral diagrams, we analyze the correlation (or lack thereof between logical (Hamming and geometrical (Euclidean distance in each of these diagrams. The outcome of this analysis is that the Aristotelian rhombic dodecahedron and tetrakis hexahedron exhibit the strongest degree of correlation between logical and geometrical distance; the tetraicosahedron performs worse; and the nested tetrahedron has the lowest degree of correlation. Finally, these results are used to shed new light on the relative strengths and weaknesses of these polyhedral Aristotelian diagrams, by appealing to the congruence principle from cognitive research on diagram design.

  17. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  18. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  19. Principal distance constraint error diffusion algorithm for homogeneous dot distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ki-Min; Kim, Choon-Woo

    1999-12-01

    The perceived quality of the halftoned image strongly depends on the spatial distribution of the binary dots. Various error diffusion algorithms have been proposed for realizing the homogeneous dot distribution in the highlight and shadow regions. However, they are computationally expensive and/or require large memory space. This paper presents a new threshold modulated error diffusion algorithm for the homogeneous dot distribution. The proposed method is applied exactly same as the Floyd-Steinberg's algorithm except the thresholding process. The threshold value is modulated based on the difference between the distance to the nearest minor pixel, `minor pixel distance', and the principal distance. To do so, calculation of the minor pixel distance is needed for every pixel. But, it is quite time consuming and requires large memory resources. In order to alleviate this problem, `the minor pixel offset array' that transforms the 2D history of minor pixels into the 1D codes is proposed. The proposed algorithm drastically reduces the computational load and memory spaces needed for calculation of the minor pixel distance.

  20. Moral distance in dictator games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aguiar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We perform an experimental investigation using a dictator game in which individuals must make a moral decision --- to give or not to give an amount of money to poor people in the Third World. A questionnaire in which the subjects are asked about the reasons for their decision shows that, at least in this case, moral motivations carry a heavy weight in the decision: the majority of dictators give the money for reasons of a consequentialist nature. Based on the results presented here and of other analogous experiments, we conclude that dicator behavior can be understood in terms of moral distance rather than social distance and that it systematically deviates from the egoism assumption in economic models and game theory. %extit{JEL}: A13, C72, C91

  1. Managerial Distance and Virtual Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansmann, Henry; Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies con......, but corporate governance and fiduciary behavior more generally....... on differences among the industrial foundations themselves. We work with a rich data set comprising 113 foundation-owned Danish companies over the period 2003-2008. We focus in particular on a composite structural factor that we term “managerial distance.” We propose this as a measure of the extent to which......-seeking outside owners of the company. Consistent with this hypothesis, our empirical analysis shows a positive, significant, and robust association between managerial distance and the economic performance of foundation owned companies. The findings appear to illuminate not just foundation governance...

  2. Determining distances using asteroseismic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Victor Silva; Casagrande, L.; Basu, Sarbina

    2013-01-01

    Asteroseismology has been extremely successful in determining the properties of stars in different evolutionary stages with a remarkable level of precision. However, to fully exploit its potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification of the r......Asteroseismology has been extremely successful in determining the properties of stars in different evolutionary stages with a remarkable level of precision. However, to fully exploit its potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification...... fluxes, and thus distances for field stars in a self-consistent manner. Applying our method to a sample of solar-like oscillators in the {\\it Kepler} field that have accurate {\\it Hipparcos} parallaxes, we find agreement in our distance determinations to better than 5%. Comparison with measurements...

  3. On the center of distances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, S.; Walczyńska, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2018), s. 687-698 ISSN 2199-675X R&D Projects: GA ČR GF16-34860L Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cantorval center of distances von Neumann's theorem * set of subsums Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40879-017-0199-4

  4. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  5. Support Services for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Frieden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation and operation of a distance education support infrastructure requires the collaboration of virtually all administrative departments whose activities deal with students and faculty, and all participating academic departments. Implementation can build on where the institution is and design service-oriented strategies that strengthen institutional support and commitment. Issues to address include planning, faculty issues and concerns, policies and guidelines, approval processes, scheduling, training, publicity, information-line operations, informational materials, orientation and registration processes, class coordination and support, testing, evaluations, receive site management, partnerships, budgets, staffing, library and e-mail support, and different delivery modes (microwave, compressed video, radio, satellite, public television/cable, video tape and online. The process is ongoing and increasingly participative as various groups on campus begin to get involved with distance education activities. The distance education unit must continuously examine and revise its processes and procedures to maintain the academic integrity and service excellence of its programs. It’s a daunting prospect to revise the way things have been done for many years, but each department has an opportunity to respond to new ways of serving and reaching students.

  6. Teaching Chemistry via Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschmann, Erwin

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes a chemistry course taught at Indiana University Purdue University, Indianapolis via television, with a Web version added later. The television format is a delivery technology; the Web is an engagement technology and is preferred since it requires student participation. The distance-laboratory component presented the greatest challenge since laboratories via distance education are not a part of the U.S. academic culture. Appropriate experiments have been developed with the consultation of experts from The Open University in the United Kingdom, Athabasca University in Canada, and Monash University in Australia. The criteria used in the development of experiments are: (1) they must be credible academic experiences equal to or better than those used on campus, (2) they must be easy to perform without supervision, (3) they must be safe, and (4) they must meet all legal requirements. An evaluation of the program using three different approaches is described. The paper concludes that technology-mediated distance education students do as well as on-campus students, but drop out at a higher rate. It is very important to communicate with students frequently, and technology tools ought to be used only if good pedagogy is enhanced by their use.

  7. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant

  8. On Hurwitz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Hage Hassan, M.

    1991-04-01

    A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R 4 → R 3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R 8 → R 5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

  9. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  10. Economics of Distance and Online Learning Theory, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reviewed by TOJDE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics of Distance and Online LearningTheory, Practice and ResearchBy William Bramble & Santosh PandaPrice: $125.00ISBN: 978-0-415-96388-6, Binding: Hardback, Publishedby: Routledge, New York, Publication Date: March 2008, Pages: 312TOJDEABOUT THE BOOKThis book provides a comprehensive overview of theorganizational models of distance and online learning froman international perspective and from the point of view ofeconomic planning, costing and management decisionmaking.The book points to directions for the further research anddevelopment in this area, and will promote furtherunderstanding and critical reflection on the part ofadministrators, practitioners and researchers of distanceeducation.The experiences and perspectives in distance education inthe US are balanced with those in other areas of the world.Table of ContentsPrefaceSECTION ONE: INTRODUCTIONChapter 1: Organizational and Cost Structures for Distanceand Online Learning, William J. Bramble and Santosh PandaSECTION TWO: PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTChapter 2: Changing Distance Education andChanging Organizational Issues, D. Randy Garrison and Heather KanukaChapter 3: Online Learning and the University, Chris Curran217Chapter 4: Virtual Schooling and Basic Education, Thomas ClarkChapter 5: Historical Perspectives on Distance Education in the United States, Paul J.Edelson and Von PittmanSECTION THREE: FUNDINGChapter 6: Funding of Distance and Online Learning in the United States, Mark J. Smithand William J. BrambleChapter 7: Funding Distance Education: A Regional Perspective, Santosh Panda andAshok GabaSECTION FOUR: COST STRUCTURES AND MODELSChapter 8: Costs and Quality of Online Learning, Alistair InglisChapter 9: Costing Virtual University Education, Insung JungChapter 10: Cost-Benefit of Student Retention Policies and Practices, Ormond SimpsonSECTION FIVE: DISTANCE TRAININGChapter 11: Cost Benefit of Online Learning, Zane Berge and Charlotte DonaldsonChapter 12: Transforming Workplace

  11. Phenotypic distance among assai palm’s mother plants (Euterpe oleracea Mart. from Eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemiro Santos Galate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The açai palm tree (Euterpe oleracea Mart. is native to the Amazonian estuary. Media revelation of the nutraceutical properties of açai palm has resulted in its introduction in the national and international markets, consequently increasing the açai palm crop area in the Amazon. Nevertheless, açai palm cultivation is performed in a rational manner, because of limited product extraction from the native açai palm varieties. The study aimed to conduct a preliminary estimate of genetic variability, parameters, and phenotypic divergence of parent açai palms. Data from 129 parent plants from northeast Pará was collected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA of 22 morphoagronomic traits was performed to estimate the genetic parameters. Divergence was estimated using standardized average euclidean distance by using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA and Tocher clustering methods. Significant variance was noted in 77.3% traits (ANOVA, p<0.01 and p<0.05; CVg/CVe ratio indicated that 72.3% traits may present genetic variability for use in breeding programs. The euclidean distance showed EO-070 and EO-072 parent plants (Combu Island as the least divergent, and EO-010 (Belém and EO-018 (Salinópolis as the most divergent. The clustering methods determined ten (Tocher and nine (UPGMA similar groups. The most dissimilar parent plants were EO-035 (Capitão Poço, EO- 109 (Combu Island, EO-019 (Salinópolis, and EO-010 (Belém (Tocher method, whereas even the EO-010 (Belém; EO-011 (São João de Pirabas; EO-017, EO-018, and EO-019 (Salinópolis; EO-062 and EO-109 (Combu Island plants showed dissimilarity. We concluded that the 129 mother plants have high phenotypic variability, indicating the possibility of their use in genetic breeding programs. Further, the divergent parent plants can be used in the production of genotypes with favorable characteristics.

  12. Covariant chronogeometry and extreme distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, I.E.

    1981-01-01

    A theory for the analysis of major features of the fundamental physical structure of the universe, from micro- to macroscopic is proposed. It indicates that gravity is essentially the transform of the aggregate of the basic microscopic forces under conformal inversion. The theory also suggests a natural form for elementary particle structure that implies a nonparametric cosmological effect and indicates an intrinsic hierarchy among the microscopic forces. (author)

  13. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  14. Study of the maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the presence of the Gribov horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capri, M. A. L.; Lemes, V. E. R.; Sobreiro, R. F.; Sorella, S. P.; Thibes, R.

    2006-01-01

    We pursue the study of SU(2) Euclidean Yang-Mills theory in the maximal Abelian gauge by taking into account the effects of the Gribov horizon. The Gribov approximation, previously introduced in [M. A. L. Capri, V. E. R. Lemes, R. F. Sobreiro, S. P. Sorella, and R. Thibes, Phys. Rev. D 72, 085021 (2005).], is improved through the introduction of the horizon function, which is constructed under the requirements of localizability and renormalizability. By following Zwanziger's treatment of the horizon function in the Landau gauge, we prove that, when cast in local form, the horizon term of the maximal Abelian gauge leads to a quantized theory which enjoys multiplicative renormalizability, a feature which is established to all orders by means of the algebraic renormalization. Furthermore, it turns out that the horizon term is compatible with the local residual U(1) Ward identity, typical of the maximal Abelian gauge, which is easily derived. As a consequence, the nonrenormalization theorem, Z g Z A 1/2 =1, relating the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant Z g and of the diagonal gluon field Z A , still holds in the presence of the Gribov horizon. Finally, we notice that a generalized dimension two gluon operator can be also introduced. It is BRST invariant on-shell, a property which ensures its multiplicative renormalizability. Its anomalous dimension is not an independent parameter of the theory, being obtained from the renormalization factors of the gauge coupling constant and of the diagonal antighost field

  15. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  16. Quantum chromodynamics at large distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Properties of QCD at large distances are considered in the framework of traditional quantum field theory. An investigation of asymptotic behaviour of lower Green functions in QCD is the starting point of the approach. The recent works are reviewed which confirm the singular infrared behaviour of gluon propagator M 2 /(k 2 ) 2 at least under some gauge conditions. A special covariant gauge comes out to be the most suitable for description of infrared region due to absence of ghost contributions to infrared asymptotics of Green functions. Solutions of Schwinger-Dyson equation for quark propagator are obtained in this special gauge and are shown to possess desirable properties: spontaneous breaking of chiral invariance and nonperturbative character. The infrared asymptotics of lower Green functions are used for calculation of vacuum expectation values of gluon and quark fields. These vacuum expectation values are obtained in a good agreement with the corresponding phenomenological values which are needed in the method of sum rules in QCD, that confirms adequacy of the infrared region description. The consideration of a behaviour of QCD at large distances leads to the conclusion that at contemporary stage of theory development one may consider two possibilities. The first one is the well-known confinement hypothesis and the second one is called incomplete confinement and stipulates for open color to be observable. Possible manifestations of incomplete confinement are discussed

  17. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

  18. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  19. Project-Based Collaborative Learning in Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten; Bajard, C.; Helbo, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the experiences drawn from an experiment in transferring positive experience with a project-organised on-campus engineering programme to a technology supported distance education programme. Three years of experience with the Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII)......, didactic adjustments have been made based on feedback, in particular from evaluation questionnaires. This process has been very constructive in approaching the goal: a successful model for project organized learning in distance education.......) programme indicates, however, that adjustments are required in transforming the on-campus model to distance education. The main problem is that while project work is an excellent regulator of the learning process for on-campus students, this does not seem to be the case for off-campus students. Consequently......This article describes the experiences drawn from an experiment in transferring positive experience with a project-organised on-campus engineering programme to a technology supported distance education programme. Three years of experience with the Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII...

  20. Open and Distance Learning Today. Routledge Studies in Distance Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Fred, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on open and distance learning today: "Preface" (Daniel); "Big Bang Theory in Distance Education" (Hawkridge); "Practical Agenda for Theorists of Distance Education" (Perraton); "Trends, Directions and Needs: A View from Developing Countries" (Koul); "American…

  1. VIRTUAL LABORATORY IN DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Kozlovsky

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Questions of designing and a choice of technologies of creation of virtual laboratory for the distance learning system are considered. Distance learning system «Kherson Virtual University» is used as illustration.

  2. Distance Learning Plan Development: Initiating Organizational Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poole, Clifton

    1998-01-01

    .... Army distance learning plan managers to examine the DLPs they were directing. The analysis showed that neither army nor civilian distance learning plan managers used formalized requirements for organizational structure development (OSD...

  3. When Do Distance Effects Become Empirically Observable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Integrating distance research with the behavioral strategy literature on MNC headquarters-subsidiary relations, this paper explores how the distance between headquarters and subsidiaries relates to value added by the headquarters. We show for 124 manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe that...

  4. Institutional Distance and the Internationalization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai; Maitland, Carleen

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the institutional lens to the internationalization process model. It updates the concept of psychic distance in the model with a recently developed, theoretically grounded construct of institutional distance. Institutions are considered simultaneously at the national and industry...

  5. Anxiety and Resistance in Distance Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nazime Tuncay; Huseyin Uzunboylu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' anxiety and resistance towards learning through distance education.Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions: -What are the reasons of students not choosing distancelearning courses? -Which symptoms of anxiety, if any, do distance learner’s exhibit towards distance learning? Does genderhave any significant relationships with distance learners' perception of factors that affect their anxiety and resistance? A totalo...

  6. Distance majorization and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton's method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications.

  7. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...... aggregated commodities at the highest level, and the specific expenditures on plane tickets and travel packages at the lowest level. The Almost Ideal Demand System is applied to determine the relationship between expenditures on transportation and leisure and all other purchased non-durables within...... packages has higher income elasticity of demand than plane tickets but also higher than transportation and leisure in general. The findings within price sensitiveness are not as sufficient estimated, but the model results indicate that travel packages is far more price elastic than plane tickets which...

  8. Classification With Truncated Distance Kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolin; Suykens, Johan A K; Wang, Shuning; Hornegger, Joachim; Maier, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    This brief proposes a truncated distance (TL1) kernel, which results in a classifier that is nonlinear in the global region but is linear in each subregion. With this kernel, the subregion structure can be trained using all the training data and local linear classifiers can be established simultaneously. The TL1 kernel has good adaptiveness to nonlinearity and is suitable for problems which require different nonlinearities in different areas. Though the TL1 kernel is not positive semidefinite, some classical kernel learning methods are still applicable which means that the TL1 kernel can be directly used in standard toolboxes by replacing the kernel evaluation. In numerical experiments, the TL1 kernel with a pregiven parameter achieves similar or better performance than the radial basis function kernel with the parameter tuned by cross validation, implying the TL1 kernel a promising nonlinear kernel for classification tasks.

  9. Numerical calculation of the Fresnel transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Damien P

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of calculating Fresnel diffraction integrals using a finite number of uniformly spaced samples. General and simple sampling rules of thumb are derived that allow the user to calculate the distribution for any propagation distance. It is shown how these rules can be extended to fast-Fourier-transform-based algorithms to increase calculation efficiency. A comparison with other theoretical approaches is made.

  10. Analysing designed experiments in distance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen T. Buckland; Robin E. Russell; Brett G. Dickson; Victoria A. Saab; Donal N. Gorman; William M. Block

    2009-01-01

    Distance sampling is a survey technique for estimating the abundance or density of wild animal populations. Detection probabilities of animals inherently differ by species, age class, habitats, or sex. By incorporating the change in an observer's ability to detect a particular class of animals as a function of distance, distance sampling leads to density estimates...

  11. Distance learning: its advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    KEGEYAN SVETLANA ERIHOVNA

    2016-01-01

    Distance learning has become popular in higher institutions because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers at anytime, regardless of geographic location. With so many definitions and phases of distance education, this paper only focuses on the delivery mode of distance education (the use of information technology), background, and its disadvantages and advantages for today’s learners.

  12. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  13. Continuity Properties of Distances for Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred; Mao, Hua; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate distance functions on finite state Markov processes that measure the behavioural similarity of non-bisimilar processes. We consider both probabilistic bisimilarity metrics, and trace-based distances derived from standard Lp and Kullback-Leibler distances. Two desirable...

  14. Laplace Transforms without Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Calculating Laplace transforms from the definition often requires tedious integrations. This paper provides an integration-free technique for calculating Laplace transforms of many familiar functions. It also shows how the technique can be applied to probability theory.

  15. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  16. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  17. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  18. Fractal and Euclidean geometric diagnostic methodology of uterine cervix cells = Metodología diagnóstica geométrica fractal y euclidiana de células del cuello uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Velásquez, Javier Oswaldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathological interpretation of cellular form in cervical cytology is very important for preven- tion of cervical cancer. The methods most frequently used for assessment of this test have reproducibility and inter-observer variability problems. Objective: To make fractal and Euclidean measure- ments to mathematically diagnose normal and pre- malignant cells of cervical squamous epithelium. Methodology: 21 cells with normal, ASCUS or LSIL diagnosis according to the Bethesda system were assessed. Fractal and Euclidean geometric measures of three mathematical objects were calculated: cyto- plasm, nucleus and whole cell. Mathematical propor- tions between these measurements were calculated in order to compare them with conventional classification methods. Results: It was found that the nuclear border measures calculated with the 2-pixel grill and the surface measures could mathematically and objectively differentiate normal cells from the pre-malignant ones (ASCUS and LSIL. Conclusions: An objective and reproducible diagnos- tic method was developed; it allows to identify the evolution towards malignant cellular states based on simultaneous fractal and Euclidean measures, estab- lishing the severity level of ASCUS and LSIL cells.

  19. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  20. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, Francisco

    2017-11-28

    Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.