Sample records for euclidean distance transform

1. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Schouten, Theo; Kittler, J.; van den Broek, Egon; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

2004-01-01

Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number

2. Euclidean geometry and transformations

CERN Document Server

Dodge, Clayton W

1972-01-01

This introduction to Euclidean geometry emphasizes transformations, particularly isometries and similarities. Suitable for undergraduate courses, it includes numerous examples, many with detailed answers. 1972 edition.

3. The Exact Euclidean Distance Transform: A New Algorithm for Universal Path Planning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Juan Carlos Elizondo-Leal

2013-06-01

Full Text Available The Path-Planning problem is a basic issue in mobile robotics, in order to allow the robots to solve more complex tasks, for example, an exploration assignment in which the distance given by the planner is taken as a utility measure. Among the different proposed approaches, algorithms based on an exact cell decomposition of the environment are very popular. In this paper, we present a new algorithm for universal path planning in cell decomposition, using a raster scan method for computing the Exact Euclidean Distance Transform (EEDT for each cell in the map. Our algorithm computes, for every cell in the map, the point sequence to the goal. For each sequence, the sub-goals are selected near to the vertices of the obstacles, reducing the total distance to the goal without post processing. At the end, we obtain a smooth path up to the goal without the need for post-processing. The paths are computed by visibility verification among the cells, exploiting the processing performed in the neighbouring cells.

4. Classification of normal and epileptic seizure EEG signals using wavelet transform, phase-space reconstruction, and Euclidean distance.

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Sang-Hong; Lim, Joon S; Kim, Jae-Kwon; Yang, Junggi; Lee, Youngho

2014-08-01

This paper proposes new combined methods to classify normal and epileptic seizure EEG signals using wavelet transform (WT), phase-space reconstruction (PSR), and Euclidean distance (ED) based on a neural network with weighted fuzzy membership functions (NEWFM). WT, PSR, ED, and statistical methods that include frequency distributions and variation, were implemented to extract 24 initial features to use as inputs. Of the 24 initial features, 4 minimum features with the highest accuracy were selected using a non-overlap area distribution measurement method supported by the NEWFM. These 4 minimum features were used as inputs for the NEWFM and this resulted in performance sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 96.33%, 100%, and 98.17%, respectively. In addition, the area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to measure the performances of NEWFM both without and with feature selections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

5. PERBANDINGAN EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE DENGAN CANBERRA DISTANCE PADA FACE RECOGNITION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sendhy Rachmat Wurdianarto

2014-08-01

Full Text Available Perkembangan ilmu pada dunia komputer sangatlah pesat. Salah satu yang menandai hal ini adalah ilmu komputer telah merambah pada dunia biometrik. Arti biometrik sendiri adalah karakter-karakter manusia yang dapat digunakan untuk membedakan antara orang yang satu dengan yang lainnya. Salah satu pemanfaatan karakter / organ tubuh pada setiap manusia yang digunakan untuk identifikasi (pengenalan adalah dengan memanfaatkan wajah. Dari permasalahan diatas dalam pengenalan lebih tentang aplikasi Matlab pada Face Recognation menggunakan metode Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Model pengembangan aplikasi yang digunakan adalah model waterfall. Model waterfall beriisi rangkaian aktivitas proses yang disajikan dalam proses analisa kebutuhan, desain menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language, inputan objek gambar diproses menggunakan Euclidean Distance dan Canberra Distance. Kesimpulan yang dapat ditarik adalah aplikasi face Recognation menggunakan metode euclidean Distance dan Canverra Distance terdapat kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing. Untuk kedepannya aplikasi tersebut dapat dikembangkan dengan menggunakan objek berupa video ataupun objek lainnya.   Kata kunci : Euclidean Distance, Face Recognition, Biometrik, Canberra Distance

6. Euclidean distance geometry an introduction

CERN Document Server

Liberti, Leo

2017-01-01

This textbook, the first of its kind, presents the fundamentals of distance geometry:  theory, useful methodologies for obtaining solutions, and real world applications. Concise proofs are given and step-by-step algorithms for solving fundamental problems efficiently and precisely are presented in Mathematica®, enabling the reader to experiment with concepts and methods as they are introduced. Descriptive graphics, examples, and problems, accompany the real gems of the text, namely the applications in visualization of graphs, localization of sensor networks, protein conformation from distance data, clock synchronization protocols, robotics, and control of unmanned underwater vehicles, to name several.  Aimed at intermediate undergraduates, beginning graduate students, researchers, and practitioners, the reader with a basic knowledge of linear algebra will gain an understanding of the basic theories of distance geometry and why they work in real life.

7. Three Dimensional Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (3D-FEED) Maps

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Latecki, L.J.; Schouten, Theo E.; Mount, D.M.; Kuppens, Harco C.; Wu, A.Y.; van den Broek, Egon

2006-01-01

In image and video analysis, distance maps are frequently used. They provide the (Euclidean) distance (ED) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. Recently, the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation was launched. In this paper, we present the three dimensional (3D) version of

8. Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

CERN Document Server

Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

2014-01-01

Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p

9. MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER

Science.gov (United States)

Barton, R. S.

1994-01-01

The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the

10. On the Nonnegative Rank of Euclidean Distance Matrices.

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, Matthew M; Chu, Moody T

2010-09-01

The Euclidean distance matrix for n distinct points in ℝ r is generically of rank r + 2. It is shown in this paper via a geometric argument that its nonnegative rank for the case r = 1 is generically n.

11. Timed Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (tFEED) maps

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Schouten, Theo E.; Laplante, Philip A.; Kuppens, Harco; van den Broek, Egon

2005-01-01

In image and video analysis, distance maps are frequently used. They provide the (Euclidean) distance (ED) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. In a naive implementation, each object pixel feeds its (exact) ED to each background pixel; then the minimum of these values denotes the ED to

12. Change of Measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Heymann Y.

2013-04-01

Full Text Available The problem of cosmological distances is approached using a method based on the propagation of light in an expanding Universe. From the chan ge of measure between Light Travel Time and Euclidean Distances, a formula is deri ved to compute distances as a function of redshift. This formula is identical to Matti g’s formula (with q 0 = 1 / 2 which is based on Friedmann’s equations of general relativi ty.

13. Geostatistical analysis of groundwater level using Euclidean and non-Euclidean distance metrics and variable variogram fitting criteria

Science.gov (United States)

Theodoridou, Panagiota G.; Karatzas, George P.; Varouchakis, Emmanouil A.; Corzo Perez, Gerald A.

2015-04-01

Groundwater level is an important information in hydrological modelling. Geostatistical methods are often employed to map the free surface of an aquifer. In geostatistical analysis using Kriging techniques the selection of the optimal variogram model is very important for the optimal method performance. This work compares three different criteria, the least squares sum method, the Akaike Information Criterion and the Cressie's Indicator, to assess the theoretical variogram that fits to the experimental one and investigates the impact on the prediction results. Moreover, five different distance functions (Euclidean, Minkowski, Manhattan, Canberra, and Bray-Curtis) are applied to calculate the distance between observations that affects both the variogram calculation and the Kriging estimator. Cross validation analysis in terms of Ordinary Kriging is applied by using sequentially a different distance metric and the above three variogram fitting criteria. The spatial dependence of the observations in the tested dataset is studied by fitting classical variogram models and the Matérn model. The proposed comparison analysis performed for a data set of two hundred fifty hydraulic head measurements distributed over an alluvial aquifer that covers an area of 210 km2. The study area is located in the Prefecture of Drama, which belongs to the Water District of East Macedonia (Greece). This area was selected in terms of hydro-geological data availability and geological homogeneity. The analysis showed that a combination of the Akaike information Criterion for the variogram fitting assessment and the Brays-Curtis distance metric provided the most accurate cross-validation results. The Power-law variogram model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The aforementioned approach for the specific dataset in terms of the Ordinary Kriging method improves the prediction efficiency in comparison to the classical Euclidean distance metric. Therefore, maps of the spatial

14. Euclidean Distance Distortion Based Robust and Blind Mesh Watermarking

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Yesmine Ben Amar

2016-12-01

Full Text Available The three-dimensional (3D polygonal meshes are recently widely used in several domains, which necessitate the realistic visualization of the objects. Moreover, there is an urgent need to protect the 3D data properties for preventing unauthorized reproduction. The 3D digital watermarking technology is one of the best solutions to protect data from piracy during transmission through the internet. The current work proposed a novel robust watermarking scheme of polygonal meshes for copyright protection purposes. The proposed algorithm is based on the characteristics of the mesh geometry to embed a sequence of data bits into the object by slightly adjusting the vertex positions. Furthermore, the proposed method used a blind detection scheme. The watermarked model is perceptually indistinguishable from the original one and the embedded watermark is invariant to affine transformation. Through simulations, the quality of the watermarked object as well as the inserted watermark robustness against various types of attacks were tested and evaluated to prove the validity and the efficiency of our algorithm.

15. Robust Automatic Pectoral Muscle Segmentation from Mammograms Using Texture Gradient and Euclidean Distance Regression.

Science.gov (United States)

Bora, Vibha Bafna; Kothari, Ashwin G; Keskar, Avinash G

2016-02-01

In computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of mediolateral oblique (MLO) view of mammogram, the accuracy of tissue segmentation highly depends on the exclusion of pectoral muscle. Robust methods for such exclusions are essential as the normal presence of pectoral muscle can bias the decision of CAD. In this paper, a novel texture gradient-based approach for automatic segmentation of pectoral muscle is proposed. The pectoral edge is initially approximated to a straight line by applying Hough transform on Probable Texture Gradient (PTG) map of the mammogram followed by block averaging with the aid of approximated line. Furthermore, a smooth pectoral muscle curve is achieved with proposed Euclidean Distance Regression (EDR) technique and polynomial modeling. The algorithm is robust to texture and overlapping fibro glandular tissues. The method is validated with 340 MLO views from three databases-including 200 randomly selected scanned film images from miniMIAS, 100 computed radiography images and 40 full-field digital mammogram images. Qualitatively, 96.75 % of the pectoral muscles are segmented with an acceptable pectoral score index. The proposed method not only outperforms state-of-the-art approaches but also accurately quantifies the pectoral edge. Thus, its high accuracy and relatively quick processing time clearly justify its suitability for CAD.

16. Euclidean Genetic Distances of Four Manila Clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) Populations analyzed by PCR Research.

Science.gov (United States)

Yoon, Jong-Man

2017-09-01

The PCR analysis was performed on DNA samples extracted from a total of 20 individuals using six oligonucleotides primers. The author accomplished clustering analyses to reveal the Euclidean genetic distances among four clam populations from Gochang, Seocheon, Taean and Anmyeon of the Korean peninsula. The oligonucleotides primer OPA-08 generated 5 unique loci to each population, approximately 550 bp and 600 bp, respectively, in the MCS population. Especially, the primer OPA-20 generated 15 unique loci to each population, which were identifying each population, approximately 400 bp, 750 bp and 800 bp, in the MCT population. Individuals from MCG clam population (0.637±0.227) exhibited higher bandsharing values than did individuals from MCG clam population (0.402±0.115) (Pclam individuals, the shortest genetic distance that displayed significant molecular differences was between individuals 14 and 15 from the MCT population (genetic distance = 0.094), while the longest genetic distance among the twenty individuals that displayed significant molecular differences was between individuals MCG no. 01 and MCG no. 02 (genetic distance = 0.687). Comparatively, individuals of MCS clam population were fairly closely related to that of MCT clam population, as shown in the hierarchical dendrogram of Euclidean genetic distances.

17. Solutions manual to accompany Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

CERN Document Server

Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

2014-01-01

Solutions Manual to accompany Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective Written by well-known mathematical problem solvers, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective features up-to-date and applicable coverage of the wide spectrum of geometry and aids readers in learning the art of logical reasoning, modeling, and proof. With its reader-friendly approach, this undergraduate text features self-contained topical coverage and provides a large selection of solved exercises to aid in reader comprehension. Material in this text can be tailored for a one-, two-, or three-semester sequence.

18. Euclidean Distance Based Classifier for Recognition and Generating Kannada Text Description from Live Sign Language Video

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-10-01

Full Text Available Sign language recognition has emerged in concert of the vital space of analysis in computer Vision. The problem long-faced by the researchers is that the instances of signs vary with each motion and look. Thus, during this paper a completely unique approach for recognizing varied alphabets of Kannada linguistic communication is projected wherever continuous video sequences of the signs are thought of. The system includes of three stages: Preprocessing stage, Feature Extraction and Classification. Preprocessing stage includes skin filtering, bar histogram matching. Eigen values and Eigen Vectors were thought of for feature extraction stage and at last Eigen value weighted Euclidean distance is employed to acknowledge the sign. It deals with vacant hands, so permitting the user to act with the system in natural manner. We have got thought of completely different alphabets within the video sequences and earned a hit rate of 95.25%.

19. Optimization of the Multi-Spectral Euclidean Distance Calculation for FPGA-based Spaceborne Systems

Science.gov (United States)

Cristo, Alejandro; Fisher, Kevin; Perez, Rosa M.; Martinez, Pablo; Gualtieri, Anthony J.

2012-01-01

Due to the high quantity of operations that spaceborne processing systems must carry out in space, new methodologies and techniques are being presented as good alternatives in order to free the main processor from work and improve the overall performance. These include the development of ancillary dedicated hardware circuits that carry out the more redundant and computationally expensive operations in a faster way, leaving the main processor free to carry out other tasks while waiting for the result. One of these devices is SpaceCube, a FPGA-based system designed by NASA. The opportunity to use FPGA reconfigurable architectures in space allows not only the optimization of the mission operations with hardware-level solutions, but also the ability to create new and improved versions of the circuits, including error corrections, once the satellite is already in orbit. In this work, we propose the optimization of a common operation in remote sensing: the Multi-Spectral Euclidean Distance calculation. For that, two different hardware architectures have been designed and implemented in a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA, the same model of FPGAs used by SpaceCube. Previous results have shown that the communications between the embedded processor and the circuit create a bottleneck that affects the overall performance in a negative way. In order to avoid this, advanced methods including memory sharing, Native Port Interface (NPI) connections and Data Burst Transfers have been used.

20. Distance transforms: Academics versus industry

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.

In image and video analysis, distance transformations (DT) are frequently used. They provide a distance image (DI) of background pixels to the nearest object pixel. DT touches upon the core of many applications; consequently, not only science but also industry has conducted a significant body of

1. Projectivity, affine, similarity and euclidean coordinates transformation parameters from ITRF to EUREF in Turkey

Science.gov (United States)

Ansari, Kutubuddin; Corumluoglu, Ozsen; Yetkin, Mevlut

2017-03-01

Today, in geodesy most practical applications is to use a datum to get three dimensional position of a particular point. The geodetic techniques generally provide time dependent coordinates in global datum. The difference between the global datum like international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF) to local datum like Europe fixed reference frame (EUREF) can be up to several centimeters due to different velocity rate of tectonic plates. To get high-precision measurements, there is an increasing need of time dependent transformations from the global level to local level. The present paper treats, this theoretical problem of geodesy by using mathematical dependency between two spatial coordinate systems whose common points are given in both systems. The paper describes four different (projective, affine, similarity and euclidean) modified methodologies for the transformation between global (ITRF) to local (EUREF) by using the Turkish permanent GPS network (TPGN) as an example. The time series from TPGN stations are used to review these transformations from ITRF 2008 to EUREF 2008. The transformation parameters in all cases shows that mostly transform coordinates depends on its counterparts (X to x and Y to y) and others coordinates have very less effect. Finally to show the validity of our model a comparative analysis with standard Bursa-Wolf and Molodensky-Badekas models has been presented. The test shows that our model error is equivalent to standard models, in this view the presented models are acceptable and can improve our understanding in coordinate transformation.

2. Steiner tree heuristic in the Euclidean d-space using bottleneck distances

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lorenzen, Stephan Sloth; Winter, Pawel

2016-01-01

Some of the most efficient heuristics for the Euclidean Steiner minimal tree problem in the d-dimensional space, d ≥2, use Delaunay tessellations and minimum spanning trees to determine small subsets of geometrically close terminals. Their low-cost Steiner trees are determined and concatenated...

3. Associative memory architecture for word-parallel smallest Euclidean distance search using distance mapping into clock-number domain

Science.gov (United States)

Akazawa, Toshinobu; Sasaki, Seiryu; Jürgen Mattausch, Hans

2014-01-01

A scalable word-parallel associative memory for smallest Euclidean distance (ED) search is presented. Due to the applied concept of distance to clock-number mapping, the reported architecture is digital in nature and scalable to advanced technology. Furthermore, the reference data of feature vectors can be scaled in principle to any vector dimension and number. Handling of the numerical complexity of the ED without large consumption of Silicon area is achieved by an area-efficient circuit, which uses the same adder for absolute-difference calculation of vector components and subsequent square calculation by sequential addition of partial products. Additionally, a clock-number minimization algorithm is proposed to significantly reduce the clock-number needed for the search when the smallest ED is a large value. The concept of the proposed architecture has been experimentally verified by measurement results from real chips fabricated in a 180 nm CMOS technology, in which the architecture is configured for parallel smallest ED search among 32 reference vectors with each vector having 16 8-bit elements. For the application example of codebook-based data compression, the fabricated test chip achieved 1.19 µs average search time, 5.77 µs worst-case search time and low power consumption of 8.75 mW at the maximum clock frequency of 47 MHz and nominal power supply voltage Vdd = 1.8 V. At reduced power supply voltage Vdd = 1.2 V, a smaller power consumption of 2.80 mW at an also smaller maximum clock frequency of 24 MHz is measured. In comparison to previous analog-digital architecture, a reduction of the normalized power-delay product per matching operation by about a factor 1.6 at Vdd = 1.8 V (about factor 2.5 at Vdd = 1.2 V) is obtained with best-case data for the analog-digital architecture and average-case data for the proposed fully-digital architecture.

4. A Fuzzy Neural Network Based on Non-Euclidean Distance Clustering for Quality Index Model in Slashing Process

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Yuxian Zhang

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The quality index model in slashing process is difficult to build by reason of the outliers and noise data from original data. To the above problem, a fuzzy neural network based on non-Euclidean distance clustering is proposed in which the input space is partitioned into many local regions by the fuzzy clustering based on non-Euclidean distance so that the computation complexity is decreased, and fuzzy rule number is determined by validity function based on both the separation and the compactness among clusterings. Then, the premise parameters and consequent parameters are trained by hybrid learning algorithm. The parameters identification is realized; meanwhile the convergence condition of consequent parameters is obtained by Lyapunov function. Finally, the proposed method is applied to build the quality index model in slashing process in which the experimental data come from the actual slashing process. The experiment results show that the proposed fuzzy neural network for quality index model has lower computation complexity and faster convergence time, comparing with GP-FNN, BPNN, and RBFNN.

5. Transformed statistical distance measures and the fisher information matrix

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Klein, A.; Spreij, P.J.C.

2012-01-01

Most multivariate statistical techniques are based upon the concept of distance. The purpose of this paper is to introduce statistical distance measures, which are normalized Euclidean distance measures, where the covariances of observed correlated measurements and entries of the Fisher information

6. Transforming distance education curricula through distributive leadership

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Mike Keppell

2010-12-01

Full Text Available This paper examines a core leadership strategy for transforming learning and teaching in distance education through flexible and blended learning. It focuses on a project centred on distributive leadership that involves collaboration, shared purpose, responsibility and recognition of leadership irrespective of role or position within an organisation. Distributive leadership was a core principle in facilitating the transformation of learning and teaching through a Teaching Fellowship Scheme that empowered leaders across a regional distance education university. In parallel, a design-based research project analysed the perceptions of the Teaching Fellows in relation to blended learning, time/space, peer learning, innovation and equity issues in relation to distance education.

7. Transforming distance education curricula through distributive leadership

OpenAIRE

Keppell, Mike; O'Dwyer, Carolyn; Lyon, Betsy; Childs, Merilyn

2010-01-01

This paper examines a core leadership strategy for transforming learning and teaching in distance education through flexible and blended learning. It focuses on a project centred on distributive leadership that involves collaboration, shared purpose, responsibility and recognition of leadership irrespective of role or position within an organisation. Distributive leadership was a core principle in facilitating the transformation of learning and teaching through a Teaching Fellowship Scheme th...

8. An axiomatization of the Euclidean compromise solution

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Voorneveld, M.; Nouweland, A. van den

2000-01-01

The Euclidean compromise solution in multicriteria optimization is a solution concept that assigns to a feasible set the alternative with minimal Euclidean distance to the utopia point The purpose of this paper is to provide a characterization of the Euclidean compromise solution

9. A Streaming Distance Transform Algorithm for Neighborhood-Sequence Distances

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nicolas Normand

2014-09-01

Full Text Available We describe an algorithm that computes a “translated” 2D Neighborhood-Sequence Distance Transform (DT using a look up table approach. It requires a single raster scan of the input image and produces one line of output for every line of input. The neighborhood sequence is specified either by providing one period of some integer periodic sequence or by providing the rate of appearance of neighborhoods. The full algorithm optionally derives the regular (centered DT from the “translated” DT, providing the result image on-the-ﬂy, with a minimal delay, before the input image is fully processed. Its efficiency can benefit all applications that use neighborhood- sequence distances, particularly when pipelined processing architectures are involved, or when the size of objects in the source image is limited.

10. Euclidean Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

OpenAIRE

Kopp, Philip; Polyzou, Wayne

2013-01-01

We discuss a formulation of exactly Poincar\\'e invariant quantum mechanics where the input is model Euclidean Green functions or their generating functional. We discuss the structure of the models, the construction of the Hilbert space, the construction and transformation properties of single-particle states, and the construction of GeV scale transition matrix elements. A simple model is utilized to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

11. Assessment of applicability domain for multivariate counter-propagation artificial neural network predictive models by minimum euclidean distance space analysis: a case study.

Science.gov (United States)

Minovski, Nikola; Župerl, Špela; Drgan, Viktor; Novič, Marjana

2013-01-08

12. Digital image colorization based on distance transformation

Science.gov (United States)

Lagodzinski, Przemyslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

2008-01-01

Colorization is a term introduced by W. Markle1 to describe a computerized process for adding color to black and white pictures, movies or TV programs. The task involves replacing a scalar value stored at each pixel of the gray scale image by a vector in a three dimensional color space with luminance, saturation and hue or simply RGB. Since different colors may carry the same luminance value but vary in hue and/or saturation, the problem of colorization has no inherently "correct" solution. Due to these ambiguities, human interaction usually plays a large role. In this paper we present a novel colorization method that takes advantage of the morphological distance transformation, changes of neighboring pixel intensities and gradients to propagate the color within the gray scale image. The proposed method frees the user of segmenting the image, as color is provided simply by scribbles which are next automatically propagated within the image. The effectiveness of the algorithm allows the user to work interactively and to obtain the desired results promptly after providing the color scribbles. In the paper we show that the proposed method allows for high quality colorization results for still images.

13. Fast multi-class distance transforms for video surveillance

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Schouten, Theo E.; van den Broek, Egon; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Carlsohn, Matthias F.

2008-01-01

A distance transformation (DT) takes a binary image as input and generates a distance map image in which the value of each pixel is its distance to a given set of object pixels in the binary image. In this research, DT’s for multi class data (MCDTs) are developed which generate both a distance map

14. Optimizing multi-resolution segmentation scale using empirical methods: Exploring the sensitivity of the supervised discrepancy measure Euclidean distance 2 (ED2)

Science.gov (United States)

Witharana, Chandi; Civco, Daniel L.

2014-01-01

Multiresolution segmentation (MRS) has proven to be one of the most successful image segmentation algorithms in the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) framework. This algorithm is relatively complex and user-dependent; scale, shape, and compactness are the main parameters available to users for controlling the algorithm. Plurality of segmentation results is common because each parameter may take a range of values within its parameter space or different combinations of values among parameters. Finding optimal parameter values through a trial-and-error process is commonly practiced at the expense of time and labor, thus, several alternative supervised and unsupervised methods for supervised automatic parameter setting have been proposed and tested. In the case of supervised empirical assessments, discrepancy measures are employed for computing measures of dissimilarity between a reference polygon and an image object candidate. Evidently the reliability of the optimal-parameter prediction heavily relies on the sensitivity of the segmentation quality metric. The idea behind pursuing optimal parameter setting is that, for instance, a given scale setting provides image object candidates different from the other scale setting; thus, by design the supervised quality metric should capture this difference. In this exploratory study, we selected the Euclidean distance 2 (ED2) metric, a recently proposed supervised metric, whose main design goal is to optimize the geometrical discrepancy (potential segmentation error (PSE)) and arithmetic discrepancy between image objects and reference polygons (number-of segmentation ratio (NSR)) in two dimensional Euclidean space, as a candidate to investigate the validity and efficacy of empirical discrepancy measures for finding the optimal scale parameter setting of the MRS algorithm. We chose test image scenes from four different space-borne sensors with varying spatial resolutions and scene contents and systematically

15. Adaptive signed distance transform for curves with guaranteed error bounds

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laney, D A; Duchaineau, M A; Max, N L

2000-12-04

We present an adaptive signed distance transform algorithm for curves in the plane. The algorithm provides guaranteed error bounds with a selective refinement approach. The domain over which the signed distance function is desired is adaptive triangulated and piecewise discontinuous linear approximations are constructed within each triangle. The resulting transform performs work only were requested and does not rely on a preset sampling rate or other constraints.

16. Transformation of Correspondence Education into Distance Education

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Marjan Velej

1997-12-01

Full Text Available Since 1957 the Correspondence-Education Centre Univerzum has been involved in correspondence education, which - as a matter of principle - uses the written word as a basic and predorninam medium of instruction, ensuring a two­ directional communication between the teacher and the student. Following the world-wide trends in adult education, the institution has gradually updated its teaching methods by incorporating correspondence-consulting and correspondence-seminar methods. As a result of the forceful development of new technologies and media the written word has become only one among many media of instruction, replacing the concept of correspon­ dence education with that of distance education. Although the latter hasa num­ ber of advantages, it is rather difficult to implement. ln view of its role and in the interese of its own development, the Correspondence-Education Centre Univerzum is forced to effect the transition to distance education. In order to be able to effectively adopt new methods, extensive training has been organised for the teaching staff, the results of which are encouraging. They enable us to plan further changes and improvements of our methods of instruction.

17. A result in asymmetric Euclidean Ramsey theory

OpenAIRE

Arman, Andrii; Tsaturian, Sergei

2017-01-01

It is proved that if the points of the three-dimensional Euclidean space are coloured in red and blue, then there exist either two red points unit distance apart, or six collinear blue points with distance one between any two consecutive points.

18. Zero energy scattering calculation in Euclidean space

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbonell, J. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Karmanov, V.A., E-mail: karmanov@sci.lebedev.ru [Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2016-03-10

We show that the Bethe–Salpeter equation for the scattering amplitude in the limit of zero incident energy can be transformed into a purely Euclidean form, as it is the case for the bound states. The decoupling between Euclidean and Minkowski amplitudes is only possible for zero energy scattering observables and allows determining the scattering length from the Euclidean Bethe–Salpeter amplitude. Such a possibility strongly simplifies the numerical solution of the Bethe–Salpeter equation and suggests an alternative way to compute the scattering length in Lattice Euclidean calculations without using the Luscher formalism. The derivations contained in this work were performed for scalar particles and one-boson exchange kernel. They can be generalized to the fermion case and more involved interactions.

19. Non-euclidean geometry

CERN Document Server

Coxeter, HSM

1965-01-01

This textbook introduces non-Euclidean geometry, and the third edition adds a new chapter, including a description of the two families of 'mid-lines' between two given lines and an elementary derivation of the basic formulae of spherical trigonometry and hyperbolic trigonometry, and other new material.

20. Constructivism, Instructional Design, and Technology: Implications for Transforming Distance Learning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Maureen Tam

2000-01-01

Full Text Available This paper examines the characteristics and value of designed instruction grounded in the constructivist theory. It also attempts to connect the theory to the prevailing technology paradigms to establish an alignment between pedagogical and technological considerations in support of the assumptions arising from constructivism. Distance learning provides a unique context in which to infuse constructivist principles where learners are expected to function as self-motivated, self-directed, interactive, collaborative participants in their learning experiences by virtue of their physical location. Hence, the aim of this paper is to provide a clear link between the theoretical principles of constructivism, the construction of technology-supported learning environments, and the practice of distance education. The questions driving the argument in this paper include: What do constructivist perspectives offer instructional design and practice? What do computing technologies offer? And what do the two afford in combination? In particular, how do the two combine to transform distance learning from a highly industrialized mass production model to one that emphasizes subjective construction of knowledge and meaning derived from individual experiences.

1. Distance breached or distance transformed? Dilemmas of simulated and banal closeness in humanitarian communication

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bajde, Domen; Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

Social media have been argued to have transformed humanitarian communication and those involved in it. Networked humanitarian organizations are supposedly more open and transparent (Kanter and Fine 2010) and their “audiences” too are networked and "cause-wired" (Watson 2009), implying an unpreced......Social media have been argued to have transformed humanitarian communication and those involved in it. Networked humanitarian organizations are supposedly more open and transparent (Kanter and Fine 2010) and their “audiences” too are networked and "cause-wired" (Watson 2009), implying...... of networked humanitarianism (the global case of Kiva.org and the more local case of Kirkens Korshær) shows that networked technology does not erode distance between humanitarian actors, but rather reformats it into simulated closeness (Kiva) or banal closeness (KK), thus giving rise to several dilemmas...

2. Non-Euclidean geometry

CERN Document Server

Kulczycki, Stefan

2008-01-01

This accessible approach features two varieties of proofs: stereometric and planimetric, as well as elementary proofs that employ only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes a systematic exposition of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.Starting with fundamental assumptions, the author examines the theorems of Hjelmslev, mapping a plane into a circle, the angle of parallelism and area of a polygon, regular polygons, straight lines and planes in space, and the horosphere. Further development of the theory covers hyperbolic functions, the geometry of suff

3. Analysis in Euclidean space

CERN Document Server

Hoffman, Kenneth

2007-01-01

Developed for an introductory course in mathematical analysis at MIT, this text focuses on concepts, principles, and methods. Its introductions to real and complex analysis are closely formulated, and they constitute a natural introduction to complex function theory.Starting with an overview of the real number system, the text presents results for subsets and functions related to Euclidean space of n dimensions. It offers a rigorous review of the fundamentals of calculus, emphasizing power series expansions and introducing the theory of complex-analytic functions. Subsequent chapters cover seq

4. Log-Euclidean Metrics for Contrast Preserving Decolorization.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Qiegen; Shao, Guangpu; Wang, Yuhao; Gao, Junbin; Leung, Henry

2017-08-25

This paper presents a novel Log-Euclidean metric inspired color-to-gray conversion model for faithfully preserving the contrast details of color image, which differs from the traditional Euclidean metric approaches. In the proposed model, motivated by the fact that Log-Euclidean metric has promising invariance properties such as inversion invariant and similarity invariant, we present a Log-Euclidean metric based maximum function to model the decolorization procedure. The Gaussian-like penalty function consisting of the log-Euclidean metric between gradients of the input color image and transformed grayscale image is incorporated to better reflect the degree of preserving feature discriminability and color ordering in color-to-gray conversion. A discrete searching algorithm is employed to solve the proposed model with linear parametric and non-negative constraints. Extensive evaluation experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods both quantitatively and qualitatively.

5. Broadband invisibility by non-Euclidean cloaking.

Science.gov (United States)

Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomás

2009-01-02

Invisibility and negative refraction are both applications of transformation optics where the material of a device performs a coordinate transformation for electromagnetic fields. The device creates the illusion that light propagates through empty flat space, whereas in physical space, light is bent around a hidden interior or seems to run backward in space or time. All of the previous proposals for invisibility require materials with extreme properties. Here we show that transformation optics of a curved, non-Euclidean space (such as the surface of a virtual sphere) relax these requirements and can lead to invisibility in a broad band of the spectrum.

6. Non-Euclidean properties of spike train metric spaces.

Science.gov (United States)

Aronov, Dmitriy; Victor, Jonathan D

2004-06-01

Quantifying the dissimilarity (or distance) between two sequences is essential to the study of action potential (spike) trains in neuroscience and genetic sequences in molecular biology. In neuroscience, traditional methods for sequence comparisons rely on techniques appropriate for multivariate data, which typically assume that the space of sequences is intrinsically Euclidean. More recently, metrics that do not make this assumption have been introduced for comparison of neural activity patterns. These metrics have a formal resemblance to those used in the comparison of genetic sequences. Yet the relationship between such metrics and the traditional Euclidean distances has remained unclear. We show, both analytically and computationally, that the geometries associated with metric spaces of event sequences are intrinsically non-Euclidean. Our results demonstrate that metric spaces enrich the study of neural activity patterns, since accounting for perceptual spaces requires a non-Euclidean geometry.

7. A General Euclidean Geometric Representation for the Classical Detection Theory

CERN Document Server

Bayramoglu, Muhammet Fatih

2010-01-01

We propose an Euclidean geometric representation for the classical detection theory. The proposed representation is so generic that can be employed to almost all communication problems. The hypotheses and observations are mapped into R^N in such a way that a posteriori probability of an hypothesis given an observation decreases exponentially with the square of the Euclidean distance between the vectors corresponding to the hypothesis and the observation.

8. Transformational plane geometry

CERN Document Server

Umble, Ronald N

2014-01-01

Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

9. Euclidean Epstein-Glaser renormalization

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Keller, Kai J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

2009-03-15

In the framework of perturbative Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (pAQFT) I give a general construction of so-called 'Euclidean time-ordered products', i.e. algebraic versions of the Schwinger functions, for scalar quantum eld theories on spaces of Euclidean signature. This is done by generalizing the recursive construction of time-ordered products by Epstein and Glaser, originally formulated for quantum field theories on Minkowski space (MQFT). An essential input of Epstein-Glaser renormalization is the causal structure of Minkowski space. The absence of this causal structure in the Euclidean framework makes it necessary to modify the original construction of Epstein and Glaser at two points. First, the whole construction has to be performed with an only partially defined product on (interaction-) functionals. This is due to the fact that the fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz operator (-{delta}+m{sup 2}) of EQFT have a unique singularity structure, i.e. they are unique up to a smooth part. Second, one needs to (re-)introduce a (rather natural) 'Euclidean causality' condition for the recursion of Epstein and Glaser to be applicable. (orig.)

10. Observables of the Euclidean Supergravity

OpenAIRE

Vancea, Ion V.

1997-01-01

The set of constraints under which the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator can play the role of the dynamical variables for Euclidean supergravity is derived. These constraints arise when the gauge invariance of the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator is imposed. They impose conditions which restrict the eigenspinors of the Dirac operator.

11. Tutorial: Structure-preserving representation of Euclidean motions through conformal geometric algebra

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Dorst, L.; Bayro-Corrochano, E.; Scheuermann, G.

2010-01-01

A new and useful set of homogeneous coordinates has been discovered for the treatment of Euclidean geometry. They render Euclidean motions not merely linear (as the classical homogeneous coordinates do), but even turn them into orthogonal transformations, through a clever choice of metric in two

12. $\\omega$-Euclidean domain and Laurent series

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

O. M. Romaniv

2016-06-01

Full Text Available It is proved that a commutative domain $R$ is $\\omega$-Euclidean if and only if the ring of formal Laurent series over $R$ is $\\omega$-Euclidean domain. It is also proved that every singular matrice over ring of formal Laurent series $R_{X}$ are products of idempotent matrices if $R$ is $\\omega$ -Euclidean domain.

13. Euclidean geometry and its subgeometries

CERN Document Server

Specht, Edward John; Calkins, Keith G; Rhoads, Donald H

2015-01-01

In this monograph, the authors present a modern development of Euclidean geometry from independent axioms, using up-to-date language and providing detailed proofs. The axioms for incidence, betweenness, and plane separation are close to those of Hilbert. This is the only axiomatic treatment of Euclidean geometry that uses axioms not involving metric notions and that explores congruence and isometries by means of reflection mappings. The authors present thirteen axioms in sequence, proving as many theorems as possible at each stage and, in the process, building up subgeometries, most notably the Pasch and neutral geometries. Standard topics such as the congruence theorems for triangles, embedding the real numbers in a line, and coordinatization of the plane are included, as well as theorems of Pythagoras, Desargues, Pappas, Menelaus, and Ceva. The final chapter covers consistency and independence of axioms, as well as independence of definition properties. There are over 300 exercises; solutions to many of the...

14. The non-Euclidean revolution

CERN Document Server

Trudeau, Richard J

1986-01-01

How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America. "Trudeau meets the challenge of reaching a broad audience in clever ways...(The book) is a good addition to our literature o...

15. Conformal Janus on Euclidean sphere

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bak, Dongsu [Physics Department, University of Seoul,Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity & Strings, Institute for Basic Sciences,Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Gustavsson, Andreas [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Rey, Soo-Jong [School of Physics & Astronomy and Center for Theoretical Physics,Seoul National University,Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Theoretical Physics, College of Physical Sciences, Sichuan University,Chengdu 610064 P.R. (China); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity & Strings, Institute for Basic Sciences,Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of)

2016-12-07

We interpret Janus as an interface in a conformal field theory and study its properties. The Janus is created by an exactly marginal operator and we study its effect on the interface conformal field theory on the Janus. We do this by utilizing the AdS/CFT correspondence. We compute the interface free energy both from leading correction to the Euclidean action in the dual gravity description and from conformal perturbation theory in the conformal field theory. We find that the two results agree each other and that the interface free energy scales precisely as expected from the conformal invariance of the Janus interface.

16. Transformational leadership in the local police in Spain: a leader-follower distance approach.

Science.gov (United States)

Álvarez, Octavio; Lila, Marisol; Tomás, Inés; Castillo, Isabel

2014-01-01

Based on the transformational leadership theory (Bass, 1985), the aim of the present study was to analyze the differences in leadership styles according to the various leading ranks and the organizational follower-leader distance reported by a representative sample of 975 local police members (828 male and 147 female) from Valencian Community (Spain). Results showed differences by rank (p leadership in all the variables examined (transformational-leadership behaviors, transactional-leadership behaviors, laissez-faire behaviors, satisfaction with the leader, extra effort by follower, and perceived leadership effectiveness). By contrast, the least optimal profiles were presented by intendents. Finally, the maximum distance (five ranks) generally yielded the most optimal profiles, whereas the 3-rank distance generally produced the least optimal profiles for all variables examined. Outcomes and practical implications for the workforce dimensioning are also discussed.

17. Digital Elevation Model Interpolation by Fusion of Morphological Reconstruction and Distance Transformation

Science.gov (United States)

Shen, J.; Han, W. L.; Ge, J.; Zhang, L. B.; Tan, H.

2017-09-01

Interpolation methods have significant impacts on the accuracy of the digital elevation model (DEM) from contours which are one of frequently employed data sources. In this paper, an interpolation method is presented to build DEM from contour lines by fusion/integration of morphological reconstruction and distance transformation with obstacles. Particularly, morphological reconstruction is used to get the elevation values of the higher contour lines and the lower contour lines of any a spatial point between two contour lines, and distance transformation with obstacles is used to get the geodesic distances of the spatial point to the higher contour lines and the lower contour lines respectively. At last, linear interpolation along water flow line is used to get the elevation values of the pixels to be interpolated. The experiment demonstrates that feasibility of our proposed method.

18. Non-Euclidean Fourier inversion on super-hyperbolic space

OpenAIRE

Alldridge, Alexander; Palzer, Wolfgang

2016-01-01

For the super-hyperbolic space in any dimension, we introduce the non-Euclidean Helgason--Fourier transform. We prove an inversion formula exhibiting residue contributions at the poles of the Harish-Chandra c-function, signalling discrete parts in the spectrum. The proof is based on a detailed study of the spherical superfunctions, using recursion relations and localization techniques to normalize them precisely, careful estimates of their derivatives, and a rigorous analysis of the boundary ...

19. Printing Non-Euclidean Solids

Science.gov (United States)

Zurlo, Giuseppe; Truskinovsky, Lev

2017-07-01

Geometrically frustrated solids with a non-Euclidean reference metric are ubiquitous in biology and are becoming increasingly relevant in technological applications. Often they acquire a targeted configuration of incompatibility through the surface accretion of mass as in tree growth or dam construction. We use the mechanics of incompatible surface growth to show that geometrical frustration developing during deposition can be fine-tuned to ensure a particular behavior of the system in physiological (or working) conditions. As an illustration, we obtain an explicit 3D printing protocol for arteries, which guarantees stress uniformity under inhomogeneous loading, and for explosive plants, allowing a complete release of residual elastic energy with a single cut. Interestingly, in both cases reaching the physiological target requires the incompatibility to have a topological (global) component.

20. The elements of non-Euclidean geometry

CERN Document Server

Sommerville, D MY

2012-01-01

Renowned for its lucid yet meticulous exposition, this classic allows students to follow the development of non-Euclidean geometry from a fundamental analysis of the concept of parallelism to more advanced topics. 1914 edition. Includes 133 figures.

1. A Euclidean algorithm for integer matrices

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lauritzen, Niels; Thomsen, Jesper Funch

2015-01-01

We present a Euclidean algorithm for computing a greatest common right divisor of two integer matrices. The algorithm is derived from elementary properties of finitely generated modules over the ring of integers.......We present a Euclidean algorithm for computing a greatest common right divisor of two integer matrices. The algorithm is derived from elementary properties of finitely generated modules over the ring of integers....

2. Tutorial appendix: structure preserving representation of euclidean motions through conformal geometric algebra

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Dorst, L.; Dorst, L.; Lasenby, J.

2011-01-01

Using conformal geometric algebra, Euclidean motions in n-D are represented as orthogonal transformations of a representational space of two extra dimensions, and a well-chosen metric. Orthogonal transformations are representable as multiple reflections, and by means of the geometric product this

3. Statistical Distance For Chaotic Maps

CERN Document Server

Johal, R S

1998-01-01

The purpose of this letter is to define a distance on the underlying phase space of a chaotic map, based on natural invariant density of the map. It is observed that for logistic map this distance is equivalent to Wootters' statistical distance. This distance becomes the Euclidean distance for a map with constant invariant density.

4. Non-Euclidean Fourier Inversion on Super-hyperbolic Space

Science.gov (United States)

Alldridge, Alexander; Palzer, Wolfgang

2017-05-01

For the super-hyperbolic space in any dimension, we introduce the non-Euclidean Helgason-Fourier transform. We prove an inversion formula exhibiting residue contributions at the poles of the Harish-Chandra c-function, signalling discrete parts in the spectrum. The proof is based on a detailed study of the spherical superfunctions, using recursion relations and localization techniques to normalize them precisely, careful estimates of their derivatives, and a rigorous analysis of the boundary terms appearing in the polar coordinate expression of the invariant integral.

5. RECONCEPTUALIZING THE DESIGN STUDIO IN ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION: DISTANCE LEARNING AND BLENDED LEARNING AS TRANSFORMATION FACTORS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marta Masdéu

2017-07-01

Full Text Available Nowadays, the professional practice is undergoing changes that are affecting the work of architects. Architectural studios and engineering consultancies are reinventing themselves to adapt to social, technological and productive needs. However, despite the professional changes, the training of architects in schools continues to focus on educational models that have grown more and more distant from the professional demands. In view of this, schools of architecture have been forced to revise their programmes to develop teaching methods that enable them to adapt to the current situation. Thus, the Design Studio -considered as the core of education in architecture- needs a reconceptualization in order to change the way architects should learn. Pedagogical approaches such as distance learning and blended learning can help update the concept of the Design Studio and transform it into a new participatory and delocalized learning space.

6. Using Amino Acid Physicochemical Distance Transformation for Fast Protein Remote Homology Detection

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Bin; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Qingcai; Dong, Qiwen; Lan, Xun

2012-01-01

Protein remote homology detection is one of the most important problems in bioinformatics. Discriminative methods such as support vector machines (SVM) have shown superior performance. However, the performance of SVM-based methods depends on the vector representations of the protein sequences. Prior works have demonstrated that sequence-order effects are relevant for discrimination, but little work has explored how to incorporate the sequence-order information along with the amino acid physicochemical properties into the prediction. In order to incorporate the sequence-order effects into the protein remote homology detection, the physicochemical distance transformation (PDT) method is proposed. Each protein sequence is converted into a series of numbers by using the physicochemical property scores in the amino acid index (AAIndex), and then the sequence is converted into a fixed length vector by PDT. The sequence-order information can be efficiently included into the feature vector with little computational cost by this approach. Finally, the feature vectors are input into a support vector machine classifier to detect the protein remote homologies. Our experiments on a well-known benchmark show the proposed method SVM-PDT achieves superior or comparable performance with current state-of-the-art methods and its computational cost is considerably superior to those of other methods. When the evolutionary information extracted from the frequency profiles is combined with the PDT method, the profile-based PDT approach can improve the performance by 3.4% and 11.4% in terms of ROC score and ROC50 score respectively. The local sequence-order information of the protein can be efficiently captured by the proposed PDT and the physicochemical properties extracted from the amino acid index are incorporated into the prediction. The physicochemical distance transformation provides a general framework, which would be a valuable tool for protein-level study. PMID:23029559

7. Assessment of the Log-Euclidean Metric Performance in Diffusion Tensor Image Segmentation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mostafa Charmi

2010-06-01

Full Text Available Introduction: Appropriate definition of the distance measure between diffusion tensors has a deep impact on Diffusion Tensor Image (DTI segmentation results. The geodesic metric is the best distance measure since it yields high-quality segmentation results. However, the important problem with the geodesic metric is a high computational cost of the algorithms based on it. The main goal of this paper is to assess the possible substitution of the geodesic metric with the Log-Euclidean one to reduce the computational cost of a statistical surface evolution algorithm. Materials and Methods: We incorporated the Log-Euclidean metric in the statistical surface evolution algorithm framework. To achieve this goal, the statistics and gradients of diffusion tensor images were defined using the Log-Euclidean metric. Numerical implementation of the segmentation algorithm was performed in the MATLAB software using the finite difference techniques. Results: In the statistical surface evolution framework, the Log-Euclidean metric was able to discriminate the torus and helix patterns in synthesis datasets and rat spinal cords in biological phantom datasets from the background better than the Euclidean and J-divergence metrics. In addition, similar results were obtained with the geodesic metric. However, the main advantage of the Log-Euclidean metric over the geodesic metric was the dramatic reduction of computational cost of the segmentation algorithm, at least by 70 times. Discussion and Conclusion: The qualitative and quantitative results have shown that the Log-Euclidean metric is a good substitute for the geodesic metric when using a statistical surface evolution algorithm in DTIs segmentation.

8. Fuzzy Euclidean wormholes in de Sitter space

CERN Document Server

Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han

2016-01-01

We investigate Euclidean wormholes in Einstein gravity with a massless scalar field in de Sitter space. Euclidean wormholes are possible due to the analytic continuation of the time as well as complexification of fields, where we need to impose the classicality after the Wick-rotation to the Lorentzian signatures. For some parameters, wormholes are preferred than Hawking-Moss instantons, and hence wormholes can be more fundamental than Hawking-Moss type instantons. Euclidean wormholes can be interpreted in three ways: (1) classical big bounce, (2) either tunneling from a small to a large universe or a creation of a collapsing and an expanding universe from nothing, and (3) either a quantum big bounce from a contracting to a bouncing phase or a creation of two expanding universes from nothing. These various interpretations shed some lights to the resolution of the singularity and tensions between various kinds of quantum gravity theories.

9. Fuzzy Euclidean wormholes in de Sitter space

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Pisin; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Yeom, Dong-han

2017-07-01

We investigate Euclidean wormholes in Einstein gravity with a massless scalar field in de Sitter space. Euclidean wormholes are possible due to the analytic continuation of the time as well as complexification of fields, where we need to impose the classicality after the Wick-rotation to the Lorentzian signatures. For some parameters, wormholes are preferred than Hawking-Moss instantons, and hence wormholes can be more fundamental than Hawking-Moss type instantons. Euclidean wormholes can be interpreted in three ways: (1) classical big bounce, (2) either tunneling from a small to a large universe or a creation of a collapsing and an expanding universe from nothing, and (3) either a transition from a contracting to a bouncing phase or a creation of two expanding universes from nothing. These various interpretations shed some light on challenges of singularities. In addition, these will help to understand tensions between various kinds of quantum gravity theories.

10. Approximation algorithms for Euclidean group TSP

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Elbassioni, Khaled; Fishkin, Aleksei V.; Mustafa, Nabil H.; Sitters, René

2005-01-01

In the Euclidean group Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), we are given a set of points P in the plane and a set of m connected regions, each containing at least one point of P. We want to find a tour of minimum length that visits at least one point in each region. This unifies the TSP with

11. Making Euclidean Geometry Compulsory: Are We Prepared?

Science.gov (United States)

Van Putten, Sonja; Howie, Sarah; Stols, Gerrit

2010-01-01

This study investigated the attitude towards, as well as the level of understanding of Euclidean geometry in pre-service mathematics education (PME) students. In order to do so, a case study was undertaken within which a one group pre-post-test procedure was conducted around a geometry module, and a representative group of students was interviewed…

12. On block irreducible forms over Euclidean domains

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

W. Edwin Clark

1980-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper a general canonical form for elements in a ring Euclidean with respect to a real valuation is established. It is also shown that this form is unique and minimal thus gives the arithmetical weight of an element with respect to a radix.

13. The relationship between least-cost and resistance distance.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Robby R Marrotte

Full Text Available Least-cost modelling and circuit theory are common analogs used in ecology and evolution to model gene flow or animal movement across landscapes. Least-cost modelling estimates the least-cost distance, whereas circuit theory estimates resistance distance. The bias added in choosing one method over the other has not been well documented. We designed an experiment to test whether both methods were linearly related. We also tested the sensitivity of these metrics to variation in Euclidean distance, spatial autocorrelation, the number of pixels representing the landscape, and data aggregation. We found that least-cost and resistance distance were not linearly related unless a transformation was applied. Resistance distance was less sensitive to the number of pixels representing a landscape and was also less sensitive than least-cost distance to the Euclidean distance between nodes. Spatial autocorrelation did not affect either method or the relationship between methods. Resistance distance was more sensitive to aggregation in any form compared to least-cost distance. Therefore, the metric used to infer movement or gene flow and the manipulations applied to the data used to calculate these metrics may govern findings.

14. Products of Snowflaked Euclidean Lines Are Not Minimal for Looking Down

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Joseph Matthieu

2017-11-01

Full Text Available We show that products of snowflaked Euclidean lines are not minimal for looking down. This question was raised in Fractured fractals and broken dreams, Problem 11.17, by David and Semmes. The proof uses arguments developed by Le Donne, Li and Rajala to prove that the Heisenberg group is not minimal for looking down. By a method of shortcuts, we define a new distance d such that the product of snowflaked Euclidean lines looks down on (RN , d, but not vice versa.

15. Calculus and analysis in Euclidean space

CERN Document Server

Shurman, Jerry

2016-01-01

The graceful role of analysis in underpinning calculus is often lost to their separation in the curriculum. This book entwines the two subjects, providing a conceptual approach to multivariable calculus closely supported by the structure and reasoning of analysis. The setting is Euclidean space, with the material on differentiation culminating in the inverse and implicit function theorems, and the material on integration culminating in the general fundamental theorem of integral calculus. More in-depth than most calculus books but less technical than a typical analysis introduction, Calculus and Analysis in Euclidean Space offers a rich blend of content to students outside the traditional mathematics major, while also providing transitional preparation for those who will continue on in the subject. The writing in this book aims to convey the intent of ideas early in discussion. The narrative proceeds through figures, formulas, and text, guiding the reader to do mathematics resourcefully by marshaling the skil...

16. Geometric Deep Learning: Going beyond Euclidean data

Science.gov (United States)

Bronstein, Michael M.; Bruna, Joan; LeCun, Yann; Szlam, Arthur; Vandergheynst, Pierre

2017-07-01

Many scientific fields study data with an underlying structure that is a non-Euclidean space. Some examples include social networks in computational social sciences, sensor networks in communications, functional networks in brain imaging, regulatory networks in genetics, and meshed surfaces in computer graphics. In many applications, such geometric data are large and complex (in the case of social networks, on the scale of billions), and are natural targets for machine learning techniques. In particular, we would like to use deep neural networks, which have recently proven to be powerful tools for a broad range of problems from computer vision, natural language processing, and audio analysis. However, these tools have been most successful on data with an underlying Euclidean or grid-like structure, and in cases where the invariances of these structures are built into networks used to model them. Geometric deep learning is an umbrella term for emerging techniques attempting to generalize (structured) deep neural models to non-Euclidean domains such as graphs and manifolds. The purpose of this paper is to overview different examples of geometric deep learning problems and present available solutions, key difficulties, applications, and future research directions in this nascent field.

17. Modelling non-Euclidean movement and landscape connectivity in highly structured ecological networks

Science.gov (United States)

Sutherland, Christopher; Fuller, Angela K.; Royle, J. Andrew

2015-01-01

Movement is influenced by landscape structure, configuration and geometry, but measuring distance as perceived by animals poses technical and logistical challenges. Instead, movement is typically measured using Euclidean distance, irrespective of location or landscape structure, or is based on arbitrary cost surfaces. A recently proposed extension of spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models resolves this issue using spatial encounter histories of individuals to calculate least-cost paths (ecological distance: Ecology, 94, 2013, 287) thereby relaxing the Euclidean assumption. We evaluate the consequences of not accounting for movement heterogeneity when estimating abundance in highly structured landscapes, and demonstrate the value of this approach for estimating biologically realistic space-use patterns and landscape connectivity.

18. Shape Analysis of Elastic Curves in Euclidean Spaces.

Science.gov (United States)

Srivastava, Anuj; Klassen, Eric; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jermyn, Ian H

2011-07-01

This paper introduces a square-root velocity (SRV) representation for analyzing shapes of curves in euclidean spaces under an elastic metric. In this SRV representation, the elastic metric simplifies to the IL(2) metric, the reparameterization group acts by isometries, and the space of unit length curves becomes the unit sphere. The shape space of closed curves is the quotient space of (a submanifold of) the unit sphere, modulo rotation, and reparameterization groups, and we find geodesics in that space using a path straightening approach. These geodesics and geodesic distances provide a framework for optimally matching, deforming, and comparing shapes. These ideas are demonstrated using: 1) shape analysis of cylindrical helices for studying protein structure, 2) shape analysis of facial curves for recognizing faces, 3) a wrapped probability distribution for capturing shapes of planar closed curves, and 4) parallel transport of deformations for predicting shapes from novel poses.

19. Foundation of Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries according to F. Klein

CERN Document Server

Redei, L; Stark, M

1968-01-01

Foundation of Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometries according to F. Klein aims to remedy the deficiency in geometry so that the ideas of F. Klein obtain the place they merit in the literature of mathematics.This book discusses the axioms of betweenness, lattice of linear subspaces, generalization of the notion of space, and coplanar Desargues configurations. The central collineations of the plane, fundamental theorem of projective geometry, and lines perpendicular to a proper plane are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the axioms of motion, basic projective configurations, properties

20. Does apartment's distance to an in-built transformer room predict magnetic field exposure levels?

Science.gov (United States)

Huss, Anke; Goris, Kelly; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans

2013-01-01

It has been shown that magnetic field exposure in apartments located directly on top or adjacent to transformer rooms is higher compared with exposure in apartments located further away from the transformer rooms. It is unclear whether this also translates into exposure contrast among individuals living in these apartments. We performed spot measurements of magnetic fields in 35 apartments in 14 apartment buildings with an in-built transformer and additionally performed 24-h personal measurements in a subsample of 24 individuals. Apartments placed directly on top of or adjacent to a transformer room had on average exposures of 0.42 μT, apartments on the second floor on top of a transformer room, or sharing a corner or edge with the transformer room had 0.11 μT, and apartments located further away from the transformer room had levels of 0.06 μT. Personal exposure levels were approximately a factor 2 lower compared with apartment averages, but still showed exposure contrasts, but only for those individuals who live in the apartments directly on top or adjacent to a transformer room compared with those living further away, with 0.23 versus 0.06 μT for personal exposure when indoors, respectively. A classification of individuals into 'high' and 'low' exposed based on the location of their apartment within a building with an in-built transformer is possible and could be applied in future epidemiological studies.

1. Holomorphic Corrections from Wrapped Euclidean Branes

CERN Document Server

2009-01-01

We discuss how non-perturbative corrections to the four-dimensional effective superpotential are generated by wrapped Euclidean D-branes. It is shown how such terms can be computed and we give a few examples of holomorphic couplings that arise from a D-brane instanton effect in string theory. Some of these instanton configurations give rise to phenomenologically desirable couplings although they do not admit an obvious interpretation in terms of standard gauge theory. This note is based on [R. Argurio, M. Bertolini, G. Ferretti, A. Lerda and C. Petersson, JHEP 0706, 067 (2007) [arXiv:0704.0262 [hep-th

2. Non-Euclidean Geometry and Gravitation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Stavroulakis N.

2006-04-01

Full Text Available A great deal of misunderstandings and mathematical errors are involved in the currently accepted theory of the gravitational field generated by an isotropic spherical mass. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a short account of the rigorous mathematical theory and exhibit a new formulation of the problem. The solution of the corresponding equations of gravitation points out several new and unusual features of the stationary gravitational field which are related to the non-Euclidean structure of the space. Moreover it precludes the black hole from being a mathematical and physical notion.

3. Introduction to non-Euclidean geometry

CERN Document Server

Wolfe, Harold E

2012-01-01

One of the first college-level texts for elementary courses in non-Euclidean geometry, this concise, readable volume is geared toward students familiar with calculus. A full treatment of the historical background explores the centuries-long efforts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate and their triumphant conclusion. Numerous original exercises form an integral part of the book.Topics include hyperbolic plane geometry and hyperbolic plane trigonometry, applications of calculus to the solutions of some problems in hyperbolic geometry, elliptic plane geometry and trigonometry, and the consistenc

4. Geometric comparison of popular mixture-model distances.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mitchell, Scott A.

2010-09-01

Statistical Latent Dirichlet Analysis produces mixture model data that are geometrically equivalent to points lying on a regular simplex in moderate to high dimensions. Numerous other statistical models and techniques also produce data in this geometric category, even though the meaning of the axes and coordinate values differs significantly. A distance function is used to further analyze these points, for example to cluster them. Several different distance functions are popular amongst statisticians; which distance function is chosen is usually driven by the historical preference of the application domain, information-theoretic considerations, or by the desirability of the clustering results. Relatively little consideration is usually given to how distance functions geometrically transform data, or the distances algebraic properties. Here we take a look at these issues, in the hope of providing complementary insight and inspiring further geometric thought. Several popular distances, {chi}{sup 2}, Jensen - Shannon divergence, and the square of the Hellinger distance, are shown to be nearly equivalent; in terms of functional forms after transformations, factorizations, and series expansions; and in terms of the shape and proximity of constant-value contours. This is somewhat surprising given that their original functional forms look quite different. Cosine similarity is the square of the Euclidean distance, and a similar geometric relationship is shown with Hellinger and another cosine. We suggest a geodesic variation of Hellinger. The square-root projection that arises in Hellinger distance is briefly compared to standard normalization for Euclidean distance. We include detailed derivations of some ratio and difference bounds for illustrative purposes. We provide some constructions that nearly achieve the worst-case ratios, relevant for contours.

5. Non-euclidean shadows of classical projective theorems

OpenAIRE

Vigara, Ruben

2014-01-01

Some translations into non-euclidean geometry of classical theorems of planar projective geometry are explored. The existence of some common triangle centers is dedeuced from theorems of Pascal and Chasles. Desargues' Theorem allows to construct a non-euclidean version of the Euler line and the nine-point circle of a triangle. The whole non-euclidean trigonometry (for triangles and generalizaed triangles) can be deduced from Menelaus' Theorem. A theorem of Carnot about affine triangles implie...

6. Euclidean supergravity and multi-centered solutions

Science.gov (United States)

Sabra, W. A.

2017-04-01

In ungauged supergravity theories, the no-force condition for BPS states implies the existence of stable static multi-centered solutions. The first solutions to Einstein-Maxwell theory with a positive cosmological constant describing an arbitrary number of charged black holes were found by Kastor and Traschen. Generalisations to five and higher dimensional theories were obtained by London. Multi-centered solutions in gauged supergravity, even with time-dependence allowed, have yet to be constructed. In this letter we construct supersymmetry-preserving multi-centered solutions for the case of D = 5, N = 2 Euclidean gauged supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. Higher dimensional Einstein-Maxwell multi-centered solutions are also presented.

7. Euclidean supergravity and multi-centered solutions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

W.A. Sabra

2017-04-01

Full Text Available In ungauged supergravity theories, the no-force condition for BPS states implies the existence of stable static multi-centered solutions. The first solutions to Einstein–Maxwell theory with a positive cosmological constant describing an arbitrary number of charged black holes were found by Kastor and Traschen. Generalisations to five and higher dimensional theories were obtained by London. Multi-centered solutions in gauged supergravity, even with time-dependence allowed, have yet to be constructed. In this letter we construct supersymmetry-preserving multi-centered solutions for the case of D=5, N=2 Euclidean gauged supergravity coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets. Higher dimensional Einstein–Maxwell multi-centered solutions are also presented.

8. Eigentensors of the Lichnerowicz operator in Euclidean Schwarzschild metrics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Martinez-Morales, J.L. [Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 273, Admon. de correos 3, C. P. 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

2006-09-01

Properties of the eigentensors of the Lichnerowicz Laplacian for the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric are discussed together with possible applications to the linear stability of higher-dimensional instantons. The main statement of the article is that any eigentensor of the Lichnerowicz operator in a Euclidean (possibly higher-dimensional) Schwarzschild metric is essentially singular at infinity. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

9. Euclidean null controllability of nonlinear infinite delay systems with ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Sufficient conditions for the Euclidean null controllability of non-linear delay systems with time varying multiple delays in the control and implicit derivative are derived. If the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable and if the control system is controllable, then the non-linear infinite delay system is Euclidean null ...

10. Euclidean null controllability of linear systems with delays in state ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Sufficient conditions are developed for the Euclidean controllability of linear systems with delay in state and in control. Namely, if the uncontrolled system is uniformly asymptotically stable and the control equation proper, then the control system is Euclidean null controllable. Journal of the Nigerian Association of ...

11. Smoothed analysis of partitioning algorithms for Euclidean functionals

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra; Dehne, F.; Iacono, J.; Sack, J.-R.

2011-01-01

Euclidean optimization problems such as TSP and minimum-length matching admit fast partitioning algorithms that compute near-optimal solutions on typical instances. We develop a general framework for the application of smoothed analysis to partitioning algorithms for Euclidean optimization problems.

12. Fractal and euclidean interaction in some transmission problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Maria Agostina Vivaldi

2007-12-01

Full Text Available In this talk some model examples of second order elliptic transmission problems with highly conductive layers will be described. Regularity and numerical results for solutions of transmission problems across fractal layers imbedded in Euclidean domains will be presented in the aim of better understanding the analytical problems which arise when fractal and Euclidean structures mutually interact.

13. Minimal Paths in the City Block: Human Performance on Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problems

Science.gov (United States)

Walwyn, Amy L.; Navarro, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

An experiment is reported comparing human performance on two kinds of visually presented traveling salesperson problems (TSPs), those reliant on Euclidean geometry and those reliant on city block geometry. Across multiple array sizes, human performance was near-optimal in both geometries, but was slightly better in the Euclidean format. Even so,…

14. Large parallel volumes of finite and compact sets in d-dimensional Euclidean space

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kampf, Jürgen; Kiderlen, Markus

condition, a Laurent expansion of V (Cr) for large r is obtained. The dependence of the coefficients on the geometry of C is explicitly given by so-called intrinsic power volumes of C. In the planar case such an expansion holds for all finite sets C. Finally, when C is a compact set in arbitrary dimension......The r-parallel volume V (Cr) of a compact subset C in d-dimensional Euclidean space is the volume of the set Cr of all points of Euclidean distance at most r > 0 from C. According to Steiner’s formula, V (Cr) is a polynomial in r when C is convex. For finite sets C satisfying a certain geometric......, it is shown that the difference of large r-parallel volumes of C and of its convex hull behaves like crd−3, where c is an intrinsic power volume of C....

15. Vector Nonlocal Euclidean Median: Principal Bundle Captures The Nature of Patch Space

CERN Document Server

Lin, Chen-Yun; Qi, Xin Jessica; Wu, Hau-Tieng

2016-01-01

We extensively study the rotational group structure inside the patch space by introducing the fiber bundle structure. The rotational group structure leads to a new image denoising algorithm called the \\textit{vector non-local Euclidean median} (VNLEM). The theoretical aspect of VNLEM is studied, which explains why the VNLEM and traditional non-local mean/non-local Euclidean median (NLEM) algorithm work. The numerical issue of the VNLEM is improved by taking the orientation feature in the commonly applied scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), and a theoretical analysis of the robustness of the orientation feature in the SIFT is provided. The VNLEM is applied to an image database of 1,361 images and compared with the NLEM. Different image quality assessments based on the error-sensitivity or the human visual system are applied to evaluate the performance. The results confirmed the potential of the VNLEM algorithm.

16. Euclidean plane and its relatives; a minimalist introduction

OpenAIRE

Petrunin, Anton

2013-01-01

The book is designed for a semester-long course in Foundations of Geometry and meant to be rigorous, conservative, elementary and minimalist. List of topics: Euclidean geometry: The Axioms / Half-planes / Congruent triangles / Perpendicular lines / Parallel lines and similar triangles / Triangle geometry. Inversive geometry: Inscribed angles / Inversion. Non-Euclidean geometry: Neutral plane / Hyperbolic plane / Geometry of h-plane. Additional topics: Affine geometry / Projective geometry / S...

17. Vibrations in glasses and Euclidean random matrix theory

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grigera, T.S.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Parisi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma - INFM Unita di Roma, Rome (Italy); Verrocchio, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Povo, Trento (Italy); INFM Unita di Trento, Trento (Italy)

2002-03-11

We study numerically and analytically a simple off-lattice model of scalar harmonic vibrations by means of Euclidean random matrix theory. Since the spectrum of this model shares the most puzzling spectral features with the high-frequency domain of glasses (non-Rayleigh broadening of the Brillouin peak, boson peak and secondary peak), Euclidean random matrix theory provides a single and fairly simple theoretical framework for their explanation. (author)

18. Humanoid posture generation on non-Euclidean manifolds

OpenAIRE

Brossette, Stanislas; Escande, Adrien; Duchemin, Grégoire; Chrétien, Benjamin; Kheddar, Abderrahmane

2015-01-01

International audience; We present a reformulation of the posture generation problem that encompasses non-Euclidean manifolds. Such a formulation allows a more elegant mathematical description of the constraints, which we exemplify through some scenarios in the simulation results section. In our previous work, the posture generation problem is formulated as a non-linear optimization program with constraints expressed only through Euclidean manifolds; we solve the latter problem using on-the-s...

19. Statistical 2D and 3D shape analysis using Non-Euclidean Metrics

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Larsen, Rasmus; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Wrobel, Mark Christoph

2002-01-01

We address the problem of extracting meaningful, uncorrelated biological modes of variation from tangent space shape coordinates in 2D and 3D using non-Euclidean metrics. We adapt the maximum autocorrelation factor analysis and the minimum noise fraction transform to shape decomposition....... Furthermore, we study metrics based on repated annotations of a training set. We define a way of assessing the correlation between landmarks contrary to landmark coordinates. Finally, we apply the proposed methods to a 2D data set consisting of outlines of lungs and a 3D/(4D) data set consisting of sets...

20. Measurement of trabecular bone thickness in the limited resolution regime of in vivo MRI by fuzzy distance transform.

Science.gov (United States)

Saha, Punam K; Wehrli, Felix W

2004-01-01

Trabecular or cancellous bone, the type of bone found in the vertebrae and near the joints of long bones, consists of a network of plates and struts. Accurate measurement of trabecular thickness is of significant interest, for example, to assess the effectiveness of anabolic (bone forming) agents of patients with osteoporosis. Here, we introduce a new fuzzy distance transform (FDT)-based thickness computation method that obviates binary segmentation and that can effectively deal with images acquired at a voxel size comparable to the typical trabecular bone thickness. The method's robustness is shown on the basis of micro-CT images of human trabecular bone, resampled at progressively coarser resolution and after application of rotation and addition of noise as a means to simulate the in vivo situation. Reproducibility of the method is demonstrated with micro-CT images by comparing histograms of thickness within and between data sets and with micro-MRI volume data sets of human volunteers imaged repeatedly. Finally, with in vivo micro-MR images from a prior study in rabbits subjected to corticosteroid exposure, it is demonstrated that short-term treatment resulting in trabecular thinning can be quantified with the new method.

1. Automated segmentation and isolation of touching cell nuclei in cytopathology smear images of pleural effusion using distance transform watershed method

Science.gov (United States)

Win, Khin Yadanar; Choomchuay, Somsak; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

2017-06-01

The automated segmentation of cell nuclei is an essential stage in the quantitative image analysis of cell nuclei extracted from smear cytology images of pleural fluid. Cell nuclei can indicate cancer as the characteristics of cell nuclei are associated with cells proliferation and malignancy in term of size, shape and the stained color. Nevertheless, automatic nuclei segmentation has remained challenging due to the artifacts caused by slide preparation, nuclei heterogeneity such as the poor contrast, inconsistent stained color, the cells variation, and cells overlapping. In this paper, we proposed a watershed-based method that is capable to segment the nuclei of the variety of cells from cytology pleural fluid smear images. Firstly, the original image is preprocessed by converting into the grayscale image and enhancing by adjusting and equalizing the intensity using histogram equalization. Next, the cell nuclei are segmented using OTSU thresholding as the binary image. The undesirable artifacts are eliminated using morphological operations. Finally, the distance transform based watershed method is applied to isolate the touching and overlapping cell nuclei. The proposed method is tested with 25 Papanicolaou (Pap) stained pleural fluid images. The accuracy of our proposed method is 92%. The method is relatively simple, and the results are very promising.

2. What if? Exploring the multiverse through Euclidean wormholes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain); Kraemer, Manuel [University of Szczecin, Institute of Physics, Szczecin (Poland); Morais, Joao [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bilbao (Spain); Robles-Perez, Salvador [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain)

2017-10-15

We present Euclidean wormhole solutions describing possible bridges within the multiverse. The study is carried out in the framework of third quantisation. The matter content is modelled through a scalar field which supports the existence of a whole collection of universes. The instanton solutions describe Euclidean solutions that connect baby universes with asymptotically de Sitter universes. We compute the tunnelling probability of these processes. Considering the current bounds on the energy scale of inflation and assuming that all the baby universes are nucleated with the same probability, we draw some conclusions about which universes are more likely to tunnel and therefore undergo a standard inflationary era. (orig.)

3. What if? Exploring the multiverse through Euclidean wormholes

Science.gov (United States)

Bouhmadi-López, Mariam; Krämer, Manuel; Morais, João; Robles-Pérez, Salvador

2017-10-01

We present Euclidean wormhole solutions describing possible bridges within the multiverse. The study is carried out in the framework of third quantisation. The matter content is modelled through a scalar field which supports the existence of a whole collection of universes. The instanton solutions describe Euclidean solutions that connect baby universes with asymptotically de Sitter universes. We compute the tunnelling probability of these processes. Considering the current bounds on the energy scale of inflation and assuming that all the baby universes are nucleated with the same probability, we draw some conclusions about which universes are more likely to tunnel and therefore undergo a standard inflationary era.

4. From geometry to algebra: the Euclidean way with technology

Science.gov (United States)

Ferrarello, Daniela; Flavia Mammana, Maria; Pennisi, Mario

2016-05-01

In this paper, we present the results of an experimental classroom activity, history-based with a phylogenetic approach, to achieve algebra properties through geometry. In particular, we used Euclidean propositions, processed them by a dynamic geometry system and translate them into algebraic special products.

5. Approximation algorithms for Euclidean group TSP and TSP with neighborhoods

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Elbassioni, K.M.; Fishkin, A.V.; Sitters, R.A.

2009-01-01

In the Euclidean traveling salesman problem with discrete neighborhoods, we are given a set of points P in the plane and a set of n connected regions (neighborhoods), each containing at least one point of P. We seek to find a tour of minimum length which visits at least one point in each region. We

6. Kinematic Mapping in Semi-Euclidean 4-Space

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mehdi JAFARI

2014-10-01

Full Text Available We study the some algebraic properties of matrix associated to Hamilton operators is defined for semi-quaternions. The kinematic mapping corresponding to these operators in semi-Euclidean 4-space is same as the kinematic mapping of Blaschke and Grünwald.Keywords: Hamilton operators, Quasi-elliptic geometry, Semi-quaternion

7. Smoothed analysis of partitioning algorithms for Euclidean functionals

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra

2013-01-01

Euclidean optimization problems such as TSP and minimum-length matching admit fast partitioning algorithms that compute near-optimal solutions on typical instances. In order to explain this performance, we develop a general framework for the application of smoothed analysis to partitioning

8. Attitudinal scale measures in Euclidean geometry: what do they ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The purpose of the study was to look at the two forms of validation, i.e. face validity and construct validity, of an attitudinal scale measuring learners' attitude towards Euclidean geometry. The article teases out elements involved in face and construct validation and then engages in a discourse to highlight and investigate ...

9. Boundary conformal anomalies on hyperbolic spaces and Euclidean balls

Science.gov (United States)

Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego; Russo, Jorge G.

2017-12-01

We compute conformal anomalies for conformal field theories with free conformal scalars and massless spin 1/2 fields in hyperbolic space ℍ d and in the ball B^d , for 2≤d≤7. These spaces are related by a conformal transformation. In even dimensional spaces, the conformal anomalies on ℍ2 n and B^{2n} are shown to be identical. In odd dimensional spaces, the conformal anomaly on B^{2n+1} comes from a boundary contribution, which exactly coincides with that of ℍ2 n + 1 provided one identifies the UV short-distance cutoff on B^{2n+1} with the inverse large distance IR cutoff on ℍ2 n + 1, just as prescribed by the conformal map. As an application, we determine, for the first time, the conformal anomaly coefficients multiplying the Euler characteristic of the boundary for scalars and half-spin fields with various boundary conditions in d = 5 and d = 7.

10. TOPSIS with statistical distances: A new approach to MADM

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Vijaya Babu Vommi

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Multiple attribute decision making (MADM methods are very useful in choosing the best alternative among the available finite but conflicting alternatives. TOPSIS is one of the MADM methods, which is simple in its methodology and logic. In TOPSIS, Euclidean distances of each alternative from the positive and negative ideal solutions are utilized to find the best alternative. In literature, apart from Euclidean distances, the city block distances have also been tried to find the separations measures. In general, the attribute data are distributed with unequal ranges and also possess moderate to high correlations. Hence, in the present paper, use of statistical distances is proposed in place of Euclidean distances. Procedures to find the best alternatives are developed using statistical and weighted statistical distances respectively. The proposed methods are illustrated with some industrial problems taken from literature. Results show that the proposed methods can be used as new alternatives in MADM for choosing the best solutions.

11. Biharmonic Submanifolds with Parallel Mean Curvature Vector in Pseudo-Euclidean Spaces

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fu, Yu, E-mail: yufudufe@gmail.com [Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, School of Mathematics and Quantitative Economics (China)

2013-12-15

In this paper, we investigate biharmonic submanifolds in pseudo-Euclidean spaces with arbitrary index and dimension. We give a complete classification of biharmonic spacelike submanifolds with parallel mean curvature vector in pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We also determine all biharmonic Lorentzian surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector field in pseudo-Euclidean spaces.

12. TRANSFORMATION

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

LACKS,S.A.

2003-10-09

Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

13. Detecting community structure in networks via consensus dynamics and spatial transformation

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Bo; He, He; Hu, Xiaoming

2017-10-01

We present a novel clustering algorithm for community detection, based on the dynamics towards consensus and spatial transformation. The community detection problem is translated to a clustering problem in the N-dimensional Euclidean space by three stages: (1) the dynamics running on a network is emulated to a procedure of gas diffusion in a finite space; (2) the pressure distribution vectors are used to describe the influence that each node exerts on the whole network; (3) the similarity measures between two nodes are quantified in the N-dimensional Euclidean space by k-Nearest Neighbors method. After such steps, we could merge clusters according to their similarity distances and show the community structure of a network by a hierarchical clustering tree. Tests on several benchmark networks are presented and the results show the effectiveness and reliability of our algorithm.

14. Euclidean to Minkowski Bethe-Salpeter amplitude and observables

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carbonell, J. [Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Frederico, T. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil); Karmanov, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2017-01-15

We propose a method to reconstruct the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude in Minkowski space given the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter amplitude - or alternatively the light-front wave function - as input. The method is based on the numerical inversion of the Nakanishi integral representation and computing the corresponding weight function. This inversion procedure is, in general, rather unstable, and we propose several ways to considerably reduce the instabilities. In terms of the Nakanishi weight function, one can easily compute the BS amplitude, the LF wave function and the electromagnetic form factor. The latter ones are very stable in spite of residual instabilities in the weight function. This procedure allows both, to continue the Euclidean BS solution in the Minkowski space and to obtain a BS amplitude from a LF wave function. (orig.)

15. Wavelet-based 3D reconstruction of microcalcification clusters from two mammographic views: new evidence that fractal tumors are malignant and Euclidean tumors are benign.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kendra A Batchelder

Full Text Available The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC and mediolateral-oblique (MLO views. As a novelty, we define the "CC-MLO fractal dimension plot", where a "fractal zone" and "Euclidean zones" (non-fractal are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases. Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue.

16. Wavelet-based 3D reconstruction of microcalcification clusters from two mammographic views: new evidence that fractal tumors are malignant and Euclidean tumors are benign.

Science.gov (United States)

Batchelder, Kendra A; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Albert, Seth; Guimond, Lyne; Kestener, Pierre; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre

2014-01-01

The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC) in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views. As a novelty, we define the "CC-MLO fractal dimension plot", where a "fractal zone" and "Euclidean zones" (non-fractal) are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign) obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases) were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases). Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue.

17. Wavelet-Based 3D Reconstruction of Microcalcification Clusters from Two Mammographic Views: New Evidence That Fractal Tumors Are Malignant and Euclidean Tumors Are Benign

Science.gov (United States)

Batchelder, Kendra A.; Tanenbaum, Aaron B.; Albert, Seth; Guimond, Lyne; Kestener, Pierre; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre

2014-01-01

The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC) in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views. As a novelty, we define the “CC-MLO fractal dimension plot”, where a “fractal zone” and “Euclidean zones” (non-fractal) are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign) obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases) were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases). Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue. PMID:25222610

18. On dynamical mass generation in Euclidean de Sitter space

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Moch, Paul; Beneke, Martin [Physik Department T31, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

2013-07-01

We consider the perturbative treatment of a minimally coupled, massless, self-interacting scalar field in Euclidean de Sitter space. Generalizing the work of Rajaraman, we obtain the dynamical mass m{sup 2}∝√(λ)H{sup 2} of the scalar for non-vanishing Lagrangian masses and the first perturbative quantum correction in the massless case. We introduce the rules of a systematic perturbative expansion, which treats the zero-mode non-perturbatively, and goes in powers of √(λ). The infrared divergences of the massless free field theory are self-regulated by the zero-mode dynamics. Thus, in Euclidean de Sitter space the interacting and massless scalar field is just as well-defined as the massive field. We then show that the dynamical mass can be recovered from the diagrammatic expansion of the self-energy and a consistent solution of the Schwinger-Dyson equation. This requires the summation of a divergent series of loop diagrams of arbitrarily high order. We note that the value of the long-wavelength mode two-point function in Euclidean de Sitter space agrees at leading order with the stochastic treatment in Lorentzian de Sitter space, in any number of dimensions.

19. TRANSFORMER

Science.gov (United States)

Baker, W.R.

1959-08-25

Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

20. Transformation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Peters, Terri

2011-01-01

Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

1. Travel Distance and Transformation of Injected Emulsified Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles in the Subsurface During Two and Half Years

Science.gov (United States)

Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) such as Toda Kogyo RNIP-10DS has been used for site remediation, yet information is lacking regarding how far injected NZVI can travel, how long it lasts, and how it transforms to other minerals in a groundwater system. Previously we reported effe...

2. Polynomial degree reduction in the discrete L2-norm equals best Euclidean approximation of h-Bézier coefficients

KAUST Repository

2015-06-04

We show that the best degree reduction of a given polynomial P from degree n to m with respect to the discrete (Formula presented.)-norm is equivalent to the best Euclidean distance of the vector of h-Bézier coefficients of P from the vector of degree raised h-Bézier coefficients of polynomials of degree m. Moreover, we demonstrate the adequacy of h-Bézier curves for approaching the problem of weighted discrete least squares approximation. Applications to discrete orthogonal polynomials are also presented. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

3. Norm-Euclidean Galois fields and the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis

OpenAIRE

McGown, Kevin J.

2011-01-01

Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis (GRH), we show that the norm-Euclidean Galois cubic fields are exactly those with discriminant $\\Delta=7^2,9^2,13^2,19^2,31^2,37^2,43^2,61^2,67^2,103^2,109^2,127^2,157^2$. A large part of the proof is in establishing the following more general result: Let $K$ be a Galois number field of odd prime degree $\\ell$ and conductor $f$. Assume the GRH for $\\zeta_K(s)$. If $38(\\ell-1)^2(\\log f)^6\\log\\log f 4. A Class of Weingarten Surfaces in Euclidean 3-Space Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Yu Fu 2013-01-01 Full Text Available The class of biconservative surfaces in Euclidean 3-space 3 are defined in (Caddeo et al., 2012 by the equation A(grad H=-H grad H for the mean curvature function H and the Weingarten operator A. In this paper, we consider the more general case that surfaces in 3 satisfying A(grad H=kH grad H for some constant k are called generalized bi-conservative surfaces. We show that this class of surfaces are linear Weingarten surfaces. We also give a complete classification of generalized bi-conservative surfaces in 3. 5. Periodic Euclidean solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Frost, K.L.; Yaffe, L.G. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Seattle, Washington 98105-1560 (United States) 1999-03-01 We examine periodic, spherically symmetric, classical solutions of SU(2)-Higgs theory in four-dimensional Euclidean space. Classical perturbation theory is used to construct periodic time-dependent solutions in the neighborhood of the static sphaleron. The behavior of the action, as a function of period, changes character depending on the value of the Higgs boson mass. The required pattern of bifurcations of solutions as a function of the Higgs boson mass is examined, and implications for the temperature dependence of the baryon number violation rate in the standard model are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society} 6. Finite Geometries: a tool for better understanding of Euclidean Geometry Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Antonio Maturo 2014-06-01 Full Text Available An effective tool to really understand Euclidean geometry is the study of alternative models and their applications. In fact, they allow you to understand the real extent of various axioms that, when viewed from the Euclidean geometry, seem obvious or even unnecessary. The work begins with a review of Hilbert's axiomatic, starting from more general point of view adopted by Albrecht Beutelspacher and Ute Rosenbaum in their book on the fundamentals of general projective geometry (1998, defined by a system of incidence axioms. Le Geometrie Finite: uno strumento per una migliore comprensione della Geometria Euclidea Uno strumento efficace per comprendere realmente la geometria euclidea è lo studio di modelli alternativi e delle loro applicazioni. Infatti essi permettono di capire la reale portata di vari assiomi che visti dall’interno della geometria euclidea sembrerebbero scontati o addirittura inutili. Il lavoro parte da una rivisitazione dell’assiomatica di Hilbert a partire dal punto di vista più generale adottato da Albrecht Beutelspacher e Ute Rosenbaum nel loro libro del 1998 sui fondamenti della geometria proiettiva generale, definita attraverso un sistema di assiomi di incidenza. Parole Chiave: Critica dei fondamenti; Geometrie finite; Assiomi di Hilbert; Applicazioni. 7. Shape anisotropy: tensor distance to anisotropy measure Science.gov (United States) Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; El-Hilo, Saba; Atkins, M. S. 2011-03-01 Fractional anisotropy, defined as the distance of a diffusion tensor from its closest isotropic tensor, has been extensively studied as quantitative anisotropy measure for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images (DT-MRI). It has been used to reveal the white matter profile of brain images, as guiding feature for seeding and stopping in fiber tractography and for the diagnosis and assessment of degenerative brain diseases. Despite its extensive use in DT-MRI community, however, not much attention has been given to the mathematical correctness of its derivation from diffusion tensors which is achieved using Euclidean dot product in 9D space. But, recent progress in DT-MRI has shown that the space of diffusion tensors does not form a Euclidean vector space and thus Euclidean dot product is not appropriate for tensors. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust rotationally invariant diffusion anisotropy measure derived using the recently proposed Log-Euclidean and J-divergence tensor distance measures. An interesting finding of our work is that given a diffusion tensor, its closest isotropic tensor is different for different tensor distance metrics used. We demonstrate qualitatively that our new anisotropy measure reveals superior white matter profile of DT-MR brain images and analytically show that it has a higher signal to noise ratio than fractional anisotropy. 8. Transformation of spectra of refraction index fluctuations in axisymmetric supersonic jet with the increase in the distance from the nozzle Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Marakasov Dmitrii 2017-01-01 Full Text Available In this paper the results of reconstruction of the radial dependence of refraction index fluctuations spectra in axisymmetric supersonic jet from laser transillumination data are presented. The reconstruction algorithm uses experimental spectra of laser radiation, received behind the jet, and the distribution of time-averaged axial air velocity within the jet. Laser transillumination experiments were performed on the Vertical Jet Unit of ITAM SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia. Reconstruction results show the refraction index spectra obey the power-law model, with power index different from that of the Kolmogorov turbulence model (−11/3. Within the first two barrels of the jet the power index is changing from ~−1 near the nozzle to ~−2.7 near the second Mach disk. Also some variations of power index and amplitude coefficient with the distance from the jet axis are found. 9. Estimation of cardiac motion in cine-MRI sequences by correlation transform optical flow of monogenic features distance Science.gov (United States) Gao, Bin; Liu, Wanyu; Wang, Liang; Liu, Zhengjun; Croisille, Pierre; Delachartre, Philippe; Clarysse, Patrick 2016-12-01 Cine-MRI is widely used for the analysis of cardiac function in clinical routine, because of its high soft tissue contrast and relatively short acquisition time in comparison with other cardiac MRI techniques. The gray level distribution in cardiac cine-MRI is relatively homogenous within the myocardium, and can therefore make motion quantification difficult. To ensure that the motion estimation problem is well posed, more image features have to be considered. This work is inspired by a method previously developed for color image processing. The monogenic signal provides a framework to estimate the local phase, orientation, and amplitude, of an image, three features which locally characterize the 2D intensity profile. The independent monogenic features are combined into a 3D matrix for motion estimation. To improve motion estimation accuracy, we chose the zero-mean normalized cross-correlation as a matching measure, and implemented a bilateral filter for denoising and edge-preservation. The monogenic features distance is used in lieu of the color space distance in the bilateral filter. Results obtained from four realistic simulated sequences outperformed two other state of the art methods even in the presence of noise. The motion estimation errors (end point error) using our proposed method were reduced by about 20% in comparison with those obtained by the other tested methods. The new methodology was evaluated on four clinical sequences from patients presenting with cardiac motion dysfunctions and one healthy volunteer. The derived strain fields were analyzed favorably in their ability to identify myocardial regions with impaired motion. 10. Representing distance, consuming distance DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Larsen, Gunvor Riber Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... to mobility and its social context. Such an understanding can be approached through representations, as distance is being represented in various ways, most noticeably in maps and through the notions of space and Otherness. The question this talk subsequently asks is whether these representations of distance... 11. Detecting Malicious Nodes in Medical Smartphone Networks Through Euclidean Distance-Based Behavioral Profiling DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Meng, Weizhi; Li, Wenjuan; Wang, Yu 2017-01-01 With the increasing digitization of the healthcare industry, a wide range of medical devices are Internet- and inter-connected. Mobile devices (e.g., smartphones) are one common facility used in the healthcare industry to improve the quality of service and experience for both patients and healthc... 12. Acknowledging crossing-avoidance heuristic violations when solving the Euclidean travelling salesperson problem. Science.gov (United States) Kyritsis, Markos; Gulliver, Stephen R; Feredoes, Eva 2017-06-12 If a salesperson aims to visit a number of cities only once before returning home, which route should they take to minimise the total distance/cost? This combinatorial optimization problem is called the travelling salesperson problem (TSP) and has a rapid growth in the number of possible solutions as the number of cities increases. Despite its complexity, when cities and routes are represented in 2D Euclidean space (ETSP), humans solve the problem with relative ease, by applying simple visual heuristics. One of the most important heuristics appears to be the avoidance of path crossings, which will always result in more optimal solutions than tours that contain crossings. This study systematically investigates whether the occurrence of crossings is impacted by geometric properties by modelling their relationship using binomial logistic regression as well as random forests. Results show that properties, such as the number of nodes making up the convex hull, the standard deviation of the angles between nodes, the average distance between all nodes in the graph, the total number of nodes in the graph, and the tour cost (i.e., a measure of performance), are significant predictors of whether crossings are likely to occur. 13. Curvature-driven morphing of non-Euclidean shells. Science.gov (United States) Pezzulla, Matteo; Stoop, Norbert; Jiang, Xin; Holmes, D P 2017-05-01 We investigate how thin structures change their shape in response to non-mechanical stimuli that can be interpreted as variations in the structure's natural curvature. Starting from the theory of non-Euclidean plates and shells, we derive an effective model that reduces a three-dimensional stimulus to the natural fundamental forms of the mid-surface of the structure, incorporating expansion, or growth, in the thickness. Then, we apply the model to a variety of thin bodies, from flat plates to spherical shells, obtaining excellent agreement between theory and numerics. We show how cylinders and cones can either bend more or unroll, and eventually snap and rotate. We also study the nearly isometric deformations of a spherical shell and describe how this shape change is ruled by the geometry of a spindle. As the derived results stem from a purely geometrical model, they are general and scalable. 14. On the rate of quantum ergodicity in Euclidean billiards CERN Document Server Bäcker, A; Stifter, P 1998-01-01 For a large class of quantized ergodic flows the quantum ergodicity theorem due to Shnirelman, Zelditch, Colin de Verdière and others states that almost all eigenfunctions become equidistributed in the semiclassical limit. In this work we first give a short introduction to the formulation of the quantum ergodicity theorem for general observables in terms of pseudodifferential operators and show that it is equivalent to the semiclassical eigenfunction hypothesis for the Wigner function in the case of ergodic systems. Of great importance is the rate by which the quantum mechanical expectation values of an observable tend to their mean value. This is studied numerically for three Euclidean billiards (stadium, cosine and cardioid billiard) using up to 6000 eigenfunctions. We find that in configuration space the rate of quantum ergodicity is strongly influenced by localized eigenfunctions like bouncing ball modes or scarred eigenfunctions. We give a detailed discussion and explanation of these effects using a sim... 15. Random shortest paths: non-euclidean instances for metric optimization problems NARCIS (Netherlands) Bringmann, Karl; Engels, Christian; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra; Chatterjee, K.; Sgall, J. 2013-01-01 Probabilistic analysis for metric optimization problems has mostly been conducted on random Euclidean instances, but little is known about metric instances drawn from distributions other than the Euclidean. This motivates our study of random metric instances for optimization problems obtained as 16. Random Shortest Paths: Non-Euclidean Instances for Metric Optimization Problems NARCIS (Netherlands) Bringmann, Karl; Engels, Christian; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra Probabilistic analysis for metric optimization problems has mostly been conducted on random Euclidean instances, but little is known about metric instances drawn from distributions other than the Euclidean. This motivates our study of random metric instances for optimization problems obtained as 17. Locality-Sensitive Hashing for Chi2 distance. Science.gov (United States) Gorisse, David; Cord, Matthieu; Precioso, Frederic 2012-02-01 In the past 10 years, new powerful algorithms based on efficient data structures have been proposed to solve the problem of Nearest Neighbors search (or Approximate Nearest Neighbors search). If the Euclidean Locality Sensitive Hashing algorithm, which provides approximate nearest neighbors in a euclidean space with sublinear complexity, is probably the most popular, the euclidean metric does not always provide as accurate and as relevant results when considering similarity measure as the Earth-Mover Distance and 2 distances. In this paper, we present a new LSH scheme adapted to 2 distance for approximate nearest neighbors search in high-dimensional spaces. We define the specific hashing functions, we prove their local-sensitivity, and compare, through experiments, our method with the Euclidean Locality Sensitive Hashing algorithm in the context of image retrieval on real image databases. The results prove the relevance of such a new LSH scheme either providing far better accuracy in the context of image retrieval than euclidean scheme for an equivalent speed, or providing an equivalent accuracy but with a high gain in terms of processing speed. 18.$O(N)$model in Euclidean de Sitter space: beyond the leading infrared approximation CERN Document Server Nacir, Diana López; Trombetta, Leonardo G 2016-01-01 We consider an$O(N)$scalar field model with quartic interaction in$d$-dimensional Euclidean de Sitter space. In order to avoid the problems of the standard perturbative calculations for light and massless fields, we generalize to the$O(N)$theory a systematic method introduced previously for a single field, which treats the zero modes exactly and the nonzero modes perturbatively. We compute the two-point functions taking into account not only the leading infrared contribution, coming from the self-interaction of the zero modes, but also corrections due to the interaction of the ultraviolet modes. For the model defined in the corresponding Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime, we obtain the two-point functions by analytical continuation. We point out that a partial resummation of the leading secular terms (which necessarily involves nonzero modes) is required to obtain a decay at large distances for massless fields. We implement this resummation along with a systematic double expansion in an effective coupling c... 19. Biased discriminant euclidean embedding for content-based image retrieval. Science.gov (United States) Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng 2010-02-01 With many potential multimedia applications, content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has recently gained more attention for image management and web search. A wide variety of relevance feedback (RF) algorithms have been developed in recent years to improve the performance of CBIR systems. These RF algorithms capture user's preferences and bridge the semantic gap. However, there is still a big room to further the RF performance, because the popular RF algorithms ignore the manifold structure of image low-level visual features. In this paper, we propose the biased discriminative Euclidean embedding (BDEE) which parameterises samples in the original high-dimensional ambient space to discover the intrinsic coordinate of image low-level visual features. BDEE precisely models both the intraclass geometry and interclass discrimination and never meets the undersampled problem. To consider unlabelled samples, a manifold regularization-based item is introduced and combined with BDEE to form the semi-supervised BDEE, or semi-BDEE for short. To justify the effectiveness of the proposed BDEE and semi-BDEE, we compare them against the conventional RF algorithms and show a significant improvement in terms of accuracy and stability based on a subset of the Corel image gallery. 20. Numerical evaluation of tensor Feynman integrals in Euclidean kinematics Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Gluza, J.; Kajda [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, T.; Yundin, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany) 2010-10-15 For the investigation of higher order Feynman integrals, potentially with tensor structure, it is highly desirable to have numerical methods and automated tools for dedicated, but sufficiently 'simple' numerical approaches. We elaborate two algorithms for this purpose which may be applied in the Euclidean kinematical region and in d=4-2{epsilon} dimensions. One method uses Mellin-Barnes representations for the Feynman parameter representation of multi-loop Feynman integrals with arbitrary tensor rank. Our Mathematica package AMBRE has been extended for that purpose, and together with the packages MB (M. Czakon) or MBresolve (A. V. Smirnov and V. A. Smirnov) one may perform automatically a numerical evaluation of planar tensor Feynman integrals. Alternatively, one may apply sector decomposition to planar and non-planar multi-loop {epsilon}-expanded Feynman integrals with arbitrary tensor rank. We automatized the preparations of Feynman integrals for an immediate application of the package sectordecomposition (C. Bogner and S. Weinzierl) so that one has to give only a proper definition of propagators and numerators. The efficiency of the two implementations, based on Mellin-Barnes representations and sector decompositions, is compared. The computational packages are publicly available. (orig.) 1. Euclidean supersymmetric solutions with the self-dual Weyl tensor Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Masato Nozawa 2017-07-01 Full Text Available We explore the Euclidean supersymmetric solutions admitting the self-dual gauge field in the framework of N=2 minimal gauged supergravity in four dimensions. According to the classification scheme utilizing the spinorial geometry or the bilinears of Killing spinors, the general solution preserves one quarter of supersymmetry and is described by the Przanowski–Tod class with the self-dual Weyl tensor. We demonstrate that there exists an additional Killing spinor, provided the Przanowski–Tod metric admits a Killing vector that commutes with the principal one. The proof proceeds by recasting the metric into another Przanowski–Tod form. This formalism enables us to show that the self-dual Reissner–Nordström–Taub–NUT–AdS metric possesses a second Killing spinor, which has been missed over many years. We also address the supersymmetry when the Przanowski–Tod space is conformal to each of the self-dual ambi-toric Kähler metrics. It turns out that three classes of solutions are all reduced to the self-dual Carter family, by virtue of the nondegenerate Killing–Yano tensor. 2. Uncertainty principles for the Cherednik transform Indian Academy of Sciences (India) We shall investigate two uncertainty principles for the Cherednik transform on the Euclidean space a a ; Miyachi's theorem and Beurling's theorem. We give an analogue of Miyachi's theorem for the Cherednik transform and under the assumption that a a has a hypergroup structure, an analogue of Beurling's theorem for the ... 3. The Euclidean quantisation of Kerr-Newman-de Sitter black holes Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Chruściel, Piotr T.; Hörzinger, Michael [Erwin Schrödinger Institute and Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Vienna (Austria) 2016-04-04 We study the family of Einstein-Maxwell instantons associated with the Kerr-Newman metrics with a positive cosmological constant. This leads to a quantisation condition on the masses, charges, and angular momentum parameters of the resulting Euclidean solutions. 4. A Non-Euclidean Gradient Descent Framework for Non-Convex Matrix Factorization OpenAIRE Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kao, Yu-Chun; Karimi Mahabadi, Rabeeh; Alp, Yurtsever; Kyrillidis, Anastasios; Cevher, Volkan 2017-01-01 We study convex optimization problems that feature low-rank matrix solutions. In such scenarios, non-convex methods offer significant advantages over convex methods due to their lower space complexity as well as faster convergence speed. Moreover, many of these methods feature rigorous approximation guarantees. Non-convex algorithms are simple to analyze and implement as they perform Euclidean gradient descent on matrix factors. In contrast, this paper derives non-Euclidean optimization fram... 5. Distance of Sample Measurement Points to Prototype Catalog Curve DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Hjorth, Poul G.; Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Perram, John 2006-01-01 We discuss strategies for comparing discrete data points to a catalog (reference) curve by means of the Euclidean distance from each point to the curve in a pump's head H vs. flow Qdiagram. In particular we find that a method currently in use is inaccurate. We propose several alternatives that ar... 6. Classification of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML M2 and AML M3) using Momentum Back Propagation from Watershed Distance Transform Segmented Images Science.gov (United States) Suryani, Esti; Wiharto; Palgunadi, Sarngadi; Nurcahya Pradana, TP 2017-01-01 This study uses image processing to analyze white blood cell with leukemia indicated that includes the identification, analysis of shapes and sizes, as well as white blood cell count indicated the symptoms of leukemia. A case study in this research was blood cells, from the type of leukemia Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), M2 and M3 in particular. Image processing operations used for segmentation by utilizing the color conversion from RGB (Red, Green dab Blue) to obtain white blood cell candidates. Furthermore, the white blood cells candidates are separated by other cells with active contour without edge. WBC (White Blood Cell) results still have intersected or overlap condition. Watershed distance transform method can separate overlap of WBC. Furthermore, the separation of the nucleus from the cytoplasm using the HSI (Hue Saturation Intensity). The further characteristic extraction process is done by calculating the area WBC, WBC edge, roundness, the ratio of the nucleus, the mean and standard deviation of pixel intensities. The feature extraction results are used for training and testing in determining the classification of AML: M2 and M3 by using the momentum backpropagation algorithm. The classification process is done by testing the numeric data input from the feature extraction results that have been entered in the database. K-Fold validation is used to divide the amount of training data and to test the classification of AML M2 and M3. The experiment results of eight images trials, the result, was 94.285% per cell accuracy and 75% per image accuracy 7. FAST DISCRETE CURVELET TRANSFORM BASED ANISOTROPIC FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR IRIS RECOGNITION Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Amol D. Rahulkar 2010-11-01 Full Text Available The feature extraction plays a very important role in iris recognition. Recent researches on multiscale analysis provide good opportunity to extract more accurate information for iris recognition. In this work, a new directional iris texture features based on 2-D Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT is proposed. The proposed approach divides the normalized iris image into six sub-images and the curvelet transform is applied independently on each sub-image. The anisotropic feature vector for each sub-image is derived using the directional energies of the curvelet coefficients. These six feature vectors are combined to create the resultant feature vector. During recognition, the nearest neighbor classifier based on Euclidean distance has been used for authentication. The effectiveness of the proposed approach has been tested on two different databases namely UBIRIS and MMU1. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed approach. 8. On approximately fair cost allocation in Euclidean TSP games NARCIS (Netherlands) Faigle, U.; Fekete, Sándor P.; Hochstättler, Winfried; Kern, Walter 1998-01-01 We consider the problem of allocating the cost of an optimal traveling salesman tour in a fair way among the nodes visited; in particular, we focus on the case where the distance matrix of the underlying TSP problem satisfies the triangle inequality. We thereby use the model of TSP games in the 9. Piecewise aggregate representations and lower-bound distance functions for multivariate time series Science.gov (United States) Li, Hailin 2015-06-01 Dimensionality reduction is one of the most important methods to improve the efficiency of the techniques that are applied to the field of multivariate time series data mining. Due to multivariate time series with the variable-based and time-based dimensions, the reduction techniques must take both of them into consideration. To achieve this goal, we use a center sequence to represent a multivariate time series so that the new sequence can be seen as a univariate time series. Thus two sophisticated piecewise aggregate representations, including piecewise aggregate approximation and symbolization applied to univariate time series, are used to further represent the extended sequence that is derived from the center one. Furthermore, some distance functions are designed to measure the similarity between two representations. Through being proven by some related mathematical analysis, the proposed functions are lower bound on Euclidean distance and dynamic time warping. In this way, false dismissals can be avoided when they are used to index the time series. In addition, multivariate time series with different lengths can be transformed into the extended sequences with equal length, and their corresponding distance functions can measure the similarity between two unequal-length multivariate time series. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can reduce the dimensionality, and their corresponding distance functions satisfy the lower-bound condition, which can speed up the calculation of similarity search and indexing in the multivariate time series datasets. 10. Distance Learning National Research Council Canada - National Science Library Braddock, Joseph 1997-01-01 A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques... 11. Map of Life: Measuring and Visualizing Species' Relatedness with "Molecular Distance Maps" OpenAIRE Kari, Lila; Hill, Kathleen A.; Sayem, Abu Sadat; Bryans, Nathaniel; Davis, Katelyn; Dattani, Nikesh S. 2013-01-01 We propose a novel combination of methods that (i) portrays quantitative characteristics of a DNA sequence as an image, (ii) computes distances between these images, and (iii) uses these distances to output a map wherein each sequence is a point in a common Euclidean space. In the resulting "Molecular Distance Map" each point signifies a DNA sequence, and the geometric distance between any two points reflects the degree of relatedness between the corresponding sequences and species. Molecular... 12. Euclidean and Canonical Formulations of Statistical Mechanics in the Presence of Killing Horizons OpenAIRE Fursaev, Dmitri 1997-01-01 The relation between the covariant Euclidean free-energy$F^E$and the canonical statistical-mechanical free energy$F^C$in the presence of the Killing horizons is studied.$F^E$is determined by the covariant Euclidean effective action. The definition of$F^C$is related to the Hamiltonian which is the generator of the evolution along the Killing time. At arbitrary temperatures$F^E$acquires additional ultraviolet divergences because of conical singularities. The divergences of$F^Care d... 13. Measuring the Accuracy of Simple Evolving Connectionist System with Varying Distance Formulas Science.gov (United States) Al-Khowarizmi; Sitompul, O. S.; Suherman; Nababan, E. B. 2017-12-01 Simple Evolving Connectionist System (SECoS) is a minimal implementation of Evolving Connectionist Systems (ECoS) in artificial neural networks. The three-layer network architecture of the SECoS could be built based on the given input. In this study, the activation value for the SECoS learning process, which is commonly calculated using normalized Hamming distance, is also calculated using normalized Manhattan distance and normalized Euclidean distance in order to compare the smallest error value and best learning rate obtained. The accuracy of measurement resulted by the three distance formulas are calculated using mean absolute percentage error. In the training phase with several parameters, such as sensitivity threshold, error threshold, first learning rate, and second learning rate, it was found that normalized Euclidean distance is more accurate than both normalized Hamming distance and normalized Manhattan distance. In the case of beta fibrinogen gene -455 G/A polymorphism patients used as training data, the highest mean absolute percentage error value is obtained with normalized Manhattan distance compared to normalized Euclidean distance and normalized Hamming distance. However, the differences are very small that it can be concluded that the three distance formulas used in SECoS do not have a significant effect on the accuracy of the training results. 14. On the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ related to extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions Science.gov (United States) Muhammad, Khairun Nisak; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza 2016-06-01 The extended Euclidean Algorithm is a practical technique used in many cryptographic applications, where it computes the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ that always satisfy ri = si a+ tib. The integer ri is the remainder in the ith sequences. The sequences si and ti arising from the extended Euclidean algorithm are equal, up to sign, to the convergents of the continued fraction expansion of a/b. The values of (ri, si, ti) satisfy various properties which are used to solve the shortest vector problem in representing point multiplications in elliptic curves cryptography, namely the GLV (Gallant, Lambert & Vanstone) integer decomposition method and the ISD (integer sub decomposition) method. This paper is to extend the proof for each of the existing properties on (ri, si, ti). We also generate new properties which are relevant to the sequences ri, si, ti ∈ ℤ. The concepts of Euclidean algorithm, extended Euclidean algorithm and continued fractions are intertwined and the properties related to these concepts are proved. These properties together with the existing properties of the sequence (ri, si, ti) are regarded as part and parcel of the building blocks of a new generation of an efficient cryptographic protocol. 15. Perceptual or Analytical Processing? Evidence from Children's and Adult's Performance on the Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem Science.gov (United States) van Rooij, Iris; Schactman, Alissa; Kadlec, Helena; Stege, Ulrike 2006-01-01 The Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem (E-TSP) is a useful task to study how humans optimize when faced with computational intractability. It has been found that humans are capable of finding high-quality solutions for E-TSP in a relatively short time and with seemingly little cognitive effort. This observation has led to two general… 16. Usability Evaluation of an Augmented Reality System for Teaching Euclidean Vectors Science.gov (United States) Martin-Gonzalez, Anabel; Chi-Poot, Angel; Uc-Cetina, Victor 2016-01-01 Augmented reality (AR) is one of the emerging technologies that has demonstrated to be an efficient technological tool to enhance learning techniques. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of an AR system for teaching Euclidean vectors in physics and mathematics. The goal of this pedagogical tool is to facilitate user's… 17. Faster exact algorithms for computing Steiner trees in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Fonseca, Rasmus; Brazil, Marcus; Winter, Pawel The Euclidean Steiner tree problem asks for a network of minimum total length interconnecting a finite set of points in d-dimensional space. For d ≥ 3, only one practical algorithmic approach exists for this problem --- proposed by Smith in 1992. A number of refinements of Smith's algorithm have ... 18. Correlations and clustering in a scale-free network in Euclidean space Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Internet has with other networks is that a large part of Internet is embedded in. Euclidean space by the .... network, it always gets a connection to the existing local nodes of the Internet net- work. In fact one would ..... [6] R Pastor-Satorras and A Vespigniani, Evolution and structure of internet: A statis- tical physics approach ... 19. Constraints on spacetime manifold in Euclidean supergravity in terms of Dirac eigenvalues OpenAIRE Ciuhu, C.; Vancea, I. V. 1998-01-01 We generalize previous work on Dirac eigenvalues as dynamical variables of Euclidean supergravity. The most general set of constraints on the curvatures of the tangent bundle and on the spinor bundle of the spacetime manifold under which spacetime admits Dirac eigenvalues as observables, are derived. 20. Role of the Euclidean signature in lattice calculations of quasidistributions and other nonlocal matrix elements Science.gov (United States) Briceño, Raúl A.; Hansen, Maxwell T.; Monahan, Christopher J. 2017-07-01 Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) provides the only known systematic, nonperturbative method for first-principles calculations of nucleon structure. However, for quantities such as light-front parton distribution functions (PDFs) and generalized parton distributions (GPDs), the restriction to Euclidean time prevents direct calculation of the desired observable. Recently, progress has been made in relating these quantities to matrix elements of spatially nonlocal, zero-time operators, referred to as quasidistributions. Still, even for these time-independent matrix elements, potential subtleties have been identified in the role of the Euclidean signature. In this work, we investigate the analytic behavior of spatially nonlocal correlation functions and demonstrate that the matrix elements obtained from Euclidean lattice QCD are identical to those obtained using the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formula in Minkowski space. After arguing the equivalence on general grounds, we also show that it holds in a perturbative calculation, where special care is needed to identify the lattice prediction. Finally we present a proof of the uniqueness of the matrix elements obtained from Minkowski and Euclidean correlation functions to all order in perturbation theory. 1. A novel method for comparative analysis of DNA sequences by Ramanujan-Fourier transform. Science.gov (United States) Yin, Changchuan; Yin, Xuemeng E; Wang, Jiasong 2014-12-01 Alignment-free sequence analysis approaches provide important alternatives over multiple sequence alignment (MSA) in biological sequence analysis because alignment-free approaches have low computation complexity and are not dependent on high level of sequence identity. However, most of the existing alignment-free methods do not employ true full information content of sequences and thus can not accurately reveal similarities and differences among DNA sequences. We present a novel alignment-free computational method for sequence analysis based on Ramanujan-Fourier transform (RFT), in which complete information of DNA sequences is retained. We represent DNA sequences as four binary indicator sequences and apply RFT on the indicator sequences to convert them into frequency domain. The Euclidean distance of the complete RFT coefficients of DNA sequences are used as similarity measures. To address the different lengths of RFT coefficients in Euclidean space, we pad zeros to short DNA binary sequences so that the binary sequences equal the longest length in the comparison sequence data. Thus, the DNA sequences are compared in the same dimensional frequency space without information loss. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method by presenting experimental results on hierarchical clustering of genes and genomes. The proposed method opens a new channel to biological sequence analysis, classification, and structural module identification. 2. The perception of minimal structures: performance on open and closed versions of visually presented Euclidean travelling salesperson problems. Science.gov (United States) Vickers, Douglas; Bovet, Pierre; Lee, Michael D; Hughes, Peter 2003-01-01 The planar Euclidean version of the travelling salesperson problem (TSP) requires finding a tour of minimal length through a two-dimensional set of nodes. Despite the computational intractability of the TSP, people can produce rapid, near-optimal solutions to visually presented versions of such problems. To explain this, MacGregor et al (1999, Perception 28 1417-1428) have suggested that people use a global-to-local process, based on a perceptual tendency to organise stimuli into convex figures. We review the evidence for this idea and propose an alternative, local-to-global hypothesis, based on the detection of least distances between the nodes in an array. We present the results of an experiment in which we examined the relationships between three objective measures and performance measures of optimality and response uncertainty in tasks requiring participants to construct a closed tour or an open path. The data are not well accounted for by a process based on the convex hull. In contrast, results are generally consistent with a locally focused process based initially on the detection of nearest-neighbour clusters. Individual differences are interpreted in terms of a hierarchical process of constructing solutions, and the findings are related to a more general analysis of the role of nearest neighbours in the perception of structure and motion. 3. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) M. Revathy 2015-01-01 Full Text Available Low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax, and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures. 4. Mimicking within Euclidean space a cosmological time dilation of gamma-ray burst durations Science.gov (United States) Brainerd, J. J. 1994-01-01 If gamma-ray burst sources are cosmological in origin, then the time dilation at large z can correlate a burst's duration with its peak flux. Detection of this effect is thought by many to be strong evidence for a cosmological burst origin. In this Letter I show that an apparent time distortion--either a dilation or contraction--is generally expected for an ensemble of bursts that is spatially limited within Euclidean space. The appearance of this effect is correlated with the falling away of the log N-log P curve from a -3/2 slope line. An example of this effect is provided by the relativistic bulk motion model, which produces a strong time dilation when spatially limited in Euclidean space. As a consequence, envidence that weak bursts have longer durations than strong bursts is not evidence of a cosmological burst origin. 5. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications. Science.gov (United States) Revathy, M; Saravanan, R 2015-01-01 Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures. 6. The non-Euclidean revolution with an introduction by H.S.M. Coxeter CERN Document Server Trudeau, Richard J 2001-01-01 How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America. 7. Parameterized runtime analyses of evolutionary algorithms for the planar euclidean traveling salesperson problem. Science.gov (United States) Sutton, Andrew M; Neumann, Frank; Nallaperuma, Samadhi 2014-01-01 Parameterized runtime analysis seeks to understand the influence of problem structure on algorithmic runtime. In this paper, we contribute to the theoretical understanding of evolutionary algorithms and carry out a parameterized analysis of evolutionary algorithms for the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem (Euclidean TSP). We investigate the structural properties in TSP instances that influence the optimization process of evolutionary algorithms and use this information to bound their runtime. We analyze the runtime in dependence of the number of inner points k. In the first part of the paper, we study a [Formula: see text] EA in a strictly black box setting and show that it can solve the Euclidean TSP in expected time [Formula: see text] where A is a function of the minimum angle [Formula: see text] between any three points. Based on insights provided by the analysis, we improve this upper bound by introducing a mixed mutation strategy that incorporates both 2-opt moves and permutation jumps. This strategy improves the upper bound to [Formula: see text]. In the second part of the paper, we use the information gained in the analysis to incorporate domain knowledge to design two fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) evolutionary algorithms for the planar Euclidean TSP. We first develop a [Formula: see text] EA based on an analysis by M. Theile, 2009, "Exact solutions to the traveling salesperson problem by a population-based evolutionary algorithm," Lecture notes in computer science, Vol. 5482 (pp. 145-155), that solves the TSP with k inner points in [Formula: see text] generations with probability [Formula: see text]. We then design a [Formula: see text] EA that incorporates a dynamic programming step into the fitness evaluation. We prove that a variant of this evolutionary algorithm using 2-opt mutation solves the problem after [Formula: see text] steps in expectation with a cost of [Formula: see text] for each fitness evaluation. 8. Electromagnetism in Euclidean four space: A discussion between God and the Devil Science.gov (United States) Heras, José A. 1994-10-01 In this paper we reexamine the known argument by which Maxwell's equations are derived'' from the gauge invariance of quantum mechanics, or alternatively, from the gauge invariance of classical mechanics. We point out that this argument is ambiguous in the sense that it may lead us equally to another theory different from that of Maxwell, namely, an electromagnetic theory in Euclidean four space. We attempt to enliven our discussion by presenting it as a dialogue between God and the Devil. 9. Algebras over the Operad of Hollow Cubes and a New Metric Function on the Non-Negative Quadrant of the Euclidean Plane Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) A.R. Gaynullina 2017-03-01 Full Text Available Some algebras over the operad of hollow cubes have been studied in this paper. These algebras are defined in the non-negative quadrant of the Euclidean plane. The geometric des­cription of subalgebras generated by two elements has been given. It has been proved that the subalgebras generated by two elements are the polylines. Using the structure of such subalgebras, a new metric function on the first quadrant has been constructed. The distance between two points in this metric is the length of the polyline, which is a subalgebra generated by two elements over the operad of hollow cubes. This work can be considered as a continuation of our previous paper: Gaynullina A. On one class of commutative operads. Asian-Eur. J. Math., 2017, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 1750007. doi: 10.1142/S1793557117500073. 10. A Kohonen-like decomposition method for the Euclidean traveling salesman problem-KNIES/spl I.bar/DECOMPOSE. Science.gov (United States) Aras, N; Altinel, I K; Oommen, J 2003-01-01 In addition to the classical heuristic algorithms of operations research, there have also been several approaches based on artificial neural networks for solving the traveling salesman problem. Their efficiency, however, decreases as the problem size (number of cities) increases. A technique to reduce the complexity of a large-scale traveling salesman problem (TSP) instance is to decompose or partition it into smaller subproblems. We introduce an all-neural decomposition heuristic that is based on a recent self-organizing map called KNIES, which has been successfully implemented for solving both the Euclidean traveling salesman problem and the Euclidean Hamiltonian path problem. Our solution for the Euclidean TSP proceeds by solving the Euclidean HPP for the subproblems, and then patching these solutions together. No such all-neural solution has ever been reported. 11. Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces. Science.gov (United States) Sadeghi, Ali; Ghasemi, S Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Lill, Markus A; Goedecker, Stefan 2013-11-14 In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices. 12. Distance metric learning using random forest for cytometry data. Science.gov (United States) Pouyan, M Baran; Birjandtalab, J; Nourani, M 2016-08-01 Visualization and clustering of single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) data are analytic techniques to identify different cell types. Most of such techniques, such as Euclidean norm, lose their effectiveness when the data dimension increases due to the curse of dimensionality. In this paper, we propose a new cell distance (called CytoRFD) that works based on Random Forest (RF) concept. The experimental results show that the proposed distance can achieve a much higher quality and effectiveness in large data analysis than traditional metrics specially for CyTOF data. 13. Convex hull and tour crossings in the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem: implications for human performance studies. Science.gov (United States) Van Rooij, Iris; Stege, Ulrike; Schactman, Alissa 2003-03-01 Recently there has been growing interest among psychologists in human performance on the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem (E-TSP). A debate has been initiated on what strategy people use in solving visually presented E-TSP instances. The most prominent hypothesis is the convex-hull hypothesis, originally proposed by MacGregor and Ormerod (1996). We argue that, in the literature so far, there is no evidence for this hypothesis. Alternatively we propose and motivate the hypothesis that people aim at avoiding crossings. 14. Hadronic Vacuum Polarization in QCD and its Evaluation in the Euclidean OpenAIRE de Rafael, Eduardo 2017-01-01 We discuss a new technique to evaluate integrals of QCD Green's functions in the Euclidean based on their Mellin-Barnes representation. We present as a first application the evaluation of the lowest order Hadronic Vacuum Polarization (HVP) contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon\\frac{1}{2}(g_{\\mu}-2)_{\\rm\\tiny HVP}\\equiv a_{\\mu}^{\\rm HVP}$. It is shown that with a precise determination of the slope and curvature of the HVP function at the origin from lattice QCD (LQCD), on... 15. Kinetic distance and kinetic maps from molecular dynamics simulation CERN Document Server Noe, Frank 2015-01-01 Characterizing macromolecular kinetics from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations requires a distance metric that can distinguish slowly-interconverting states. Here we build upon diffusion map theory and define a kinetic distance for irreducible Markov processes that quantifies how slowly molecular conformations interconvert. The kinetic distance can be computed given a model that approximates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors (reaction coordinates) of the MD Markov operator. Here we employ the time-lagged independent component analysis (TICA). The TICA components can be scaled to provide a kinetic map in which the Euclidean distance corresponds to the kinetic distance. As a result, the question of how many TICA dimensions should be kept in a dimensionality reduction approach becomes obsolete, and one parameter less needs to be specified in the kinetic model construction. We demonstrate the approach using TICA and Markov state model (MSM) analyses for illustrative models, protein conformation dynamics in bovine... 16. Transformation optics with artificial Riemann sheets Science.gov (United States) Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang 2013-11-01 The two original versions of ‘invisibility’ cloaks (Leonhardt 2006 Science 312 1777-80 and Pendry et al 2006 Science 312 1780-2) show perfect cloaking but require unphysical singularities in material properties. A non-Euclidean version of cloaking (Leonhardt 2009 Science 323 110-12) was later presented to address these problems, using a very complicated non-Euclidean geometry. In this work, we combine the two original approaches to transformation optics into a more general concept: transformation optics with artificial Riemann sheets. Our method is straightforward and can be utilized to design new kinds of cloaks that can work not only in the realm of geometric optics but also using wave optics. The physics behind this design is similar to that of the conformal cloak for waves. The resonances in the interior region make the phase delay disappear and induce the cloaking effect. Numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results. 17. Mahalanobis Distance Indian Academy of Sciences (India) and G 2 might represent girls and boys, respectively or, in a medical diagnosis ... Representation of. Mahalanobis distance for the univariate case. GENERAL I ARTICLE. If the variables in X were uncorrelated in each group and were scaled so that they had ... have been proposed, and about thirty are known in the literature. 18. DISTANCE EDUCATION African Journals Online (AJOL) take a longer period to get a degree and a greater number of learners can be reached than is possi- ble through .... distance learners and available funds, in short, a collection development policy. Infrastructure. In the long ..... gional centres could double as administrators. journal of science and technology, volume 25, no. 19. Distance Education. Science.gov (United States) Feasley, Charles E. The magnitude, diversity, and impact of distance education are discussed in this international review of its implementation in economically diverse countries. Uses of the following media are described: (1) print--correspondence study, programmed instruction, modularized instruction, newspaper; (2) audio media--telephone, radio, subsidiary… 20. [Distance Education. Science.gov (United States) Wallace, Teri, Ed.; Weatherman, Dick, Ed. 1995-01-01 This newsletter theme issue on distance education serving individuals with disabilities considers historical developments, technology, staff training strategies, and staff training materials. It is noted that improving access to training for staff members can improve the quality of services for individuals with disabilities. The following articles… 1. Measuring grade-school children's ability to represent the Euclidean horizontal coordinate. Science.gov (United States) De Lisi, R; McGillicuddy-De Lisi, A V; Mowrer-Popiel, E 1995-06-01 Seventy-five grade-school children were administered three tasks that measured their ability to represent the Euclidean horizontal coordinate: a traditional water-level test (WLT) that used a square-shaped vessel, a WLT that used a spherical vessel, and a task that used a crossbar apparatus. The latter two tasks differed from the traditional task in terms of the degree to which the apparatus presented a frame of reference that conflicted with environmental Euclidean coordinates. Performance was analyzed according to Piaget and Inhelder's (1956) stage-scoring system; that is, the testing procedures (a) allowed children to inspect the apparatus when it was rotated to discrete orientations; (b) corrected initial errors; and (c) included 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees trials. Age-related stages were identified on each task. Levels of performance on one task were significantly correlated with levels on each of the other two tasks. Performance was less accurate on the traditional WLT than on either of the other two measures. These results provide evidence of the validity of the alternative tasks to measure children's horizontality representation. The findings suggest that horizontality assessment procedures should include orthogonal and oblique rotations and contain an inspection phase. Use of apparatuses with conflicting frames of reference renders tasks more difficult but is not necessary to observe age-related developmental progress during the grade-school years. 2. Non-Euclidean geometry and curvature two-dimensional spaces, volume 3 CERN Document Server Cannon, James W 2017-01-01 This is the final volume of a three volume collection devoted to the geometry, topology, and curvature of 2-dimensional spaces. The collection provides a guided tour through a wide range of topics by one of the twentieth century's masters of geometric topology. The books are accessible to college and graduate students and provide perspective and insight to mathematicians at all levels who are interested in geometry and topology. Einstein showed how to interpret gravity as the dynamic response to the curvature of space-time. Bill Thurston showed us that non-Euclidean geometries and curvature are essential to the understanding of low-dimensional spaces. This third and final volume aims to give the reader a firm intuitive understanding of these concepts in dimension 2. The volume first demonstrates a number of the most important properties of non-Euclidean geometry by means of simple infinite graphs that approximate that geometry. This is followed by a long chapter taken from lectures the author gave at MSRI, wh... 3. Simple Motion Pursuit and Evasion Differential Games with Many Pursuers on Manifolds with Euclidean Metric Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Atamurat Kuchkarov 2016-01-01 Full Text Available We consider pursuit and evasion differential games of a group of m pursuers and one evader on manifolds with Euclidean metric. The motions of all players are simple, and maximal speeds of all players are equal. If the state of a pursuer coincides with that of the evader at some time, we say that pursuit is completed. We establish that each of the differential games (pursuit or evasion is equivalent to a differential game of m groups of countably many pursuers and one group of countably many evaders in Euclidean space. All the players in any of these groups are controlled by one controlled parameter. We find a condition under which pursuit can be completed, and if this condition is not satisfied, then evasion is possible. We construct strategies for the pursuers in pursuit game which ensure completion the game for a finite time and give a formula for this time. In the case of evasion game, we construct a strategy for the evader. 4. Distance learning Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Katarina Pucelj 2006-12-01 Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning. 5. Retinal metric: a stimulus distance measure derived from population neural responses. Science.gov (United States) Tkačik, Gašper; Granot-Atedgi, Einat; Segev, Ronen; Schneidman, Elad 2013-02-01 The ability of an organism to distinguish between various stimuli is limited by the structure and noise in the population code of its sensory neurons. Here we infer a distance measure on the stimulus space directly from the recorded activity of 100 neurons in the salamander retina. In contrast to previously used measures of stimulus similarity, this "neural metric" tells us how distinguishable a pair of stimulus clips is to the retina, based on the similarity between the induced distributions of population responses. We show that the retinal distance strongly deviates from Euclidean, or any static metric, yet has a simple structure: we identify the stimulus features that the neural population is jointly sensitive to, and show the support-vector-machine-like kernel function relating the stimulus and neural response spaces. We show that the non-Euclidean nature of the retinal distance has important consequences for neural decoding. 6. The Mean Distance to the nth Neighbour in a Uniform Distribution of Random Points: An Application of Probability Theory Science.gov (United States) Bhattacharyya, Pratip; Chakrabarti, Bikas K. 2008-01-01 We study different ways of determining the mean distance (r[subscript n]) between a reference point and its nth neighbour among random points distributed with uniform density in a D-dimensional Euclidean space. First, we present a heuristic method; though this method provides only a crude mathematical result, it shows a simple way of estimating… 7. Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States) 2015-06-15 This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals. 8. Existence and Blowup Results for Asymptotically Euclidean Initial Data Sets Generated by the Conformal Method CERN Document Server Dilts, James 2016-01-01 For each set of (freely chosen) seed data, the conformal method reduces the Einstein constraint equations to a system of elliptic equations, the conformal constraint equations. We prove an admissibility criterion, based on a (conformal) prescribed scalar curvature problem, which provides a necessary condition on the seed data for the conformal constraint equations to (possibly) admit a solution. We then consider sets of asymptotically Euclidean (AE) seed data for which solutions of the conformal constraint equations exist, and examine the blowup properties of these solutions as the seed data sets approach sets for which no solutions exist. We also prove that there are AE seed data sets which include a Yamabe nonpositive metric and lead to solutions of the conformal constraints. These data sets allow the mean curvature function to have zeroes. 9. Non-perturbative BRST quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in Curci-Ferrari gauges Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Pereira, A.D. [UFF, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam (Germany); UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sobreiro, R.F. [UFF, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Sorella, S.P. [UERJ, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 2016-10-15 In this paper we address the issue of the non-perturbative quantization of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. In particular, we construct a refined Gribov-Zwanziger action for this gauge, which takes into account the presence of gauge copies as well as the dynamical formation of dimension-two condensates. This action enjoys a non-perturbative BRST symmetry recently proposed in Capri et al. (Phys. Rev. D 92(4), 045039. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.92.045039. arXiv:1506.06995 [hepth], 2015). Finally, we pay attention to the gluon propagator in different space-time dimensions. (orig.) 10. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols OpenAIRE Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan 2011-01-01 Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define and analyze a fourth main type of attack on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to this type of attack, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. We further show that verifying distance bounding protocols using exist... 11. Distance hijacking attacks on distance bounding protocols OpenAIRE Cremers, Cas; Rasmussen, Kasper Bonne; Čapkun, Srdjan 2011-01-01 Distance bounding protocols are typically analyzed with respect to three types of attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud, and Terrorist Fraud. We define a fourth main type of attacks on distance bounding protocols, called Distance Hijacking attacks. We show that many proposed distance bounding protocols are vulnerable to these attacks, and we propose solutions to make these protocols resilient to Distance Hijacking. Additionally, we generalize Distance Hijacking to Location Hijacking, to which ... 12. Comparing two distance measures in the spatial mapping of food deserts: The case of Petržalka, Slovakia Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Bilková Kristína 2017-06-01 Full Text Available Over the last twenty years or so, researchers’ attention to the issue of food deserts has increased in the geographical literature. Accessibility to large-scale retail units is one of the essential and frequently-used indicators leading to the identification and mapping of food deserts. Numerous accessibility measures of various types are available for this purpose. Euclidean distance and street network distance rank among the most frequently-used approaches, although they may lead to slightly different results. The aim of this paper is to compare various approaches to the accessibility to food stores and to assess the differences in the results gained by these methods. Accessibility was measured for residential block centroids, with applications of various accessibility measures in a GIS environment. The results suggest a strong correspondence between Euclidean distance and a little more accurate street network distance approach, applied in the case of the urban environment of Bratislava-Petržalka, Slovakia. 13. Two-step inversion with a logarithmic transformation for microwave breast imaging. Science.gov (United States) Meaney, Paul M; Geimer, Shireen D; Paulsen, Keith D 2017-08-01 The authors have developed a new two-step microwave tomographic image reconstruction process specifically designed to incorporate logarithmic transformed microwave imaging algorithms as a means of significantly improving spatial resolution and target property recovery. Log transform eliminates the need for a priori information, but spatial filtering often integrated as part of the regularization required to stabilize image recovery, generally smooths image features and reduces object definition. The new implementation begins with this smoothed image as the first step, but then utilizes it as the starting estimate for a second step which continues the iterative process with a standard weighted Euclidean distance regularization. The penalty term of the latter restricts the new image to a multi-dimensional location close to the original but allows the algorithm to optimize the image without excessive smoothing. The overall approach is based on a Gauss-Newton iterative scheme which incorporates a log transformation as a way of making the reconstruction more linear. It has been shown to be robust and not require a priori information as a condition for convergence, but does produce somewhat smoothed images as a result of associated regularization. The new two-step process utilizes the previous technique to generate a smoothed initial estimate and then uses the same reconstruction process with a weighted Euclidean distance penalty term. A simple and repeatable method has been implemented to determine the weighting factor without significant computational burden. The reconstructions are assessed according to conventional parameter estimation metrics. We apply the approach to phantom experiments using large, high contrast canonical shapes followed by a set of images recovered from an actual patient exam. The image improvements are substantial in regards to improved property recovery and feature delineation without inducing unwanted artifacts. Analysis of the residual vector 14. Fast Algorithms for Earth Mover Distance Based on Optimal Transport and L1 Regularization II Science.gov (United States) 2016-09-01 for Figure 3. EMD- L1 , EMD- L2 represents an Earth Mover’s distance with Manhattan, Euclidean distance respectively. In this comparison , we use the same...Grids number (N) Time (s) EMD- L1 Time (s) in EMD- L2 100 0.0162 0.1362 400 0.07529 1.645 1600 0.90 12.265 6400 22.38 130.37 Table 2. This result is...FAST ALGORITHMS FOR EARTH MOVER DISTANCE BASED ON OPTIMAL TRANSPORT AND L1 REGULARIZATION II WUCHEN LI, STANLEY OSHER, AND WILFRID GANGBO Abstract 15. A Distance Measure Comparison to Improve Crowding in Multi-Modal Problems. Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) D. Todd VOllmer; Terence Soule; Milos Manic 2010-08-01 Solving multi-modal optimization problems are of interest to researchers solving real world problems in areas such as control systems and power engineering tasks. Extensions of simple Genetic Algorithms, particularly types of crowding, have been developed to help solve these types of problems. This paper examines the performance of two distance measures, Mahalanobis and Euclidean, exercised in the processing of two different crowding type implementations against five minimization functions. Within the context of the experiments, empirical evidence shows that the statistical based Mahalanobis distance measure when used in Deterministic Crowding produces equivalent results to a Euclidean measure. In the case of Restricted Tournament selection, use of Mahalanobis found on average 40% more of the global optimum, maintained a 35% higher peak count and produced an average final best fitness value that is 3 times better. 16. Noncommutative Geometry of the Moyal Plane: Translation Isometries, Connes' Distance on Coherent States, Pythagoras Equality Science.gov (United States) Martinetti, Pierre; Tomassini, Luca 2013-10-01 We study the metric aspect of the Moyal plane from Connes' noncommutative geometry point of view. First, we compute Connes' spectral distance associated with the natural isometric action of on the algebra of the Moyal plane . We show that the distance between any state of and any of its translated states is precisely the amplitude of the translation. As a consequence, we obtain the spectral distance between coherent states of the quantum harmonic oscillator as the Euclidean distance on the plane. We investigate the classical limit, showing that the set of coherent states equipped with Connes' spectral distance tends towards the Euclidean plane as the parameter of deformation goes to zero. The extension of these results to the action of the symplectic group is also discussed, with particular emphasis on the orbits of coherent states under rotations. Second, we compute the spectral distance in the double Moyal plane, intended as the product of (the minimal unitization of) by . We show that on the set of states obtained by translation of an arbitrary state of , this distance is given by the Pythagoras theorem. On the way, we prove some Pythagoras inequalities for the product of arbitrary unital and non-degenerate spectral triples. Applied to the Doplicher- Fredenhagen-Roberts model of quantum spacetime [DFR], these two theorems show that Connes' spectral distance and the DFR quantum length coincide on the set of states of optimal localization. 17. Lorentz Transformations from Intrinsic Symmetries Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Sheng D. Chao 2016-09-01 Full Text Available We reveal the frame-exchange space-inversion (FESI symmetry and the frame-exchange time-inversion (FETI symmetry in the Lorentz transformation and propose a symmetry principle stating that the space-time transformation between two inertial frames is invariant under the FESI or the FETI transformation. In combination with the principle of relativity and the presumed nature of Euclidean space and time, the symmetry principle is employed to derive the proper orthochronous Lorentz transformation without assuming the constancy of the speed of light and specific mathematical requirements (such as group property a priori. We explicitly demonstrate that the constancy of the speed of light in all inertial frames can be derived using the velocity reciprocity property, which is a deductive consequence of the space–time homogeneity and the space isotropy. The FESI or the FETI symmetry remains to be preserved in the Galilean transformation at the non-relativistic limit. Other similar symmetry operations result in either trivial transformations or improper and/or non-orthochronous Lorentz transformations, which do not form groups. 18. Pythagoras's theorem on a two-dimensional lattice from a natural' Dirac operator and Connes's distance formula Science.gov (United States) Dai, Jian; Song, Xing-Chang 2001-07-01 One of the key ingredients of Connes's noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric (Connes's distance) on the pure state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by Dimakis et al, whose Connes distance recovers the linear distance on an one-dimensional lattice, to the two-dimensional case. This Dirac operator has the local eigenvalue property and induces a Euclidean distance on this two-dimensional lattice, which is referred to as natural'. This kind of Dirac operator can be easily generalized into any higher-dimensional lattices. 19. Efficient convex-elastic net algorithm to solve the Euclidean traveling salesman problem. Science.gov (United States) Al-Mulhem, M; Al-Maghrabi, T 1998-01-01 This paper describes a hybrid algorithm that combines an adaptive-type neural network algorithm and a nondeterministic iterative algorithm to solve the Euclidean traveling salesman problem (E-TSP). It begins with a brief introduction to the TSP and the E-TSP. Then, it presents the proposed algorithm with its two major components: the convex-elastic net (CEN) algorithm and the nondeterministic iterative improvement (NII) algorithm. These two algorithms are combined into the efficient convex-elastic net (ECEN) algorithm. The CEN algorithm integrates the convex-hull property and elastic net algorithm to generate an initial tour for the E-TSP. The NII algorithm uses two rearrangement operators to improve the initial tour given by the CEN algorithm. The paper presents simulation results for two instances of E-TSP: randomly generated tours and tours for well-known problems in the literature. Experimental results are given to show that the proposed algorithm ran find the nearly optimal solution for the E-TSP that outperform many similar algorithms reported in the literature. The paper concludes with the advantages of the new algorithm and possible extensions. 20. Sense of direction and conscientiousness as predictors of performance in the Euclidean travelling salesman problem Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Markos Kyritsis 2017-11-01 Full Text Available A salesperson wishes to visit a number of cities before returning home using the shortest possible route, whilst only visiting each city once. This optimization problem, called the Travelling Salesman Problem, is difficult to solve using exhaustive algorithms due to the exponential growth in the number of possible solutions. Interestingly, when presented in Euclidean space (ETSP, humans quickly find good solutions. Past studies, however, are in disagreement whether human solutions are impacted by the participantâs ability to process figural effects in the graph geometry. In this study, we used principal component analysis to combine two correlated [r = 0.37, p < 0.01] self-assessed personality measures, i.e., a participantâs sense of direction and a participantâs level of conscientiousness, onto a single impulsiveness/cautiousness dimension. We then showed, using simple linear regression, that this new dimension is a significant predictor [R2 = 0.12, p < 0.01] of the number of edge crossings that occur in human ETSP solutions, a key metric of graph optimality. Our study provides evidence to suggest that human solutions to the ETSP are significantly affected by individual differences, including personality and cognitive traits. Keyword: Psychology 1. Sense of direction and conscientiousness as predictors of performance in the Euclidean travelling salesman problem. Science.gov (United States) Kyritsis, Markos; Blathras, George; Gulliver, Stephen; Varela, Vasiliki-Alexia 2017-11-01 A salesperson wishes to visit a number of cities before returning home using the shortest possible route, whilst only visiting each city once. This optimization problem, called the Travelling Salesman Problem, is difficult to solve using exhaustive algorithms due to the exponential growth in the number of possible solutions. Interestingly, when presented in Euclidean space (ETSP), humans quickly find good solutions. Past studies, however, are in disagreement whether human solutions are impacted by the participant's ability to process figural effects in the graph geometry. In this study, we used principal component analysis to combine two correlated [r = 0.37, p < 0.01] self-assessed personality measures, i.e., a participant's sense of direction and a participant's level of conscientiousness, onto a single impulsiveness/cautiousness dimension. We then showed, using simple linear regression, that this new dimension is a significant predictor [R2 = 0.12, p < 0.01] of the number of edge crossings that occur in human ETSP solutions, a key metric of graph optimality. Our study provides evidence to suggest that human solutions to the ETSP are significantly affected by individual differences, including personality and cognitive traits. 2. Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation revisited: is the phase transition really 1st order? (extended version) CERN Document Server Rindlisbacher, Tobias 2015-01-01 The transition between the two phases of 4D Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation [1] was long believed to be of second order until in 1996 first order behavior was found for sufficiently large systems [5,9]. However, one may wonder if this finding was affected by the numerical methods used: to control volume fluctuations, in both studies [5,9] an artificial harmonic potential was added to the action; in [9] measurements were taken after a fixed number of accepted instead of attempted moves which introduces an additional error. Finally the simulations suffer from strong critical slowing down which may have been underestimated. In the present work, we address the above weaknesses: we allow the volume to fluctuate freely within a fixed interval; we take measurements after a fixed number of attempted moves; and we overcome critical slowing down by using an optimized parallel tempering algorithm [12]. With these improved methods, on systems of size up to 64k 4-simplices, we confirm that the phase transition is first ... 3. Spatial interpolation of fine particulate matter concentrations using the shortest wind-field path distance. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Longxiang Li Full Text Available Effective assessments of air-pollution exposure depend on the ability to accurately predict pollutant concentrations at unmonitored locations, which can be achieved through spatial interpolation. However, most interpolation approaches currently in use are based on the Euclidean distance, which cannot account for the complex nonlinear features displayed by air-pollution distributions in the wind-field. In this study, an interpolation method based on the shortest path distance is developed to characterize the impact of complex urban wind-field on the distribution of the particulate matter concentration. In this method, the wind-field is incorporated by first interpolating the observed wind-field from a meteorological-station network, then using this continuous wind-field to construct a cost surface based on Gaussian dispersion model and calculating the shortest wind-field path distances between locations, and finally replacing the Euclidean distances typically used in Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW with the shortest wind-field path distances. This proposed methodology is used to generate daily and hourly estimation surfaces for the particulate matter concentration in the urban area of Beijing in May 2013. This study demonstrates that wind-fields can be incorporated into an interpolation framework using the shortest wind-field path distance, which leads to a remarkable improvement in both the prediction accuracy and the visual reproduction of the wind-flow effect, both of which are of great importance for the assessment of the effects of pollutants on human health. 4. A structure-based distance metric for high-dimensional space exploration with multidimensional scaling. Science.gov (United States) Lee, Jenny Hyunjung; McDonnell, Kevin T; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Mueller, Klaus 2014-03-01 Although the euclidean distance does well in measuring data distances within high-dimensional clusters, it does poorly when it comes to gauging intercluster distances. This significantly impacts the quality of global, low-dimensional space embedding procedures such as the popular multidimensional scaling (MDS) where one can often observe nonintuitive layouts. We were inspired by the perceptual processes evoked in the method of parallel coordinates which enables users to visually aggregate the data by the patterns the polylines exhibit across the dimension axes. We call the path of such a polyline its structure and suggest a metric that captures this structure directly in high-dimensional space. This allows us to better gauge the distances of spatially distant data constellations and so achieve data aggregations in MDS plots that are more cognizant of existing high-dimensional structure similarities. Our biscale framework distinguishes far-distances from near-distances. The coarser scale uses the structural similarity metric to separate data aggregates obtained by prior classification or clustering, while the finer scale employs the appropriate euclidean distance. 5. Exploring Cloud Computing for Distance Learning Science.gov (United States) He, Wu; Cernusca, Dan; Abdous, M'hammed 2011-01-01 The use of distance courses in learning is growing exponentially. To better support faculty and students for teaching and learning, distance learning programs need to constantly innovate and optimize their IT infrastructures. The new IT paradigm called "cloud computing" has the potential to transform the way that IT resources are utilized and… 6. A method for assigning species into groups based on generalized Mahalanobis distance between habitat model coefficients Science.gov (United States) Williams, C.J.; Heglund, P.J. 2009-01-01 Habitat association models are commonly developed for individual animal species using generalized linear modeling methods such as logistic regression. We considered the issue of grouping species based on their habitat use so that management decisions can be based on sets of species rather than individual species. This research was motivated by a study of western landbirds in northern Idaho forests. The method we examined was to separately fit models to each species and to use a generalized Mahalanobis distance between coefficient vectors to create a distance matrix among species. Clustering methods were used to group species from the distance matrix, and multidimensional scaling methods were used to visualize the relations among species groups. Methods were also discussed for evaluating the sensitivity of the conclusions because of outliers or influential data points. We illustrate these methods with data from the landbird study conducted in northern Idaho. Simulation results are presented to compare the success of this method to alternative methods using Euclidean distance between coefficient vectors and to methods that do not use habitat association models. These simulations demonstrate that our Mahalanobis-distance- based method was nearly always better than Euclidean-distance-based methods or methods not based on habitat association models. The methods used to develop candidate species groups are easily explained to other scientists and resource managers since they mainly rely on classical multivariate statistical methods. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 7. Uncertainty Principles for the Jacobi Transform OpenAIRE KAWAZOE, Takeshi 2008-01-01 We obtain some uncertainty inequalities for the Jacobi transform$\\hat f_{\\alpha,\\beta}(\\lambda)$, where we suppose$\\alpha, \\beta\\in\\mathbb{R}$and$\\rho=\\alpha+\\beta+1\\geq 0$. As in the Euclidean case, analogues of the local and global uncertainty principles hold for$\\hat f_{\\alpha,\\beta}$. In this paper, we shall obtain a new type of an uncertainty inequality and its equality condition: When$\\beta\\leq 0$or$\\beta\\leq\\alpha$, the$L^2$-norm of$\\hat f_{\\alpha,\\beta}(\\lambd...

8. Distance Education Success Factors.

Science.gov (United States)

Wagner, Ellen D.

1995-01-01

Anticipating and supporting the needs of users of technologies, programs, and services are critical to the success of distance education programs. Principal stakeholders are instructors who teach at a distance, learners pursuing distance education courses, site facilitators, and administrators. (JOW)

9. Distance from a distance: psychological distance reduces sensitivity to any further psychological distance.

Science.gov (United States)

Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov; Liberman, Nira

2013-08-01

What is the difference between far and further? Investigations into such psychological distancing--removal from an egocentric reference point--have suggested similarities between geographical space, time, probability, and social distance. We draw on these similarities to propose that experiencing any kind of distance will reduce sensitivity to any other distance. Nine studies varied the initial distance of an event and assessed sensitivity to a second distance. Consistently, people were less responsive to a given span of distance when it was distal versus proximal. This effect held using each of the four distances as the initial instantiation of distance; it also held using each dimension to assess sensitivity to distance (i.e., as the second distance dimension). These findings suggest that the dimensions of psychological distance share a common, interchangeable meaning and that the cross-dimension difference between far and further is less than that between near and far. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

10. Distance decay of ß-similarity: spatial or ecological barriers?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Duccio Rocchini

2008-01-01

Full Text Available ß-diversity is defined as the complementarity in species composition between pairs of sites and plays a crucial role in biodiversity management and conservation, since it allows to detect those environmental gradients that functionally act in determining the variation of species composition. From an ecological viewpoint, the decay of ß-similarity principally arises from: (i a decrease in environmental similarity with distance, which inevitably creates a competition among species with different physiological abilities (niche difference model; (ii a spatial configuration which creates spatial barriers and thus isolation among habitats, that influences species and gene movement across landscapes. To date, efforts were made to demonstrate the effect of distance on species similarity. However, few tests have been performed at local scale, i.e. at the community level. The aim of this study is to test the distance decay of ß-similarity hypothesis at local scale (10x10 m plots considering both (i spatial distance between pairs of sites; (ii the ecological distance between pairs of sites, measured as Euclidean distance in vector spaces defined by ecological variables (elevation, aspect, slope, assolation, spectral reflectance considering both the whole multispectral system of a Landsat ETM+ image and the Near Infrared Wavelength, band 4. ß-similarity decay rates at different thresholds (t have been quantified by means of quantile regressions based on exponential models, focusing on the main factors influencing their trends.

11. MetricMap: an embedding technique for processing distance-based queries in metric spaces.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Jason T L; Wang, Xiong; Shasha, Dennis; Zhang, Kaizhong

2005-10-01

In this paper, we present an embedding technique, called MetricMap, which is capable of estimating distances in a pseudometric space. Given a database of objects and a distance function for the objects, which is a pseudometric, we map the objects to vectors in a pseudo-Euclidean space with a reasonably low dimension while preserving the distance between two objects approximately. Such an embedding technique can be used as an approximate oracle to process a broad class of distance-based queries. It is also adaptable to data mining applications such as data clustering and classification. We present the theory underlying MetricMap and conduct experiments to compare MetricMap with other methods including MVP-tree and M-tree in processing the distance-based queries. Experimental results on both protein and RNA data show the good performance and the superiority of MetricMap over the other methods.

12. Encyclopedia of distances

CERN Document Server

Deza, Michel Marie

2016-01-01

This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

13. Dimensional regularization and n-wave procedure for scalar fields in multi-dimensional quasi-euclidean spaces

CERN Document Server

Pavlov, Y V

2001-01-01

One derived expressions for the vacuum mean values of energy-momentum tensor of the scalar field with arbitrary relation to curvature in N-dimensional quasi-euclidean space-time for vacuum. One generalized n-wave procedure for multidimensional spaces. One calculated all counter-members for N=5 and for a conformal scalar field in N=6, 7. One determined the geometric structure of three first counter-members for N-dimensional spaces. All subtractions in 4-dimensional space-time and 3 first subtractions in multidimensional spaces are shown to correspond to renormalization of constants of priming and gravitational Lagrangian

14. A Structure-Based Distance Metric for High-Dimensional Space Exploration with Multi-Dimensional Scaling.

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Jenny Hyunjung; McDonnell, Kevin T; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Mueller, Klaus

2013-07-11

Although the Euclidean distance does well in measuring data distances within high-dimensional clusters, it does poorly when it comes to gauging inter-cluster distances. This significantly impacts the quality of global, low-dimensional space embedding procedures such as the popular multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) where one can often observe non-intuitive layouts. We were inspired by the perceptual processes evoked in the method of parallel coordinates which enables users to visually aggregate the data by the patterns the polylines exhibit across the dimension axes. We call the path of such a polyline its structure and suggest a metric that captures this structure directly in high-dimensional space. This allows us to better gauge the distances of spatially distant data constellations and so achieve data aggregations in MDS plots that are more cognizant of existing high-dimensional structure similarities. Our bi-scale framework distinguishes far-distances from near-distances. The coarser scale uses the structural similarity metric to separate data aggregates obtained by prior classification or clustering, while the finer scale employs the appropriate Euclidean distance.

15. A discrete version of the Darboux transform for isothermic surfaces

CERN Document Server

Hertrich-Jeromin, U J; Pinkall, U; Hertrich-Jeromin, Udo; Hoffmann, Tim; Pinkall, Ulrich

1996-01-01

We study Christoffel and Darboux transforms of discrete isothermic nets in 4-dimensional Euclidean space: definitions and basic properties are derived. Analogies with the smooth case are discussed and a definition for discrete Ribaucour congruences is given. Surfaces of constant mean curvature are special among all isothermic surfaces: they can be characterized by the fact that their parallel constant mean curvature surfaces are Christoffel and Darboux transforms at the same time. This characterization is used to define discrete nets of constant mean curvature. Basic properties of discrete nets of constant mean curvature are derived.

16. Encyclopedia of distances

CERN Document Server

Deza, Michel Marie

2014-01-01

This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

17. DISTANCE NURSE EDUCATION (UZAKTAN HEMSIRELIK EGITIMI

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gulsun KURUBACAK

2011-10-01

Full Text Available Distance Nurse Education is the first book in the Turkish literature. The main purpose of this book is to introduce and discuss the dimensions, components and characteristics of Distance Nurse Education. The unique approach of this publication brings together 1 Distance Education, 2 Nurse Education, and 3 ALINE (Active Learning in Nursing Education Model (Fay, Selz, and Johnson, 2005 together at the same time. This book focuses on the learning activities, learner-centered approach, interactions, nursing competency oriented skills and feedback of distance nurse education and its applications. Besides, this book considers on how planning, designing, delivering and managing distance resources to bring about the successful completion of the goals and objectives of distance nurse education; and also discusses the design and its models from a progressive and transformative viewpoint in the area. Thus, the publication attempts to build a better understanding on how distance educators, designers, tutors and learners in nurse education can talk about the methodical approaches to planning and guiding processes to design distance nurse education from start to finish. This is also important to scrutinize the distance nurse education model how to bring a global and multicultural partnership of faculty, administrators, professionals, teachers, community activists and researchers in distance education as well as nurse education.

18. Multi-instance multi-label distance metric learning for genome-wide protein function prediction.

Science.gov (United States)

Xu, Yonghui; Min, Huaqing; Song, Hengjie; Wu, Qingyao

2016-08-01

Multi-instance multi-label (MIML) learning has been proven to be effective for the genome-wide protein function prediction problems where each training example is associated with not only multiple instances but also multiple class labels. To find an appropriate MIML learning method for genome-wide protein function prediction, many studies in the literature attempted to optimize objective functions in which dissimilarity between instances is measured using the Euclidean distance. But in many real applications, Euclidean distance may be unable to capture the intrinsic similarity/dissimilarity in feature space and label space. Unlike other previous approaches, in this paper, we propose to learn a multi-instance multi-label distance metric learning framework (MIMLDML) for genome-wide protein function prediction. Specifically, we learn a Mahalanobis distance to preserve and utilize the intrinsic geometric information of both feature space and label space for MIML learning. In addition, we try to deal with the sparsely labeled data by giving weight to the labeled data. Extensive experiments on seven real-world organisms covering the biological three-domain system (i.e., archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote; Woese et al., 1990) show that the MIMLDML algorithm is superior to most state-of-the-art MIML learning algorithms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

19. Interface Simulation Distances

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Pavol Černý

2012-10-01

Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

20. Distance Education as a Facilitator of Learning

Science.gov (United States)

Van Hook, Steven R.

2008-01-01

This article considers various learning theories, applied to three key transforming areas in adult education in general, and distance learning in particular: the andragogical issues, the technical issues, and the cultural issues. Cultural Dimension Indexes from Hofstede (1997) are appended. (Contains 1 chart.)

1. A New Distance Measure Based on Generalized Image Normalized Cross-Correlation for Robust Video Tracking and Image Recognition.

Science.gov (United States)

Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen

2013-02-01

We propose two novel distance measures, normalized between 0 and 1, and based on normalized cross-correlation for image matching. These distance measures explicitly utilize the fact that for natural images there is a high correlation between spatially close pixels. Image matching is used in various computer vision tasks, and the requirements to the distance measure are application dependent. Image recognition applications require more shift and rotation robust measures. In contrast, registration and tracking applications require better localization and noise tolerance. In this paper, we explore different advantages of our distance measures, and compare them to other popular measures, including Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC) and Image Euclidean Distance (IMED). We show which of the proposed measures is more appropriate for tracking, and which is appropriate for image recognition tasks.

2. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Amalia Torre

2011-07-01

Full Text Available The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

3. On The Euclidean and the Spectral Norms of Quaternion Cauchy-Toeplitz and Quaternion Cauchy-Hankel Matrices (021302) (9-18)

OpenAIRE

ÖĞÜNMEZ, Hasan

2015-01-01

Bu çalışmada, sırasıyla Quaternion Cauchy-Toeplitz (T), Quaternion Cauchy-Hankel (H) Matrislerinin Spektral ve Euclidean normlar için alt ve üst sınarlar elde ettik. Ayrıca, TnAAj , kompleks 2j , kompleks

4. Numerical distance protection

CERN Document Server

Ziegler, Gerhard

2011-01-01

Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

5. Tourists consuming distance

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Larsen, Gunvor Riber

The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...

6. Normalized information distance

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.

2008-01-01

The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

7. Distance Education in Turkey

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

2004-04-01

Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

8. Encyclopedia of distances

CERN Document Server

Deza, Michel Marie

2009-01-01

Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.

9. Normalized information distance

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.; Emmert-Streib, F.; Dehmer, M.

2009-01-01

The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

10. Duty and Distance

NARCIS (Netherlands)

C. Binder (C.); C. Heilmann (Conrad)

2017-01-01

markdownabstractEver since the publication of Peter Singer’s article ‘‘Famine, Affluence, and Morality’’ has the question of whether the (geographical) distance to people in need affects our moral duties towards them been a hotly debated issue. Does geographical distance affect our moral

11. Habitat continuity and geographic distance predict population genetic differentiation in giant kelp.

Science.gov (United States)

Alberto, Filipe; Raimondi, Peter T; Reed, Daniel C; Coelho, Nelson C; Leblois, Raphael; Whitmer, Allison; Serrão, Ester A

2010-01-01

Isolation by distance (IBD) models are widely used to predict levels of genetic connectivity as a function of Euclidean distance, and although recent studies have used GIS-landscape ecological approaches to improve the predictability of spatial genetic structure, few if any have addressed the effect of habitat continuity on gene flow. Landscape effects on genetic connectivity are even less understood in marine populations, where habitat mapping is particularly challenging. In this study, we model spatial genetic structure of a habitat-structuring species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, using highly variable microsatellite markers. GIS mapping was used to characterize habitat continuity and distance between sampling sites along the mainland coast of the Santa Barbara Channel, and their roles as predictors of genetic differentiation were evaluated. Mean dispersal distance (sigma) and effective population size (Ne) were estimated by comparing our IBD slope with those from simulations incorporating habitat continuity and spore dispersal characteristics of the study area. We found an allelic richness of 7-50 alleles/locus, which to our knowledge is the highest reported for macroalgae. The best regression model relating genetic distance to habitat variables included both geographic distance and habitat continuity, which were respectively, positively and negatively related to genetic distance. Our results provide strong support for a dependence of gene flow on both distance and habitat continuity and elucidate the combination of Ne and a that explained genetic differentiation.

12. Voronoi distance based prospective space-time scans for point data sets: a dengue fever cluster analysis in a southeast Brazilian town

Science.gov (United States)

2011-01-01

Background The Prospective Space-Time scan statistic (PST) is widely used for the evaluation of space-time clusters of point event data. Usually a window of cylindrical shape is employed, with a circular or elliptical base in the space domain. Recently, the concept of Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) was applied to specify the set of potential clusters, through the Density-Equalizing Euclidean MST (DEEMST) method, for the detection of arbitrarily shaped clusters. The original map is cartogram transformed, such that the control points are spread uniformly. That method is quite effective, but the cartogram construction is computationally expensive and complicated. Results A fast method for the detection and inference of point data set space-time disease clusters is presented, the Voronoi Based Scan (VBScan). A Voronoi diagram is built for points representing population individuals (cases and controls). The number of Voronoi cells boundaries intercepted by the line segment joining two cases points defines the Voronoi distance between those points. That distance is used to approximate the density of the heterogeneous population and build the Voronoi distance MST linking the cases. The successive removal of edges from the Voronoi distance MST generates sub-trees which are the potential space-time clusters. Finally, those clusters are evaluated through the scan statistic. Monte Carlo replications of the original data are used to evaluate the significance of the clusters. An application for dengue fever in a small Brazilian city is presented. Conclusions The ability to promptly detect space-time clusters of disease outbreaks, when the number of individuals is large, was shown to be feasible, due to the reduced computational load of VBScan. Instead of changing the map, VBScan modifies the metric used to define the distance between cases, without requiring the cartogram construction. Numerical simulations showed that VBScan has higher power of detection, sensitivity and positive

13. Voronoi distance based prospective space-time scans for point data sets: a dengue fever cluster analysis in a southeast Brazilian town

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Takahashi Ricardo HC

2011-04-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prospective Space-Time scan statistic (PST is widely used for the evaluation of space-time clusters of point event data. Usually a window of cylindrical shape is employed, with a circular or elliptical base in the space domain. Recently, the concept of Minimum Spanning Tree (MST was applied to specify the set of potential clusters, through the Density-Equalizing Euclidean MST (DEEMST method, for the detection of arbitrarily shaped clusters. The original map is cartogram transformed, such that the control points are spread uniformly. That method is quite effective, but the cartogram construction is computationally expensive and complicated. Results A fast method for the detection and inference of point data set space-time disease clusters is presented, the Voronoi Based Scan (VBScan. A Voronoi diagram is built for points representing population individuals (cases and controls. The number of Voronoi cells boundaries intercepted by the line segment joining two cases points defines the Voronoi distance between those points. That distance is used to approximate the density of the heterogeneous population and build the Voronoi distance MST linking the cases. The successive removal of edges from the Voronoi distance MST generates sub-trees which are the potential space-time clusters. Finally, those clusters are evaluated through the scan statistic. Monte Carlo replications of the original data are used to evaluate the significance of the clusters. An application for dengue fever in a small Brazilian city is presented. Conclusions The ability to promptly detect space-time clusters of disease outbreaks, when the number of individuals is large, was shown to be feasible, due to the reduced computational load of VBScan. Instead of changing the map, VBScan modifies the metric used to define the distance between cases, without requiring the cartogram construction. Numerical simulations showed that VBScan has higher power of detection

14. Towards an understanding of salient neighborhood boundaries: adolescent reports of an easy walking distance and convenient driving distance

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Almeida Maria

2007-12-01

15. The psychological distance of climate change.

Science.gov (United States)

Spence, Alexa; Poortinga, Wouter; Pidgeon, Nick

2012-06-01

Avoiding dangerous climate change is one of the most urgent social risk issues we face today and understanding related public perceptions is critical to engaging the public with the major societal transformations required to combat climate change. Analyses of public perceptions have indicated that climate change is perceived as distant on a number of different dimensions. However, to date there has been no in-depth exploration of the psychological distance of climate change. This study uses a nationally representative British sample in order to systematically explore and characterize each of the four theorized dimensions of psychological distance--temporal, social, and geographical distance, and uncertainty--in relation to climate change. We examine how each of these different aspects of psychological distance relate to each other as well as to concerns about climate change and sustainable behavior intentions. Results indicate that climate change is both psychologically distant and proximal in relation to different dimensions. Lower psychological distance was generally associated with higher levels of concern, although perceived impacts on developing countries, as an indicator of social distance, was also significantly related to preparedness to act on climate change. Our findings clearly point to the utility of risk communication techniques designed to reduce psychological distance. However, highlighting the potentially very serious distant impacts of climate change may also be useful in promoting sustainable behavior, even among those already concerned. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

16. Shaping of arm configuration space by prescription of non-Euclidean metrics with applications to human motor control

Science.gov (United States)

Biess, Armin

2013-01-01

The study of the kinematic and dynamic features of human arm movements provides insights into the computational strategies underlying human motor control. In this paper a differential geometric approach to movement control is taken by endowing arm configuration space with different non-Euclidean metric structures to study the predictions of the generalized minimum-jerk (MJ) model in the resulting Riemannian manifold for different types of human arm movements. For each metric space the solution of the generalized MJ model is given by reparametrized geodesic paths. This geodesic model is applied to a variety of motor tasks ranging from three-dimensional unconstrained movements of a four degree of freedom arm between pointlike targets to constrained movements where the hand location is confined to a surface (e.g., a sphere) or a curve (e.g., an ellipse). For the latter speed-curvature relations are derived depending on the boundary conditions imposed (periodic or nonperiodic) and the compatibility with the empirical one-third power law is shown. Based on these theoretical studies and recent experimental findings, I argue that geodesics may be an emergent property of the motor system and that the sensorimotor system may shape arm configuration space by learning metric structures through sensorimotor feedback.

17. Weighted Feature Distance

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Yazdani, Hossein

2017-01-01

The accuracy of machine learning methods for clustering depends on the optimal selection of similarity functions. Conventional distance functions for the vector space might cause an algorithm to being affected by some dominant features that may skew its ﬁnal results. This paper introduces a ﬂexible...... environment for mining algorithms that uses the most suitable similarity functions to cover the diversity of both vector and feature spaces. The paper describes some well known conventional distance functions and introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD) and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD......). These novel functions attempt to balance the impact of the dominant features by covering both feature and vector spaces, additionally to optionally allowing us to increase or decrease the impact of some features. We evaluate and compare the accuracy of our proposed WFD(s) on conventional fuzzy...

18. Motivation in Distance Leaming

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Daniela Brečko

1996-12-01

Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

19. Benchmarking Distance Education.

Science.gov (United States)

Novak, Richard J.

2002-01-01

Identifies and discusses the myriad perspectives on measures of quality and benchmarking in distance education. Reviews the standards or benchmarks of quality that have been promulgated by various stakeholder groups. (EV)

20. Long distance quantum teleportation

Science.gov (United States)

Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

2018-01-01

Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

1. Improved Heterogeneous Distance Functions

OpenAIRE

Wilson, D. R.; Martinez, T. R.

1996-01-01

Instance-based learning techniques typically handle continuous and linear input values well, but often do not handle nominal input attributes appropriately. The Value Difference Metric (VDM) was designed to find reasonable distance values between nominal attribute values, but it largely ignores continuous attributes, requiring discretization to map continuous values into nominal values. This paper proposes three new heterogeneous distance functions, called the Heterogeneous Value Difference M...

2. Landscape features influence gene flow as measured by cost-distance and genetic analyses: a case study for giant pandas in the Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling Mountains

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wei Fuwen

2010-07-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene flow maintains genetic diversity within a species and is influenced by individual behavior and the geographical features of the species' habitat. Here, we have characterized the geographical distribution of genetic patterns in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca living in four isolated patches of the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling Mountains. Three geographic distance definitions were used with the "isolation by distance theory": Euclidean distance (EUD, least-cost path distance (LCD defined by food resources, and LCD defined by habitat suitability. Results A total of 136 genotypes were obtained from 192 fecal samples and one blood sample, corresponding to 53 unique genotypes. Geographical maps plotted at high resolution using smaller neighborhood radius definitions produced large cost distances, because smaller radii include a finer level of detail in considering each pixel. Mantel tests showed that most correlation indices, particularly bamboo resources defined for different sizes of raster cell, were slightly larger than the correlations calculated for the Euclidean distance, with the exception of Patch C. We found that natural barriers might have decreased gene flow between the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling regions. Conclusions Landscape features were found to partially influence gene flow in the giant panda population. This result is closely linked to the biological character and behavior of giant pandas because, as bamboo feeders, individuals spend most of their lives eating bamboo or moving within the bamboo forest. Landscape-based genetic analysis suggests that gene flow will be enhanced if the connectivity between currently fragmented bamboo forests is increased.

3. Visualizing Transformation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pedersen, Pia

2012-01-01

the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore, this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart...... is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms, but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...

CERN Document Server

Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

2011-01-01

The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

5. Parallel tempering Monte Carlo combined with clustering Euclidean metric analysis to study the thermodynamic stability of Lennard-Jones nanoclusters

Science.gov (United States)

Cezar, Henrique M.; Rondina, Gustavo G.; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.

2017-02-01

A basic requirement for an atom-level understanding of nanoclusters is the knowledge of their atomic structure. This understanding is incomplete if it does not take into account temperature effects, which play a crucial role in phase transitions and changes in the overall stability of the particles. Finite size particles present intricate potential energy surfaces, and rigorous descriptions of temperature effects are best achieved by exploiting extended ensemble algorithms, such as the Parallel Tempering Monte Carlo (PTMC). In this study, we employed the PTMC algorithm, implemented from scratch, to sample configurations of LJn (n =38 , 55, 98, 147) particles at a wide range of temperatures. The heat capacities and phase transitions obtained with our PTMC implementation are consistent with all the expected features for the LJ nanoclusters, e.g., solid to solid and solid to liquid. To identify the known phase transitions and assess the prevalence of various structural motifs available at different temperatures, we propose a combination of a Leader-like clustering algorithm based on a Euclidean metric with the PTMC sampling. This combined approach is further compared with the more computationally demanding bond order analysis, typically employed for this kind of problem. We show that the clustering technique yields the same results in most cases, with the advantage that it requires no previous knowledge of the parameters defining each geometry. Being simple to implement, we believe that this straightforward clustering approach is a valuable data analysis tool that can provide insights into the physics of finite size particles with few to thousand atoms at a relatively low cost.

6. Random matrix approach to the distribution of genomic distance.

Science.gov (United States)

Alexeev, Nikita; Zograf, Peter

2014-08-01

The cycle graph introduced by Bafna and Pevzner is an important tool for evaluating the distance between two genomes, that is, the minimal number of rearrangements needed to transform one genome into another. We interpret this distance in topological terms and relate it to the random matrix theory. Namely, the number of genomes at a given 2-break distance from a fixed one (the Hultman number) is represented by a coefficient in the genus expansion of a matrix integral over the space of complex matrices with the Gaussian measure. We study generating functions for the Hultman numbers and prove that the two-break distance distribution is asymptotically normal.

7. 80537 based distance relay

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

1999-01-01

A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...

8. Electromagnetic distance measurement

CERN Document Server

1967-01-01

This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

9. Determining average yarding distance.

Science.gov (United States)

Roger H. Twito; Charles N. Mann

1979-01-01

Emphasis on environmental and esthetic quality in timber harvesting has brought about increased use of complex boundaries of cutting units and a consequent need for a rapid and accurate method of determining the average yarding distance and area of these units. These values, needed for evaluation of road and landing locations in planning timber harvests, are easily and...

10. An improved model for whole genome phylogenetic analysis by Fourier transform.

Science.gov (United States)

Yin, Changchuan; Yau, Stephen S-T

2015-10-07

DNA sequence similarity comparison is one of the major steps in computational phylogenetic studies. The sequence comparison of closely related DNA sequences and genomes is usually performed by multiple sequence alignments (MSA). While the MSA method is accurate for some types of sequences, it may produce incorrect results when DNA sequences undergone rearrangements as in many bacterial and viral genomes. It is also limited by its computational complexity for comparing large volumes of data. Previously, we proposed an alignment-free method that exploits the full information contents of DNA sequences by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), but still with some limitations. Here, we present a significantly improved method for the similarity comparison of DNA sequences by DFT. In this method, we map DNA sequences into 2-dimensional (2D) numerical sequences and then apply DFT to transform the 2D numerical sequences into frequency domain. In the 2D mapping, the nucleotide composition of a DNA sequence is a determinant factor and the 2D mapping reduces the nucleotide composition bias in distance measure, and thus improving the similarity measure of DNA sequences. To compare the DFT power spectra of DNA sequences with different lengths, we propose an improved even scaling algorithm to extend shorter DFT power spectra to the longest length of the underlying sequences. After the DFT power spectra are evenly scaled, the spectra are in the same dimensionality of the Fourier frequency space, then the Euclidean distances of full Fourier power spectra of the DNA sequences are used as the dissimilarity metrics. The improved DFT method, with increased computational performance by 2D numerical representation, can be applicable to any DNA sequences of different length ranges. We assess the accuracy of the improved DFT similarity measure in hierarchical clustering of different DNA sequences including simulated and real datasets. The method yields accurate and reliable phylogenetic trees

11. Constructivism, Instructional Design, and Technology: Implications for Transforming Distance Learning

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Maureen Tam

2000-01-01

.... It also attempts to connect the theory to the prevailing technology paradigms to establish an alignment between pedagogical and technological considerations in support of the assumptions arising from constructivism...

12. SEEDLING DISCRIMINATION USING SHAPE FEATURES DERIVED FROM A DISTANCE TRANSFORM

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mosgaard Giselsson, Thomas; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Midtiby, Henrik

One branch of general image processing research deals with 2D object classification where classes are categorized by different features of the objects such as area, perimeter, elongation, color and texture. When dealing with plant specie classification some of the widely used and well known objec...

13. Distance Training as Part of a Distance Consulting Solution.

Science.gov (United States)

Fulantelli, Giovanni; Chiazzese, Giuseppe; Allegra, Mario

"Distance Training" models, when integrated in a more complex framework, such as a "Distance Consulting" model, present specific features and impose a revision of the strategies commonly adopted in distance training experiences. This paper reports on the distance training strategies adopted in a European funded project aimed at…

14. The sound of distance.

Science.gov (United States)

Rabaglia, Cristina D; Maglio, Sam J; Krehm, Madelaine; Seok, Jin H; Trope, Yaacov

2016-07-01

Human languages may be more than completely arbitrary symbolic systems. A growing literature supports sound symbolism, or the existence of consistent, intuitive relationships between speech sounds and specific concepts. Prior work establishes that these sound-to-meaning mappings can shape language-related judgments and decisions, but do their effects generalize beyond merely the linguistic and truly color how we navigate our environment? We examine this possibility, relating a predominant sound symbolic distinction (vowel frontness) to a novel associate (spatial proximity) in five studies. We show that changing one vowel in a label can influence estimations of distance, impacting judgment, perception, and action. The results (1) provide the first experimental support for a relationship between vowels and spatial distance and (2) demonstrate that sound-to-meaning mappings have outcomes that extend beyond just language and can - through a single sound - influence how we perceive and behave toward objects in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

15. Quantum Minimum Distance Classifier

OpenAIRE

Enrica Santucci

2017-01-01

We propose a quantum version of the well known minimum distance classification model called Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC). In this regard, we presented our first results in two previous works. First, a quantum counterpart of the NMC for two-dimensional problems was introduced, named Quantum Nearest Mean Classifier (QNMC), together with a possible generalization to any number of dimensions. Secondly, we studied the n-dimensional problem into detail and we showed a new encoding for arbitrary n-...

16. De-severing distance

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

2016-01-01

De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...... of 11 urban families who have moved to the countryside and chosen to commute in order to dwell there....

17. Ultrametric Distance in Syntax

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Roberts Mark D.

2015-04-01

Full Text Available Phrase structure trees have a hierarchical structure. In many subjects, most notably in taxonomy such tree structures have been studied using ultrametrics. Here syntactical hierarchical phrase trees are subject to a similar analysis, which is much simpler as the branching structure is more readily discernible and switched. The ambiguity of which branching height to choose, is resolved by postulating that branching occurs at the lowest height available. An ultrametric produces a measure of the complexity of sentences: presumably the complexity of sentences increases as a language is acquired so that this can be tested. All ultrametric triangles are equilateral or isosceles. Here it is shown that X̅ structure implies that there are no equilateral triangles. Restricting attention to simple syntax a minimum ultrametric distance between lexical categories is calculated. A matrix constructed from this ultrametric distance is shown to be different than the matrix obtained from features. It is shown that the definition of C-COMMAND can be replaced by an equivalent ultrametric definition. The new definition invokes a minimum distance between nodes and this is more aesthetically satisfying than previous varieties of definitions. From the new definition of C-COMMAND follows a new definition of of the central notion in syntax namely GOVERNMENT.

18. Transforming Anatomy

OpenAIRE

Hall, Anndee

2017-01-01

Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

Science.gov (United States)

Luzinski, Craig

2011-12-01

This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® takes an in-depth look at the Magnet® model component transformational leadership. The author examines the expectations for Magnet organizations around this component. What are the qualities that make a nursing leader truly transformational, and what is the best approach to successfully lead a healthcare organization through today's volatile healthcare environment?

20. Landskabets transformation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Munck Petersen, Rikke

2005-01-01

Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

1. Distance Education at Conventional Universities in Germany

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hans-Henning Kappel

2002-01-01

Full Text Available Germany’s educational system has undergone a series of transformations during the last 40 years. In recent years, marked increases in enrolment have occurred. In response, admission requirements have been relaxed and new universities have been established.Academic distance education in the former Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany was ushered in by the educational radio broadcasts around the end of the 1960s. Aside from the formation of the FernUniversität (Open University in West Germany in 1975, there were significant developments in distance education occurring at the major universities in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany. After German reunification in 1990, the new unitary state launched programs to advance the development of distance education programs at conventional universities.Germany’s campus-based universities (Präsenzuniversitäten created various entities, including central units and consortia of universities to design and market distance education programs. Hybridisation provides the necessary prerequisites for dual mode delivery, such as basic and continuing education programs, as well as for the combination of distance and campus-based education (Präsenzstudium. Hybridisation also has also opened the door for the creation of new programs.Following an initial phase in which distance education research is expected to centralize a trend towards decentralisation is likely to follow. The German Association for Distance Education (AG-F offers a viable research network in distance education. Two dual mode case studies are also be surveyed: The Master of Arts degree, offered by the University of Koblenz-Landau, with Library Science as the second major, and the University of Kaiserslautern, where basic education will continue to be captured within the domain of the Präsenzstudium or campus-based education.The area in which distance education is flourishing most is within the field of academic continuing

2. The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

2011-01-01

We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...

3. Effect of Image Linearization on Normalized Compression Distance

Science.gov (United States)

Mortensen, Jonathan; Wu, Jia Jie; Furst, Jacob; Rogers, John; Raicu, Daniela

Normalized Information Distance, based on Kolmogorov complexity, is an emerging metric for image similarity. It is approximated by the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) which generates the relative distance between two strings by using standard compression algorithms to compare linear strings of information. This relative distance quantifies the degree of similarity between the two objects. NCD has been shown to measure similarity effectively on information which is already a string: genomic string comparisons have created accurate phylogeny trees and NCD has also been used to classify music. Currently, to find a similarity measure using NCD for images, the images must first be linearized into a string, and then compared. To understand how linearization of a 2D image affects the similarity measure, we perform four types of linearization on a subset of the Corel image database and compare each for a variety of image transformations. Our experiment shows that different linearization techniques produce statistically significant differences in NCD for identical spatial transformations.

4. Distance to Dark Bodies

Science.gov (United States)

2007-01-01

Using the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax, astronomers have determined the distance to an invisible Milky Way object called OGLE-2005-SMC-001. This artist's concept illustrates how this trick works: different views from both Spitzer and telescopes on Earth are combined to give depth perception. Our Milky Way galaxy is heavier than it looks, and scientists use the term 'dark matter' to describe all the 'heavy stuff' in the universe that seems to be present but invisible to our telescopes. While much of this dark matter is likely made up of exotic materials, different from the ordinary particles that make up the world around us, some may consist of dark celestial bodies -- like planets, black holes, or failed stars -- that do not produce light or are too faint to detect from Earth. OGLE-2005-SMC-001 is one of these dark celestial bodies. Although astronomers cannot see a dark body, they can sense its presence from the way light acts around it. When a dark body like OGLE-2005-SMC-001 passes in front of a bright star, its gravity causes the background starlight to bend and brighten, a process called gravitational microlensing. When the observing telescope, dark body, and star system are closely aligned, the microlensing event reaches maximum, or peak, brightness. A team of astronomers first sensed OGLE-2005-SMC-001's presence when it passed in front of a star in a neighboring satellite galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this artist's rendering, the satellite galaxy is depicted as the fuzzy structure sitting to the left of Earth. Once they detected this microlensing event, the scientists used Spitzer and the principle of parallax to figure out its distance. Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance. Each eye sees the distance of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is. To determine OGLE-2005-SMC-001's distance

5. Distance collaborations with industry

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.

1998-06-01

The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.

6. Distance Teaching on Bornholm

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian

2001-01-01

The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...... and the organisational set-up. It is debated which kind of social learning that has taken place. The innovation process was based on the implementation of an inflexible video-conference system without any proactive considerations of organisational change or pedagocical development. User appropriation of the technology...... was confined to technical problem solving pursued by teachers, students and a limited technical staff. The outcome was a prolonged and troublesome learning and implementation process....

7. Sustainable transformation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Andersen, Nicolai Bo

This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

8. Linear distance coding for image classification.

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Zilei; Feng, Jiashi; Yan, Shuicheng; Xi, Hongsheng

2013-02-01

The feature coding-pooling framework is shown to perform well in image classification tasks, because it can generate discriminative and robust image representations. The unavoidable information loss incurred by feature quantization in the coding process and the undesired dependence of pooling on the image spatial layout, however, may severely limit the classification. In this paper, we propose a linear distance coding (LDC) method to capture the discriminative information lost in traditional coding methods while simultaneously alleviating the dependence of pooling on the image spatial layout. The core of the LDC lies in transforming local features of an image into more discriminative distance vectors, where the robust image-to-class distance is employed. These distance vectors are further encoded into sparse codes to capture the salient features of the image. The LDC is theoretically and experimentally shown to be complementary to the traditional coding methods, and thus their combination can achieve higher classification accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of LDC on six data sets, two of each of three types (specific object, scene, and general object), i.e., Flower 102 and PFID 61, Scene 15 and Indoor 67, Caltech 101 and Caltech 256. The results show that our method generally outperforms the traditional coding methods, and achieves or is comparable to the state-of-the-art performance on these data sets.

9. Transformer core

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

2008-01-01

A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

10. Transformer core

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

2010-01-01

A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

11. Identity transformation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an understand......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......, as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

12. Transformational change

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Termeer, Katrien; Dewulf, Art; Biesbroek, Robbert

2017-01-01

Although transformational change is a rather new topic in climate change adaptation literature, it has been studied in organisational theory for over 30 years. This paper argues that governance scholars can learn much from organisation theory, more specifically regarding the conceptualisation of

13. Distances with forming environments.

Science.gov (United States)

Kelly, Patrick L; Filippenko, Alexei V; Burke, David L; Hicken, Malcolm; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Zheng, WeiKang

2015-03-27

The luminosities of type Ia supernovae (SNe), the thermonuclear explosions of white-dwarf stars, vary systematically with their intrinsic color and the rate at which they fade. From images taken with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), we identified SNe Ia that erupted in environments that have high ultraviolet surface brightness and star-formation surface density. When we apply a steep model extinction law, we calibrate these SNe using their broadband optical light curves to within ~0.065 to 0.075 magnitude, corresponding to <4% in distance. The tight scatter, probably arising from a small dispersion among progenitor ages, suggests that variation in only one progenitor property primarily accounts for the relationship between their light-curve widths, colors, and luminosities. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

14. [Transdisciplinarity in distance education: a new paradigm in Nursing education].

Science.gov (United States)

Martins, Thaís Yamasaki de Campos; Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Prado, Cláudia

2011-01-01

This article aimed to reflect on the need of applying transdisciplinarity in distance education, since it presumes a new model, transition, change, and transformation. The goal of distance education is the supportive use in virtual and interactive learning environments, allowing the integration of multiple media tools, in an organized manner, to the production, interaction and knowledge socialization elaboration. In Brazil, nursing education has several experiences in using distance education with promising results, demonstrating good acceptance on the part of students and improvements on teaching-learning process.

15. Continuing Education for Distance Librarians

Science.gov (United States)

Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.

2012-01-01

Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…

16. Sensorimotor transformation via sparse coding

Science.gov (United States)

Takiyama, Ken

2015-01-01

Sensorimotor transformation is indispensable to the accurate motion of the human body in daily life. For instance, when we grasp an object, the distance from our hands to an object needs to be calculated by integrating multisensory inputs, and our motor system needs to appropriately activate the arm and hand muscles to minimize the distance. The sensorimotor transformation is implemented in our neural systems, and recent advances in measurement techniques have revealed an important property of neural systems: a small percentage of neurons exhibits extensive activity while a large percentage shows little activity, i.e., sparse coding. However, we do not yet know the functional role of sparse coding in sensorimotor transformation. In this paper, I show that sparse coding enables complete and robust learning in sensorimotor transformation. In general, if a neural network is trained to maximize the performance on training data, the network shows poor performance on test data. Nevertheless, sparse coding renders compatible the performance of the network on both training and test data. Furthermore, sparse coding can reproduce reported neural activities. Thus, I conclude that sparse coding is necessary and a biologically plausible factor in sensorimotor transformation. PMID:25923980

17. Are contemporary tourists consuming distance?

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Larsen, Gunvor Riber

2012. Background The background for this research, which explores how tourists represent distance and whether or not distance can be said to be consumed by contemporary tourists, is the increasing leisure mobility of people. Travelling for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives is increasing......, and is being seen as an important activity for 'social life conducted at-a-distance' (Larsen et al, 2007: 244), and holidaying away from home has become an integral part of contemporary life (cf: Krippendorf, 1987; Hall, 2008; Urry, 1995; 2002a). Distances to other places are obviously a fundamental part...... by tourists in an increasingly mobile contemporary society. The research questions guiding this inquiry into distance's status in contemporary leisure mobility reflects the aims of the research: • How is distance being represented in the literature? (guiding the literature review) • How is distance being...

18. Discrete transforms

CERN Document Server

Firth, Jean M

1992-01-01

The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

19. Transformative Agency

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Majgaard, Klaus

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

20. XML Transformations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Felician ALECU

2012-04-01

Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

1. RF transformer

Science.gov (United States)

Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

1979-01-01

There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

2. Quantum Minimum Distance Classifier

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Enrica Santucci

2017-12-01

Full Text Available We propose a quantum version of the well known minimum distance classification model called Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC. In this regard, we presented our first results in two previous works. First, a quantum counterpart of the NMC for two-dimensional problems was introduced, named Quantum Nearest Mean Classifier (QNMC, together with a possible generalization to any number of dimensions. Secondly, we studied the n-dimensional problem into detail and we showed a new encoding for arbitrary n-feature vectors into density operators. In the present paper, another promising encoding is considered, suggested by recent debates on quantum machine learning. Further, we observe a significant property concerning the non-invariance by feature rescaling of our quantum classifier. This fact, which represents a meaningful difference between the NMC and the respective quantum version, allows us to introduce a free parameter whose variation provides, in some cases, better classification results for the QNMC. The experimental section is devoted: (i to compare the NMC and QNMC performance on different datasets; and (ii to study the effects of the non-invariance under uniform rescaling for the QNMC.

3. Planning with Reachable Distances

KAUST Repository

Tang, Xinyu

2009-01-01

Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot\\'s number of degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning, and in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1000-link multi-loop systems of varying topology in less than a second. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

4. Coping with Distances

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

Coping with distances - Producing Nordic Atlantic Societies Mennesker håndterer afstande og producerer derved samfund. Dette er det grundlæggende synspunkt i en afhandling, hvor samfund ikke tages for givet. Samfund er tværtimod noget som hele tiden må produceres, genproduceres og forandres, og det...... været afgørende. Afhandlingen tages sit afsæt i en teoretisk diskussion af begreberne samfund, håndtering (coping på engelsk), social kapital, territorialitet, mobilitet, bonding (stærke identitetsbærende bånd) og bridging (svage, brobyggende forbindelser). Der gås på tværs af vante skel mellem kultur...... trussel mod samfundsbygningen. Men kap. 6 viser de mange måder hvori gennem turismen bidrager til samfundsbygningen, og det er en historie som indledes med en grundig diskussion af opdagelsesrejsernes grundlæggende betydning, også kulturelt. Begge disse kapitler tilføjer coping tilgangen flere analytiske...

5. Revolution in Communication Technologies: Impact on Distance Education

Science.gov (United States)

Rajesh, M.

2015-01-01

Information and Communication Technologies have transformed the way the world lives and thinks. Education, especially, Distance Education is no different. While the technologies per se are an important factor, the social milieus in which these technologies are implemented are equally important. Technological convergence in the Indian context…

6. Hamlet's Transformation.

Science.gov (United States)

Usher, P. D.

1997-12-01

William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

7. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

Science.gov (United States)

Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

1962-11-01

Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

8. Rotary Transformer

Science.gov (United States)

McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

1996-01-01

None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

9. Distance : between deixis and perspectivity

OpenAIRE

Meermann, Anastasia; Sonnenhauser, Barbara

2015-01-01

Discussing exemplary applications of the notion of distance in linguistic analysis, this paper shows that very different phenomena are described in terms of this concept. It is argued that in order to overcome the problems arising from this mixup, deixis, distance and perspectivity have to be distinguished and their interrelations need to be described. Thereby, distance emerges as part of a recursive process mediating between situation-bound deixis and discourse-level perspectivity. This is i...

Science.gov (United States)

Marlow, D L

1996-01-01

11. Data Analysis Details (DS): SE57_DS01 [Metabolonote[Archive

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available malized by z -score transformation using the software TM4 MEV (Chu et al. 2008). The resulting data matrix was analyzed using hierarc...hical clustering based on the Euclidean distance and vis

12. Explosion-Earthquake Discrimination at Local Distances

Science.gov (United States)

O'Rourke, C. T.; Baker, G. E.; Sheehan, A. F.; Harder, S. H.

2014-12-01

Event discrimination research has largely focused on regional distances over the last couple of decades. Most regional discriminants have not been thoroughly tested at local distances, and a recent investigation of P/S ratios from the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) found that they were less effective locally. As discrimination thresholds are reduced, local methods will need to be validated and the physical bases for their performance will need to be understood. We are assessing new and existing methods of source discrimination at 10 to 200 km distance. We use data from a temporary array deployed around the Bighorn Mountains in Wyoming and from nearby US Array stations. Small magnitude local earthquakes, coal mine explosions, and controlled borehole shots were recorded at over 200 broadband and short-period seismometers spaced at 5-35 km intervals across the tectonically complex area. We assess the local discrimination performance of the P/S amplitude ratio, the presence of the fundamental Rayleigh wave Rg, and the signature of scattered Rg in the coda. P/S amplitudes are used because earthquakes typically have higher S-wave energy relative to P than shallow explosions, but the separation of populations is not always effective at local distances. Site effects have a significant impact that may need to be accounted for, along with propagation effects. Specifically, relative P and S site amplifications at basin and mountain stations vary in such a way that they limit separation of the event populations. The Rg phase is only excited by near-surface events, so its presence indicates the likelihood of a man-made source since most earthquakes occur at too great a depth to excite Rg. We implement two methods for detecting Rg: one that uses the cross-correlation of the Hilbert transformed vertical and the radial seismograms, and one that scans a time-frequency representation for the signature of scattered Rg in the coda. These methods are effective in low signal

13. Water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance.

Science.gov (United States)

Du, Xiangjun; Shao, Fengjing; Wu, Shunyao; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Si

2017-07-01

Water quality assessment is crucial for assessment of marine eutrophication, prediction of harmful algal blooms, and environment protection. Previous studies have developed many numeric modeling methods and data driven approaches for water quality assessment. The cluster analysis, an approach widely used for grouping data, has also been employed. However, there are complex correlations between water quality variables, which play important roles in water quality assessment but have always been overlooked. In this paper, we analyze correlations between water quality variables and propose an alternative method for water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance. Further, we cluster water quality data collected form coastal water of Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea of China, and apply clustering results to evaluate its water quality. To evaluate the validity, we also cluster the water quality data with cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance, which are widely adopted by previous studies. The results show that our method is more suitable for water quality assessment with many correlated water quality variables. To our knowledge, it is the first attempt to apply Mahalanobis distance for coastal water quality assessment.

14. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Distance criterion for hydrogen bond. In a D-H ...A contact, the D...A distance must be less than the sum of van der Waals Radii of the D and A atoms, for it to be a hydrogen bond.

15. Distance labeling schemes for trees

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

2016-01-01

We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

16. THE DISTANCE TO M104

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

2016-11-01

M104 (NGC 4594; the Sombrero galaxy) is a nearby, well-studied elliptical galaxy included in scores of surveys focused on understanding the details of galaxy evolution. Despite the importance of observations of M104, a consensus distance has not yet been established. Here, we use newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging to measure the distance to M104 based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our measurement yields the distance to M104 to be 9.55 ± 0.13 ± 0.31 Mpc equivalent to a distance modulus of 29.90 ± 0.03 ± 0.07 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. The most discrepant previous results are due to Tully–Fisher method distances, which are likely inappropriate for M104 given its peculiar morphology and structure. Our results are part of a larger program to measure accurate distances to a sample of well-known spiral galaxies (including M51, M74, and M63) using the TRGB method.

17. The Psychology of Psychic Distance

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Håkanson, Lars; Ambos, Björn; Schuster, Anja

2016-01-01

and their theoretical underpinnings assume psychic distances to be symmetric. Building on insights from psychology and sociology, this paper demonstrates how national factors and cognitive processes interact in the formation of asymmetric distance perceptions. The results suggest that exposure to other countries...

18. Virtual Bioinformatics Distance Learning Suite

Science.gov (United States)

Tolvanen, Martti; Vihinen, Mauno

2004-01-01

Distance learning as a computer-aided concept allows students to take courses from anywhere at any time. In bioinformatics, computers are needed to collect, store, process, and analyze massive amounts of biological and biomedical data. We have applied the concept of distance learning in virtual bioinformatics to provide university course material…

19. Quality Content in Distance Education

Science.gov (United States)

Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

2016-01-01

In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

20. Current Trends in Distance Education.

Science.gov (United States)

Gaspar, Richard F.; Thompson, Theron D.

1995-01-01

Defines distance education; provides a historical background; discusses emerging modes of instruction, including interactive television, computer-mediated communication, electronic mail, and national and international networks; and considers the future of distance education, including the use of the Internet, multimedia, and a new paradigm for…

1. The Distance to M51

Science.gov (United States)

McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert

2016-07-01

Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

2. Linear time distances between fuzzy sets with applications to pattern matching and classification.

Science.gov (United States)

2014-01-01

We present four novel point-to-set distances defined for fuzzy or gray-level image data, two based on integration over α-cuts and two based on the fuzzy distance transform. We explore their theoretical properties. Inserting the proposed point-to-set distances in existing definitions of set-to-set distances, among which are the Hausdorff distance and the sum of minimal distances, we define a number of distances between fuzzy sets. These set distances are directly applicable for comparing gray-level images or fuzzy segmented objects, but also for detecting patterns and matching parts of images. The distance measures integrate shape and intensity/membership of observed entities, providing a highly applicable tool for image processing and analysis. Performance evaluation of derived set distances in real image processing tasks is conducted and presented. It is shown that the considered distances have a number of appealing theoretical properties and exhibit very good performance in template matching and object classification for fuzzy segmented images as well as when applied directly on gray-level intensity images. Examples include recognition of hand written digits and identification of virus particles. The proposed set distances perform excellently on the MNIST digit classification task, achieving the best reported error rate for classification using only rigid body transformations and a kNN classifier.

3. The challenge of global water access monitoring: evaluating straight-line distance versus self-reported travel time among rural households in Mozambique.

Science.gov (United States)

Ho, Jeff C; Russel, Kory C; Davis, Jennifer

2014-03-01

Support is growing for the incorporation of fetching time and/or distance considerations in the definition of access to improved water supply used for global monitoring. Current efforts typically rely on self-reported distance and/or travel time data that have been shown to be unreliable. To date, however, there has been no head-to-head comparison of such indicators with other possible distance/time metrics. This study provides such a comparison. We examine the association between both straight-line distance and self-reported one-way travel time with measured route distances to water sources for 1,103 households in Nampula province, Mozambique. We find straight-line, or Euclidean, distance to be a good proxy for route distance (R(2) = 0.98), while self-reported travel time is a poor proxy (R(2) = 0.12). We also apply a variety of time- and distance-based indicators proposed in the literature to our sample data, finding that the share of households classified as having versus lacking access would differ by more than 70 percentage points depending on the particular indicator employed. This work highlights the importance of the ongoing debate regarding valid, reliable, and feasible strategies for monitoring progress in the provision of improved water supply services.

CERN Document Server

Rutherford, Ernest

2012-01-01

Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

5. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Florian eFort

2015-02-01

Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

6. Transformation Invariant Control of Voxel-Wise False Discovery Rate

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Junning; Shi, Yonggang; Toga, Arthur W.

2016-01-01

Multiple testing for statistical maps remains a critical and challenging problem in brain mapping. Since the false discovery rate (FDR) criterion was introduced to the neuroimaging community a decade ago, many variations have been proposed, mainly to enhance detection power. However, a fundamental geometrical property known as transformation invariance has not been adequately addressed, especially for the voxel-wise FDR. Correction of multiple testing applied after spatial transformation is not necessarily equivalent to transformation applied after correction in the original space. Without the invariance property, assigning different testing spaces will yield different results. We find that normalized residuals of linear models with Gaussian noises are uniformly distributed on a unit high-dimensional sphere, independent of t-statistics and F-statistics. By defining volumetric measure in the hyper-spherical space mapped by normalized residuals, instead of the image’s Euclidean space, we can achieve invariant control of the FDR under diffeomorphic transformation. This hyper-spherical measure also reflects intrinsic “volume of randomness” in signals. Experiments with synthetic, semi-synthetic and real images demonstrate that our method significantly reduces FDR inconsistency introduced by the choice of testing spaces. PMID:27101602

7. A molecular ruler for measuring quantitative distance distributions.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rebecca S Mathew-Fenn

Full Text Available We report a novel molecular ruler for measurement of distances and distance distributions with accurate external calibration. Using solution X-ray scattering we determine the scattering interference between two gold nanocrystal probes attached site-specifically to a macromolecule of interest. Fourier transformation of the interference pattern provides a model-independent probability distribution for the distances between the probe centers-of-mass. To test the approach, we measure end-to-end distances for a variety of DNA structures. We demonstrate that measurements with independently prepared samples and using different X-ray sources are highly reproducible, we demonstrate the quantitative accuracy of the first and second moments of the distance distributions, and we demonstrate that the technique recovers complex distribution shapes. Distances measured with the solution scattering-interference ruler match the corresponding crystallographic values, but differ from distances measured previously with alternate ruler techniques. The X-ray scattering interference ruler should be a powerful tool for relating crystal structures to solution structures and for studying molecular fluctuations.

8. EDITORIAL: Transformation optics Transformation optics

Science.gov (United States)

Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Pendry, John

2011-02-01

Metamaterials are artificial materials with versatile properties that can be tailored to fit almost any practical need and thus go well beyond what can be obtained with natural' materials. Recent progress in developing optical metamaterials allows unprecedented extreme control over the flow of light at both the nano- and macroscopic scales. The innovative field of transformation optics, which is enabled by metamaterials, inspired researchers to take a fresh look at the very foundations of optics and helped to create a new paradigm for the science of light. Similar to general relativity, where time and space are curved, transformation optics shows that the space for light can also be bent in an almost arbitrary way. Most importantly, the optical space can be designed and engineered, opening up the fascinating possibility of controlling the flow of light with nanometer spatial precision. This new paradigm enables a number of novel optical devices guiding how, using metamaterials, the space for light can be curved in a pre-designed and well-controlled way. Metamaterials which incorporate the innovative theories of transformation optics are pertinent to the important areas of optical cloaking, optical black holes, super-resolution imaging, and other sci-fi-like devices. One such exciting device is an electromagnetic cloak that can bend light around itself, similar to the flow of water around a stone, making invisible both the cloak and the object hidden inside. Another important application is a flat hyperlens that can magnify the nanometer-scale features of an object that cannot be resolved with conventional optics. This could revolutionize the field of optical imaging, for instance, because such a meta-lens could become a standard add-on tool for microscopes. By enabling nanoscale resolution in optical microscopy, metamaterial-based transformation optics could allow one to literally see extremely small objects with the eye, including biological cells, viruses, and

9. Language distance and tree reconstruction

Science.gov (United States)

Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

2008-08-01

Languages evolve over time according to a process in which reproduction, mutation and extinction are all possible. This is very similar to haploid evolution for asexual organisms and for the mitochondrial DNA of complex ones. Exploiting this similarity, it is possible, in principle, to verify hypotheses concerning the relationship among languages and to reconstruct their family tree. The key point is the definition of the distances among pairs of languages in analogy with the genetic distances among pairs of organisms. Distances can be evaluated by comparing grammar and/or vocabulary, but while it is difficult, if not impossible, to quantify grammar distance, it is possible to measure a distance from vocabulary differences. The method used by glottochronology computes distances from the percentage of shared 'cognates', which are words with a common historical origin. The weak point of this method is that subjective judgment plays a significant role. Here we define the distance of two languages by considering a renormalized edit distance among words with the same meaning and averaging over the two hundred words contained in a Swadesh list. In our approach the vocabulary of a language is the analogue of DNA for organisms. The advantage is that we avoid subjectivity and, furthermore, reproducibility of results is guaranteed. We apply our method to the Indo-European and the Austronesian groups, considering, in both cases, fifty different languages. The two trees obtained are, in many respects, similar to those found by glottochronologists, with some important differences as regards the positions of a few languages. In order to support these different results we separately analyze the structure of the distances of these languages with respect to all the others.

10. A Study of Online English Language Teacher Education Programmes in Distance Education Context in Pakistan

Science.gov (United States)

Farooq, Muhammad U.; Al Asmari, AbdulRahman; Javid, Choudhary Z.

2012-01-01

Technology-based initiatives have transformed the process of teaching and learning activities at formal institutions generally and distance education institutions particularly. Distance education is at the heart of the digital age making maximum use of the emerging technologies. Researchers have favoured computer mediated communications (CMC) for…

11. On Franklin’s relativistic rotational transformation and its modification

CERN Document Server

Nouri-Zonoz, M; Gharachahi, R

2014-01-01

Unlike the Lorentz transformation which replaces the Galilean transformation among inertial frames at high uniform velocities, there seems to be no such a consensus in the case of rotating frames and the common practice is the use of the classical Galilean rotational transformation. There has been some attempts to generalize this transformation to high rotational velocities (i.e high angular velocities or large radial distances). Here we introduce a modified version of one of these transformations proposed by Philip Franklin in 1922, which is shown to resolve some of its shortcomings specially with respect to the corresponding spacetime metric in the rotating frame. The modified transformation is reinterpreted in terms of non-inertial observers sitting at non-zero radii and the corrersponding metric in rotating frame is shown to be consistent with the one obtained through Galilean rotational transformation for points close to the axis. Spatial distances and time intervals based on the same spacetime metric ar...

12. Distance Education in Technological Age

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

R .C. SHARMA

2005-04-01

Full Text Available Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor, New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode, joining hands with private initiatives and making a presence in foreign waters, are some of the hallmarks of the open and distance education (ODE institutions in developing countries. The compilation of twenty six essays on themes as applicable to ODE has resulted in the book, Distance Education in Technological Age. These essays follow a progressive style of narration, starting from describing conceptual framework of distance education, how the distance education was emerged on the global scene and in India, and then goes on to discuss emergence of online distance education and research aspects in ODE. The initial four chapters provide a detailed account of historical development and growth of distance education in India and State Open University and National Open University Model in India . Student support services are pivot to any distance education and much of its success depends on how well the support services are provided. These are discussed from national and international perspective. The issues of collaborative learning, learning on demand, life long learning, learning-unlearning and re-learning model and strategic alliances have also given due space by the authors. An assortment of technologies like communication technology, domestic technology, information technology, mass media and entertainment technology, media technology and educational technology give an idea of how these technologies are being adopted in the open universities. The study

13. Some Remarks on Diffusion Distances

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Maxim J. Goldberg

2010-01-01

Full Text Available As a diffusion distance, we propose to use a metric (closely related to cosine similarity which is defined as the 2 distance between two 2-normalized vectors. We provide a mathematical explanation as to why the normalization makes diffusion distances more meaningful. Our proposal is in contrast to that made some years ago by R. Coifman which finds the 2 distance between certain 1 unit vectors. In the second part of the paper, we give two proofs that an extension of mean first passage time to mean first passage cost satisfies the triangle inequality; we do not assume that the underlying Markov matrix is diagonalizable. We conclude by exhibiting an interesting connection between the (normalized mean first passage time and the discretized solution of a certain Dirichlet-Poisson problem and verify our result numerically for the simple case of the unit circle.

14. Designing Instruction for Distance Learning

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Main, Robert

1998-01-01

... pressure on the training and education fields to meet the demand. Emerging communication technologies have enabled alternative methods for delivering training via distance learning that are being rapidly adopted by academia and industry...

15. Opportunity Cost of Distance Education

Science.gov (United States)

Turkoglu, Recep

2004-01-01

In this study, opportunity cost (OC) of distance education (DE) has been examined. In addition, factors which affect OC of DE have been investigated. (Contains 1 table.) [Abstract modified to meet ERIC guidelines.

16. Academy Distance Learning Tools (IRIS) -

Data.gov (United States)

Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...

17. ECONOMICS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION RECONSIDERED

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wolfram LAASER

2008-07-01

Full Text Available ABSTRACT According to Gartner a certain hype of e-Learning was followed by a downturn but eLearning will continue to be an important factor in learning scenarios. However the economic viability of e-learning projects will be questioned with more scrutiny than in earlier periods. Therefore it seems to be a good opportunity to see what can be learned from past experience in costing distance learning projects and what aspects are added by current attempts to measure economic efficiency. After reviewing early research about costing distance learning some more recent approaches will be discussed, such as eLearning ROI-calculators and the concept of total cost of ownership. Furthermore some microeconomic effects referring to localization of distance learning courses are outlined. Finally several unsolved issues in costing distance education are summarized.

18. Designing Instruction for Distance Learning

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Main, Robert

1998-01-01

.... While distance learning has been demonstrated to be an effective and efficient tool for increased access it also requires greater emphasis on instructional design and instructor training to obtain satisfactory results...

19. Interactive Multimedia Distance Learning (IMDL)

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Christinaz, Daniel

1999-01-01

.... One avenue of investigation has been to evaluate emerging computer and network technologies to determine if training can be delivered at a distance more efficiently than traditional classroom training...

20. Distance Education in Technological Age

OpenAIRE

Sharma, R. C.

2005-01-01

Distance Education in Technological AgeRomesh Verma (Editor), New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 2005, ISBN 81-261-2210-2, pp. 419 Reviewed by R C SHARMARegional DirectorIndira Gandhi National Open University-INDIA The advancements in information and communication technologies have brought significant changes in the way the open and distance learning are provided to the learners. The impact of such changes is quite visible in both developed and developing countries. Switching over to online mode...

1. Transforming giants.

Science.gov (United States)

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

2008-01-01

Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

2. Foreign Concepts of Distance Education

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

T. M. Sklyarenko

2015-02-01

Full Text Available The paper analyses various foreign concepts of distance education of the past and future. In spite of the considerable progress in theoretical concept developments, the distance education still lacks the required scientific basis. This retrospective analysis is aimed at systemizing the key elements of the theory and practice of education in question, and outlining the main trends. The technology of distance education is reviewed from the following standpoints: industrialization development, distance concept and communication environment. The author points out that the modern concept of distance education has been developed under the influence of the postindustrial society and differs from the preceding approaches to education (pre-industrial and industrial; from the instrument of standard mass education it turns into the individualized way of acquiring the necessary knowledge and information. The innovative information and communication technologies make it indifferent to the time and space barriers; though the distance education is more then just a new way of transmitting the content of traditional education. The author regards it as the potential alternative to the existing educational system due to its capability to assimilate the principles of modern information society and meet its requirements.

3. Random fractional Fourier transform.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

2007-08-01

We propose a novel random fractional Fourier transform by randomizing the transform kernel function of the conventional fractional Fourier transform. The random fractional Fourier transform inherits the excellent mathematical properties from the fractional Fourier transform and can be easily implemented in optics. As a primary application the random fractional Fourier transform can be directly used in optical image encryption and decryption. The double phase encoding image encryption schemes can thus be modeled with cascaded random fractional Fourier transformers.

4. Distance protection using a wavelet-based filtering algorithm

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silva, Kleber M. [University of Brasilia, Electrical Engineering Department, 70919-970 Brasilia (Brazil); Neves, Washington L.A.; Souza, Benemar A. [Federal University of Campina Grande, Paraiba, Brazil, Electrical Engineering Department, 882 Aprigio Veloso Ave, Bodocongo, 58109-970 Campina Grande (Brazil)

2010-01-15

This paper presents a novel filter design technique based on the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT). Time and frequency response of the designed filters are compared to the ones of traditional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based filters. The obtained results show improvements on response speed when comparing to full cycle traditional filters and improvements on frequency response when compared to half cycle traditional filters. According to these characteristics, the designed filter may be used in secure high-speed distance protection, since it provides fast relay operating times, without compromising their frequency response. (author)

5. Counting distance: Effects of egocentric distance on numerical perception.

Science.gov (United States)

Gronau, Nurit; Izoutcheev, Anna; Nave, Tsafnat; Henik, Avishai

2017-01-01

Numerical value is long known to be associated with a variety of magnitude representations, such as size, time and space. The present study focused on the interactive relations of numerical magnitude with a spatial factor which is dominant in everyday vision and is often overlooked, namely, egocentric distance, or depth. We hypothesized that digits denoting large magnitudes are associated with large perceived distances, and vice versa. While the relations of numerical value and size have been long documented, effects of egocentric distance on numeral perception have been scarcely investigated, presumably due to the difficulty to disentangle size and depth factors within three-dimensional visual displays. The current study aimed to assess the potential linkage between egocentric distance and number magnitude, while neutralizing any perceived and/or physical size parameters of target digits. In Experiment 1, participants conducted a numeral size-classification task ('bigger or smaller than 5'), to which they responded with a near-to-body or a far-from-body key. Results revealed shorter responses for small than for large numbers when responded with a key positioned close to the body, and for large than small numbers when responded with a key positioned far from the body (regardless of hand-key mapping). Experiment 2 used verbal stimuli denoting near/remote concepts as irrelevant primes to target digits, further demonstrating a priming effect of conceived distance on numerical value processing. Collectively, our results suggest that distance magnitudes are associatively linked to numerical magnitudes and may affect digit processing independently of the effects of visual size.

6. Counting distance: Effects of egocentric distance on numerical perception.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nurit Gronau

Full Text Available Numerical value is long known to be associated with a variety of magnitude representations, such as size, time and space. The present study focused on the interactive relations of numerical magnitude with a spatial factor which is dominant in everyday vision and is often overlooked, namely, egocentric distance, or depth. We hypothesized that digits denoting large magnitudes are associated with large perceived distances, and vice versa. While the relations of numerical value and size have been long documented, effects of egocentric distance on numeral perception have been scarcely investigated, presumably due to the difficulty to disentangle size and depth factors within three-dimensional visual displays. The current study aimed to assess the potential linkage between egocentric distance and number magnitude, while neutralizing any perceived and/or physical size parameters of target digits. In Experiment 1, participants conducted a numeral size-classification task ('bigger or smaller than 5', to which they responded with a near-to-body or a far-from-body key. Results revealed shorter responses for small than for large numbers when responded with a key positioned close to the body, and for large than small numbers when responded with a key positioned far from the body (regardless of hand-key mapping. Experiment 2 used verbal stimuli denoting near/remote concepts as irrelevant primes to target digits, further demonstrating a priming effect of conceived distance on numerical value processing. Collectively, our results suggest that distance magnitudes are associatively linked to numerical magnitudes and may affect digit processing independently of the effects of visual size.

7. Overlapping community detection based on link graph using distance dynamics

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Li-Jun

2018-01-01

The distance dynamics model was recently proposed to detect the disjoint community of a complex network. To identify the overlapping structure of a network using the distance dynamics model, an overlapping community detection algorithm, called L-Attractor, is proposed in this paper. The process of L-Attractor mainly consists of three phases. In the first phase, L-Attractor transforms the original graph to a link graph (a new edge graph) to assure that one node has multiple distances. In the second phase, using the improved distance dynamics model, a dynamic interaction process is introduced to simulate the distance dynamics (shrink or stretch). Through the dynamic interaction process, all distances converge, and the disjoint community structure of the link graph naturally manifests itself. In the third phase, a recovery method is designed to convert the disjoint community structure of the link graph to the overlapping community structure of the original graph. Extensive experiments are conducted on the LFR benchmark networks as well as real-world networks. Based on the results, our algorithm demonstrates higher accuracy and quality than other state-of-the-art algorithms.

8. Application of Technology in Project-Based Distance Learning

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ali Mehrabian

2008-06-01

Full Text Available Present technology and the accessibility of internet have made distance learning easier, more efficient, and more convenient for students. This technology allows instructors and students to communicate asynchronously, at times and locations of their own choosing, by exchanging printed or electronic information. The use of project-based approach is being recognized in the literature as a potential component of courses in the faculties of engineering, science, and technology. Instructors may have to restructure their course differently to accommodate and facilitate the effectiveness of distance learning. A project-based engineering course, traditionally taught in a classroom settings using live mode at the College of Engineering and Computer Sciences at the University of Central Florida (UCF has been transformed to a distance course taught using distance modes. In this case, pedagogical transitions and adjustments are required, in particular for obtaining an optimal balance between the course material and the project work. Project collaboration in groups requires communication, which is possible with extensive utilization of new information and communication technology, such as virtual meetings. This paper discusses the course transition from live to distance modes and touches on some issues as they relate to the effectiveness of this methodology and the lessons learned from its application within different context. More specifically, this discussion includes the benefit of implementing project-based work in the domain of the distance learning courses.

9. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

OpenAIRE

ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

2014-01-01

This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

10. Distance sampling methods and applications

CERN Document Server

Buckland, S T; Marques, T A; Oedekoven, C S

2015-01-01

In this book, the authors cover the basic methods and advances within distance sampling that are most valuable to practitioners and in ecology more broadly. This is the fourth book dedicated to distance sampling. In the decade since the last book published, there have been a number of new developments. The intervening years have also shown which advances are of most use. This self-contained book covers topics from the previous publications, while also including recent developments in method, software and application. Distance sampling refers to a suite of methods, including line and point transect sampling, in which animal density or abundance is estimated from a sample of distances to detected individuals. The book illustrates these methods through case studies; data sets and computer code are supplied to readers through the book’s accompanying website.  Some of the case studies use the software Distance, while others use R code. The book is in three parts.  The first part addresses basic methods, the ...

11. Social interaction distance and stratification.

Science.gov (United States)

Bottero, Wendy; Prandy, Kenneth

2003-06-01

There have been calls from several sources recently for a renewal of class analysis that would encompass social and cultural, as well as economic elements. This paper explores a tradition in stratification that is founded on this idea: relational or social distance approaches to mapping hierarchy and inequality which theorize stratification as a social space. The idea of 'social space' is not treated as a metaphor of hierarchy nor is the nature of the structure determined a priori. Rather, the space is identified by mapping social interactions. Exploring the nature of social space involves mapping the network of social interaction--patterns of friendship, partnership and cultural similarity--which gives rise to relations of social closeness and distance. Differential association has long been seen as the basis of hierarchy, but the usual approach is first to define a structure composed of a set of groups and then to investigate social interaction between them. Social distance approaches reverse this, using patterns of interaction to determine the nature of the structure. Differential association can be seen as a way of defining proximity within a social space, from the distances between social groups, or between social groups and social objects (such as lifestyle items). The paper demonstrates how the very different starting point of social distance approaches also leads to strikingly different theoretical conclusions about the nature of stratification and inequality.

12. DATA PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEMS

OpenAIRE

Inna V. Herasymenko

2015-01-01

This article focuses on data protection in the support systems of distance learning. Different security tools such as hardware, software, transformation security and organizational protection are considered. There are analyzed key places that require protection and suggested possible options for their protection, such as the use of CAPTCHA for registration, protection for the IP-address and service of copy protection. Testing of the proposed security tools was piloted in terms of e-learning c...

13. Measures of distance between speech signals in the frequency domain

Science.gov (United States)

Deseta, D.

1984-02-01

The energy density spectra and the time behavior of the autoregressive model of voice signals are studied. The first is a complete representation of the voice signal in the frequency domain, derived from the application of the Fourier transform to the sampled signal. The second is based on a voice signal generation model in which the channel is represented by poles only (resonances). A symmetrical version of the Itakura distance is the best compromise between conflicting requirements.

14. Computational Analysis of Distance Operators for the Iterative Closest Point Algorithm.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Higinio Mora

Full Text Available The Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm is currently one of the most popular methods for rigid registration so that it has become the standard in the Robotics and Computer Vision communities. Many applications take advantage of it to align 2D/3D surfaces due to its popularity and simplicity. Nevertheless, some of its phases present a high computational cost thus rendering impossible some of its applications. In this work, it is proposed an efficient approach for the matching phase of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm. This stage is the main bottleneck of that method so that any efficiency improvement has a great positive impact on the performance of the algorithm. The proposal consists in using low computational cost point-to-point distance metrics instead of classic Euclidean one. The candidates analysed are the Chebyshev and Manhattan distance metrics due to their simpler formulation. The experiments carried out have validated the performance, robustness and quality of the proposal. Different experimental cases and configurations have been set up including a heterogeneous set of 3D figures, several scenarios with partial data and random noise. The results prove that an average speed up of 14% can be obtained while preserving the convergence properties of the algorithm and the quality of the final results.

15. Land Cover Changes Detection in Polarimetric SAR Data Using Algebra, Similarity and Distance Based Methods

Science.gov (United States)

Najafi, A.; Hasanlou, M.; Akbari, V.

2017-09-01

Monitoring and surveillance changes around the world need powerful methods, so detection, visualization, and assessment of significant changes are essential for planning and management. Incorporating polarimetric SAR images due to interactions between electromagnetic waves and target and because of the high spatial resolution almost one meter can be used to study changes in the Earth's surface. Full polarized radar images comparing to single polarized radar images use amplitude and phase information of the surface in different available polarization (HH, HV, VH, and VV). This study is based on the decomposition of full polarized airborne UAVSAR images and integration of these features with algebra method involves Image Differencing (ID) and Image Ratio (IR) algorithms with the mathematical nature and distance-based method involves Canberra (CA) and Euclidean (ED) algorithms with measuring distance between corresponding vector and similarity-based method involves Taminoto (TA) and Kulczynski (KU) algorithms with dependence corresponding vector for change detecting purposes on two real PolSAR datasets. Assessment of incorporated methods is implemented using ground truth data and different criteria for evaluating such as overall accuracy (OA), area under ROC curve (AUC) and false alarms rate (FAR). The output results show that ID, IR, and CA have superiority to detect changes comparing to other implemented algorithms. Also, numerical results show that the highest performance in two datasets has OA more than 90%. In other assessment criteria, mention algorithms have low FAR and high AUC value indices to detect changes in PolSAR images.

16. LAND COVER CHANGES DETECTION IN POLARIMETRIC SAR DATA USING ALGEBRA, SIMILARITY AND DISTANCE BASED METHODS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. Najafi

2017-09-01

Full Text Available Monitoring and surveillance changes around the world need powerful methods, so detection, visualization, and assessment of significant changes are essential for planning and management. Incorporating polarimetric SAR images due to interactions between electromagnetic waves and target and because of the high spatial resolution almost one meter can be used to study changes in the Earth's surface. Full polarized radar images comparing to single polarized radar images use amplitude and phase information of the surface in different available polarization (HH, HV, VH, and VV. This study is based on the decomposition of full polarized airborne UAVSAR images and integration of these features with algebra method involves Image Differencing (ID and Image Ratio (IR algorithms with the mathematical nature and distance-based method involves Canberra (CA and Euclidean (ED algorithms with measuring distance between corresponding vector and similarity-based method involves Taminoto (TA and Kulczynski (KU algorithms with dependence corresponding vector for change detecting purposes on two real PolSAR datasets. Assessment of incorporated methods is implemented using ground truth data and different criteria for evaluating such as overall accuracy (OA, area under ROC curve (AUC and false alarms rate (FAR. The output results show that ID, IR, and CA have superiority to detect changes comparing to other implemented algorithms. Also, numerical results show that the highest performance in two datasets has OA more than 90%. In other assessment criteria, mention algorithms have low FAR and high AUC value indices to detect changes in PolSAR images.

17. A note on the Lorentz transformations linking initial and final four-vectors

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ungar, A.A. (Department of Mathematics, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 (United States))

1992-01-01

The set of all (homogeneous, proper, orthochronous) Lorentz transformations that link two given forward-timelike four-vectors with equal norms, as well as the condition under which a unique Lorentz transformation is singled out, is completely determined, and presented in a form suitable for immediate reduction to Galilean transformations by letting {ital c}{r arrow}{infinity},{ital c} being the speed of light in empty space. Analogies to the intuitively well-understood Galilean transformation group are obvious. Thus, for instance, the ordinary velocity addition operator +'' involved in the determination of a Galilean transformation link becomes {direct sum}, the relativistic velocity addition operator involved in the determination of a Lorentz transformation link. The analogies shared by Galilean and Lorentz transformation links were overlooked by explorers since, as opposed to the associative--commutative binary operation + in the Euclidean three-space R{sup 3}, the binary operation {direct sum} in R{sup 3}{sub {ital c}} = {l brace}v{element of}R{sup 3}:{vert bar}{bold v}{vert bar}{lt}{ital c}{r brace} is neither associative nor commutative.

18. Asymmetric distances for binary embeddings.

Science.gov (United States)

Gordo, Albert; Perronnin, Florent; Gong, Yunchao; Lazebnik, Svetlana

2014-01-01

In large-scale query-by-example retrieval, embedding image signatures in a binary space offers two benefits: data compression and search efficiency. While most embedding algorithms binarize both query and database signatures, it has been noted that this is not strictly a requirement. Indeed, asymmetric schemes that binarize the database signatures but not the query still enjoy the same two benefits but may provide superior accuracy. In this work, we propose two general asymmetric distances that are applicable to a wide variety of embedding techniques including locality sensitive hashing (LSH), locality sensitive binary codes (LSBC), spectral hashing (SH), PCA embedding (PCAE), PCAE with random rotations (PCAE-RR), and PCAE with iterative quantization (PCAE-ITQ). We experiment on four public benchmarks containing up to 1M images and show that the proposed asymmetric distances consistently lead to large improvements over the symmetric Hamming distance for all binary embedding techniques.

19. Fascinating Organic Transformations

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

RESONANCE │ December 2011. Fascinating Organic Transformations. 2. The Ubiquitous Hydrogen Bond. Subramania Ranganathan. Hydrogen bonds can transform simple molecules into beauti- ful architectures. This is well illustrated in this article. Organic transformations are generally assumed to involve reactions.

20. Project-Based Collaborative Learning in Distance Education

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knudsen, Morten; Bajard, C.; Helbo, Jan

2003-01-01

) programme indicates, however, that adjustments are required in transforming the on-campus model to distance education. The main problem is that while project work is an excellent regulator of the learning process for on-campus students, this does not seem to be the case for off-campus students. Consequently......, didactic adjustments have been made based on feedback, in particular from evaluation questionnaires. This process has been very constructive in approaching the goal: a successful model for project organized learning in distance education.......This article describes the experiences drawn from an experiment in transferring positive experience with a project-organised on-campus engineering programme to a technology supported distance education programme. Three years of experience with the Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII...

1. Project-based Collaborative learning in distance education

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knudsen, Morten; Bajard, Christine; Helbo, Jan

2004-01-01

) programme indicates, however, that adjustments are required in transforming the on-campus model to distance education. The main problem is that while project work is an excellent regulator of the learning process for on-campus students, this does not seem to be the case for off-campus students. Consequently......, didactic adjustments have been made based on feedback, in particular from evaluation questionnaires. This process has been very constructive in approaching the goal: a successful model for project organized learning in distance education.......This article describes the experiences drawn from an experiment in transferring positive experience with a project-organised on-campus engineering programme to a technology supported distance education programme. Three years of experience with the Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII...

2. Investigation of Flyback Transformer Flux Leakage Reduction Ways

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Edvardas Bielskis

2017-07-01

Full Text Available Results of experimental investigation and design optimization of flyback transformer are presented. Aim of the work is to investigate experimentally the impact of the flyback transformer design on the flux leakage and maximal output power. It is difficult to evaluate the effect of the leakage flux mathematically because it depends on various factors: the position of the windings relative to each other; the position of the windings in the transformer; the distance between the winding. A multi-winding flyback transformer was used for experiments. Using the results of the experiments optimal design of the investigated flyback transformer was defined.

3. Adaptive Distance Protection for Microgrids

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lin, Hengwei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

2015-01-01

Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation resources, more and more microgrids can be found in distribution systems. This paper proposes a phasor measurement unit based distance protection strategy for microgrids in distribution system. At the same time, transfer tripping scheme...... is adopted to accelerate the tripping speed of the relays on the weak lines. The protection methodology is tested on a mid-voltage microgrid network in Aalborg, Denmark. The results show that the adaptive distance protection methodology has good selectivity and sensitivity. What is more, this system also has...

4. Distance-Dependent Multimodal Image Registration for Agriculture Tasks

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ron Berenstein

2015-08-01

Full Text Available Image registration is the process of aligning two or more images of the same scene taken at different times; from different viewpoints; and/or by different sensors. This research focuses on developing a practical method for automatic image registration for agricultural systems that use multimodal sensory systems and operate in natural environments. While not limited to any particular modalities; here we focus on systems with visual and thermal sensory inputs. Our approach is based on pre-calibrating a distance-dependent transformation matrix (DDTM between the sensors; and representing it in a compact way by regressing the distance-dependent coefficients as distance-dependent functions. The DDTM is measured by calculating a projective transformation matrix for varying distances between the sensors and possible targets. To do so we designed a unique experimental setup including unique Artificial Control Points (ACPs and their detection algorithms for the two sensors. We demonstrate the utility of our approach using different experiments and evaluation criteria.

5. The Edit Distance as a Measure of Perceived Rhythmic Similarity

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Olaf Post

2012-07-01

Full Text Available The ‘edit distance’ (or ‘Levenshtein distance’ measure of distance between two data sets is defined as the minimum number of editing operations – insertions, deletions, and substitutions – that are required to transform one data set to the other (Orpen and Huron, 1992. This measure of distance has been applied frequently and successfully in music information retrieval, but rarely in predicting human perception of distance. In this study, we investigate the effectiveness of the edit distance as a predictor of perceived rhythmic dissimilarity under simple rhythmic alterations. Approaching rhythms as a set of pulses that are either onsets or silences, we study two types of alterations. The first experiment is designed to test the model’s accuracy for rhythms that are relatively similar; whether rhythmic variations with the same edit distance to a source rhythm are also perceived as relatively similar by human subjects. In addition, we observe whether the salience of an edit operation is affected by its metric placement in the rhythm. Instead of using a rhythm that regularly subdivides a 4/4 meter, our source rhythm is a syncopated 16-pulse rhythm, the son. Results show a high correlation between the predictions by the edit distance model and human similarity judgments (r = 0.87; a higher correlation than for the well-known generative theory of tonal music (r = 0.64. In the second experiment, we seek to assess the accuracy of the edit distance model in predicting relatively dissimilar rhythms. The stimuli used are random permutations of the son’s inter-onset intervals: 3-3-4-2-4. The results again indicate that the edit distance correlates well with the perceived rhythmic dissimilarity judgments of the subjects (r = 0.76. To gain insight in the relationships between the individual rhythms, the results are also presented by means of graphic phylogenetic trees.

6. Heterospecific transformation among cyanobacteria.

OpenAIRE

Stevens, S E; Porter, R D

1986-01-01

Heterospecific transformation occurred between cyanobacteria currently classified in either the genus Synechococcus or Synechocystis. Cyanobacterial strains 73109 and 6906 were capable of physiological transformation.

7. Fractal and Euclidean geometric diagnostic methodology of uterine cervix cells = Metodología diagnóstica geométrica fractal y euclidiana de células del cuello uterino

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rodríguez Velásquez, Javier Oswaldo

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Background: Pathological interpretation of cellular form in cervical cytology is very important for preven- tion of cervical cancer. The methods most frequently used for assessment of this test have reproducibility and inter-observer variability problems. Objective: To make fractal and Euclidean measure- ments to mathematically diagnose normal and pre- malignant cells of cervical squamous epithelium. Methodology: 21 cells with normal, ASCUS or LSIL diagnosis according to the Bethesda system were assessed. Fractal and Euclidean geometric measures of three mathematical objects were calculated: cyto- plasm, nucleus and whole cell. Mathematical propor- tions between these measurements were calculated in order to compare them with conventional classification methods. Results: It was found that the nuclear border measures calculated with the 2-pixel grill and the surface measures could mathematically and objectively differentiate normal cells from the pre-malignant ones (ASCUS and LSIL. Conclusions: An objective and reproducible diagnos- tic method was developed; it allows to identify the evolution towards malignant cellular states based on simultaneous fractal and Euclidean measures, estab- lishing the severity level of ASCUS and LSIL cells.

8. Measurements of absolute long distances

Science.gov (United States)

Pollinger, Florian; Doloca, Nicolae Radu; Meiners-Hagen, Karl; Wedde, Martin; Abou-Zeid, Ahmed

2010-08-01

The production of large components, e. g. in aerospace industries, requires flexible and yet highly precise measurement techniques to determine absolute lengths of up to one hundred metres. Two different approaches are presented in this paper. One is based on a time-of-flight measurement, using a femtosecond frequency comb as an advanced modulator. By the combined phase analysis of lines of different distinct frequencies in the Mega- and Gigahertz frequency range, a measurement distance of one hundred metres with a relative measurement uncertainty of 1x10-7 was achieved in laboratory conditions. In a second approach to long distance measurements, two standard interferometric measurement techniques, i.e. variable synthetic and fixed synthetic wavelength interferometry, were combined. The two interferometry techniques were realised within a single set-up, using two external cavity diode lasers as sources. Experimentally, lengths of up to twenty metres could thus be determined with relative uncertainties below 1x10-6, in good agreement with theoretical analysis. Both techniques, femtosecond fibre laser-based time-of-flight and diode laser-based multiwavelength interferometry, are therefore capable of absolute, guidance-free long distance measurements and have achieved demonstrated relative measurement uncertainties below 1x10-6 for distances over ten metres.

9. Distance labeling schemes for trees

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

2016-01-01

(log(n)) bits for constant ε> 0. (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes with polylogarithmic label size have previously been established for doubling dimension graphs by Talwar [Talwar, STOC, 2004]. In addition, we present matching upper and lower bounds for distance labeling for caterpillars, showing that labels...

10. Interaction in Distance Nursing Education

Science.gov (United States)

Boz Yuksekdag, Belgin

2012-01-01

The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses' attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through "The Scale of Attitudes of…

11. Challenges in Delivering Distance Education

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

Despite the challenges that exist with DE (Distance Education), university and faculty can provide a strong learning environment for their students if they understand and mitigate the challenges of the DE program. This paper describes a case study of a DE program that offers classroom instruction for multiple sites that are connected using a…

12. The Future of Distance Education.

Science.gov (United States)

2000-01-01

Examines factors that will influence how distance education is practiced in the first few decades of this new century. Discusses developments in digital technology; the exponential growth of knowledge about the brain, as well as physiology, chemistry, and psychology of learning; the system relationship between individual learners and instructors;…

13. Video surveillance using distance maps

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; van den Broek, Egon; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Laplante, Phillip A,

2006-01-01

Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors.

14. Distance, Lending Relationships and Competition

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

2002-01-01

A recent string of theoretical papers highlights the importance of geographical distance in explaining pricing and availability of loans to small firms.Lenders located in the vicinity of small firms have significantly lower monitoring and transaction costs, and hence considerable market power if

15. Distance, Lending Relationships, and Competition

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

2003-01-01

A recent string of theoretical papers has highlighted the importance of geographical distance in explaining loan rates for small firms.Lenders located in the vicinity of small firms face significantly lower transportation and monitoring costs, and hence wield considerable market power, if competing

16. Affective Touch at a Distance

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Huisman, Gijs; Darriba Frederiks, Aduén; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

Touch is an important modality for affective communication between individuals. Here we present a system, named the TaSST (Tactile Sleeve for Social Touch), that allows two people to communicate different types of touch at a distance by touching their own forearm. In this paper we will introduce the

17. Distance bounds on quantum dynamics

Science.gov (United States)

Lidar, Daniel A.; Zanardi, Paolo; Khodjasteh, Kaveh

2008-07-01

We derive rigorous upper bounds on the distance between quantum states in an open-system setting in terms of the operator norm between Hamiltonians describing their evolution. We illustrate our results with an example taken from protection against decoherence using dynamical decoupling.

18. Communication Barriers in Distance Education

Science.gov (United States)

Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme; Altinay, Fahriye; Altinay, Zehra

2003-01-01

Communication is a key concept as being the major tool for people in order to satisfy their needs. It is an activity which refers as process and effective communication requires qualified communication with the elimination of communication barriers. As it is known, distance education is a new trend by following contemporary facilities and tools…

19. Quality Connection: Going the Distance

Science.gov (United States)

Jenney, Timothy R.; Roupas, Eva K.

2003-01-01

In 1999, Virginia Beach City Public Schools launched a completely new distance learning (DL) initiative, Quality Connection. Since that time, through perseverance and creative thinking, the program has become a model of technology as well as a highly successful method of delivering services to a wide variety of stakeholders. Not only do students…

20. Distance Learning: A Game Changer

Science.gov (United States)

Bates, Rodger; LaBrecque, Bryan

2017-01-01

Previous research identified a variety of special populations which may be serviced through online learning activities. These have included the military, Native Americans, prisoners, remote occupations, and others. This paper focuses the growing role of distance learning opportunities for student and professional athletes. Special attention is…

1. Phenotypic distance among assai palm’s mother plants (Euterpe oleracea Mart. from Eastern Amazon

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rosemiro Santos Galate

2014-09-01

Full Text Available The açai palm tree (Euterpe oleracea Mart. is native to the Amazonian estuary. Media revelation of the nutraceutical properties of açai palm has resulted in its introduction in the national and international markets, consequently increasing the açai palm crop area in the Amazon. Nevertheless, açai palm cultivation is performed in a rational manner, because of limited product extraction from the native açai palm varieties. The study aimed to conduct a preliminary estimate of genetic variability, parameters, and phenotypic divergence of parent açai palms. Data from 129 parent plants from northeast Pará was collected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA of 22 morphoagronomic traits was performed to estimate the genetic parameters. Divergence was estimated using standardized average euclidean distance by using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA and Tocher clustering methods. Significant variance was noted in 77.3% traits (ANOVA, p<0.01 and p<0.05; CVg/CVe ratio indicated that 72.3% traits may present genetic variability for use in breeding programs. The euclidean distance showed EO-070 and EO-072 parent plants (Combu Island as the least divergent, and EO-010 (Belém and EO-018 (Salinópolis as the most divergent. The clustering methods determined ten (Tocher and nine (UPGMA similar groups. The most dissimilar parent plants were EO-035 (Capitão Poço, EO- 109 (Combu Island, EO-019 (Salinópolis, and EO-010 (Belém (Tocher method, whereas even the EO-010 (Belém; EO-011 (São João de Pirabas; EO-017, EO-018, and EO-019 (Salinópolis; EO-062 and EO-109 (Combu Island plants showed dissimilarity. We concluded that the 129 mother plants have high phenotypic variability, indicating the possibility of their use in genetic breeding programs. Further, the divergent parent plants can be used in the production of genotypes with favorable characteristics.

2. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

2002-01-01

The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

3. Computational Developments for Distance Determination of Stellar ...

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

On the other hand, the determination of distances within our galaxy allows us to cali- brate the distance indicators (Shanks 1997; Tanvir 1997; Brochkhadze & Kogoshvili. 1999) used to estimate distances outside it. Moreover, determining distances would also help astronomers in their quest to understand the size and the ...

4. When Do Distance Effects Become Empirically Observable?

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

2017-01-01

Integrating distance research with the behavioral strategy literature on MNC headquarters-subsidiary relations, this paper explores how the distance between headquarters and subsidiaries relates to value added by the headquarters. We show for 124 manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe that...... pronounced for cultural, economic, and administrative distances than for pure geographic distance, highlighting the critical role of contextual variation for MNCs....

5. Long distance transportation patterns : mode choice

Science.gov (United States)

2006-05-01

Americans total 1.3 trillion person-miles of long distance travel a year on about 2.6 : billion long-distance trips. Long-distance trips are journeys of more than 50 miles : from home to the furthest destination. More than half of long-distance trips...

6. Distance Education Use in Rural Schools

Science.gov (United States)

Hannum, Wallace H.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Banks, Jonathan B.; Farmer, Thomas W.

2009-01-01

A national survey of rural school systems in the United States was conducted to determine the extent to which distance education is being utilized by rural schools, the technologies used, the curriculum areas impacted, the perceived needs for distance education, their satisfaction with distance education, and the barriers to distance education…

7. History and Heritage in Distance Education

Science.gov (United States)

Anderson, Bill; Simpson, Mary

2012-01-01

Distance education's history is a tremendous resource for all involved in distance education. Some aspects of that history provide enduring touchstones for present distance educators, creating a heritage that should not be overlooked as distance education continues to develop and expand. In this article we draw on the concept of generational…

8. Moral distance in dictator games

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Fernando Aguiar

2008-04-01

Full Text Available We perform an experimental investigation using a dictator game in which individuals must make a moral decision --- to give or not to give an amount of money to poor people in the Third World. A questionnaire in which the subjects are asked about the reasons for their decision shows that, at least in this case, moral motivations carry a heavy weight in the decision: the majority of dictators give the money for reasons of a consequentialist nature. Based on the results presented here and of other analogous experiments, we conclude that dicator behavior can be understood in terms of moral distance rather than social distance and that it systematically deviates from the egoism assumption in economic models and game theory. %extit{JEL}: A13, C72, C91

9. Determining distances using asteroseismic methods

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aguirre, Victor Silva; Casagrande, L.; Basu, Sarbina

2013-01-01

Asteroseismology has been extremely successful in determining the properties of stars in different evolutionary stages with a remarkable level of precision. However, to fully exploit its potential, robust methods for estimating stellar parameters are required and independent verification...... of the results is needed. In this talk, I present a new technique developed to obtain stellar properties by coupling asteroseismic analysis with the InfraRed Flux Method. Using two global seismic observables and multi-band photometry, the technique determines masses, radii, effective temperatures, bolometric...... fluxes, and thus distances for field stars in a self-consistent manner. Applying our method to a sample of solar-like oscillators in the {\\it Kepler} field that have accurate {\\it Hipparcos} parallaxes, we find agreement in our distance determinations to better than 5%. Comparison with measurements...

10. Simulation of Numerical Distance Relays

OpenAIRE

Sherwali, Hamid; Abdlrahem, Abdlmnam

2010-01-01

As modern numerical relays are widely employed in protection systems nowadays and modeling of these types of relays is important to adjust and settle protection equipment in electrical facilities and to train protection personnel, the simulation of distance relays using MATLAB offers a good opportunity to perform these activities efficiently and with minimum cost. Another advantages is that, as MATLAB is a powerful tool rich with component models, any shape of relay characteristic (Impedance,...

11. Reidentification by Relative Distance Comparison.

Science.gov (United States)

Zheng, Wei-Shi; Gong, Shaogang; Xiang, Tao

2013-03-01

Matching people across nonoverlapping camera views at different locations and different times, known as person reidentification, is both a hard and important problem for associating behavior of people observed in a large distributed space over a prolonged period of time. Person reidentification is fundamentally challenging because of the large visual appearance changes caused by variations in view angle, lighting, background clutter, and occlusion. To address these challenges, most previous approaches aim to model and extract distinctive and reliable visual features. However, seeking an optimal and robust similarity measure that quantifies a wide range of features against realistic viewing conditions from a distance is still an open and unsolved problem for person reidentification. In this paper, we formulate person reidentification as a relative distance comparison (RDC) learning problem in order to learn the optimal similarity measure between a pair of person images. This approach avoids treating all features indiscriminately and does not assume the existence of some universally distinctive and reliable features. To that end, a novel relative distance comparison model is introduced. The model is formulated to maximize the likelihood of a pair of true matches having a relatively smaller distance than that of a wrong match pair in a soft discriminant manner. Moreover, in order to maintain the tractability of the model in large scale learning, we further develop an ensemble RDC model. Extensive experiments on three publicly available benchmarking datasets are carried out to demonstrate the clear superiority of the proposed RDC models over related popular person reidentification techniques. The results also show that the new RDC models are more robust against visual appearance changes and less susceptible to model overfitting compared to other related existing models.

12. Tuning the Cepheid distance scale

Science.gov (United States)

Mateo, Mario

1992-01-01

Ongoing observational programs (both from the ground and space) will provide a significantly larger sample of galaxies with well-studied Cepheids both within the Local Group and in more distant galaxies. Recent efforts in the calibration of the Cepheid distance scale utilizing Cepheids in star clusters in the Galaxy and in the Magellanic Clouds are described. Some of the significant advantages of utilizing LMC Cepheids in particular are emphasized, and the current status of the field is summarized.

13. Adaptive Distance Protection for Microgrids

OpenAIRE

Lin, Hengwei; Josep M. Guerrero; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Liu, Chengxi

2015-01-01

Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation resources, more and more microgrids can be found in distribution systems. This paper proposes a phasor measurement unit based distance protection strategy for microgrids in distribution system. At the same time, transfer tripping scheme is adopted to accelerate the tripping speed of the relays on the weak lines. The protection methodology is tested on a mid-voltage microgrid network in Aalborg, Denmark. The results show that the adap...

14. Model-based distance sampling

OpenAIRE

Buckland, Stephen Terrence; Oedekoven, Cornelia Sabrina; Borchers, David Louis

2015-01-01

CSO was part-funded by EPSRC/NERC Grant EP/1000917/1. Conventional distance sampling adopts a mixed approach, using model-based methods for the detection process, and design-based methods to estimate animal abundance in the study region, given estimated probabilities of detection. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in fully model-based methods. Model-based methods are less robust for estimating animal abundance than conventional methods, but offer several advantages: they ...

15. Distance probes of dark energy

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D' Andrea, C B; Dalal, N; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Kuhlmann, S.

2015-03-15

This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

16. Distance probes of dark energy

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

2015-03-01

This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

17. Social interaction distance and stratification

OpenAIRE

Bottero, Wendy; Prandy, Kenneth

2003-01-01

There have been calls from several sources recently for a renewal of class analysis that would encompass social and cultural, as well as economic elements. This paper explores a tradition in stratification that is founded on this idea: relational or social distance approaches to mapping hierarchy and inequality which theorize stratification as a social space. The idea of 'social space' is not treated as a metaphor of hierarchy nor is the nature of the structure determined a priori. Rather, th...

18. Support Services for Distance Education

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sandra Frieden

1999-01-01

Full Text Available The creation and operation of a distance education support infrastructure requires the collaboration of virtually all administrative departments whose activities deal with students and faculty, and all participating academic departments. Implementation can build on where the institution is and design service-oriented strategies that strengthen institutional support and commitment. Issues to address include planning, faculty issues and concerns, policies and guidelines, approval processes, scheduling, training, publicity, information-line operations, informational materials, orientation and registration processes, class coordination and support, testing, evaluations, receive site management, partnerships, budgets, staffing, library and e-mail support, and different delivery modes (microwave, compressed video, radio, satellite, public television/cable, video tape and online. The process is ongoing and increasingly participative as various groups on campus begin to get involved with distance education activities. The distance education unit must continuously examine and revise its processes and procedures to maintain the academic integrity and service excellence of its programs. Its a daunting prospect to revise the way things have been done for many years, but each department has an opportunity to respond to new ways of serving and reaching students.

19. Elite Distance Runners and Breastfeeding.

Science.gov (United States)

Giles, Audrey R; Phillipps, Breanna; Darroch, Francine E; McGettigan-Dumas, Roisin

2016-11-01

Elite female distance runners lack guidelines regarding breastfeeding while training at a high intensity. The purpose of this research was to understand how elite female distance runners manage breastfeeding. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 14 women who had had at least one pregnancy within the past 5 years and had achieved a minimum of the USA Track and Field 2012 Olympic Trials "B" entry standard for running for the marathon or equivalent performance for 1,500 m or longer. Using thematic analysis, we identified the following themes: breastfeeding as a barrier to training and competition, limited access to relevant breastfeeding information, and concerns for the baby's health. Our findings show that despite the considerable barriers with which these women contend, they breastfed at higher rates and for longer duration than members of the general public. Based on our findings, we argue that elite female distance runners' experiences of breastfeeding would be enhanced if more research were conducted on breastfeeding practices while training and competing at an elite level.

20. Topological methods in Euclidean spaces

CERN Document Server

Naber, Gregory L

2000-01-01

Extensive development of a number of topics central to topology, including elementary combinatorial techniques, Sperner's Lemma, the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem, homotopy theory and the fundamental group, simplicial homology theory, the Hopf Trace Theorem, the Lefschetz Fixed Point Theorem, the Stone-Weierstrass Theorem, and Morse functions. Includes new section of solutions to selected problems.

1. Non-Euclidean visibility problems

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

Revista Matemática Iberoamericana (1995). [11] Lovász L, Pelikán J and Vesztergombi K, Discrete mathematics. Elementary and beyond. Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics (New York: Springer-Verlag) (2003). [12] Nowak W G, Primitive lattice points in rational ellipses and related arithmetic functions,. Monatsh. Math.

2. Non-Euclidean visibility problems

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

We prove a visibility criterion and study orchard problem and the cardinality of visible points in large circles. Author Affiliations. Fernando Chamizo1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Dates. Manuscript received: 14 November 2005. Proceedings ...

3. The approaches to measuring the potential spatial access to urban health services revisited: distance types and aggregation-error issues.

Science.gov (United States)

Apparicio, Philippe; Gelb, Jérémy; Dubé, Anne-Sophie; Kingham, Simon; Gauvin, Lise; Robitaille, Éric

2017-08-23

The potential spatial access to urban health services is an important issue in health geography, spatial epidemiology and public health. Computing geographical accessibility measures for residential areas (e.g. census tracts) depends on a type of distance, a method of aggregation, and a measure of accessibility. The aim of this paper is to compare discrepancies in results for the geographical accessibility of health services computed using six distance types (Euclidean and Manhattan distances; shortest network time on foot, by bicycle, by public transit, and by car), four aggregation methods, and fourteen accessibility measures. To explore variations in results according to the six types of distance and the aggregation methods, correlation analyses are performed. To measure how the assessment of potential spatial access varies according to three parameters (type of distance, aggregation method, and accessibility measure), sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty analysis (UA) are conducted. First, independently of the type of distance used except for shortest network time by public transit, the results are globally similar (correlation >0.90). However, important local variations in correlation between Cartesian and the four shortest network time distances are observed, notably in suburban areas where Cartesian distances are less precise. Second, the choice of the aggregation method is also important: compared with the most accurate aggregation method, accessibility measures computed from census tract centroids, though not inaccurate, yield important measurement errors for 10% of census tracts. Third, the SA results show that the evaluation of potential geographic access may vary a great deal depending on the accessibility measure and, to a lesser degree, the type of distance and aggregation method. Fourth, the UA results clearly indicate areas of strong uncertainty in suburban areas, whereas central neighbourhoods show lower levels of uncertainty. In order to

4. Economics of Distance and Online Learning Theory, Practice and Research

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

reviewed by TOJDE

2009-10-01

Full Text Available Economics of Distance and Online LearningTheory, Practice and ResearchBy William Bramble & Santosh PandaPrice: \$125.00ISBN: 978-0-415-96388-6, Binding: Hardback, Publishedby: Routledge, New York, Publication Date: March 2008, Pages: 312TOJDEABOUT THE BOOKThis book provides a comprehensive overview of theorganizational models of distance and online learning froman international perspective and from the point of view ofeconomic planning, costing and management decisionmaking.The book points to directions for the further research anddevelopment in this area, and will promote furtherunderstanding and critical reflection on the part ofadministrators, practitioners and researchers of distanceeducation.The experiences and perspectives in distance education inthe US are balanced with those in other areas of the world.Table of ContentsPrefaceSECTION ONE: INTRODUCTIONChapter 1: Organizational and Cost Structures for Distanceand Online Learning, William J. Bramble and Santosh PandaSECTION TWO: PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTChapter 2: Changing Distance Education andChanging Organizational Issues, D. Randy Garrison and Heather KanukaChapter 3: Online Learning and the University, Chris Curran217Chapter 4: Virtual Schooling and Basic Education, Thomas ClarkChapter 5: Historical Perspectives on Distance Education in the United States, Paul J.Edelson and Von PittmanSECTION THREE: FUNDINGChapter 6: Funding of Distance and Online Learning in the United States, Mark J. Smithand William J. BrambleChapter 7: Funding Distance Education: A Regional Perspective, Santosh Panda andAshok GabaSECTION FOUR: COST STRUCTURES AND MODELSChapter 8: Costs and Quality of Online Learning, Alistair InglisChapter 9: Costing Virtual University Education, Insung JungChapter 10: Cost-Benefit of Student Retention Policies and Practices, Ormond SimpsonSECTION FIVE: DISTANCE TRAININGChapter 11: Cost Benefit of Online Learning, Zane Berge and Charlotte DonaldsonChapter 12: Transforming Workplace

5. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

2011-01-01

A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

6. An exhaustive, non-euclidean, non-parametric data mining tool for unraveling the complexity of biological systems--novel insights into malaria.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Cheikh Loucoubar

Full Text Available Complex, high-dimensional data sets pose significant analytical challenges in the post-genomic era. Such data sets are not exclusive to genetic analyses and are also pertinent to epidemiology. There has been considerable effort to develop hypothesis-free data mining and machine learning methodologies. However, current methodologies lack exhaustivity and general applicability. Here we use a novel non-parametric, non-euclidean data mining tool, HyperCube®, to explore exhaustively a complex epidemiological malaria data set by searching for over density of events in m-dimensional space. Hotspots of over density correspond to strings of variables, rules, that determine, in this case, the occurrence of Plasmodium falciparum clinical malaria episodes. The data set contained 46,837 outcome events from 1,653 individuals and 34 explanatory variables. The best predictive rule contained 1,689 events from 148 individuals and was defined as: individuals present during 1992-2003, aged 1-5 years old, having hemoglobin AA, and having had previous Plasmodium malariae malaria parasite infection ≤10 times. These individuals had 3.71 times more P. falciparum clinical malaria episodes than the general population. We validated the rule in two different cohorts. We compared and contrasted the HyperCube® rule with the rules using variables identified by both traditional statistical methods and non-parametric regression tree methods. In addition, we tried all possible sub-stratified quantitative variables. No other model with equal or greater representativity gave a higher Relative Risk. Although three of the four variables in the rule were intuitive, the effect of number of P. malariae episodes was not. HyperCube® efficiently sub-stratified quantitative variables to optimize the rule and was able to identify interactions among the variables, tasks not easy to perform using standard data mining methods. Search of local over density in m-dimensional space, explained

7. Otkrivenje i etika: pitanje distance

OpenAIRE

Kiš, Miroslav M.

1993-01-01

Osnovna teza ovoga članka jest da objava nije beznačajna niti bez važnosti za čovjekovo grešno stanje zbog svog nadnaravnog podrijetla. Autor prvo nastoji promotriti odnose između teologije i etike i problem distance. Zatim, ispituje načine na koje su dva istaknuta teologa Reinhold Niebuhr i Carl F. H. Henry objasnili odnos između objave i kršćanske etike. Napokon, autor zaključuje. Obojica teologa, Niebuhr i Henry podvlače apsolutni zahtjev moralnog ideala; ipak obojica (iz različitih raz...

8. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

2011-01-01

a household. Due to a high share of corner solutions among the expenditures on plane tickets and package travelling, the expenditures on these specific commodities are examined with a Tobit approach. The model results find both plane tickets and travel packages to be luxury goods. It also states that travel......With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...

9. Minimum Distance and Robust Estimation.

Science.gov (United States)

1979-10-05

K(a)) - (L(b) - L(a))j -m<a maximal ’ interval probability distance. , , ,, i iv) Z ab(KL) a f (K(x) - L(x))2 dL(x) + b[7 (K(x) - L(x...support this proposition, showing :MD-8titors to be competitive with some of the better estimators thus far pro DD , O: ’\\1473 EDITIO O’ ROY 5 IS OBSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATIONI OF TWIS PAGE (whmt Desl ’ntld) ~J

10. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

Science.gov (United States)

2003-08-01

Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

11. Managerial Issues in Open and Distance Education Organizations in Transition: A Need for Systematic Approach

OpenAIRE

ULUKAN, Cemil

2015-01-01

Managerial Issues in Open and Distance Education Organizations in Transition: A Need for Systematic Approach Cemil ULUKAN, PhDAnadolu University Open Education Faculty Eskisehir-TURKEY ABSTRACT Among the most common issues addressed in the educational literature of recent years have been change and transformation . In the literature on open and distance education (ODE), there has been a marked tendency to address change related issues separately. However, ODE leaders should consider all of...

12. Laplace Transforms without Integration

Science.gov (United States)

Robertson, Robert L.

2017-01-01

Calculating Laplace transforms from the definition often requires tedious integrations. This paper provides an integration-free technique for calculating Laplace transforms of many familiar functions. It also shows how the technique can be applied to probability theory.

13. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nasir Ganikhodjaev

2014-01-01

Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

14. Transforms and Applications Handbook

CERN Document Server

Poularikas, Alexander D

2010-01-01

Highlighting the use of transforms and their properties, this title offers an introduction to signals and systems, including properties of the delta function and some classical orthogonal functions. It then details different transforms, including lapped, Mellin, wavelet, and Hartley varieties

15. 28-Channel rotary transformer

Science.gov (United States)

Mclyman, W. T.

1981-01-01

Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

16. A Selective Refinement Approach for Computing the Distance Functions of Curves

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laney, D A; Duchaineau, M A; Max, N L

2000-12-01

We present an adaptive signed distance transform algorithm for curves in the plane. A hierarchy of bounding boxes is required for the input curves. We demonstrate the algorithm on the isocontours of a turbulence simulation. The algorithm provides guaranteed error bounds with a selective refinement approach. The domain over which the signed distance function is desired is adaptively triangulated and piecewise discontinuous linear approximations are constructed within each triangle. The resulting transform performs work only were requested and does not rely on a preset sampling rate or other constraints.

17. Lithological Uncertainty Expressed by Normalized Compression Distance

Science.gov (United States)

Jatnieks, J.; Saks, T.; Delina, A.; Popovs, K.

2012-04-01

Lithological composition and structure of the Quaternary deposits is highly complex and heterogeneous in nature, especially as described in borehole log data. This work aims to develop a universal solution for quantifying uncertainty based on mutual information shared between the borehole logs. This approach presents tangible information directly useful in generalization of the geometry and lithology of the Quaternary sediments for use in regional groundwater flow models as a qualitative estimate of lithological uncertainty involving thousands of borehole logs would be humanly impossible due to the amount of raw data involved. Our aim is to improve parametrization of recharge in the Quaternary strata. This research however holds appeal for other areas of reservoir modelling, as demonstrated in the 2011 paper by Wellmann & Regenauer-Lieb. For our experiments we used extracts of the Quaternary strata from general-purpose geological borehole log database maintained by the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, spanning the territory of Latvia. Lithological codes were generalised into 2 aggregation levels consisting of 5 and 20 rock types respectively. Our calculation of borehole log similarity relies on the concept of information distance proposed by Bennet et al. in 1998. This was developed into a practical data mining application by Cilibrasi in the 2007 dissertation. The resulting implementation called CompLearn utilities provide a calculation of the Normalized Compression Distance (NCD) metric. It relies on the universal data compression algorithms for estimating mutual information content in the data. This approach has proven to be universally successful for parameter free data mining in disciplines from molecular biology to network intrusion monitoring. To improve this approach for use in geology it is beneficial to apply several transformations as pre-processing steps to the borehole log data. Efficiency of text stream compressors, such as

18. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

De Leon, Francisco

2017-11-28

Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.

19. Transforming models with ATL

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Jouault, F.; Ivanov, Ivan

2006-01-01

This paper presents ATL (ATLAS Transformation Language): a hybrid model transformation language that allows both declarative and imperative constructs to be used in transformation definitions. The paper describes the language syntax and semantics by using examples. ATL is supported by a set of

20. Nonsynchronous Noncommensurate Impedance Transformers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, K

2012-01-01

advantage of such transformers is that they can be constructed using sections of transmission lines with a limited variety of characteristic impedances. These transformers also provide comparatively compact size in applications where a wide transformation ratio is required. This paper presents the data...

1. Open and Distance Learning Today. Routledge Studies in Distance Education Series.

Science.gov (United States)

Lockwood, Fred, Ed.

This book contains the following papers on open and distance learning today: "Preface" (Daniel); "Big Bang Theory in Distance Education" (Hawkridge); "Practical Agenda for Theorists of Distance Education" (Perraton); "Trends, Directions and Needs: A View from Developing Countries" (Koul); "American…

2. Real-Time Pathogen Detection in the Era of Whole-Genome Sequencing and Big Data: Comparison of k-mer and Site-Based Methods for Inferring the Genetic Distances among Tens of Thousands of Salmonella Samples.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

James B Pettengill

Full Text Available The adoption of whole-genome sequencing within the public health realm for molecular characterization of bacterial pathogens has been followed by an increased emphasis on real-time detection of emerging outbreaks (e.g., food-borne Salmonellosis. In turn, large databases of whole-genome sequence data are being populated. These databases currently contain tens of thousands of samples and are expected to grow to hundreds of thousands within a few years. For these databases to be of optimal use one must be able to quickly interrogate them to accurately determine the genetic distances among a set of samples. Being able to do so is challenging due to both biological (evolutionary diverse samples and computational (petabytes of sequence data issues. We evaluated seven measures of genetic distance, which were estimated from either k-mer profiles (Jaccard, Euclidean, Manhattan, Mash Jaccard, and Mash distances or nucleotide sites (NUCmer and an extended multi-locus sequence typing (MLST scheme. When analyzing empirical data (whole-genome sequence data from 18,997 Salmonella isolates there are features (e.g., genomic, assembly, and contamination that cause distances inferred from k-mer profiles, which treat absent data as informative, to fail to accurately capture the distance between samples when compared to distances inferred from differences in nucleotide sites. Thus, site-based distances, like NUCmer and extended MLST, are superior in performance, but accessing the computing resources necessary to perform them may be challenging when analyzing large databases.

3. Color graph based wavelet transform with perceptual information

Science.gov (United States)

Malek, Mohamed; Helbert, David; Carré, Philippe

2015-09-01

We propose a numerical strategy to define a multiscale analysis for color and multicomponent images based on the representation of data on a graph. Our approach consists of computing the graph of an image using the psychovisual information and analyzing it by using the spectral graph wavelet transform. We suggest introducing color dimension into the computation of the weights of the graph and using the geodesic distance as a mean of distance measurement. We thus have defined a wavelet transform based on a graph with perceptual information by using the CIELab color distance. This new representation is illustrated with denoising and inpainting applications. Overall, by introducing psychovisual information in the graph computation for the graph wavelet transform, we obtain very promising results. Thus, results in image restoration highlight the interest of the appropriate use of color information.

4. Distance Learning Plan Development: Initiating Organizational Structures

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Poole, Clifton

1998-01-01

.... Army distance learning plan managers to examine the DLPs they were directing. The analysis showed that neither army nor civilian distance learning plan managers used formalized requirements for organizational structure development (OSD...

5. Measuring Corporate Readiness To Implement Distance Education.

Science.gov (United States)

Slick, Joan Friton

2001-01-01

Examines distance education issues for corporations and offers a measurement tool to assess corporate readiness for distance education. Topics include costs; competitive advantages; customized training; effectiveness; organizational support; instructional design; managerial support; and learner attitudes. (Author/LRW)

6. Transforming the NHS through transforming ourselves

OpenAIRE

Akhtar, M.; Casha, J.; Ronder, J.; Sakel, M.; Wight, C.; Manley, K.

2016-01-01

Abstract \\ud Background: Leadership development impacts on quality of care and workplace cultures for staff. Clinical Leadership embracing transformational and other collective leadership approaches are key enablers to developing effective workplace cultures at the micro-systems level. Following the development of a shared purpose and values framework, an internal, inter-professional clinical leadership programme was set up to grow a critical community of transformational leaders across one N...

7. DATA PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DISTANCE LEARNING SYSTEMS

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Inna V. Herasymenko

2015-06-01

Full Text Available This article focuses on data protection in the support systems of distance learning. Different security tools such as hardware, software, transformation security and organizational protection are considered. There are analyzed key places that require protection and suggested possible options for their protection, such as the use of CAPTCHA for registration, protection for the IP-address and service of copy protection. Testing of the proposed security tools was piloted in terms of e-learning course "Information Technologies of Systems Analysis".

8. Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs

Science.gov (United States)

Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

1980-01-01

Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

9. Auditory Perception in Open Field: Distance Estimation

Science.gov (United States)

2013-07-01

in a concert hall, while the musicians have the tendency to underestimate such a distance. 6. Distance Estimation in an Open Field The difficulty... Musicians and Sound Engineers in Estimation of Egocentric Source Distance in a Concert Hall Stereophonic Recording. Proceedings of the 28th International...Servos, P. Distance Estimation in the Visual and Visuomotor Systems. Experimental Brain Research 2000, 130, 35–47. Shaw, B. K.; McGowan, R. S.; Turvey, M

10. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

Science.gov (United States)

Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

2004-07-01

We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

11. Distance effects in electrochemical micromachining

Science.gov (United States)

Xu, Lizhong; Pan, Yue; Zhao, Chuanjun

2016-09-01

Considering exponential dependence of currents on double-layer voltage and the feedback effect of the electrolyte resistance, a distance effect in electrochemical micromachining is found, namely that both time constant and double-layer voltage depend on the separation of electrodes. The double-layer voltage is the real voltage used in processing. Under DC voltage, the apparent voltages between two electrodes are constant for different separations, but the real voltages change with the separations. Small separations exert substantial effects on the real voltages. Accordingly, a DC-voltage small-separation electrochemical micromachining technique was proposed. The double-layer voltage drops sharply as the small separation increases. Thus, the electrochemical reactions are confined to electrode regions in very close proximity even under DC voltage. The machining precision can be significantly enhanced by reducing the voltage and separation between electrodes. With this technique, the machining of conducting materials with submicrometre precision was achieved.

12. Managerial Distance and Virtual Ownership

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansmann, Henry; Thomsen, Steen

Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies con......, but corporate governance and fiduciary behavior more generally.......Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies......-seeking outside owners of the company. Consistent with this hypothesis, our empirical analysis shows a positive, significant, and robust association between managerial distance and the economic performance of foundation owned companies. The findings appear to illuminate not just foundation governance...

13. Continuity Properties of Distances for Markov Processes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jaeger, Manfred; Mao, Hua; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

2014-01-01

In this paper we investigate distance functions on finite state Markov processes that measure the behavioural similarity of non-bisimilar processes. We consider both probabilistic bisimilarity metrics, and trace-based distances derived from standard Lp and Kullback-Leibler distances. Two desirabl...

14. Generating Signed Distance Fields From Triangle Meshes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

A method for generating a discrete, signed 3D distance field is proposed. Distance fields are used in a number of contexts. In particular the popular level set method is usually initialized by a distance field. The main focus of our work is on simplifying the computation of the sign when generati...

15. The History of Distance Education in Australia

Science.gov (United States)

Stacey, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

Australia's large distances and widely distributed population has meant that distance education has been an important part of its history. From the earliest provision of schooling by mail through a series of correspondence schools, both state and federal governments have provided a sound infrastructure to support distance education. Innovative…

16. E-LEARNING AND DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Alexander A. Andreev

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The article discusses the term, date and reasons for appearance of distance education and different aspects of its development in Russia. The description and characteristics of Russian distance learning technologies are given. The peculiarities of modern Internet based distance education are outlined.

17. Distance Education and Tomorrow's Schools. Fastback 439.

Science.gov (United States)

Ludlow, Barbara L.; Duff, Michael C.

This booklet provides an overview of distance education today, including discussion of exemplary programs and implications for the future. The first section defines distance education and examines trends, possibilities, and problems. Distance education technologies are discussed in the second section, including "low tech" systems…

18. Analysing designed experiments in distance sampling

Science.gov (United States)

Stephen T. Buckland; Robin E. Russell; Brett G. Dickson; Victoria A. Saab; Donal N. Gorman; William M. Block

2009-01-01

Distance sampling is a survey technique for estimating the abundance or density of wild animal populations. Detection probabilities of animals inherently differ by species, age class, habitats, or sex. By incorporating the change in an observer's ability to detect a particular class of animals as a function of distance, distance sampling leads to density estimates...

19. Information Work in Distance Education: International Perspectives.

Science.gov (United States)

Harry, Keith; Ismail, Nazira

This paper outlines the range and types of distance education on which information is potentially available. Different types of institutions involved in distance education are identified, and the major concerns of distance teaching institutions worldwide are briefly examined. Information users and their information needs are identified, and types…

20. Distance learning: its advantages and disadvantages

OpenAIRE

KEGEYAN SVETLANA ERIHOVNA

2016-01-01

Distance learning has become popular in higher institutions because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers at anytime, regardless of geographic location. With so many definitions and phases of distance education, this paper only focuses on the delivery mode of distance education (the use of information technology), background, and its disadvantages and advantages for today’s learners.

1. Rough Way for Academics: Distance Education

Science.gov (United States)

Gursul, Fatih

2010-01-01

This study aims to compare the academics' perceptions about face to face and distance education, beside finding out the contributions of distance education to them, difficulties they experience in synchronous and asynchronous distance education environments and suggestions for possible solutions of the existing problems. The sample consists of 52…

2. What Is Distance? Popular Lectures in Mathematics.

Science.gov (United States)

Shreider, Yu A.

Presented is an elaboration of a course given at Moscow University for pupils in ninth and tenth grades. The development through abstraction of the general definition of distance is discussed and a class of spaces in which the notion of distance is defined, the so-called metric spaces, is introduced. The general concept of distance is related to a…

3. Speed-invariant encoding of looming object distance requires power law spike rate adaptation.

Science.gov (United States)

Clarke, Stephen E; Naud, Richard; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

2013-08-13

Neural representations of a moving object's distance and approach speed are essential for determining appropriate orienting responses, such as those observed in the localization behaviors of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. We demonstrate that a power law form of spike rate adaptation transforms an electroreceptor afferent's response to "looming" object motion, effectively parsing information about distance and approach speed into distinct measures of the firing rate. Neurons with dynamics characterized by fixed time scales are shown to confound estimates of object distance and speed. Conversely, power law adaptation modifies an electroreceptor afferent's response according to the time scales present in the stimulus, generating a rate code for looming object distance that is invariant to speed and acceleration. Consequently, estimates of both object distance and approach speed can be uniquely determined from an electroreceptor afferent's firing rate, a multiplexed neural code operating over the extended time scales associated with behaviorally relevant stimuli.

4. Optimizing holographic data storage using a fractional Fourier transform.

Science.gov (United States)

Pégard, Nicolas C; Fleischer, Jason W

2011-07-01

We demonstrate a method to optimize the reconstruction of a hologram when the storage device has a limited dynamic range and a minimum grain size. The optimal solution at the recording plane occurs when the object wave has propagated an intermediate distance between the near and far fields. This distance corresponds to an optimal order and magnification of the fractional Fourier transform of the object.

5. From language identification to language distance

Science.gov (United States)

Gamallo, Pablo; Pichel, José Ramom; Alegria, Iñaki

2017-10-01

In this paper, we define two quantitative distances to measure how far apart two languages are. The distance measure that we have identified as more accurate is based on the perplexity of n-gram models extracted from text corpora. An experiment to compare forty-four European languages has been performed. For this purpose, we computed the distances for all the possible language pairs and built a network whose nodes are languages and edges are distances. The network we have built on the basis of linguistic distances represents the current map of similarities and divergences among the main languages of Europe.

6. A methodology to assess the intrinsic discriminative ability of a distance function and its interplay with clustering algorithms for microarray data analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Giancarlo, Raffaele; Lo Bosco, Giosué; Pinello, Luca; Utro, Filippo

2013-01-01

new methodology has been used to experimentally study three popular distance functions, namely, Euclidean distance d2, Pearson correlation dr and mutual information dMI. Based on the results of the experiments, we have that the Euclidean and Pearson correlation distances have a good intrinsic discrimination ability. Conversely, the mutual information distance does not seem to offer the same flexibility and versatility as the other two distances. Apparently, that is due to well known problems in its estimation. since it requires that a dataset must have a substantial number of features to be reliable. Nevertheless, taking into account such a fact, together with results presented in Priness et al., one receives an indication that dMI may be superior to the other distances considered in this study only in conjunction with clustering algorithms specifically designed for its use. In addition, it results that K-means, Average Link, and Complete link clustering algorithms are in most cases able to improve the discriminative ability of the distances considered in this study with respect to clustering. The methodology has a range of applicability that goes well beyond microarray data since it is independent of the nature of the input data. The only requirement is that the input data must have the same format of a "feature matrix". In particular it can be used to cluster ChIP-seq data.

7. Distance learning in toxicology: Australia's RMIT program.

Science.gov (United States)

Ahokas, Jorma; Donohue, Diana; Rix, Colin; Wright, Paul

2005-09-01

8. A Fast Superpixel Segmentation Algorithm for PolSAR Images Based on Edge Refinement and Revised Wishart Distance.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Yue; Zou, Huanxin; Luo, Tiancheng; Qin, Xianxiang; Zhou, Shilin; Ji, Kefeng

2016-10-13

The superpixel segmentation algorithm, as a preprocessing technique, should show good performance in fast segmentation speed, accurate boundary adherence and homogeneous regularity. A fast superpixel segmentation algorithm by iterative edge refinement (IER) works well on optical images. However, it may generate poor superpixels for Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) images due to the influence of strong speckle noise and many small-sized or slim regions. To solve these problems, we utilized a fast revised Wishart distance instead of Euclidean distance in the local relabeling of unstable pixels, and initialized unstable pixels as all the pixels substituted for the initial grid edge pixels in the initialization step. Then, postprocessing with the dissimilarity measure is employed to remove the generated small isolated regions as well as to preserve strong point targets. Finally, the superiority of the proposed algorithm is validated with extensive experiments on four simulated and two real-world PolSAR images from Experimental Synthetic Aperture Radar (ESAR) and Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR) data sets, which demonstrate that the proposed method shows better performance with respect to several commonly used evaluation measures, even with about nine times higher computational efficiency, as well as fine boundary adherence and strong point targets preservation, compared with three state-of-the-art methods.

9. A Fast Superpixel Segmentation Algorithm for PolSAR Images Based on Edge Refinement and Revised Wishart Distance

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yue Zhang

2016-10-01

Full Text Available The superpixel segmentation algorithm, as a preprocessing technique, should show good performance in fast segmentation speed, accurate boundary adherence and homogeneous regularity. A fast superpixel segmentation algorithm by iterative edge refinement (IER works well on optical images. However, it may generate poor superpixels for Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR images due to the influence of strong speckle noise and many small-sized or slim regions. To solve these problems, we utilized a fast revised Wishart distance instead of Euclidean distance in the local relabeling of unstable pixels, and initialized unstable pixels as all the pixels substituted for the initial grid edge pixels in the initialization step. Then, postprocessing with the dissimilarity measure is employed to remove the generated small isolated regions as well as to preserve strong point targets. Finally, the superiority of the proposed algorithm is validated with extensive experiments on four simulated and two real-world PolSAR images from Experimental Synthetic Aperture Radar (ESAR and Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR data sets, which demonstrate that the proposed method shows better performance with respect to several commonly used evaluation measures, even with about nine times higher computational efficiency, as well as fine boundary adherence and strong point targets preservation, compared with three state-of-the-art methods.

10. Learner characteristics involved in distance learning

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cernicek, A.T.; Hahn, H.A.

1991-01-01

Distance learning represents a strategy for leveraging resources to solve educational and training needs. Although many distance learning programs have been developed, lessons learned regarding differences between distance learning and traditional education with respect to learner characteristics have not been well documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey of 20 distance learning professionals. The questionnaire was distributed to experts attending the second Distance Learning Conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This survey not only acquired demographic information from each of the respondents but also identified important distance learning student characteristics. Significant distance learner characteristics, which were revealed statistically and which influence the effectiveness of distance learning, include the following: reading level, student autonomy, and self-motivation. Distance learning cannot become a more useful and effective method of instruction without identifying and recognizing learner characteristics. It will be important to consider these characteristics when designing all distance learning courses. This paper will report specific survey findings and their implications for developing distance learning courses. 9 refs., 6 tabs.

11. Critical Points in Distance Learning System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Airina Savickaitė

2013-08-01

Full Text Available Purpose – This article presents the results of distance learning system analysis, i.e. the critical elements of the distance learning system. The critical points of distance learning are a part of distance education online environment interactivity/community process model. The most important is the fact that the critical point is associated with distance learning participants. Design/methodology/approach – Comparative review of articles and analysis of distance learning module. Findings – A modern man is a lifelong learner and distance learning is a way to be a modern person. The focus on a learner and feedback is the most important thing of learning distance system. Also, attention should be paid to the lecture-appropriate knowledge and ability to convey information. Distance system adaptation is the way to improve the learner’s learning outcomes. Research limitations/implications – Different learning disciplines and learning methods may have different critical points. Practical implications – The information of analysis could be important for both lecturers and students, who studies distance education systems. There are familiar critical points which may deteriorate the quality of learning. Originality/value – The study sought to develop remote systems for applications in order to improve the quality of knowledge. Keywords: distance learning, process model, critical points. Research type: review of literature and general overview.

12. Estimating rupture distances without a rupture

Science.gov (United States)

Thompson, Eric; Worden, Charles

2017-01-01

Most ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) require distances that are defined relative to a rupture model, such as the distance to the surface projection of the rupture (RJB) or the closest distance to the rupture plane (RRUP). There are a number of situations in which GMPEs are used where it is either necessary or advantageous to derive rupture distances from point-source distance metrics, such as hypocentral (RHYP) or epicentral (REPI) distance. For ShakeMap, it is necessary to provide an estimate of the shaking levels for events without rupture models, and before rupture models are available for events that eventually do have rupture models. In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, it is often convenient to use point-source distances for gridded seismicity sources, particularly if a preferred orientation is unknown. This avoids the computationally cumbersome task of computing rupture-based distances for virtual rupture planes across all strikes and dips for each source. We derive average rupture distances conditioned on REPI, magnitude, and (optionally) back azimuth, for a variety of assumed seismological constraints. Additionally, we derive adjustment factors for GMPE standard deviations that reflect the added uncertainty in the ground motion estimation when point-source distances are used to estimate rupture distances.

13. Distance Education at Silesian University of Technology

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Piotr Klosowski

2008-12-01

Full Text Available This paper presents Distance Learning Platform used by Silesian University of Technology. Distance Learning Platform is based on modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment, represents LMS (Learning Management Systems technology, a software package designed to help educators create quality online courses. Currently on Distance Learning Platform at Silesian University of Technology are available over 520 online courses created for students of twelve University's faculties. Number of Distance Learning Platform users exceeds 12000. Distance Learning Platform works as typically asynchronous e-learning service, but in the future more synchronous e-learning services will be added. Distance Learning Platform has great potential to create a successful elearning experience by providing a plethora of excellent tools that can be used to enhance conventional classroom instruction, in hybrid courses, or any distance learning arrangements.

14. A novel instrument for logging nearwork distance.

Science.gov (United States)

Leung, Tsz-wing; Flitcroft, Daniel I; Wallman, Josh; Lee, Tat Hing; Zheng, Yongping; Lam, Carly Siu-yin; Kee, Chea-su

2011-03-01

15. The scale of the Fourier transform: a point of view of the fractional Fourier transform

Science.gov (United States)

Jimenez, C. J.; Vilardy, J. M.; Salinas, S.; Mattos, L.; Torres, C. O.

2017-01-01

In this paper using the Fourier transform of order fractional, the ray transfer matrix for the symmetrical optical systems type ABCD and the formulae by Collins for the diffraction, we obtain explicitly the expression for scaled Fourier transform conventional; this result is the great importance in optical signal processing because it offers the possibility of scaling the size of output the Fourier distribution of the system, only by manipulating the distance of the diffraction object toward the thin lens, this research also emphasizes on practical limits when a finite spherical converging lens aperture is used. Digital simulation was carried out using the numerical platform of Matlab 7.1.

16. Modeling positional effects of regulatory sequences with spline transformations increases prediction accuracy of deep neural networks.

Science.gov (United States)

Avsec, Žiga; Barekatain, Mohammadamin; Cheng, Jun; Gagneur, Julien

2017-11-16

Regulatory sequences are not solely defined by their nucleic acid sequence but also by their relative distances to genomic landmarks such as transcription start site, exon boundaries, or polyadenylation site. Deep learning has become the approach of choice for modeling regulatory sequences because of its strength to learn complex sequence features. However, modeling relative distances to genomic landmarks in deep neural networks has not been addressed. Here we developed spline transformation, a neural network module based on splines to flexibly and robustly model distances. Modeling distances to various genomic landmarks with spline transformations significantly increased state-of-the-art prediction accuracy of in vivo RNA-binding protein binding sites for 120 out of 123 proteins. We also developed a deep neural network for human splice branchpoint based on spline transformations that outperformed the current best, already distance-based, machine learning model. Compared to piecewise linear transformation, as obtained by composition of rectified linear units, spline transformation yields higher prediction accuracy as well as faster and more robust training. As spline transformation can be applied to further quantities beyond distances, such as methylation or conservation, we foresee it as a versatile component in the genomics deep learning toolbox. Spline transformation is implemented as a Keras layer in the CONCISE python package: https://github.com/gagneurlab/concise. Analysis code is available at goo.gl/3yMY5w. avsec@in.tum.de; gagneur@in.tum.de. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

17. Embracing transformational leadership: team values and the impact of leader behavior on team performance.

Science.gov (United States)

Schaubroeck, John; Lam, Simon S K; Cha, Sandra E

2007-07-01

The authors investigated the relationship between transformational leadership behavior and group performance in 218 financial services teams that were branches of a bank in Hong Kong and the United States. Transformational leadership influenced team performance through the mediating effect of team potency. The effect of transformational leadership on team potency was moderated by team power distance and team collectivism, such that higher power distance teams and more collectivistic teams exhibited stronger positive effects of transformational leadership on team potency. The model was supported by data in both Hong Kong and the United States, which suggests a convergence in how teams function in the East and West and highlights the importance of team values.

18. Transformation of Abandonment

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

2015-01-01

are of such a radical manner it will not be possible to re-establish the former function of the building. The aim of the actions is to develop and test full-scale transformation prototypes in varying rural village environments. Interaction with local people and their response to the prototypes can be seen as real life......, executed in March 2014, investigated the transformation of three single-family houses into controlled ruins in different village environments. The transformation of these buildings was performed in order to produce examples of prototypes of a long-term transformation strategy. A strategy in which...... a new critical practice based on a series of full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings . These transformations, hereinafter referred to as actions, are the core of the research. The actions are implemented as physical interventions, each of which involves an abandoned building. The interventions...

19. Transformative environmental governance

Science.gov (United States)

Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

2016-01-01

Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

20. Distance delivery of nutrition education.

Science.gov (United States)

Mazurak, Vera C; Whybrow, Ellen; Varnhagen, Stanley; Field, Catherine J

2005-01-01

Questions often arise about the quality of an educational experience in a distance format. Debate exists as to whether the relatively new format of on-line education can offer an equivalent learning experience for students, and the perception remains that virtual learning is impersonal. We examined students' experience in an introductory undergraduate nutrition course that had been remodelled as an asynchronous, active-learning, student-centred model. The investigation used the framework of instructional message design, a concept based on cognitive science principles, to highlight themes in student survey and focus group data. Results indicate that a motivating and accessible quality educational experience is possible in an on-line format through a student-centred model. Such a model provides a means to offer education to a diverse and larger audience. Further investigation is needed to determine faculty professional development needs and cost-effective ways to expand the model. Such a model provides alternatives to expand delivery to encourage interest in the field, and to provide continuing education for allied professionals and the general public.

1. Right Distance or Right Presence?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Edmée Runtz-Christan

2011-05-01

Full Text Available At a time when experts confront each other in order to determine what is essential to knowledge and didactics, to the logic of intention or to the logic of competence, it is necessary to recall that the only thing that the teacher can transmit is the will to know. Neither teaching nor didactics allows the learner to economize in the transition to the act. It is only when the student has decided to learn that they will acquire the knowledge and skills to succeed. It is essential to stimulate the student to act, remembering that, to be viable, the pedagogic relationship must be inscribed within an ethical, institutional and relational system, avoiding dependence or indifference to any of these. How then to convey the will to know without manipulating the student by means of didactic, relational or institutional strategies? How could the presence of the teacher be used to enhance the process of learning? What distances should be respected in order to sustain interest?

2. Long-Distance Free Fall

Science.gov (United States)

Gallant, Joseph

1999-04-01

One of the goals of physics education is to instill a sense of wonder in our students. We hope our natural curiosity will rub off on them and that they will apply the critical thinking skills we teach them to other aspects of their lives outside the classroom. As an example of this, consider the situation described in Milton's epic poem `Paradise Lost''. Milton wrote that when the devil was cast out of heaven, he fell for nine days before landing in hell. In Milton's universe, hell is a separate place from Earth, but many people place hell at the center of the Earth. Based on these ideas, we can apply Newton's laws of motion to calculate the distance from heaven to Earth. This exercise is an example of the kind of intellectual exercise a physicist (or a physics student) might carry out when confronted with such information. We apply the basic principles of physics to a situation described in work of literature while making no attempt to validate or refute any philosophy, theology or ideology.

3. Generalized Stirling transform

OpenAIRE

2012-01-01

In this paper, algorithms are developed for computing the Stirling transform and the inverse Stirling transform; specifically, we investigate a class of sequences satisfying a two-term recurrence. We derive a general identity which generalizes the usual Stirling transform and investigate the corresponding generating functions also. In addition, some interesting consequences of these results related to classical sequences like Fibonacci, Bernoulli and the numbers of derangements have been deri...

4. Distance Learning in Community Colleges; Leadership Challenges for Change and Development.

Science.gov (United States)

Floyd, Deborah L.

2003-01-01

Argues that by skillful leading and investment in professional development programs, community college leaders can facilitate the successful transformation of campuses into centers of technology-based learning. States that distance education is in line with the community college mission of access and equity, and hence must be incorporated.…

5. The Challenges for Marketing Distance Education in Online Environment: An Intergrated Approach

Science.gov (United States)

Demiray, Ugur, Ed.; Sever, N. Serdar, Ed.

2009-01-01

The education system of our times has transformed greatly due to enormous developments in the IT field, ease in access to online resources by the individuals and the teachers adopting new technologies in their instructional strategies, be it for course design, development or delivery. The field of Distance and Online Education is experiencing…

6. The convolution transform

CERN Document Server

Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

2005-01-01

In studies of general operators of the same nature, general convolution transforms are immediately encountered as the objects of inversion. The relation between differential operators and integral transforms is the basic theme of this work, which is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It may be read easily by anyone with a working knowledge of real and complex variable theory. Topics include the finite and non-finite kernels, variation diminishing transforms, asymptotic behavior of kernels, real inversion theory, representation theory, the Weierstrass transform, and

7. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

CERN Document Server

2014-01-01

The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

8. Martensitic transformations; Martensite hentai

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Otsuka, K. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

1997-09-20

This paper explains the recent studies on martensitic transformation (M transformation). The classical theory on nucleation in M transformation gives non-realistic activation energy as large as 10{sup 4}eV for Fe system. Although various theoretical and experimental approaches have been attempted, a universal theory is not yet established. The {beta}{sub 1}(DO{sub 3})-{gamma}{sub 1} transformation of Cu- Al-Ni alloy was resolved as lattice-invariable deformation by introducing the second kind twin. Various subsequent comparative studies for alloy systems between a phenomenology and experimental results showed the validity of a phenomenology due to lattice-invariable deformation. In the thermodynamics of M transformation, it has been recognized that the mechanism of transformation is entirely different between athermal and isothermal transformations, however, a statistical thermodynamic model was proposed for dealing with these transformations integrally. The study on intelligent materials is under active investigation from the viewpoint of application of M transformation. 44 refs.

9. Phase transformation and diffusion

CERN Document Server

Kale, G B; Dey, G K

2008-01-01

Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

10. Media in Distance Learning: The Nigerian National Teachers Institude Distance Education Programme

OpenAIRE

Mudasiru Olalere YUSUF

2005-01-01

Media in Distance Learning: The Nigerian National Teachers Institude Distance Education Programme Mudasiru Olalere YUSUF (Ph.D)Senior lecturer (Educational Technology) Ayotunde Atanda FALADEGraduate Student Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, Faculty of Education University of Ilorin, Ilorin NIGERIA ABSTRACT This study investigated the use of media by distance learners enrolled in the NTI distance education programme. Two hundred and fifty five distance learners dr...

11. A Multicultural Framework: Transforming Curriculum, Transforming Students.

Science.gov (United States)

Moremen, Robin D.

1997-01-01

Discusses efforts to bring a multicultural perspective to a 200-level course on the sociology of health and aging as a means of addressing broader multicultural curriculum transformation issues. The course is constructed around students' examination of four basic questions concerning their own experiences with exclusion and entitlement. (MJP)

12. Robotic laboratory for distance education

Science.gov (United States)

Luciano, Sarah C.; Kost, Alan R.

2016-09-01

This project involves the construction of a remote-controlled laboratory experiment that can be accessed by online students. The project addresses a need to provide a laboratory experience for students who are taking online courses to be able to provide an in-class experience. The chosen task for the remote user is an optical engineering experiment, specifically aligning a spatial filter. We instrument the physical laboratory set up in Tucson, AZ at the University of Arizona. The hardware in the spatial filter experiment is augmented by motors and cameras to allow the user to remotely control the hardware. The user interacts with a software on their computer, which communicates with a server via Internet connection to the host computer in the Optics Laboratory at the University of Arizona. Our final overall system is comprised of several subsystems. These are the optical experiment set-up, which is a spatial filter experiment; the mechanical subsystem, which interfaces the motors with the micrometers to move the optical hardware; the electrical subsystem, which allows for the electrical communications from the remote computer to the host computer to the hardware; and finally the software subsystem, which is the means by which messages are communicated throughout the system. The goal of the project is to convey as much of an in-lab experience as possible by allowing the user to directly manipulate hardware and receive visual feedback in real-time. Thus, the remote user is able to learn important concepts from this particular experiment and is able to connect theory to the physical world by actually seeing the outcome of a procedure. The latter is a learning experience that is often lost with distance learning and is one that this project hopes to provide.

13. Giant sparks at cosmological distances?

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kulkarni, S. R. [Caltech Optical Observatories 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ofek, E. O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Neill, J. D. [Space Radiation Laboratory 290-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zheng, Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Juric, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2014-12-10

Millisecond-duration bright radio pulses at 1.4 GHz with high dispersion measures (DMs) were reported by Lorimer et al., Keane et al., and Thornton et al. Their all-sky rate is ≈10{sup 4} day{sup –1} above ∼1 Jy. Related events are 'Perytons'–similar pulsed, dispersed sources, but most certainly local. Suggested models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) can originate in Earth's atmosphere, in stellar coronae, in other galaxies, and even at cosmological distances. Using physically motivated assumptions combined with observed properties, we explore these models. In our analysis, we focus on the Lorimer event: a 30 Jy, 5 ms duration burst with DM = 375 cm{sup –3} pc, exhibiting a steep frequency-dependent pulse width (the Sparker). To be complete, we drop the assumption that high DMs are produced by plasma propagation and assume that the source produces pulses with frequency-dependent arrival time ('chirped signals'). Within this framework, we explore a scenario in which Perytons, the Sparker, and the FRBs are all atmospheric phenomena occurring at different heights. This model is ad hoc in that we cannot explain why Perytons at higher altitudes show greater DMs or exhibit narrower pulses. Nonetheless, we argue that the Sparker may be a Peryton. We end with two remarks. First, the detection of a single FRB by an interferometer with a kilometer (or longer) baseline will prove that FRBs are of extraterrestrial origin. Second, we urge astronomers to pursue observations and understanding of Perytons since they form (at least) a formidable foreground for the FRBs.

14. Transformation of Xenorhabdus nematophilus.

Science.gov (United States)

Xu, J; Lohrke, S; Hurlbert, I M; Hurlbert, R E

1989-04-01

The ability of Xenorhabdus nematophilus 19061/1 to be transformed by pHK17 plasmid DNA was studied and optimized. A number of factors, including culture conditions, stage of growth, transformation buffer pH, cation type and concentration required for the production of competency, washing, heat shock conditions, and cell-DNA ratio, were found to affect transformation significantly. On the basis of these observations, a procedure for the routine transformation of X. nematophilus 19061/1 at frequencies of 1 X 10(5) to 10 X 10(5) transformants per microgram of pHK17 plasmid DNA was developed. Maximum transformation was obtained when cells which had reached the mid- to late-logarithmic growth phase (total counts, 2.5 X 10(8) to 5 X 10(8) cells per ml) within 4.5 to 5.5 h were washed once in cold transformation buffer before they were suspended in the same buffer to 0.1 of their original volume. The highest transformation was obtained when dimethyl sulfoxide was added in two steps to the cells immediately before the DNA was added, after which the cell-DNA mixtures were incubated for 30 min on ice before they were given a 3-min heat shock at 37 degrees C. Following these treatments, the transformed cells were incubated in L broth-60 mM CaCl2 for 1 h before they were plated onto selective medium. We also were able to transform X. nematophilus 19061/1 with plasmid pBR325, and we transformed other species of Xenorhabdus with several common plasmids.

15. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

Science.gov (United States)

Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

2009-01-01

A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

16. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jonay Toledo

2009-12-01

Full Text Available A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement.

17. TRENDS TOWARDS DISTANCE EDUCATION OF NURSING EDUCATION IN TURKEY

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Emine SENYUVA

2011-10-01

Full Text Available The contemporary world, developments, changes, transformations, globalization, information and communication technologies developments, diversification of the educational environment and life-long education to become compulsory in education, learning-teaching process efficiency and effectiveness in their discussion raises, while the educational technology, the concept was put forward. With the concept of educational technology and communication technologies bigi be used effectively in the field of education has become compulsory. Next to this case, the individual's formal education at any time and anywhere access to educational programs that allow participation distance education has led to the need to. In today’s world rapidly changing, evolving and increasingly complex area of a state health care services, nursing education from the issuing institution, advanced human and professional members of the advanced characteristics and has adopted the lifelong development of nurses are required to have graduated. Resources in this direction was examined, the distance education of nurses after graduation various vocational courses, certificate programs until completion and graduate degree (master and PhD education in maintaining the successful results to indicate. Therefore, distance education, nursing education to university level upgrade accelerated nursing education experienced in the quality-quantity to the solution of the problem, the continuity of nursing education and contribute to the professional will provide a large group of educational opportunities will be taken into consideration must be considered and appropriate studies, arrangements should be made.

18. Paradigm Shift in Distance Education in the 21st Century

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mehmet FIRAT

2016-10-01

Full Text Available Information and communication technologies have been one of a driving force which enables higher education expansion and gives a dynamic structure to the science in the twenty-first century. One of the most effective users of this driving force in higher education is distance education. Previously, distance education was considered to be as a method to ensure equality of opportunity in education, and partly to meet the educational needs of citizens in limited circumstances; today it has undergone an incontrovertible paradigm shift by transforming into an interdisciplinary science field with its functional flexibility, strong technology infrastructure, diversity of programs, innovative teaching approaches and rapidly increasing student numbers. In this study, it is aimed to reveal this paradigm shift with a historical point of view, and the information technology supported rise and paradigm shift of distance education is evaluated by a holistic perspective from different point of views of different perspectives from the studies in literature to the current research topics.

19. Uncertainty principles for the Cherednik transform

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

2. Harmonic analysis associated with the Cherednik operator. In this section, we review basic results on harmonic analysis associated with the. Cherednik operator, which are due to Opdam [10,11]. Let a be a Euclidean space of dimension d equipped with an inner product (., .) and. R be a root system in a. Let W denote the ...

20. Issues of distance education: methodological aspect

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gerashchenko Igor Germanovich

2017-07-01

Full Text Available The article covers a number of methodological issues of distance education. The author shows advantages and disadvantages of contemporary distance teaching in Russia; identifies technocratic and non-technocratic aspects of computerized education. The idea of efficiency of applying the problem-method in distance teaching is justified. The article also proves that there is need to acquire meta-qualification in terms of modern uncertainty of education.

1. THE IMPORTANCE OF DISTANCE EDUCATION IN NURSING

OpenAIRE

YUKSEKDAG, Belgin BOZ

2015-01-01

Nursing that the reason of its essence arises from social requirements is a practical discipline. It requires knowledge and skills. This knowledge and skills must be updated with developments in the health field. However, because of their living conditions, nurses cannot continue the formal education. Distance nursing programs provide flexibility to them. In this study will be handed the importance of distance education for nursing and the attitudes of nurses towards distance nursing programs.

2. On Fast Fourier Transform

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

His research areas are adaptive signal processing, multirate filtering and wavelets, space-time signal processing for wireless communation. v U Redc!y. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an efficient algorithm for computing the discrete Fourier transform. The discovery of the FFT algorithm paved the way for widespread use of.

3. Wavelet Transform -50 ...

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

University of Hyderabad. His current research interests are in the areas of quantum information ..... The enterprising reader can perform a multi-level decomposition and reconstruction to discover that the problems of overshoots and undershoots plaguing the Fourier transform are absent in discrete wavelet transform. 1kn&(ff.

4. Transformative environmental governance

Science.gov (United States)

Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

5. Transformation optics and metamaterials.

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C T; Sheng, Ping

2010-05-01

Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak.

6. Direct current transformer

Science.gov (United States)

Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

1979-01-01

A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

7. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

Science.gov (United States)

Moss, Robert.

1991-01-01

An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

8. BY LINEAR TRANSFORMS

African Journals Online (AJOL)

by considering two linear transforms of the unbiased estimator of the coefﬁcients of the multiple linear regression model. Key words/phrases: Admissibility, linear transforms, multivariate statistics, strong-and weak mean square criteria. INTRODUCTION. Improvement of estimation and prediction by introducing biased ...

9. Fieldwork in Transforming Societies

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Clark, Ed; Michailova, Snejina

The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China.......The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China....

10. Note on Backlund transformations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Martini, Ruud

1987-01-01

The method of obtaining Backlund transformations proposed by Chern and Tenenblat (1986) fits completely the approach of obtaining Backlund transformations by prolongation techniques. For KdV, MKdV and sine-Gordon equations the only difference consists in the application of a non-linear

11. Flames of Transformation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sørensen, Tim Flohr; Bille, Mikkel

2008-01-01

This paper explores the transformative power of fire, its fundamental ability to change material worlds and affect our experience of its materiality. The paper examines material transformations related to death as a means of illustrating the powerful property of fire as a materially destructive yet...

12. On an integral transform

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

D. Naylor

1986-01-01

Full Text Available This paper establishes properties of a convolution type integral transform whose kernel is a Macdonald type Bessel function of zero order. An inversion formula is developed and the transform is applied to obtain the solution of some related integral equations.

13. Simplified fractional Fourier transforms.

Science.gov (United States)

Pei, S C; Ding, J J

2000-12-01

The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) has been used for many years, and it is useful in many applications. Most applications of the FRFT are based on the design of fractional filters (such as removal of chirp noise and the fractional Hilbert transform) or on fractional correlation (such as scaled space-variant pattern recognition). In this study we introduce several types of simplified fractional Fourier transform (SFRFT). Such transforms are all special cases of a linear canonical transform (an affine Fourier transform or an ABCD transform). They have the same capabilities as the original FRFT for design of fractional filters or for fractional correlation. But they are simpler than the original FRFT in terms of digital computation, optical implementation, implementation of gradient-index media, and implementation of radar systems. Our goal is to search for the simplest transform that has the same capabilities as the original FRFT. Thus we discuss not only the formulas and properties of the SFRFT's but also their implementation. Although these SFRFT's usually have no additivity properties, they are useful for the practical applications. They have great potential for replacing the original FRFT's in many applications.

14. Adaptability of model transformations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ivanov, Ivan

2005-01-01

Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is an emerging approach for software development. This thesis focuses on one of the main research topics in MDE: transforming models. This topic may be studied from process and artifact perspectives. The artifact perspective involves transformation definitions and

15. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

1996-12-31

Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

16. Transformational VLSI Design

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Rasmussen, Ole Steen

This thesis introduces a formal approach to deriving VLSI circuits by the use of correctness-preserving transformations. Both the specification and the implementation are descibed by the relation based language Ruby. In order to prove the transformation rules a proof tool called RubyZF has been...

17. Computing normalizing transformations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

2003-01-01

Given a singularity and a versal deformation of it, an arbitrary deformation can be induced from the versal one by a smooth transformation of coordinates and parameters. An algorithm was developed to compute this transformation, for deformations of functions. It requires a procedure to solve the

18. Integral transformational coaching

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Keizer, W.A.J.; Nandram, S.S.

2009-01-01

In Chap. 12, Keizer and Nandram present the concept of Integral Transformational Coaching based on the concept of Flow and its effects on work performance. Integral Transformational Coaching is a method that prevents and cures unhealthy stress and burnout. They draw on some tried and tested

19. Commutation and Darboux transformation

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

2015-10-20

Oct 20, 2015 ... http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/085/05/0869-0880. Keywords. Darboux transformation; nonlinear evolution equations; exact solutions. Abstract. In this paper we show that the Darboux transformation for a large class of nonlinear evolution equations arises due to factorization and commutation.

20. Transformation of technical infrastructure

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

1998-01-01

article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

1. Machine learning enhanced optical distance sensor

Science.gov (United States)

Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, N. A.

2018-01-01

Presented for the first time is a machine learning enhanced optical distance sensor. The distance sensor is based on our previously demonstrated distance measurement technique that uses an Electronically Controlled Variable Focus Lens (ECVFL) with a laser source to illuminate a target plane with a controlled optical beam spot. This spot with varying spot sizes is viewed by an off-axis camera and the spot size data is processed to compute the distance. In particular, proposed and demonstrated in this paper is the use of a regularized polynomial regression based supervised machine learning algorithm to enhance the accuracy of the operational sensor. The algorithm uses the acquired features and corresponding labels that are the actual target distance values to train a machine learning model. The optimized training model is trained over a 1000 mm (or 1 m) experimental target distance range. Using the machine learning algorithm produces a training set and testing set distance measurement errors of machine learning. Applications for the proposed sensor include industrial scenario distance sensing where target material specific training models can be generated to realize low <1% measurement error distance measurements.

2. A cognitively grounded measure of pronunciation distance.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Martijn Wieling

Full Text Available In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL. Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is grounded in cognitive theory of competitive reinforcement learning and is able to generate asymmetrical pronunciation distances. In a first study, we validated the NDL-based pronunciation distances by comparing them to a large set of native-likeness ratings given by native American English speakers when presented with accented English speech. In a second study, the NDL-based pronunciation distances were validated on the basis of perceptual dialect distances of Norwegian speakers. Results indicated that the NDL-based pronunciation distances matched perceptual distances reasonably well with correlations ranging between 0.7 and 0.8. While the correlations were comparable to those obtained using the Levenshtein distance, the NDL-based approach is more flexible as it is also able to incorporate acoustic information other than sound segments.

3. Predation risk increases dispersal distance in prey

Science.gov (United States)

Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

2014-06-01

Understanding the ecological factors that affect dispersal distances allows us to predict the consequences of dispersal. Although predator avoidance is an important cause of prey dispersal, its effects on dispersal distance have not been investigated. We used simple experimental setups to test dispersal distances of the ambulatory dispersing spider mite ( Tetranychus kanzawai) in the presence or absence of a predator ( Neoseiulus womersleyi). In the absence of predators, most spider mites settled in adjacent patches, whereas the majority of those dispersing in the presence of predators passed through adjacent patches and settled in distant ones. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that predators induce greater dispersal distance in prey.

4. Transformation optics and cloaking

Science.gov (United States)

McCall, Martin

2013-11-01

Invisibility, a long sought-for speculation in science fiction, has been turned into reality in the laboratory through the use of a theoretical technique called Transformation Optics. The principles of transformation optics show that any desired smooth deformation of the electromagnetic field can be implemented exactly by an appropriately engineered metamaterial. All demonstrations of cloaking to date have had limitations, however, reflecting our technological inability to implement the transformation optics algorithm exactly. However, the scientific principles leading to perfect invisibility are now established, and practical improvements on the initial designs are now occurring very rapidly. Most recently, researchers have re-examined transformation optics to include time as well as space, describing and then implementing the concept of a cloak that hides events, a conceptual breakout that promises many new applications. This review describes the general ideas underlying transformation optics, and how the various types of cloak based on these ideas have been implemented practically to date.

5. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

2014-01-01

the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...

6. The transformativity approach

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Holm, Isak Winkel; Lauta, Kristian Cedervall

2017-01-01

an identifiable and promising approach for future disaster research. We suggest naming it the transformativity approach. Whereas the vulnerability approach explores the social causation of disasters, the transformativity approach reverses the direction of the gaze and investigates the social transformation...... brought about by disasters. Put simply, the concept of vulnerability is about the upstream causes of disaster and the concept of transformativity about the downstream effects. By discussing three recent contributions (by the historian Greg Bankoff, the legal sociologist Michelle Dauber......During the last five to ten years, a considerable body of research has begun to explore how disasters, real and imagined, trigger social transformations. Even if the contributions to this this research stems from a multitude of academic disciplines, we argue in the article, they constitute...

7. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dicle Donmez

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Citrus is one of the world’s important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species.

8. Kenyan dominance in distance running.

Science.gov (United States)

Larsen, Henrik B

2003-09-01

Critical physiological factors for performance in running are maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), fractional VO(2max) utilization and running economy. While Kenyan and Caucasian elite runners are able to reach very high, but similar maximal oxygen uptake levels, the VO(2max) of black South African elite runners seems to be slightly lower. Moreover, the studies of black and white South African runners indicate that the former are able to sustain the highest fraction of VO(2max) during long distance running. Results on adolescent Kenyan and Caucasian boys show that these boys are running at a similar percentage of VO(2max) during competition. Kenyan elite runners, however, appear to be able to run at a high % of VO(2max) which must then have been achieved by training. A lower energy cost of running has been demonstrated in Kenyan elite runners and in untrained adolescent Kenyan boys compared to their Caucasian counterparts. In agreement with this are the results from studies on black South African elite runners who have shown similar low energy costs during running as the Kenyan elite runners. The good running economy cannot be explained by differences in muscle fibre type as they are the same in Kenyan and Caucasian runners. The same is true when comparing untrained adolescent Kenyan boys with their Caucasian counterparts. A difference exists in BMI and body shape, and the Kenyans long, slender legs could be advantageous when running as the energy cost when running is a function of leg mass. Studies comparing the response to training of Kenyans and Caucasians have shown similar trainability with respect to VO(2max), running economy and oxidative enzymes. Taken all these data together it appears that running at a high fractional VO(2max) and having a good running economy may be the primary factors favouring the good performance of endurance athletes rather than them having a higher VO(2max) than other elite runners. In addition to having the proper genes to shape

9. miRNA Temporal Analyzer (mirnaTA): a bioinformatics tool for identifying differentially expressed microRNAs in temporal studies using normal quantile transformation.

Science.gov (United States)

Cer, Regina Z; Herrera-Galeano, J Enrique; Anderson, Joseph J; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Mokashi, Vishwesh P

2014-01-01

.05) are plotted as heat maps using hierarchical cluster analysis and Euclidean distance matrix computation methods. mirnaTA is an open-source, bioinformatics tool to aid scientists in identifying differentially expressed miRNAs which could be further mined for biological significance. It is expected to provide researchers with a means of interpreting raw data to statistical summaries in a fast and intuitive manner.

10. Trends in distance learning: a new wave.

Science.gov (United States)

Oliveira, J

1988-01-01

Distance learning has boomed in the last decade in developed as well as developing countries. Large open universities enrolling over 2 million students have been created in Asia. In the Middle East, distance learning institutions also have expanded. Small institutions and distance learning programs have taken hold in Africa, and Latin America offers an exciting array of distance learning institutions. Great Britain's Open University is fully consolidated and mature. Traditional distance learning programs, such as the University of California's Berkeley Extension Program in the US, continue to expand. A combination of reasons underlie the new interest in and growth of distance education, including, economic, pedagogical, timing and urgency, technological advances, managerial, sociopsychological. Distance education offers a good solution to a pressing problem, i.e., scarcity of resources. At current levels of investment in education, few countries in the developing world would be able to maintain their present levels of enrollments, much less improve access and quality. Distance education can offer flexible responses to different clients, different needs, and different types of students. Thus, in this regard, distance education is a perfect example of technology fit. If countries are to compete in international markets, updated education, training, and information must flow to countries' educational institutions and technological elites. In terms of technological advances, significant progress has been made in the areas of instructional design and student support systems through software design. Systems that manage complex operations now are widely available. As with other social innovation, the burden of proof continues to rest with the proponents of distance education. To improve the credibility of distance education, researchers need to address 4 major areas: student access; instructional design; student support systems; and evaluation and accreditation procedures.

11. National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dr. James B. Beddow

2013-03-29

Executive Summary The energy development assumptions identified in the Department of Energy's position paper, 20% Wind Energy by 2030, projected an exploding demand for wind energy-related workforce development. These primary assumptions drove a secondary set of assumptions that early stage wind industry workforce development and training paradigms would need to undergo significant change if the workforce needs were to be met. The current training practice and culture within the wind industry is driven by a relatively small number of experts with deep field experience and knowledge. The current training methodology is dominated by face-to-face, classroom based, instructor present training. Given these assumptions and learning paradigms, the purpose of the National Wind Distance Learning Collaborative was to determine the feasibility of developing online learning strategies and products focused on training wind technicians. The initial project scope centered on (1) identifying resources that would be needed for development of subject matter and course design/delivery strategies for industry-based (non-academic) training, and (2) development of an appropriate Learning Management System (LMS). As the project unfolded, the initial scope was expanded to include development of learning products and the addition of an academic-based training partner. The core partners included two training entities, industry-based Airstreams Renewables and academic-based Lake Area Technical Institute. A third partner, Vision Video Interactive, Inc. provided technology-based learning platforms (hardware and software). The revised scope yielded an expanded set of results beyond the initial expectation. Eight learning modules were developed for the industry-based Electrical Safety course. These modules were subsequently redesigned and repurposed for test application in an academic setting. Software and hardware developments during the project's timeframe enabled redesign providing

12. REPRESENTATIONS OF DISTANCE: DIFFERENCES IN UNDERSTANDING DISTANCE ACCORDING TO TRAVEL METHOD

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gunvor Riber Larsen

2017-12-01

Full Text Available This paper explores how Danish tourists represent distance in relation to their holiday mobility and how these representations of distance are a result of being aero-mobile as opposed to being land-mobile. Based on interviews with Danish tourists, whose holiday mobility ranges from the European continent to global destinations, the first part of this qualitative study identifies three categories of representations of distance that show how distance is being ‘translated’ by the tourists into non-geometric forms: distance as resources, distance as accessibility, and distance as knowledge. The representations of distance articulated by the Danish tourists show that distance is often not viewed in ‘just’ kilometres. Rather, it is understood in forms that express how transcending the physical distance through holiday mobility is dependent on individual social and economic contexts, and on whether the journey was undertaken by air or land. The analysis also shows that being aeromobile is the holiday transportation mode that removes the tourists the furthest away from physical distance, resulting in the distance travelled by air being represented in ways that have the least correlation, in the tourists’ minds, with physical distance measured in kilometres.

13. Distance Learning and Intellectual Property Protection.

Science.gov (United States)

Pisacreta, Edward A.

1993-01-01

Examines laws governing intellectual property that affect distance education. Topics addressed include copyright law, particularly the concept of fair use; traditional applications of copyright law in education, including photocopying and the Classroom Guidelines; and distance learning and copyright law, including works transmitted via…

14. Spell Sequences, State Proximities, and Distance Metrics

Science.gov (United States)

Elzinga, Cees H.; Studer, Matthias

2015-01-01

Because optimal matching (OM) distance is not very sensitive to differences in the order of states, we introduce a subsequence-based distance measure that can be adapted to subsequence length, to subsequence duration, and to soft-matching of states. Using a simulation technique developed by Studer, we investigate the sensitivity, relative to OM,…

15. Language Distance Learning for the Digital Generation

Science.gov (United States)

Duran-Cerda, Dolores

2010-01-01

The purpose of this article was to shed light on the potential of distance learning to overcome challenges in distance, space, time, and human and economic resources that limit access to language learning opportunities in cultural, literary, historical, geographical, and cross-cultural frames. Language and literature educators collectively have…

16. A History of Distance Education in Mexico

Science.gov (United States)

Castaneda, Manuel Moreno

2005-01-01

Research on distance education in Mexico is still in the embryonic stage, in spite of its long history. One indication is that among the lines of research defined by the Mexican Council on Educational Research, the leading organization in the field in Mexico, distance education does not even appear. Only recently, in the last few years, has an…

17. New Strategy of the Distance Education

Science.gov (United States)

Bunyatova, Fatma Khanim; Salamov, Gulbala

2014-01-01

This article is dedicated to new strategy of distance education. The article deals with the possibilities of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in teaching specially distance education. In the article, ICT technological tools and their methods of application in educational process are looked over; discrepancy of intellectual…

18. Writing for Distance Education. Samples Booklet.

Science.gov (United States)

International Extension Coll., Cambridge (England).

Approaches to the format, design, and layout of printed instructional materials for distance education are illustrated in 36 samples designed to accompany the manual, "Writing for Distance Education." Each sample is presented on a single page with a note pointing out its key features. Features illustrated include use of typescript layout, a comic…

19. Applying Leadership Theories to Distance Education Leadership

Science.gov (United States)

Nworie, John

2012-01-01

The instructional delivery mode in distance education has been transitioning from the context of a physical classroom environment to a virtual learning environment or maintaining a hybrid of the two. However, most distance education programs in dual mode institutions are situated in traditional face-to-face instructional settings. Distance…

20. Segmenting Michigan tourists based on distance traveled

Science.gov (United States)

Xiamei Xu; Tsao-Fang Yuan; Edwin Gomez; Joseph D. Fridgen

1998-01-01

The purpose of this study was to segment Michigan travelers into short, medium and long distance traveler groups by distance that they traveled from home to a primary destination in Michigan, and to compare travel behavior, trip characteristics and sociodemographics among these segments. Significant differences were identified in past trip experiences in Michigan,...