Sample records for euclid assessment study

  1. Euclid Definition Study Report

    CERN Document Server

    Laureijs, R; Arduini, S.; Augueres, J.L.; Brinchmann, J.; Cole, R.; Cropper, M.; Dabin, C.; Duvet, L.; Ealet, A.; Garilli, B.; Gondoin, P.; Guzzo, L.; Hoar, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holmes, R.; Kitching, T.; Maciaszek, T.; Mellier, Y.; Pasian, F.; Percival, W.; Rhodes, J.; Criado, G.Saavedra; Sauvage, M.; Scaramella, R.; Valenziano, L.; Warren, S.; Bender, R.; Castander, F.; Cimatti, A.; Le, O.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Levi, M.; Lilje, P.; Mellier, Y.; Meylan, G.; Nichol, R.; Pedersen, K.; Popa, V.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Rix, H.W.; Rottgering, H.; Zeilinger, W.; Grupp, F.; Hudelot, P.; Massey, R.; Meneghetti, M.; Miller, L.; Paltani, S.; Paulin-Henriksson, S.; Pires, S.; Saxton, C.; Schrabback, T.; Seidel, G.; Walsh, J.; Aghanim, N.; Amendola, L.; Bartlett, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Beaulieu, J.P.; Benabed, K.; Cuby, J.G.; Elbaz, D.; Fosalba, P.; Gavazzi, G.; Helmi, A.; Hook, I.; Irwin, M.; Kneib, J.P.; Kunz, M.; Mannucci, F.; Moscardini, L.; Tao, C.; Teyssier, R.; Weller, J.; Zamorani, G.; Osorio, M.R.Zapatero; Boulade, O.; Foumond, J.J.; Di Giorgio, A.; Guttridge, P.; James, A.; Kemp, M.; Martignac, J.; Spencer, A.; Walton, D.; Blumchen, T.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Cerna, C.; Corcione, L.; Fabron, C.; Jahnke, K.; Ligori, S.; Madrid, F.; Martin, L.; Morgante, G.; Pamplona, T.; Prieto, E.; Riva, M.; Toledo, R.; Trifoglio, M.; Zerbi, F.; Abdalla, F.; Douspis, M.; Grenet, C.; Borgani, S.; Bouwens, R.; Courbin, F.; Delouis, J.M.; Dubath, P.; Fontana, A.; Frailis, M.; Grazian, A.; Koppenhofer, J.; Mansutti, O.; Melchior, M.; Mignoli, M.; Mohr, J.; Neissner, C.; Noddle, K.; Poncet, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Serrano, S.; Shane, N.; Starck, J.L.; Surace, C.; Taylor, A.; Verdoes-Kleijn, G.; Vuerli, C.; Williams, O.R.; Zacchei, A.; Altieri, B.; Sanz, I.Escudero; Kohley, R.; Oosterbroek, T.; Astier, P.; Bacon, D.; Bardelli, S.; Baugh, C.; Bellagamba, F.; Benoist, C.; Bianchi, D.; Biviano, A.; Branchini, E.; Carbone, C.; Cardone, V.; Clements, D.; Colombi, S.; Conselice, C.; Cresci, G.; Deacon, N.; Dunlop, J.; Fedeli, C.; Fontanot, F.; Franzetti, P.; Giocoli, C.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gow, J.; Heavens, A.; Hewett, P.; Heymans, C.; Holland, A.; Huang, Z.; Ilbert, O.; Joachimi, B.; Jennins, E.; Kerins, E.; Kiessling, A.; Kirk, D.; Kotak, R.; Krause, O.; Lahav, O.; van Leeuwen, F.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lombardi, M.; Magliocchetti, M.; Maguire, K.; Majerotto, E.; Maoli, R.; Marulli, F.; Maurogordato, S.; McCracken, H.; McLure, R.; Melchiorri, A.; Merson, A.; Moresco, M.; Nonino, M.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J.; Pello, R.; Penny, M.; Pettorino, V.; Di Porto, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Quercellini, C.; Radovich, M.; Rassat, A.; Roche, N.; Ronayette, S.; Rossetti, E.; Sartoris, B.; Schneider, P.; Semboloni, E.; Serjeant, S.; Simpson, F.; Skordis, C.; Smadja, G.; Smartt, S.; Spano, P.; Spiro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Tilquin, A.; Trotta, R.; Verde, L.; Wang, Y.; Williger, G.; Zhao, G.; Zoubian, J.; Zucca, E.


    Euclid is a space-based survey mission from the European Space Agency designed to understand the origin of the Universe's accelerating expansion. It will use cosmological probes to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by tracking their observational signatures on the geometry of the universe and on the cosmic history of structure formation. The mission is optimised for two independent primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The Euclid payload consists of a 1.2 m Korsch telescope designed to provide a large field of view. It carries two instruments with a common field-of-view of ~0.54 deg2: the visual imager (VIS) and the near infrared instrument (NISP) which contains a slitless spectrometer and a three bands photometer. The Euclid wide survey will cover 15,000 deg2 of the extragalactic sky and is complemented by two 20 deg2 deep fields. For WL, Euclid measures the shapes of 30-40 resolved galaxies per arcmin2 in one broad...

  2. A Euclid, LSST and WFIRST Joint Processing Study (United States)

    Chary, Ranga-Ram; Joint Processing Working Group


    Euclid, LSST and WFIRST are the flagship cosmological projects of the next decade. By mapping several thousand square degrees of sky and covering the electromagnetic spectrum from the optical to the NIR with (sub-)arcsec resolution, these projects will provide exciting new constraints on the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The ultimate cosmological, astrophysical and time-domain science yield from these missions, which will detect several billions of sources, requires joint processing at the pixel-level. Three U.S. agencies (DOE, NASA and NSF) are supporting an 18-month study which aims to 1) assess the optimal techniques to combine these, and ancillary data sets at the pixel level; 2) investigate options for an interface that will enable community access to the joint data products; and 3) identify the computing and networking infrastructure to properly handle and manipulate these large datasets together. A Joint Processing Working Group (JPWG) is carrying out this study and consists of US-based members from the community and science/data processing centers of each of these projects. Coordination with European partners is envisioned in the future and European Euclid members are involved in the JPWG as observers. The JPWG will scope the effort and resources required to build up the capabilities to support scientific investigations using joint processing in time for the start of science surveys by LSST and Euclid.

  3. The Life of Euclid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Over a thousand editions of the work have been published since the first printed version of 1482. Euclid's other works include Data, On Divisions of Figures,. Phaenomena, Optics, Surface Loci, Porisms, Conics, Book of Fallacies, and Elements of. Music. Only the first four of these have survived. Renuka Ravindran. Retd.

  4. Euclid: Superluminous supernovae in the Deep Survey (United States)

    Inserra, C.; Nichol, R. C.; Scovacricchi, D.; Amiaux, J.; Brescia, M.; Burigana, C.; Cappellaro, E.; Carvalho, C. S.; Cavuoti, S.; Conforti, V.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; da Silva, A.; De Rosa, A.; Della Valle, M.; Dinis, J.; Franceschi, E.; Hook, I.; Hudelot, P.; Jahnke, K.; Kitching, T.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lloro, I.; Longo, G.; Maiorano, E.; Maris, M.; Rhodes, J. D.; Scaramella, R.; Smartt, S. J.; Sullivan, M.; Tao, C.; Toledo-Moreo, R.; Tereno, I.; Trifoglio, M.; Valenziano, L.


    Context. In the last decade, astronomers have found a new type of supernova called superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) due to their high peak luminosity and long light-curves. These hydrogen-free explosions (SLSNe-I) can be seen to z 4 and therefore, offer the possibility of probing the distant Universe. Aims: We aim to investigate the possibility of detecting SLSNe-I using ESA's Euclid satellite, scheduled for launch in 2020. In particular, we study the Euclid Deep Survey (EDS) which will provide a unique combination of area, depth and cadence over the mission. Methods: We estimated the redshift distribution of Euclid SLSNe-I using the latest information on their rates and spectral energy distribution, as well as known Euclid instrument and survey parameters, including the cadence and depth of the EDS. To estimate the uncertainties, we calculated their distribution with two different set-ups, namely optimistic and pessimistic, adopting different star formation densities and rates. We also applied a standardization method to the peak magnitudes to create a simulated Hubble diagram to explore possible cosmological constraints. Results: We show that Euclid should detect approximately 140 high-quality SLSNe-I to z 3.5 over the first five years of the mission (with an additional 70 if we lower our photometric classification criteria). This sample could revolutionize the study of SLSNe-I at z > 1 and open up their use as probes of star-formation rates, galaxy populations, the interstellar and intergalactic medium. In addition, a sample of such SLSNe-I could improve constraints on a time-dependent dark energy equation-of-state, namely w(a), when combined with local SLSNe-I and the expected SN Ia sample from the Dark Energy Survey. Conclusions: We show that Euclid will observe hundreds of SLSNe-I for free. These luminous transients will be in the Euclid data-stream and we should prepare now to identify them as they offer a new probe of the high-redshift Universe for both

  5. Scientific Synergy between LSST and Euclid (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason; Nichol, Robert C.; Aubourg, Éric; Bean, Rachel; Boutigny, Dominique; Bremer, Malcolm N.; Capak, Peter; Cardone, Vincenzo; Carry, Benoît; Conselice, Christopher J.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Hatch, N. A.; Helou, George; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hložek, Renée; Jones, Lynne; Kahn, Steven; Kiessling, Alina; Kitching, Thomas; Lupton, Robert; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Markovic, Katarina; Marshall, Phil; Massey, Richard; Maughan, Ben J.; Melchior, Peter; Mellier, Yannick; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Robertson, Brant; Sauvage, Marc; Schrabback, Tim; Smith, Graham P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Taylor, Andy; Von Der Linden, Anja


    Euclid and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are poised to dramatically change the astronomy landscape early in the next decade. The combination of high-cadence, deep, wide-field optical photometry from LSST with high-resolution, wide-field optical photometry, and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from Euclid will be powerful for addressing a wide range of astrophysical questions. We explore Euclid/LSST synergy, ignoring the political issues associated with data access to focus on the scientific, technical, and financial benefits of coordination. We focus primarily on dark energy cosmology, but also discuss galaxy evolution, transient objects, solar system science, and galaxy cluster studies. We concentrate on synergies that require coordination in cadence or survey overlap, or would benefit from pixel-level co-processing that is beyond the scope of what is currently planned, rather than scientific programs that could be accomplished only at the catalog level without coordination in data processing or survey strategies. We provide two quantitative examples of scientific synergies: the decrease in photo-z errors (benefiting many science cases) when high-resolution Euclid data are used for LSST photo-z determination, and the resulting increase in weak-lensing signal-to-noise ratio from smaller photo-z errors. We briefly discuss other areas of coordination, including high-performance computing resources and calibration data. Finally, we address concerns about the loss of independence and potential cross-checks between the two missions and the potential consequences of not collaborating.

  6. Geometry Euclid and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Hartshorne, Robin


    In recent years, I have been teaching a junior-senior-level course on the classi­ cal geometries. This book has grown out of that teaching experience. I assume only high-school geometry and some abstract algebra. The course begins in Chapter 1 with a critical examination of Euclid's Elements. Students are expected to read concurrently Books I-IV of Euclid's text, which must be obtained sepa­ rately. The remainder of the book is an exploration of questions that arise natu­ rally from this reading, together with their modern answers. To shore up the foundations we use Hilbert's axioms. The Cartesian plane over a field provides an analytic model of the theory, and conversely, we see that one can introduce coordinates into an abstract geometry. The theory of area is analyzed by cutting figures into triangles. The algebra of field extensions provides a method for deciding which geometrical constructions are possible. The investigation of the parallel postulate leads to the various non-Euclidean geometries. And ...

  7. DOE ZERH Case Study: Heirloom Design Build, Euclid Avenue, Atlanta, GA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the mixed-humid climate that got a HERS 50 without PV, with 2x6 16” on center walls with R-19 ocsf; basement with R-28 ccsf, R-5 rigid foam under slab; sealed attic with R-28 ocsf under roof deck; 22.8 SEER; 12.5 HSPF heat pump.

  8. Euclid and the Dark Universe (United States)

    Mellier, Yannick


    The ESA Euclid mission aims to understand why the expansion of the Universe is accelerating and pin down the source responsible for the acceleration. It will uncover the very nature of dark energy and gravitation by measuring with exquisite accuracy the expansion rate of the Universe and the growth rate of structure formation in the Universe. To achieve its objectives Euclid will observe the distribution of dark matter in the Universe by measuring shapes of weakly distorted distant galaxies lensed by foreground cosmic structures with the VIS imaging instrument. In parallel, Euclid will analyse the clustering of galaxies and the distribution of clusters of galaxies by using spectroscopy and measuring redshifts of galaxies with the NISP photometer and spectrometer instrument. The Euclid mission will observe one third of the sky (15,000 deg2) to collect data on several billion galaxies spread over the last ten billion years. In this presentation I will report on the considerable technical and scientific progresses made since COSPAR 2014, on behalf of the Euclid Collaboration. The recent mission PDR that has been passed successfully shows that Euclid should meet its requirements and achieve its primary scientific objectives to map the dark universe. The most recent forecasts and constraints on dark energy, gravity, dark matter and inflation will be presented.

  9. The Euclid Data Processing Challenges (United States)

    Dubath, Pierre; Apostolakos, Nikolaos; Bonchi, Andrea; Belikov, Andrey; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Capak, Peter; Coupon, Jean; Dabin, Christophe; Degaudenzi, Hubert; Desai, Shantanu; Dubath, Florian; Fontana, Adriano; Fotopoulou, Sotiria; Frailis, Marco; Galametz, Audrey; Hoar, John; Holliman, Mark; Hoyle, Ben; Hudelot, Patrick; Ilbert, Olivier; Kuemmel, Martin; Melchior, Martin; Mellier, Yannick; Mohr, Joe; Morisset, Nicolas; Paltani, Stéphane; Pello, Roser; Pilo, Stefano; Polenta, Gianluca; Poncet, Maurice; Saglia, Roberto; Salvato, Mara; Sauvage, Marc; Schefer, Marc; Serrano, Santiago; Soldati, Marco; Tramacere, Andrea; Williams, Rees; Zacchei, Andrea


    Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).

  10. Electrical Power Subsystem for the Euclid Spacecraft


    Ciancetta Ezio; Cimino Marco; Cuzzocrea Giuseppe; Gervasio Giuseppe; Maiorano Elena; Martinez Ignacio; Sanchez Luc


    European Space Agency in the frame of Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program [ 1 ]. It is a cosmology mission whose prime objective is to study the geometry and the nature of the dark matter and the dark energy with unprecedented accuracy. The spacecraft will be launched in 2020 by a Soyuz launcher, to perform a six-year survey of the extragalactic sky from a large-amplitude orbit around Lagrange point L2 of the Sun-Earth system. This paper outlines the Euclid Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) ...

  11. Euclid vindicated from every blemish

    CERN Document Server


    This first complete English language edition of Euclides vindicatus presents a corrected and revised edition of the classical English translation of Saccheri's text by G.B. Halsted. It is complemented with a historical introduction on the geometrical environment of the time and a detailed commentary that helps to understand the aims and subtleties of the work. Euclides vindicatus, written by the Jesuit mathematician Gerolamo Saccheri, was published in Milan in 1733. In it, Saccheri attempted to reform elementary geometry in two important directions: a demonstration of the famous Parallel Postulate, and the theory of proportions. Both topics were of pivotal importance in the mathematics of the time. In particular, the Parallel Postulate had escaped demonstration since the first attempts at it in the Classical Age, and several books on the topic were published in the Early Modern Age. At the same time, the theory of proportion was the most important mathematical tool of the Galilean School in its pursuit of the...

  12. The EUCLIDES Enhancing the Use of Cooperative Learning to Increase DEvelopment of Science Studies Project - An On-Line Learning Portal Utilizing Problem-Based Learning (United States)

    Boldini, Fabrizio; Bracchini, Maria Rita; Pouyioutas, Philippos; Solomou, Emilios; Ioannou, Christina

    This paper presents the EUCLIDES (Enhancing theUse ofCooperativeLearning toIncreaseDEvelopment of Science studies) project (134246-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-1-COMENIUS-CMP), which aims at introducing and pilot testing an innovative teaching and training methodology, based on the Constructivist approach and on Problem-Based Learning (PBL), through the use of ICT instruments. This methodology has been developed for the study of science subjects and, is currently being used in some European schools of secondary education, involving teachers and students. A Moodle platform has been developed to enforce the application and use of the methodology. Through this platform, teachers can monitor the progress of the work of the students and intervene when necessary as facilitators to provide further co-ordination, pose questions and suggest problem-based approaches. The use of the platform secures that the teacher remains distant from the students allowing students to work by themselves and find solutions to the problems posed.

  13. Euclides Roxo: engineer, teacher, intellectual, and mathematics educator Euclides Roxo: engenheiro, professor, intelectual e educador matemático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Alves Dassie


    Full Text Available This paper presents Euclides Roxo’s professional life, taking into account his past experiences before he became an educational reformer. We describe the work possibilities for engineers in Brazil at the beginning of the 20th Century to show that Roxo’s option for a teaching career was influenced by the society in which he lived. On the other hand, his years as a teacher at the Instituto de Educação in Rio de Janeiro are essential to study the evolution of Roxo’s educational ideas, since this institution provided him with the necessary stimulus for the development of his ideas. We also briefly present some of his other educational activities. We think we can justly claim that Euclides Roxo was an intellectual working as a mathematics teacher, indeed a mathematics educator. Keywords: Euclides Roxo. History of mathematics education. mathematics educator. Institutionalization of mathematics teachers.Este artigo apresenta a trajetória profissional de Euclides Roxo considerando fatos que precederam sua atuação como reformador educacional. São apresentadas considerações sobre o mercado de trabalho do engenheiro no início do século XX, para mostrar que a opção de Euclides Roxo pelo magistério não foi autônoma em relação ao quadro da sociedade da época. Por outro lado, sua atuação no Instituto de Educação do Rio de Janeiro, antiga Escola Normal, é essencial para analisar a gênese de suas idéias, pois esta instituição apresentou um ambiente educacional propício. Por fim, apresentamos de forma breve outras instâncias de atuação de Euclides Roxo. Dessa forma, podemos considerar Euclides Roxo como um intelectual atuante no ensino da matemática, ou seja, um educador matemático. Palavras-chave: Euclides Roxo. História da Educação Matemática. Institucionalização do professor de matemática. Educador Matemático.

  14. Electrical Power Subsystem for the Euclid Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciancetta Ezio


    This paper outlines the Euclid Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS design, providing a description of the major design drivers and resulting configuration, with a view to highlight aspects that could be considered for future designs.

  15. Solar system science with ESA Euclid (United States)

    Carry, B.


    Context. The ESA Euclid mission has been designed to map the geometry of the dark Universe. Scheduled for launch in 2020, it will conduct a six-year visible and near-infrared imaging and spectroscopic survey over 15 000 deg2 down to VAB 24.5. Although the survey will avoid ecliptic latitudes below 15°, the survey pattern in repeated sequences of four broadband filters seems well-adapted to detect and characterize solar system objects (SSOs). Aims: We aim at evaluating the capability of Euclid of discovering SSOs and of measuring their position, apparent magnitude, and spectral energy distribution. We also investigate how the SSO orbits, morphology (activity and multiplicity), physical properties (rotation period, spin orientation, and 3D shape), and surface composition can be determined based on these measurements. Methods: We used the current census of SSOs to extrapolate the total amount of SSOs that will be detectable by Euclid, that is, objects within the survey area and brighter than the limiting magnitude. For each different population of SSO, from neighboring near-Earth asteroids to distant Kuiper-belt objects (KBOs) and including comets, we compared the expected Euclid astrometry, photometry, and spectroscopy with the SSO properties to estimate how Euclid will constrain the SSOs dynamical, physical, and compositional properties. Results: With the current survey design, about 150 000 SSOs, mainly from the asteroid main-belt, should be observable by Euclid. These objects will all have high inclination, which is a difference to many SSO surveys that focus on the ecliptic plane. Euclid may be able to discover several 104 SSOs, in particular, distant KBOs at high declination. The Euclid observations will consist of a suite of four sequences of four measurements and will refine the spectral classification of SSOs by extending the spectral coverage provided by Gaia and the LSST, for instance, to 2 microns. Combined with sparse photometry such as measured by Gaia

  16. Philosophy of mathematics and deductive structure in Euclid's elements

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Ian


    A survey of Euclid's Elements, this text provides an understanding of the classical Greek conception of mathematics. It offers a well-rounded perspective, examining similarities to modern views as well as differences. Rather than focusing strictly on historical and mathematical issues, the book examines philosophical, foundational, and logical questions.Although comprehensive in its treatment, this study represents a less cumbersome, more streamlined approach than the classic three-volume reference by Sir Thomas L. Heath (also available from Dover Publications). To make reading easier and to f

  17. The thirteen books of Euclid's elements

    CERN Document Server



    Volume 3 of three-volume set containing complete English text of all 13 books of the Elements plus critical apparatus analyzing each definition, postulate, and proposition in great detail. Covers textual and linguistic matters; mathematical analyses of Euclid's ideas; classical, medieval, Renaissance and modern commentators; refutations, supports, extrapolations, reinterpretations and historical notes. Vol. 3 includes Books 10-13: Commensurable magnitudes, solids, cones, cylinders.

  18. The Euclid AOCS science mode design (United States)

    Bacchetta, A.; Saponara, M.; Torasso, A.; Saavedra Criado, G.; Girouart, B.


    Euclid is a Medium-Class mission of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 plan. Thales Alenia Space Italy has been selected as prime contractor for the Euclid design and implementation. The spacecraft will be launched in 2020 on a Soyuz launch vehicle from Kourou, to a large-amplitude orbit around the sun-earth libration point L2. The objective of Euclid is to understand the origin of the Universe's accelerating expansion, by mapping large-scale structure over a cosmic time covering the last 10 billion years. The mission requires the ability to survey a large fraction of the extragalactic sky (i.e. portion of sky with latitude higher than 30 deg with respect to galactic plane) over its lifetime, with very high system stability (telescope, focal plane, spacecraft pointing) to minimize systematic effects. The AOCS is a key element to meet the scientific requirements. The AOCS design drivers are pointing performance and image quality (Relative Pointing Error over 700 s less than 25 m as, 68 % confidence level), and minimization of slew time between observation fields to meet the goal of completing the Wide Extragalactic Survey in 6 years. The first driver demands a Fine Guidance Sensor in the telescope focal plane for accurate attitude measurement and actuators with low noise and fine command resolution. The second driver requires high-torque actuators and an extended attitude control bandwidth. In the design, reaction wheels (RWL) and cold-gas micro-propulsion (MPS) are used in a synergetic and complementary way during different operational phases of the science mode. The RWL are used for performing the field slews, whereas during scientific observation they are stopped not to perturb the pointing by additional mechanical noise. The MPS is used for maintaining the reference attitude with high pointing accuracy during the scientific observation. This unconventional concept achieves the pointing performance with the shortest maneuver times, with significant mass savings with

  19. Data Management in the Euclid Science Archive System (United States)

    de Teodoro, P.; Nieto, S.; Altieri, B.


    Euclid is the ESA M2 mission and a milestone in the understanding of the geometry of the Universe. In total Euclid will produce up to 26 PB per year of observations. The Science Archive Systems (SAS) belongs to the Euclid Archive System (EAS) that sits in the core of the Euclid Science Ground Segment (SGS). The SAS is being built at the ESAC Science Data Centre (ESDC), which is responsible for the development and operations of the scientific archives for the Astronomy, Planetary and Heliophysics missions of ESA. The SAS is focused on the needs of the scientific community and is intended to provide access to the most valuable scientific metadata from the Euclid mission. In this paper we describe the architectural design of the system, implementation progress and the main challenges from the data management point of view in the building of the SAS.

  20. Brutalidade antiga: sobre história e ruína em Euclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Foot Hardman


    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa um dos aspectos menos enfatizados nas interpretações correntes sobre a obra de Euclides da Cunha: sua filiação às tendências estéticas e à concepção de mundo do Romantismo, muito marcante na literatura e cultura brasileiras da segunda metade do século XIX. Na busca dessas raízes, recupera-se, de modo sumário, o roteiro de uma poética das ruínas e seu vínculo estreito com a própria visão da História em Euclides, cujas figurações remontam a Volney, no fim do século XVIII, e a V. Hugo, mais proximamente ao autor de Os sertões. Tais afinidades são indicadas em textos menos estudados de Euclides, entre os quais "Poema rude", escrito em 1895, em Campanha, Minas Gerais, e não-incluído em sua Obrei completa.This article analyses one of the least emphasized aspects in the current interpretation of Euclides da Cunha's work, his affiliation with the asthetic trends and world views of Romanticism, remarkably present in Brazilian literature and culture during the second half of the nineteenth century. In the quest for those roots, we retrace briefly the traveled road of a "poetics of ruins" and its close connection with the author's eighteenth century and, closer to the author of Os sertões (Rebellion in the backlands, to Victor Hugo. Such affinities are pointed in some of Euclides da Cunha's least studied texts, among which "Poema rude" (Rough poem, written in 1895 at Campanha, Minas Gerais, and not included in his Obra completa (Complete work.

  1. Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with the Euclid Satellite. (United States)

    Amendola, Luca; Appleby, Stephen; Bacon, David; Baker, Tessa; Baldi, Marco; Bartolo, Nicola; Blanchard, Alain; Bonvin, Camille; Borgani, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Burrage, Clare; Camera, Stefano; Carbone, Carmelita; Casarini, Luciano; Cropper, Mark; de Rham, Claudia; Di Porto, Cinzia; Ealet, Anne; Ferreira, Pedro G; Finelli, Fabio; García-Bellido, Juan; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Guzzo, Luigi; Heavens, Alan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Hollenstein, Lukas; Holmes, Rory; Horst, Ole; Jahnke, Knud; Kitching, Thomas D; Koivisto, Tomi; Kunz, Martin; La Vacca, Giuseppe; March, Marisa; Majerotto, Elisabetta; Markovic, Katarina; Marsh, David; Marulli, Federico; Massey, Richard; Mellier, Yannick; Mota, David F; Nunes, Nelson J; Percival, Will; Pettorino, Valeria; Porciani, Cristiano; Quercellini, Claudia; Read, Justin; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Sapone, Domenico; Scaramella, Roberto; Skordis, Constantinos; Simpson, Fergus; Taylor, Andy; Thomas, Shaun; Trotta, Roberto; Verde, Licia; Vernizzi, Filippo; Vollmer, Adrian; Wang, Yun; Weller, Jochen; Zlosnik, Tom


    Euclid is a European Space Agency medium-class mission selected for launch in 2019 within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and red-shifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research. In this review we focus on cosmology and fundamental physics, with a strong emphasis on science beyond the current standard models. We discuss five broad topics: dark energy and modified gravity, dark matter, initial conditions, basic assumptions and questions of methodology in the data analysis. This review has been planned and carried out within Euclid's Theory Working Group and is meant to provide a guide to the scientific themes that will underlie the activity of the group during the preparation of the Euclid mission.

  2. Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with the Euclid Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Amendola


    Full Text Available Euclid is a European Space Agency medium-class mission selected for launch in 2019 within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and red-shifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research. In this review we focus on cosmology and fundamental physics, with a strong emphasis on science beyond the current standard models. We discuss five broad topics: dark energy and modified gravity, dark matter, initial conditions, basic assumptions and questions of methodology in the data analysis. This review has been planned and carried out within Euclid's Theory Working Group and is meant to provide a guide to the scientific themes that will underlie the activity of the group during the preparation of the Euclid mission.

  3. Diversity of Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes in Europe: results from the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), 2012 and 2013. (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Ashwin, Helen; Longshaw, Christopher M; Burns, David A; Davis, Georgina L; Wilcox, Mark H


    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the major cause of infective diarrhoea in healthcare environments. As part of the European, multicentre, prospective, biannual, point-prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with diarrhoea (EUCLID), the largest C. difficile epidemiological study of its type, PCR ribotype distribution of C. difficile isolates in Europe was investigated. PCR ribotyping was performed on 1,196 C. difficile isolates from diarrhoeal samples sent to the European coordinating laboratory in 2012-13 and 2013 (from two sampling days) by 482 participating hospitals from 19 European countries. A total of 125 ribotypes were identified, of which ribotypes 027 (19%, n =222), 001/072 (11%, n = 134) and 014/020 (10%, n = 119) were the most prevalent. Distinct regional patterns of ribotype distribution were noted. Of 596 isolates from patients with toxin-positive stools (CDI cases), ribotype 027 accounted for 22% (32/144) of infections in cases aged from 18 to less than 65 years, but the prevalence decreased in those aged ≥ 65 years (14% (59/412)) and further decreased in those aged ≥ 81 years (9% (18/195)). The prevalence of ribotype 027 and 176, but not other epidemic strains, was inversely proportional to overall ribotype diversity (R(2) = 0.717). This study highlights an increased diversity of C. difficile ribotypes across Europe compared with previous studies, with considerable intercountry variation in ribotype distribution. Continuous surveillance programmes are necessary to monitor the changing epidemiology of C. difficile. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  4. Angles et grandeur d'Euclide à Kamal al-Din al-Farisi

    CERN Document Server

    Rashed, Roshdi


    This is the first comprehensive treatment of the history of the angle from Euclid to classical Arabic mathematics. The volume presents critically edited texts, with translations and commentaries, of Greek and Arabic philosophers and mathematicians including Euclid, Simplicius, etc.

  5. Decoding Reed–Solomon Codes Using Euclid's Algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 4. Decoding Reed–Solomon Codes Using Euclid's Algorithm. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 12 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  6. The Football-From Euclid to Soccer it is...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. The Football - From Euclid to Soccer it is... A R Rao. General Article Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 28-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  7. Performance overview of the Euclid infrared focal plane detector subsystems (United States)

    Waczynski, A.; Barbier, R.; Cagiano, S.; Chen, J.; Cheung, S.; Cho, H.; Cillis, A.; Clémens, J.-C.; Dawson, O.; Delo, G.; Farris, M.; Feizi, A.; Foltz, R.; Hickey, M.; Holmes, W.; Hwang, T.; Israelsson, U.; Jhabvala, M.; Kahle, D.; Kan, Em.; Kan, Er.; Loose, M.; Lotkin, G.; Miko, L.; Nguyen, L.; Piquette, E.; Powers, T.; Pravdo, S.; Runkle, A.; Seiffert, M.; Strada, P.; Tucker, C.; Turck, K.; Wang, F.; Weber, C.; Williams, J.


    In support of the European space agency (ESA) Euclid mission, NASA is responsible for the evaluation of the H2RG mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detectors and electronics assemblies fabricated by Teledyne imaging systems. The detector evaluation is performed in the detector characterization laboratory (DCL) at the NASA Goddard space flight center (GSFC) in close collaboration with engineers and scientists from the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) and the Euclid project. The Euclid near infrared spectrometer and imaging photometer (NISP) will perform large area optical and spectroscopic sky surveys in the 0.9-2.02 μm infrared (IR) region. The NISP instrument will contain sixteen detector arrays each coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The focal plane will operate at 100K and the SIDECAR ASIC will be in close proximity operating at a slightly higher temperature of 137K. This paper will describe the test configuration, performance tests and results of the latest engineering run, also known as pilot run 3 (PR3), consisting of four H2RG detectors operating simultaneously. Performance data will be presented on; noise, spectral quantum efficiency, dark current, persistence, pixel yield, pixel to pixel uniformity, linearity, inter pixel crosstalk, full well and dynamic range, power dissipation, thermal response and unit cell input sensitivity.

  8. Detecting unresolved binary stars in Euclid VIS images (United States)

    Kuntzer, T.; Courbin, F.


    Measuring a weak gravitational lensing signal to the level required by the next generation of space-based surveys demands exquisite reconstruction of the point-spread function (PSF). However, unresolved binary stars can significantly distort the PSF shape. In an effort to mitigate this bias, we aim at detecting unresolved binaries in realistic Euclid stellar populations. We tested methods in numerical experiments where (I) the PSF shape is known to Euclid requirements across the field of view; and (II) the PSF shape is unknown. We drew simulated catalogues of PSF shapes for this proof-of-concept paper. Following the Euclid survey plan, the objects were observed four times. We propose three methods to detect unresolved binary stars. The detection is based on the systematic and correlated biases between exposures of the same object. One method is a simple correlation analysis, while the two others use supervised machine-learning algorithms (random forest and artificial neural network). In both experiments, we demonstrate the ability of our methods to detect unresolved binary stars in simulated catalogues. The performance depends on the level of prior knowledge of the PSF shape and the shape measurement errors. Good detection performances are observed in both experiments. Full complexity, in terms of the images and the survey design, is not included, but key aspects of a more mature pipeline are discussed. Finding unresolved binaries in objects used for PSF reconstruction increases the quality of the PSF determination at arbitrary positions. We show, using different approaches, that we are able to detect at least binary stars that are most damaging for the PSF reconstruction process. The code corresponding to the algorithms used in this work and all scripts to reproduce the results are publicly available from a GitHub repository accessible via

  9. Ciencia con Euclid: Materia y Energía Oscura


    Pérez Garrido, Antonio; Díaz Sánchez, Anastasio; Jódar Ferrández, Ester; Toledo Moreo, Rafael; Villo Pérez, Isidro; Garrigós Guerrero, Francisco Javier; Martínez Álvarez, José Javier; Toledo Moreo, Francisco Javier; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel


    Recientemente se aprobó la construcción del satélite espacial Euclid, que se encargará de indagar en dos de los grandes misterios actuales de la Ciencia: la materia oscura y la energía oscura. La UPCT participa tanto a nivel tecnológico como científico en esta misión espacial cuyo lanzamiento está previsto para el año 2019. Las primeras evidencias de la existencia de la materia oscura datan de 1932. Se presupone su existencia ya que, entre otras cosas, la distribución de velocidades de las es...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo M. Bernucci


    Full Text Available This essay focuses on two important questions in the works of Euclides da Cunha. The first question addresses the utopian and dystopian images that Euclides creates to describe and to narrate the Amazonian rainforest; the second one, also related to his writings on Amazonia, refers to Euclides‘s linguistic matrices of duplication used in Rebellion in the Backlands and also À margem da história. Delving into the meaning of his incomplete and unpublished book, Um paraíso perdido [A Lost Paradise], the present study seeks to demonstrate the difficulties that, as a scientist, Euclides is confronted with in his critical observation of the complexity of the Amazonian ecosystem in its relation with its inhabitants. From the artist‘s perspective, Euclides‘s hesitation and oscillation between a favorable and unfavorable representation of Amazonia is also closely examined in this essay. As an unfinished project, Um paraíso perdido replicates similar lines of thought and language styles he had utilized in Rebellion in the Backlands. So much desired, but abruptly and unknowingly aborted, Um paraíso perdido signals in principle the same strong aspiration found in Rebellion in the Backlands. Again, according to him the new unfinished book had to be avenging. Such social commitment on the part of Euclides gives more weight to his already high stature as a man of sciences and letters. Always adjusted to a classical and unusual diction of his unique language, both of his texts, Rebellion in the Backlands and À margem da história, share a common characteristic. In them, Euclides uses linguistics formulas that repeat themselves, revealing his mode of thinking and writing, which approximates, culturally and artistically, two geographic regions that are generally considered contradictory, the desert and the forest.Este estudo aborda duas questões principais na obra de Euclides da Cunha. A primeira se refere às imagens utópicas e distópicas criadas

  11. Micromaths: Removing Euclid from the Shackles. (United States)

    Oldknow, Adrian


    Attempts to lay the groundwork for a study of curves produced as loci using dynamic geometry. Provides some sketches of ways Cabri may be used to enhance the teaching of geometry with particular reference to synthetic plane Euclidean geometry, locus, and the conics. (Contains 26 references.) (ASK)

  12. Continuous symmetry from Euclid to Klein

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, William


    The fundamental idea of geometry is that of symmetry. With that principle as the starting point, Barker and Howe begin an insightful and rewarding study of Euclidean geometry. The primary focus of the book is on transformations of the plane. The transformational point of view provides both a path for deeper understanding of traditional synthetic geometry and tools for providing proofs that spring from a consistent point of view. As a result, proofs become more comprehensible, as techniques can be used and reused in similar settings. The approach to the material is very concrete, with complete

  13. The E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA Euclid Dark Energy Mission: a general view after positive conclusion of the assesment phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenziano, L.; Zerbi, F.M.; Cimatti, A.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Butler, R.C.; Content, R.; Corcione, L.; Rosa,; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gianotti, F.; Giro, E.; Grange, R.; Leutenegger, P.; Ligori, S.; Martin, L.; Mandolesi, N.; Morgante, G.; Nicastro, L.; Riva, M.; Robberto, M.; Sharples, R.; Spanó, P.; Talbot, G.; Trifoglio, M.; Wink, R.; Zamkotsian, F.


    The Euclid Near-Infrared Spectrometer (E-NIS) Instrument was conceived as the spectroscopic probe on-board the ESA Dark Energy Mission Euclid. Together with the Euclid Imaging Channel (EIC) in its Visible (VIS) and Near Infrared (NIP) declinations, NIS formed part of the Euclid Mission Concept

  14. Instrument workstation for the EGSE of the Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer instrument (NISP) of the EUCLID mission (United States)

    Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Conforti, V.; Franceschi, E.; Stephen, J. B.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Maiorano, E.; Nicastro, L.; Valenziano, L.; Zoli, A.; Auricchio, N.; Balestra, A.; Bonino, D.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Capobianco, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Corcione, L.; Debei, S.; De Rosa, A.; Dusini, S.; Fornari, F.; Giacomini, F.; Guizzo, G. P.; Ligori, S.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Morgante, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Sortino, F.; Stanco, L.; Tenti, M.


    The NISP instrument on board the Euclid ESA mission will be developed and tested at different levels of integration using various test equipment which shall be designed and procured through a collaborative and coordinated effort. The NISP Instrument Workstation (NI-IWS) will be part of the EGSE configuration that will support the NISP AIV/AIT activities from the NISP Warm Electronics level up to the launch of Euclid. One workstation is required for the NISP EQM/AVM, and a second one for the NISP FM. Each workstation will follow the respective NISP model after delivery to ESA for Payload and Satellite AIV/AIT and launch. At these levels the NI-IWS shall be configured as part of the Payload EGSE, the System EGSE, and the Launch EGSE, respectively. After launch, the NI-IWS will be also re-used in the Euclid Ground Segment in order to support the Commissioning and Performance Verification (CPV) phase, and for troubleshooting purposes during the operational phase. The NI-IWS is mainly aimed at the local storage in a suitable format of the NISP instrument data and metadata, at local retrieval, processing and display of the stored data for on-line instrument assessment, and at the remote retrieval of the stored data for off-line analysis on other computers. We describe the design of the IWS software that will create a suitable interface to the external systems in each of the various configurations envisaged at the different levels, and provide the capabilities required to monitor and verify the instrument functionalities and performance throughout all phases of the NISP lifetime.

  15. EUCLID - erialahariduse analüüsimiseks ja hindamiseks / Aira Lepik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Aira, 1958-


    1991. aastast seob Euroopas raamatukogunduse- ja infoalase haridusega tegelevaid institutsioone European Association for Library & Information Education and Research. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli infoteaduste osakond on EUCLID-i asutajaliige

  16. CAD – End of Euclid and move to CATIA/Smarteam

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department


    After 25 years in the service of the CERN design offices, 3D-design software Euclid from MDTVision will be finally stopped at the end of 2008. Having postponed this date for as long as possible to avoid disturbing the LHC project, CERN has become the last user of this software. Euclid is being progressively replaced by one of the great references of the market place, CATIA V5/Smarteam from Dassault Systèmes. Coupled with the mechanical design software CATIA V5, Smarteam is a PLM system (Product Lifecycle Management), which allows follow-up, management, and integration of all the data linked to mechanical designs. Data currently in Euclid is subject to an on-going large scale conversion to CATIA V5. In particular: All drawings from Euclid databases, which haven’t been deleted by their authors will be saved in HP-GL-format and will therefore remain available; All Euclid 3D-models, which haven’t been deleted by their authors, are converted and saved in VRML-format and w...

  17. Neutronic calculation of fast reactors by the EUCLID/V1 integrated code (United States)

    Koltashev, D. A.; Stakhanova, A. A.


    This article considers neutronic calculation of a fast-neutron lead-cooled reactor BREST-OD-300 by the EUCLID/V1 integrated code. The main goal of development and application of integrated codes is a nuclear power plant safety justification. EUCLID/V1 is integrated code designed for coupled neutronics, thermomechanical and thermohydraulic fast reactor calculations under normal and abnormal operating conditions. EUCLID/V1 code is being developed in the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The integrated code has a modular structure and consists of three main modules: thermohydraulic module HYDRA-IBRAE/LM/V1, thermomechanical module BERKUT and neutronic module DN3D. In addition, the integrated code includes databases with fuel, coolant and structural materials properties. Neutronic module DN3D provides full-scale simulation of neutronic processes in fast reactors. Heat sources distribution, control rods movement, reactivity level changes and other processes can be simulated. Neutron transport equation in multigroup diffusion approximation is solved. This paper contains some calculations implemented as a part of EUCLID/V1 code validation. A fast-neutron lead-cooled reactor BREST-OD-300 transient simulation (fuel assembly floating, decompression of passive feedback system channel) and cross-validation with MCU-FR code results are presented in this paper. The calculations demonstrate EUCLID/V1 code application for BREST-OD-300 simulating and safety justification.

  18. Analysis of lightning outliers in the EUCLID network (United States)

    Poelman, Dieter R.; Schulz, Wolfgang; Kaltenboeck, Rudolf; Delobbe, Laurent


    Lightning data as observed by the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection (EUCLID) network are used in combination with radar data to retrieve the temporal and spatial behavior of lightning outliers, i.e., discharges located in a wrong place, over a 5-year period from 2011 to 2016. Cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke and text">intracloud (IC) pulse data are superimposed on corresponding 5 min radar precipitation fields in two topographically different areas, Belgium and Austria, in order to extract lightning outliers based on the distance between each lightning event and the nearest precipitation. It is shown that the percentage of outliers is sensitive to changes in the network and to the location algorithm itself. The total percentage of outliers for both regions varies over the years between 0.8 and 1.7 % for a distance to the nearest precipitation of 2 km, with an average of approximately 1.2 % in Belgium and Austria. Outside the European summer thunderstorm season, the percentage of outliers tends to increase somewhat. The majority of all the outliers are low peak current events with absolute values falling between 0 and 10 kA. More specifically, positive cloud-to-ground strokes are more likely to be classified as outliers compared to all other types of discharges. Furthermore, it turns out that the number of sensors participating in locating a lightning discharge is different for outliers versus correctly located events, with outliers having the lowest amount of sensors participating. In addition, it is shown that in most cases the semi-major axis (SMA) assigned to a lightning discharge as a confidence indicator in the location accuracy (LA) is smaller for correctly located events compared to the semi-major axis of outliers.

  19. Analysis of lightning outliers in the EUCLID network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Poelman


    Full Text Available Lightning data as observed by the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection (EUCLID network are used in combination with radar data to retrieve the temporal and spatial behavior of lightning outliers, i.e., discharges located in a wrong place, over a 5-year period from 2011 to 2016. Cloud-to-ground (CG stroke and intracloud (IC pulse data are superimposed on corresponding 5 min radar precipitation fields in two topographically different areas, Belgium and Austria, in order to extract lightning outliers based on the distance between each lightning event and the nearest precipitation. It is shown that the percentage of outliers is sensitive to changes in the network and to the location algorithm itself. The total percentage of outliers for both regions varies over the years between 0.8 and 1.7 % for a distance to the nearest precipitation of 2 km, with an average of approximately 1.2 % in Belgium and Austria. Outside the European summer thunderstorm season, the percentage of outliers tends to increase somewhat. The majority of all the outliers are low peak current events with absolute values falling between 0 and 10 kA. More specifically, positive cloud-to-ground strokes are more likely to be classified as outliers compared to all other types of discharges. Furthermore, it turns out that the number of sensors participating in locating a lightning discharge is different for outliers versus correctly located events, with outliers having the lowest amount of sensors participating. In addition, it is shown that in most cases the semi-major axis (SMA assigned to a lightning discharge as a confidence indicator in the location accuracy (LA is smaller for correctly located events compared to the semi-major axis of outliers.

  20. Final design and choices for EUCLID NISP grism (United States)

    Costille, A.; Caillat, A.; Rossin, C.; Pascal, S.; Sanchez, P.; Foulon, B.; Vives, S.


    ESA Euclid mission is designed to map the geometry of the dark Universe. The NISP (Near Infrared Spectro- Photometer) is one of its two instruments dedicated to NIR with two main observing modes: the photometric mode and the spectroscopic mode, for the acquisition of slitless dispersed images using four low resolution grisms: three "red" grisms for 1250-1850nm, and one "blue" grism for 920-1300nm. The NISP grisms are complex optical components that combine four main functions: a grism done by the grating on the prism hypotenuse, a spectral filter done by a multilayer filter deposited on the first surface of the prism, a focus function done by a curved surface and a spectral wavefront correction done by the grating with curved grooves. This specific grating is made thanks to a new technic developed with SILIOS Technologies to manufacture a resin-free grating. The optical component is glued onto a mechanical ring, designed to survive to 60g DLL and to keep optical performance at 130K. The design and manufacturing of these components represent an important challenge to obtain the best performances with very constraining requirements. We will present the performance obtained on scale-1 prototypes of the filter, the grating and the mount manufactured to validate the final design choices and used to make the necessary trade-off during the development phase. All the prototypes have shown very good optical performances and have withstood vibrations and vacuum cryogenic tests that confirm the feasibility of NISP grisms and prepare the next phase for the procurement and tests of NISP grism flight models.

  1. Euclid's window the story of geometry from parallel lines to hyperspace

    CERN Document Server

    Mlodinow, Leonard


    In "Euclid's Window", Leonard Mlondinow takes us on a brilliantly entertaining journey through 3,000 years of genius and geometry, introducing the people who revolutionized the way we see the world around us. Ever since Pythagoras hatched a 'little scheme' to invent a set of rules describing the entire universe, scientists and mathematicians have tried to seek order in the cosmos: Euclid, who in 300BC defined the nature of space; Descartes, a fourteenth-century gambler and idler who invented the graph; Gauss, the fifteen-year-old genius who discovered that space is curved; Einstein, who added time to the equation; and Witten, who ushered in today's weird new world of extra, twisted dimensions. They all show how geometry is the key to understanding the universe. Once you have viewed life through "Euclid's Window", it will never be the same again...

  2. Euclid: una misión espacial con participación de la UPCT


    Toledo Moreo, Rafael; Villo Pérez, Isidro; Garrigós Guerrero, Francisco Javier; Martínez Álvarez, José Javier; Toledo Moreo, Francisco Javier; Ferrández Vicente, José Manuel; Pérez Garrido, Antonio; Díaz Sánchez, Anastasio; Jódar Ferrández, Ester


    La Agencia Espacial Europea aprobó en octubre de 2011 la misión científica Euclid dentro del programa Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. El objetivo de esta misión es medir parámetros relativos a la energía y materia oscura del universo con una precisión sin precedentes. Para ello,el satélite Euclid estará equipado con un telescopiode 1.2 metros y dos instrumentos: El instrumento VIS(VisibleImager) y el instrumento NISP (Near-Infrared Spectrometer Photometer). La Universidad Politécnica de Car...

  3. A geometria a partir de Euclides direcionada para o cálculo diferencial e integral


    Goulart, Lenir Joaquina


    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção Desenvolve-se uma investigação científica considerando a História da Matemática como uma importante alavanca conceitual fundamentada em alguns aspectos da Geometria em Euclides e em alguns aspectos da Geometria em Hilbert. Investiga-se a evolução dos Fundamentos da Geometria de Euclides com vistas à confecção de material de apoio multimídia de Geometria para me...

  4. The control unit of the near infrared spectrograph of the EUCLID space mission: preliminary design (United States)

    Toledo-Moreo, Rafael; Colodro-Conde, Carlos; Díaz-García, José Javier; Tubío-Araujo, Óscar Manuel; Gómez-Sáenz, Jaime; Peña-Godino, Antonio; Velasco-Fernández, Tirso; Sánchez-Prieto, Sebastián.; Villó-Pérez, Isidro; Rebolo-López, Rafael


    The Near Infrared Spectrograph and Photometer (NISP) is one of the instruments on board the ESA EUCLID mission. The Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena and Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias are responsible of the Instrument Control Unit of the NISP (NI-ICU) in the Euclid Consortium. The NI-ICU main functions are: communication with the S/C and the Data Processing Unit, control of the Filter and Grism Wheels, control of the Calibration Unit and thermal control of the instrument. This paper presents the NI-ICU status of definition and design at the end of the preliminary design phase.

  5. Finding bright z ≥ 6.6 Ly α emitters with lensing: prospects for Euclid (United States)

    Marchetti, L.; Serjeant, S.; Vaccari, M.


    We model the z ≥ 6.6 Ly α luminosity function to estimate the number of lensed high-z Ly α emitters that may be detected by the Euclid Deep Survey. To span the whole range of possible predictions, we exploit two Ly α luminosity function models and two strong gravitational lensing models from the literature. We show that the planned Euclid Deep Survey observing 40 deg2 over the 920-1850 nm wavelength range down to a flux limit of Flim = 5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 will enable us to find between ˜0.85 and ˜1.82 deg-2 lensed Ly α emitters at z ≥ 6.6 depending on the adopted Ly α luminosity function and strong gravitational lensing model. The obvious [O ii], [O iii] and H β contaminants of the Ly α lensed population will be identified with the help of Euclid's spectral resolving power, while the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will enable the identification of the interloper population of H α emitters. By combining Euclid and the SKA, we will thus be able to identify, for the first time, a sample of ˜34 to ˜73 lensed Ly α emitters at z ≥ 6.6.

  6. Comparing simulations and test data of a radiation damaged CCD for the Euclid mission (United States)

    Skottfelt, Jesper; Hall, David; Gow, Jason; Murray, Neil; Holland, Andrew; Prod'homme, Thibaut


    The radiation damage effects from the harsh radiative environment outside the Earth's atmosphere can be a cause for concern for most space missions. With the science goals becoming ever more demanding, the requirements on the precision of the instruments on board these missions also increases, and it is therefore important to investigate how the radiation induced damage affects the Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) that most of these instruments rely on. The primary goal of the Euclid mission is to study the nature of dark matter and dark energy using weak lensing and baryonic acoustic oscillation techniques. The weak lensing technique depends on very precise shape measurements of distant galaxies obtained by a large CCD array. It is anticipated that over the 6 year nominal lifetime of mission, the CCDs will be degraded to an extent that these measurements will not be possible unless the radiation damage effects are corrected. We have therefore created a Monte Carlo model that simulates the physical processes taking place when transferring signal through a radiation damaged CCD. The software is based on Shockley-Read-Hall theory, and is made to mimic the physical properties in the CCD as close as possible. The code runs on a single electrode level and takes charge cloud size and density, three dimensional trap position, and multi-level clocking into account. A key element of the model is that it takes device specific simulations of electron density as a direct input, thereby avoiding to make any analytical assumptions about the size and density of the charge cloud. This paper illustrates how test data and simulated data can be compared in order to further our understanding of the positions and properties of the individual radiation-induced traps.

  7. Dark energy and neutrino constraints from a future EUCLID-like survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Tobias; Eggers Bjaelde, Ole; Hamann, Jan


    vastly improves the survey's potential to measure the time evolution of dark energy. In terms of a dark energy figure-of-merit defined as (sigma(w_0) sigma(w_a))^-1, we find a value of 454 for Euclid-like data combined with Planck-like measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies......We perform a detailed forecast on how well a Euclid-like survey will be able to constrain dark energy and neutrino parameters from a combination of its cosmic shear power spectrum, galaxy power spectrum, and cluster mass function measurements. We find that the combination of these three probes...... in a fiducial LambdaCDM cosmology, a number that is quite conservative compared with existing estimates because of our choice of model parameter space and analysis method, but still represents a factor of 3 to 8 improvement over using either CMB+galaxy clustering+cosmic shear data, or CMB+cluster mass function...

  8. Euclid Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument concept and first test results obtained for different breadboards models at the end of phase C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciaszek, Thierry; Ealet, Anne; Jahnke, Knud


    The Euclid mission objective is to understand why the expansion of the Universe is accelerating through by mapping the geometry of the dark Universe by investigating the distance-redshift relationship and tracing the evolution of cosmic structures. The Euclid project is part of ESA's Cosmic Visio...

  9. Euclid Mission: Mapping the Geometry of the Dark Universe. Mission and Consortium Status (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason


    Euclid concept: (1) High-precision survey mission to map the geometry of the Dark Universe (2) Optimized for two complementary cosmological probes: (2a) Weak Gravitational Lensing (2b) Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (2c) Additional probes: clusters, redshift space distortions, ISW (3) Full extragalactic sky survey with 1.2m telescope at L2: (3a) Imaging: (3a-1) High precision imaging at visible wavelengths (3a-2) Photometry/Imaging in the near-infrared (3b) Near Infrared Spectroscopy (4) Synergy with ground based surveys (5) Legacy science for a wide range of in astronomy

  10. Euclid joint programme 16.01 - sea systems integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckett, A.T. [BSc, AMIEE, Defense Procurement Agency, UK Ministry of Defense (United Kingdom); Webster, D.S. [BSc, MIEE, CEng, Ships Support Agency, UK Ministry of Defense (United Kingdom); Barendregt, I. [DMKM, Royal Netherlands Navy (Netherlands)


    During 1996 Panel II of the Western European Armaments Group started a new Common European Priority Area (CEPA 16) in response to the growing interest in the electrification of land, air and sea based platforms. The first study to be launched by this newly formed group was JP16.01 on Sea Systems Integration. There are a number of discrete studies within this Joint Programme which aim to quantifying the benefits of an All Electric Ship and address the integration risks associated with the adoption of this technology into future warships. Some of the study results are now starting to be delivered. (authors)

  11. Geometry beyond Euclid: The evolution of geometry in the last 150 years has changed our culture. He knows the School?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Casolaro


    Full Text Available We propose the organization of a process of expansion of the Euclidean model for teaching. In the last national instructions and guidelines, relating to geometry, it just makes some confused nod to structures which are the basis of modern physics (geometry on curved space, art and Architecture (projective and descriptive. The study and the results of the Nuclei of Research Education established in Italian universities over the past sixty years instead lead to several considerations that we analyze in this paper.   La Geometria oltre Euclide: L'evoluzione della geometria negli ultimi 150 anni ha modificato la nostra cultura. Lo sa la Scuola? Si propone l'organizzazione di un percorso di ampliamento del modello euclideo per l'insegnamento. Nelle ultime Indicazioni nazionali e Linee guida, relativamente alla geometria, si fa solo qualche confuso cenno allo studio di geometrie che sono alla base della Fisica moderna (geometrie sullo spazio curvo, dell'arte e dell'Architettura (proiettiva e descrittiva. Lo studio ed i risultati dei Nuclei di Ricerca Didattica istituiti nelle Università italiane negli ultimi sessanta anni portano invece a considerazioni diverse che nel presente lavoro analizzeremo. Parole Chiave: Modifiche Riforma Gentile; N.R.D. nelle Università italiane; Geometrie non euclidee; Trasformazioni geometriche

  12. Euclid in the rain forest discovering universal truth in logic and math

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Joseph


    Like Douglas Hofstadter’s Gödel, Escher, Bach, and David Berlinski’s A Tour of the Calculus, Euclid in the Rainforest combines the literary with the mathematical to explore logic—the one indispensable tool in man’s quest to understand the world. Underpinning both math and science, it is the foundation of every major advancement in knowledge since the time of the ancient Greeks. Through adventure stories and historical narratives populated with a rich and quirky cast of characters, Mazur artfully reveals the less-than-airtight nature of logic and the muddled relationship between math and the real world. Ultimately, Mazur argues, logical reasoning is not purely robotic. At its most basic level, it is a creative process guided by our intuitions and beliefs about the world.

  13. Manoel Bomfim e Euclides da Cunha: vozes dissonantes aos horizontes do progresso Manoel Bomfim and Euclides da Cunha: dissonant voices on the horizons of progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Petraglia Kropf


    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta um contraponto entre as concepções desenvolvidas a respeito cia sociedade brasileira por Euclicles da Cunha e Manoel Bomfim, nos livros Os sertões e A América Latina: males de origem, publicados, respectivamente, em 1902 e 1905. Situando as referidas obras no contexto do entusiasmo pela modernização nacional da passagem do século, pretendemos apontar aproximações e diferenças entre as formas pelas quais tais autores questionaram o processo político-social em que se proclamava a inserção do Brasil na trilha do progresso e da civilização e apresentaram suas visões críticas da lógica e objetivos que presidiam este processo, bem como dos limites que a ele se impunham em seu encaminhamento na época.The article presents a counterpoint between the conceptions of Brazilian society developed by Euclides da Cunha and Manoel Bomfim in their books Os sertões (1902; tr. Rebellion in the Backlands, 1944 and A America Latina: males de origem (1905. Framing both works against the climate of enthusiasm over national modernization which marked the turn of the century, the article identifies common points and differences: how these authors questioned the ongoing political-social process, in which Brazil was proclaimed to be on the road to progress and civilization; how each put forward their critical viewpoints regarding the logic and goals governing this process; and the limits that each imputed to the process then underway.

  14. The Whole is Greater than the Sum of the Parts: Optimizing the Joint Science Return from LSST, Euclid and WFIRST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Spergel, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Connolly, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dell' antonio, I. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Frieman, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gawiser, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gehrels, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gladney, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heitmann, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Helou, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hirata, C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ho, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ivezic, Z. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jarvis, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kahn, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kalirai, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kim, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lupton, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mandelbaum, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marshall, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Newman, J. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Postman, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rhodes, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Strauss, M. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Tyson, J. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wood-Vesey, W. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    The scientific opportunity offered by the combination of data from LSST, WFIRST and Euclid goes well beyond the science enabled by any one of the data sets alone. The range in wavelength, angular resolution and redshift coverage that these missions jointly span is remarkable. With major investments in LSST and WFIRST, and partnership with ESA in Euclid, the US has an outstanding scientific opportunity to carry out a combined analysis of these data sets. It is imperative for us to seize it and, together with our European colleagues, prepare for the defining cosmological pursuit of the 21st century. The main argument for conducting a single, high-quality reference co-analysis exercise and carefully documenting the results is the complexity and subtlety of systematics that define this co-analysis. Falling back on many small efforts by different teams in selected fields and for narrow goals will be inefficient, leading to significant duplication of effort.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Anna Sapunaru


    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the possibility of work in some in propositions of Euclid's Elements in infinite division signs used by Leibniz in the establishment of differential and integral calculus. To this end, “The” group works with at first with an analysis of the main idea contained in the elements, namely the discussion of the mathematicalphysical world from images. These images have established a unique and unparalleled method that served as the basisfor Leibniz (among other thinkers to develop their own thought. Especially, we focus on the analysis of propositions 7 and 8 of Book 2, and of propositions 17 and 18 of book 3. In addition, we use Leibniz's text where he established the rules of derivation and integration, and presented his method of maxima and minima. Roughly speaking, the use of Euclid's propositions mentioned in conjunction with the writings of Leibniz intends to provide a greater understanding of the infinitely small.

  16. Optimal transport-based dictionary learning and its application to Euclid-like Point Spread Function representation (United States)

    Schmitz, Morgan A.; Heitz, Matthieu; Bonneel, Nicolas; Ngolè, Fred; Coeurjolly, David; Cuturi, Marco; Peyré, Gabriel; Starck, Jean-Luc


    Optimal Transport theory enables the definition of a distance across the set of measures on any given space. This Wasserstein distance naturally accounts for geometric warping between measures (including, but not exclusive to, images). We introduce a new, Optimal Transport-based representation learning method in close analogy with the usual Dictionary Learning problem. This approach typically relies on a matrix dot-product between the learned dictionary and the codes making up the new representation. The relationship between atoms and data is thus ultimately linear. By reconstructing our data as Wasserstein barycenters of learned atoms instead, our approach yields a representation making full use of the Wasserstein distance's attractive properties and allowing for non-linear relationships between the dictionary atoms and the datapoints. We apply our method to a dataset of Euclid-like simulated PSFs (Point Spread Function). ESA's Euclid mission will cover a large area of the sky in order to accurately measure the shape of billions of galaxies. PSF estimation and correction is one of the main sources of systematic errors on those galaxy shape measurements. PSF variations across the field of view and with the incoming light's wavelength can be highly non-linear, while still retaining strong geometrical information, making the use of Optimal Transport distances an attractive prospect. We show that our representation does indeed succeed at capturing the PSF's variations.

  17. Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index Measurements of Caf2, Suprasil 3001, and S-FTM16 for the Euclid Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Grupp, Frank D.


    Using the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we measured absolute refractive indices at temperatures from 100 to 310 K at wavelengths from 0.42 to 3.6 microns for CaF2, Suprasil 3001 fused silica, and S-FTM16 glass in support of lens designs for the Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) for ESA's Euclid dark energy mission. We report absolute refractive index, dispersion (dn/d?), and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) for these materials. In this study, materials from different melts were procured to understand index variability in each material. We provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. For calcium fluoride (CaF2) and S-FTM16, we compare our current measurements with CHARMS measurements of these materials made in the recent past for other programs. We also compare Suprasil 3001's indices to those of other forms of fused silica we have measured in CHARMS.

  18. Audit and Assessment Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Craig [Tlingit-Haida Regional Housing Authority, Juneau, AK (United States)


    Project to assess 46 low-income multifamily residences owned and managed by THRHA in up to 14 southeast Alaska communities. The Objective of project was to identify efficiency measures to reduce energy costs by 30% for low-income multifamily housing by; 1. Decreasing energy demand by increasing multifamily housing energy efficiency; 2. Reducing household energy consumption through energy conservation education and installation of energy upgrades; and 3. Projecting energy savings based on fossil fuel reduction to environmentally and economically benefit Tribal southeast communities

  19. Software design for the VIS instrument onboard the Euclid mission: a multilayer approach (United States)

    Galli, E.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pezzuto, S.; Liu, S. J.; Giusi, G.; Li Causi, G.; Farina, M.; Cropper, M.; Denniston, J.; Niemi, S.


    The Euclid mission scientific payload is composed of two instruments: a VISible Imaging Instrument (VIS) and a Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument (NISP). Each instrument has its own control unit. The Instrument Command and Data Processing Unit (VI-CDPU) is the control unit of the VIS instrument. The VI-CDPU is connected directly to the spacecraft by means of a MIL-STD-1553B bus and to the satellite Mass Memory Unit via a SpaceWire link. All the internal interfaces are implemented via SpaceWire links and include 12 high speed lines for the data provided by the 36 focal plane CCDs readout electronics (ROEs) and one link to the Power and Mechanisms Control Unit (VI-PMCU). VI-CDPU is in charge of distributing commands to the instrument sub-systems, collecting their housekeeping parameters and monitoring their health status. Moreover, the unit has the task of acquiring, reordering, compressing and transferring the science data to the satellite Mass Memory. This last feature is probably the most challenging one for the VI-CDPU, since stringent constraints about the minimum lossless compression ratio, the maximum time for the compression execution and the maximum power consumption have to be satisfied. Therefore, an accurate performance analysis at hardware layer is necessary, which could delay too much the design and development of software. In order to mitigate this risk, in the multilayered design of software we decided to design a middleware layer that provides a set of APIs with the aim of hiding the implementation of the HW connected layer to the application one. The middleware is built on top of the Operating System layer (which includes the Real-Time OS that will be adopted) and the onboard Computer Hardware. The middleware itself has a multi-layer architecture composed of 4 layers: the Abstract RTOS Adapter Layer (AOSAL), the Speci_c RTOS Adapter Layer (SOSAL), the Common Patterns Layer (CPL), the Service Layer composed of two subgroups which

  20. Design of the on-board application software for the instrument control unit of Euclid-NISP (United States)

    Ligori, Sebastiano; Corcione, Leonardo; Capobianco, Vito; Valenziano, Luca


    In this paper we describe the main requirements driving the development of the Application software of the ICU of NISP, the Near-Infrared Spectro-Photometer of the Euclid mission. This software will be based on a real-time operating system and will interface with all the subunits of NISP, as well as the CMDU of the spacecraft for the Telecommand and Housekeeping management. We briefly detail the services (following the PUS standard) that will be made available, and also possible commonalities in the approach with the ASW of the VIS CDPU, which could make the development effort more efficient; this approach could also make easier the maintenance of the SW during the mission. The development plan of the ASW and the next milestones foreseen are described, together with the architectural design approach and the development environment we are setting up.

  1. Lyman-tomography of cosmic infrared background fluctuations with euclid : probing emissions and baryonic acoustic oscillations at z ≳ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Arendt, R. G. [Observational Cosmology Lab, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Atrio-Barandela, F. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Salamanca (Spain); Helgason, K., E-mail: [MPA, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    The Euclid space mission, designed to probe evolution of the Dark Energy (DE), will map a large area of the sky at three adjacent near-IR filters, Y, J, and H. This coverage will also enable mapping source-subtracted cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations with unprecedented accuracy on sub-degree angular scales. Here, we propose methodology, using the Lyman-break tomography applied to the Euclid -based CIB maps, to accurately isolate the history of CIB emissions as a function of redshift from 10 ≲ z ≲ 20 and to identify the baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) at those epochs. To identify the BAO signature, we would assemble individual CIB maps over conservatively large contiguous areas of ≳400 deg{sup 2}. The method can isolate the CIB spatial spectrum by z to sub-percent statistical accuracy. We illustrate this with a specific model of CIB production at high z normalized to reproduce the measured Spitzer -based CIB fluctuation. We show that even if the latter contains only a small component from high- z sources, the amplitude of that component can be accurately isolated with the methodology proposed here and the BAO signatures at z ≳ 10 are recovered well from the CIB fluctuation spatial spectrum. Probing the BAO at those redshifts will be an important test of the underlying cosmological paradigm and would narrow the overall uncertainties on the evolution of cosmological parameters, including the DE. Similar methodology is applicable to the planned WFIRST mission, where we show that a possible fourth near-IR channel at ≥2 μ m would be beneficial.

  2. A comparative study of the risk profile of hemodialysis patients in a for profit network and in two regional registries of the Italian Society of Nephrology. (United States)

    Postorino, Maurizio; Amato, Claudia; Mancini, Elena; Carioni, Paola; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Di Benedetto, Attilio; Cerino, Fabrizio; Marino, Carmela; Vilasi, Antonio; Tripepi, Giovanni; Stuard, Stefano; Capasso, Giovanbattista; Santoro, Antonio; Zoccali, Carmine


    In 2013, the Italian Society of Nephrology joined forces with Nephrocare-Italy to create a clinical research cohort of patients on file in the data-rich clinical management system (EUCLID) of this organization for the performance of observational studies in the hemodialysis (HD) population. To see whether patients in EUCLID are representative of the HD population in Italy, we set out to compare the whole EUCLID population with patients included in the regional HD registries in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) and in Calabria (Southern Italy), the sole regions in Italy which have systematically collected an enlarged clinical data set allowing comparison with the data-rich EUCLID system. An analysis of prevalent and incident patients in 2010 and 2011 showed that EUCLID patients had a lower prevalence of coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, liver disease, peptic ulcer and other comorbidities and risk factors and a higher fractional urea clearance (Kt/V) than those in the Emilia Romagna and Calabria registries. Accordingly, survival analysis showed a lower mortality risk in the EUCLID 2010 and 2011 cohorts than in the combined two regional registries in the corresponding years: for 2010, hazard ratio (HR) EUCLID vs. Regional registries: 0.80 [95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.90]; for 2011, HR: 0.76 [0.65-0.90]. However, this difference was nullified by statistical adjustment for the difference in comorbidities and risk factors, indicating that the longer survival in the EUCLID database was attributable to the lower risk profile of patients included in that database. This preliminary analysis sets the stage for future observational studies and indicates that appropriate adjustment for difference in comorbidities and risk factors is needed to generalize to the Italian HD population analyses based on the data-rich EUCLID database.

  3. Developing Assessment through Lesson Study (United States)

    Fischman, Davida; Wasserman, Kelli


    Lesson study cultivates teachers' capacity for formative assessment by placing student thinking front and center throughout. Lesson study is a form of professional development in which a team of teachers determines a mathematical focus, collaboratively studies student thinking about the topic, designs a lesson about this content, implements the…

  4. Estimating Finite Source Effects in Microlensing Events due to Free-Floating Planets with the Euclid Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindita Hamolli


    Full Text Available In recent years free-floating planets (FFPs have drawn a great interest among astrophysicists. Gravitational microlensing is a unique and exclusive method for their investigation which may allow obtaining precious information about their mass and spatial distribution. The planned Euclid space-based observatory will be able to detect a substantial number of microlensing events caused by FFPs towards the Galactic bulge. Making use of a synthetic population algorithm, we investigate the possibility of detecting finite source effects in simulated microlensing events due to FFPs. We find a significant efficiency for finite source effect detection that turns out to be between 20% and 40% for a FFP power law mass function index in the range [0.9, 1.6]. For many of such events it will also be possible to measure the angular Einstein radius and therefore constrain the lens physical parameters. These kinds of observations will also offer a unique possibility to investigate the photosphere and atmosphere of Galactic bulge stars.

  5. Comparing simulations and test data of a radiation damaged charge-coupled device for the Euclid mission (United States)

    Skottfelt, Jesper; Hall, David J.; Gow, Jason P. D.; Murray, Neil J.; Holland, Andrew D.; Prod'homme, Thibaut


    The visible imager instrument on board the Euclid mission is a weak-lensing experiment that depends on very precise shape measurements of distant galaxies obtained by a large charge-coupled device (CCD) array. Due to the harsh radiative environment outside the Earth's atmosphere, it is anticipated that the CCDs over the mission lifetime will be degraded to an extent that these measurements will be possible only through the correction of radiation damage effects. We have therefore created a Monte Carlo model that simulates the physical processes taking place when transferring signals through a radiation-damaged CCD. The software is based on Shockley-Read-Hall theory and is made to mimic the physical properties in the CCD as closely as possible. The code runs on a single electrode level and takes the three-dimensional trap position, potential structure of the pixel, and multilevel clocking into account. A key element of the model is that it also takes device specific simulations of electron density as a direct input, thereby avoiding making any analytical assumptions about the size and density of the charge cloud. This paper illustrates how test data and simulated data can be compared in order to further our understanding of the positions and properties of the individual radiation-induced traps.

  6. Gluing interface qualification test results and gluing process development of the EUCLID near-infrared spectro-photometer optical assembly (United States)

    Mottaghibonab, A.; Thiele, H.; Gubbini, E.; Dubowy, M.; Gal, C.; Mecsaci, A.; Gawlik, K.; Vongehr, M.; Grupp, F.; Penka, D.; Wimmer, C.; Bender, R.


    The Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer Optical assembly (NIOA) of EUCLID satellite requires high precision large lens holders with different lens materials, shapes and diameters. The aspherical lenses are glued into their separate CTE matched lens holder. The gluing of the lenses in their holder with 2K epoxy is selected as bonding process to minimize the stress in the lenses to achieve the required surface form error (SFE) performance (32nm) and lens position stability (+/-10μm) due to glue shrinkage. Adhesive shrinkage stress occurs during the glue curing at room temperature and operation in cryogenic temperatures, which might overstress the lens, cause performance loss, lens breakage or failure of the gluing interface. The selection of the suitable glue and required bonding parameters, design and qualification of the gluing interface, development and verification of the gluing process was a great challenge because of the low TRL and heritage of the bonding technology. The different material combinations (CaF2 to SS316L, LF5G15 and S-FTM16 to Titanium, SUPRASIL3001 to Invar M93), large diameter (168mm) and thin edge of the lenses, cryogenic nonoperational temperature (100K) and high performance accuracy of the lenses were the main design driver of the development. The different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between lens and lens holder produce large local mechanical stress. As hygroscopic crystal calcium fluoride (CaF2) is very sensitive to moisture therefore an additional surface treatment of the gluing area is necessary. Extensive tests e.g glue handling and single lap shear tests are performed to select the suitable adhesive. Interface connection tests are performed to verify the feasibility of selected design (double pad design), injection channel, the roughness and treatment of the metal and lens interfaces, glue thickness, glue pad diameter and the gluing process. CTE and dynamic measurements of the glue, thermal cycling, damp- heat, connection

  7. On-board data processing for the near infrared spectrograph and photometer instrument (NISP) of the EUCLID mission (United States)

    Bonoli, Carlotta; Balestra, Andrea; Bortoletto, Favio; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Farinelli, Ruben; Medinaceli, Eduardo; Stephen, John; Borsato, Enrico; Dusini, Stefano; Laudisio, Fulvio; Sirignano, Chiara; Ventura, Sandro; Auricchio, Natalia; Corcione, Leonardo; Franceschi, Enrico; Ligori, Sebastiano; Morgante, Gianluca; Patrizii, Laura; Sirri, Gabriele; Trifoglio, Massimo; Valenziano, Luca


    The Near Infrared Spectrograph and Photometer (NISP) is one of the two instruments on board the EUCLID mission now under implementation phase; VIS, the Visible Imager is the second instrument working on the same shared optical beam. The NISP focal plane is based on a detector mosaic deploying 16x, 2048x2048 pixels^2 HAWAII-II HgCdTe detectors, now in advanced delivery phase from Teledyne Imaging Scientific (TIS), and will provide NIR imaging in three bands (Y, J, H) plus slit-less spectroscopy in the range 0.9÷2.0 micron. All the NISP observational modes will be supported by different parametrization of the classic multi-accumulation IR detector readout mode covering the specific needs for spectroscopic, photometric and calibration exposures. Due to the large number of deployed detectors and to the limited satellite telemetry available to ground, a consistent part of the data processing, conventionally performed off-line, will be accomplished on board, in parallel with the flow of data acquisitions. This has led to the development of a specific on-board, HW/SW, data processing pipeline, and to the design of computationally performing control electronics, suited to cope with the time constraints of the NISP acquisition sequences during the sky survey. In this paper we present the architecture of the NISP on-board processing system, directly interfaced to the SIDECAR ASICs system managing the detector focal plane, and the implementation of the on-board pipe-line allowing all the basic operations of input frame averaging, final frame interpolation and data-volume compression before ground down-link.

  8. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  9. Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation (C3R2): A Critical Foundation for Weak Lensing Cosmology with Euclid and WFIRST (United States)

    Masters, Daniel C.; Stern, Daniel; Cohen, Judy; Capak, Peter


    A primary objective of both WFIRST and Euclid is to provide a 3D map of the distribution of matter across a significant fraction of the universe from the weak lensing shear field. Doing so will require accurate redshifts to the billions of galaxies that comprise the weak lensing samples of these surveys; achieving the required accuracy is a “tall pole” challenge for both missions. Here we present the ongoing Complete Calibration of the Color-Redshift Relation (C3R2) survey, designed specifically to calibrate the empirical galaxy color-redshift relation to Euclid depth. C3R2 is an ambitious Keck spectroscopy program, with a survey design based on a machine learning technique that allows us to optimally select the most important galaxies to sample the full range of galaxy colors. C3R2 is a multi-center program with time from all the primary Keck partners (Caltech, UC, Hawaii, and NASA), with a total of 34.5 Keck nights allocated to this project. Data Release 1, including 1283 high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts, is published as Masters, Stern, Cohen, Capak, et al. (2017), and we are currently completing Data Release 2, which will include >2000 additional high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts (Masters et al., in prep.). We will discuss current results and prospects for the survey going forward.

  10. A tradução de Samuel Putnam de Os Sertões - Rebellion in the Backlands, de Euclides da Cunha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Milton


    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Aufsatz untersucht Samuel Putnams Übersetzung des Romans Os Sertões von Euclides da Cunha (Rebellion in the Backlands unter verschiedenen Gesichtspunkten. Von großer Wichtigkeit ist die Tatsache, daß Os Sertões in Brasilien gewöhnlich als literarisches Werk betrachtet wird, während das Buch auf Englisch mehr als historischer Bericht gilt und vom Verlag, der University of Chicago Press, in der Sparte Literature/History geführt wird. Außerdem fügt Putnam eine große Zahl von Fußnoten zu denen von Euclides da Cunha hinzu.Von Interesse ist auch die Tatsache, daß Putnam, der seine Übersetzung gerade zu der Zeit anfertigte, als die USA in den Zweiten Weltkrieg eintraten, in seinem Vorwort ausführlich darauf eingeht, wie nah Os Sertões den Meinungsgegensätzen steht, die die amerikanische Erfahrung sowohl des Bürgerkrieges als auch des Eintritts in den Zweiten Weltkrieg kennzeichneten.

  11. Differential geometry for physicists and mathematicians moving frames and differential forms : from Euclid past Riemann

    CERN Document Server

    Vargas, José G


    This is a book that the author wishes had been available to him when he was student. It reflects his interest in knowing (like expert mathematicians) the most relevant mathematics for theoretical physics, but in the style of physicists. This means that one is not facing the study of a collection of definitions, remarks, theorems, corollaries, lemmas, etc. but a narrative - almost like a story being told - that does not impede sophistication and deep results. It covers differential geometry far beyond what general relativists perceive they need to know. And it introduces readers to other areas

  12. Euclid's Fifth Postulate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    its long and glorious history. That after two thousand years, it led to so much discussion and new ideas speaks for itself. “It is hard to ..... Braid, MIT Press, 1987. [4] B A Rosenfeld, A history of Non-Euclidean Geometry, Springer Verlag, 1989. [5] R J Trudeau, The Non-Euclidean Revolution, Birkhäuser Books, Springer, 1987.

  13. Euclid Must Go? (United States)

    Cornelius, M. L.


    The content of geometry in new mathematics books and in secondary school mathematics courses is discussed, and the suggestion is made that appropriate doses'' of formal reasoning be included at appropriate levels. (DT)

  14. Euclid and 'The Elements'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Geometry is one branch of Mathematics that abounds in beautiful and striking theorems at a very elementary level. Here, by geometry, we mean the geometry of triangles and circles. Till the. 1960's, pure geometry was taught not only in schools (upto the plus two level) but also at the undergraduate level. Students of the.

  15. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of the European Lightning Detection Network EUCLID in the Alps region for upward negative flashes using direct measurements at the instrumented Säntis Tower (United States)

    Azadifar, Mohammad; Rachidi, Farhad; Rubinstein, Marcos; Paolone, Mario; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Pichler, Hannes; Schulz, Wolfgang; Pavanello, Davide; Romero, Carlos


    In this paper, we present a performance analysis of the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection (EUCLID) lightning detection network using data obtained on lightning currents measured at the Säntis Tower (located in northeastern of Switzerland) from June 2010 to December 2013. In the considered period of analysis, a total number of 269 upward negative flashes were recorded at the Säntis Tower. The performance of the EUCLID lightning detection network is evaluated in terms of detection efficiency, location accuracy, and peak current estimates for upward flashes. Excluding flashes containing only an initial continuous current with no superimposed pulses exceeding 2 kA, the flash detection efficiency for upward flashes is estimated to be 97%. The recorded flashes contained a total of 2795 pulses (including return strokes and International Conference on Communications pulses characterized by risetimes lower than 8 µs and peaks greater than 2 kA). The overall pulse detection efficiency was found to be 73%. For pulses with peak values higher than 5 kA, the pulse detection efficiency was found to be about 83%. Peak current estimates provided by the EUCLID network were found to be significantly larger than their directly measured counterparts. This overestimation might be attributed to the enhancement of the radiated electromagnetic fields associated with the presence of the tower and the mountain. The median of the absolute distance error, defined as the median distance between the Säntis Tower location and the EUCLID's stroke locations, was found to be 186 m, the majority of large location errors being associated with measured current peaks lower than 10 kA. The analysis revealed also that the location accuracy of the EUCLID network improved significantly in 2013 as a result of an upgrade in the location algorithms to take into account propagation effects.

  16. Space and Brazilian thought: The american Russia in the writings of Euclides da Cunha and Vicente Licínio Cardoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Ehlert Maia


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the issue of space in the Brazilian social imagination. My working hypothesis is that the spatial images contained in some of the reflections by "interpreters of Brazil", like the Amazonian writings of Euclides da Cunha and the incipient comparative sociology of Vicente Licínio Cardoso, are not related to an essentialist search for a fixed cultural identity, but to a vision of a national civilizing process that highlights the pragmatism and openness of this experience. I contend that the "land", as outlined by these figures, approaches Brazilian society to other national formations - Russia and America -, thereby shaping a political sociology from the periphery.

  17. Instrumentation et validation thermique du banc de caractérisation des détecteurs infrarouges du spectromètre NISP de la mission spatiale Euclid


    Subirana Fàbrega, Marc


    Après quatre années d’études à l’université « UPC » de Barcelone et une année à l’École Centrale Marseille dans le parcours « Conception des Systèmes Automatisés », j’ai eu l’opportunité de faire ma première expérience en tant qu’ingénieur dans le monde du travail. J’ai été embauché par le laboratoire CPPM de Marseille pour planifier et réaliser les tests thermiques de deux cryostats, qui seront utilisés pour calibrer les détecteurs de l’instrument NISP pour le satellite Euclid. J’ai dû parti...

  18. Assessment of Cigarette Smoking in Epidemiologic Studies


    Weitkunat R; Coggins CRE; Sponsiello-Wang Z; Kallischnigg G; Dempsey R


    The assessment of cumulative exposure based on collecting information on the history of active cigarette smoking has been and is being undertaken in a variety of ways. While a very detailed assessment may be required for studies with a focus on particular aspects of smoking behavior and history, comparability of measurements and results across studies remains a primary concern. Addressing the problem of heterogeneity of exposure assessment across studies can be achieved by a core set of quest...

  19. Assessing observational studies of medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butani Yogita


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design features of observational studies that could have influenced these comparisons. Methods To find at least 4 observational studies that evaluated the same treatment, we reviewed meta-analyses comparing observational studies and randomized controlled trials for the assessment of medical treatments. Details critical for interpretation of these studies were abstracted and analyzed qualitatively. Results Individual articles reviewed included 61 observational studies that assessed 10 treatment comparisons evaluated in two studies comparing randomized controlled trials and observational studies. The majority of studies did not report the following information: details of primary and ancillary treatments, outcome definitions, length of follow-up, inclusion/exclusion criteria, patient characteristics relevant to prognosis or treatment response, or assessment of possible confounding. When information was reported, variations in treatment specifics, outcome definition or confounding were identified as possible causes of differences between observational studies and randomized controlled trials, and of heterogeneity in observational studies. Conclusion Reporting of observational studies of medical treatments was often inadequate to compare study designs or allow other meaningful interpretation of results. All observational studies should report details of treatment, outcome assessment, patient characteristics, and confounding assessment.

  20. Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study. (United States)

    Paul, Sheila A


    Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Music Study Quality Assessment Scale (MUSIQUAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschke, A.C.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Shippton, M.; Hiomonides, I.


    AIMS Quality assessment of studies is essential for the understanding and application of these in systematic reviews and meta analyses, the two “gold standards” of medical sciences. Publications in scientific journals have extensively used assessment scales to address poor methodological quality,

  2. Assessment of Cigarette Smoking in Epidemiologic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitkunat R


    Full Text Available The assessment of cumulative exposure based on collecting information on the history of active cigarette smoking has been and is being undertaken in a variety of ways. While a very detailed assessment may be required for studies with a focus on particular aspects of smoking behavior and history, comparability of measurements and results across studies remains a primary concern. Addressing the problem of heterogeneity of exposure assessment across studies can be achieved by a core set of questions that cover the major dimensions of cigarette smoking, and yet comply with current criteria used for defining smoking history and status. In studies where no very high level of exposure assessment is required or where smoking is not the major subject of investigation, a practical standardized core set of questions appears to be of considerable value, in particularwith regard to making results more comparable across studies.

  3. Assessing the Academic Benefit of Study Abroad (United States)

    Cisneros-Donahue, Teresa; Krentler, Kathleen A.; Reinig, Bruce; Sabol, Karey


    Study abroad is a growing phenomenon in higher education. Although such growth is typically lauded, efforts to measure the impact of international experiences on student learning have been limited. This study assesses the academic benefit of a study abroad program, offered by a U.S. university, with measures of self-reported learning. Study abroad…

  4. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies (United States)

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  5. Euclid’s phaenomena a translation and study of a hellenistic treatise in spherical astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Berggren, J L; Thomas, R S D


    The book contains a translation and study of Euclid's Phaenomena, a work which once formed part of the mathematical training of astronomers from Central Asia to Western Europe. Included is an introduction that sets Euclid's geometry of the celestial sphere, and its application to the astronomy of his day, into its historical context for readers not already familiar with it. So no knowledge of astronomy or advanced mathematics is necessary for an understanding of the work. The book shows mathematical astronomy shortly before the invention of trigonometry, which allowed the calculation of exact results and the subsequent composition of Ptolemy's Almagest. The Phaenomena itself begins with an introduction (possibly not by Euclid) followed by eighteen propositions set out in geometrical style about how arcs of the zodiacal circle move across the sky. The astronomical application is to the small arc of that circle occupied by the Sun, but the Sun is not mentioned. This work and the (roughly) contemporaneous treati...

  6. ["adeste omnes Logicae et Mathematicae Musae". Johannes Broscius's Apology of Aristotle and Euclid (1652) and the issue of anti-Ramism at the Academy of Cracow]. (United States)

    Choptiany, Michał


    This article discusses a largely overlooked aspect of the last work by Johannes Broscius (1585 - 1652), his Apologia pro Aristotele et Euclide contra Petrum Ramum et alios of 1652. While the past researchers focused their attention on the evaluation of Broscius's contribution to mathematics, geometry in particular, they ignored the socio-scientific aspect of his work, that is the way Peter Ramus and his followers have been presented and how did the dark legend of Ramus have been thus revived at the Central-European university in the middle of 17th century. I am showing types of rhetorical arguments employed by Broscius and analyse the way he portrayed Ramus and depicted events related to the reception of Ramism at the Academy of Cracow. The article is followed by an appendix which contains a critical edition of excerpts from the manuscript rough draft of Apologia which has been preserved until nowadays (Jagiellonian Library MS. 3205 I). In the apparatus I identify the references and show how Broscius rewrote and rearranged the original paragraphs of his anti-Ramist work.

  7. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen


    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...

  8. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impacts Assessment has been developed as a critically substantial approach to determine, predict and interpret the ecological impact on the environment, public hygiene and healthy ecosystems. This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important ...

  9. The Environmental Assessment Technique: An Empirical Study. (United States)

    Overall, Jesse U., IV

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of Alexander Astin's Environmental Assessment Technique (EAT) in describing the environmental press at a large public university, California State University at Los Angeles. Results indicate that EAT is a very economical method for broadly describing aspects of a university's…

  10. Variability of study cast assessment among orthodontists. (United States)

    Pair, J W; Luke, L; White, S; Atchinson, K; Englehart, R; Brennan, R


    This study examined the accuracy and reliability with standardized definitions among 30 orthodontists in assessing different aspects of malocclusion from the study casts of 10 patients. Previous studies have indicated a lack of consistency among orthodontists in describing malocclusions. The diagnostic subcategories measured in this study included maxillary and mandibular crowding, overbite, overjet, and a modified molar, premolar, and canine Angle classification. Intraclass correlations indicated that the reliability of all parameters was good (intraclass correlation > 0.80), with overbite being the most reliable (0.98) and maxillary crowding and canine classification somewhat less reliable (0.89 and 0.87, respectively). Among Angle classifications, molar classification was the highest (0.95), followed by premolar (0.92) and canine (0.87). This study also measured the accuracy of the orthodontists' measurements compared with established true values (validity). T tests indicated that mandibular arch crowding and overbite were not statistically different from the true values. Overjet and molar classification were assessed very close to the true values. Although premolar and canine classifications were statistically different from the true values, they were within a one-eighth cusp of the true value (a clinically insignificant difference). The orthodontists consistently overestimated the amount of maxillary arch crowding or spacing. The results suggest that high reliability and reasonable accuracy can be expected for assessing study casts when using standardized definitions for the diagnostic subcategories.

  11. A Study of Career Planning Assessments


    Firkola, Peter


    This paper provides an overview of career planning assessments. Background on key career concepts is first introduced. A number of career planning assessments are then examined. These assessments included reviewing ones personal history, interest inventories, values assessments, personality assessments, and aptitude tests. The importance and limitations of these career assessments is then discussed.

  12. Engine system assessment study using Martian propellants (United States)

    Pelaccio, Dennis; Jacobs, Mark; Scheil, Christine; Collins, John


    A top-level feasibility study was conducted that identified and characterized promising chemical propulsion system designs which use two or more of the following propellant combinations: LOX/H2, LOX/CH4, and LOX/CO. The engine systems examined emphasized the usage of common subsystem/component hardware where possible. In support of this study, numerous mission scenarios were characterized that used various combinations of Earth, lunar, and Mars propellants to establish engine system requirements to assess the promising engine system design concept examined, and to determine overall exploration leverage of such systems compared to state-of-the-art cryogenic (LOX/H2) propulsion systems. Initially in the study, critical propulsion system technologies were assessed. Candidate expander and gas generator cycle LOX/H2/CO, LOX/H2/CH4, and LOX/CO/CH4 engine system designs were parametrically evaluated. From this evaluation baseline, tripropellant Mars Transfer Vehicle (MTV) LOX cooled and bipropellant Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) and Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) engine systems were identified. Representative tankage designs for a MTV were also investigated. Re-evaluation of the missions using the baseline engine design showed that in general the slightly lower performance, smaller, lower weight gas generator cycle-based engines required less overall mission Mars and in situ propellant production (ISPP) infrastructure support compared to the larger, heavier, higher performing expander cycle engine systems.

  13. Single lump breast surface stress assessment study (United States)

    Vairavan, R.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Paitong, P.; Alcain, J. B.; Lai, S. L.; Retnasamy, V.


    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancers diagnosed among women around the world. Simulation approach has been utilized to study, characterize and improvise detection methods for breast cancer. However, minimal simulation work has been done to evaluate the surface stress of the breast with lumps. Thus, in this work, simulation analysis was utilized to evaluate and assess the breast surface stress due to the presence of a lump within the internal structure of the breast. The simulation was conducted using the Elmer software. Simulation results have confirmed that the presence of a lump within the breast causes stress on the skin surface of the breast.

  14. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment (United States)

    Maria, Rizka


    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small–moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  15. A inserção da obra “Euclides da Cunha e o Paraíso Perdido”, de Leandro Tocantins, na imprensa carioca nos anos de 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pacheco

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa a inserção da obra “Euclides da Cunha e o Paraíso Perdido”, de Leandro Tocantins, na imprensa carioca nos anos de 1960. A fundamentação teórica levou em conta, por um lado, os estudos da recepção e da função do autor em nossa contemporaneidade; por outro, os estudos sobre as relações entre literatura e cordialidade na cultura brasileira. Para sustentar essa problematização, foram utilizados textos de Jacques Leenhardt, Roger Chartier, João Cezar de Castro Rocha e Flora Süssekind. A análise operada permitiu observar que a recepção da obra “Euclides da Cunha e o Paraíso Perdido” no meio jornalístico do Rio de Janeiro sofreu influências decisivas da cordialidade que jornalistas e críticos dispensaram ao autor e ao político Leandro Tocantins nos anos de 1960.

  16. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira


    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns

  17. Undergraduate study in psychology: Curriculum and assessment. (United States)

    Norcross, John C; Hailstorks, Robin; Aiken, Leona S; Pfund, Rory A; Stamm, Karen E; Christidis, Peggy


    The undergraduate curriculum in psychology profoundly reflects and shapes the discipline. Yet, reliable information on the undergraduate psychology curriculum has been difficult to acquire due to insufficient research carried out on unrepresentative program samples with disparate methods. In 2014, APA launched the first systematic effort in a decade to gather national data on the psychology major and program outcomes. We surveyed a stratified random sample of department chairs/coordinators of accredited colleges and universities in the United States that offer undergraduate courses and programs in psychology. A total of 439 undergraduate psychology programs (45.2%) completed the survey. This article summarizes, for both associate and baccalaureate programs, the results of the Undergraduate Study in Psychology. Current practices concerning the introductory course, the courses offered, core requirements, the psychology minor, and tracks/concentrations are presented. The frequency of formal program reviews and program-level assessment methods are also addressed. By extending prior research on the undergraduate curriculum, we chronicle longitudinal changes in the psychology major over the past 20 years. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Commentary of al-Nayrizi on Books II-IV of Euclid's Elements of Geometry With a Translation of That Portion of Book I Missing from MS Leiden Or 3991 but Present in the Newly Discovered Qom Manuscript Edited by Rüdiger Arnzen

    CERN Document Server

    Bello, Anthony Lo


    "The Commentary of al-Nayrizi (circa 920) on Euclid's Elements" occupies an important place in the history of mathematics and of philosophy. This work presents an annotated English translation of Books II-IV and of a hitherto lost portion of Book I.

  19. Euclid and his modern rivals

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Lewis


    The author of Alice in Wonderland (and an Oxford professor of mathematics) employs the fanciful format of a play set in Hell to take a hard look at late-19th-century interpretations of Euclidean geometry. Carroll's penetrating observations on geometry are accompanied by ample doses of his famous wit. 1885 edition.

  20. Euclid and Descartes: A Partnership. (United States)

    Wasdovich, Dorothy Hoy


    Presented is a method of reorganizing a high school geometry course to integrate coordinate geometry together with Euclidean geometry at an earlier stage in the course, thus enabling students to prove subsequent theorems from either perspective. Several examples contrasting different proofs from both perspectives are provided. (MDH)

  1. Assessing English proficiency for university study

    CERN Document Server

    Read, J


    This book focuses on strategies and procedures for assessing the academic language ability of students entering an English-medium university, so that those with significant needs can have access to opportunities to enhance their language skills.

  2. A case study by life cycle assessment (United States)

    Li, Shuyun


    This article aims to assess the potential environmental impact of an electrical grinder during its life cycle. The Life Cycle Inventory Analysis was conducted based on the Simplified Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) Drivers that calculated from the Valuation of Social Cost and Simplified Life Cycle Assessment Model (VSSM). The detailed results for LCI can be found under Appendix II. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment was performed based on Eco-indicator 99 method. The analysis results indicated that the major contributor to the environmental impact as it accounts for over 60% overall SLCA output. In which, 60% of the emission resulted from the logistic required for the maintenance activities. This was measured by conducting the hotspot analysis. After performing sensitivity analysis, it is evidenced that changing fuel type results in significant decrease environmental footprint. The environmental benefit can also be seen from the negative output values of the recycling activities. By conducting Life Cycle Assessment analysis, the potential environmental impact of the electrical grinder was investigated.

  3. Formative peer assessment in a CSCL environment: A case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Frans; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Kirschner, Paul A.; Strijbos, Jan Willem


    In this case study our aim was to gain more insight in the possibilities of qualitative formative peer assessment in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. An approach was chosen in which peer assessment was operationalized in assessment assignments and assessment tools that

  4. Preliminary Studies On The Limnological Stock Assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The report documents for the first time, preliminary limnological stock assessment of the Ojirami water supply reservoir, Edo State, Nigeria, with respect to water quality, phyto- and zooplankton communities, primary productivity and potential fish yield. The physical and chemical characteristics and the plankton community of ...

  5. Human Health Risk Assessment: A case study application of principles in dose response assessment (United States)

    This case study application workshop will build on fundamental concepts and techniques in risk assessment presented and archived at previous TRAC meeting workshops. Practical examples from publicly available, peer reviewed risk assessments will be used as teaching aids. Course ...

  6. The Present Absence: Assessment in Social Studies Classrooms (United States)

    Torrez, Cheryl A.; Claunch-Lebsack, Elizabeth Ann


    In this article, first the authors describe the aims of and a definition of social studies education and classroom assessment. Second, the authors provide an overview of issues related to classroom assessment followed by trends in social studies classrooms and assessment. Then the authors address essential systems and best practices related to…

  7. A study of reactor vessel integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyung; Shin, Chang Ho; Seo, Bo Kyun [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The fast neutron fluence at the Reactor Pressure Vessel(RPV) of KNGR designed for 60 years lifetime was calculated by full-scope Monte Carlo simulation for reactor vessel integrity assessment. KNGR core geometry was modeled on a three-dimensional representation of the one-sixteenth of the reactor in-vessel component. Each fuel assemblies were modeled explicitly, and each fuel pins were axially divided into 5 segments. The maximum flux of 4.3 x 10{sup 10} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. sec at the RPV was obtained by tallying neutrons crossing the beltline of inner surface of the RPV.

  8. Jet reliability study Survey and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, G.


    Culham Center for Fusion Energy (CCFE) in UK has been contracted to undertake a second Deuterium-Tritium Experiment (DTE2) using Join European Torus (JET) in 2017, in support of technical developments for the ITER project. In order to manage risks of delay or early project termination CCFE has adopted a risk based inspection (RBI) process to identify the systems which could influence the successful delivery of DTE2 and in turn to identify by a basic risk assessment process those systems or components which require mitigating action in order to minimize risk. In this context, the primary purpose of the RBI is to address issues of reliability and satisfactory functionality in a similar way to that which a power plant operator would take to address its commercial risks in the event of loss of generating capacity. The objective of this presentation is describe the activities developed for Idom to deliver the survey, interviews and risk assessment of different systems of JET with the aim to identify the critical components and system that could affect the operation of JET during the DTE2 experiment. (Author)

  9. A obra de Euclides da Cunha e os debates sobre mestiçagem no Brasil no início do século xx: Os sertões e a medicina- antropologia do Museu Nacional The work of Euclides da Cunha and debates on racial admixture in Brazil in the early 20th century: Os sertões and the field of medicine- anthropology at the Museu Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ventura Santos


    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda certas interfaces entre a obra de Euclides da Cunha, e Os sertões em particular, e a medicina-antropologia no Brasil no início do século XX. Aponta-se que à obra euclidiana podem ser vinculadas duas vertentes médico-antropológicas que construíram explicações divergentes acerca das conseqüências da composição racial brasileira, em especial quanto à viabilidade de uma nação mestiça. Uma primeira, cujo expoente foi Raimundo Nina Rodrigues, esteve alinhada com uma perspectiva mais próxima de um fatalismo racial. Uma outra, representada por Edgard Roquette-Pinto, ligado ao Museu Nacional, argumentava que os mestiços não seriam orgânica ou racialmente inviáveis. No texto é analisada sobretudo a interpretação que a medicina-antropologia do Museu Nacional realizou da obra euclidiana.The article addresses certain interfaces between Euclides da Cunha’s work - particularly Os sertões - and medicine-anthropology in Brazil in the early 20th century. Cunha’s work can be tied in with two lines of thought in the field of medicine-anthropology, each of which constructed its own view of the consequences of Brazil’s racial make-up, especially regarding the viability of a mestizo nation. One of these lines, supported by Raimundo Nina Rodrigues, among others, leaned more towards racial fatalism. The other, represented by Edgard Roquette-Pinto of the Museu Nacional, argued that mestizos were neither organically nor racially inviable. The text is concerned above all with the interpretation of Cunha’s work proposed by those in the field of medicine- anthropology at the Museu Nacional.

  10. Space reactor assessment and validation study (United States)

    Gedeon, Stephen; Morey, Dennis

    The present difficulties experienced by the United States in launching payloads into space has suggested a number of problems which are associated with the handling of hazardous materials in spacecraft. The question has arisen as to the safety of launching highly radioactive material such as plutonium-238, related to the possibility of its dispersion into the atmosphere during a launch vehicle explosion. An alternative is the use of a small nuclear reactor which is not started until it is in space and contains little or no radioactivity at launch. A first order assessment of six small reactor concepts with power levels up to 100 MWe was performed. Both the nuclear feasibility of these concepts to operate at their rated power levels between 7 and 10 years and the capability of these concepts to remain subcritical both before and during launch and also in the case of water immersion during a potential launch failure or abort were investigated.

  11. Assessment Leaders' Perspectives of Institutional Cultures of Assessment: A Delphi Study (United States)

    Fuller, Matthew; Henderson, Susan; Bustamante, Rebecca


    Institutional cultures of assessment are praised as beneficial to student learning. Yet, extant studies have not explored the theoretical foundations and pragmatic approaches to shaping cultures of assessment. The researchers used the Delphi method to explore 10 higher education assessment leaders' attitudes and theoretical perspectives regarding…

  12. Understanding Classroom Assessment in Dilemmatic Spaces: Case Studies of Singaporean Music Teachers' Conceptions of Classroom Assessment (United States)

    Leong, Wei Shin


    With the articulation of new "Holistic and Balanced Assessment" initiatives in Singaporean schools, a new standard of conceptualising and enacting classroom assessment is expected of Singaporean teachers. This paper draws on findings from a study of the diversity of classroom assessment "concourse", representing the variations…

  13. Holistic Assessment and the Study Abroad Experience (United States)

    Doyle, Dennis


    While many educators who work closely with study abroad programs could conjure up a litany of testimonials about the dramatic impact of study abroad, it is often difficult to move beyond vaguely descriptive accounts to reliable data showing how this experience influenced a student's growth in intercultural sensitivity and awareness. King and…

  14. Assessing nursing student intent for PHD study. (United States)

    Squires, Allison; Kovner, Christine; Faridaben, Farida; Chyun, Deborah


    Nursing faculty shortages threaten a country's ability to produce the amount of nurses necessary to sustain the delivery of healthcare services. Programs that "fast track" graduate education options for registered nurses are one solution to the problem. To (1) evaluate admission criteria into PhD programs for direct entry from a bachelor's degree; (2) ascertain bachelors and masters degree nursing students' perspectives on pursuing a BSN to PhD course of study; (3) clarify factors that influence students' decision-making processes behind pursuing a PhD and identify characteristics of those who would be likely recruits for PhD study; 4) to test the survey questions to develop an instrument for future use. A cross-sectional pilot study. A nursing program at a large urban university in the United States of America with an enrollment of over 1400 students. Currently enrolled bachelor's, master's, and doctor of nursing practice students. Students were sampled via a 10-question (including one open-ended question) electronic mail survey that included 1385 eligible subjects. Among the 606 respondents (57% response rate), 63% were between ages 18 and 30 and 87% indicated that full tuition funding with a living stipend would make them more interested in pursuing a PhD. Current program track was a significant predictor of course of study and area of interest (p=.029). Analysis of the 427 respondents to the open-ended question revealed themes around "time" and "money" as the main barriers to study. The desire to gain clinical experience prior to PhD study was the third theme and an unanticipated finding. The questionnaire offered some predictive ability for gauging intent to study for a PhD among bachelor's and graduate degree prepared nurses. The results do offer some suggestions for nursing workforce development to help address faculty shortages. © 2013.

  15. Assessment, Autonomy, and Elementary Social Studies Time (United States)

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard


    Background/context: In an era of accountability and standardization, elementary social studies is consistently losing its curricular foothold to English/language arts, math, and science instruction. Purpose: This article examines the relationship between elementary teachers' perceptions of instructional autonomy, teaching context, state testing…

  16. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen


    . In order to predict the systemic risk of dermally absorbed chemicals and to enable agencies to set safety standards, data is needed on the rates of percutaneous penetration of important chemicals. Standardization of in vitro tests and comparison of their results with the in vivo data could produce...... internationally accepted penetration rates and/or absorption percentages very useful for regulatory toxicology. The work of the Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup of EC Dermal Exposure Network has been focussed on the standardization and validation of in vitro experiments, necessary to obtain internationally...... accepted penetration rates for regulatory purposes. The members of the Subgroup analyzed the guidelines on percutaneous penetration in vitro studies presented by various organizations and suggested a standardization of in vitro models for percutaneous penetration taking into account their individual...

  17. Quality Assessment of Internationalised Studies: Theory and Practice (United States)

    Juknyte-Petreikiene, Inga


    The article reviews forms of higher education internationalisation at an institutional level. The relevance of theoretical background of internationalised study quality assessment is highlighted and definitions of internationalised studies quality are presented. Existing methods of assessment of higher education internationalisation are criticised…

  18. Assessment of physical facilities and users' satisfaction: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of physical facilities and users' satisfaction: a case study. ... This study is an assessment of the new physical facilities and users' satisfaction in University of Jos Main Library. Survey research method was adopted ... Also 368 (44.12%), respondents were very satisfied with the available type of computer systems.

  19. Wound assessment tools and nurses' needs: an evaluation study. (United States)

    Greatrex-White, Sheila; Moxey, Helen


    The purpose of this study was to ascertain how well different wound assessment tools meet the needs of nurses in carrying out general wound assessment and whether current tools are fit for purpose. The methodology employed was evaluation research. In order to conduct the evaluation, a literature review was undertaken to identify the criteria of an optimal wound assessment tool which would meet nurses' needs. Several freely available wound assessment tools were selected based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and an audit tool was developed to evaluate the selected tools based on how well they met the criteria of the optimal wound assessment tool. The results provide a measure of how well the selected wound assessment tools meet the criteria of the optimal wound assessment tool. No tool was identified which fulfilled all the criteria, but two (the Applied Wound Management tool and the National Wound Assessment Form) met the most criteria of the optimal tool and were therefore considered to best meet nurses' needs in wound assessment. The study provides a mechanism for the appraisal of wound assessment tools using a set of optimal criteria which could aid practitioners in their search for the best wound assessment tool. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal published by Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Risk Assessment Stability: A Revalidation Study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment Instrument (United States)

    Schwalbe, Craig S.


    The actuarial method is the gold standard for risk assessment in child welfare, juvenile justice, and criminal justice. It produces risk classifications that are highly predictive and that may be robust to sampling error. This article reports a revalidation study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment instrument, an actuarial instrument for juvenile…

  1. Dropout and Violence Needs Assessment: A Follow-up Study (United States)

    Miltich, Aimee P.; Hunt, Mary Helen; Meyers, Joel


    The current study investigated a needs assessment survey designed to measure perceptions of causes of dropout and school violence and related interventions. The needs assessment was conceptualized as a first step to be taken by schools to facilitate program planning, school-based implementation and acceptability of programs designed to prevent…

  2. Pilot study for assessment of prevalence of intrafamilial hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot study for assessment of prevalence of intrafamilial hepatitis C transmission in relation to salivary viral load among infected patients with and without chronic renal failure. H El Tayeb, NA El Nakeeb, MM Sayed, WA Yousry, SHA Agwa ...

  3. BNSF San Bernardino case study : positive train control risk assessment. (United States)


    The Federal Railroad Administration funded the BNSF San Bernardino Case Study to verify its Generalized Train Movement : Simulator (GTMS) risk assessment capabilities on a planned implementation of the I-ETMS PTC system. The analysis explicitly : sim...

  4. Overview of the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study (United States)

    The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study was conducted over a five-year period from 1994-1998, to characterize determinants of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant perceptions in representative public and commercial office buildings.

  5. P =/=NP Category-Semantics(C-S) TRIVIAL Proof: EUCLID!!! [(So Miscalled) Computational-Complexity(CC) Jargonial-Obfuscation(J-O); (Which???) MillenniumED-ProblemED(M-P): NO CC, CS; Feet of Clay!!! (United States)

    Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig


    P=/=NP M-P proof is by C-S J-O elimination! C-S P=(?)=NP MEANS (Deterministic).(P-C)=(?)=(NON-Deterministic).(P-C)=(NP). C-S P=(?)=NP MEANS (Deterministic).(P-C)=(?)=(Non-Deterministic).(P-C) i.e. D.(P)=(?)= N.(P). For inclusion(equality) vs. EXclusion(INequality), IRrelevant(P) simply cancels! (Equally any other CC IF both sides identical). Crucial question left (D)=(?)=(N-D), i.e. D =(?)= N. Algorithmics: Deterministic (D) serial vs. NON-deterministic (N) NON-serial, branch fork forms a triangle, its vertices a plane. Menger Dimension-Theory: Dimensionality: D serial is one-dimensional, dim(D) = 1 (definition), VS. dim(N= NON-serial) =/= one-dimensional; dim(N) = [2(branching; fork; triangle; plane)+ E(probabilistic)] > 2 [ Sipser [ Intro . Thy . Comp . (1997) - p . 49 ; Fig . 1.15 ! ! ! ] ] . Hence (Euclid [ ~ - 350 BCE ]) simpleformativegeometry , dim (D) = 1 = / = dim (N) = [ 2 (branching) + E (probabilistic) ] > 2 , Left - to - RightINclusionVS . Right - to - LeftEXclusion . HenceP = / = NP ! ! ! QED , i . e . D = / = N , i . e . dim (D) = 1 = / = dim (N) > 2 by first millennium BCE, before CS J-O of CC!!! Harder doable C-S J-O analysis proofs: any combinations of DIS-similar CCs: LHS and D with low CC and/or RHS and N-D=N with high CC!

  6. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: [National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (China); Tsai, Candace S. J. [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science (United States); Pelclova, Daniela [Charles University in Prague, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine (Czech Republic); Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States)


    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  7. A Study to Assess Problems Encountered by Immediate Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the problems experienced by immediate families in caring for children affected with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) seen at University Teaching Hospital (UTH) Lusaka, Zambia. Design: The study was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted at the SCD outpatient clinic ...

  8. Neurocognitive performance profile postparathyroidectomy: a pilot study of computerized assessment. (United States)

    Bell, Caitlin F; Warrick, Mathew M; Gallagher, Kathleen C; Baregamian, Naira


    Neurocognitive symptoms attributable to primary hyperparathyroidism are important diagnostic criteria, yet the basic characterization and assessment of neurocognitive deficits in primary hyperparathyroidism are not defined fully. In this prospective pilot study, patients with unequivocal biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated for neurocognitive performance preoperatively and postparathyroidectomy (2 weeks, 6 months) using a battery of computerized modular tests designed by LUMOSITY. The individual test scores and aggregate scores representing a subject's total neurocognitive performance profile were calculated. Statistical comparisons between groups were performed using univariate analysis and repeated measures of analysis of variance. In the study, 34 participants were assessed preoperatively; 18 completed all 3 assessments, 2 completed pretest and 6-month assessments, and 30 completed preoperative and 2-week postparathyroidectomy assessments. Primary hyperparathyroidism patients demonstrated significant deficits in memory, attention, mental flexibility, and speed of processing when compared with controls. Total neurocognitive performance profile score was significantly lower at the preoperative (P = .0001) and 2-week postparathyroidectomy (P = .0004) time points when compared with controls; this difference was bridged by 6 months postparathyroidectomy. Computerized neurocognitive performance profile assessment validated the neurocognitive benefits of parathyroidectomy. Additional study is needed to determine if this novel method provides long-term, objective, quantifiable, and accessible neurocognitive performance profile assessment in primary hyperparathyroidism patients and can serve as a valuable diagnostic and prognostic tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing dance: A phenomonological study of formative assessment in dance education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninnie Andersson


    Full Text Available This article includes a study that examines how formative assessment in dance education is constituted in three Swedish upper secondary schools. The starting-point for the study is life-world phenomenology.  A phenomenological way of thinking entails that the human being is intersubjective, linked with and within the world and that learning requires the bodily subject´s active experience. To turn towards the things themselves and to be open and adherent to things in the world is a basic rule and the starting point for research within phenomenology. This study is based on empirical material from observations of the phenomenon formative assessment in dance. Spiegelberg´s philosophical method was used as a base for phenomenological analysis. The analysis results in three themes: modes of communication, dance-related knowledge and function of formative assessment. Formative assessment was observed in the study to commonly involve teachers´ verbal communication and visualisation. The assessment practice is a continuous activity and very rarely involves any kind of self-assessment or tests. The results were discussed and related to a life-world phenomenological view of learning and earlier research.

  10. Surveying Assessment in Experiential Learning: A Single Campus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Yates


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the methods of experiential assessment in use at a Canadian university and the extent to which they are used. Exploring experiential assessment will allow identification of commonly used methods and facilitate the development of best practices of assessment in the context of experiential learning (EL at an institutional level. The origins of EL are found in the work of Dewey (1938, later modified by Kolb and Fry (1975. Experiential methods include: experiential education, service learning problem-based learning and others such as action learning, enquiry-based learning, and case studies. Faculty currently involved in EL at the participating university were invited to complete an online survey about their teaching and assessment methods. This paper will share the results and analysis of the EL inventory survey.

  11. Development and Implementation of Health Technology Assessment: A Policy Study


    Abooee, P; Mobinizadeh, M; SH Emami; A Olyaeemanesh; SH Doaee; Nejati, M; GS Zolani


    Background: To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA) in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making. Methods: Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods. Results: Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impet...

  12. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: Assessment Framework (United States)

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John


    The purpose of the International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013 (ICILS 2013) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are developing "computer and information literacy" (CIL) to support their capacity to participate in the digital age. To achieve this aim, the study will assess student…

  13. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model (United States)

    Russell, Brian E.


    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  14. Formative assessment in teacher talk during lesson studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Halem, Nicolette; Goei, Sui Lin; Akkerman, Sanne F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217379788


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent of systematic examination of students’ educational (support) needs by teachers participating in lesson study (LS) meetings within a framework of formative assessment (FA). Design/methodology/approach: The study took place in the context of

  15. Enhancing the Cognitive Complexity in Social Studies Assessments (United States)

    Stobaugh, Rebecca; Tassell, Janet Lynne; Day, Martha M.; Blankenship, Hannah


    Social studies teachers are charged with the task of developing students' understandings as students engage in critical examination of social studies issues and topics. Teachers often use test items from textbooks or instructional resources, or create their own classroom assessments with no specific pedagogical foundation. All too often, these…

  16. Knowledge, attitude and assessment of general study courses by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because these courses are not in the 'core' area of the students study, some tend to see GS courses as unimportant and therefore perform poorly in them. We set out to look at the knowledge, attitudes and assessment of GS courses by students of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus whose courses of study are ...

  17. Teaching and assessing procedural skills: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Touchie, Claire; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Varpio, Lara


    Graduating Internal Medicine residents must possess sufficient skills to perform a variety of medical procedures. Little is known about resident experiences of acquiring procedural skills proficiency, of practicing these techniques, or of being assessed on their proficiency. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively investigate resident 1) experiences of the acquisition of procedural skills and 2) perceptions of procedural skills assessment methods available to them. Focus groups were conducted in the weeks following an assessment of procedural skills incorporated into an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Using fundamental qualitative description, emergent themes were identified and analyzed. Residents perceived procedural skills assessment on the OSCE as a useful formative tool for direct observation and immediate feedback. This positive reaction was regularly expressed in conjunction with a frustration with available assessment systems. Participants reported that proficiency was acquired through resident directed learning with no formal mechanism to ensure acquisition or maintenance of skills. The acquisition and assessment of procedural skills in Internal Medicine programs should move toward a more structured system of teaching, deliberate practice and objective assessment. We propose that directed, self-guided learning might meet these needs.

  18. Assessing Middle and High School Social Studies & English: Differentiating Formative Assessment (United States)

    Waterman, Sheryn Spencer


    For middle and high school teachers of social studies and English, this book is filled with examples of instructional strategies that address students' readiness levels, interests, and learning preferences. It shows teachers how to formatively assess their students by addressing differentiated learning targets. Included are detailed examples of…

  19. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.


    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  20. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making. (United States)

    Rudén, Christina; Adams, Julie; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Brock, Theo Cm; Poulsen, Veronique; Schlekat, Christian E; Wheeler, James R; Henry, Tala R


    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of "expert judgment" by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance

  1. Dietary Assessment in the MetaCardis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verger, Eric O; Armstrong, Patrice; Nielsen, Trine


    assessment method for the MetaCardis study. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to describe the development of three semiquantitative online FFQs used in the MetaCardis study-one FFQ per country-and to assess the relative validity of the French MetaCardis FFQ. DESIGN: The layout and format...... of the French MetaCardis FFQ, a cross-sectional study design was utilized. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The validation study included 324 adults recruited between September 2013 and June 2015 from different hospitals in Paris, France. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food intakes were measured with both the French Meta...... an acceptable level of validity and may be a useful instrument to rank individuals based on their food and nutrient intakes....

  2. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  3. Assessing the Flipped Classroom in Operations Management: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Prashar, Anupama


    The author delved into the results of a flipped classroom pilot conducted for an operations management course module. It assessed students' perception of a flipped learning environment after making them experience it in real time. The classroom environment was construed using a case research approach and students' perceptions were studied using…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. This study was carried out to survey the biotic community of Challawa river water in Kano, Nigeria, using Biological Monitoring Working Party Score (BMWP) and Average Score Per Taxa (ASPT) assessment tools to evaluate the water quality in the field. Using standardized sampling technique insects, insects' ...

  5. Studies on the risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notermans, S.; Dufrenne, J.; Teunis, P.; Chackraborty, T.


    Humans are frequently exposed to Listeria monocytogenes, and high numbers may be ingested during consumption of certain types of food. However, epidemiological investigations show that listeriosis is a rare disease. Risk assessment studies using an animal mouse model indicate that almost all L.

  6. Giving Them What They Want and Assessing Impact: Case Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giving Them What They Want and Assessing Impact: Case Studies of Public Library Services in the Western Cape, South Africa. ... the impact of library services as part of an advocacy strategy and to secure recognition of the validity of claims by public and community libraries for partnership in national development efforts.

  7. Pilot study for assessment of prevalence of intrafamilial hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoda El Tayeb


    Mar 2, 2012 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Pilot study for assessment of prevalence of intrafamilial hepatitis C transmission in relation to salivary viral load among infected patients with and without chronic renal failure. Hoda El Tayeb a. , Noha A. El Nakeeb a. , Moataz M. Sayed a,. *, Wael A. Yousry a. ,. Sara H.A. Agwa b.

  8. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  9. A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study assessing a new tool for occluding parenchymal blood flow during liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. ... Blood loss, operative time, postoperative hepatic function and complications were compared. ... In group C, 2 patients had liver failure, 1 had a gastrointestinal haemorrhage and 1 died.

  10. Assessment techniques and South African community studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews: (i) trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment instruments currently in use and (ii) trauma and PTSD studies in South African children and adolescents. Rates of trauma exposure in South African children and adolescents range from 40% to 100% and rates of PTSD range from 6% to ...

  11. The Active Assessment of Educability: A Case Study. Brief Report. (United States)

    Ulicny, Gary R.; And Others


    The case study examines the implicit uneducability diagnosis for an individual who had not shown progress in over two years of training in eating skills. Following programing by a special training team, the S made variable but substantial progress. Results suggest that negative educability assessment based on performance in standard educational…

  12. Planning Intervention Using Dynamic Assessments: A Case Study (United States)

    Hasson, Natalie; Dodd, Barbara


    Dynamic assessments (DA) of language have been shown to be a useful addition to the battery of tests used to diagnose language impairments in children, and to evaluate their skills. The current article explores the value of the information gained from a DA in planning intervention for a child with language impairment. A single case study was used…

  13. Teaching Languages to Future Health Professionals: A Needs Assessment Study. (United States)

    Lepetit, Daniel; Cichocki, Wladyslaw


    Presents the results of a needs assessment study carried out with university students who were preparing to work as health professionals. Questionnaire data gauged the students' expectations for language courses intended specifically for their areas of specialization. Analysis follows a multidimensional approach and examines profiles of the…

  14. Assessment of Students' Mathematical Competency, a case Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of students mathematical competency in. Dire-Dawa University indicates that the majority of the students have been joining the university with poor mathematical background. Regarding their attitude, many students are not happy to study mathematics and do not believe in the uses of mathematics. On the.

  15. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health


    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  16. An insight into the genotoxicity assessment studies in dipterans. (United States)

    Mishra, Nidhi; Srivastava, Rashmi; Agrawal, Uma Rani; Tewari, Raghav Ram


    The dipterans have been widely utilized in genotoxicity assessment studies. Short life span, easy maintenance, production of large number of offspring in a single generation and the tissues with appropriate cell populations make these flies ideal for studies associated to developmental biology, diseases, genetics, genetic toxicology and stress biology in the group. Moreover, their cosmopolitan presence makes them suitable candidate for ecological bio-monitoring. An attempt has been made in the present review to reveal the significance of dipteran flies for assessing alterations in genetic content through various genotoxicity biomarkers and to summarize the gradual advancement in these studies. Recent studies on genotoxicity assays in dipterans have opened up a broader perspective for DNA repair related mechanistic studies, pre-screening of chemicals and environmental bio-monitoring. Studies in dipterans, other than Drosophila may be helpful in using them as an alternative model system for assessment of genotoxicity, especially at the gene level and further extension of these studies give a future insight to develop new strategies for maintaining environment friendly limits of the toxicants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  18. Air pollution exposure assessment methods utilized in epidemiological studies. (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Wilson, J Gaines; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zeng, Yongnian


    The assessment of personal exposure to air pollution is a critical component of epidemiological studies associating air pollution and health effects. This paper critically reviewed 157 studies over 29 years that utilized one of five categories of exposure methods (proximity, air dispersion, hybrid, human inhalation, and biomarkers). Proximity models were found to be a questionable technique as they assume that closer proximity equates to greater exposure. Inhalation models and biomarker estimates were the most effective in assessing personal exposure, but are often cost prohibitive for large study populations. This review suggests that: (i) factors such as uncertainty, validity, data availability, and transferability related to exposure assessment methods should be considered when selecting a model; and (ii) although an entirely discreet new class of approach is not necessary, significant progress could be made through the development of a 'hybrid' model utilizing the strengths of several existing methods. Future work should systematically evaluate the performance of hybrid models compared to other individual exposure assessment methods utilizing geospatial information technologies (e.g. geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS)) to more robustly refine estimates of ambient exposure and quantify the linkages and differences between outdoor, indoor and personal exposure estimates.

  19. Report of the Study Group on Assessment and Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Crouch, R; Netter, K; Crouch, Richard; Gaizuaskas, Robert; Netter, Klaus


    This is an interim report discussing possible guidelines for the assessment and evaluation of projects developing speech and language systems. It was prepared at the request of the European Commission DG XIII by an ad hoc study group, and is now being made available in the form in which it was submitted to the Commission. However, the report is not an official European Commission document, and does not reflect European Commission policy, official or otherwise. After a discussion of terminology, the report focusses on combining user-centred and technology-centred assessment, and on how meaningful comparisons can be made of a variety of systems performing different tasks for different domains. The report outlines the kind of infra-structure that might be required to support comparative assessment and evaluation of heterogenous projects, and also the results of a questionnaire concerning different approaches to evaluation.

  20. Agricultural soils potentially contaminated: risk assessment procedure case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Beccaloni


    Full Text Available At the moment, the health-environmental risk analysis is used to decision-making targets in the contaminated sites management; this procedure allows to assess the quantitative health risk related to the pollutants presence in environmental compartments, as soil and waters. As regards potentially contaminated agricultural soils, the ingestion of food from vegetable and/or animal source, produced inside the contaminated area, is the most suitable way to assess the health risk. As an official procedure to this assessment is not available, the National Institute for Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS has worked out an operating procedure, organized into several phases, depending on the available specific-site know-how. In this document, agricultural soils potentially contaminated in two sites have been studied; the sites are the following: Brescia Caffaro and Torviscosa.

  1. Subjective global assessment for nutritional assessment of hospitalized patients requiring haemodialysis: A prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Tan, Sheau Kang; Loh, Yet Hua; Choong, Hui Lin; Suhail, Sufi M


    Evidence has validated that the nutritional status of hospitalized patients on haemodialysis could be compromised because of admission-related and hospital-associated morbidities on the background of their kidney disease. However, nutritional status is not assessed and monitored routinely during the hospitalization period. The aim of the present study was to assess the nutritional status of hospitalized patients requiring haemodialysis with the subjective global assessment (SGA) tool during the hospitalization period. This is a prospective cohort study conducted in an acute tertiary general hospital. Patients aged 21-75 years old, admitted for various illnesses and requiring haemodialysis between November 2011 and May 2012 were enrolled into this study. A trained dietician assessed patients' nutritional status with the SGA tool, which included historical data on weight change, dietary intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, functional capacity, comorbidities and physical examination on subcutaneous fat loss, muscle wasting and presence of oedema and/or ascites. Patients were categorized under three groups: SGA-A (well-nourished), SGA-B (moderately malnourished) and SGA-C (severely malnourished). Eighty patients (mean ± SD age = 59 ± 10 years; 76% Chinese ethnicity) were assessed. Mean ± SD body mass index (BMI) was 25.1 ± 6.1 kg/m(2) . SGA categories were 48% SGA-A, 46% SGA-B, and 6% SGA-C. Mean energy and protein intake (P nutritional status. More than half of the hospitalized patients requiring haemodialysis were malnourished. It is important to incorporate SGA in the care of hospitalized haemodialysis patients for early detection of malnutrition and for medical nutrition therapy to optimise patients' nutritional status for better outcomes. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  2. Self-assessment and students’ study strategies in a community of clinical practice: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Al-Kadri


    Full Text Available : Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students’ and supervisors’ self-assessment and feedback training on students’ perceptions and practices of self-assessment. Moreover, it evaluated the effect of self-assessment process on students’ study strategies within a community of clinical practice.: We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study from May 2008 to December 2009. We held 37 semi-structured individual interviews with three different cohorts of undergraduate medical students until we reached data saturation. The cohorts were exposed to different contexts while experiencing their clinical years’ assessment program. In the interviews, students’ perceptions and interpretations of ‘self-assessment practice’ and ‘supervisor-provided feedback’ within different contexts and the resulting study strategies were explored.: The analysis of interview data with the three cohorts of students yielded three major themes: strategic practice of self-assessment, self-assessment and study strategies, and feedback and study strategies. It appears that self-assessment is not appropriate within a summative context, and its implementation requires cultural preparation. Despite education and orientation on the two major components of the self-assessment process, feedback was more effective in enhancing deeper study strategies.: This research suggests that the theoretical advantages linked to the self-assessment process are a result of its feedback component rather than the practice of self-assessment isolated from feedback. Further research exploring the effects of different contextual and personal factors on students’ self-assessment is needed.

  3. Sample size requirement in analytical studies for similarity assessment. (United States)

    Chow, Shein-Chung; Song, Fuyu; Bai, He


    For the assessment of biosimilar products, the FDA recommends a stepwise approach for obtaining the totality-of-the-evidence for assessing biosimilarity between a proposed biosimilar product and its corresponding innovative biologic product. The stepwise approach starts with analytical studies for assessing similarity in critical quality attributes (CQAs), which are relevant to clinical outcomes at various stages of the manufacturing process. For CQAs that are the most relevant to clinical outcomes, the FDA requires an equivalence test be performed for similarity assessment based on an equivalence acceptance criterion (EAC) that is obtained using a single test value of some selected reference lots. In practice, we often have extremely imbalanced numbers of reference and test lots available for the establishment of EAC. In this case, to assist the sponsors, the FDA proposed an idea for determining the number of reference lots and the number of test lots required in order not to have imbalanced sample sizes when establishing EAC for the equivalence test based on extensive simulation studies. Along this line, this article not only provides statistical justification of Dong, Tsong, and Weng's proposal, but also proposes an alternative method for sample size requirement for the Tier 1 equivalence test.

  4. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas. (United States)

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A


    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on safety assessment methodology for a vitrification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C.; Lee, G. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kim, G. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the technical and regulatory status of radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants is investigated and analyzed, and then significant factors are suggested which must be contained in the final technical guideline or standard for the safety assessment of vitrification plants. Also, the methods to estimate the stability of vitrified waste forms are suggested with property analysis of them. The contents and scope of the study are summarized as follows : survey of the status on radioactive waste vitrification technologies in foreign and domestic plants, survey of the characterization methodology for radioactive waste form, analysis of stability for vitrified waste forms, survey and analysis of technical standards and regulations concerned with them in foreign and domestic plants, suggestion of significant factors for the safety assessment of vitrification plants, submission of regulated technical standard on radioactive waste vitrification plats.

  6. The Methods Behind 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Study


    Shah, Gulzar H.


    The 2015 Informatics Needs and Capacity of Local Health Departments (LHDs) survey is the most recent comprehensive source of quantitative data on LHD informatics. Conducted by the National Association of County & City Health Officials (NACCHO), this is the third nationally representative quantitative study of LHD informatics since 2009. The previous 2 comprehensive quantitative assessments were conducted by NACCHO in 2009-2010 and 2011. Given that public health informatics is rapidly evolving...

  7. In Vivo Assessment of Muscle Contractility in Animal Studies


    Iyer, Shama R.; Valencia, Ana P.; Hern?ndez-Ochoa, Erick O.; Richard M Lovering


    In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies. Animal models provide unmitigated access to histological samples, which provide a ?direct measure? of damage. However, even with unconstrained access to tissue morphology and biochemistry assays, the findings typically do not account for loss of muscle function. Thus, the most comprehensive meas...

  8. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Internal Medicine II; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J. [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim (Germany). Dental Imaging; Sailer, L.K. [DOC Praxisklinik im Wiley, Neu-Ulm (Germany). MKG; Ozpeynirci, Y. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology


    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  9. A test-bed modeling study for wave resource assessment (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Neary, V. S.; Wang, T.; Gunawan, B.; Dallman, A.


    Hindcasts from phase-averaged wave models are commonly used to estimate standard statistics used in wave energy resource assessments. However, the research community and wave energy converter industry is lacking a well-documented and consistent modeling approach for conducting these resource assessments at different phases of WEC project development, and at different spatial scales, e.g., from small-scale pilot study to large-scale commercial deployment. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate current wave model codes, as well as limitations and knowledge gaps for predicting sea states, in order to establish best wave modeling practices, and to identify future research needs to improve wave prediction for resource assessment. This paper presents the first phase of an on-going modeling study to address these concerns. The modeling study is being conducted at a test-bed site off the Central Oregon Coast using two of the most widely-used third-generation wave models - WaveWatchIII and SWAN. A nested-grid modeling approach, with domain dimension ranging from global to regional scales, was used to provide wave spectral boundary condition to a local scale model domain, which has a spatial dimension around 60km by 60km and a grid resolution of 250m - 300m. Model results simulated by WaveWatchIII and SWAN in a structured-grid framework are compared to NOAA wave buoy data for the six wave parameters, including omnidirectional wave power, significant wave height, energy period, spectral width, direction of maximum directionally resolved wave power, and directionality coefficient. Model performance and computational efficiency are evaluated, and the best practices for wave resource assessments are discussed, based on a set of standard error statistics and model run times.

  10. Offshore risk assessment principles, modelling and applications of QRA studies

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik


    attempt has been made to capture the new trends in the regulations, to the extent they are known. There have over the last 10-15 years been published a few textbooks on risk assessment, most of them are devoted to relatively generic topics. Some are also focused on the risk management aspects, in general and with offshore applicability. None are known to address the needs and topics of the use of QRA studies by the offshore industry in particular. The present work is trying to bridge this gap. The use of QRA studies is somewhat special in Northern Europe, and par- cularly in Norway. The use of

  11. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: the Seaside, Oregon Pilot Study (United States)

    Gonzalez, F. I.; Geist, E. L.; Synolakis, C.; Titov, V. V.


    A pilot study of Seaside, Oregon is underway, to develop methodologies for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments that can be incorporated into Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) developed by FEMA's National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). Current NFIP guidelines for tsunami hazard assessment rely on the science, technology and methodologies developed in the 1970s; although generally regarded as groundbreaking and state-of-the-art for its time, this approach is now superseded by modern methods that reflect substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades. In particular, post-1990 technical advances include: improvements in tsunami source specification; improved tsunami inundation models; better computational grids by virtue of improved bathymetric and topographic databases; a larger database of long-term paleoseismic and paleotsunami records and short-term, historical earthquake and tsunami records that can be exploited to develop improved probabilistic methodologies; better understanding of earthquake recurrence and probability models. The NOAA-led U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), in partnership with FEMA, USGS, NSF and Emergency Management and Geotechnical agencies of the five Pacific States, incorporates these advances into site-specific tsunami hazard assessments for coastal communities in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington. NTHMP hazard assessment efforts currently focus on developing deterministic, "credible worst-case" scenarios that provide valuable guidance for hazard mitigation and emergency management. The NFIP focus, on the other hand, is on actuarial needs that require probabilistic hazard assessments such as those that characterize 100- and 500-year flooding events. There are clearly overlaps in NFIP and NTHMP objectives. NTHMP worst-case scenario assessments that include an estimated probability of occurrence could benefit the NFIP; NFIP probabilistic assessments of 100- and 500-yr

  12. Questionnaire-based assessment of executive functioning: Case studies. (United States)

    Kronenberger, William G; Castellanos, Irina; Pisoni, David B


    Delays in the development of executive functioning skills are frequently observed in pediatric neuropsychology populations and can have a broad and significant impact on quality of life. As a result, assessment of executive functioning is often relevant for the development of formulations and recommendations in pediatric neuropsychology clinical work. Questionnaire-based measures of executive functioning behaviors in everyday life have unique advantages and complement traditional neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Two case studies of children with spina bifida are presented to illustrate the clinical use of a new questionnaire measure of executive and learning-related functioning, the Learning, Executive, and Attention Functioning Scale (LEAF). The LEAF emphasizes clinical utility in assessment by incorporating four characteristics: brevity in administration, breadth of additional relevant content, efficiency of scoring and interpretation, and ease of availability for use. LEAF results were consistent with another executive functioning checklist in documenting everyday behavior problems related to working memory, planning, and organization while offering additional breadth of assessment of domains such as attention, processing speed, and novel problem-solving. These case study results demonstrate the clinical utility of questionnaire-based measurement of executive functioning in pediatric neuropsychology and provide a new measure for accomplishing this goal.

  13. A quality assessment tool to evaluate tocolytic studies. (United States)

    Lamont, R F


    Over the past 15 years, the use of beta-agonists has declined worldwide. Following the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists guidelines in 2002, clinicians in the UK and beyond were faced with the dilemma of continuing to use beta-agonists, desist from using tocolytic therapy completely or choosing to change to atosiban or calcium channel blockers (CCBs). While grade A level 1 evidence exists to show that atosiban is significantly more efficacious than placebo and significantly safer than beta-agonists for the treatment of spontaneous preterm labour, the evidence for CCBs, such as nifedipine, is much less robust and no placebo-controlled trials have been performed. Published studies on nifedipine are largely investigator-led studies of small sample size, which lack sufficient power. As a result, most of the evidence has been based on meta-analyses of these studies, which look retrospectively at pooled data and are only as good as the quality of the studies included. In light of this, a tool was developed to produce a systematic review of studies on tocolytic effectiveness, which can and should be applied to all tocolytics and which considered both method- and topic-specific markers of quality. In the process of applying this tool to nifedipine, an extensive literature search identified 31 studies for a systematic review of the quality of nifedipine studies assessed by eight paired reviewers with wide experience in the subject of spontaneous preterm labour and preterm birth. Forty topic- and method-specific items of quality were assessed. The paucity of good quality studies of nifedipine used for the treatment of spontaneous preterm labour should be highlighted in meta-analyses or systematic reviews, which measure efficacy and should limit and influence the degree to which recommendations and guidelines are made on the basis of such studies.

  14. In Vivo Assessment of Muscle Contractility in Animal Studies. (United States)

    Iyer, Shama R; Valencia, Ana P; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O; Lovering, Richard M


    In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies. Animal models provide unmitigated access to histological samples, which provide a "direct measure" of damage. However, even with unconstrained access to tissue morphology and biochemistry assays, the findings typically do not account for loss of muscle function. Thus, the most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is assessment of its primary function, which is to produce contractile force. The majority of animal models testing contractile force have been limited to the muscle groups moving the ankle, with advantages and disadvantages depending on the equipment. Here, we describe in vivo methods to measure torque, to produce a reliable muscle injury, and to follow muscle function within the same animal over time. We also describe in vivo methods to measure tension in the leg and thigh muscles.

  15. Market assessment and technical feasibility study of PFBC ash use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.E.; Bland, A.E.; Brown, T.H. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Georgiou, D.N. [Jacques, Whitford and Associates Ltd., Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Wheeldon, J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)


    The overall objectives of this study are to determine the market potential and the technical feasibility of using PFBC ash in high volume ash use applications. The information will be of direct use to the utility industry in assessing the economics of PFBC power generation in light of ash disposal avoidance through ash marketing. In addition, the research is expected to result in the generation of generic data on the use of PFBC ash that could lead to novel processing options and procedures. The specific objectives of the proposed research and demonstration effort are: Define resent and future market potential of PFBC ash for a range of applications (Phase I); assess the technical feasibility of PFBC ash use in construction, civil engineering and agricultural applications (Phase II); and demonstrate the most promising of the market and ash use options in full-scale field demonstrations (Phase III).

  16. Using a CAS Self-Study to Teach Assessment Practice (United States)

    Bourke, Brian


    There are likely as many approaches to teaching assessment as there are people teaching assessment. Graduate courses on assessment can be structured with a singular focus, such as learning outcomes assessment, or along a competencies-based framework. Such frameworks include the Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) Standards developed by College…

  17. Usefulness of translatability assessment: results from a retrospective study. (United States)

    Conway, Katrin; Acquadro, Catherine; Patrick, Donald L


    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the extent to which a retrospectively conducted translatability assessment (TA) could identify the items previously singled out during the validation study as having poor content validity or poor measurement performance. This study was performed with the intent of supporting evidence of the usefulness of TA early in the PRO development process. The Weight module of the Youth Quality-of-Life Instrument (YQOL-W) was used for this appraisal of translatability. Two linguists, blinded to the design and results of content validation and psychometric analyses, conducted a TA on the 32-item version of the YQOL-W taken into cross-sectional validation for item reduction. TA results were categorized into (1) issues relating to target culture (cross-cultural issues) and (2) issues relating to the structure of the original questionnaire (structural issues). Items for possible revision or deletion were identified. We compared the results of the TA with the content validity and psychometric results and decisions to eliminate items after cross-sectional validation. Content validation identified seven of the 32 items to be dropped, and psychometric analyses including the 25 remaining items highlighted an additional four to be eliminated, yielding a final instrument with 21 items. Out of these 11 dropped items, TA had identified nine as problematic (82 %) and the developer was advised to drop five of them (45.4 %). In addition, TA results highlighted the need to change the original formulation of eight items for semantic reasons and identified two instances where alternative wording should be used for translation purposes without any change to the original formulation. Our study showed that translatability assessment confirmed problematic issues in items previously identified as having poor content validity or poor measurement performance. In general, a translatability assessment offers the possibility for the identification of alternative

  18. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  19. Structural Safety Assessment of Existing Multiarch Tunnel: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai


    Full Text Available Structural health assessment is one of the key activities in maintaining the performance of a tunnel during its service life. Due to the development of modern detection technology, comprehensive structural health assessment system is being established for operating tunnels. To evaluate the actual operational state of Shitigou tunnel, overall detection of the liner crack, tunnel seepage, and liner void was conducted by employing the modern detection technology, such as crack width monitoring technology, concrete strength monitoring technology, and electromagnetic wave nondestructive monitoring technology. Through the statistical analysis of the detection results, the distribution characteristic, development law, and damage grade of structural defects were obtained. Tunnel liner cracks are mainly located on the middle wall; serious water leakage is encountered on the side wall, middle wall, and vault; the strength of foundation and liner structure of left tunnel does not meet the design requirement; the liner voids are mostly located at the tunnel entrance section, especially, on the tunnel vault; and the proportion of influence factors of structural defects should be considered. The research results presented for this study can serve as references for effective design and health assessment of existing multiarch tunnel projects.

  20. Alflutop clinical efficacy assessment in osteoarthritis (two-years study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chodyrev


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess alflutop clinical efficacy and safety during long-term course treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Methods. 51 pts with definite knee osteoarthritis of I-III stage according to Kellgren-Lawrence classification were included in an open controlled study. 20 pts received 6 intra-articular injections of alflutop 2 ml with subsequent intramuscular treatment during 3 months. Such courses were repeated 6 months apart for 2 years. 31 pts of control group received nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID only. Pain on visual analog scale, Leken functional score, changes of NSAID treatment and radiological picture were used for assessment of efficacy. Clinical examination was performed before and after every treatment course and 3 months after the last course. Results. Every alflutop treatment course provided significant stepwise decrease of pain with improvement of mobility, reduction of NSAID requirement and absence of osteoarthritis radiological progression. Doctor and pts clinical efficacy and safety assessment coincided. Conclusion. Alflutop is an effective drug for knee osteoarthritis treatment. It has anti-inflammatory and probably chondroprotective activity with good safety.

  1. Assessing outcomes of a study abroad course for nursing students. (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda J; Garcia, Alexandra A


    There is little debate about the importance of preparing nursing graduates to provide culturally sensitive care to an increasingly diverse society. However, it is difficult for nurse educators to fit learning experiences that help students develop cultural competence into already full programs and create mechanisms to evaluate the results. This article describes a study to assess the impact of a study abroad program on developing cultural competence, including cultural awareness, sensitivity, knowledge, and skills. Results from the Cultural Awareness Survey, reflective journals, and interviews illustrate how the study abroad experience influenced the development of components of cultural competence and might influence clinical practice. Results suggest effective teaching strategies to assist students in becoming culturally competent are experiential in nature and include role modeling, reflective activities, and group discussion.

  2. Assessment of Confounding in Studies of Delay and Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Vedsted, Peter; Frydenberg, Morten

    BACKGROUND: Whether longer time to diagnosis (diagnostic delay) in patients with cancer symptoms is directly and independently associated with poor prognosis cannot be determined in randomised controlled trials. Analysis of observational data is therefore necessary. Many previous studies of the i...... of delay and cancer survival and enable us to make a more appropriate and reasonable choice of statistical models when analysing delay and survival data.......BACKGROUND: Whether longer time to diagnosis (diagnostic delay) in patients with cancer symptoms is directly and independently associated with poor prognosis cannot be determined in randomised controlled trials. Analysis of observational data is therefore necessary. Many previous studies...... of the influence of delay on survival have been subject to great uncertainties due to unmeasured confounding and measurement error. Systematic evaluation of confounding is needed. AIM: The purpose of this project is to assess confounding in studies of delay and survival in breast cancer patients. We aim to: 1...

  3. Daily living pain assessment in children with autism: Exploratory study. (United States)

    Dubois, A; Michelon, C; Rattaz, C; Zabalia, M; Baghdadli, A


    This study aims to broaden knowledge about pain expression and assessment in daily life situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The goals are to provide a description of the responses of the GED-DI, the French version of the NCCPC, and to test the internal structure validity of this scale. Thirty five children with ASD were included in this study (mean age=58months; mean developmental age=32months). The French version of the NCCPC was filled in by parents. Descriptive analysis of responses shows that children with ASD express pain through varied and common behaviours, related to different expressive markers (vocal, facial, activity, etc.). Behaviours more specific to the symptomology and disturbances of ASD are also displayed. A four-factor solution (negative emotional reaction, idiosyncratic expression, hyper-vigilance reaction, pain expression) emerges from an exploratory factor analysis that explains 54.4% of the total variance. Correlation coefficients show good psychometric qualities in terms of internal consistency, factorial validity and discriminant validity. This study provides new data about pain expression in daily life situations and shows that the French version of NCCPC adjusted to ASD children is relevant to assess pain in daily life situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study addiction - a new area of psychological study: conceptualization, assessment, and preliminary empirical findings


    Atroszko, PA; Andreassen, CS; Griffiths, M.; Pallesen, S


    Aims: Recent research has suggested that for some individuals, educational studying may become compulsive and excessive and lead to ‘study addiction’. The present study conceptualized and assessed study addiction within the framework of workaholism, defining it as compulsive over-involvement in studying that interferes with functioning in other domains and that is detrimental for individuals and/or their environment. Methods: The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS) was tested - reflecting se...

  5. Comparative assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy: a cephalometric study. (United States)

    Aparna, P; Kumar, Dilip N; Prasad, Mandav; Shamnur, Naveen; G, Arun Kumar; K R, Sridhar; B R, Gopal Krishna; Gupta, Neeraj


    Evaluating the sagittal apical base relationship during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an important step. This study was aimed at comparison of Beta angle, ANB angle and Wit's appraisal for assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy. Eighty six young adults (43 female and 43 male) were selected from the patient's reporting to Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India. Family lineage was studied to know the nativity of Davangere. The standardized pre-treatment lateral cephalogram of the chosen sample was traced. The sample was divided into three skeletal pattern groups: Class I, Class II and Class III, based on the ANB angle and profile, Beta angle was assessed in each group. The data was subjected to statistical analysis student's t-test, ANOVA test and correlation and regression analysis, using the software namely SPSS Software version 13. Microsoft word and Excel were used to generate graphs and tables. In the local Davangere population, Class I skeletal pattern group exhibited Beta angle between 26°-34°, Beta angle less than 27° was found in Class II skeletal pattern, and Beta angle greater than 32° was seen Class III skeletal pattern. The coefficient of variation of Beta angle in all the three groups was significantly homogenous compared to ANB angle and Wits appraisal. The correlation and regression analysis of the total sample indicated a highly significant correlation between Beta angle and ANB angle (pskeletal patterns. The Correlation and regression analysis for the total sample suggests a highly significant relation between Beta angle and ANB angle and, between Beta angle and Wits appraisal. It can be more reliably used to assess sagittal jaw discrepancies than ANB angle and Wits appraisal.

  6. Life cycle assessment study of a Chinese desktop personal computer. (United States)

    Duan, Huabo; Eugster, Martin; Hischier, Roland; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Li, Jinhui


    Associated with the tremendous prosperity in world electronic information and telecommunication industry, there continues to be an increasing awareness of the environmental impacts related to the accelerating mass production, electricity use, and waste management of electronic and electric products (e-products). China's importance as both a consumer and supplier of e-products has grown at an unprecedented pace in recent decade. Hence, this paper aims to describe the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance of Chinese e-products from a global level. A desktop personal computer system has been selected to carry out a detailed and modular LCA which follows the ISO 14040 series. The LCA is constructed by SimaPro software version 7.0 and expressed with the Eco-indicator'99 life cycle impact assessment method. For a sensitivity analysis of the overall LCA results, the so-called CML method is used in order to estimate the influence of the choice of the assessment method on the result. Life cycle inventory information is complied by ecoinvent 1.3 databases, combined with literature and field investigations on the present Chinese situation. The established LCA study shows that that the manufacturing and the use of such devices are of the highest environmental importance. In the manufacturing of such devices, the integrated circuits (ICs) and the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) are those parts contributing most to the impact. As no other aspects are taken into account during the use phase, the impact is due to the way how the electricity is produced. The final process steps--i.e. the end of life phase--lead to a clear environmental benefit if a formal and modern, up-to-date technical system is assumed, like here in this study.

  7. Digital image analysis versus clinical assessment of wound epithelialization: A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.C.T.; Boekema, B.K.H.L.; Vlig, M.; van Zuijlen, P.P.M.; Middelkoop, E.


    To evaluate the progress in wound healing, wound assessment is mandatory. Epithelialization is traditionally assessed subjectively by the clinician. In a previous study, subjective assessment of epithelialization was shown to be reliable. In this study, reliability of epithelialization measured by

  8. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J


    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  9. "Assessment of different bioequivalent metrics in Rifampin bioequivalence study "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Rouini MR


    Full Text Available The use of secondary metrics has become special interest in bioequivalency studies. The applicability of partial area method, truncated AUC and Cmax/AUC has been argued by many authors. This study aims to evaluate the possible superiority of these metrics to primary metrics (i.e. AUCinf, Cmax and Tmax. The suitability of truncated AUC for assessment of absorption extent as well as Cmax/AUC and partial AUC for the evaluation of absorption rate in bioequivalency determination was investigated following administration of same product as test and reference to 7 healthy volunteers. Among the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained, Cmax/AUCinf was a better indicator or absorption rate and the AUCinf was more sensitive than truncated AUC in evaluation of absorption extent.

  10. Fuel assembly assessment from CVD image analysis: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, C.S.; Lindblad, T. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Physics


    The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate commissioned a feasibility study of automatic assessment of fuel assemblies from images obtained with the digital Cerenkov viewing device currently in development. The goal is to assist the IAEA inspectors in evaluating the fuel since they typically have only a few seconds to inspect an assembly. We report results here in two main areas: Investigation of basic image processing and recognition techniques needed to enhance the images and find the assembly in the image; Study of the properties of the distributions of light from the assemblies to determine whether they provide unique signatures for different burn-up and cooling times for real fuel or indicate presence of non-fuel. 8 refs, 27 figs.

  11. Integrated Watershed Assessment: The Northern River Basins Study (United States)

    Wrona, F. J.; Gummer, W. D.


    Begun in 1991 and completed in 1996, the Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) was a \\$12 M initiative established by the governments of Canada, Alberta, and the Northwest Territories to assess the cumulative impacts of development, particularly pulp mill related effluent discharges, on the health of the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. The NRBS was launched in response to concerns expressed by northern residents following the 1991 approval of the Alberta Pacific Pulp Mill in Athabasca. Although initiated by governments, the NRBS was set-up to be `arms-length' and was managed by a 25 member Study Board that represented the many interests in the basins, including industry, environmental groups, aboriginal peoples, health, agriculture, education, municipalities, and the federal, territorial and provincial governments. Overseen by an independent Science Advisory Committee, an integrated research program was designed covering eight scientific components: fate and distribution of contaminants, food chain impacts, nutrients, hydrology/hydraulics and sediment transport, uses of the water resources, drinking water quality, traditional knowledge, and synthesis/modeling. Using a 'weight of evidence' approach with a range of ecological and sociological indicators, cumulative impacts from pulp and paper-related discharges and other point and non-point sources of pollution were determined in relation to the health and contaminant levels of aquatic biota, nutrient and dissolved oxygen-related stress, hydrology and climate related changes, and human health and use of the river basins. Based on this assessment and Study Board deliberations, site-specific and basin-wide scientific and management-related recommendations were made to Ministers regarding regulatory and policy changes, basin management and monitoring options, and future research. The Study reinforces the importance of conducting ecosystem-based , interdisciplinary science and the need for public involvement in

  12. Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehan Elassal; Mona Elsheikh; Abdel Gawad Abu Zeid


    .... Subjects and methods: 80 COPD patients were assessed using SCID for establishing psychiatric diagnosis, Beck depression inventory for assessment of the severity of depressive symptoms, Hamilton anxiety scale...

  13. Liquid flyback booster pre-phase: A study assessment (United States)

    Peterson, W.; Ankney, W.; Bell, J.; Berning, M.; Bryant, L.; Bufkin, A.; Cain, L.; Caram, J.; Cockrell, B.; Curry, D.


    The concept of a flyback booster has been around since early in the shuttle program. The original two-stage shuttle concepts used a manned flyback booster. These boosters were eliminated from the program for funding and size reasons. The current shuttle uses two Redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's), which are recovered and refurbished after each flight; this is one of the major cost factors of the program. Replacement options have been studied over the past ten years. The conclusion reached by the most recent study is that the liquid flyback booster (LFBB) is the only competitive option from a life-cycle cost perspective. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and practicality of LFBB's. The study provides an expansion of the recommendations made during the aforementioned study. The primary benefits are the potential for enhanced reusability and a reduction of recurring costs. The potential savings in vehicle turnaround could offset the up-front costs. Development of LFBB's requires a commitment to the shuttle program for 20 to 30 years. LFBB's also offer enhanced safety and abort capabilities. Currently, any failure of an RSRM can be considered catastrophic, since there are no intact abort capabilities during the burn of the RSRM's. The performance goal of the LFBB's was to lift a fully loaded orbiter under optimal conditions, so as not to be the limiting factor of the performance capability of the shuttle. In addition, a final benefit is the availability of growth paths for applications other than shuttle.

  14. Assessing stapes piston position using computed tomography: a cadaveric study. (United States)

    Hahn, Yoav; Diaz, Rodney; Hartman, Jonathan; Bobinski, Matthew; Brodie, Hilary


    Temporal bone computed tomographic (CT) scanning in the postoperative stapedotomy patient is inaccurate in assessing stapes piston position within the vestibule. Poststapedotomy patients that have persistent vertigo may undergo CT scanning to assess the position of the stapes piston within the vestibule to rule out overly deep insertion. Vertigo is a recognized complication of the deep piston, and CT evaluation is often recommended. The accuracy of CT scan in this setting is unestablished. Stapedotomy was performed on 12 cadaver ears, and stainless steel McGee pistons were placed. The cadaver heads were then scanned using a fine-cut temporal bone protocol. Temporal bone dissection was performed with microscopic measurement of the piston depth in the vestibule. These values were compared with depth of intravestibular penetration measured on CT scan by 4 independent measurements. The intravestibular penetration as assessed by computed tomography was consistently greater than the value found on cadaveric anatomic dissection. The radiographic bias was greater when piston location within the vestibule was shallower. The axial CT scan measurement was 0.53 mm greater, on average, than the anatomic measurement. On average, the coronal CT measurement was 0.68 mm greater than the anatomic measurement. The degree of overestimation of penetration, however, was highly inconsistent. Standard temporal bone CT scan is neither an accurate nor precise examination of stapes piston depth within the vestibule. We found that CT measurement consistently overstated intravestibular piston depth. Computed tomography is not a useful study in the evaluation of piston depth for poststapedectomy vertigo and is of limited value in this setting.

  15. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas


    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  16. Facial nerve action potentials: a study to assess waveform reliability. (United States)

    Axon, P R; Ramsden, R T


    To assess the reliability of the orthodromic facial nerve action potential (FNAP), recorded from the intratemporal portion of the facial nerve on stimulation within the cerebellopontine angle. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Ten consecutive patients undergoing translabyrinthine resection of vestibular schwannoma. Diagnostic. Ten consecutive FNAPs were recorded on stimulation of the facial nerve within the cerebellopontine angle. The FNAP recording probe was placed directly on the nerve surface after the fallopian canal was opened at the second genu. Ten consecutive compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were recorded simultaneously from surface electrodes overlying the facial musculature, by use of a standardized electrode placement technique. The stimulating and recording equipment were removed (excluding CMAP surface electrodes) and reapplied, and FNAP and CMAP data were recorded for a second time (test/retest). Peak-to-peak amplitudes of all waveforms were calculated. The average FNAP peak-to-peak amplitude for all patients was larger than the CMAP peak-to-peak amplitude (2.60 mV and 1.07 mV, respectively). Random effects analysis of variance was performed to assess the individual components of variation. This showed that CMAP was less variable than FNAP for replicate error (10 consecutive FNAPs and CMAPs) and test/retest error. However, subject variance was less for FNAP, where subject variance was by far the largest contributor to overall variation. The reliability coefficient for FNAP was 0.995 and for the CMAP was 0.982, where absolute reliability is 1.0. These data confirm that the FNAP, recorded by the technique described here, is a reliable waveform when compared with the CMAP and is a valid method for assessing facial nerve function.

  17. Development and implementation of health technology assessment: a policy study. (United States)

    Doaee, Sh; Olyaeemanesh, A; Emami, Sh; Mobinizadeh, M; Abooee, P; Nejati, M; Zolani, Gs


    To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA) in Iran since 2007, and to facilitate further development of HTA and its integration into policy making. Data of this study were collected through key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and analyzed by experts of opinion in form of qualitative methods. Health technology assessment entered to the political agenda in Iran only in 2007 with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement with the bellow objectives: Institutionalization of evidence-based decision making in Ministry of Health, Creating an localization for structural HTA in Health system of Iran, Setting up training courses in order to educate capable manpower to full up the capacity of the universities, Establishment of a new field in HTA subject in medical universities for MSc and PhD degree, International communication about HTA through national website and possible participation in international Congress. HTA has been established in the healthcare system of Iran but what is needed is a clear political will to push forward the objectives of HTA in Iran. Similar to other countries, advance the regulation on the adoption of new health technologies to improve not only technical or allocate efficiency, but also health equity.

  18. Pain assessment in animal models: do we need further studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigliuto C


    Full Text Available Carmelo Gigliuto,1 Manuela De Gregori,2 Valentina Malafoglia,3 William Raffaeli,3 Christian Compagnone,4 Livia Visai,5,6 Paola Petrini,7 Maria Antonietta Avanzini,9 Carolina Muscoli,8 Jacopo Viganò,11 Francesco Calabrese,11 Tommaso Dominioni,11 Massimo Allegri,2,10 Lorenzo Cobianchi111Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, University of Pavia, Pavia, 2Pain Therapy Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, 3ISAL Foundation, Institute for Research on Pain, Torre Pedrera, Rimini, 4Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Parma, University of Parma, Parma, 5Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Tissue Engineering (CIT, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Pavia, 6Department of Occupational Medicine, Ergonomy and Disability, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Veruno, 7Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica 'G Natta' and Unità di Ricerca Consorzio INSTM, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, 8Department of Health Science, University Magna Grecia of Catanzaro and Centro del Farmaco, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Roma, 9Laboratory of Transplant Immunology/Cell Factory, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico "San Matteo", Pavia, 10Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, 11University of Pavia, Department of Surgical, Clinical, Paediatric and Diagnostic Science, General Surgery 1, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, ItalyAbstract: In the last two decades, animal models have become important tools in understanding and treating pain, and in predicting analgesic efficacy. Although rodent models retain a dominant role in the study of pain mechanisms, large animal models may predict human biology and pharmacology in certain pain conditions more accurately. Taking into consideration the anatomical and physiological characteristics common to man and pigs (median body size, digestive apparatus

  19. Assessment of global phase uncertainty in case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Houwelingen Hans C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In haplotype-based candidate gene studies a problem is that the genotype data are unphased, which results in haplotype ambiguity. The measure 1 quantifies haplotype predictability from genotype data. It is computed for each individual haplotype, and for a measure of global relative efficiency a minimum value is suggested. Alternatively, we developed methods directly based on the information content of haplotype frequency estimates to obtain global relative efficiency measures: and based on A- and D-optimality, respectively. All three methods are designed for single populations; they can be applied in cases only, controls only or the whole data. Therefore they are not necessarily optimal for haplotype testing in case-control studies. Results A new global relative efficiency measure was derived to maximize power of a simple test statistic that compares haplotype frequencies in cases and controls. Application to real data showed that our proposed method gave a clear and summarizing measure for the case-control study conducted. Additionally this measure might be used for selection of individuals, who have the highest potential for improving power by resolving phase ambiguity. Conclusion Instead of using relative efficiency measure for cases only, controls only or their combined data, we link uncertainty measure to case-control studies directly. Hence, our global efficiency measure might be useful to assess whether data are informative or have enough power for estimation of a specific haplotype risk.

  20. An Assessment of Air Pollution Exposure Information for Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Lipfert


    Full Text Available Most studies of air pollution health effects are based on outdoor ambient exposures, mainly because of the availability of population-based data and the need to support emission control programs. However, there is also a large body of literature on indoor air quality that is more relevant to personal exposures. This assessment attempts to merge these two aspects of pollution-related health effects, emphasizing fine particles. However, the basic concepts are applicable to any pollutant. The objectives are to examine sensitivities of epidemiological studies to the inclusion of personal exposure information and to assess the resulting data requirements. Indoor air pollution results from penetration of polluted outdoor air and from various indoor sources, among which environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is probably the most toxic and pervasive. Adequate data exist on infiltration of outdoor air but less so for indoor sources and effects, all of which have been based on surveys of small samples of individual buildings. Since epidemiology is based on populations, these data must be aggregated using probabilistic methods. Estimates of spatial variation and precision of ambient air quality are also needed. Hypothetical personal exposures in this paper are based on ranges in outdoor air quality, variable infiltration rates, and ranges of indoor source strength. These uncertainties are examined with respect to two types of mortality studies: time series analysis of daily deaths in a given location, and cross-sectional analysis of annual mortality rates among locations. Regressions of simulated mortality on personal exposures, as affected by all of these uncertainties, are used to examine effects on dose-response functions using quasi-Monte Carlo methods. The working hypothesis is that indoor sources are reasonably steady over time and thus applicable only to long-term cross-sectional studies. Uncertainties in exposure attenuate the simulated mortality

  1. How university teachers design assessments: a cross disciplinary study


    Bearman, Margaret; Dawson, Phillip; Bennett, Sue; Hall, Matt; Molloy, Elizabeth; Boud, David; Joughin, Gordon


    There are dissonances between educators’ aspirations for assessment design and actual assessment implementation in higher education. Understanding how assessment is designed ‘on the ground’ can assist in resolving this tension. Thirty-three Australian university educators from a mix of disciplines and institutions were interviewed. A thematic analysis of the transcripts indicated that assessment design begins as a response to an impetus for change. The design process itself was shaped by envi...

  2. Assessment of Shopping Malls Accessibility: Case Study of Krakow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, A.; Puławska, S.


    The main aim of presented study was to analyze and to assess accessibility of shopping malls as traffic generators in the city of Krakow (Poland) as well as to compare calculated results in the perspective of the whole amount of shopping centers. The scope of research work includes the calculation of two kinds of accessibility measures: distance measures based on the straight line (Euclidean distance) and real distances and potential accessibility measures also based on the same distances and, additionally, weighted by characteristics of shopping malls and transport districts. The data from the OpenStreetMap project was used to get information concerning transport network and two kinds of above-mentioned distances. At the end of article a possible usage of obtained results and the further development of topic are described. (Author)

  3. User Systems Architectures - Two studies in design and assessment. (United States)

    Tainsh, Michael


    The concept of User System Architectures (USA) is introduced as part of the overall systems architecture. A USA is defined as a set of ergonomics information and knowledge assembled to represent system structure and content. It is described in the context of the system development lifecycle. The characteristics associated with a USA are outlined. These include layers of description, viewpoints, coherency and traceability. The concept of coherency between layers and the techniques for tracing the design characteristics back to the requirements (i.e. traceability) are discussed with their implications for ergonomics. Two studies (one design and one assessment) are used to demonstrate the use of USA techniques. The benefits, shortfalls and costs of using the USA technique are outlined for each case, and in a more general range of applications. The validity and reliability of the representations are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarchuk M. A.


    Full Text Available Competitive wage policy is considered as the main tool for solving the problem of attracting, retaining and promoting qualified personnel, which is relevant for domestic organizations. The article defines the main stages and purposes of evaluation of the competitiveness of the wage policy. The authors studied the use of an estimation of the wage policy competitiveness by the Russian organizations and identified practical need for and methods of assessing the competitiveness of the wage policy. Objective and subjective factors influencing the direction of the wage policy are identified, as well as the trends in wages under the influence of the crisis conditions. The main indicators of mobility and personnel turnover, the average wage in the Irkutsk region are considered. The description of the external conditions of functioning of the organizations in the Irkutsk region is presented.

  5. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira Almeida


    Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  6. Incorporating Formative Assessment in Iranian EFL Writing: A Case Study (United States)

    Naghdipour, Bakhtiar


    Undergraduate students' experience of assessment in universities is usually of summative assessment which provides only limited information to help students improve their performance. By contrast, formative assessment is informative and forward-looking, possessing the leverage to inform students of their day-to-day progress and inform teachers of…

  7. How University Teachers Design Assessments: A Cross-Disciplinary Study (United States)

    Bearman, Margaret; Dawson, Phillip; Bennett, Sue; Hall, Matt; Molloy, Elizabeth; Boud, David; Joughin, Gordon


    There are dissonances between educators' aspirations for assessment design and actual assessment implementation in higher education. Understanding how assessment is designed "on the ground" can assist in resolving this tension. Thirty-three Australian university educators from a mix of disciplines and institutions were interviewed. A…

  8. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery


    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary

  9. [Assessment of Urinary Incontinence in Pregnancy and Postpartum: Observational Study]. (United States)

    Rocha, Juliana; Brandão, Pedro; Melo, Anabela; Torres, Silvia; Mota, Lurdes; Costa, Fernanda


    The urinary incontinence can affect up to 50% of women at some stage of their lives, particularly during pregnancy and postpartum. This study was designed in order to identify and assess the prevalence and risk factors for urinary incontinence during the third trimester of pregnancy and three months postpartum. Observational and cross-sectional study. The population of the study was composed of 268 women who delivered and were admitted to the Centro Hospitalar Tâmega e Sousa in the years 2013 and 2014, and who agreed to participate in this study. Postpartum women were asked to fill out a questionnaire adapted from the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form, for urinary incontinence research in the third trimester of pregnancy. Three months after delivery, they were contacted by telephone and asked to answer the same questions about the urinary incontinence postpartum. Of the 268 women interviewed, 31 were excluded from the study, taking into account the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total (n = 237), 51.89% of women included in the study, reported the occurrence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy. The prevalence of urinary incontinence in pregnancy by parity (primiparous versus multiparous) was statistically significant (p = 0.006). At postpartum (n = 237), 28.69% of women with urinary incontinence had vaginal delivery and 5.91% of women underwent cesarean delivery (p = 0.001). In these group of women with postpartum urinary incontinence (n = 82), 31.69% have had urinary incontinence only in the postpartum and 68.31% of women have had symptoms during pregnancy (p incontinence in pregnancy and the respective decrease in postpartum. Multiparity and occurrence of urinary incontinence in pregnancy appear as potential risk factors in the emergence of the urinary incontinence.

  10. Assessing fluvial flood risk in urban environments: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Elisa


    Full Text Available Nowadays, floods are among the most impactful calamities regarding costs. Looking at the natural hazards damage data collected in the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT, it is observable a significant increase over the past four decades of both frequency of floods and associated costs. Similarly, dramatic trends are also found by analyzing other types of flood losses, such as the number of people affected by floods, homeless, injured or killed.To deal with the aforementioned rise of flood risk, more and more efforts are being made to promote integrated flood risk management, for example, the Flood Directive 2007/60/EC. The main goals of this research are the estimation of flood damages using the KULTURisk methodology and the comparing of the projected costs with the observed one. The case study is the 2002 flood in Eilenburg. According to KULTURisk methodology, two major classes of data are considered to evaluate flood risk damage: hydraulic data as regards Hazard and economic information to assess Exposure and Vulnerability This study shows the possibility to extend the lesson learned with the Eilenburg case study in other similar contexts.

  11. Assessing organisational governance maturity: A retail industry case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Marius Wessels


    Full Text Available For any business to operate effectively, a governance framework that operates at the relevant maturity level is required. An organisational governance maturity framework is a tool that leadership can use to determine governance maturity. This study aims to determine whether the organisational governance maturity framework (developed by Wilkinson can be applied to the selected retail industry organisation to assess the maturity of the organisation’s governance, limited to the ‘leadership’ attribute. Firstly, a high-level literature review on ethical leadership, ethical decision-making, ethical foundation and culture (‘tone at the top’, and organisational governance and maturity was conducted. Secondly, a Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE listed South African-based company was selected for the empirical part of the study using a single case study research design. The empirical results confirmed that the organisational governance maturity framework can be used to determine the maturity level of organisational governance for the selected attribute of ‘leadership’


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar C


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Arterial hypertension and blood pressure level are associated with cognitive impairment. Susceptible people, especially cerebral ischaemia are having more severe cognitive impairment. Elevated blood pressure for long term contributes to cognitive impairment in later life. The aim of this study is to determine the cognitive dysfunctions in essential hypertensives. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted among 300 subjects who were diagnosed as essential hypertensives were chosen by simple random sampling from the inpatient and outpatient facility of Department of Medicine, Father Muller’s Medical College. The socio-demographic data of hypertensives was collected on a semi-structured proforma. Patients were assessed for cognitive dysfunctions using the Standardised Mini Mental Status Examination (SMMSE and Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS. Data was analysed using SPSS 18 software. RESULTS Mean age group of patients was 51.67 years, majority of the patients were males and were urban domicile. Majority of patients had primary level of education. Majority of patients had positive relation between cognitive deficiency and their hypertensive status was measured using Standardised Mini Mental Status Examination (SMMSE and Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS. CONCLUSION The study showed that there are significant cognitive deficits in hypertensives. SMMSE (Standardised Mini Mental Status Examination and BCRS (Brief Cognitive Rating Scales were used to measure Cognitive deficits, which were very closely related to hypertension.

  13. Rescuing Data from International Scientific Assessments: A Case Study (United States)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.; Xing, X.


    International scientific assessments such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments represent significant efforts by the global scientific community to review, synthesize, and communicate diverse scientific knowledge, data, and information to support societal decision making on pressing problems such as resource management and climate change. To support the transparency, integrity, and usability of these assessments, it is vital that the underlying data used in these assessments be made openly available and usable by diverse stakeholders. Unfortunately, due to the many geographically dispersed contributors to assessments of this kind, as well as the severe time pressures and limited resources when assessments are conducted, appropriate management and preservation of these data are not always a priority. This can lead to the need to "rescue" key data to ensure their long-term preservation, integrity, accessibility, and appropriate reuse, especially in subsequent assessments. We describe here efforts over two decades to rescue selected data from the MA and IPCC assessments, to work with assessment authors and other contributors to validate and document assessment data, and to develop appropriate levels of data stewardship in light of potential user needs and constrained resources. The IPCC efforts are supported by the IPCC Data Distribution Center (DDC), which is operated collaboratively by the Center for Environmental Data Analysis in the United Kingdom, the World Data Center-Climate in Germany, and the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) in the U.S. With the sixth IPCC assessment cycle now starting, a key challenge is to help the assessment community improve data management during the assessment process to reduce the risks of data loss, inadequate documentation, incomplete provenance, unnecessary data restrictions, and other problems.

  14. An Assessment of Restructured Social Studies Program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Tarman


    Full Text Available Turkish education system has been developed taking into consideration a different perspective by setting a constructivist approach from the traditional concept of education since the 2005-2006 academic year. The restructured program has been implemented for 5 years. Research shows that many problems encountered during the implementation of the program. The encountered problems have been identified through a nationwide research study carried by EARGED in 2006 along with some other local level research studies. The purpose of this research is to determine how many of the problems, identified by EARGED’s study done in 2006, have been solved or addressed while how many of them have been still remaining. The data is collected from participants who are 6, 7 and 8th grade students who had taken social studies courses and their teachers in 16 public elementary schools located in Konya, Turkey. The collected data through this research study is compared with the findings of the EARGED’s research and a general assessment is made. asemi-structured interview schedule and a questionnaire were used to collect data from teachers and students. In qualitative analysis of the data literature which is related is scanned and descriptive analysis was conducted. Findings of this research reveals that teachers' training needs are observed mostly in areas such as “measurement and evaluation”,“knowledge about special education”, “use of information technologies” and “activity preparation” etc. and these problems still continue. At the same time the students’ problems are observed with “access to research resources”, “participation in activities or active involvement,” “teacher-student relations” and problems in such areas are still continuing

  15. Family context assessment in a public health study. (United States)

    Velasco, David; Sánchez de Miguel, Manuel; Egurza, Maitane; Arranz, Enrique; Aranbarri, Aritz; Fano, Eduardo; Ibarluzea, Jesús


    To analyze the factorial structure of a new instrument to assess the quality of the family context (Etxadi-Gangoiti Scale) in a sample from the Gipuzkoa cohort of the Environment and Childhood (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA]) study. Families in a sample of 433 two-year-old children were assessed in a home visit with subsequent analysis of the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the data. An exploratory factorial analysis (principal axis factoring and varimax rotation) and a confirmatory factorial analysis were carried out; partial confirmation of the original factorial structure of the instrument was obtained, which revealed the following factorial structures. Subscale (1): promotion of cognitive and linguistic development, social skills, psychomotor skills, and pretend play and imitation; subscale (2): promotion of independence and self-esteem, provision of optimal frustration, social and emotional quality of the relationship, and absence of physical punishment; subscale (3): paternal involvement, low exposure to family conflict, low frequency of family conflict, relationship with the extended family, social support, diversity of experiences, low frequency of stressful events, and low parental perception of stress. The structure of the original instrument structure was partially confirmed, which was attributed to the characteristics of the sample. We stress the importance of the variability obtained in the evaluation of the families, as well as of adequate indicators of reliability in such evaluation. The new instrument could be used in public health to identify deficient family contexts and to design preventive interventions focused on parenting skills. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study. (United States)

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf


    EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower assembling costs and higher utilization rates

  17. Study of creep cavity growth for power plant lifetime assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Rui; Sandstroem, Rolf


    This report aims to the sub project lifetime assessment by creep (livslaengdspredikteringar vid kryp), which is involved in the project package strength in high temperature power plant, KME 708. The physical creep damage includes mainly cavities and their development. Wu and Sandstroem have observed that cavity size increases linearly with increasing creep strain in a 12%Cr steel. Sandstroem has showed that, based on the relations between the nucleation and growth of creep cavities with creep strain, the physical creep damage can be modelled as a function of creep strain. In the present paper the growth of creep cavity radius R in relation to time t and strain {epsilon} in low alloy and 12%Cr steels as well as a Type 347 steel has been studied. The results exhibit that the power law cavity radius with creep time (R-t) and with creep strain (R-{epsilon}) relations are found for these materials at various testing conditions. The power law R-t and R-{epsilon} relations are in most cases dependent and independent on testing conditions, respectively. The empirical power law R-{epsilon} relations give a description of cavity evolution, which can be used for lifetime assessment. Experimental data have also been compared to the estimations by the classical models for cavity growth, including the power law growth due to Hancock, the diffusion growth due to Speight and Harris, the constrained diffusion growths due to Dyson and due to Rice and the enhanced diffusion growth due to Beere. It appears that the constraint diffusion growth models give a reasonable estimation of R-{epsilon} relation in many cases. The diffusion growth model is only applicable for limited cases where the power over t in R-t relation takes about 1/3. The power law and the enhanced diffusion models are found in most cases to overestimate the cavity growth.

  18. Accuracy of physical activity assessment during pregnancy: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Katie M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal physical activity may improve maternal and infant health and lower future disease risk for both mother and baby; however, very few physical activity assessment methods have been validated for use during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a subjective physical activity record (PAR and an objective activity monitor, against a reference standard to quantify moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA in pregnant women. The reference standard was based on participant interviews to determine if a woman was an exerciser and confirmed with information obtained from the PAR and a heart rate monitor. Methods Fifty-two pregnant women completed a physical activity record (PAR and wore a SenseWear® Mini Armband (SWA activity monitor over a 7-day period at 18 weeks gestation. Total minutes spent in MVPA were totaled from both modalities and evaluated against the reference standard using contingency analysis and Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate the number of women meeting minimum prenatal physical activity recommendations (at least 3, 30 minute sessions of exercise per week. Both modalities were also tested individually and collectively to assess their ability as indicators of activity using empirically determined cut-offs as indicated by receiver-operator characteristic curves. These experimentally-derived criteria were also tested with Pearson's chi-square test. Results According to the reference standard, 13 of 52 participants (25% met the criterion of 3, 30 minute sessions of volitional, moderate-intensity activity. When compared to the reference standard, both the PAR and SWA overestimated exercise status; 42 (81% and 52 (100% participants, respectively, achieved 90 minutes of MVPA (P Conclusion Compared to the reference standard, time spent in MVPA obtained from the PAR or SWA overestimated the prevalence of women meeting prenatal exercise recommendations. The most accurate predictor

  19. Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Mohamed


    Full Text Available Soil erosion, salinity and sodicity hazards are serious problems in the northern west coast of Egypt and lead to reducing the soil quality and increasing the degradation of soil resources. Sidi Barrani and Al-Sallum regions are selected as study areas which are located from a longitude of 25°10′00″ to 26°55′00″East and from a latitude of 31°00′0″ to 31°37′30″ North. Erosion hazard was estimated using the ‘Universal Soil Loss Equation’ (USLE, which is a simple empirical model that is widely used for assessing long-term annual soil loss .The salinity and sodicity hazards were estimated based on FAO method as standard reference. The resultant map of annual soil erosion shows a maximum soil loss of 60 t h−1 y−1 with a close relation to foot slopes and wide units on the steep side-slopes (with high LS value and the erodibility value reached to 0.1 t h−1 y−1. Meanwhile sand beaches and sabkha units are characterized by high environmental hazards of both water erosion, salinity and sodicity, while in the overflow basin units are identified as low environmental hazards. The spatial environmental hazards assessment is conducted by using integrated GIS and RS which can serve as effective inputs in deriving strategies for sustainable land use planning and management.

  20. Exposure assessment issues in epidemiology studies of phthalates. (United States)

    Johns, Lauren E; Cooper, Glinda S; Galizia, Audrey; Meeker, John D


    The purpose of this paper is to review exposure assessment issues that need to be addressed in designing and interpreting epidemiology studies of phthalates, a class of chemicals commonly used in consumer and personal care products. Specific issues include population trends in exposure, temporal reliability of a urinary metabolite measurement, and how well a single urine sample may represent longer-term exposure. The focus of this review is on seven specific phthalates: diethyl phthalate (DEP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diisononyl phthalate (DiNP); and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP). Comprehensive literature search using multiple search strategies. Since 2001, declines in population exposure to DEP, BBzP, DBP, and DEHP have been reported in the United States and Germany, but DEHP exposure has increased in China. Although the half-lives of various phthalate metabolites are relatively short (3 to 18h), the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for phthalate metabolites, based on spot and first morning urine samples collected over a week to several months, range from weak to moderate, with a tendency toward higher ICCs (greater temporal stability) for metabolites of the shorter-chained (DEP, DBP, DiBP and BBzP, ICCs generally 0.3 to 0.6) compared with those of the longer-chained (DEHP, DiNP, DiDP, ICCs generally 0.1 to 0.3) phthalates. Additional research on optimal approaches to addressing the issue of urine dilution in studies of associations between biomarkers and different type of health effects is needed. In conclusion, the measurement of urinary metabolite concentrations in urine could serve as a valuable approach to estimating exposure to phthalates in environmental epidemiology studies. Careful consideration of the strengths and limitations of this approach when interpreting study results is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A preliminary study for quantitative assessment of upper limb proprioception. (United States)

    Contu, Sara; Hussain, Asif; Masia, Lorenzo; Campolo, Domenico


    Proprioception, or sense of position and movement of the body, strongly correlates with motor recovery of the hemiplegic arm. The evaluation of the awareness of the location of joints in space involves measuring the accuracy of joint-angle replication. Robotic devices allow an accurate manipulation of joint movements necessary to assess proprioceptive status. This study evaluated the proprioceptive performance of healthy subjects by mean of the H-Man, a planar robot designed for upper-limb rehabilitation to gather preliminary normative data for neurorehabilitation applications. Twelve participants were equally divided into Aged and Young groups and were asked to indicate when their dominant hand position matched a predefined target in the contralateral, sagittal and ipsilateral direction. Results indicated a better performance for movements towards the contralateral target in terms of both absolute and signed error while there was not a significant effect of age group. Error variability was not affected by the target location and participants' age. The present study established preliminary proprioceptive metrics that could assist in providing information about the normal range of proprioceptive acuity of healthy subjects of different age.

  2. Quick assessment of hopelessness: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Yin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lengthy questionnaires reduce data quality and impose a burden on respondents. Previous researchers proposed that a single item ("My future seems dark to me" and a 4-item component of the Beck's Hopelessness Scale (BHS can summarise most of the information the BHS provides. There is no clear indication of what BHS cutoff values are useful in identifying people with suicide tendency. Methods In a population-based study of Chinese people aged between 15 and 59 in Hong Kong, the Chinese version of the BHS and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale were administered by trained interviewers and suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts were self-reported. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the performance of the BHS and its components in identifying people with suicidality and depression. Smoothed level of suicidal tendency was assessed in relation to scores on the BHS and its component to identify thresholds. Results It is found that the 4-item component and, to a lesser extent, the single item of the BHS perform in ways similar to the BHS. There are non-linear relationship between suicidality and scores on the BHS and the 4-item component; cutoff values identified accordingly have sensitivity and specificity of about 65%. Conclusion The 4-item component is a useful alternative to the BHS. Shortening of psycho-social measurement scales should be considered in order to reduce burden on patients or respondents and to improve response rate.

  3. Assessment of Corporate Governance in Jordan: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan S. Abbadi


    Full Text Available This paper assesses the reality of corporate governance in Jordan. It identifies the framework of corporate governance, which has here been set into two dimensions – institutionalisations and regulations – and describes the five major principles of corporate governance. The study was carried out by interviews with key employees and the review of related laws and selected annual reports. The study found (1 basic shareholder rights were honoured in decision-making, except for large decisions such as major asset sales; (2 shareholders were not treated equitably in practice, although controllers sometimes took action and prohibited insider trading; (3 the role and rights of stakeholders in corporate governance were respected, and stakeholders had a number of legal protections, which were largely covered in Jordan's Company Law; (4 disclosure and transparency were observed to a large extent, although limited to quantity rather than quality, because Jordan has fully adopted IFRS and ISA and (5 boards largely fulfilled their responsibilities, as these are extensively defined by law and regulation.

  4. Comparative study for environmental assessment by program characters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Chul; Lee, Young Soo; Park, Young Min; Park, Suk Soon; Chung, Kyung Tae; Cho, Hong Yun; Chae, Jang Won; Lee, Sang Don; Lee, Chan Ho; Choi, Joon Kyu; Kim, Kang Joo; Chung, Won Moo; Jin, Jae Yool [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    The level of environmental assessment in Korea was diagnosed by examining the situation of its model for the entire environmental assessment implemented. Also, it proposed an improvement scheme for its problems to be able to advance. It is expected to be utilized as developing optimum model for Korea and establishing a systematic and concrete guideline for environmental assessment modeling. 244 refs., 65 figs., 28 tabs.

  5. [Study on application of two risk assessment methods in coal dust occupational health risk assessment]. (United States)

    Wu, B; Zhang, Y L; Chen, Y Q


    Objective: To evaluate the applicability of quantitative grading method (GBZ/T 229.1-2010) and occupational hazard risk index method in coal dust occupational health risk assessment. Methods: Taking 4 coal mines as the research object of risk assessment and making occupational health field testing and investigation. Based on two risk assessment methods, we analysed the health risk levels of 20 occupations which were exposed to coal dust in workplaces. Results: Coal dust working post had different risk levels in 4 coal mines, the post of higher risk level were mainly concentrated in the underground workplace of coal mine, especially the post of coal mining and tunneling system. The two risk assessment results showed that the risk levels of coal-mining machine drivers and tunneling machine drivers were the highest. The risk levels of coal dust working post used by two risk assessment methods had no significant difference (P>0.05) and were highly correlated (r=0.821, Prisk assessment methods were supported by the field investigation and literatures. Conclusion: The two risk assessment methods can be used in coal dust occupational health risk assessment.

  6. A Case Study of Teacher Personal Practice Assessment Theories and Complexities of Implementing Formative Assessment (United States)

    Box, Cathy; Skoog, Gerald; Dabbs, Jennifer M.


    The value and effectiveness of formative assessment in the classroom has gained an increasing amount of attention during the past decade, especially since the publication of seminal work by Black and Wiliam titled "Assessment and Classroom Learning." Since that time, there has been a renewed interest in describing and evaluating teacher…

  7. Voice Assessment of Student Work: Recent Studies and Emerging Technologies (United States)

    Eckhouse, Barry; Carroll, Rebecca


    Although relatively little attention has been given to the voice assessment of student work, at least when compared with more traditional forms of text-based review, the attention it has received strongly points to a promising form of review that has been hampered by the limits of an emerging technology. A fresh review of voice assessment in light…

  8. Case study applications of the BASINS climate assessment tool (CAT) (United States)

    This EPA report will illustrate the application of different climate assessment capabilities within EPA’s BASINS modeling system for assessing a range of potential questions about the effects of climate change on streamflow and water quality in different watershed settings and us...

  9. Scripted Drama Assessment in a Middle School Social Studies Class (United States)

    Morris, Ronald V.; Welch, Michael


    Students who use drama assess their work through using a science fiction essay to help them look for and make connections between times, places, people, and situations. The students then use assessment guidelines to focus their ideas, stimulate their creativity, and demonstrate minimum standards of excellence. Finally, students have access to…

  10. Exploring assessment factors contributing to students' study strategies: literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der


    "Assessment steers students' learning" is a statement that has been used repeatedly without solid evidence in the literature. This manuscript aims to evaluate the published literatures on the effect of teaching learning environment in particular, the implemented assessment on students' learning

  11. Assessment of existing studies of wind loading on solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, L. M.


    In developing solar collectors, wind loading is the major structural design consideration. Wind loading investigations have focused on establishing safe bounds for steady state loading and verifying rational but initial and conservative design approaches for the various solar collector concepts. As such, the effort has been very successful, and has contributed greatly to both the recognition and qualitative understanding of many of the physical phenomena involved. Loading coefficients corresponding to mean wind velocities have been derived in these prior studies to measure the expected structural loading on the various solar collectors. Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three or possibly more seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

  12. Sediment quality assessment studies in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.; Biedenbach, J.M. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Texas Gulf Coast Field Station; Long, E.R. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Thursby, G. [Science Applications International Corp., Narragansett, RI (United States); MacDonald, D.D. [MacDonald Environmental Sciences Ltd., Ladysmith, British Columbia (Canada)


    As part of NOAA`s National Status and Trends program, a bioeffects assessment study was conducted in the vicinity of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. Surficial sediment samples were collected at 55 sites and subsamples were tested for toxicity using (1) the 10-day whole sediment test with Ampelisca abdita, (2) the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development assays with sediment pore water, and (3) Microtox{trademark} assay with organic sediment extracts. Eleven percent of the samples were significantly toxic in the amphipod test, only 4% were toxic in the sea urchin fertilization test whereas all of the samples were highly toxic in the sea urchin embryological development assay; the Microtox assay determined 56% of the organic sediment extracts to be significantly toxic. Sediment chemical analyses for metals, AVS/SEM, PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides were performed on 30 of the 55 samples. Twenty-seven of the 30 samples exceeded at least one probable effects level (PEL) value. For the 20 samples that exceeded 5 or more PELS, the concordance between the predicted and observed toxicity was 20% for the amphipod test, 60% for the Microtox test, and 100% for the sea urchin embryological development assay. There were no significant correlations among the different toxicity tests or between the tests and the contaminant concentrations in the bulk sediment. Possible explanations for the apparent lack of correlation between the sediment chemistry and the toxicity tests will be discussed.

  13. Mixture risk assessment: a case study of Monsanto experiences. (United States)

    Nair, R S; Dudek, B R; Grothe, D R; Johannsen, F R; Lamb, I C; Martens, M A; Sherman, J H; Stevens, M W


    Monsanto employs several pragmatic approaches for evaluating the toxicity of mixtures. These approaches are similar to those recommended by many national and international agencies. When conducting hazard and risk assessments, priority is always given to using data collected directly on the mixture of concern. To provide an example of the first tier of evaluation, actual data on acute respiratory irritation studies on mixtures were evaluated to determine whether the principle of additivity was applicable to the mixture evaluated. If actual data on the mixture are unavailable, extrapolation across similar mixtures is considered. Because many formulations are quite similar in composition, the toxicity data from one mixture can be extended to a closely related mixture in a scientifically justifiable manner. An example of a family of products where such extrapolations have been made is presented to exemplify this second approach. Lastly, if data on similar mixtures are unavailable, data on component fractions are used to predict the toxicity of the mixture. In this third approach, process knowledge and scientific judgement are used to determine how the known toxicological properties of the individual fractions affect toxicity of the mixture. Three examples of plant effluents where toxicological data on fractions were used to predict the toxicity of the mixture are discussed. The results of the analysis are used to discuss the predictive value of each of the above mentioned toxicological approaches for evaluating chemical mixtures.

  14. Study addiction--a new area of psychological study: conceptualization, assessment, and preliminary empirical findings. (United States)

    Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle


    Recent research has suggested that for some individuals, educational studying may become compulsive and excessive and lead to 'study addiction'. The present study conceptualized and assessed study addiction within the framework of workaholism, defining it as compulsive over-involvement in studying that interferes with functioning in other domains and that is detrimental for individuals and/or their environment. The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS) was tested - reflecting seven core addiction symptoms (salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict, relapse, and problems) - related to studying. The scale was administered via a cross-sectional survey distributed to Norwegian (n = 218) and Polish (n = 993) students with additional questions concerning demographic variables, study-related variables, health, and personality. A one-factor solution had acceptable fit with the data in both samples and the scale demonstrated good reliability. Scores on BStAS converged with scores on learning engagement. Study addiction (BStAS) was significantly related to specific aspects of studying (longer learning time, lower academic performance), personality traits (higher neuroticism and conscientiousness, lower extroversion), and negative health-related factors (impaired general health, decreased quality of life and sleep quality, higher perceived stress). It is concluded that BStAS has good psychometric properties, making it a promising tool in the assessment of study addiction. Study addiction is related in predictable ways to personality and health variables, as predicted from contemporary workaholism theory and research.

  15. Study and assessment of clusters activity effect on regional economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babkin A.


    Full Text Available The cluster approach, i.e., forming basic innovative and industrial clusters is widely applied in modern Russian conditions for the development of the economy. These actions are considered as effective measures for implementing the economic policy stimulating regional development by federal and regional authorities. The analysis we carried out showed that the quantitative approach for assessing the efficiency of cluster creation and performance is still insufficiently used. In this paper we establish and quantitatively estimate the influence cluster have on the regional economy using regression analysis with an example of a number of Russian regional clusters. Expanding the practice of creation and the state support of clusters taking into account the revealed quantitative dependences estimating their efficiency is suggested. We have advanced the hypothesis that clustering has a positive influence on regional economy, and confirmed this influence by means of quantitative methods using representative datasets. Our study of course had a selective character as it is not possible to carry out the calculations for all the existing clusters and cluster initiatives of Russia and discuss the results within a single article. At the same time, following the analysis we performed, we concluded that it is effective to initiate cluster creation in Russian regions. It is shown that cluster activity is capable to have of having a positive impact on GRP growth and the budgetary income in the region. Along with that, we note the dissimilarities in the multiplying influence of clusters on the regional development, its dependence on territorial and branch specifics that will be the direction for a further indepth study.

  16. District health information system assessment: a case study in iran. (United States)

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Saghaeiannejad, Sakineh; Karimi, Saeed; Ehteshami, Asghar; Kasaei, Mahtab


    Health care managers and personnel should be aware and literate of health information system in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in their organization. Since accurate, appropriate, precise, timely, valid information and interpretation of information is required and is the basis for policy planning and decision making in various levels of the organization. This study was conducted to assess the district health information system evolution in Iran according to WHO framework. This research is an applied, descriptive cross sectional study, in which a total of twelve urban and eight rural facilities, and the district health center at Falavarjan region were surveyed by using a questionnaire with 334 items. Content and constructive validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software and descriptive statistics were used to examine measures of WHO compliance. The analysis of data revealed that the mean score of compliance of district health information system framework was 35.75 percent. The maximum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to the data collection process (70 percent). The minimum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to information based decision making process with a score of 10 percent. District Health Information System Criteria in Isfahan province do not completely comply with WHO framework. Consequently, it seems that health system managers engaged with underlying policy and decision making processes at district health level should try to restructure and decentralize district health information system and develop training management programs for their managers.

  17. Spatial traffic noise pollution assessment - A case study. (United States)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Elham; Abbaspour, Majid; Nassiri, Parvin; Taghavi, Lobat


    Spatial assessment of traffic noise pollution intensity will provide urban planners with approximate estimation of citizens exposure to impermissible sound levels. They could identify critical noise pollution areas wherein noise barriers should be embedded. The present study aims at using the Geographic Information System (GIS) to assess spatial changes in traffic noise pollution in Tehran, the capital of Iran, and the largest city in the Middle East. For this purpose, while measuring equivalent sound levels at different time periods of a day and different days of a week in District 14 of Tehran, wherein there are highways and busy streets, the geographic coordination of the measurement points was recorded at the stations. The obtained results indicated that the equivalent sound level did not show a statistically significant difference between weekdays, and morning, afternoon and evening hours as well as time intervals of 10 min, 15 min and 30 min. Then, 91 stations were selected in the target area and equivalent sound level was measured for each station on 3 occasions of the morning (7:00-9:00 a.m.), afternoon (12.00-3:00 p.m.) and evening (5:00-8:00 p.m.) on Saturdays to Wednesdays. As the results suggest, the maximum equivalent sound level (Leq) was reported from Basij Highway, which is a very important connecting thoroughfare in the district, and was equal to 84.2 dB(A), while the minimum equivalent sound level (Leq), measured in the Fajr Hospital, was equal to 59.9 dB(A). The average equivalent sound level was higher than the national standard limit at all stations. The use of sound walls in Highways Basij and Mahallati as well as widening the Streets 17th Shahrivar, Pirouzi and Khavaran, benchmarked on a map, were recommended as the most effective mitigation measures. Additionally, the research findings confirm the outstanding applicability of the Geographic Information System in handling noise pollution data towards depicting noise pollution intensity caused

  18. 42 CFR 90.11 - Reporting of results of health assessments and health effects studies. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of results of health assessments and... HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND... assessments and health effects studies. (a) ATSDR shall provide a report of the results of a health assessment...

  19. FY11 Facility Assessment Study for Aeronautics Test Program (United States)

    Loboda, John A.; Sydnor, George H.


    This paper presents the approach and results for the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) FY11 Facility Assessment Project. ATP commissioned assessments in FY07 and FY11 to aid in the understanding of the current condition and reliability of its facilities and their ability to meet current and future (five year horizon) test requirements. The principle output of the assessment was a database of facility unique, prioritized investments projects with budgetary cost estimates. This database was also used to identify trends for the condition of facility systems.

  20. Synthesis and assessment of date palm genetic diversity studies (United States)

    A thorough assessment of genetic diversity and population differentiation of Phoenix dactylifera are critical for its dynamic conservation and sustainable utilization of its genetic diversity. Estimates of genetic diversity based on phenotypic, biochemical and molecular markers; and fruit quality tr...

  1. Ethics and Computer-Assisted Assessment: Three Case Studies. (United States)

    Jacob, Susan; Brantley, John C.


    Three ethical-legal case incidents involving computer-assisted psychodiagnostic assessment in the schools are presented. Each case is analyzed in terms of applicable laws, ethical codes, and standards for professional practice. (Author)

  2. Executive Summary, Hydraulic Fracturing Study - Draft Assessment 2015 (United States)

    In this Executive Summary of the HF Draft report, EPA highlights the reviews of scientific literature to assess the potential for hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas to change the quality or quantity of drinking water resources.

  3. Employing Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA to facilitate formative assessment in the State Secondary School: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effimia Karagianni


    Full Text Available Based on theories of assessment as well as on the pedagogical and administrative advantages Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA has to offer in foreign language learning, the study presented in this paper examines how computers can facilitate the formative assessment of EFL learners and enhance their feeling of responsibility towards monitoring their progress. The subjects of the study were twenty five 14-year-old students attending the third class of a State Gymnasium in Greece. The instruments utilized were questionnaires on motivation and learning styles, three quizzes designed with the software Hot Potatoes, a self–assessment questionnaire and an evaluation questionnaire showing the subjects’ attitudes towards the experience of using computers for assessing purposes. After reviewing formative assessment, CAA and how these two can be combined, the paper focuses on the description of the three class quizzes used in the study. Ιnformation from the questionnaires filled in by students combined with the results of the quizzes, shows how computers can be used to provide continuous ongoing measurement of students’ progress needed for formative assessment. The results are also used to show how students and teachers can benefit from formative CAA and the extent to which such kind of assessment could be applicable in the Greek state school reality.

  4. Study of Exclusion and Assessibility of Students with Disabilities in the 1994 Trial State Assessment (TSA) of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). (United States)

    Stancavage, Fran; And Others

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a survey of national trends in educational achievement, is attempting to expand its inclusion of students with disabilities or limitations that have previously caused them to be excluded from the assessment. The study described was a precursor to the 1996 changes in NAEP inclusion procedures.…

  5. Health impact assessment of the UK soft drinks industry levy: a comparative risk assessment modelling study. (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Mytton, Oliver T; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Elhussein, Ahmed; Rayner, Mike; Jebb, Susan A; Blakely, Tony; Scarborough, Peter


    In March, 2016, the UK Government proposed a tiered levy on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; high tax for drinks with >8 g of sugar per 100 mL, moderate tax for 5-8 g, and no tax for estimate the effect of possible industry responses to the levy on obesity, diabetes, and dental caries. We modelled three possible industry responses: reformulation to reduce sugar concentration, an increase of product price, and a change of the market share of high-sugar, mid-sugar, and low-sugar drinks. For each response, we defined a better-case and worse-case health scenario. We developed a comparative risk assessment model to estimate the UK health impact of each scenario on prevalence of obesity and incidence of dental caries and type 2 diabetes. The model combined data for sales and consumption of SSBs, disease incidence and prevalence, price elasticity estimates, and estimates of the association between SSB consumption and disease outcomes. We drew the disease association parameters from a meta-analysis of experimental studies (SSBs and weight change), a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies (type 2 diabetes), and a prospective cohort study (dental caries). The best modelled scenario for health is SSB reformulation, resulting in a reduction of 144 383 (95% uncertainty interval 5102-306 743; 0·9%) of 15 470 813 adults and children with obesity in the UK, 19 094 (6920-32 678; incidence reduction of 31·1 per 100 000 person-years) fewer incident cases of type 2 diabetes per year, and 269 375 (82 211-470 928; incidence reduction of 4·4 per 1000 person-years) fewer decayed, missing, or filled teeth annually. An increase in the price of SSBs in the better-case scenario would result in 81 594 (3588-182 669; 0·5%) fewer adults and children with obesity, 10 861 (3899-18 964; 17·7) fewer incident cases of diabetes per year, and 149 378 (45 231-262 013; 2·4) fewer decayed, missing, or filled teeth annually. Changes to market share to increase

  6. A study on the ergonomic assessment in the workplace (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; Low, Eugene; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong


    Ergonomics has gained attention and take into consideration by the workers in the different fields of works recently. It has given a huge impact on the workers comfort which directly affects the work efficiency and productivity. The workers have claimed to suffer from the painful postures and injuries in their workplace. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is the most common problem frequently reported by the workers. This problem occurs due to the lack of knowledge and alertness from the workers to the ergonomic in their surroundings. This paper intends to review the approaches and instruments used by the previous works of the researchers in the evaluation of the ergonomics. The two main assessment methods often used for ergonomic evaluation are Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Popular devices are Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and Microsoft Kinect.

  7. Clinical and quantitative assessment of headgear compliance: a pilot study. (United States)

    Brandão, Márcia; Pinho, Heloisa Saad; Urias, Dayse


    This study was undertaken to evaluate the compliance of patients using headgear with a timing device and to determine the efficiency of the electronic module timer as a patient motivator. Twenty-one patients (average age, 14 years 10 months) were selected from the orthodontic clinic of Federal University of Paraná on the basis of headgear wear for anchorage. The patients were instructed to wear their headgear 14 hours a day for a given number of days. The headgears were equipped with recorders (Compliance Science System and Affirm smart headgear modules, Ortho Kinetics, Vista, Calif). The patients were not told about the recorders, but they were instructed to keep track of their wear times. At the end of the test period (T1), the patients' reported wear times were compared with readings from the electronic modules. The patients were assigned a second period of headgear wear (T2) and told that their use would be monitored electronically. Again, the wear times reported by the patients were compared with the values from the electronic modules. Total time, number of hours accumulated between sessions, and quality time (uninterrupted use of headgear) were assessed. Patients reported wearing their headgear an average of 13.6 hours per day; the electronic modules detected 5.6 hours per day in T1 and 6.7 hours per day in T2. Quality time was 1.8 hours per day in T1 and T2. The mean actual hours of daily wear relative to the provider's requirement was 56.7% in T1 and 62.7% in T2. Boys were more compliant than girls. After they learned of the electronic device, the girls' compliance improved. Younger patients were more compliant than older ones. The compliance rate of older patients improved slightly in T2. Patients tend to overreport their headgear wear times. The mean actual hours of daily wear relative to the providers' requirement was 56.7%. This increased to 62.7% when patients knew a recording device was being used. A monitoring system can provide feedback to the

  8. Assessment Study of Small Space Debris Removal by Laser Satellites (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Papa, Richard S.


    Space debris in Earth orbit poses significant danger to satellites, humans in space, and future space exploration activities. In particular, the increasing number of unidentifiable objects, smaller than 10 cm, presents a serious hazard. Numerous technologies have been studied for removing unwanted objects in space. Our approach uses a short wavelength laser stationed in orbit to vaporize these small objects. This paper discusses the power requirements for space debris removal using lasers. A short wavelength laser pumped directly or indirectly by solar energy can scan, identify, position, and illuminate the target, which will then be vaporized or slow down the orbital speed of debris by laser detonation until it re-enters the atmosphere. The laser-induced plasma plume has a dispersive motion of approximately 105 m/sec with a Lambertian profile in the direction of the incoming beam [1-2]. The resulting fast ejecting jet plume of vaporized material should prevent matter recombination and condensation. If it allows any condensation of vaporized material, the size of condensed material will be no more than a nanoscale level [3]. Lasers for this purpose can be indirectly pumped by power from an array of solar cells or directly pumped by the solar spectrum [4]. The energy required for vaporization and ionization of a 10 cm cube ( 2700 gm) of aluminum is 87,160 kJ. To remove this amount of aluminum in 3 minutes requires a continuous laser beam power of at least 5.38 MW under the consideration of 9% laser absorption by aluminum [5] and 5% laser pumping efficiency. The power needed for pumping 5.38 MW laser is approximately 108 MW, which can be obtained from a large solar array with 40% efficiency solar cells and a minimal area of 450 meters by 450 meters. This solar array would collect approximately 108 MW. The power required for system operation and maneuvering can be obtained by increasing solar panel size. This feasibility assessment covers roughly the power requirement

  9. Red list assessment of European habitat types. A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodwell, J.S.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Gubbay, S.; Schaminee, J.H.J.


    This report presents an achievable methodology for the Red List assessment of European habitats in terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms, outlines a process that will deliver such evaluations and gives an indication of resources needed. It shows how the EUNIS habitat classification can be

  10. Study, Examinations, and Stress: Blood Pressure Assessments in College Students (United States)

    Hughes, Brian M.


    The issue of stress associated with higher education and its impact on markers of student health is explored in three experiments looking at blood pressure levels in college students. All participants were full-time undergraduate students of psychology. In Experiment 1, academic fear of failure, assessed using psychometric testing, was found to be…

  11. Quantum Mechanics Concept Assessment: Development and Validation Study (United States)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.


    As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum…

  12. assessment of commonly available antimicrobial agents. a study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. OBjECTIVE. Microbiological assessment of commonly available antimicrobial agents in Ilala Municipality. METHODOLOGY. The disc diffusion method was used for the determination of antimicrobial activities. RESULTS. Amoxicillin exhibited ZI between 21mm (Elys) and 23mm (Zenufa) against E. coli, and ...

  13. Cultural Shifts, Multimodal Representations, and Assessment Practices: A Case Study (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott


    Multimodal texts involve the presence, absence, and co-occurrence of alphabetic text with visual, audio, tactile, gestural, and spatial representations. This article explores how teachers' evaluation of students' multimodal work can be understood in terms of cognition and culture. When teachers apply a paradigm of assessment rooted in print-based…

  14. Radiological Assessment of Femoral Rotation: A Cadaveric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Hung Chester Lie


    Conclusion: The lesser-trochanter index can be used as a method to assess the rotational alignment of femur in plain radiograph. It is simple, objective, not affected by the factor of magnification, and can be applied to both long and short films.

  15. A Validity Study of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment. (United States)

    Salter, Daniel W.


    Correlational analyses of data from 202 students on the Work Environment Scale and Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) supported concurrent validity. Factor analysis identified three factors accounting for 70% of variance: positive work settings, structure, and work pressure/task orientation. SETA appears useful as a commensurate Myers…

  16. Comparative study to assess the effect of chewing stick and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After fulfilling the entry criteria participants were classified according to their oral hygiene habits as miswak users (group I), tooth brush and paste users (group II) or both miswak users and tooth brush and paste users (group III). All subjects were assessed using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), gingival index, pocket ...

  17. A novel assessment of adolescent mobility: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Tom; Duncan, Scott; Chaix, Basile


    neighbourhood boundaries were assessed. Data were imported into ArcGIS and street network distances between the home and each geolocated destination were generated. Convex hull activity spaces were derived from destinations. Urban form variables and geometric characteristics were compared between the perceived...

  18. Institutional Assessment of Student Information Literacy Ability: A Case Study (United States)

    Chan, Christopher


    With increasing interest in the assessment of learning outcomes in higher education, stakeholders are demanding concrete evidence of student learning. This applies no less to information literacy outcomes, which have been adopted by many colleges and universities around the world. This article describes the experience of a university library in…


    Gart, Natalie; Zamora, Irina; Williams, Marian E


    Therapeutic Assessment (TA; S.E. Finn & M.E. Tonsager, 1997; J.D. Smith, 2010) is a collaborative, semistructured model that encourages self-discovery and meaning-making through the use of assessment as an intervention approach. This model shares core strategies with infant mental health assessment, including close collaboration with parents and caregivers, active participation of the family, a focus on developing new family stories and increasing parents' understanding of their child, and reducing isolation and increasing hope through the assessment process. The intersection of these two theoretical approaches is explored, using case studies of three infants/young children and their families to illustrate the application of TA to infant mental health. The case of an 18-month-old girl whose parents fear that she has bipolar disorder illustrates the core principles of the TA model, highlighting the use of assessment intervention sessions and the clinical approach to preparing assessment feedback. The second case follows an infant with a rare genetic syndrome from ages 2 to 24 months, focusing on the assessor-parent relationship and the importance of a developmental perspective. Finally, assessment of a 3-year-old boy illustrates the development and use of a fable as a tool to provide feedback to a young child about assessment findings and recommendations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  20. Assessment of Electrical Safety Beliefs and Practices: A Case Study


    Boubaker, S.; Mekni, S.; Jerbi, H.


    In this paper, the electrical safety beliefs and practices in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, have been assessed. Based on legislative recommendations and rules applied in Saudi Arabia, on official statistics regarding the electricity-caused accidents and on the analysis of more than 200 photos captured in Hail (related to electrical safety), a questionnaire composed of 36 questions (10 for the respondents information, 16 for the home safety culture and 10 for the electrical devices purchasing cul...

  1. Quantum mechanics concept assessment: Development and validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeyra R. Sadaghiani


    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing investigation of students’ learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum mechanics assessment tool (QMAT to a multiple-choice (MC format. Further question refinement, development of effective distractors, adding new questions, and robust statistical analysis has led to a 31-item quantum mechanics concept assessment (QMCA test. The QMCA is used as post-test only to assess students’ knowledge about five main topics of quantum measurement: the time-independent Schrödinger equation, wave functions and boundary conditions, time evolution, and probability density. During two years of testing and refinement, the QMCA has been given in alpha (N=61 and beta versions (N=263 to students in upper division quantum mechanics courses at 11 different institutions with an average post-test score of 54%. By allowing for comparisons of student learning across different populations and institutions, the QMCA provides instructors and researchers a more standard measure of effectiveness of different curricula or teaching strategies on student conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we discuss the construction of effective distractors and the use of student interviews and expert feedback to revise and validate both questions and distractors. We include the results of common statistical tests of reliability and validity, which suggest the instrument is presently in a stable, usable, and promising form.

  2. Quantum mechanics concept assessment: Development and validation study (United States)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.


    As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum mechanics assessment tool (QMAT) to a multiple-choice (MC) format. Further question refinement, development of effective distractors, adding new questions, and robust statistical analysis has led to a 31-item quantum mechanics concept assessment (QMCA) test. The QMCA is used as post-test only to assess students' knowledge about five main topics of quantum measurement: the time-independent Schrödinger equation, wave functions and boundary conditions, time evolution, and probability density. During two years of testing and refinement, the QMCA has been given in alpha (N =61 ) and beta versions (N =263 ) to students in upper division quantum mechanics courses at 11 different institutions with an average post-test score of 54%. By allowing for comparisons of student learning across different populations and institutions, the QMCA provides instructors and researchers a more standard measure of effectiveness of different curricula or teaching strategies on student conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we discuss the construction of effective distractors and the use of student interviews and expert feedback to revise and validate both questions and distractors. We include the results of common statistical tests of reliability and validity, which suggest the instrument is presently in a stable, usable, and promising form.

  3. Nationwide Desert Highway Assessment: A Case Study in China (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang


    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert’s comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection. PMID:21845155

  4. Nationwide Desert Highway Assessment: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binggang Wang


    Full Text Available The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert’s comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  5. Nationwide desert highway assessment: a case study in China. (United States)

    Mao, Xuesong; Wang, Fuchun; Wang, Binggang


    The natural environment affects the construction of desert highways. Conversely, highway construction affects the natural environment and puts the ecological environment at a disadvantage. To satisfy the variety and hierarchy of desert highway construction and discover the spatio-temporal distribution of the natural environment and its effect on highway construction engineering, an assessment of the natural regional divisions of desert highways in China is carried out for the first time. Based on the general principles and method for the natural region division, the principles, method and index system for desert highway assessment is put forward by combining the desert highway construction features and the azonal differentiation law. The index system combines the dominant indicator and four auxiliary indicators. The dominant indicator is defined by the desert's comprehensive state index and the auxiliary indicators include the sand dune height, the blown sand strength, the vegetation coverage ratio and the annual average temperature difference. First the region is divided according to the dominant indicator. Then the region boundaries are amended according to the four auxiliary indicators. Finally the natural region division map for desert highway assessment is presented. The Chinese desert highways can be divided into three sections: the east medium effect region, the middle medium-severe effect region, and the west slight-medium effect region. The natural region division map effectively paves the way for the route planning, design, construction, maintenance and ongoing management of desert highways, and further helps environmental protection.

  6. Questioning western assessment of trauma among Tibetan torture survivors. A quantitative assessment study with comments from Buddhist Lamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Carlsson, Jessica; Jespersen, Kristian


    Our study falls in line with the numerous studies providing a critique of the use of western diagnostic instruments for assessing trauma in a cross-cultural context. Our purpose has been to give evidence for the Tibetan torture survivors' degree of traumatisation and for their use of spirituality...

  7. Learning to assess in the academic workplace: Case study in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning to assess in the academic workplace: Case study in the Natural Sciences. ... This case study highlights how relationships between colleagues, opportunities for conversations about assessment practice, and the alignment of assessment practices with the kinds of capital valued in each context are important ...

  8. Program Level Assessment: A Case Study for a University Clothing and Textile Major (United States)

    Yun, Zee-Sun; Frazier, Barbara J.


    This paper presents a framework for program assessment and a case study in assessment for a university clothing and textile program in family and consumer sciences. Assessment activities and the process implemented by the Textile and Apparel Studies (TAS) major at Western Michigan University are explained. The process adopts the International…

  9. Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management Study (MRHDM) - Geomorphic Assessment (United States)


    907.1847 kilograms yards 0.9144 meters ERDC/CHL TR-14-5 1 1 Background The Louisiana Coastal Area ( LCA ), Louisiana Ecosystem Restoration Study...outlined in the LCA 2005 Report: the Mississippi River Hydrodynamic Study and the Mississippi River Delta Management Study. The feasibility study has as...a8/ U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), New Orleans District (MVN). 2004. Louisiana coastal area ( LCA ), Louisiana, ecosystem restoration study

  10. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...... “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific...... disciplines....

  11. Relations between student perceptions of assessment authenticity, study approaches and learning outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulikers, J.T.M.; Bastiaens, Th.J.; Kirschner, P.A.; Kester, L.


    This article examines the relationships between perceptions of authenticity and alignment on study approach and learning outcome. Senior students of a vocational training program performed an authentic assessment and filled in a questionnaire about the authenticity of various assessment

  12. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report) (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  13. Total Dietary Studies and Food Safety Assessment in Taiwan-Food Preservatives as an Illustration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



      This second total diet study (TDS) in Taiwan was initiated to assess the health risk posed on general consumers from the dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as an illustration of a risk assessment of food preservatives...

  14. Assessing and Promoting Physical Activity in African American Barbershops: Results of the FITStop Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linnan, Laura A; Reiter, Paul L; Duffy, Courtney; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S; Viera, Anthony J


    This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting African American men in barbershops, assessing their physical activity, conducting physical measurements, and gauging their interest in barbershop-based health research...

  15. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (2011 Final) (United States)

    EPA has released the final report titled, Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices. This report was prepared by the National Center for Environmental Assessment's Global Climate Research Staff in the Office of Research and D...

  16. The IMA Study on the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Magnesium (United States)

    Friedrich, Horst E.; Ehrenberger, Simone

    Magnesium shows considerable potentials as lightweight material for weight sensitive applications. To assess the potential environmental benefits of magnesium in transport applications, the International Magnesium Association (IMA) initiated a study on the life cycle assessment (LCA) of magnesium.

  17. Assessment of Electrical Safety Beliefs and Practices: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Boubaker


    Full Text Available In this paper, the electrical safety beliefs and practices in Hail region, Saudi Arabia, have been assessed. Based on legislative recommendations and rules applied in Saudi Arabia, on official statistics regarding the electricity-caused accidents and on the analysis of more than 200 photos captured in Hail (related to electrical safety, a questionnaire composed of 36 questions (10 for the respondents information, 16 for the home safety culture and 10 for the electrical devices purchasing culture has been devised and distributed to residents. 228 responses have been collected and analyzed. Using a scale similar to the one adopted for a university student GPA calculation, the electrical safety level (ESL in Hail region has been found to be 0.76 (in a scale of 4 points which is a very low score and indicates a poor electrical safety culture. Several recommendations involving different competent authorities have been proposed. Future work will concern the assessment of safety in industrial companies in Hail region.

  18. Health care technology assessment and adoption: a case study. (United States)

    Veluchamy, S; Alder, H C


    Today's progressive hospital and health care system managers look to new ways to retain or augment their market share and to position themselves in their service areas. Since diffusion of new technologies into health care is market driven, informed decisions on the adoption of certain emerging patient care technologies can place a health care organization in a favorable financial position. There is a compelling need for hospital management and the governing board to collaborate with their medical staff on the development of an acceptable process to quickly identify and implement appropriate new technologies into the patient care environment. This joint effort is vital to ensure the integration of sound clinical values and objectives with planned institutional business strategies. Mount Carmel Health, a multifaceted health care corporation in central Ohio, has met the challenge of managing patient needs, physician interests, and limited hospital resources by forming a unique entity within the organization for the effective assessment and adoption of the latest medical technology. The division, which is called the Advanced Treatment and Bionics Institute (ATBI), is charged with assessing the latest clinical technologies and managing a hospital's adoption of the most appropriate ones. It serves to organize and streamline the identification, acquisition, adoption, and implementation of innovative treatment technologies at Mount Carmel hospitals.

  19. Assessing Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders among University Students: A Questionnaire Study


    Karthik, R.; Hafila, M. I. Fathima; Saravanan, C.; N Vivek; Priyadarsini, P.; Ashwath, B.


    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) among university students. Objectives: The etiology of TMD is of multifactorial, and our study is designed to assess the prevalence of TMD in an institution within a university. Various parameters including trauma, malocclusion, stress assessment - its correlation with the timing, the duration of TMD in meeting the deadlines, and examinations have been assessed. Materials and Methods: A standard quest...

  20. Quantitative exposure assessment in community-based studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.


    Occupational epidemiology focuses on the associations between exposures at the workplace and disease outcomes, essentially concerned with the prevention of disease. Basically two types of studies can be distinguished in occupational epidemiology: industry-based studies which study a population at

  1. Comparative study of probabilistic methodologies for small signal stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueda, J.L.; Colome, D.G. [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (IEE-UNSJ), San Juan (Argentina). Inst. de Energia Electrica], Emails:,


    Traditional deterministic approaches for small signal stability assessment (SSSA) are unable to properly reflect the existing uncertainties in real power systems. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of small signal stability (SSS) is attracting more attention by power system engineers. This paper discusses and compares two probabilistic methodologies for SSSA, which are based on the two point estimation method and the so-called Monte Carlo method, respectively. The comparisons are based on the results obtained for several power systems of different sizes and with different SSS performance. It is demonstrated that although with an analytical approach the amount of computation of probabilistic SSSA can be reduced, the different degrees of approximations that are adopted, lead to deceptive results. Conversely, Monte Carlo based probabilistic SSSA can be carried out with reasonable computational effort while holding satisfactory estimation precision. (author)

  2. Assessment of SPM in perfusion brain SPECT studies. A numerical simulation study using bootstrap resampling methods. (United States)

    Pareto, Deborah; Aguiar, Pablo; Pavía, Javier; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Cot, Albert; Falcón, Carles; Benabarre, Antoni; Lomeña, Francisco; Vieta, Eduard; Ros, Domènec


    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) has become the technique of choice to statistically evaluate positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain studies. Nevertheless, only a few methodological studies have been carried out to assess the performance of SPM in SPECT. The aim of this paper was to study the performance of SPM in detecting changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in hypo- and hyperperfused areas in brain SPECT studies. The paper seeks to determine the relationship between the group size and the rCBF changes, and the influence of the correction for degradations. The assessment was carried out using simulated brain SPECT studies. Projections were obtained with Monte Carlo techniques, and a fan-beam collimator was considered in the simulation process. Reconstruction was performed by using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with and without compensation for attenuation, scattering, and spatial variant collimator response. Significance probability maps were obtained with SPM2 by using a one-tailed two-sample t-test. A bootstrap resampling approach was used to determine the sample size for SPM to detect the between-group differences. Our findings show that the correction for degradations results in a diminution of the sample size, which is more significant for small regions and low-activation factors. Differences in sample size were found between hypo- and hyperperfusion. These differences were larger for small regions and low-activation factors, and when no corrections were included in the reconstruction algorithm.

  3. Assessment of commonly used pediatric stool scales: a pilot study. (United States)

    Saps, M; Nichols-Vinueza, D; Dhroove, G; Adams, P; Chogle, A


    The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) and a modified child-friendly version (M-BSFS) are frequently used in clinical practice and research. These scales have not been validated in children. 3-D stool scale models may be better adapted to the child's development. To assess the usefulness of the BSFS, M-BSFS, and a newly developed 3-D stool scale in children. Fifty children were asked to rank the picture cards of the BSFS and 3-D models from hardest to softest and to match the pictures with descriptors for each stool type. Thirty percent of the children appropriately characterized the stools as hard, loose, or normal using the BSFS vs. 36.6% with the 3-D model (p=0.27). Appropriate correlation of stools as hard, loose, or normal consistency using the BSFS vs. the 3-D model by age group was: 6 to 11-year-olds, 27.5% vs. 33.3% (p=0.58) and 12 to 17-year-olds, 32.1% vs. 39.5% (p=0.41). Thirty-three percent correlated the BSFS pictures with the correct BSFS words, 46% appropriately correlated with the M-BSFS words, and 46% correlated the 3-D stool models with the correct wording. The BSFS and M-BSFS that are widely used as stool assessment instruments are not user-friendly for children. The 3-D model was not found to be better than the BSFS and the M-BSFS. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Using evaluability assessment to assess local community development health programmes: a Scottish case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Belford


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of a programme’s objectives (health or otherwise is important in demonstrating how programmes work. However, evaluations are expensive and can focus on unrealistic outcomes not grounded in strong theory, especially where there is pressure to show effectiveness. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that the evaluability assessment (a cost-effective pre-evaluation tool that primarily gives quick, constructive feedback can be used to help develop programme and outcome objectives to improve programmes while they run and to assist in producing more effective evaluations. This was done using the example of a community development programme aiming to improve health and reduce health inequalities in its target population. Methods The setting was Glasgow, Scotland, UK and focused on the Health Issues in the Community programme. Data were collected from documents and nine individual stakeholder interviews. Thematic analysis and a realist approach were used to analyse both datasets and, in conjunction with a workshop with stakeholders, produce a logic model of the programme theory and related evaluation options to explore further. Results Five main themes emerged from the analysis: History; Framework; Structure and Delivery of the Course; Theory of Action; and Barriers to Delivery and Successful Outcomes. These themes aided in drafting the logic model which revealed they key programme activities (e.g. facilitating group learning and 23 potential outcomes. The majority of these outcomes (16 were deemed to be short-term outcomes (more easily measured within the timeframe of an individual being involved in the programme e.g. increased self-esteem or awareness of individual/community health. The remaining 6 outcomes were deemed longer-term and included outcomes such as increased social capital and individual mental health and wellbeing. Conclusions We have shown that the evaluability

  5. Assessing Learner Autonomy and EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: A Case Study


    Teng Feng


    The importance of autonomy learning is widely acknowledged in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Asian contexts. The present study attempted to report low proficiency level students’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The first part of the present study focused on exploring how learners perceived and experienced their autonomous vocabulary learning, with a questionnaire and group discussion applied to collect data. During the second part of the study, the data were discussed collabo...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan DARVISH


    Full Text Available Evolution of safety climate used as a practical means has determined and assessed potential problems relevant to safety issues in an organization and can be used in individuals’ performance and work efficiency and decreasing rate of incidents ;as well as; guidance to provide safety organization policy and comparison of safety performance in different organizations. The study wants to determine and prepare safety climate profile and application of its results in improving safety situation. In this study, applied tools presented by Loughborough University are used to evaluate safety climate in one of steel industries and data is collected through questionnaire, group discussions or purposeful interviews and observations, and safety climate score was obtained in 17 scopes. Calculating the score of each safety climate domain and preparing the profile indicated there is the average rate (4.89 2 in the safety climate of the industry.

  7. Reproductive assessment by continuous breeding: evolving study design and summaries of ninety studies. (United States)

    Chapin, R E; Sloane, R A


    The Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding (RACB) design has been used by the National Toxicology Program for approximately 15 years. This article details the evolutions in the thinking behind the design and the end points used in the identification of hazards to reproduction. Means of nominating chemicals are provided, and both early and current designs are described as well as some proposed changes for the future. This introduction is followed by a text and tabular summary of each study performed to date. We hope that this will not only be an explicit presentation of the findings of this testing program to date, but will help stimulate thinking about new ways to detect and measure reproductive toxicity in rodents, and help identify new relationships among the end points that are measured in such studies.

  8. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study: Quality Assurance Project Plan (United States)

    This supplement describes QA/QC aspects of the implementation of the Office of Radiation and Indoor Air's BASE protocol including: recruitment of study buildings, execution of field studies in each building, and the processing and coordination of each building's ata for final submittal to EPA.

  9. Tissue quality assessment using a novel direct elasticity assessment device (the E-finger: a cadaveric study of prostatectomy dissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Good

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP (robotic and laparoscopic, have brought improvements in the outcomes of RP due to improved views and increased degrees of freedom of surgical devices. Robotic and laparoscopic surgeries do not incorporate haptic feedback, which may result in complications secondary to inadequate tissue dissection (causing positive surgical margins, rhabdosphincter damage, etc. We developed a micro-engineered device (6 mm2 sized [E-finger] capable of quantitative elasticity assessment, with amplitude ratio, mean ratio and phase lag representing this. The aim was to assess the utility of the device in differentiating peri-prostatic tissue types in order to guide prostate dissection.Two embalmed and 2 fresh frozen cadavers were used in the study. Baseline elasticity values were assessed in bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter of pre-dissected embalmed cadavers using the micro-engineered device. A measurement grid was created to span from the bladder, across the prostate and onto the rhabdosphincter of fresh frozen cadavers to enable a systematic quantitative elasticity assessment of the entire area by 2 independent assessors. Tissue was sectioned along each row of elasticity measurement points, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E. Image analysis was performed with Image Pro Premier to determine the histology at each measurement point.Statistically significant differences in elasticity were identified between bladder, prostate and sphincter in both embalmed and fresh frozen cadavers (p = < 0.001. Intra-class correlation (ICC reliability tests showed good reliability (average ICC = 0.851. Sensitivity and specificity for tissue identification was 77% and 70% respectively to a resolution of 6 mm2.This cadaveric study has evaluated the ability of our elasticity assessment device to differentiate bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter to a resolution of 6 mm2. The results provide useful data for which to continue to

  10. Environmental risk assessment for the serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine: Case study using the European risk assessment framework. (United States)

    Oakes, Ken D; Coors, Anja; Escher, Beate I; Fenner, Kathrin; Garric, Jeanne; Gust, Marion; Knacker, Thomas; Küster, Anette; Kussatz, Carola; Metcalfe, Chris D; Monteiro, Sara; Moon, Thomas W; Mennigen, Jan A; Parrott, Joanne; Péry, Alexandre R R; Ramil, Maria; Roennefahrt, Ines; Tarazona, José V; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Ternes, Thomas A; Trudeau, Vance L; Boucard, Tatiana; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Servos, Mark R


    The serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine was selected for an environmental risk assessment, using the most recent European guideline (EMEA 2006) within the European Union (EU)-funded Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals (ERAPharm) project due to its environmental persistence, acute toxicity to nontarget organisms, and unique pharmacokinetics associated with a readily ionizable compound. As a widely prescribed psychotropic drug, fluoxetine is frequently detected in surface waters adjacent to urban areas because municipal wastewater effluents are the primary route of entry to aquatic environments. In Phase I of the assessment, the initial predicted environmental concentration of fluoxetine in surface water (initial PEC(SW)) reached or exceeded the action limit of 10 ng/L, when using both a default market penetration factor and prescription data for Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Consequently, a Phase II risk assessment was conducted in which green algae were identified as the most sensitive species with a NOEC of terrestrial compartment due to a lack of data on effects of fluoxetine on soil organisms. The need for a separate risk assessment for the main metabolite of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, was not conducted because of a lack of fate and effect studies. Based on published data, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine appeared to have a low to moderate bioaccumulation potential, which should be confirmed in formal studies according to OECD guidelines. Exposure assessments for fluoxetine according to the current framework rely heavily on K(OC) and K(OW) values. This approach is problematic, because fluoxetine is predominantly a cationic substance at environmental pH values. Consequently, the fate of fluoxetine (and other ionic substances) cannot be predicted using partition coefficients established for nonionic compounds. Further, published estimates for partition coefficients of fluoxetine vary, resulting in considerable uncertainties in both the

  11. Impact of regulatory assessment on clinical studies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Tavares Russo

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: Despite the recent expansion of clinical studies allocated to Brazil, the delay of local regulatory deadlines directly impacts their completion. Objective: This article examines the allocation process of clinical studies to Brazil in comparison with other countries, as well as the financial impact of studies not completed due to interruption caused by the delay in the regulatory process. Method: The allocation processes of studies were compared in nine countries with similar stages of economic development and countries in Latin America using the websites and and, comprising 185 countries. The 46 studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry underwent an analysis of the regulatory review process. Results: 46 studies sponsored by the industry and submitted in the country between June 2007 and June 2013 were analyzed; 18 (39% were discontinued due to the delay in obtaining the necessary approvals. For the approved studies, patient recruitment began an average of 11 months after the other countries. It is estimated that 530 Brazilians patients did not have the opportunity to participate in these studies. Financial losses were to the order of 14.6 million dollars for the country, including patient, medication and supplies costs, and expenses. Conclusion: Brazil has enormous potential for the realization of clinical studies. Researchers, associations of disabled people and patients with chronic diseases, sponsors and the authorities must work together to develop an approval process that is efficient, predictable and, most of all, transparent. The current regulatory environment must and can be improved and optimized in order to result in tangible benefits for patients, society and the country’s scientific development.

  12. Fidelity of Implementing an Assessment Translation and Adaptation Framework in a Study of an Emerging International Assessment (United States)

    Chia, Magda Yanira


    This study addresses the complex process of translation and adaptation of two Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) performance tasks (PTs), originally developed in English for American students, into the languages and cultures of five participating countries. Focusing on confirming evidence bits (CEBs), disconfirming evidence bits (DEBs), and no…

  13. Assessing Holland Types on the Internet: A Comparative Study (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.; Cowger, Ernest, Jr.; Young, Tony; Tobacyk, Jerome; Sheets, Tillman; Loftus, Christina


    This study examined the degree of similarity between scores on the Self-Directed Search and an online instrument measuring Holland types. A relatively high congruency score was found between the two measures. Implications for career counselors are discussed.

  14. A Case Study of Post-Sabbatical Assessment Measures. (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.; Kang, Bai


    Describes a study that reviewed the sabbatical program at the University of Alabama. Indicates that while faculty believed they were better teachers and scholars as a result of taking sabbatical leave, the objective data do not support these perceptions. (JDI)

  15. A social work study for assessment of entrepreneurs' personal characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani


    Full Text Available The personality of an entrepreneur plays an important role on the success of creating new ideas. There are different characteristics such as courage, hardness, braveness, which could help an entrepreneur reach his/her goals. In this paper, we present an empirical study to learn more about students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in different fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, etc. In this paper, There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We implement ANOVA test to measure different entrepreneurship characteristics of students who study in various educational fields. The case study is associated with Sama private university located in city of Zanjan/Iran. The results indicate that there are not meaningful differences among pairwise comparison of many engineering fields.

  16. IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study 2016 Assessment Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agrusti, Wolfram SchulzJohn AinleyJulian FraillonBruno LositoGabriella


    The International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) investigates the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens in a range of countries in the second decade of the 21st century...

  17. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects... HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES ADMINISTRATIVE FUNCTIONS, PRACTICES, AND PROCEDURES § 90.8 Conduct of health assessments and health effects...

  18. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Kline, Theresa J. B.


    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  19. Research Designs and Methods in Self-Assessment Studies: A Content Analysis (United States)

    Pastore, Serafina


    This paper focuses on self-assessment studies in the higher education field. In the assessment for learning perspective, self-assessment is related to reflection, metacognition, and self-regulation: all these aspects are considered as fundamental prerequisites for students' future professional development. Despite the recognition of…

  20. What University Students Think about Assessment: A Case Study from Italy (United States)

    Pastore, Serafina; Pentassuglia, Monica


    Nowadays, assessment is widely recognized as a key element in higher education systems. Current studies are moving towards the revision of traditional modalities of testing, the individuation of alternative forms of assessment, and, above all, the analysis of conceptions that teachers and students have about assessment. The present research is…

  1. 75 FR 51806 - Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices (United States)


    ...-0701] Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: Four Case Studies of Water Utility Practices AGENCY...-day public comment period for the draft document titled, ``Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment... utilities to assess their vulnerability to future climate change. The report is intended to illustrate the...

  2. Assessment Criteria for Competency-Based Education: A Study in Nursing Education (United States)

    Fastré, Greet M. J.; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Amsing-Smit, Pauline; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J.


    This study examined the effects of type of assessment criteria (performance-based vs. competency-based), the relevance of assessment criteria (relevant criteria vs. all criteria), and their interaction on secondary vocational education students' performance and assessment skills. Students on three programmes in the domain of nursing and care…

  3. Expeditionary Energy Assessment Environmental Control Unit Alternatives Study (United States)


    per day is longer. In order to determine the number of solar-powered ECUs, the Study Team calculated the number of British Thermal Unit (BTU)s that...4 2.5 Fully Burdened Cost of Fuel Methodology and Calculations for Ground Forces: Sustain the Mission Project (SMP) 2 NDIA Fully Burdened Cost...MAGTF Bulk Fuel Requirements Study, Operations Analysis Division ( OAD ), Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC), 13 August 2010

  4. Cumulative versus end-of-course assessment: effects on self-study time and test performance. (United States)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Mulder, B Florentine; Muntinghe, Friso L H; Tio, René A


    Students tend to postpone preparation for a test until the test is imminent, which raises various risks associated with 'cramming' behaviours, including that for suboptimal learning. Cumulative assessment utilises spaced testing to stimulate students to study more frequently and to prevent procrastination. This randomised controlled study investigated how cumulative assessment affects time spent on self-study and test performance compared with end-of-course assessment. A total of 78 undergraduate medical students in a Year 2 pre-clinical course were randomly assigned to either of two conditions. Students in the cumulative assessment condition were assessed in weeks 4, 8 and 10. Students in the end-of-course assessment condition were assessed in week 10 only. Each week, students reported the number of hours they spent on self-study. Students in the cumulative assessment condition (n = 25) spent significantly more time on self-study than students in the end-of-course assessment condition (n = 37) in all weeks of the course except weeks 5, 9 and 10. Overall, the cumulative assessment group spent 69 hours more on self-study during the course than did the control group, although the control group spent 7 hours more in studying during the final week of the course than did the cumulative assessment group. Students in the cumulative assessment condition scored slightly higher on questions concerning the content of the last part of the course. Cumulative assessment encourages students to distribute their learning activities over a course, which leaves them more opportunity to study the content of the last part of the course prior to the final examination. There was no evidence for a short-term effect of cumulative assessment on overall knowledge gain. We hypothesise that larger positive effects might be found if retention were to be measured in the long term. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Foster care assessment: An exploratory study of the placement assessment process in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderfaeillie, J.; Damen, H.R.; Pijnenburg, H.M.P.H.M.; Bergh, P.M. van den; Holen, F. van


    Family foster care placement decision-making has a weak scientific underpinning. The identification of clusters of foster children (groups of foster children with similar characteristics) can help improve decision quality. In this study, we investigated if foster children could indeed be clustered,

  6. How to scientifically assess a restoration project: a case study (United States)

    Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.; Freire, D. M.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.


    Commonly, it is said that there is lack of communication among scientists, conservators, restorers, project managers and architects. But sometimes this communication flows, and we can find enormous benefits from and for all the participating agents. This is the case we present in this work, in which technical agents in charge of the restoration of a building, asked for some scientific advice to perform the restoration of a heritage building. The results were successful and fantastic for both of them, in terms of one part asking for consultation and the other answering to the demands and resolving real problems. This is the case of a marvellous Renaissance building (Medinaceli Dukes palace, 15th-16th centuries) in the central area of Spain (Cogolludo, Guadalajara). Focused on the restoration project, we were asked for consultancy on how to solve matters like the assessment of the already fixed in project cleaning method for the stone façades, the efficacy and durability methods for some conservation products to be applied, the presence or not of a patina on the stone; the viability of using some restoration mortars, and the origin of some efflorescences that came out just after placed in the building a restoration rendering mortar. Responses to these matters were answered by performing tests both in the lab and on site in the building. The efficiency and effects on stone of the blasting cleaning method was assessed by first analysing the nature and thickness of the surface deposits to be removed (SEM-EDS analyses); secondly, roughness and colour measurements were performed, and thirdly, SEM-EDS analyses were carried out again to determine whether the cleaning method was able to remove part of the surface deposits, completely, or even part of the stone substrate. Some conservation products were tested on stone specimens, both their efficacy and their durability, concluding that it was better not to apply any of them. A patina was found on the stone façade under SEM

  7. Assessing alternative industrial fortification portfolios: a Bangladesh case study. (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia I


    Approximately 1.2 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) are lost annually in Bangladesh due to deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and zinc. To provide evidence on the coverage, costs, and cost-effectiveness of alternative fortification interventions to inform nutrition policy-making in Bangladesh. Combining the 2005 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey with a Bangladesh food composition table, apparent intakes of energy, vitamin A, iron, and zinc, and the coverage and apparent consumption levels of fortifiable vegetable oil and wheat flour are estimated. Assuming that fortification levels are those established in official regulations, the costs and cost-effectiveness of the two vehicles are assessed independently and as a two-vehicle portfolio. Vegetable oil has a coverage rate of 76% and is estimated to reduce the prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intake from 83% to 64%. The coverage of wheat flour is high (65%), but the small quantities consumed result in small reductions in the prevalence of inadequate intakes: 1.5 percentage points for iron, less than 1 for zinc, and 2 for vitamin A, while reducing average Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) gaps by 8%, 9%, and 15%, respectively. The most cost-effective 10-micronutrient wheat flour formulation costs US $1.91 million annually, saving 129,212 DALYs at a unit cost of US $14.75. Fortifying vegetable oil would cost US $1.27 million annually, saving 406,877 DALYs at an average cost of US $3.25. Sensitivity analyses explore various permutations of the wheat flour formulation. Divisional variations in coverage, cost, and impact are examined. Vegetable oil fortification is the most cost-effective of the three portfolios analyzed, but all three are very cost-effective options for Bangladesh.

  8. Questioning western assessment of trauma among Tibetan torture survivors. A quantitative assessment study with comments from Buddhist Lamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Carlsson, Jessica; Jespersen, Kristian


    not have an influence on the level of distress. After the assessment study, eight Tibetan lamas were interviewed about their views on our methods and results. They questioned the validity of our western rating scales and explained that our results might be influenced by the Tibetan culture, which among...... other things can be characterized as having a view and articulation of suffering much more complex than the units of our study's rating scales....

  9. Validation of a Theoretical Model of Diagnostic Classroom Assessment: A Mixed Methods Study (United States)

    Koh, Nancy


    The purpose of the study was to validate a theoretical model of diagnostic, formative classroom assessment called, "Proximal Assessment for Learner Diagnosis" (PALD). To achieve its purpose, the study employed a two-stage, mixed-methods design. The study utilized multiple data sources from 11 elementary level mathematics teachers who…

  10. Geothermal reservoir assessment case study: Northern Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.M.; Bell, E.J.; Jodry, R.L.


    Two 1500 foot temperature gradient holes and two deep exploratory wells were drilled and tested. Hydrologic-hydrochemical, shallow temperature survey, structural-tectonic, petrologic alteration, and solid-sample geochemistry studies were completed. Eighteen miles of high resolution reflection seismic data were gathered over the area. The study indicates that a geothermal regime with temperatures greater than 400/sup 0/F may exist at a depth of approximately 7500' to 10,000' over an area more than ten miles in length.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tang


    Full Text Available Abstract: Nowadays in China, high school assessment is based solely on academic examination scores, which take the place of well-rounded assessments that should be given to students. The present assessment ignores the differences among individuals and goes against a people-oriented spirit; thus, it is not scientific. This one-sided assessment has caused many negative effects on students and society, and it is not beneficial to students’ well-being. The author performed a study on a formative assessment method using a Portfolio for keeping a record of English learning while growing up to change the present situation of students being tired of study due to low scores. The assessment allows students to understand that their low scores are not because they lack a gift for learning languages, but because they themselves think they lack the ability to learn a foreign language, which leads to their unwillingness to learn English (Ames 1992; Vispoel & Austin 1995. The research examines 122 year-11 senior middle school students’ views of the formative assessment method and their improvement in examination scores through the assessment over a period of one to two years. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered via a questionnaire and interviews. All the data show and prove that the students who have been assessed using formative assessment enjoy going to school and have made more progress than those assessed using summative assessment. This assessment has been warmly welcomed by students, whether they are at a higher or a lower English level.

  12. Water quality assessments: A case study of plankton and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of physico-chemical characteristics, plankton and macro invertebrates of Porto-Novo and Gulf of Guinea were studied in September 2012 with a view to determine the quality of water using plankton indices. Standard methods were used to determine the physico-chemical parameters. The mean water quality ...

  13. A Case Study: Follow-Up Assessment of Facilitated Communication. (United States)

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others


    This study of an adolescent with multiple disabilities, including moderate mental retardation, who was reported to engage in validated facilitated communication (FC) found he did not engage in validated FC; performance was equivalent whether food or nonfood reinforcers were used; and the Picture Exchange Communication System was a valid and…

  14. Assessment Study: Value of Vocational Training to the Released Felon. (United States)

    Hall, Robert A.

    A research study looked at the effect of vocational training on the ability of 151 released felons who had successfully completed vocational training and were still under supervision, on parole, within New Hampshire. A literature review on recidivism and vocational education in corrections showed the value of vocational training in reducing…

  15. Assessing Learner Autonomy and EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Feng


    Full Text Available The importance of autonomy learning is widely acknowledged in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL in Asian contexts. The present study attempted to report low proficiency level students’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The first part of the present study focused on exploring how learners perceived and experienced their autonomous vocabulary learning, with a questionnaire and group discussion applied to collect data. During the second part of the study, the data were discussed collaboratively by six teachers to identify the different approaches utilized by learners. Priorities included setting weekly goals, self-planning and self-monitoring the process of learning vocabulary. Results also revealed that a weak ‘top-down’ approach in implementing learner autonomy is inadequate. Teachers need to provide scaffolding skills tailored to learners’ context-specific needs, for which a strong ‘bottom-up’ approach is more appropriate in supporting autonomous learning. In this case, classroom time should be allocated to demonstrate the strategies and teachers should work collaboratively to develop resources and materials for learners’ autonomous vocabulary learning. The present study also addressed the need for establishing an effective intervention for supporting learner autonomy. Keywords: learner autonomy, vocabulary learning, self-plan, self-monitor

  16. Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment of Casablanca - Morocco, Pilot Study (United States)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. V.; Miranda, M.; Catita, C.; Toto, E.


    In this study we present a preliminary evaluation of the tsunami vulnerability of Casablanca area (Morocco) and the expected inundation from a tsunami generated in the North East Atlantic area in the Gulf of Cadiz using a combination of numerical modeling and GIS tools. The study area is the intensively occupied area of the Casablanca Harbor, a location that may be considered as one of the most vulnerable areas to tsunami hazard, along Morocco Atlantic coast, due to its location close to the source of moderate and strong magnitude earthquakes, the extension of low flat areas close to the sea and the existence of dwellings characterized by unstructured constructions. To study vulnerability and inundation we considered geomorphologic and artificial elements as well as the existence of defensive constructions. The inundation zone was divided in for sub-zones according to their height above sea level; the buildings were classed according to: building material, number of floors, conditions of foundation soil. The study area presents a large variety of constructions:1 storey buildings of 2- 2.5 m height, houses and stores of the ancient medina and some modern buildings. The results are presented, using GIS and show a preliminary "picture" of built stock behaviour in case of tsunami for Casablanca. The results clearly demonstrate that the vulnerability to tsunami impact is not uniform within the inundation zone. This work was developed in the framework of NEAREST and TRANSFER projects, EU.

  17. Case Study : Visual Analytics in Software Product Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Voinea, Lucian; Lanza, M; Storey, M; Muller, H


    We present how a combination of static source code analysis, repository analysis, and visualization techniques has been used to effectively get and communicate insight in the development and project management problems of a large industrial code base. This study is an example of how visual analytics

  18. A preliminary study on limnological stock assessment, productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This study examined the water quality, primary productivity, plankton and the potential fish yield of Omi dam for management purposes. Among the ... Owing to inadequate management of wastes, freshwater potential has been reduced due to .... The LC50 value, determined in an acute toxicity test as shown by (E. Omoregie, ...

  19. Future of health technology assessment studies in gene and cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 18, 2007 ... objective criteria as efficacy, effectiveness, quality, safety, psychological, social, ethical, organisational ... Studies. (Aaron, 1991; Newhouse, 1992) report that as much as. 50% of total health care spending growth can be attributed to technological change. ... was 0.9 in Mexico and 363 in the United States.

  20. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.


    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  1. Family Medicine needs assessment: Studying the clinical work of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: We used a mixed methods approach: Modified time-motion study and brief interviews. We observed 46 general practitioners (GPs) across ten sites in Ethiopia. Trained observers recorded time-motion data while GPs conducted their daily work. This data was supplemented by brief interviews with the GPs.

  2. Assessment of commonly available antimicrobial agents. a study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nystatin (Cyprus) produced ZI between 10 and 12mm against both fungi; similarly Fluconazole (India) yielded between 16.5 and 20mm of ZI against both C. albicans and C. neoformans. The antimicrobial agents analyzed in this study have demonstrated substantial antimicrobial activities against the test microorganisms, ...

  3. Assessment of veterinary services in central Ethiopia: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to identify actors, their roles, competences and main constraints of veterinary service delivery system in Ada' a district of the Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Questionnaire, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and desk review were conducted to gather primary and secondary data.

  4. Risk Assessment of Tuberculosis in Immunocompromised Patients. A TBNET Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sester, Martina; van Leth, Frank; Bruchfeld, Judith; Bumbacea, Dragos; Cirillo, Daniela M.; Dilektasli, Asli Gorek; Domínguez, José; Duarte, Raquel; Ernst, Martin; Eyuboglu, Fusun Oner; Gerogianni, Irini; Girardi, Enrico; Goletti, Delia; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Julander, Inger; Lange, Berit; Latorre, Irene; Losi, Monica; Markova, Roumiana; Matteelli, Alberto; Milburn, Heather; Ravn, Pernille; Scholman, Theresia; Soccal, Paola M.; Straub, Marina; Wagner, Dirk; Wolf, Timo; Yalcin, Aslihan; Lange, Christoph


    In the absence of active tuberculosis, a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) result defines latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, although test results may vary depending on immunodeficiency. This study compared the performance of TST and IGRAs in

  5. Comparative Study of Three Transect Methods to Assess Coral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variety of survey methods have been applied by ecologists to monitor coral reef sessile benthic communities in an effort to develop high quality conservation and management strategies. Each of these methods has different advantages and limitations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most efficient line transect ...

  6. A preliminary study on limnological stock assessment, productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Limnological studies should evaluate optimum water quality, identify and isolate specific factors affecting water quality for the purpose of suggesting the most sustainable way of utilizing the water systems. The critical importance of ensuring an optimum environmental quality of any fishery is a major factor in obtaining good.

  7. Tissue quality assessment using a novel direct elasticity assessment device (the E-finger): a cadaveric study of prostatectomy dissection. (United States)

    Good, Daniel W; Khan, Ashfaq; Hammer, Steven; Scanlan, Paul; Shu, Wenmiao; Phipps, Simon; Parson, Simon H; Stewart, Grant D; Reuben, Robert; McNeill, S Alan


    Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (RP) (robotic and laparoscopic), have brought improvements in the outcomes of RP due to improved views and increased degrees of freedom of surgical devices. Robotic and laparoscopic surgeries do not incorporate haptic feedback, which may result in complications secondary to inadequate tissue dissection (causing positive surgical margins, rhabdosphincter damage, etc). We developed a micro-engineered device (6 mm2 sized) [E-finger]) capable of quantitative elasticity assessment, with amplitude ratio, mean ratio and phase lag representing this. The aim was to assess the utility of the device in differentiating peri-prostatic tissue types in order to guide prostate dissection. Two embalmed and 2 fresh frozen cadavers were used in the study. Baseline elasticity values were assessed in bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter of pre-dissected embalmed cadavers using the micro-engineered device. A measurement grid was created to span from the bladder, across the prostate and onto the rhabdosphincter of fresh frozen cadavers to enable a systematic quantitative elasticity assessment of the entire area by 2 independent assessors. Tissue was sectioned along each row of elasticity measurement points, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Image analysis was performed with Image Pro Premier to determine the histology at each measurement point. Statistically significant differences in elasticity were identified between bladder, prostate and sphincter in both embalmed and fresh frozen cadavers (p = elasticity assessment device to differentiate bladder, prostate and rhabdosphincter to a resolution of 6 mm2. The results provide useful data for which to continue to examine the use of elasticity assessment devices for tissue quality assessment with the aim of giving haptic feedback to surgeons performing complex surgery.

  8. Team Objective Structured Bedside Assessment (TOSBA) as formative assessment in undergraduate Obstetrics and Gynaecology: a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Deane, Richard P


    Team Objective Structured Bedside Assessment (TOSBA) is a learning approach in which a team of medical students undertake a set of structured clinical tasks with real patients in order to reach a diagnosis and formulate a management plan and receive immediate feedback on their performance from a facilitator. TOSBA was introduced as formative assessment to an 8-week undergraduate teaching programme in Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G) in 2013\\/14. Each student completed 5 TOSBA sessions during the rotation. The aim of the study was to evaluate TOSBA as a teaching method to provide formative assessment for medical students during their clinical rotation. The research questions were: Does TOSBA improve clinical, communication and\\/or reasoning skills? Does TOSBA provide quality feedback?

  9. US country studies program: Support for climate change studies, national plans, and technology assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper describes the objectives of the next phase of the U.S. Country Studies Program which was launched in support of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The next phases of this program aim to: assist countries in preparing Climate Change Action plans; support technology assessments and development of technology initiatives; enhance exchange of information and expertise in support of FCCC. The program offers support for these processes in the form of handbooks which have been published to aid in preparing action plans, and to provide information on methane, forestry, and energy technologies. In addition an array of training workshops have been and are scheduled to offer hands on instruction to participants, expert advice is available from trained personnel, and modeling tools are available to aid in development of action plans.

  10. Risk of falls in Brazilian elders with and without low back pain assessed using the Physiological Profile Assessment: BACE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayza M. B. Rosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Low back pain (LBP is a common musculoskeletal condition among elders and is associated with falls. However, the underlying biological risk factors for falling among elders with LBP has been poorly investigated. The Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA is a validated fall-risk assessment tool that involves the direct assessment of sensorimotor abilities and may contribute to the understanding of risk factors for falls among elders with LBP. Objective To assess fall risk using the PPA in elders with and without LBP. Method This is an observational, comparative, cross-sectional study with elders aged ≥65 years. The present study was conducted with a subsample of participants from the Back Complaints in the Elders (BACE - Brazil study. Fall risk was assessed using the PPA, which contains five tests: visual contrast sensitivity, hand reaction time, quadriceps strength, lower limb proprioception, and postural sway. Results Study participants included 104 individuals with average age of 72.3 (SD=4.0 years, divided into two groups: GI 52 participants with LBP; GII 52 participants without LBP. The participants with LBP had a significantly higher fall risk (1.10 95% CI 0.72 to 1.48, greater postural sway (49.78 95% CI 13.54 to 86.01, longer reaction time (58.95 95% CI 33.24 to 84.65, and lower quadriceps strength (–4.42 95% CI –8.24 to –0.59 compared to asymptomatic participants. There was no significant difference for vision and proprioception tests between LBP and non-LBP participants. Conclusion Elders with LBP have greater risk for falls than those without LBP. Our results suggest fall-risk screening may be sensible in elders with LBP.

  11. Combined ecological momentary assessment and global positioning system tracking to assess smoking behavior: a proof of concept study. (United States)

    Mitchell, John T; Schick, Robert S; Hallyburton, Matt; Dennis, Michelle F; Kollins, Scott H; Beckham, Jean C; McClernon, F Joseph


    Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods have provided a rich assessment of the contextual factors associated with a wide range of behaviors including alcohol use, eating, physical activity, and smoking. Despite this rich database, this information has not been linked to specific locations in space. Such location information, which can now be easily acquired from global positioning system (GPS) tracking devices, could provide unique information regarding the space-time distribution of behaviors and new insights into their determinants. In a proof of concept study, we assessed the acceptability and feasibility of acquiring and combining EMA and GPS data from adult smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were adults with ADHD who were enrolled in a larger EMA study on smoking and psychiatric symptoms. Among those enrolled in the latter study who were approached to participate (N = 11), 10 consented, provided daily EMA entries, and carried a GPS device with them during a 7-day assessment period to assess aspects of their smoking behavior. The majority of those eligible to participate were willing to carry a GPS device and signed the consent (10 out of 11, 91%). Of the 10 who consented, 7 participants provided EMA entries and carried the GPS device with them daily for at least 70% of the sampling period. Data are presented on the spatial distribution of smoking episodes and ADHD symptoms on a subset of the sample to demonstrate applications of GPS data. We conclude by discussing how EMA and GPS might be used to study the ecology of smoking and make recommendations for future research and analysis.

  12. Value Assessment of Distribution Network Reconfiguration: A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaskantiras, Georgios; You, Shi


    Distribution network reconfiguration is a mechanism that can improve the distribution system performance from multiple perspectives. In the context of smart grid wherein the degrees of automation and intelligence are high, the potential value of network reconfiguration can be significant....... This paper presents a case study-based analysis to explore the potential value of reconfiguration in detail. The study is performed using a 10kV distribution grid of Denmark, while reconfiguration is applied to minimize the energy losses under both normal and post-fault conditions. The results show...... that although the reconfiguration is performed to achieve a single objective, the overall network performance is improved. In addition, the value achieved by reconfiguration can be very sensitive to the reconfiguration frequency and the associated cost....

  13. Assessment of different dyes used in leakage studies. (United States)

    Mente, Johannes; Ferk, Stephan; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Deckert, Andreas; Legner, Milos; Staehle, Hans Joerg


    The goal of this in vitro study was to identify the most suitable dye for endodontic dye leakage studies, which could be a further step towards standardisation. The root canals of 70 extracted, single-rooted human adult teeth were enlarged to apical size 50 using hand instruments. The teeth were divided into seven groups (n = 10 each), and all root canals were completely filled by injection with one of the following dyes: methylene blue 0.5% and 5%, blue ink, black ink, eosin 5%, basic fuchsin 0.5% and drawing ink. Transverse root sections from the coronal, middle and apical part of the roots were examined, and the percentage of the dentine penetrated by dye was evaluated by software-supported light microscopy. In addition, the range of particle size of drawing ink particles was evaluated. There were conspicuous differences in the relative dye penetration into the root dentine and the penetration behaviour in the different root sections (two-way ANOVA, both p < 0.0001). One dye (drawing ink) penetrated less into the root dentine compared with all the others (p <0.0001). The particle size of this agent (0.1-2 microm) corresponds best with the size range of a representative selection of 21 species of pathogenic endodontic bacteria. Compared to the other dyes tested, drawing ink appears to be superior for use in endodontic dye leakage studies. The penetration behaviour into the root dentine of all the other dyes tested might be one factor that limits the applicability of these dyes in dye leakage studies.

  14. Information Theoretic Studies and Assessment of Space Object Identification (United States)


    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0119 INFORMATION THEORETIC STUDIES AND ASSESMENTS OF SPACE-OBJECT IDENTIFICATION Sudhakar Prasad UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO Final... computational -imaging approach to encoding the field depth of a target using the rotation of a point-spread function based on the orbital angular momentum (OAM... Computing the statistical entropy and associated MI requires the evaluation of statistical averages of logarithms of PDs and their ratios, as we have

  15. Study protocol: Mother and Infant Nutritional Assessment (MINA) cohort study in Qatar and Lebanon. (United States)

    Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Yunis, Khaled; Clinton, Michael; Nassar, Anwar; Farhat Jarrar, Sara; Moghames, Patricia; Ghazeeri, Ghina; Rahman, Sajjad; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Sadoun, Eman; Lubbad, Nibal; Bashwar, Zelaikha; Bawadi, Hiba; Hwalla, Nahla


    The Middle East and North Africa region harbors significant proportions of stunting and wasting coupled with surging rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Recent evidence identified nutrition during the first 1000 days of life as a common denominator not only for optimal growth but also for curbing the risk of NCDs later in life. The main objective of this manuscript is to describe the protocol of the first cohort in the region to investigate the association of nutrition imbalances early in life with birth outcomes, growth patterns, as well as early determinants of non-communicable diseases. More specifically the cohort aims to 1) examine the effects of maternal and early child nutrition and lifestyle characteristics on birth outcomes and growth patterns and 2) develop evidence-based nutrition and lifestyle guidelines for pregnant women and young children. A multidisciplinary team of researchers was established from governmental and private academic and health sectors in Lebanon and Qatar to launch the Mother and Infant Nutritional Assessment 3-year cohort study. Pregnant women (n = 250 from Beirut, n = 250 from Doha) in their first trimester are recruited from healthcare centers in Beirut, Lebanon and Doha, Qatar. Participants are interviewed three times during pregnancy (once every trimester) and seven times at and after delivery (when the child is 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months old). Delivery and birth data is obtained from hospital records. Data collection includes maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and household food security data. For biochemical assessment of various indicators of nutritional status, a blood sample is obtained from women during their first trimester. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, dietary intake, as well as anthropometric measurements of children are also examined. The Delphi technique will be used for the development of the nutrition and lifestyle

  16. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.


    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  17. Assessment of Satellite Images for Soil Salinity Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Sanaeinejad


    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the main environmental problems affecting extensive area in the world. There are some problems with traditional data collection methods for soil studies. Using the new methods and techniques such as remote sensing could overcome most of these problems. However using these data in areas with uncommon usages needed some researches to find the best calibration between the data and real situations in soil. This research was carried out using Landsat satellite images in Neyshabour area, North East of Iran. In order to prepare suitable learning samples for the image processing in this study, 300 locations were randomly selected in the area, among which 273 locations were finally selected as suitable surface soil samples. All samples were moved to laboratory and their electrical conductivity was measured. Six reflective bands of ETM+ satellite images taken from the study area in 2002 were used for the image processing analysis. Classification of different soil salinities was carried out using common algorithms of image classification based on the best composition bands and using statistical methods between soil salinity variables and digital numbers of the images to represent a suitable method. the research results showed that the reflective bands 7, 3, 4 and 1 are the best band composition for preparing the color composite images and for the classification of the salinity in this area. The highest coefficient of determination was R2=0.311 and R2=0.44 for saline and non-saline soil respectively using band 2 and 3 of the images at 5% significant level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the potential of ETM+ images for delineation and identification of different soil salinity are limited.

  18. Tracheal palpation to assess endotracheal tube depth: an exploratory study. (United States)

    McKay, William P; Klonarakis, Jim; Pelivanov, Vladko; O'Brien, Jennifer M; Plewes, Chris


    Correct placement of the endotracheal tube (ETT) occurs when the distal tip is in mid-trachea. This study compares two techniques used to place the ETT at the correct depth during intubation: tracheal palpation vs placement at a fixed depth at the patient's teeth. With approval of the Research Ethics Board, we recruited American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II patients scheduled for elective surgery with tracheal intubation. Clinicians performing the tracheal intubations were asked to "advance the tube slowly once the tip is through the cords". An investigator palpated the patient's trachea with three fingers spread over the trachea from the larynx to the sternal notch. When the ETT tip was felt in the sternal notch, the ETT was immobilized and its position was determined by fibreoptic bronchoscopy. The position of the ETT tip was compared with our hospital standard, which is a depth at the incisors or gums of 23 cm for men and 21 cm for women. The primary outcome was the incidence of correct placement. Correct placement of the ETT was defined as a tip > 2.5 cm from the carina and > 3.5 cm below the vocal cords. Movement of the ETT tip was readily palpable in 77 of 92 patients studied, and bronchoscopy was performed in 85 patients. Placement by tracheal palpation resulted in more correct placements (71 [77%]; 95% confidence interval [CI] 74 to 81) than hospital standard depth at the incisors or gums (57 [61%]; 95% CI 58 to 66) (P = 0.037). The mean (SD) placement of the ETT tip in palpable subjects was 4.1 (1.7) cm above the carina, 1.9 cm (1.5-2.3 cm) below the ideal mid-tracheal position. Tracheal palpation requires no special equipment, takes only a few seconds to perform, and may improve ETT placement at the correct depth. Further studies are warranted.

  19. Assessing climate change impacts on wheat production (a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valizadeh


    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the major challenges facing humanity in the future and effect of climate change has been detrimental to agricultural industry. The aim of this study was to simulate the effects of climate change on the maturity period, leaf area index (LAI, biomass and grain yield of wheat under future climate change for the Sistan and Baluchestan region in Iran. For this purpose, two general circulation models HadCM3 and IPCM4 under three scenarios A1B, B1 and A2 in three time periods 2020, 2050 and 2080 were used. LARS-WG model was used for simulating climatic parameters for each period and CERES-Wheat model was used to simulate wheat growth. The results of model evaluation showed that LARS-WG had appropriate prediction for climatic parameters and simulation of stochastic growing season in future climate change conditions for the studied region. Wheat growing season period in all scenarios of climate change was reduced compared to the current situation. Possible reasons were the increase in temperature rate and the accelerated growth stages of wheat. This reduction in B1 scenario was less than A1B and A2 scenarios. Maximum wheat LAI in all scenarios, except scenario A1B in 2050, is decreased compared to the current situation. Yield and biological yield of wheat in both general circulation models under all scenarios and all times were reduced in comparison with current conditions and the lowest reduction was related to B1 scenario. In general, the results showed that wheat production in the future will be affected by climate change and will decrease in the studied region. To reduce these risks, the impact of climate change mitigation strategies and management systems for crop adaptation to climate change conditions should be considered.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N


    In February 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 issued a proposed Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for total mercury in the middle and lower Savannah River. The initial TMDL, which would have imposed a 1 ng/l mercury limit for discharges to the middle/lower Savannah River, was revised to 2.8 ng/l in the final TMDL released in February 2001. The TMDL was intended to protect people from the consumption of contaminated fish, which is the major route of mercury exposure to humans. The most bioaccumulative form of mercury is methylmercury, which is produced in aquatic environments by the action of microorganisms on inorganic mercury. Because of the environmental and economic significance of the mercury discharge limits that would have been imposed by the TMDL, the Savannah River Site (SRS) initiated several studies concerning: (1) mercury in SRS discharges, SRS streams and the Savannah River, (2) mercury bioaccumulation factors for Savannah River fish, (3) the use of clams to monitor the influence of mercury from tributary streams on biota in the Savannah River, and (4) mercury in rainwater falling on the SRS. The results of these studies are presented in detail in this report. The first study documented the occurrence, distribution and variation of total and methylmercury at SRS industrial outfalls, principal SRS streams and the Savannah River where it forms the border with the SRS. All of the analyses were performed using the EPA Method 1630/31 ultra low-level and contaminant-free techniques for measuring total and methylmercury. Total mercury at National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfalls ranged from 0.31-604 ng/l with a mean of 8.71 ng/l. Mercury-contaminated groundwater was the source for outfalls with significantly elevated mercury concentrations. Total mercury in SRS streams ranged from 0.95-15.7 ng/l. Mean total mercury levels in the streams varied from 2.39 ng/l in Pen Branch to 5.26 ng/l in Tims Branch

  1. An Experimental Study on Assessment of Pavement Interlayer Bond Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda


    Full Text Available It is a common practice to apply a tack coat usually in the form of bituminous emulsion over an existing bituminous surface before laying another bituminous layer. The boundary between these two consecutive bituminous layers is the layer interface and the pavement stress distribution is highly influenced by the adhesion conditions at this interface. Poor adhesion causes adverse effects on the structural strength of the pavement system. A number of premature failures such as slippage failure and delamination failures result thus defeating the construction objectives. In the absence of a standard method and apparatus to address this field problem, an attempt has been made in this study to develop a simple testing arrangement to be used in a laboratory to determine the interlayer bond strength. Normal Marshall procedure has been used to prepare the specimens consisting of two different types of bituminous materials in lower and upper part of the same specimen. It is observed within the scope of study that Cationic rapid setting (CRS-1 emulsion applied at 0.25 Kg/m2 offers the best results of interlayer bond strength.

  2. Spectrophotometric assessment of nuclear proteins: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ubiali


    Full Text Available Qualitative evaluation of protein content in formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues is usually performed by means of cytofluorimetric analysis. On the other hand, several studies underline the opportunity to measure the concentration of nuclear proteins, which is often accomplished by using complex techniques and instrumentation. In the present work, we suggest a new application for the spectrophotometric evaluation of protein content on extracted and isolated nuclei, based on EDTA treatment of specimens and chemical extraction of proteins, followed by direct spectrophotometric measurement at UV wavelengths. We also demonstrate how this parameter correlates with other diagnostic factors, such as the proliferation index (MIB-1 and the DNA content (ploidy of cells. This method is simple and effective, yet less expensive than other protein quantitation protocols.

  3. A clinical case study of the use of ecological momentary assessment in obsessive compulsive disorder


    PJ Matt eTilley; Clare Samantha Rees


    Accurate assessment of obsessions and compulsions is a crucial step in treatment planning for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). In this clinical case study, we sought to determine if the use of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) could provide additional symptom information beyond that captured during standard assessment of OCD. We studied three adults diagnosed with OCD and compared the number and types of obsessions and compulsions captured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Sca...

  4. Root Cause Assessment for a Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalantri


    Full Text Available Root-cause identification for quality related problems are key issues for manufacturing processes. It has been a very challenging engineering problem particularly in a multistage manufacturing, where maximum number of processes and activities are performed. However, it may also be implemented with ease in each and every individual set up and activities in any manufacturing process. Kaizen is aimed towards reduction in different types of losses i.e. Failure Loss/ Breakdown Loss, Minor stoppage, idling loss, Setup and adjustment loss etc. So as to improve quality and productivity.In this report, root-cause identification methodology has been adopted to eliminate the rejection of product manufactured by the enterprise and improving the life of product. Brainstorming and other Root Cause Assesmenttools have been used to find out the reasons of tube failure and vibration in tubular strander. Solutions of these problems have also given in this report. Kaizen activities have reduced the time consumed in daily activities of cleaning, lubricating, inspection etc. A detailed study has illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  5. Assessing atmospheric temperature data sets for climate studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Cederlöf


    Full Text Available Observed near-surface temperature trends during the period 1979–2014 show large differences between land and ocean, with positive values over land (0.25–0.27 °C/decade that are significantly larger than over the ocean (0.06–0.12 °C/decade. Temperature trends in the mid-troposphere of 0.08-0.11 °C/decade, on the other hand, are similar for both land and ocean and agree closely with the ocean surface temperature trend. The lapse rate is consequently systematically larger over land than over the ocean and also shows a positive trend in most land areas. This is puzzling as a response to external warming, such as from increasing greenhouse gases, is broadly the same throughout the troposphere. The reduced tropospheric warming trend over land suggests a weaker vertical temperature coupling indicating that some of the processes in the planetary boundary layer such as inversions have a limited influence on the temperature of the free atmosphere. Alternatively, the temperature of the free atmosphere is influenced by advection of colder tropospheric air from the oceans. It is therefore suggested to use either the more robust tropospheric temperature or ocean surface temperature in studies of climate sensitivity. We also conclude that the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis Interim can be used to obtain consistent temperature trends through the depth of the atmosphere, as they are consistent both with near-surface temperature trends and atmospheric temperature trends obtained from microwave sounding sensors.

  6. A Psychometric Study of the Infant and Toddler Intervals of the Social Emotional Assessment Measure (United States)

    Squires, Jane K.; Waddell, Misti L.; Clifford, Jantina R.; Funk, Kristin; Hoselton, Robert M.; Chen, Ching-I


    Psychometric and utility studies on Social Emotional Assessment Measure (SEAM), an innovative tool for assessing and monitoring social-emotional and behavioral development in infants and toddlers with disabilities, were conducted. The Infant and Toddler SEAM intervals were the study focus, using mixed methods, including item response theory…

  7. The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool-validation in Hindi: A validity and feasibility study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Vimal K; Jagawat, Savita; Midha, Aarti; Jain, Anil; Tambi, Anil; Mangwani, Leena Kumari; Sharma, Bhawna; Dubey, Parul; Satija, Vipin; Copeland, John R M; Lepping, Peter; Lane, Steven; Krishna, Murali; Pangaria, Ashok


    .... GMHAT/PC has been translated into various languages including Hindi. This is the first study conducted in India, using the Hindi version GMHAT/PC of the series of studies assessing its validity in different cultures...

  8. The Assessment of Critical Thinking Critically Assessed in Higher Education: A Validation Study of the CCTT and the HCTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Verburgh


    Full Text Available Although critical thinking (CT is generally acknowledged as an important aim of higher education, no validated instrument to assess CT in Dutch is available. Moreover, most instruments are validated on a broad sample with people of diverse educational backgrounds. This possibly hampers the reliability of assessing effects of instructional interventions within educational programmes, where diversity is less. This study investigates the psychometric quality of a translation of the Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT and the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (HCTA in a sample of Dutch speaking freshmen majoring in educational sciences. Results show a higher content validity and preference by students for the HCTA. The CCTT, however, takes less time to administer and score, which makes it easier to use the CCTT on a larger scale. Neither of the two tests shows a high overall reliability. The strength of the correlations between the constructed-response items and the forced-choice items of the HCTA with the CCTT calls for further research on the precise relation between CT skills and dispositions and the ability of the HCTA to assess both independently.

  9. Rationale and design of the multinational observational study assessing insulin use: the MOSAIc study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polinski Jennifer M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although consensus guidelines recommend insulin progression among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM who fail to meet glycemic targets over time, many fewer patients are progressed than may benefit. We describe the rationale and design of the MOSAIc (Multinational Observational Study Assessing Insulin use study, a multinational observational cohort study to identify patient-, physician, and health care environment-based factors associated with insulin progression for patients with T2DM in real-world practice. Methods/design We will enroll 4,500 patients with T2DM taking initial insulin therapy for ≥3 months across 175 physician practice sites in 18 countries. Extensive demographic, clinical, and psychosocial data at the patient and physician level and practice site characteristics will be collected at baseline and regular intervals during a 24-month follow-up period. We will use a multivariable logistic regression model to identify predictors of insulin progression and highlight potential opportunities for health behavior intervention to improve insulin progression rates. Secondary outcomes include evaluating factors associated with glycemic control, hypoglycemia, and treatment adherence among patients who do and do not progress beyond their initial insulin therapy and exploring geographic heterogeneity in treatment. Discussion Practice site and patient recruitment began in 2011 and baseline data will be available in late 2012. The MOSAIC study’s longitudinal observational design as well as the breadth and depth of data will be used to explore and quantify predictors of insulin progression and to identify potential opportunities for health behavior intervention in order to improve T2DM treatment and clinical outcomes.

  10. LOCAL AREA NETWORK MANAGEMENT (Case Study at Assessment and Development Information Technology Units Brawijaya University Malang)


    Hadiwijaya, Mohammad Firman


    The purpose of this study was to know the management local area network at Assessment and Development Information Technology units, furthermore this study focusing on network management functions that applied by Assessment and Development Information Technology Units. This study will explain about the implementation of network management functions in the local area network management. The research method employ in this research is by using descriptive qualitative method by study case approach...

  11. Self-assessment and students' study strategies in a community of clinical practice: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Al-Takroni, H.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der


    BACKGROUND: Self-assessment is recognized as a necessary skill for lifelong learning. It is widely reported to offer numerous advantages to the learner. The research evaluated the impact of students' and supervisors' self-assessment and feedback training on students' perceptions and practices of

  12. Recommendations by Cochrane Review Groups for assessment of the risk of bias in studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C


    BACKGROUND: Assessing the risk of bias in individual studies in a systematic review can be done using individual components or by summarizing the study quality in an overall score. METHODS: We examined the instructions to authors of the 50 Cochrane Review Groups that focus on clinical interventions...... for recommendations on methodological quality assessment of studies. RESULTS: Forty-one of the review groups (82%) recommended quality assessment using components and nine using a scale. All groups recommending components recommended to assess concealment of allocation, compared to only two of the groups recommending...... scales (P analysis. Only 28 groups (56%) had specific recommendations for using the quality assessment of studies analytically in reviews, with sensitivity...

  13. Home healthcare teams' assessments of pain in care recipients living with dementia: a Swedish exploratory study. (United States)

    Karlsson, Christina Elisabeth; Ernsth Bravell, Marie; Ek, Kristina; Bergh, Ingrid


    Pain assessment in people living with dementia is a challenge due to the complexity of pain and dementia and the difficulties in self-reporting. In home healthcare, nurses are frequently involved in pain assessment situations and there is a need to explore how home healthcare teams' manage pain assessment in this setting. The study aimed to explore home healthcare teams' experiences of pain assessment among care recipients with dementia. An exploratory qualitative design was used. Open-ended individual interviews were conducted with thirteen registered nurses and ten nursing assistants, working in three different home healthcare teams in one municipality in western Sweden. Philosophical hermeneutics was utilised to interpret the home healthcare teams' experiences. Four interpretations emerged: the need for trusting collaboration, the use of multiple assessment strategies, maintenance of staff continuity in care and assessment situations, and the need for extended time to assess pain. The home healthcare teams recognise pain assessment in people with dementia as involving a complex interaction of sensory, cognitive, emotional and behavioural components in which efforts to acquire understanding of behavioural changes mainly guides their assessments. The solid team coherence between registered nurses and nursing assistants aided the assessment procedure. To assess pain, the teams used multiple methods that complemented one another. However, no systematic routines or appropriate evidence-based pain tools were used. The team members'concern for care recipients when assessing pain is evident and needs to be acknowledged by the organisation which is responsible for the quality of care. Future studies should focus on further exploration of nurses' experiences with pain and dementia in home healthcare settings and address what nurses identify and how they deal with their findings. It is imperative to investigate how organisations and nurses can ensure best practices and how

  14. Assessing Statistical Change Indices in Selected Social Work Intervention Research Studies (United States)

    Ham, Amanda D.; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Pettus, Joelle


    Objectives: This study examined how evaluation and intervention research (IR) studies assessed statistical change to ascertain effectiveness. Methods: Studies from six core social work journals (2009-2013) were reviewed (N = 1,380). Fifty-two evaluation (n= 27) and intervention (n = 25) studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were…

  15. Environmental Assessment of a Waste Incineration Tax. Case Study and Evaluation of a Framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, Anna; Johansson, Jessica [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Maans [Stockholm Environment Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Eldh, Peter; Finnveden, Goeran [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology


    A framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is tested in a case study on a proposed waste incineration tax. Also included is testing of developed methods for valuation and site-dependent life cycle impact assessment. The results indicate that although a suggested waste incineration tax of 400 SEK/ton is likely to lead to environmental improvements, these are small compared to the potential improvements as shown in more visionary scenarios. In order to go in this direction a waste incineration tax based on the content of fossil carbon in the waste would be useful. The framework for SEA includes several different pathways. These have different advantages and disadvantages and provide different types of information. It is therefore suggested that they largely complement each other and that the choice of methods should be done in relation to the function of the SEA and the questions asked.

  16. An approach for integrating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment: The dibutyl phthalate case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Chiu, Weihsueh A. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Mail code 8P-W, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)


    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and recommendations of the scientific community. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was selected for the case study exercise. The scoping phase of the dibutyl phthalate case study was conducted by considering the available DBP genomic data, taken together with the entire data set, for whether they could inform various risk assessment aspects, such as toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, and dose–response. A description of weighing the available dibutyl phthalate data set for utility in risk assessment provides an example for considering genomic data for future chemical assessments. As a result of conducting the scoping process, two questions—Do the DBP toxicogenomic data inform 1) the mechanisms or modes of action?, and 2) the interspecies differences in toxicodynamics?—were selected to focus the case study exercise. Principles of the general approach include considering the genomics data in conjunction with all other data to determine their ability to inform the various qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of risk assessment, and evaluating the relationship between the available genomic and toxicity outcome data with respect to study comparability and phenotypic anchoring. Based on experience from the DBP case study, recommendations and a general approach for integrating genomic data in chemical assessment were developed to advance the broader effort to utilize 21st century data in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Performed DBP case study for integrating genomic data in risk assessment • Present approach for considering genomic data in chemical risk assessment • Present recommendations for use of genomic data in chemical risk assessment.

  17. Teachers’ Beliefs about Young EFL Learners’ Self-assessment: a Case Study of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    /Anžela Nikolovska


    Full Text Available The paper explores Macedonian primary EFL teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and practices regarding self-assessment of young learners (10-12 year-olds. The study surveyed primary EFL teachers (n=30 who teach English to 5th and 6th graders. The results indicated that vocabulary, grammar and reading were more often the focus of self-assessment tasks than the other areas of language learning. This, along with the finding that the receptive language skills were more frequently self-assessed than the productive skills has been attributed to the impact of the external exam. The most frequently used self-assessment techniques were can-do statements and check-lists. The perceived benefits and challenges of self-assessment have been found to be compatible with the findings of other studies. In spite of their positive attitudes towards learner self-assessment, the teachers expressed awareness of certain problems underlying its implementation as well as uncertainty about how to train learners to self-assess. In line with the conclusions, recommendations have been made regarding the need for greater emphasis on self-assessment of the neglected language areas (speaking and writing, the necessity of using a variety of self-assessment formats and the need for learner training in self-assessment from an early age.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment Studies of Chemical and Biochemical Processes through the new LCSoft Software-tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Supawanich, Perapong; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul


    Life Cycle Assessment or LCA is an effective tool for quantifying the potential environmental impacts of products, processes, or services in order to support the selection making of desired products and/or processes from different alternatives. For more sustainable process designs, technical requ...... on the LCI assessment results. The fourth task has been added to validate and improve LCSoft by testing it against several case studies and compare the assessment results with other available tools....

  19. Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Cortés-Rojas


    Full Text Available Spray drying has been successfully employed for the encapsulation of herbal bioactive compounds resulting in stable phytopharmaceutical preparations. Bidens pilosa L. is a South American medicinal plant with proved antimalaric, hepatoprotector and antioxidant activities, generally linked to their secondary metabolites, flavonoids and polyacetylenes. In this work the physicochemical stability of an optimized spray dried composition from a B. pilosa extract was evaluated at three different stress storage conditions in open containers and in sealed sachets. High performance liquid chromatography was employed to monitor the concentration of three marker compounds over 12 months. Color variation of the stored samples was evaluated by using a color spectrophotometer. It was observed that the concentration of the monitored compounds of the plant decreases more drastically in samples stored in open containers. The two flavonoids monitored, rutin and hyperoside, showed lower degradation than the polyacetylene. The concentration of the markers did not change significantly at the lowest temperature. With regard to color, darker hues were observed at higher temperatures and storage times. This study showed that the storage conditions cause significant impact on stability of standardized spray dried B. pilosa extract.

  20. Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali Rashed


    Full Text Available This research was set in order to estimate aquatic plants evapotranspiration, (ET in Edfina drain, Nile Delta, Egypt, which had an in-stream treatment wetland that was taken as a case study. A simple field scale approach is presented to measure drain water evaporation and water consumption of five aquatic plants, cultivated in floating tanks. Plants ET, (ETp values were obtained by measuring the daily quantity of water required to renovate the tank’s initial volume. Crop coefficients (Kc were obtained and water loss from the drain wetland was calculated due to evaporation and plants cells ETp. Results presented values of ETp and Kc which were controlled by plant leaf area and growing stage. The major ETp was for Hyacinth followed by Cattail, Reeds, Torpedo grass, and then duckweeds. All ETp values exceeded twice the adjacent non-vegetated water evaporation. The obtained Kc values referenced to the drain water evaporation were almost twice the Kc values of FAO Penman–Monteith ET, due to the landscape effects, as hot dry air can cause extra heat input and water loss. Total losses from in-stream treatment series of pond, 4 plants reaches and open disinfection zone did not exceed 0.55% of drain discharge.

  1. Cognitive and mood assessment in stroke research: focused review of contemporary studies. (United States)

    Lees, Rosalind; Fearon, Patricia; Harrison, Jennifer K; Broomfield, Niall M; Quinn, Terence J


    International guidelines recommend cognitive and mood assessments for stroke survivors; these assessments also have use in clinical trials. However, there is no consensus on the optimal assessment tool(s). We aimed to describe use of cognitive and mood measures in contemporary published stroke trials. Two independent, blinded assessors reviewed high-impact journals representing: general medicine (n=4), gerontology/rehabilitation (n=3), neurology (n=4), psychiatry (n=4), psychology (n=4), and stroke (n=3) January 2000 to October 2011 inclusive. Journals were hand-searched for relevant, original research articles that described cognitive/mood assessments in human stroke survivors. Data were checked for relevance by an independent clinician and clinical psychologist. Across 8826 stroke studies, 488 (6%) included a cognitive or mood measure. Of these 488 articles, total number with cognitive assessment was 408 (83%) and mood assessment tools 247 (51%). Total number of different assessments used was 367 (cognitive, 300; mood, 67). The most commonly used cognitive measure was Folstein's Mini-Mental State Examination (n=180 articles, 37% of all articles with cognitive/mood outcomes); the most commonly used mood assessment was the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression(n=43 [9%]). Cognitive and mood assessments are infrequently used in stroke research. When used, there is substantial heterogeneity and certain prevalent assessment tools may not be suited to stroke cohorts. Research and guidance on the optimal cognitive/mood assessment strategies for clinical practice and trials is required.

  2. Regional risk assessment as a part of the long-term receiving water study. (United States)

    Landis, Wayne G; Thomas, Jill F


    A regional-scale watershed assessment using the relative risk model has now been performed on each of the watersheds that are part of the Long-Term Receiving Waters Study (LTRWS) to generate patterns of risk at each study site. The watersheds assessed included the lower McKenzie and mid-Willamette rivers in Oregon, USA; Codorus Creek in Pennsylvania, USA; and the Leaf River in Mississippi, USA. In each case, the goal was to put the LTRWS into a watershed and regional context, including multiple sources, stressors, habitats, and assessment endpoints. In each instance, the relative risk model provided measures of relative risk and testable hypotheses about patterns within the watersheds. There were similarities among the 3 risk studies. First, land use within the watershed was the most important driver of risk in each instance, even compared with point sources. Second, the list of endpoints was similar for each risk assessment. Water quality was held as important, along with populations critical to recreation or commercial use. At each site, data from the LTRWS and other sources could be used to support the risk patterns predicted from the risk assessment process. However, the sampling design of the LTRWS prevented the confirmation of specific cause-effect relationships. A fundamental conclusion is that risk assessment, using an adaptation of the relative risk model, should be performed as an integral part of any watershed assessment and management effort. These initial watershed risk assessments have led to similar assessments across the world.

  3. Coupling marine monitoring and risk assessment by integrating exposure, bioaccumulation and effect studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, J.

    and ecotoxicological effects in Danish and Greenlandic waters. The amount of field data (from own, national and regional studies and surveys) presented in this thesis has provided an opportunity to integrate actual measured concentrations of contaminants with biological effect studies in a case study that couples...... marine monitoring and risk assessment for the organotin compounds. Thereby the thesis may also be seen as model for integrated risk assessment of other hazardous substances....

  4. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments (Final Report) (United States)

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments...

  5. Formality and Informality in the Summative Assessment of Motor Vehicle Apprentices: A Case Study (United States)

    Colley, Helen; Jarvis, Janis


    This article explores the interaction of formal and informal attributes of competence-based assessment. Specifically, it presents evidence from a small qualitative case study of summative assessment practices for competence-based qualifications within apprenticeships in the motor industry in England. The data are analysed through applying an…

  6. Empirical Validation Studies of Alternate Response Modes for Writing Assessment. Test Design Project. (United States)

    Capell, Frank J.; Quellmalz, Edys S.

    In the area of large scale assessment, there is increasing interest in the measurement of students' written performance. At issue is whether the task demands in writing assessment can be simplified to involve the production of paragraph-length writing samples and/or multiple choice testing, rather than full-length essays. This study considers data…

  7. The Relationship between Studying Music and Mathematics Performance on the New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (United States)

    Prokop, Kristie L.


    On assessments such as Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) (Stigler & Hiebert, 1999) and Program for International Assessment (PISA) ("PISA 2006 Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World", 2007) students in the United States have not been performing as well in mathematics as students in other countries. In…

  8. Assessment of Visuospatial Neglect in Stroke Patients Using Virtual Reality: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Jannink, Michiel J. A.; Aznar, Miguel; de Kort, Alexander Cornelis; van de Vis, Wim; Veltink, Peter; van der Kooij, Herman


    One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is possible to assess neglect in the extrapersonal…

  9. Novel Automated Morphometric and Kinematic Handwriting Assessment: A Validity Study in Children with ASD and ADHD (United States)

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Younes, Laurent; Nebel, Mary Beth; Martinelli, Mary Katherine; Tiedemann, Alyssa Nicole; Koch, Carolyn A.; Fiorilli, Diana; Bastian, Amy J.; Denckla, Martha Bridge; Miller, Michael I.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.


    This study presents construct validity for a novel automated morphometric and kinematic handwriting assessment, including (1) convergent validity, establishing reliability of automated measures with traditional manual-derived Minnesota Handwriting Assessment (MHA), and (2) discriminant validity, establishing that the automated methods distinguish…

  10. Designing and Developing a Programme-Focused Assessment Strategy: A Case Study (United States)

    Brunton, James; Brown, Mark; Costello, Eamon; Walsh, Elaine


    This case study describes the process that the Humanities Programme Team, in Dublin City University's Open Education Unit, has undertaken with regard to developing a systematic, programme-focused assessment strategy. It charts the development of an Assessment Matrix that facilitated the enhancement of programme coherence in the context of a…

  11. Training Needs Assessment in the Botswana Public Service: A Case Study of Five State Sector Ministries (United States)

    Balisi, Shadreck


    Using qualitative methods, this study analysed the process of training needs assessment in the Botswana public service, with special focus on five state sector ministries. It is evident from the research findings that there is little and an unsystematic approach to the needs assessment prior to training. The research further revealed that the…

  12. BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (External Review Draft) (United States)

    This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments...

  13. A method for tsunami risk assessment : A case study for Kamakura, Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okumura, N.; Jonkman, S.N.; Esteban, M; Hofland, B.; Shibayama, T


    This paper presents a methodology for tsunami risk assessment, which was applied to a case study in Kamakura, Japan. This methodology was developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a risk-reducing system against such hazards, also aiming to demonstrate that a risk assessment is possible for

  14. Synchronous Computer-Mediated Dynamic Assessment: A Case Study of L2 Spanish Past Narration (United States)

    Darhower, Mark Anthony


    In this study, dynamic assessment is employed to help understand the developmental processes of two university Spanish learners as they produce a series of past narrations in a synchronous computer mediated environment. The assessments were conducted in six weekly one-hour chat sessions about various scenes of a Spanish language film. The analysis…

  15. EMBEDding the CEFR in Academic Writing Assessment : A case study in training and standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Lowie, Wander; Jansma, Petra; Schmidt, Nicole


    The CEFR is increasingly being used as the framework of choice for the assessment of language proficiency at universities across Europe. However, to attain consistent assessment, familiarization and standardization are essential. In this paper we report a case study of embedding a standardization

  16. An Internet-Based Telerehabilitation System for the Assessment of Motor Speech Disorders: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Hill, Anne J.; Theodoros, Deborah G.; Russell, Trevor G.; Cahill, Louise M.; Ward, Elizabeth C.; Clark, Kathy M.


    Purpose: This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an Internet-based telerehabilitation application for the assessment of motor speech disorders in adults with acquired neurological impairment. Method: Using a counterbalanced, repeated measures research design, 2 speech-language pathologists assessed 19 speakers with…

  17. A Generalizability Study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment Scores by Social Climate Domain. (United States)

    Walter, Daniel W.


    The Salter Environmental Type Assessment- Experimental Form B (SETA-Form B) was designed to be a commensurate environmental assessment for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. This study addressed the generalizability of the SETA-Form B scores provided by 800 college students across 4 environmental domains. Although the results were mostly positive,…

  18. Assessing Long-Term Effects of Inquiry-Based Learning: A Case Study from College Mathematics (United States)

    Kogan, Marina; Laursen, Sandra L.


    As student-centered approaches to teaching and learning are more widely applied, researchers must assess the outcomes of these interventions across a range of courses and institutions. As an example of such assessment, this study examined the impact of inquiry-based learning (IBL) in college mathematics on undergraduates' subsequent grades…

  19. Changes and Possibilities: A Case Study of Nova Scotia Classroom Assessment Policies (United States)

    Van Zoost, Steven


    Although numerous writers have identified a different set of skills needed for employment in New Times, little analytic attention has been paid to how educational assessment policies contribute to envisioning such future citizens. This case study illustrates how Nova Scotia classroom assessment policy for Grades 7-9 English classes envisions young…

  20. National Study of School Psychologists' Use of Evidence-Based Assessment in Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Aiello, Rachel; Ruble, Lisa; Esler, Amy


    This study aimed to better understand predictors of evidence-based assessment practices for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Nationwide, 402 school psychologists were surveyed for their knowledge of and training and experience with ASD on assessment practices, including reported areas of training needs. The majority of school psychologists reported…

  1. Health Literacy Assessment of the STOFHLA: Paper versus Electronic Administration Continuation Study (United States)

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Wipperman, Jennifer; Wilson, Rachel; Dong, Frank


    Low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Research is needed to understand the mechanisms and pathways of its effects. Computer-based assessment tools may improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness of health literacy research. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess if administration of the Short Test of Functional…

  2. How to assess common somatic symptoms in large-scale studies : A systematic review of questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma L.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Loewe, Bernd; Rief, Winfried; White, Peter D.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    Objective: Many questionnaires for assessment of common somatic symptoms or functional somatic symptoms are available and their use differs greatly among studies. The prevalence and incidence of symptoms are partially determined by the methods used to assess them. As a result, comparison across

  3. Development and Validation of a Pediatric Endocrine Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire: Impact of ac Pediatric Endocrine Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire Intervention Study. (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Zidan, Marwan; Moltz, Kathleen; Adhikari, Amita; Buggs-Saxton, Colleen; Zidan, Hanaa; Abushanab, Dania; Lteif, Aida; Edwin, Chandra


    While there is general agreement that patient education is essential for compliance, no objective tools exist to assess knowledge in children and parents of children with endocrine disorders. We aimed to design and validate a Pediatric Endocrine Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire (PEKAQ) for congenital hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, isolated growth hormone deficiency, Graves' disease, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We evaluated baseline knowledge of children and parents of children with these disorders and assessed impact of educational intervention. At baseline, 77 children (12-18 years) and 162 parents of children 1-18 years participated in this prospective intervention study. Educational handouts for five targeted disorders were designed. Following one-on-one educational intervention, 55 children and 123 parents participated. Baseline and post-intervention knowledge scores were compared using McNemar's test. Adequate multi-rater Kappa measure of agreement was achieved for children's (0.70) and parent's (0.75) PEKAQs. Flesch Reading Ease Score for both PEKAQs (15 questions each) was 65. Post-intervention, significantly higher proportion of parents and children answered majority of questions correctly (pknowledge score was an independent predictor of child's score. To our knowledge, this is the first validated PEKAQ that can be used widely in pediatric endocrinology clinics. We noted significant improvement in knowledge of children and parents of children with endocrine disorders.

  4. Review of quality assessment tools for the evaluation of pharmacoepidemiological safety studies (United States)

    Neyarapally, George A; Hammad, Tarek A; Pinheiro, Simone P; Iyasu, Solomon


    Objectives Pharmacoepidemiological studies are an important hypothesis-testing tool in the evaluation of postmarketing drug safety. Despite the potential to produce robust value-added data, interpretation of findings can be hindered due to well-recognised methodological limitations of these studies. Therefore, assessment of their quality is essential to evaluating their credibility. The objective of this review was to evaluate the suitability and relevance of available tools for the assessment of pharmacoepidemiological safety studies. Design We created an a priori assessment framework consisting of reporting elements (REs) and quality assessment attributes (QAAs). A comprehensive literature search identified distinct assessment tools and the prespecified elements and attributes were evaluated. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure was the percentage representation of each domain, RE and QAA for the quality assessment tools. Results A total of 61 tools were reviewed. Most tools were not designed to evaluate pharmacoepidemiological safety studies. More than 50% of the reviewed tools considered REs under the research aims, analytical approach, outcome definition and ascertainment, study population and exposure definition and ascertainment domains. REs under the discussion and interpretation, results and study team domains were considered in less than 40% of the tools. Except for the data source domain, quality attributes were considered in less than 50% of the tools. Conclusions Many tools failed to include critical assessment elements relevant to observational pharmacoepidemiological safety studies and did not distinguish between REs and QAAs. Further, there is a lack of considerations on the relative weights of different domains and elements. The development of a quality assessment tool would facilitate consistent, objective and evidence-based assessments of pharmacoepidemiological safety studies. PMID:23015600

  5. An Assessment of Learning Outcomes in Short-Term Study Abroad and Human Rights Education (United States)

    Nagengast, Emil


    How does short-term study abroad affect students' attitudes toward human rights? What role does study abroad play in human rights education? This study assesses the learning outcomes of two study abroad programs that aimed to promote human rights education. I applied a mixed methods approach to measure the changes in the opinions of students who…

  6. Assessment of Social Media Utilization and Study Habit of Students of Tertiary Institutions in Katsina State (United States)

    Olutola, Adekunle Thomas; Olatoye, Olufunke Omotoke; Olatoye, Rafiu Ademola


    This study investigated assessment of social media utilization and study habits of students of tertiary institutions in Katsina State. The descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. Three hundred and eighty-one (381) students' of tertiary institutions in Katsina State were randomly selected for the study. Researchers'-designed…

  7. Robot-assisted home hazard assessment for fall prevention: a feasibility study. (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Luger, Tana M; Coley, Heather L; Taylor, Benjamin B; Padir, Taskin; Ritchie, Christine S; Houston, Thomas K


    We examined the feasibility of using a remotely manoeuverable robot to make home hazard assessments for fall prevention. We employed use-case simulations to compare robot assessments with in-person assessments. We screened the homes of nine elderly patients (aged 65 years or more) for fall risks using the HEROS screening assessment. We also assessed the participants' perspectives of the remotely-operated robot in a survey. The nine patients had a median Short Blessed Test score of 8 (interquartile range, IQR 2-20) and a median Life-Space Assessment score of 46 (IQR 27-75). Compared to the in-person assessment (mean = 4.2 hazards identified per participant), significantly more home hazards were perceived in the robot video assessment (mean = 7.0). Only two checklist items (adequate bedroom lighting and a clear path from bed to bathroom) had more than 60% agreement between in-person and robot video assessment. Participants were enthusiastic about the robot and did not think it violated their privacy. The study found little agreement between the in-person and robot video hazard assessments. However, it identified several research questions about how to best use remotely-operated robots.

  8. Systematic reviews synthesized evidence without consistent quality assessment of primary studies examining epidemiology of chronic diseases. (United States)

    Shamliyan, Tatyana; Kane, Robert L; Jansen, Stacy


    To evaluate how systematic reviews assess the quality of primary studies of incidence, prevalence, or risk factors for chronic diseases. We searched several databases, identified 145 systematic reviews, and evaluated methods of quality assessment and quantitative synthesis of evidence by external or internal validity or overall quality of primary studies. Of 145 reviews, 54 (37%) reported a planned quality assessment of primary studies with checklists or scales and 26 (18%) reported evaluation of some selected quality criteria. Thirty-nine percent of reviews judged appropriateness of sampling and proper controls for confounding factors in primary studies. Twelve percent synthesized evidence by overall quality, 17% by design, 42% by criteria of internal validity, and 24% by external validity of primary studies. Masking of quality assessment was conducted on 2.1% of reviews and 4% tested interobserver agreement for quality assessment. Evaluation of internal and external validity of primary studies is uncommon in systematic reviews of studies of incidence, prevalence, or risk factors for chronic diseases. Inconsistent quality assessment practices reflect the absence of uniformly accepted standards and tools to examine the quality of observational nontherapeutic studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-disciplinary competence assessment: a case study in consensus and culture. (United States)

    Landry, L Y


    The case of May Redwing, an American Indian woman assessed for competence is examined in detail. The case highlights the interconnections between the cultures of medicine and law and notes the importance of criteria of competence assessment, but also underscores the necessity of attention to the patient's cultural background in a multi-disciplinary competence assessment team process. Three interrelated areas of inquiry are explored: (1) Can we expect a morally and politically justifiable assessment of competence from a multi-disciplinary approach? (2) What pitfalls threaten a multi-disciplinary approach? and (3) How are the patient's cultural background and values relevant to a proper assessment of competence? These questions are investigated in the context of analyzing and evaluating a particularly difficult case. Although focused on a specific case, the study is instructive and cautionary for any group undertaking the challenges of multi-disciplinary competence assessment.

  10. Understanding Authentic Assessment in a Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: An Instrumental Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joey Blackburn


    Full Text Available The instrumental case study reported here adds to the literature on authentic assessment by illuminating how one secondary agricultural education instructor employed authentic assessment in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. The study was underpinned by the constructivist notion of authentic learning and assessment, or allowing students to perform what they can do. Multiple sources of data regarding assessment practices were collected from an exemplary secondary agricultural mechanics instructor who demonstrated model authentic assessment behavior by (1 setting high and fair expectations for students, (2 establishing a progressive hierarchy of skills for students to master, (3 providing continuous feedback so that students had knowledge of their progress, and (4 being committed deeply to students’ success. The four themes resonated with previous literature and provided the foundation for a pragmatic model of authentic assessment in the secondary agricultural mechanics laboratory. Future research should focus on refining the model of authentic assessment in agricultural mechanics for a larger audience, as case studies are limited in their ability to generalize. Additionally, research should be conducted to determine how authentic assessment impacts student performance on Oklahoma Agricultural Power and Technology competency examinations.

  11. Introducing a design exigency to promote student learning through assessment: A case study. (United States)

    Grealish, Laurie A; Shaw, Julie M


    Assessment technologies are often used to classify student and newly qualified nurse performance as 'pass' or 'fail', with little attention to how these decisions are achieved. Examining the design exigencies of classification technologies, such as performance assessment technologies, provides opportunities to explore flexibility and change in the process of using those technologies. Evaluate an established assessment technology for nursing performance as a classification system. A case study analysis that is focused on the assessment approach and a priori design exigencies of performance assessment technology, in this case the Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016. Nurse assessors are required to draw upon their expertise to judge performance, but that judgement is described as a source of bias, creating confusion. The definition of satisfactory performance is 'ready to enter practice'. To pass, the performance on each criterion must be at least satisfactory, indicating to the student that no further improvement is required. The Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016 does not have a third 'other' category, which is usually found in classification systems. Introducing a 'not yet competent' category and creating a two-part, mixed methods assessment process can improve the Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016 assessment technology. Using a standards approach in the first part, judgement is valued and can generate learning opportunities across a program. Using a measurement approach in the second part, student performance can be 'not yet competent' but still meet criteria for year level performance and a graded pass. Subjecting the Australian Nursing Standards Assessment Tool 2016 assessment technology to analysis as a classification system provides opportunities for innovation in design. This design innovation has the potential to support students who move between programs and clinicians who assess students from different

  12. Revision Vodcast Influence on Assessment Scores and Study Processes in Secondary Physics (United States)

    Marencik, Joseph J.

    A quasi-experimental switching replications design with matched participants was employed to determine the influence of revision vodcasts, or video podcasts, on students' assessment scores and study processes in secondary physics. This study satisfied a need for quantitative results in the area of vodcast influence on students' learning processes. Thirty-eight physics students in an urban Ohio public high school participated in the study. The students in one Physics class were paired with students in another Physics class through the matching characteristics of current student cumulative test score mean and baseline study process as measured by the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ). Students in both classes were given identical pedagogic treatment and access to traditional revision tools except for the supplemental revision vodcasts given to the experimental group. After students in the experimental group viewed the revision vodcast for a particular topic, the assessment scores of the students in the experimental group were compared to the assessment scores of the control group through the direct-difference, D, test to determine any difference between the assessment score means of each group. The SPQ was given at the beginning of the experiment and after each physics assessment. The direct-difference method was again used to determine any difference between the SPQ deep approach scores of each group. The SPQ was also used to determine any correlative effects between study process and revision vodcast use on students' assessment scores through descriptive statistics and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Analysis indicated that revision vodcast use significantly increased students' assessment scores (papproach to studying ( p>.05). There were no significant correlative effects of revision vodcast use and study processes on students' assessment scores (p>.05). This study offers educators the empirical support to devote the necessary effort, time, and resources

  13. Assessing the reliability of ecotoxicological studies: An overview of current needs and approaches. (United States)

    Moermond, Caroline; Beasley, Amy; Breton, Roger; Junghans, Marion; Laskowski, Ryszard; Solomon, Keith; Zahner, Holly


    In general, reliable studies are well designed and well performed, and enough details on study design and performance are reported to assess the study. For hazard and risk assessment in various legal frameworks, many different types of ecotoxicity studies need to be evaluated for reliability. These studies vary in study design, methodology, quality, and level of detail reported (e.g., reviews, peer-reviewed research papers, or industry-sponsored studies documented under Good Laboratory Practice [GLP] guidelines). Regulators have the responsibility to make sound and verifiable decisions and should evaluate each study for reliability in accordance with scientific principles regardless of whether they were conducted in accordance with GLP and/or standardized methods. Thus, a systematic and transparent approach is needed to evaluate studies for reliability. In this paper, 8 different methods for reliability assessment were compared using a number of attributes: categorical versus numerical scoring methods, use of exclusion and critical criteria, weighting of criteria, whether methods are tested with case studies, domain of applicability, bias toward GLP studies, incorporation of standard guidelines in the evaluation method, number of criteria used, type of criteria considered, and availability of guidance material. Finally, some considerations are given on how to choose a suitable method for assessing reliability of ecotoxicity studies. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:640-651. © 2016 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2016 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  14. Assessing the power and quality of epidemiologic studies of asbestos-exposed populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.L.; Mandula, B.; Van Ryzin, J.V.


    This paper briefly discusses criteria for evaluating epidemiologic studies for risk assessment purposes, using asbestos as an example. Asbestos is one of the few carcinogens for which substantial data exist on exposures to humans. However, there are major difficulties in using these data for conducting risk assessments. In particular, exposure data are often incomplete, and risk assessments usually involve extrapolating from the higher exposures of the occupational environments to the lower levels typically encountered in the nonoccupational environment. The term asbestos refers to the fibrous form of several minerals, and levels of exposures to these fibers are not easily assessed. Criteria for evaluating epidemiologic studies used in an Ontario Royal Commission report on asbestos are discussed. The importance of considering the statistical power of studies to detect an excess risk is examined using as examples major cohort studies of asbestos-exposed workers, as summarized in a report by the U.S. National Research Council.

  15. Assessing the power and quality of epidemiologic studies of asbestos-exposed populations. (United States)

    Davis, D L; Mandula, B; Van Ryzin, J V


    This paper briefly discusses criteria for evaluating epidemiologic studies for risk assessment purposes, using asbestos as an example. Asbestos is one of the few carcinogens for which substantial data exist on exposures to humans. However, there are major difficulties in using these data for conducting risk assessments. In particular, exposure data are often incomplete, and risk assessments usually involve extrapolating from the higher exposures of the occupational environments to the lower levels typically encountered in the nonoccupational environment. The term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous form of several minerals, and levels of exposures to these fibers are not easily assessed. Criteria for evaluating epidemiologic studies used in an Ontario Royal Commission report on asbestos are discussed. The importance of considering the statistical power of studies to detect an excess risk is examined using as examples major cohort studies of asbestos-exposed workers, as summarized in a report by the U.S. National Research Council.


    Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

  17. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena


    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  18. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  19. A risk assessment study on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists in Bhopal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Batham


    Conclusion: This risk assessment study found that there is a high prevalence of MSDs and WMSDs among dentists. Ergonomic awareness and health promotion need to be integrated with the professional practice for dentists.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theresia Tuti Purwanti


    .... It is conducted to help students grow to be independent learners. With regard to this point, this case study is aimed at investigating the implementation of the self-assessment as a learning tool in writing class...

  1. Assessing internet addiction using the parsimonious internet addiction components model—A preliminary study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuss, D.J.; Shorter, G.W.; Rooij, A.J. van; Griffiths, M.D.; Schoenmakers, T.M.


    Internet usage has grown exponentially over the last decade. Research indicates that excessive Internet use can lead to symptoms associated with addiction. To date, assessment of potential Internet addiction has varied regarding populations studied and instruments used, making reliable prevalence

  2. Subjective vs objective nutritional assessment study in children: a cross-sectional study in the northwest of Iran. (United States)

    Mahdavi, Aida Malek; Safaiyan, Abdolrasool; Ostadrahimi, Alireza


    Different methods have been used to assess nutritional status in hospitalized pediatric patients, and there is no agreement on the finest index which reflects nutritional status. The aim of this study was to compare the subjective global assessment (SGA) and objective assessment of nutritional status in hospitalized pediatric patients. One hundred forty children with mean age of 6.43 +/- 0.23 years hospitalized consecutively in Tabriz Pediatric Hospital from June to August in 2008 underwent a subjective assessment using the SGA questionnaire and objective assessment (anthropometric and biochemical measurements). An agreement between 2 assessment methods were analyzed by the kappa statistic. According to the result of SGA method, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was higher than the objective assessment method. The agreement between the 2 methods were merely fair to moderate (kappa = 0.336, P = .000). The linear relationship between 2 methods was also fair to moderate (r = 0.374, P methods in assessing nutritional status of pediatric patients, and it can also detect the changing trend of nutritional status, which may be missed by one-time anthropometry and biochemical methods.

  3. The use of wound healing assessment methods in psychological studies: a review and recommendations. (United States)

    Koschwanez, Heidi E; Broadbent, Elizabeth


    To provide a critical review of methods used to assess human wound healing in psychological research and related disciplines, in order to guide future research into psychological influences on wound healing. Acute wound models (skin blister, tape stripping, skin biopsy, oral palate biopsy, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tubing), surgical wound healing assessment methods (wound drains, wound scoring), and chronic wound assessment techniques (surface area, volumetric measurements, wound composition, and assessment tools/scoring systems) are summarized, including merits, limitations, and recommendations. Several dermal and mucosal tissue acute wound models have been established to assess the effects of psychological stress on the inflammatory, proliferative, and repair phases of wound healing in humans, including material-based models developed to evaluate factors influencing post-surgical recovery. There is a paucity of research published on psychological factors influencing chronic wound healing. There are many assessment techniques available to study the progression of chronic wound healing but many difficulties inherent to long-term clinical studies. Researchers need to consider several design-related issues when conducting studies into the effects of psychological stress on wound healing, including the study aims, type of wound, tissue type, setting, sample characteristics and accessibility, costs, timeframe, and facilities available. Researchers should consider combining multiple wound assessment methods to increase the reliability and validity of results and to further understand mechanisms that link stress and wound healing. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Development of a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies: reliability and validity. (United States)

    Dawson, Andreas; Raphael, Karen G; Glaros, Alan; Axelsson, Susanna; Arima, Taro; Ernberg, Malin; Farella, Mauro; Lobbezoo, Frank; Manfredini, Daniele; Michelotti, Ambra; Svensson, Peter; List, Thomas


    To combine empirical evidence and expert opinion in a formal consensus method in order to develop a quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies in systematic reviews. Tool development comprised five steps: (1) preliminary decisions, (2) item generation, (3) face-validity assessment, (4) reliability and discriminitive validity assessment, and (5) instrument refinement. The kappa value and phi-coefficient were calculated to assess inter-observer reliability and discriminative ability, respectively. Following preliminary decisions and a literature review, a list of 52 items to be considered for inclusion in the tool was compiled. Eleven experts were invited to join a Delphi panel and 10 accepted. Four Delphi rounds reduced the preliminary tool-Quality-Assessment Tool for Experimental Bruxism Studies (Qu-ATEBS)- to 8 items: study aim, study sample, control condition or group, study design, experimental bruxism task, statistics, interpretation of results, and conflict of interest statement. Consensus among the Delphi panelists yielded good face validity. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable (k = 0.77). Discriminative validity was excellent (phi coefficient 1.0; P bruxism studies, exhibits face validity, excellent discriminative validity, and acceptable inter-observer reliability. Development of quality assessment tools for many other topics in the orofacial pain literature is needed and may follow the described procedure.

  5. Assessing Implicit Cognition Among Patients Lost to Follow-up for HIV Care: A Preliminary Study (United States)

    Houston, Eric; Lyons, Thomas; Wolfe, Brenda; Rolfsen, Norma; Williams, Maryanne; Rucker, Monique; Glick, Nancy


    Objective: While a growing body of research indicates that implicit cognitive processes play an important role in a range of health behaviors, the assessment of these impulsive, associative mental processes among patients living with HIV has received little attention. This preliminary study explored how multidimensional scaling (MDS) could be used to assess implicit cognitive processes among patients lost to follow-up for HIV care and develop interventions to improve their engagement. Method: The sample consisted of 33 patients who were identified as lost to follow up for HIV care at two urban hospitals. Participants were randomly assigned to either the MDS assessment program or control group. All participants underwent measures designed to gauge behavioral change intentions and treatment motivation. Assessment group participants were interviewed to determine their reactions to the assessment program. Results: The MDS assessment program identified cognitive processes and their relationship to treatment-related behaviors among assessment group participants. Assessment group participants reported significantly greater behavior change intentions than those in the control group (p =.02; Cohen’s d = 0.84). Conclusion: MDS shows promise as a tool to identify implicit cognitive processes related to treatment-related behaviors. Assessments based on MDS could serve as the basis for patient-centered clinical interventions designed to improve treatment adherence and HIV care engagement in general. PMID:27347274

  6. Assessing Motor Skill Competency in Elementary School Students: A Three-Year Study. (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Bennett, Austin


    This study was to examine how well fourth- and fifth-grade students demonstrated motor skill competency assessed with selected PE Metrics assessment rubrics (2009). Fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 1,346-1,926) were assessed on their performance of three manipulative skills using the PE Metrics Assessment Rubrics during the pre-intervention year, the post-intervention year 1, and the post-intervention year 3. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA, and follow-up comparisons were conducted for data analysis. The results indicated that the post-intervention year 2 cohort performed significantly more competent than the pre-intervention cohort and the post-intervention year 1 cohort on the three manipulative skill assessments. The post-intervention year 1 cohort significantly outperformed the pre-intervention cohort on the soccer dribbling, passing, and receiving and the striking skill assessments, but not on the throwing skill assessment. Although the boys in the three cohorts performed significantly better than the girls on all three skills, the girls showed substantial improvement on the overhand throwing and the soccer skills from baseline to the post-intervention year 1 and the post-intervention year 2. However, the girls, in particular, need to improve striking skill. The CTACH PE was conducive to improving fourth- and fifth-grade students' motor skill competency in the three manipulative skills. This study suggest that PE Metrics assessment rubrics are feasible tools for PE teachers to assess levels of students' demonstration of motor skill competency during a regular PE lesson. Key pointsCATCH PE is an empirically-evidenced quality PE curricular that is conducive to improving students' manipulative skill competency.Boys significantly outperformed than girls in all three manipulative skills.Girls need to improve motor skill competency in striking skill. PE Metrics are feasible assessment rubrics that can be easily used by trained physical

  7. Factors influencing medical students' self-assessment of examination performance accuracy: A United Arab Emirates study. (United States)

    Shaban, Sami; Aburawi, Elhadi H; Elzubeir, Khalifa; Elango, Sambandam; El-Zubeir, Margaret


    Assessment of one's academic capabilities is essential to being an effective, self-directed, life-long learner. The primary objective of this study was to analyze self-assessment accuracy of medical students attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, by examining their ability to assess their own performance on an MCQ examination. 1 st and 2 nd year medical students (n = 235) self-assessed pre and post-examination performance were compared with objectively measured scores (actual examination performance). Associations between accuracy of score prediction (pre and post assessment), and students' gender, year of education, perceived preparation, confidence and anxiety were also determined. Expected mark correlated significantly with objectively assessed marks (r = 0.407; P higher marks. Preparation and confidence correlated significantly with actual examination score (P < 0.05; r = 0.459 and 0.569 respectively). Gender, self-reported preparation and confidence are associated with self-assessment accuracy. Findings reinforce existing evidence indicating that medical students are poor self-assessors. There are potentially multiple explanations for misjudgment of this multidimensional construct that require further investigation and change in learning cultures. The study offers clear targets for change aimed at optimizing self-assessment capabilities.

  8. An Instrument to Assess Dental Students' Competence in Shared Decision Making: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Lucander, Henriette


    Evidence suggests that involving patients in health care decisions has a positive impact on health care outcomes and patients' perception of quality. However, the extent to which dental students are trained in communication and shared decision making (SDM) differs, and studies have identified a need for intensified learning and assessment of this competence. A need to more clearly define and operationalize what it means to be proficient in this area has been identified. The aim of this study was to operationalize communicative and relational skills in a comprehensive assessment instrument for SDM. Relevant skills in information exchange, negotiation, communication, and relationship-building were identified through an extensive review of previous research and instruments for assessing communication competence. Indicators for assessing these skills were formulated. The instrument was submitted to a pilot test in 2016 and evaluated on test content, internal structure, and response processes. The Assessment of Shared Decision Making (ASDM) instrument consists of 18 items addressing various aspects of the construct and three types of skills. Findings suggest that the ASDM represents a valid measure of SDM with three major components. The importance of developing the ASDM lies both in the summative assessment of students' communication with patients and for formative assessment purposes. Once identified, the components essential for SDM can be woven into the curriculum and shared with students. Thus, the ASDM provides a structure that can meet the need for intensified learning and assessment of dental students' competence in communication and SDM.

  9. Assessment of the Affective Evaluation Competencies of Social Studies Teachers in Secondary Schools in Western Nigeria (United States)

    Omare, C. Otote; Iyamu, Ede O. S.


    The nature and objectives of Social Studies in Nigerian Secondary schools indicate the affective orientation of the subject. Studies abound on the dominance of cognitive orientation to the teaching and evaluation of the subject in the schools, an indication that the curriculum is poorly implemented. This study assessed the affective evaluation…

  10. Teaching Leadership Online: An Exploratory Study of Instructional and Assessment Strategy Use (United States)

    Jenkins, Daniel M.


    This global, quantitative study explores the instructional and assessment strategy use of leadership educators who teach online, academic credit-bearing leadership studies courses at graduate- and undergraduate-levels. Participants include 81 graduate-level and 37 undergraduate-level instructors who taught an online leadership studies course…

  11. Assessing the impact of a study skills workshop on the academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants are given study materials for further reading after the workshop. This article presents a study which was conducted to assess the impact of a study skills workshop on learning strategies and academic achievement of first- year nursing students in the School of Health Sciences at the University of Venda, South ...

  12. Feasibility study for the quantitative assessment of mineral resources in asteroids (United States)

    Keszthelyi, Laszlo; Hagerty, Justin; Bowers, Amanda; Ellefsen, Karl; Ridley, Ian; King, Trude; Trilling, David; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Grundy, Will


    This study was undertaken to determine if the U.S. Geological Survey’s process for conducting mineral resource assessments on Earth can be applied to asteroids. Successful completion of the assessment, using water and iron resources to test the workflow, has resulted in identification of the minimal adjustments required to conduct full resource assessments beyond Earth. We also identify the types of future studies that would greatly reduce uncertainties in an actual future assessment. Whereas this is a feasibility study and does not include a complete and robust analysis of uncertainty, it is clear that the water and metal resources in near-Earth asteroids are sufficient to support humanity should it become a fully space-faring species.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Mistar


    Full Text Available his study is to investigate whether self-assessment contains construct- irrelevant variances of gender and age, and whether self-assessment correlates with test scores. The data were collected from seventy-eight newly arrived international students at the English Lan­guage Center, Michigan State University, USA. Prior to class com­mencement, they were asked to self-assess their listening, speaking, and interactive skill. Then, a test of listening was administered; finally, they were assigned to perform task-based conversational activities.The statistical findings imply that, firstly, gender and age do not provide construct irrelevant variances to the validity of self-assessment and, se­condly, self-assessment produces reliable scores.

  14. Chapter 5: Assessing Risk of Bias as a Domain of Quality in Medical Test Studies


    Santaguida, P. Lina; Riley, Crystal M.; Matchar, David B.


    ABSTRACT Assessing methodological quality is a necessary activity for any systematic review, including those evaluating the evidence for studies of medical test performance. Judging the overall quality of an individual study involves examining the size of the study, the direction and degree of findings, the relevance of the study, and the risk of bias in the form of systematic error, internal validity, and other study limitations. In this chapter of the Methods Guide for Medical Test Reviews,...

  15. Reproductive assessment by continuous breeding: evolving study design and summaries of ninety studies.


    Chapin, R.E.; Sloane, R A


    The Reproductive Assessment by Continuous Breeding (RACB) design has been used by the National Toxicology Program for approximately 15 years. This article details the evolutions in the thinking behind the design and the end points used in the identification of hazards to reproduction. Means of nominating chemicals are provided, and both early and current designs are described as well as some proposed changes for the future. This introduction is followed by a text and tabular summary of each s...

  16. Written reflection and drawing as assessment: A case study of a Navajo elementary science classroom (United States)

    Becker, Madeline

    The purpose of the study was to assess if science learning could be determined by using written reflection and drawings in a science classroom of 5 th-grade Navajo students. The significance of this study was the understanding of the culture, assessments and learning of Navajo students. I studied a classroom on the Navajo reservation wherein 26 members of the class took part in science instruction complemented by using writing and drawing which were used as their assessments. The perceptions of the 8 students who were interviewed represent the case. In the study I profiled the 8 participants. Their culture, language, and views on assessment and learning were documented by their words. Their responses described their learning experiences. Assessments were seen as frustrating and limiting expression of what was known and damaging when not contributed to learning. Students explained that drawing enabled them to remember along with provoking vocabulary development. Student cultural knowledge was documented as valuable background experience contributing to learning within the classroom. Students viewed science as needing to be useful in their culture. Finally, they were also very candid that their teachers must first get to know them for meaningful learning to begin. Learning for students was reinforced through writing and drawing the lesson's activities. Further concept development was assisted utilizing metacognition and creative problem solving techniques of elaboration and fluency applied to the writing and drawings. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were made for use of holistic means of assessing Navajo children in science where preferred learning styles along with cultural background need to be included in assessment protocols. Using new and better assessment techniques can directly impact how students document their learning as well as reveal how they acquire new knowledge.

  17. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Park, Kang Min [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Internal(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plant safety. In this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modelings and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. The sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code. The qualitative assessment for the STI/AOR of RPS/ESFAS assured safety the most important system in the nuclear power plant are performed.

  18. Iranian nurses perspectives on assessment of safe care: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Rashvand, Farnoosh; Salsali, Mahvash; Ebadi, Abbas; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Jordan, Sue; Griffiths, Pauline


    To explore the perspectives and experiences of nurse instructors and clinical nurses regarding the assessment of safe nursing care and its components in clinical practice. Safe nursing care is a key aspect of risk management in the healthcare system. The assessment of safe nursing care and identification of its components are primary steps to establish patient safety and risk management and enhance the quality of care in clinical practice. This was an interview study, with qualitative content analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 nurse instructors and clinical nurses including nurse managers chosen by purposive sampling based on theoretical saturation. Data collection and analysis were carried out simultaneously until data saturation was reached. Data analysis led to the extraction of four main themes: holistic assessment of safe nursing care; team working and assessment of safe nursing care; ethical issues; and challenges of safe nursing care assessment. Identifying these four components in the assessment of safe nursing care offers a contribution to the understanding of the elements of safe care assessment and the potential for improved patient safety. Safe care management requires the accurate and reliable assessment of safe nursing care and the need for strategies for reporting actual or potential unsafe care and errors to ensure patient safety. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Study of personality’s temperament and self-assessment of higher educational establishments’ students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Liashenko


    Full Text Available Purpose: analysis of temperament and self-assessment characteristics in higher educational establishment students. Material: in the research 1st and 2nd year students (n=30 participated. Questioning was used, with the help of which personality’s self assessment and temperament characteristics were estimated. Results: the study of students’ temperament structure showed low demand in mastering of objective world and strive for mental and physical labor. High indicator of social activity and interpersonal skills was registered. The following indicators of self-assessment were received: 15% of students had too low self-assessment, 50% of students have adequate self-assessment and 10% have excessively high self-assessment. Conclusions: quickness of psychic processes (tem and rhythm, impressiveness and emotional sensitivity are important features of temperament. Students demonstrated feeling of anxiety and worry in respect to their studying at university. Besides the have sensitivity to failures to non coincidence of the desired and the results. студентов. With it students have adequate self assessment.

  20. Assessment and pedagogy: a case study of two oral hygiene lecturers in South Africa. (United States)

    Vergotine, G


    There is evidence that most South African oral hygiene lecturers lack appropriate qualifications in the field of education. Their teaching skills are based mainly on clinical and practical experience, and this may impact on their understanding of the educational foundations of teaching, learning and assessment. To explore oral hygiene lecturers' knowledge and use of pedagogy and assessment and its alignment. A qualitative descriptive study design was used and case studies of two oral hygiene lecturers, each with qualifications in Education, were analyzed according to three themes: curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. The results showed that both participants had a good understanding of formative assessment (FA) and summative assessment (SA). They made use of FA but in neither case was the application ideal. Both used a range of teaching and assessment strategies but felt accountable to external demands of meeting outcomes. They linked their understanding of pedagogy and assessment to assist in the development of their courses and reported that this alignment had improved the quality of their programmes. This alignment by oral hygiene lecturers can influence curricular and pedagogic strategies. The professional educational development of lecturers in oral hygiene could be influential in improving the profession within the country.

  1. Assessing personality change in psychotherapy with the SWAP-200: a case study. (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Shedler, Jonathan; Gazzillo, Francesco


    Many studies document the efficacy of psychotherapy for acute syndromes such as depression, but less is known about personality change in patients treated for personality pathology. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200; Westen & Shedler, 1999a, 1999b) is an assessment tool that measures a broad spectrum of personality constructs and is designed to bridge the gap between the clinical and empirical traditions in personality assessment. In this article, we demonstrate the use of the SWAP-200 as a measure of change in a case study of a patient diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. We collected assessment data at the start of treatment and after 2 years of psychotherapy. The findings illustrate the personality processes targeted in intensive psychotherapy for borderline personality.

  2. Recommendations for the Conduct and Reporting of Modeling and Simulation Studies in Health Technology Assessment. (United States)

    Dahabreh, Issa J; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Balk, Ethan M; Wong, John B


    Models and simulations are valuable tools for addressing the uncertainty, tradeoffs, and heterogeneous preferences that complicate research questions in health technology assessment. This article presents recommendations for the conduct and reporting of modeling and simulation studies based on a systematic review of published recommendation statements, a survey of Web sites of international health technology assessment organizations, and input from experts and other stakeholders. The recommendations apply to mathematical models that represent structural relationships among model components and integrate information from multiple sources; they address model identification, estimation, verification, and validation, as well as the conduct of sensitivity, stability, and uncertainty analyses. They are organized into model conceptualization and structure, data, model assessment and consistency, and interpreting and reporting results. They should contribute to increased use and better conduct and reporting of modeling and simulation studies in health technology assessment.

  3. A Study on improvement of environmental assessment system in social, economic, and environmental sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Young Sook; Koo, Doh Wan; Keum, Kee Yong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)


    The environmental assessment system is assessed as a mechanism that can achieve the goal for environmental policy in 21st century. As it can evaluate social and economic feasibility of large-scale development program, this system can achieve a sustainable society by mitigating social conflicts arising from environmental problems. For making the environmental assessment system substantial, this study was implemented by the need of improvement of the system, by analyzing problems of social, economic, and environmental evaluation, which is implemented under the present system. 44 refs., 1 fig., 25 tabs.

  4. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Burrows


    Full Text Available Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9. Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7, 24-h diet recalls (n = 5, food frequency questionnaires (n = 3 and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1. Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11 automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25. This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  5. A Systematic Review of Technology-Based Dietary Intake Assessment Validation Studies That Include Carotenoid Biomarkers. (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy L; Rollo, Megan E; Williams, Rebecca; Wood, Lisa G; Garg, Manohar L; Jensen, Megan; Collins, Clare E


    Technological advances have allowed for the evolution of traditional dietary assessment methods. The aim of this review is to evaluate the accuracy of technology-based dietary assessment methods to determine carotenoid and/or fruit and vegetable intake when compared with carotenoid biomarkers. An online search strategy was undertaken to identify studies published in the English language up to July 2016. Inclusion criteria were adults ≥18 years, a measure of dietary intake that used information and communication technologies that specified fruit and/or vegetable intake or dietary carotenoid, a biomarker of carotenoid status and the association between the two. Sixteen articles from 13 studies were included with the majority cross-sectional in design (n = 9). Some studies used multiple dietary assessment methods with the most common: food records (n = 7), 24-h diet recalls (n = 5), food frequency questionnaires (n = 3) and diet quality assessed by dietary screener (n = 1). Two studies were directly web based, with four studies using technology that could be completed offline and data later transferred. Two studies utilised technology in the collection of dietary data, while the majority (n = 11) automated the collection in combination with nutrient analysis of the dietary data. Four studies provided correlation values between dietary carotenoids with biomarkers, ranging from r = 0.13 to 0.62 with the remaining studies comparing a measure of fruit and vegetable intake with biomarkers (r = 0.09 to 0.25). This review provides an overview of technology-based dietary assessment methods that have been used in validation studies with objectively measured carotenoids. Findings were positive with these dietary assessment measures showing mostly moderate associations with carotenoid biomarkers.

  6. Mobile Phone Assessment in Egocentric Networks: A Pilot Study on Gay Men and Their Peers.


    Comulada, WS


    Mobile phone-based data collection encompasses the richness of social network research. Both individual-level and network-level measures can be recorded. For example, health-related behaviors can be reported via mobile assessment. Social interactions can be assessed by phone-log data. Yet the potential of mobile phone data collection has largely been untapped. This is especially true of egocentric studies in public health settings where mobile phones can enhance both data collection and inter...



    M. Shamim Ahmad; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Mohammad; Anis Mokhtar; B. S. Ismail


    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefor...

  8. A case study of a Hungarian EFL teacher’s assessment practices with her young learners


    Gabriella Hild


    The case study aims to provide insights into how a Hungarian EFL teacher used tests, assessed her young learners and gave feedback to them in the classroom. This qualitative, exploratory study was a follow-up to a large-scale project. In this single-case study, data were collected from an EFL teacher and five of her seventh graders on what tasks she used to assess them and how. The participants were interviewed. For the purpose of triangulation, the students were also audio- and video-recorde...

  9. Methods for assessing the physical demands of manual lifting: a review and case study from warehousing. (United States)

    Waters, T R; Putz-Anderson, V; Baron, S


    Assessment of the physical demands of potentially hazardous manual material handling (MMH) activities is fundamental to the prevention of disabilities from occupationally related low back pain, a problem costing the nation billions of dollars annually. Although there is a variety of ergonomic assessment methods available for assessing MMH activities, there is a lack of practical information to assist users in choosing the most appropriate assessment methods of a particular job. This article reviews currently available assessment methods and presents case study results of a physically demanding repetitive manual lifting job in two grocery warehouses. The case study will provide a framework for a comparison of the methods and a discussion of relevant application issues designed to assist users in selecting appropriate methods for assessing MMH jobs. Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that all of the ergonomic methods were in agreement that the job of grocery selector has a high level of risk for low back pain. Differences between the methods were noted, however, that should be considered when choosing a specific method for a specific application.

  10. A comparative study on the validity of fall risk assessment scales in korean hospitals. (United States)

    Kim, Keum Soon; Kim, Jin A; Choi, Yun-Kyoung; Kim, Yu Jeong; Park, Mi Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Young; Song, Mal Soon


    The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of three fall risk assessment scales including the Morse Fall Scale (MFS), the Bobath Memorial Hospital Fall Risk Assessment Scale (BMFRAS), and the Johns Hopkins Hospital Fall Risk Assessment Tool (JHFRAT). This study was a prospective validation cohort study in five acute care hospitals in Seoul and Gyeonggi-Do, Korea. In total, 356 patients over the age of 18 years admitted from December 2009 to February 2010 participated. The three fall risk assessment scales listed above were tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to show sensitivities and specificities for predicting falls based on different threshold scores for considering patients at high risk. Based on the mean scores of each scale for falls, the MFS at a cut-off score of 50 had a sensitivity of 78.9%, specificity of 55.8%, positive predictive value of 30.8%, and negative predictive value of 91.4%, which were the highest values among the three fall assessment scales. Areas under the curve of the ROC curves were .761 for the MFS, .715 for the BMFRAS, and .708 for the JHFRAT. Accordingly, of the three fall risk assessment scales, the highest predictive validity for identifying patients at high risk for falls was achieved by the MFS. Copyright © 2011 Korean Society of Nursing Science. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifying approaches for assessing methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews: a descriptive study. (United States)

    Pussegoda, Kusala; Turner, Lucy; Garritty, Chantelle; Mayhew, Alain; Skidmore, Becky; Stevens, Adrienne; Boutron, Isabelle; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Bjerre, Lise M; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David


    The methodological quality and completeness of reporting of the systematic reviews (SRs) is fundamental to optimal implementation of evidence-based health care and the reduction of research waste. Methods exist to appraise SRs yet little is known about how they are used in SRs or where there are potential gaps in research best-practice guidance materials. The aims of this study are to identify reports assessing the methodological quality (MQ) and/or reporting quality (RQ) of a cohort of SRs and to assess their number, general characteristics, and approaches to 'quality' assessment over time. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE®, and EMBASE® were searched from January 1990 to October 16, 2014, for reports assessing MQ and/or RQ of SRs. Title, abstract, and full-text screening of all reports were conducted independently by two reviewers. Reports assessing the MQ and/or RQ of a cohort of ten or more SRs of interventions were included. All results are reported as frequencies and percentages of reports. Of 20,765 unique records retrieved, 1189 of them were reviewed for full-text review, of which 76 reports were included. Eight previously published approaches to assessing MQ or reporting guidelines used as proxy to assess RQ were used in 80% (61/76) of identified reports. These included two reporting guidelines (PRISMA and QUOROM) and five quality assessment tools (AMSTAR, R-AMSTAR, OQAQ, Mulrow, Sacks) and GRADE criteria. The remaining 24% (18/76) of reports developed their own criteria. PRISMA, OQAQ, and AMSTAR were the most commonly used published tools to assess MQ or RQ. In conjunction with other approaches, published tools were used in 29% (22/76) of reports, with 36% (8/22) assessing adherence to both PRISMA and AMSTAR criteria and 26% (6/22) using QUOROM and OQAQ. The methods used to assess quality of SRs are diverse, and none has become universally accepted. The most commonly used quality assessment tools are AMSTAR, OQAQ, and PRISMA. As new tools and guidelines are

  12. Open thoracotomy procedural competency: validity study of teaching and assessment modalities. (United States)

    Chapman, D M; Rhee, K J; Marx, J A; Honigman, B; Panacek, E A; Martinez, D; Brofeldt, B T; Cavanaugh, S H


    To determine (1) reliability and validity estimates of three modalities used to assess open thoracotomy procedural competency and (2) the effect of computer practice on procedural performance as measured by the three assessment modalities. An experimental, sequential assessment design with volunteer examinees completing all three assessment modalities (paper, computer, pig model) was implemented at the animal support facilities of a university medical school with an affiliated emergency medicine residency program. Level of physician training (student, resident, faculty) and type of computer practice (thoracotomy, cricothyrotomy) were independent variables. Procedural competency scores were determined for each modality; scores were defined in terms of performance time and performance accuracy for three thoracotomy procedures (opening the chest, pericardiotomy, and aortic cross-clamping). Thoracotomy performance on the pig reliably discriminated among examinees known to differ in level of training. However, computer simulation performance did not significantly differ among examinees with different levels of training. Computer simulation practice significantly improved later performance on the computer assessment (P < .05) but not on the pig assessment. The greatest predictor of procedural competency (time and accuracy) on the pig assessment was the ability to sequentially order procedural steps. This study establishes the pig model as superior to the paper and computer models as the criterion standard for open thoracotomy assessment. Psychometric properties support the pig model as the most reliable and valid model yet described for assessing thoracotomy procedural competency. Computer simulation practice using visual images (complex anatomy) and the sequential ordering of procedural steps through paper modeling show promise for teaching and assessment of prerequisite skills required to develop psychomotor procedural competency.

  13. Assessing Motor Skill Competency in Elementary School Students: A Three-Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyun Chen, Steve Mason, Andrew Hypnar, Austin Bennett


    Full Text Available This study was to examine how well fourth- and fifth-grade students demonstrated motor skill competency assessed with selected PE Metrics assessment rubrics (2009. Fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 1,346-1,926 were assessed on their performance of three manipulative skills using the PE Metrics Assessment Rubrics during the pre-intervention year, the post-intervention year 1, and the post-intervention year 3. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test, ANOVA, and follow-up comparisons were conducted for data analysis. The results indicated that the post-intervention year 2 cohort performed significantly more competent than the pre-intervention cohort and the post-intervention year 1 cohort on the three manipulative skill assessments. The post-intervention year 1 cohort significantly outperformed the pre-intervention cohort on the soccer dribbling, passing, and receiving and the striking skill assessments, but not on the throwing skill assessment. Although the boys in the three cohorts performed significantly better than the girls on all three skills, the girls showed substantial improvement on the overhand throwing and the soccer skills from baseline to the post-intervention year 1 and the post-intervention year 2. However, the girls, in particular, need to improve striking skill. The CTACH PE was conducive to improving fourth- and fifth-grade students’ motor skill competency in the three manipulative skills. This study suggest that PE Metrics assessment rubrics are feasible tools for PE teachers to assess levels of students’ demonstration of motor skill competency during a regular PE lesson.

  14. Assessment of physical activity in epidemiological studies: Are questionnaires obsolete in the era of accelerometry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brühmann, Boris A.


    Full Text Available [english] Background: The rapid development in technology promotes the increasing use of electronic activity monitors to assess physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies. Our aim was to explore and discuss both subjective and objective methods assessing physical activity.Methods: Based on a thorough literature search, major strengths and limitations of questionnaires and electronic activity monitors in assessing physical activity are elaborated and discussed, taking into consideration physical activity in all its complexity. Important research questions and the aim and scope of physical activity assessment for next-generation research are defined.Results: Questionnaires can provide details and background information of physical activity, including type of activity, and can identify the activity behaviour patterns that underlie measurable endpoints such as energy expenditure, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, or certain biomarkers. They can differentiate well between settings and enable retrospective assessment. Electronic activity monitors, on the other hand, are rapidly becoming better at assessing energy expenditure and are good at quantifying the amount and intensity of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Both methods, however, also have their weaknesses. While questionnaires may not be accurate, due to recall bias or incomplete assessment of all activity domains, electronic activity monitors are not able to provide information about setting, exact type and mode of activity, and cannot recognize and reliably assess resistance exercise or activities with or without carrying weights.Conclusions: Since physical activity is multidimensional and complex, no single method is suitable to capture all aspects and domains. Both methods have their strengths and limitations and do not compete with each other, but should be seen as complementary tools that assess distinct aspects of physical activity. Studies should

  15. Assessing Honor Code Effectiveness: Results of a Multipronged Approach from a Five Year Study (United States)

    Sledge, Sally; Pringle, Pam


    This paper describes an ongoing study at a small public university to assess student, faculty and alumni perceptions of academic integrity and business ethics. The phases of the research are detailed for application or replication by other institutions of higher education. The study involves anonymous surveys and academic integrity-based…

  16. Assessment of mastication in healthy children and children with cerebral palsy: a validity and consistency study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remijn, L.; Speyer, R.; Groen, B.E.; Holtus, P.C.; Limbeek, J. van; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.


    The aim of this study was to develop the Mastication Observation and Evaluation instrument for observing and assessing the chewing ability of children eating solid and lumpy foods. This study describes the process of item definition and item selection and reports the content validity,

  17. Understanding Perspectives of English Language Learning and Assessment Practices: A Mixed-Method Embedded Study (United States)

    Bailey, Angela Christine


    This study contributed to the continuing dialogue of quality language programs and student outcomes for classroom language learning and assessments within the standardized testing era to language learning programs within Colombia. The particular purpose of this one-phase, embedded, mixed-method study examined students' and teachers' beliefs about…

  18. A Qualitative Case Study of Strategies for Choosing and Evaluating Alternative Assessments in Online Higher Education (United States)

    Streff, Robert James


    Studies have shown that not all students are assessed effectively using standard testing formats. However, it is unclear what alternative methodology would be useful to determine whether students have acquired the skills necessary for today's global market. This research study's purpose was to understand the processes instructors use when choosing…

  19. Assessment of dust sampling methods for the study of cultivable-microorganism exposure in stables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normand, A.C.; Vacheyrou, M.; Sudre, B.; Heederik, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072910542; Piarroux, R.


    Studies have shown a link between living on a farm, exposure to microbial components (e.g., endotoxins or beta-d-glucans), and a lower risk for allergic diseases and asthma. Due to the lack of validated sampling methods, studies of asthma and atopy have not relied on exposure assessment based on

  20. Clinical assessment of PTSD in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen-Renckens, E.H.M.; Barnhoorn, E.; Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.; de Jongh, A.


    Objective: There are few studies regarding assessment and treatment of trauma-related disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The aims of this study were to determine (1) the feasibility of an adapted version of a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-clinical interview and (2) to

  1. Pain assessment in patellar tendinopathy using pain pressure threshold algometry: : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregel, Jeroen; van Wilgen, Cornelis Paul; Zwerver, Johannes


    ObjectiveAssessing pain in patellar tendinopathy (PT) is difficult to perform in a standardized way. With this study, we measured pain in athletes with PT by means of pain pressure threshold (PPT) algometry in a standardized manner. Subsequently, the goal of this study is to determine normative

  2. Development of a questionnaire to assess sedentary time in older persons -- a comparative study using accelerometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Koster, A.


    Background: There is currently no validated questionnaire available to assess total sedentary time in older adults. Most studies only used TV viewing time as an indicator of sedentary time. The first aim of our study was to investigate the self-reported time spent by older persons on a set of

  3. Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practices and Fourth-Graders' Reading Literacy Achievements: An International Study (United States)

    Hao, Shiqi; Johnson, Robert L.


    This study, through multilevel analyses of the data of four English-speaking nations (i.e., Canada, England, New Zealand and the United States) from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001 database, investigated the relationship between teachers' uses of various types of classroom assessments and their fourth-graders'…

  4. Physiotherapists' assessment of patients' psychosocial status: are we standing on thin ice? A qualitative descriptive study. (United States)

    Singla, Mukul; Jones, Mark; Edwards, Ian; Kumar, Saravana


    Pain is a complex problem and one that confronts many physiotherapists' working in private practice on a daily basis. While physiotherapists' understanding of pain has matured a great deal in recent times, especially the role of psychosocial (PS) factors, it is unclear if and how, physiotherapists assess their patients' psychosocial status in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to explore private practice physiotherapists' assessment of patients' psychosocial status. A qualitative descriptive research design was used in this study. Participants were recruited through purposeful sampling and potential informants were invited to participate through letters or phone calls and data was collected via semi-structured interviews. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted at the participants' workplaces. Data collection and analysis were conducted simultaneously and common concepts and themes were recognised, coded and grouped together into themes. Analysis of the data resulted in identification of various themes related to physiotherapists' assessment of patients' PS status. These themes relate to; physiotherapists capacity to conduct PS assessment, the barriers they face while conducting PS assessment and the suggestions they have provided to overcome these barriers. In general the physiotherapists' in this study demonstrated and acknowledged a poor understanding of the role of PS factors in their patients' clinical presentation. They were also unclear about the assessment of psychosocial factors. The barriers to assessment of psychosocial factors ranged from individual shortcomings to limitations in professional networks and time constraints. The most consistent barrier highlighted was participants' lack of formal education in PS theory and assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. How faculty members experience workplace-based assessment rater training: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Kogan, Jennifer R; Conforti, Lisa N; Bernabeo, Elizabeth; Iobst, William; Holmboe, Eric


    Direct observation of clinical skills is a common approach in workplace-based assessment (WBA). Despite widespread use of the mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX), faculty development efforts are typically required to improve assessment quality. Little consensus exists regarding the most effective training methods, and few studies explore faculty members' reactions to rater training. This study was conducted to qualitatively explore the experiences of faculty staff with two rater training approaches - performance dimension training (PDT) and a modified approach to frame of reference training (FoRT) - to elucidate how such faculty development can be optimally designed. In a qualitative study of a multifaceted intervention using complex intervention principles, 45 out-patient resident faculty preceptors from 26 US internal medicine residency programmes participated in a rater training faculty development programme. All participants were interviewed individually and in focus groups during and after the programme to elicit how the training influenced their approach to assessment. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data. Many participants perceived that rater training positively influenced their approach to direct observation and feedback, their ability to use entrustment as the standard for assessment, and their own clinical skills. However, barriers to implementation and change included: (i) a preference for holistic assessment over frameworks; (ii) challenges in defining competence; (iii) difficulty in changing one's approach to assessment, and (iv) concerns about institutional culture and buy-in. Rater training using PDT and a modified approach to FoRT can provide faculty staff with assessment skills that are congruent with principles of criterion-referenced assessment and entrustment, and foundational principles of competency-based education, while providing them with opportunities to reflect on their own clinical skills

  6. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part II: a methodological case study for pesticide risk assessment. (United States)

    Sørensen, Peter B; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert; Espinosa, Gabriela; Münier, Bernd; Gyldenkaerne, Steen; Thomsen, Marianne


    This paper illustrates, by a case study, how to apply the conceptual Worst-Case Definition (WCD) model, developed in the methodological paper in the current journal, by Sørensen et al. (2010-this issue). The case is about eco-toxicological risk assessment of pesticides under Danish conditions. Cumulative aspects are included on a conceptual basis as elements of the worst-case conditions. This defines factors that govern the risk assessment, including location in time and space of risk "hotspots". Two pillars of concern drive the conceptual modelling: (1) What to protect (denoted Protected Units (PUs)) and (2) the reason for increased risk level (denoted Causes of Risks (CRs)). Both PUs and CRs are analysed using hierarchical procedures that facilitate a complete listing of concrete factors governing increased risk for adverse effect due to agricultural usage of pesticide. The factors governing pesticide risk are combined in a context that combines the protection of relevant groupings of organisms with the factors for increased risk level for each of these. Identification of the most important relations between defined types of PUs and CRs is illustrated using expert knowledge. Existing databases are used to form spatial distributed risk indicators as estimators for a selection of important relations between PUs and CRs. This paper illustrates how the WCD model can break down the complex issue of uncertainty into fractions that are more open for evaluations. Finally, it shows application of risk indicators in a multi-criterion analysis using respectively self organizing mapping and partial order technique in a comparative analysis that highlights critical aspects of uncertainty, due to the ambiguity between single risk indicator rankings. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianny Jessica de Brito Silva


    Full Text Available This paper aimed to identify the perception of undergraduate Management course students from the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE, Agreste Campus, about their professors’ assessment methods. A quantitative approach was employed through a questionnaire conducted on a research sample of 155 students. The data collected and analyzed revealed that the students in question pointed out didactic and bureaucratic functions as the reasons for undertaking assessments and recognized their importance only for students, as an indication of their performance. Most students stated that their feelings about the assessment processes vary according to their time of study and empathy for the discipline, and that the teaching-assessment ratio is generally positive. Assessment feedback was common practice for the sample, but there was a lack of diversity of assessment tools and those used clash with the ones they desired. In conclusion, according to the students’ perception, it is possible to develop multiple thoughts about the assessment process, driving improvements in educational practices and the formation and training of university professors.

  8. Preferred question types for computer-based assessment of clinical reasoning: a literature study. (United States)

    van Bruggen, Lisette; Manrique-van Woudenbergh, Margreet; Spierenburg, Emely; Vos, Jacqueline


    Clinical reasoning is a core competence of doctors. Therefore, the assessment of clinical reasoning of undergraduate students is an important part of medical education. Three medical universities in the Netherlands wish to develop a shared question database in order to assess clinical reasoning of undergraduate students in Computer-Based Assessments (CBA). To determine suitable question types for this purpose a literature study was carried out. Search of ERIC and PubMed and subsequent cross referencing yielded 30 articles which met the inclusion criteria of a focus on question types suitable to assess clinical reasoning of medical students and providing recommendations for their use. Script Concordance Tests, Extended Matching Questions, Comprehensive Integrative Puzzles, Modified Essay Questions/Short Answer Questions, Long Menu Questions, Multiple Choice Questions, Multiple True/False Questions and Virtual Patients meet the above-mentioned criteria, but for different reasons not all types can be used easily in CBA. A combination of Comprehensive Integrative Puzzles and Extended Matching Questions seems to assess most aspects of clinical reasoning and these question types can be adapted for use in CBA. Regardless of the question type chosen, patient vignettes should be used as a standard stimulus format to assess clinical reasoning. Further research is necessary to ensure that the combination of these question types produces valid assessments and reliable test results.

  9. MRI assessment of thoracic stent grafts after emergency implantation in multi trauma patients: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasche, Volker [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); University Hospital Ulm, University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); Oberhuber, Alexander; Orend, Karl-Heinz [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Trumpp, Stephan [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); University Hospital Ulm, Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Bornstedt, Axel; Merkle, Nico; Rottbauer, Wolfgang [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II, Ulm (Germany); Hoffmann, Martin [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany)


    To evaluate the feasibility of MRI for static and dynamic assessment of the deployment of thoracic aortic stent grafts after emergency implantation in trauma patients. Twenty patients initially presenting with a rupture of the thoracic aorta were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). The deployment of the implanted stent graft was assessed by CTA and MRI, comprising the assessment of the aortic arch with and without contrast agent, and the assessment of the motion of the stent graft over the cardiac cycle. The stent graft geometry and motion over the cardiac cycle were assessable by MRI in all patients. Flow-mediated signal variations in areas of flow acceleration could be well visualised. No statistically significant differences in stent-graft diameters were observed between CT and MRI measurements. MRI appears to be a valuable tool for the assessment of thoracic stent grafts. It shows similar performance in the accurate assessment of stent-graft dimensions to the current gold standard CTA. Its capability of providing additional functional information and the lack of ionising radiation and nephrotoxic contrast agents may make MRI a valuable tool for monitoring patients after TEVAR. (orig.)

  10. Worth it? Findings from a study of how academics assess students’ Web 2.0 activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Gray


    Full Text Available Educational commentators have offered many pedagogical rationales for using Web 2.0 to support learning in higher education, and academics are being encouraged to find ways for their students to use social web technologies. Questions arise as to the value of these activities compared to more conventional assignments, and whether implementing such changes to student assessment is worth the effort. We conducted a survey of academics’ assessment of students’ Web 2.0 activities in Australian universities and found that this form of assessment is being conducted by a small number of academics, in a range of fields of study, but mainly in Humanities and Social Sciences, with varying kinds of intended and actual learning outcomes. Blogging and wiki-writing predominate, low and medium-stakes assessment are most common, and different methods of marking and feedback are in use. Qualitative feedback from the survey and follow-up interviews gave further insights into benefits and challenges of Web 2.0 assessment in relation to pedagogy, policy and practice. It appears that academics’ conservative approaches to conducting assessment and their novice approaches to utilising social web technologies are factors which seriously limit realising the potential of Web 2.0 for medium or high-stakes assessment.

  11. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  12. Establishing Normative Values for the Barnett Balance Assessment Tool: A Preliminary Study

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    Monica L. Cercone MSOTS


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for the Barnett Balance Assessment (BBA for individuals ages 18-70+ years. The BBA is a newly developed assessment tool that may address limitations present in other assessments currently used to detect balance deficits. The BBA was administered to 141 participants who had no history of medical issues that could impact balance. A review of the normative data collected indicated little variation in total assessment scores in the age categories of 18-29, 30-39, and 40-49, due to the presence of a ceiling effect. Variations existed in scores among participants in the remaining age categories (50-59, 60-69, and 70+. These findings may imply that the BBA has its greatest discriminative power in assessing individuals with impaired balance, and/or that the BBA is not sensitive enough to detect differences in individuals with mild balance impairments. The researchers suggest future studies be conducted with the BBA to establish norms with populations with known orthopedic or neurological conditions that may impair balance. Results of these studies could then be compared with the baseline data gathered in this study to determine the BBA’s usefulness in detecting balance impairments with clinical populations.

  13. Exposure Assessment Methods in Studies on Waste Management and Health Effects: An Overview

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    Andrea Spinazzè


    Full Text Available Concerns and uncertainties persist about potential environmental and health effects associated with exposure to emissions from widely adopted waste management facilities: despite a limited amount of evidence having been found for some exposure-effect associations, most of the available studies were characterized by limitations related to poor exposure assessment, which could introduce biases and weaknesses in the interpretation of results. This communication provides a brief overview of the exposure assessment methods used in studies on waste management and health effects: problems, key issues, priorities and challenges are briefly presented and discussed. The main conclusions refer to the need of newly developed and harmonized exposure assessment strategies and techniques, which represent an essential step in the study of waste-disposal facilities’ health impacts.

  14. Development of a Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale for Psychiatric Rehabilitation Settings: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Bhola, Poornima; Basavarajappa, Chethan; Guruprasad, Deepti; Hegde, Gayatri; Khanam, Fatema; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chaturvedi, Santosh K


    Deficits in social skills may present in a range of psychiatric disorders, particularly in the more serious and persistent conditions, and have an influence on functioning across various domains. This pilot study aimed at developing a brief measure, for structured evaluation and screening for social skills deficits, which can be easily integrated into routine clinical practice. The sample consisted of 380 inpatients and their accompanying caregivers, referred to Psychiatric Rehabilitation Services at a tertiary care government psychiatric hospital. The evaluation included an Inpatient intake Proforma and the 20-item Social Skills Assessment Screening Scale (SSASS). Disability was assessed using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS) for a subset of 94 inpatients. The analysis included means and standard deviations, frequency and percentages, Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency, t -tests to assess differences in social skills deficits between select subgroups, and correlation between SSASS and IDEAS scores. The results indicated the profile of social skills deficits assessed among the inpatients with varied psychiatric diagnoses. The "psychosis" group exhibited significantly higher deficits than the "mood disorder" group. Results indicated high internal consistency of the SSASS and adequate criterion validity demonstrated by correlations with select IDEAS domains. Modifications were made to the SSASS following the pilot study. The SSASS has potential value as a measure for screening and individualised intervention plans for social skills training in mental health and rehabilitation settings. The implications for future work on the psychometric properties and clinical applications are discussed.

  15. Assessing risk factors for early hip osteoarthritis in activity-related hip pain: a Delphi study (United States)

    Jackson, K A; Glyn-Jones, S; Batt, M E; Arden, N K; Newton, J L


    Objective Hip pain and injury as a result of activity can lead to the development of early hip osteoarthritis (OA) in susceptible individuals. Our understanding of the factors that increase susceptibility continues to evolve. The ability to clearly identify individuals (and cohorts) with activity-related hip pain who are at risk of early hip OA is currently lacking. The purpose of this study was to gain expert consensus on which key clinical measures might help predict the risk of early hip OA in individuals presenting with activity-related hip pain. The agreed measures would constitute a standardised approach to initial clinical assessment to help identify these individuals. Methods This Dephi study used online surveys to gain concordance of expert opinion in a structured process of ‘rounds’. In this study, we asked ‘What outcome measures are useful in predicting hip OA in activity-related hip pain?’ The Delphi panel consisted of experts from sport and exercise medicine, orthopaedics, rheumatology, physiotherapy and OA research. Results The study identified key clinical measures in the history, examination and investigations (plain anteroposterior radiograph and femoroacetabular impingement views) that the panel agreed would be useful in predicting future risk of hip OA when assessing activity-related hip pain. The panel also agreed that certain investigations and tests (eg, MR angiography) did not currently have a role in routine assessment. There was a lack of consensus regarding the role of MRI, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and certain biomechanical and functional assessments. Conclusions We provide a standardised approach to the clinical assessment of patients with activity-related hip pain. Assessment measures rejected by the Delphi panel were newer, more expensive investigations that currently lack evidence. Assessment measures that did not reach consensus include MRI and PROMs. Their role remains ambiguous and would benefit from further

  16. E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. (United States)

    Nilsson, Annika; Andrén, Marianne; Engström, Maria


    The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members' practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point.

  17. Quality Assessment of a Blended Studies Course in the Context of Open Learning Ideas: A Case Study (United States)

    Allan, Audrone; Lukoseviciute-Noreikiene, Ilona


    This paper analyses problems of course evaluation in the frame work of open learning. It introduces the process of quality assessment of one specific blended learning course. The centre of research is an individual student. From his perspective, an attempt is being made to look at the course as an opening to new study possibilities. In addition,…

  18. Assessing the reporting of categorised quantitative variables in observational epidemiological studies. (United States)

    Mabikwa, Onkabetse V; Greenwood, Darren C; Baxter, Paul D; Fleming, Sarah J


    One aspect to consider when reporting results of observational studies in epidemiology is how quantitative risk factors are analysed. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines recommend that researchers describe how they handle quantitative variables when analysing data. For categorised quantitative variables, the authors are required to provide reasons and justifications informing their practice. We investigated and assessed the practices and reporting of categorised quantitative variables in epidemiology. The assessment was based on five medical journals that publish epidemiological research. Observational studies published between April and June 2015 and investigating the relationships between quantitative exposures (or risk factors) and the outcomes were considered for assessment. A standard form was used to collect the data, and the reporting patterns amongst eligible studies were quantified and described. Out of 61 articles assessed for eligibility, 23 observational studies were included in the assessment. Categorisation of quantitative exposures occurred in 61% of these studies and reasons informing the practice were rarely provided. Only one article explained the choice of categorisation in the analysis. Transformation of quantitative exposures into four or five groups was common and dominant amongst studies using equally spaced categories. Dichotomisation was not popular; the practice featured in one article. Overall, the majority (86%) of the studies preferred ordered or arbitrary group categories. Other criterions used to decide categorical boundaries were based on established guidelines such as consensus statements and WHO standards. Categorisation of continuous variables remains a dominant practice in epidemiological studies. The reasons informing the practice of categorisation within published work are limited and remain unknown in most articles. The existing STROBE guidelines could provide stronger

  19. GPs' opinions of health assessment instruments for people with intellectual disabilities: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Bakker-van Gijssel, Esther J; Olde Hartman, Tim C; Lucassen, Peter Lbj; van den Driessen Mareeuw, Francine; Dees, Marianne K; Assendelft, Willem Jj; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny Mj


    GPs provide health care to people with intellectual disabilities (ID). People with ID find it difficult to express themselves concerning health-related matters. Applying health assessments is an effective method to reveal health needs, and can play a role in prevention and health promotion. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore GPs' considerations about applying a health assessment for people with ID. This focus group study was conducted among a selection of Dutch GPs. An interview guide was developed. All discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed. Analysis was performed using the framework analysis approach. Two researchers independently applied open coding and identified a thematic framework. This framework and the summaries of views per theme were discussed in the research team. After four focus groups, with 23 GPs, saturation was reached. Three main themes evolved: health assessments in relation to GPs' responsibility; the usefulness and necessity of health assessments; and barriers to using health assessments on people with ID. A health assessment instrument for people with ID can help GPs to focus on certain issues that are not so common in the general population. GPs are motivated to use such a tool if it is scientifically tested, and results in significant health gains. However, GPs identify barriers at the level of GP, patient, and organisation. Most GPs in the focus groups consider providing medical care to people with ID their responsibility and indicate that a health assessment instrument could be a valuable tool. In order to deliver good care, they need education and support. Many barriers need to be overcome before a health assessment instrument can be implemented. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  20. FaceTime validation study: Low-cost streaming video for cytology adequacy assessment. (United States)

    Agarwal, Shweta; Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Roy; Hassell, Lewis


    Adequacy assessment for fine-needle aspiration procedures is a standard of care in large medical centers. Although the benefits of this approach include higher adequacy rates with fewer passes, it costs cytopathologist time and affects other clinical responsibilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the use of mobile video streaming (FaceTime) technology with the help of smartphone adapters attached to microscopes for remote adequacy assessment of cytologic samples. The study consisted of 2 phases: Phase 1 was a retrospective assessment of 25 samples by a primary pathologist with simultaneous streaming to a second pathologist using a smartphone (iPhone/iPad) FaceTime connection. Data on the adequacy of each sample and preliminary diagnoses were recorded. In phase 2, live cases were assessed prospectively by an onsite primary pathologist and by a remote pathologist using an iPhone/iPad-FaceTime connection. The testing phase involved prospective assessment of additional samples with a resident or cytotechnologist as the slide driver. In phase 1, retrospective evaluation of 25 samples yielded considerable agreement (22 of 25 samples; 88%) between onsite and remote adequacy assessments. Three samples (12%) yielded results that did not agree, including 2 samples that were read as adequate in the onsite evaluation that were assessed as indeterminate using FaceTime. In phase 2 and in the testing phase, 14 samples exhibited considerable agreement on both adequacy and preliminary diagnosis (6 samples in phase 2 and 8 samples in the testing phase) and are currently available for reporting. Problems encountered include software version standardization, camera alignment, and (rarely) comprehension of the audio stream. The current data indicate that iPhone/iPad FaceTime technology can be used to perform remote adequacy assessments of fine-needle aspirations and can help save valuable time for pathologists. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  1. The Intersection of Language and Culture in Study Abroad: Assessment and Analysis of Study Abroad Outcomes (United States)

    Watson, Jeff R.; Wolfel, Richard


    The interconnectedness of language and culture in a study abroad environment has long been discussed in study abroad research circles. While some researchers see the relationship as complementary (Kasper & Omori, 2010; Selmeski, 2007), others go further to point out a more complex interrelationship (Kramsch, 2003; Silverstein, 2004; Watson,…

  2. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P


    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation. PMID:20617009

  3. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Nelson


    Full Text Available This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  4. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment. (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P


    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  5. Study and assessment of segregated biowaste composting: The case study of Attica municipalities. (United States)

    Malamis, D; Bourka, A; Stamatopoulou, Ε; Moustakas, K; Skiadi, O; Loizidou, M


    This work aims to assess the operation of the first large scale segregated biowaste composting scheme in Greece to divert Household Food Waste (HFW) from landfill and produce a material which can be recovered and used as compost. The source separation and collection of HFW was deployed in selected areas in Attica Region serving about 3700 households. Sorted HFW is collected & transported to the Mechanical and Biological Treatment (MBT) plant in Attica Region that has been designed to produce Compost Like Output (CLO) from mixed MSW. The MBT facility has been adjusted in order to receive and treat aerobically HFW mixed with shredded green waste in a dedicated composting tunnel. The composting process was monitored against temperature, moisture and oxygen content indicating that the biological conditions are sufficiently developed. The product quality was examined and assessed against the quality specifications of EU End of Waste Criteria for biowaste subjected to composting aiming to specify whether the HFW that has undergone recovery ceases to be waste and can be classified as compost. More specifically, the heavy metals concentrations (Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg) are within the set limits and much lower compared to the CLO material that currently is being produced at the MBT plant. In regard to the hygienic requirements of the product it has been found that the process conditions result in a pathogen free material (i.e. E. Coli and Salmonella) which does not favor the growth of viable weeds and plant propagules, while it acquires sufficient organic matter content for soil fertilization. Noticeable physical impurities (mainly fractions of glass) have been detected exceeding the quality control threshold limit of 0.5% w/w (plastics, metals and glass). The latter is related to the missorted materials and to the limited pre-treatment configurations prior to composting. The above findings indicate that effective source separation of biowaste is prerequisite for

  6. Retrospective cohort study of accident outcomes for individuals who have successfully undergone driver assessment following stroke. (United States)

    Pearce, Alison M; Smead, Jan M; Cameron, Ian D


    The occupational role of 'driver' is highly valued. Stroke can have a significant impact on an individual's ability to drive safely. Multi-disciplinary driver assessments are conducted to assess the safety of post-stroke individuals returning to driving, however, little follow-up of drivers following successful assessment has been performed. The objective of this study was to investigate whether passing a multi-disciplinary driving assessment following stroke predicted medium- to long-term safe and confident driving. A retrospective cohort study with primary data collection through structured telephone interviews was undertaken. Respondents were individuals post-stroke aged 18-74years who had successfully passed a multi-disciplinary driver assessment.  Forty-five respondents were interviewed an average of 20months following the assessment. Forty individuals were still driving. Twenty-five driving respondents reported driving in conditions that indicated confident driving. Confident driving was measured by driving frequency and distance, night driving, freeway driving and driving alone. The frequency of accidents and incidents suggests that 95% (n=38) of drivers are 'safe'. Eight respondents reported accidents, one of which was major. In two accidents the respondent was 'at fault'. A crash rate of 222 per 100,000 drivers is within the confidence interval for similar accidents in New South Wales. The results of this small cohort study suggest that a multi-disciplinary driver assessment may be effective in identifying people following stroke with the ability to drive safely and confidently. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. A Content Validity Study of AIMIT (Assessing Interpersonal Motivation in Transcripts). (United States)

    Fassone, Giovanni; Lo Reto, Floriana; Foggetti, Paola; Santomassimo, Chiara; D'Onofrio, Maria Rita; Ivaldi, Antonella; Liotti, Giovanni; Trincia, Valeria; Picardi, Angelo


    Multi-motivational theories of human relatedness state that different motivational systems with an evolutionary basis modulate interpersonal relationships. The reliable assessment of their dynamics may usefully inform the understanding of the therapeutic relationship. The coding system of the Assessing Interpersonal Motivation in Transcripts (AIMIT) allows to identify in the clinical the activity of five main interpersonal motivational systems (IMSs): attachment (care-seeking), caregiving, ranking, sexuality and peer cooperation. To assess whether the criteria currently used to score the AIMIT are consistently correlated with the conceptual formulation of the interpersonal multi-motivational theory, two different studies were designed. Study 1: Content validity as assessed by highly qualified independent raters. Study 2: Content validity as assessed by unqualified raters. Results of study 1 show that out of the total 60 AIMIT verbal criteria, 52 (86.7%) met the required minimum degree of correspondence. The average semantic correspondence scores between these items and the related IMSs were quite good (overall mean: 3.74, standard deviation: 0.61). In study 2, a group of 20 naïve raters had to identify each prevalent motivation (IMS) in a random sequence of 1000 utterances drawn from therapy sessions. Cohen's Kappa coefficient was calculated for each rater with reference to each IMS and then calculated the average Kappa for all raters for each IMS. All average Kappa values were satisfactory (>0.60) and ranged between 0.63 (ranking system) and 0.83 (sexuality system). Data confirmed the overall soundness of AIMIT's theoretical-applicative approach. Results are discussed, corroborating the hypothesis that the AIMIT possesses the required criteria for content validity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Assessing Interpersonal Motivations in psychotherapy transcripts as a useful tool to better understand links between motivational systems and intersubjectivity

  8. A Causal-Comparative Study of the Affects of Benchmark Assessments on Middle Grades Science Achievement Scores (United States)

    Galloway, Melissa Ritchie


    The purpose of this causal comparative study was to test the theory of assessment that relates benchmark assessments to the Georgia middle grades science Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) percentages, controlling for schools who do not administer benchmark assessments versus schools who do administer benchmark assessments for all middle…

  9. Use of 360-degree assessment of residents in internal medicine in a Danish setting: a feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allerup, P; Aspegren, K; Ejlersen, E


    learning objectives to be assessed. We considered 22 of these suitable for assessment by 360-degrees assessment. METHODS: Medical departments of six hospitals contributed 42 interns to the study. Each resident was assessed by ten persons of whom one was a secretary, four were nurses and five senior doctors...

  10. Reporting of Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE association studies: An empirical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies. Methods Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003. Results During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample. Conclusion We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.

  11. Combining Learning and Assessment in Assessment-Based Gaming Environments: A Case Study from a New York City School (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; VanWinkle, Waverely; Doyle, Bryan; Buteux, Alyssa; Bauer, Malcolm


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose and demonstrate an evidence-based scenario design framework for assessment-based computer games. Design/methodology/approach: The evidence-based scenario design framework is presented and demonstrated by using BELLA, a new assessment-based gaming environment aimed at supporting student learning of…

  12. Assessing the completeness of reporting of observational studies in Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology. Cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Peña, M. (Mary); Barona-Fong, L. (Luis); Campo-López, J. (Julio); Arroyave, Y. (Yeni); J.A. Calvache (Jose Andres)


    textabstractIntroduction The STROBE statement (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology), consisting of 22 points, was published in 2007 with the aim of improving the reporting of observational research. Objective To determine the completeness of reporting of

  13. Assessing physicians' use of treatment algorithms: Project IMPACTS study design and rationale. (United States)

    Trivedi, Madhukar H; Claassen, Cynthia A; Grannemann, Bruce D; Kashner, T Michael; Carmody, Thomas J; Daly, Ella; Kern, Janet K


    Effective treatments for major depressive disorder have been available for 35 years, yet inadequate pharmacotherapy continues to be widespread leading to suboptimal outcomes. Evidence-based medication algorithms have the potential to bring much-needed improvement in effectiveness of antidepressant treatment in "real-world" clinical settings. Project IMPACTS (Implementation of Algorithms using Computerized Treatment Systems) addresses the critical question of how best to facilitate integration of depression treatment algorithms into routine care. It tests an algorithm implemented through a computerized decision support system using a measurement-based care approach for depression against a paper-and-pencil version of the same algorithm and non-algorithm-based, specialist-delivered usual care. This paper reviews issues related to the Project IMPACTS study rationale, design, and procedures. Patient outcomes include symptom severity, social and work function, and quality of life. The economic impact of treatment is assessed in terms of health care utilization and cost. Data collected on physician behavior include degree of adherence to guidelines and physician attitudes about the perceived utility, ease of use, and self-reported effect of the use of algorithms on workload. Novel features of the design include a two-tiered study enrollment procedure, which initially enroll physicians as subjects, and then following recruitment of physicians, enrollment of subjects takes place based initially on an independent assessment by study staff to determine study eligibility. The study utilizes brief, easy-to-use symptom severity measures that facilitate physician decision making, and it employs a validated, phone-based, follow-up assessment protocol in order to minimize missing data, a problem common in public sector and longitudinal mental health studies. IMPACTS will assess the success of algorithm implementation and subsequent physician adherence using study

  14. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A


    of the assessors, as Cohen's kappa and as overall proportion of the agreements. The reassessment of the exposures changed the exposure statuses significantly, when compared with the original cohort. Harmonization of the exposure criteria increased the conformity of the assessments. The prevalence of exposure......The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral lymphocytes for increased cancer risk. Occupational hygienists assessed exposures in each participating country: Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway and Sweden. The exposure status to a carcinogen or a clastogen was coded in the cohort according...

  15. Assessment of adherence to visual correction and occlusion therapy in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Drews-Botsch


    Full Text Available Occlusion therapy throughout early childhood is believed to be efficacious in treating deprivation amblyopia but has not been rigorously assessed in clinical trials. Further, tools to assess adherence to such therapy over an extended period of time are lacking. Using data from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a randomized clinical trial of treatment for unilateral congenital cataract, we examined the use of quarterly 48-h recall interviews and annual 7-day prospective diaries to assess reported hours of patching in 114 children throughout the first 5 years of life. Consistency of data reported was assessed using correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients. Both interview and diary data showed excellent consistency with Cronbach’s Alpha’s ranging from 0.69 to 0.88 for hours of patching and 0.60 to 0.73 for hours of sleep. However, caregivers reported somewhat more adherence in prospective diaries than retrospective interviews. Completion rates, on the other hand, were substantially higher for telephone interviews than prospective diaries. For example, four years after surgery response rates to telephone interviews exceeded 75% versus completion rates of only 54% for diaries. In situations where occlusion dose monitors cannot be used for assessing adherence to occlusion therapy, such as in infants or over an extended period of time, quantitative assessments of occlusion therapy can be obtained by parental report, either as a series of prospective diaries or a series of recall interviews.

  16. Core outcome measures for opioid abuse liability laboratory assessment studies in humans: IMMPACT recommendations (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Zacny, James P.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Turk, Dennis C.; Bigelow, George E.; Foltin, Richard W.; Jasinski, Donald R.; Sellers, Edward M.; Adams, Edgar H.; Balster, Robert; Burke, Laurie B.; Cerny, Igor; Colucci, Robert D.; Cone, Edward; Cowan, Penney; Farrar, John T.; Haddox, J. David; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Hertz, Sharon; Jay, Gary W.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Junor, Roderick; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Klein, Michael; Kopecky, Ernest A.; Leiderman, Deborah B.; McDermott, Michael P.; O’Brien, Charles; O’Connor, Alec B.; Palmer, Pamela P.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rappaport, Bob A.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rowbotham, Michael C.; Sampaio, Cristina; Setnik, Beatrice; Sokolowska, Marta; Stauffer, Joseph W.; Walsh, Sharon L.


    A critical component in development of opioid analgesics is assessment of their abuse liability (AL). Standardization of approaches and measures used in assessing AL has the potential to facilitate comparisons across studies, research laboratories, and drugs. The goal of this report is to provide consensus recommendations regarding core outcome measures for assessing abuse potential of opioid medications in humans in a controlled laboratory setting. Although many of the recommended measures are appropriate for assessing the AL of medications from other drug classes, the focus here is on opioid medications because they present unique risks from both physiological (e.g., respiratory depression, physical dependence) and public health (e.g., individuals in pain) perspectives. A brief historical perspective on AL testing is provided and then those measures that can be considered primary and secondary outcomes and possible additional outcomes in AL assessment are discussed. These outcome measures include: (1) subjective effects (some of which comprise the primary outcome measures, including drug liking); (2) physiological responses; (3) drug self-administration behavior; and (4) cognitive and psychomotor performance. Prior to presenting recommendations for standardized approaches and measures to be used in AL assessments, the appropriateness of using these measures in clinical trials with patients in pain is discussed. PMID:22998781

  17. A Comparative Study of Risk Assessment Methods, MEHARI & CRAMM with a New Formal Model of Risk Assessment (FoMRA) in Information Systems


    Fray, Imed,


    Part 7: System Models and Risk Assessment; International audience; In this article, we present a comparative study of a developed new formal mathematical model of risk assessment (FoMRA) with expert methods of risk assessment in the information systems (IS). Proposed analysis verified the correctness of theoretical assumptions of developed model. In the paper, the examples of computations illustrating the application of FoMRA and known and accepted throughout the world methods of risk assessm...

  18. Improvement of agricultural life cycle assessment studies through spatial differentiation and new impact categories: case study on greenhouse tomato production. (United States)

    Antón, Assumpció; Torrellas, Marta; Núñez, Montserrat; Sevigné, Eva; Amores, Maria José; Muñoz, Pere; Montero, Juan I


    This paper presents the inclusion of new, relevant impact categories for agriculture life cycle assessments. We performed a specific case study with a focus on the applicability of spatially explicit characterization factors. The main goals were to provide a detailed evaluation of these new impact category methods, compare the results with commonly used methods (ReCiPe and USEtox) and demonstrate how these new methods can help improve environmental assessment in agriculture. As an overall conclusion, the newly developed impact categories helped fill the most important gaps related to land use, water consumption, pesticide toxicity, and nontoxic emissions linked to fertilizer use. We also found that including biodiversity damage due to land use and the effect of water consumption on wetlands represented a scientific advance toward more realistic environmental assessment of agricultural practices. Likewise, the dynamic crop model for assessing human toxicity from pesticide residue in food can lead to better practice in pesticide application. In further life cycle assessment (LCA) method developments, common end point units and normalization units should be agreed upon to make it possible to compare different impacts and methods. In addition, the application of site-specific characterization factors allowed us to be more accurate regarding inventory data and to identify precisely where background flows acquire high relevance.

  19. Quantitative muscle strength assessment in duchenne muscular dystrophy: longitudinal study and correlation with functional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerario Alberto


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to perform a longitudinal assessment using Quantitative Muscle Testing (QMT in a cohort of ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and to correlate the results of QMT with functional measures. This study is to date the most thorough long-term evaluation of QMT in a cohort of DMD patients correlated with other measures, such as the North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA or thee 6-min walk test (6MWT. Methods This is a single centre, prospective, non-randomised, study assessing QMT using the Kin Com® 125 machine in a study cohort of 28 ambulant DMD boys, aged 5 to 12 years. This cohort was assessed longitudinally over a 12 months period of time with 3 monthly assessments for QMT and with assessment of functional abilities, using the NSAA and the 6MWT at baseline and at 12 months only. QMT was also used in a control group of 13 healthy age-matched boys examined at baseline and at 12 months. Results There was an increase in QMT over 12 months in boys below the age of 7.5 years while in boys above the age of 7.5 years, QMT showed a significant decrease. All the average one-year changes were significantly different than those experienced by healthy controls. We also found a good correlation between quantitative tests and the other measures that was more obvious in the stronger children. Conclusion Our longitudinal data using QMT in a cohort of DMD patients suggest that this could be used as an additional tool to monitor changes, providing additional information on segmental strength.

  20. Daily mood monitoring of symptoms using smartphones in bipolar disorder: A pilot study assessing the feasibility of ecological momentary assessment (United States)

    Schwartz, Stefani; Schultz, Summer; Reider, Aubrey; Saunders, Erika F.H.


    Background Personal device technology has facilitated gathering data in real-time using Ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that using smartphones to measure symptoms in auto-generated surveys twice a day would be feasible in a group with bipolar disorder (BD). A second exploratory objective of this study was to compare potential differences in core symptoms between BD and healthy control (HC) groups. Methods A two-arm, parallel group, observational study was designed to measure completion rates of surveys of symptoms of mood, energy, speed of thought, impulsivity, and social stress in BD (N=10) and HC (N=10) participants. The surveys were auto-generated twice a day for fourteen days, and subjects could also perform self-generated surveys. Completion rates were compared between BD and HC groups. Scores were averaged for each participant over the 14 day period, and group medians were compared. Results Median completion rates did not differ between groups: 95% in BD, 88% in HC (p=0.68); the median completion rate of auto-generated surveys in the BD group was 79% and in the HC group was 71% (p=0.22). The BD group had significantly lower median mood score (p=0.043) and energy score (p=0.007) than the HC group. Median scores of speed of thoughts (p=0.739), impulsivity (p=0.123) and social stress (p=0.056) did not significantly differ between BD and HC. The BD group had significantly higher range of variability of group median mood (p=0.043), speed of thoughts (p=0.002) and impulsivity (p=0.005) scores over the course of 14 days than HC, while range of variability of energy (p=0.218) and social stress (p=0.123) scores did not differ. Results were not significantly different between auto-generated and self-generated surveys for BD or HC. Limitations This pilot study was conducted for a short time and with a small sample. Conclusions This study demonstrates feasibility of using EMA with a smartphone to gather data on BD symptoms. PMID:26655117

  1. Measuring Primary Students' Graph Interpretation Skills Via a Performance Assessment: A case study in instrument development (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Cranston, Kayla A.; Pryor, Marie; Kermish-Allen, Ruth


    This case study was conducted within the context of a place-based education project that was implemented with primary school students in the USA. The authors and participating teachers created a performance assessment of standards-aligned tasks to examine 6-10-year-old students' graph interpretation skills as part of an exploratory research project. Fifty-five students participated in a performance assessment interview at the beginning and end of a place-based investigation. Two forms of the assessment were created and counterbalanced within class at pre and post. In situ scoring was conducted such that responses were scored as correct versus incorrect during the assessment's administration. Criterion validity analysis demonstrated an age-level progression in student scores. Tests of discriminant validity showed that the instrument detected variability in interpretation skills across each of three graph types (line, bar, dot plot). Convergent validity was established by correlating in situ scores with those from the Graph Interpretation Scoring Rubric. Students' proficiency with interpreting different types of graphs matched expectations based on age and the standards-based progression of graphs across primary school grades. The assessment tasks were also effective at detecting pre-post gains in students' interpretation of line graphs and dot plots after the place-based project. The results of the case study are discussed in relation to the common challenges associated with performance assessment. Implications are presented in relation to the need for authentic and performance-based instructional and assessment tasks to respond to the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards.

  2. Evaluation of preoperative geriatric assessment of elderly patients with colorectal carcinoma. A retrospective study. (United States)

    Indrakusuma, R; Dunker, M S; Peetoom, J J; Schreurs, W H


    Elderly patients with colorectal carcinoma are screened with the Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) questionnaire to identify frail patients. These patients are more at risk for mortality and morbidity and are referred to the geriatric specialist for assessment (Dutch acronym: DOG). The DOG assessment aims to preoperatively optimize the patient in order to improve postoperative outcomes. This study evaluates if the DOG assessment influences postoperative outcome after colorectal surgery. Retrospective cohort and match-control study. Elderly patients who underwent elective resection between 01-01-2008 and 01-08-2013 in the Medical Centre Alkmaar were included. Patients with a positive ISAR score were referred to the geriatric specialists for DOG assessment (DOG patients). DOG assessment encompassed comprehensive geriatric assessment and interventions. Mortality, delirium and length of hospital stay. postoperative complications. Cohort ISAR- (2008-2010, no ISAR questionnaire) is compared with cohort ISAR+ (2011-2013, ISAR questionnaire). Match-control comparison: DOG patients are compared with matched controls from cohort ISAR-. Compared to their matched controls, DOG patients were older and had a higher prevalence of certain risk factors for postoperative delirium. In both comparisons, no statistical significant differences were found between the groups in mortality and postoperative delirium. Length of stay was significantly shorter in cohort ISAR+. While the DOG patients were significantly more at risk for postoperative complications, the DOG patients had comparable postoperative outcomes as their matched controls. We therefore conclude that the DOG assessment has a positive influence on the postoperative outcomes after colorectal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An exploratory pilot study to design and assess the credibility of a sham kinesiology treatment. (United States)

    Hall, Sue; Lewith, George; Brien, Sarah; Little, Paul


    Kinesiology is a complementary therapy assessing subtle change in manual muscle testing results to select individualised treatments. We report the exploratory 2-stage development and pilot of a sham kinesiology treatment for use in a clinical trial to evaluate the specific effects of this intervention. 1. To design, pilot and assess the credibility of a sham kinesiology treatment in a kinesiology-aware population. 2. To pilot the sham kinesiology in a cross-over study of sham versus real kinesiology, and to make an exploratory assessment of its credibility in a kinesiology-naïve population. 1. 10 kinesiology-aware volunteers received a specially designed sham treatment weekly for 5 weeks which was subject to a credibility assessment. 2. 10 kinesiology-naïve patients with low back pain were randomised to receive 4 real and 4 sham treatments in a cross-over design; the treatments were subject to a credibility assessment. 100% of participants found the sham protocol a credible treatment as measured by the credibility questionnaire. 100% of patients having real treatment first did not recognise that the second set of treatments were sham. Small numbers precluded the use of formal statistical tests. In this small sample it appeared feasible to deliver an apparently credible sham kinesiology treatment. This feasibility study has allowed us to develop a sham treatment for use in a larger prospective clinical trial of kinesiology in patients with low back pain. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Study on systematic integration technology of design and safety assessment for HLW geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito, Takaya; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kuwayama, Yuki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The present study was carried out relating to basic design of the Geological Disposal Technology Integration System' that will be systematized as knowledge base for analysis and assessment of geological disposal by integrating organically and hierarchically analysis and evaluation method in three study field. The key conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) The examination to construct the virtual geological disposal system which contained the geological environment on the computer was executed aiming at the development of integration and the analysis systems which became working common basic to execute the design and the performance assessment of the geological disposal system. (2) Technological information (I/O information) which became the base was associated with work (evaluation) item of 'Disposal technology (design)' and 'Performance assessment' in the Second Progress Report by JNC, and the evaluation flow by which a series of work concerning the design and the safety assessment of the geological disposal system was brought together was made. (3) The subject concerning the detailed model development in the R and D activity of the geological disposal system in the future was extracted aiming at the systematization of the performance and safety assessment, and was arranged as information to take these detailed models into the 'Geological Disposal Technology Integration System'. (author)

  5. The human component of sustainability: a study for assessing "human performances" of energy efficient construction blocks. (United States)

    Attaianese, Erminia; Duca, Gabriella


    This paper presents an applied research aimed at understanding the relevance and the applicability of human related criteria in sustainability assessment of construction materials. Under a theoretical perspective, human factors consideration is strongly encouraged by building sustainability assessment methods, but the practice demonstrates that current models for building sustainability assessment neglect ergonomic issues, especially those ones concerning the construction phase. The study starts from the observation that new construction techniques for high energy efficient external walls are characterized by elements generally heavier and bigger than traditional materials. In this case, high sustainability performances connected with energy saving could be reached only consuming high, and then not very much sustainable, human efforts during setting-up operations. The paper illustrates a practical approach for encompassing human factors in sustainability assessment of four block types for energy efficient external walls. Research steps, from block selections to bricklaying task analysis, human factors indicators and metrics formulation, data gathering and final assessment are going to be presented. Finally, open issues and further possible generalizations from the particular case study will be discussed.

  6. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideanu Daniella


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91 and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92 for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice.

  7. A review of studies applying environmental impact assessment methods on fruit production systems. (United States)

    Cerutti, Alessandro K; Bruun, Sander; Beccaro, Gabriele L; Bounous, Giancarlo


    Although many aspects of environmental accounting methodologies in food production have already been investigated, the application of environmental indicators in the fruit sector is still rare and no consensus can be found on the preferred method. On the contrary, widely diverging approaches have been taken to several aspects of the analyses, such as data collection, handling of scaling issues, and goal and scope definition. This paper reviews studies assessing the sustainability or environmental impacts of fruit production under different conditions and identifies aspects of fruit production that are of environmental importance. Four environmental assessment methods which may be applied to assess fruit production systems are evaluated, namely Life Cycle Assessment, Ecological Footprint Analysis, Emergy Analysis and Energy Balance. In the 22 peer-reviewed journal articles and two conference articles applying one of these methods in the fruit sector that were included in this review, a total of 26 applications of environmental impact assessment methods are described. These applications differ concerning e.g. overall objective, set of environmental issues considered, definition of system boundaries and calculation algorithms. Due to the relatively high variability in study cases and approaches, it was not possible to identify any one method as being better than the others. However, remarks on methodologies and suggestions for standardisation are given and the environmental burdens of fruit systems are highlighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deep assessment: an exploratory study of game-based, multimodal learning in Epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Jenson


    Full Text Available n this study, we examine what and how intermediate age students learned from playing in a health-focused game-based digital learning environment, Epidemic. Epidemic is a playful interactive environment designed to deliver factual knowledge, invite critical understanding, and encourage effective self-care practices in dealing with viral contagious diseases, using a social networking interface to integrate both serious games and game-like multimodal design projects. Epidemic invites a playful approach to its deadly serious core concern – communicable disease – in order to see what happens when students are encouraged to critically approach information from multiple or contradictory perspectives. To identify what participants learned while interacting within Epidemic, we deployed two instructional and assessment models, noting the differences each instructional approach could potentially make, and what approach to assessment might help us evaluate game-based learning. We found that each approach provided importantly different perspectives on what and how students learned, and on the very meaning of student success. Recognizing that traditional assessment tools based in print-cultural literacy may prove increasingly ill-suited for assessing emergent multimodal literacies in game-based learning environments, this study seeks to contribute to a growing body of work on the development of novel assessments for learning.

  9. Beyond speculative robot ethics: A vision assessment study on the future of the robotic caretaker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, A.P. van der; Smits, M.; Wehrmann, C.


    In this article we develop a dialogue model for robot technology experts and designated users to discuss visions on the future of robotics in long-term care. Our vision assessment study aims for more distinguished and more informed visions on future robots. Surprisingly, our experiment also led to

  10. Development of a Health Literacy Assessment for Young Adult College Students: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Harper, Raquel


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive health literacy assessment tool for young adult college students. Participants: Participants were 144 undergraduate students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-nine questions were developed, which were based on concepts identified by the US Department of Health and Human Services,…

  11. Screening life cycle assessment study of a sisal fibre reinforced micro-concrete structural insulated panel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N


    Full Text Available benefits and also save costs. Such an approach will therefore place the building industry on a more sustainable path. This paper reports on a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a sisal fibre reinforced (SFR) micro-concrete structural insulated...

  12. Preferences for Deep-Surface Learning: A Vocational Education Case Study Using a Multimedia Assessment Activity (United States)

    Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian


    This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…

  13. Mandated Psychological Assessments for Suicide Risk in a College Population: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Kirchner, Grace L.; Marshall, Donn; Poyner, Sunney R.


    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a protocol mandating psychological assessment of college students exhibiting specific signs of suicide risk and/or nonsuicidal self-harm. Thirty-seven current and former students who had been documented as at risk completed a structured interview in person or by phone. Outcomes suggest this…

  14. Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates (AWAKEN): Design of a Retrospective Cohort Study


    Jennifer Garcia Jetton; Ronnie Guillet; Askenazi, David J.; Lynn Dill; Judd Jacobs; Alison L Kent; Selewski, David T.; Abitbol, Carolyn L.; Kaskel, Fredrick J.; Maroun Jean Mhanna; Namasivayam Ambalavanan; Charlton, Jennifer R.


    INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects ~30% of hospitalized neonates. Critical to advancing our understanding of neonatal AKI is collaborative research among neonatologists and nephrologists. The Neonatal Kidney Collaborative (NKC) is an international, multidisciplinary group dedicated to investigating neonatal AKI. The AWAKEN study (Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates) was designed to describe the epidemiology of neonatal AKI, validate the definition...

  15. Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury Epidemiology in Neonates: Design of a Retrospective Cohort Study


    Jetton, Jennifer G.; Guillet, Ronnie; Askenazi, David J.; Dill, Lynn; Jacobs, Judd; Alison L Kent; Selewski, David T.; Abitbol, Carolyn L.; Kaskel, Fredrick J.; Mhanna, Maroun J.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Charlton, Jennifer R.


    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects ~30% of hospitalized neonates. Critical to advancing our understanding of neonatal AKI is collaborative research among neonatologists and nephrologists. The Neonatal Kidney Collaborative (NKC) is an international, multidisciplinary group dedicated to investigating neonatal AKI. The AWAKEN study (Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates) was designed to describe the epidemiology of neonatal AKI, validate the definition ...

  16. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study (United States)

    Young, Catherine


    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  17. Risk assessments at the Royal Netherlands Air Force : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Richardson; Gwendolyn C.H. Bakx


    In this paper, differences in the assessment of mission risks and mission benefits between operators and members of the management level in the transport helicopter branch of the Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) are studied. Results were obtained from a risk analysis that was conducted in

  18. Studying the Value of Library and Information Services: A Taxonomy of Users Assessments. (United States)

    Kantor, Paul B.; Saracevic, Tefko


    Describes the development of a taxonomy of the value of library services based on users' assessments from five large research libraries. Highlights include empirical and derived taxonomy, replicability of the study, reasons for using the library, how library services are related to time and money, and a theory of value. (LRW)

  19. Evaluability Assessment Thesis and Dissertation Studies in Graduate Professional Degree Programs (United States)

    Walser, Tamara M.; Trevisan, Michael S.


    Evaluability assessment (EA) has potential as a design option for thesis and dissertation studies, serving as a practical training experience for both technical and nontechnical evaluation skills. Based on a content review of a sample of EA theses and dissertations from graduate professional degree programs, the authors of this article found that…

  20. Auditing for Score Inflation Using Self-Monitoring Assessments: Findings from Three Pilot Studies (United States)

    Koretz, Daniel; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Ng, Hui Leng; Yu, Carol; Braslow, David; Langi, Meredith


    Test-based accountability often produces score inflation. Most studies have evaluated inflation by comparing trends on a high-stakes test and a lower stakes audit test. However, Koretz and Beguin (2010) noted weaknesses of audit tests and suggested self-monitoring assessments (SMAs), which incorporate audit items into high-stakes tests. This…