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Sample records for eucalyptus wood residue

  1. Determination of thermal properties and morphology of eucalyptus wood residue filled high density polyethylene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengeloglu, Fatih; Kabakci, Ayse

    2008-02-01

    Thermal behaviors of eucalyptus wood residue (EWR) filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites have been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Morphology of the materials was also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Addition of the EWR into the recycled HDPE matrix reduced the starting of degradation temperature. EWR filled recycled HDPE had two main decomposition peaks, one for EWR around 350 degrees C and one for recycled HDPE around 460 degrees C. Addition of EWR did not affect the melting temperature of the recycled HDPE. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between wood residue and recycled HDPE.

  2. Physical characterization of particleboard panels made from Eucalyptus grandis with addition of industrial wood residues

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    Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the wood from planted forests constitutes the main material source for the production of particleboards. The utilization of forest residues for production of these panels was not implemented in industrial level yet. This work had the objective of evaluating the physical properties of three layers particleboard, industrially manufactured, using wood of Eucalyptus grandis from plantation and industrial wood residues in different ratios (adittion from 10% to 35% in volume. The material (Eucalyptus grandis wood and industrial residues - recycled pallets and sawdust was supplied by Eucatex S. A. Ind. e Com. located in Botucatu - Sao Paulo State, Brazil, where the panels had been manufactured in Eucatex plant. Physical tests were carried out at the Process Laboratories of Eucatex and in the Materials Testing Laboratory, Rural Engineering Department of the College of Agronomic Sciences - Sao Paulo State University - UNESP. Results revealed that panels had very good physical performance, attending, in general, to all the technical specifications established by the product standards, even in the treatments with higher addition of residues. The final moisture content of the panel presented effect in the properties studied with general trend of reduction in water absorption and swelling in thickness when the moisture content increased from 9% for 12,5%.

  3. Determination of Thermal Properties and Morphology of Eucalyptus Wood Residue Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites

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    Ayse Kabakci

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behaviors of eucalyptus wood residue (EWR filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE composites have been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Morphology of the materials was also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Addition of the EWR into the recycled HDPE matrix reduced the starting of degradation temperature. EWR filled recycled HDPE had two main decomposition peaks, one for EWR around 350 °C and one for recycled HDPE around 460 °C. Addition of EWR did not affect the melting temperature of the recycled HDPE. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between wood residue and recycled HDPE.

  4. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

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    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  5. Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis; Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de residuos solidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose E.; Leao, Alcides L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], emails: evaristo@fca.unesp.br, alcidesleao@fca.unesp.br; Sartori, Maria M.P. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], email: msartori@btu.flash.tv.br

    2009-07-01

    The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW). With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above 15% showed large increase in ash content. Therefore, the treatment that fulfilled the requirements for combustion versus ash content and mechanical resistance was of at least 15% of MSW, since the source of the ash is unidentified. Considering the net energy content, the best treatment was 25% of MSW, with 17,175 kJ kg{sup -1}. Nevertheless, it is strongly advised that further studies related to gas emissions are necessary. (author)

  6. Energia de briquetes produzidos com rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos e madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Energy from briquettes produced from remains of urban solid residues and wood of Eucalyptus grandis

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    José E. Gonçalves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O incentivo ao consumo e à produção em grande quantidade na sociedade atual gera, exageros de resíduos sólidos urbanos que, em alguns casos, podem ser utilizados para a geração de energia. Neste sentido e visando reduzir os resíduos dos aterros municipais e gerar energia, buscou-se produzir briquetes com mistura de rejeitos de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RRSU e resíduos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Os briquetes foram fabricados com 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25% de RRSU na mistura com resíduos madeireiros contendo 12% de umidade. Os parâmetros analisados para a escolha da melhor mistura, foram: análise de combustibilidade x cinzas, resistência e energia utilizável. Os briquetes com até 10% de RRSU se mostraram com baixa resistência e os acima de 15% apresentaram grande aumento no teor de cinzas; portanto, os que melhor atenderam aos requisitos combustibilidade x cinzas e resistência mecânica, foram aqueles com 15% de RRSU, pois não se conhece a procedência das cinzas. Considerando-se a energia utilizável, o briquete com 25% de RRSU é o que apresenta maior poder calorífico útil na ordem de 17.175 kJ kg-1 motivo pelo qual se indica a produção de briquetes com adição RRSU; ressalta-se, porém, a necessidade de estudos sobre a emissão de gases.The incentive for consumption and production in large quantity in modern society generates enormous amounts of urban solid residues in the form of municipal solid waste (MSW. With the intention of reducing these residues of the municipal waste tips and to generate energy, briquettes with mixtures of MSW and residues of Eucalyptus grandis were produced. The briquettes were manufactured with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of MSW in the mixture with wood waste and 12% of moisture content. The analyzed parameters used to choose the best treatments were combustion analysis versus ash content, mechanical strength and energy content. The briquettes up to 10% of MSW showed low resistance, and above

  7. Empirical modeling of eucalyptus wood processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajo, J.C.; Alonso, J.L.; Lage, M.A.; Vazquez, D. (Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with NaOH solutions in order to obtain substrates highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. The experiments performed in the extraction and hydrolysis stages followed an incomplete factorial design. Temperature, NaOH concentration and extraction time were considered as independent variables. Their influence on five dependent variables (defined to measure the extraction yield, the chemical composition of processed samples and the enzymatic conversion) was assessed using second order, empirical models. In addition to the experimental results, other aspects related to the extraction selectivity are discussed. (orig.).

  8. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

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    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  9. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus benthamii WOOD FOR KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION

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    Isabel Cristina Nogueira Alves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for kraft pulp production. A hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis, probably the most planted Eucalyptus clone in Brazil, was also analyzed for comparison purposes. Basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions were determined for the two species. The Eucalyptus benthamii wood presented an anatomical structure, basic density and fiber dimensions quite similar to those of other species planted by the Brazilian pulp industry. However, it presented poorer wood quality characteristics when compared to the hybrid urograndis species, with higher amounts of extractives and lignin, lower amount of glucans, more galactans and lower S/G ratio, characteristics leading to lower pulping yield. Additional studies should be carried out to establish its pulping, bleaching and paper strength properties.

  10. Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    SALLAM, Sobhy M. A.; BUENO, Ives C. S.; NASSER, Mohamed E. A.; ABDALLA, Adibe L.

    2010-01-01

    Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora) fresh leaves (FL) or residue leaves (RL), after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h in...

  11. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

  12. Effects of Treatment Materials on the Physical Properties of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Wood

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    Selahattin Bardak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine effects on retention and shrink levels of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. which treated with some commercial preservative types, borates, polyethylene glycol, and water repellents. In this study, four type impregnation chemicals were chosen: 1. Commercial preservative types, [Ammonium sulphate, Vacsol-WR WR and Immersol-WR (WR], 2. Borates chemicals, [Boric acid, Borax, Boric acid+ Borax] 3. Polyethylene glycol such as Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400 4. Water repellents [Styrene, Methylmetacrylate.]. As a result, retention % and shrink levels of Eucalyptus wood was lower treated with commercial preservative types and borates preservatives compare to other treatment chemicals. However, retention % levels of Eucalyptus wood treated with WR chemicals were highly significant levels. According to their leachability period although PEG 400 showed antishrink effectiveness other treatments didnt showed antishrink efficiency.

  13. Effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh or residue leaves on methane emission in vitro

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    Adibe L. Abdalla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rumen fermentation and methane emission for eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora fresh leaves (FL or residue leaves (RL, after essential oil extraction from eucalyptus leaves in comparison with alfalfa (Medicago sativa hay, were investigated in vitro. Eucalyptus FL and RL were obtained from the Distillery Trees Barras Company, Torrinha City, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The semi-automatic system of gas production was used to measure gas production, methane emission and rumen fermentation after 24 h incubation in vitro. The results showed that the crude protein (CP contents were 76.4, 78.1 and 181.9 g kg-1 DM for eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay, respectively. The neutral-detergent fibre (NDF and acid-detergent fibre (ADF were significantly lower in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. The Eucalyptus fresh and residue leaves were rich in total phenols (TP and total tannins (TT but had negligible content of condensed tannins (CT. There was significant reduction in cumulative gas production about 54 and 51% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, compared with alfalfa hay. The methane emission (mL/g DM was reduced (P<0.05 by 53 and 57% with eucalyptus FL and RL, respectively, but the reduction was 21 and 16% when expressed on truly digested organic matter basis. There were a decline (P<0.05 in true dry and organic matter degradation in vitro in eucalyptus FL and RL compared with alfalfa hay substrate. The partitioning factor values were higher (P<0.05 in eucalyptus FL and RL than alfalfa hay. There was no significant difference observed between eucalyptus FL, RL and alfalfa hay in protozoa count. It is concluded that the eucalyptus leaves have potential effect to mitigate CH4 production in vitro, which may be attributed to a decrease in fermentable substrate rather than to a direct effect on methanogenesis.

  14. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood

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    Djeison Cesar Batista

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial to machined (final condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content to machined condition. Eucalyptus grandis wood was the most dimensionally stable and presented the smallest volume loss due to shrinkage. Although they had different shrinkage behaviors, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods presented the same drying quality regarding machining and total volume losses. These species can be considered the same for kiln drying. Eucalyptus dunnii wood presented the worst quality in drying, and should not be kiln dried in the same batch with the other species.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ANATOMY AND DRYING IN Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus urophylla WOOD

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    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying is an important step to using wood and anatomical characteristics influence this process. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between anatomy and wood drying. Samples with 2 x 2 x 4 cm were obtained from eight Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clones at 1.3 m height to evaluate the anatomy and drying in climate chamber during 15 days. Cell wall fraction was established as the parameter that best correlated with drying, the Pearson correlation coefficient between this parameter and moisture was -0.8986, -0.6580, 0.9216, 0.8743, 0.7131 and 0.8727 for saturated wood, and after 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 days of drying, respectively. The frequency and vessel size, as well as the height and width of the rays showed low relation with wood drying. Wood anatomy, mainly the cell wall fraction, influences moisture losses and should be considered in wood drying programs.

  16. A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus

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    Couloux Arnaud

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa. A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg and 1,396 singletons (Sg that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a

  17. Identification of PCR-base markers linked to wood splitting in Eucalyptus Grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood splitting is a defect in eucalyptus which results in considerable losses when converting logs to solid wood products. Commonly in forestry, molecular markers are identified through studying pedigrees from a single cross. This limits...

  18. Wood CO2 efflux and foliar respiration for Eucalyptus in Hawaii and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Molly A. Cavaleri; Auro C. Almeida; Ricardo Penchel; Randy S. Senock; Jose Luiz Stape

    2009-01-01

    We measured CO2 efflux from wood for Eucalyptus in Hawaii for 7 years and compared these measurements with those on three- and four-and-a-halfyear- old Eucalyptus in Brazil. In Hawaii, CO2 efflux from wood per unit biomass declined ~10x from age two to age five, twice as much as the decline in tree growth. The CO2 efflux from wood in Brazil was 8-10· lower than that...

  19. WOOD BASIC DENSITY EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla CLONES ON BLEACHED PULP QUALITY

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    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  20. Effect of eucalyptus wood vinegar on rubberwood infestation by Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

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    Tarasin, M

    2013-01-01

    Wood degradation caused by fungi, termites, and insects, is a major problem for the rubberwood industry. The potential of wood vinegar as rubberwood preservative was studied. The infestation rates of Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on rubberwood samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar for 24 hours were observed in laboratory conditions. Both non-choice and choice experiments were included. The effects of eucalyptus wood vinegar treatment depended on its concentration. In the non-choice experiments, rubberwood samples treated with 100% eucalyptus wood vinegar had the highest resistance to C. gestroi infestation, with the lowest relative loss of mass, followed in rank order by 50% and 25% treatments. However, in the choice experiments the relative loss of mass did not differ significantly between the treatments with varied wood vinegar concentration. Untreated control samples were distinctly infested by C. gestroi in both non-choice and choice experiments, but their relative loss of mass in the non-choice experiments was not significantly different from samples treated with 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar. Hence, 25% eucalyptus wood vinegar was not effective as rubberwood preservative against C. gestroi attack. The results suggest that eucalyptus wood vinegar acts as a rubberwood preservative against termites, provided the treatment is done without dilution. About 50% dilution still has some efficacy, while lower concentrations are not effective.

  1. Colorimetry as grouping tool of eucalyptus clones wood

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    Márcio da Fonseca Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneity of wood color in a batch to be marketed is of fundamental importance, as it will reflect in products quality resulting from its processing. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate, through colorimetric technique, the colorimetric parameters of Eucalyptus spp. wood from 25 clones and classify them into groups, according to color similarity degree. It was determined the lightness (L*, red-green color coordinate (a*, yellow-blue chromatic coordinate (b*, chromaticity (C* and ink angle (h. Radial and tangential faces and three positions in the radial direction were characterized using a colorimeter. Comparing to tangential planes, the results showed that radial plane presented larger values of L* and h in wood near the bark. Furthermore, it was observed higher values of L* in samples from intermediate radial positions. Finally, it was found that, as radial growth ocurred, developed timber showed less intense yellow shades. The definition of the wood color tones will be useful in timber market in the homogenization of their products, which will facilitate their marketing.

  2. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  3. Temperature effects on wood anatomy, wood density, photosynthesis and biomass partitioning of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D S; Montagu, K D; Conroy, J P

    2007-02-01

    Wood density, a gross measure of wood mass relative to wood volume, is important in our understanding of stem volume growth, carbon sequestration and leaf water supply. Disproportionate changes in the ratio of wood mass to volume may occur at the level of the whole stem or the individual cell. In general, there is a positive relationship between temperature and wood density of eucalypts, although this relationship has broken down in recent years with wood density decreasing as global temperatures have risen. To determine the anatomical causes of the effects of temperature on wood density, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden seedlings were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at constant temperatures from 10 to 35 degrees C. The 20% increase in wood density of E. grandis seedlings grown at the higher temperatures was variously related to a 40% reduction in lumen area of xylem vessels, a 10% reduction in the lumen area of fiber cells and a 10% increase in fiber cell wall thickness. The changes in cell wall characteristics could be considered analogous to changes in carbon supply. Lumen area of fiber cells declined because of reduced fiber cell expansion and increased fiber cell wall thickening. Fiber cell wall thickness was positively related to canopy CO2 assimilation rate (Ac), which increased 26-fold because of a 24-fold increase in leaf area and a doubling in leaf CO2 assimilation rate from minima at 10 and 35 degrees C to maxima at 25 and 30 degrees C. Increased Ac increased seedling volume, biomass and wood density; but increased wood density was also related to a shift in partitioning of seedling biomass from roots to stems as temperature increased.

  4. Utilization potential of wood clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels

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    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using clones of Eucalyptus urophylla in the production of wood-cement panels. The study used six clones of Eucalyptus urophylla with 8 years of age, from the Companhia Mineira de Metais, located in Paracatu - MG. For the formation of the panels it was used Portland cement CP V - ARI / Plus, possessing high initial resistance to mineral binder and calcium chloride (CaCl2 as accelerator for the cement curing. The panels were produced with the following parameters: dimensions of 49.5 x 49.5 x 1.5 cm, nominal density of 1.2 g/cm ³, relation wood: cement (1:2.5 and relation water: cement (1:1.5. The results can showed that: (1 for thickness swelling in two and twenty-four hours, only clones 19.28 and 58 attended the specifications, (2 for water absorption, clone 62 showed the best results, (3 to internal bond, only clone 58 didn`t attend specifications, (4 for the compression, clones 19.36 and 58 showed the best results, (5 for MOE and MOR, none of the clones presented values compatible to the bison process. It is suggested the continuation of this line of research, including the manipulation of variables of production, so that all properties be compatible to the minimum required standards.

  5. ANATOMIC AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Eucalyptus CLONES WOOD AND ITS INFLUENCE UPON BONDING

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    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro; Lourival Marin Mendes; Celiana Kátia Pereira Lima; Fábio Akira Mori

    2007-01-01

    Wood is a heterogeneous and complex material made up from different elements distributed along the trunk in several proportions. Associated with hygroscopicity, they have an influence on wood processing, including bonding. Therefore the present study sought, not only through the anatomic characterization and measurement but also through the total extractive content in Eucalyptus clones wood, to find out the correlation between the quality and the bonding junctions. Pearson correlations wer...

  6. BASIC DENSITY AND RETRACTIBILITY OF WOOD CLONES OF THREE Eucalyptus SPECIES

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    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it

  7. PREDICTIONG OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD BY COKRIGING, KRIGING AND REGRESSION

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    Wellington Jorge Cavalcanti Lundgren

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Gypsum Pole of Araripe, semiarid zone of Pernambuco, where is produces 97% of the plaster consumed in Brazil, a forest experiment with 1875 eucalyptus was cut off and all the trees were rigorously cubed by the Smalian method. The location of each tree was marked on a Cartesian plane, and a sample of 200 trees was removed by entirely random process. In the 200 sample trees, three estimation methods for variable volume timber, regression analysis, kriging and cokriging were used. To cokriging method, the secondary variable was the DBH (Diameter at Breast Height, and for the regression model of Spurr or the combined variable, it uses two explanatory variables: total height of the tree (H and the DBH. The variables volume and DBH showed spatial dependency. To compare de methods it was used the coefficient of determination (R2 and the residual distribution of the errors (real x estimated data. The best results were achieved with the Spurr equation R2 = 0.82 and total volume estimated 166.25 m3. The cokriging provided and R2 = 0.72 with total volume estimated of 164.14 m3 and kriging had R2 = 0.32 and the total volume estimated of 163.21 m3. The real volume of the experiment was 166.14 m3. Key words: Forest inventory, Volume of timber, Geostatistics.

  8. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  9. Effect of thermal modification on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Willians Calonego

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the physical properties of juvenile and mature woods of Eucalyptus grandis. Boards were taken from 30-year-old E. grandis trees. The boards were thermally modified at 180 °C in the Laboratory of Wood Drying and Preservation at UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The results showed that thermal modification caused: (1 decrease of 6.8% in the density at 0% equilibrium moisture content of mature wood; (2 significant decreases of 14.7% and 35.6% in the maximum volumetric swellings of juvenile and mature woods, respectively; (3 significant decreases of 13.7% and 21.3% in the equilibrium moisture content of juvenile and mature woods, respectively. The influence of thermal modification in juvenile wood was lower than in mature wood and caused greater uniformity in the physical variations between these types of wood in E. grandis.

  10. Wood and fish residuals composting in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Thomas Richard; Jesse A. Micales

    2002-01-01

    The unique climates and industrial mix in southeast and south central Alaska are challenges being met by the region's organics recyclers. OMPOSTING wood residuals in Alaska has become increasingly important in recent years as wood processors and other industrial waste managers search for environmentally sound and profitable outlets. Traditionally, Alaska?s...

  11. Study for exploitation of Eucalyptus bark generated in the process of manufacturing of wood panels; Estudo para aproveitamento de cascas de Eucalyptus geradas no processo de fabricacao de paineis de madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saglietti, Jose Roberto Correa; Rezende, Marcos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias de Botucatu. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica], E-mail: jroberto@ibb.unesp.br; Santiago, Francisco Luiz Sanchez [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2009-07-01

    In the wood fibreboard sheet manufacturing industries the use of Eucalyptus grandis has been used both as a raw material as well as fuel (biomass) for generating thermal energy as steam, water and hot air. This paper presents the results of a study obtained in a production plant at one facility in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. The generated amount of solid residues and barks, and also their heat energy, have been measured such that these residues can be used as fuel in steam boilers. The annual volume of wood applied for combustion has been 153,125 m{sup 3}/year at the plant in study. By leveraging the volume of the bark with wood saved for this purpose is 20,707 m{sup 3} / year, representing an annual savings of 13.52% of the average annual volume of wood to generate heat energy demanded by the facility under study. (author)

  12. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  13. Modification of static bending strength properties of Eucalyptus grandis heat-treated wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the effect of thermal rectification on physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood at different levels of temperature and time. Samples of Eucalyptus grandis wood (10 × 10 × 200 mm were heat-treated at 180, 200, 220 and 240 °C during 4 and 8 hours. The mechanical properties of heat-treated and untreated samples were determined by static bending tests. The physical properties were determined by weight loss and swelling tests. The results showed that modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, weight loss, volumetric swelling and linear swelling were affected significantly by the thermal rectification. However, the length of exposure influenced just weight loss, while the temperature influenced all the studied properties of heat-treated wood. More significant modifications with treatments at a temperature of 200 °C or higher were found in the properties of heat-treated wood.

  14. INFLUENCE OF CLONE HARVESTING AGE OF Eucalyptus grandis AND HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla IN THE WOOD CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN KRAFT PULPABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Damasceno de Morais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent efforts on the quality of the wood used in pulp and paper mills has focused in many points, among them the influence of the raw material chemical characteristics in the production process and final product quality. Considering the current demand for younger trees, the effect of the wood harvesting age in the chemical composition and in the process variables becomes a very important fact for the industries of this sector. So, the objective of this study was to characterize Brazilian eucalypt clones, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urograndis, both in different harvesting ages (1 to 8 years-old, for their chemical composition and kraft pulping parameters. Both chemical compositions of wood samples showed significant statistical variations due to the alteration of their harvesting ages. The glucan content, as well as cellulose content, basic density, and extractives tended to rise with the increase of harvesting age; while xylan and the other carbohydrate contents that compose the hemicelluloses tended to decline with the increase of the harvesting age, as well as uronic acids, acetyl groups, lignin, ashes, and S:G ratio. The 5 year-old wood samples showed the greatest pulping yield results for kappa number 17, and the yield at kappa number 17 showed strong correlation with glucan content.

  15. MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

  16. Comparison of anatomical properties of non-coppiced and coppiced wood in six Eucalyptus genotypes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zbonak, A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available product. While the large variation in the fibre properties among different Eucalyptus resources is well documented, little is known whether the quality of wood of the coppice shoots is different from that of the original seedling tree. In this study...

  17. Complex xylo-oligosaccharides identified from hydrothermally treated Eucalyptus wood and brewery's spent grain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrolysates from two hydrothermally treated xylan-rich agrobased materials, Eucalyptus wood and brewery's spent grain were fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. Hereby, several pools were obtained and they were characterised by their sugar composition.

  18. Effects of Eucalyptus globulus Wood Autohydrolysis Conditions on the Reaction Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrote, G.; Kabel, M.A.; Schols, H.A.; Falque, E.; Domingues, H.; Parajo, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were reacted in aqueous media (hydrothermal treatments) at 160 °C for 30¿66 min. Liquors from the several experiments were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, or gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry for monosaccharides,

  19. The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan; Sebastiao Fonseca; Rodolfo A. Loos; Ernesto N. Takahashi; Claudio R. Silva; Sergio R. Silva; Rodrigo E. Hakamada; Jose Mario de A. Ferreira; Augusto M. N. Lima; Jose Luiz Gava; Fernado P. Leite; Helder B. Andrade; Jacyr M. Alves; Gualter G. C. Silva; Moises R. Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the potential growth of clonal Eucalyptus plantations at eight locations across a 1000+ km gradient in Brazil by manipulating the supplies of nutrients and water, and altering the uniformity of tree sizes within plots. With no fertilization or irrigation, mean annual increments of stem wood were about 28% lower (16.2 Mg...

  20. Managing for water-use efficient wood production in Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. White; John F. McGrath; Michael G. Ryan; Michael Battaglia; Daniel S. Mendham; Joe Kinal; Geoffrey M. Downes; D. Stuart Crombie; Mark E. Hunt

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that thinning and nitrogen fertiliser can increase the mass of wood produced per volume of water used (evapotranspiration) by plantations of Eucalyptus globulus. We have called this plantation water productivity (PWPWOOD) and argue that, for a given genotype, this term integrates the effects of management, site and climate on both...

  1. Functional relationships between wood structure and vulnerability to xylem cavitation in races of Eucalyptus globulus differing in wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Monteoliva, Silvia; Gyenge, Javier; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Fernandez, María Elena

    2018-02-01

    Wood density can be considered as a measure of the internal wood structure, and it is usually used as a proxy measure of other mechanical and functional traits. Eucalyptus is one of the most important commercial forestry genera worldwide, but the relationship between wood density and vulnerability to cavitation in this genus has been little studied. The analysis is hampered by, among other things, its anatomical complexity, so it becomes necessary to address more complex techniques and analyses to elucidate the way in which the different anatomical elements are functionally integrated. In this study, vulnerability to cavitation in two races of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. with different wood density was evaluated through Path analysis, a multivariate method that allows evaluation of descriptive models of causal relationship between variables. A model relating anatomical variables with wood properties and functional parameters was proposed and tested. We found significant differences in wood basic density and vulnerability to cavitation between races. The main exogenous variables predicting vulnerability to cavitation were vessel hydraulic diameter and fibre wall fraction. Fibre wall fraction showed a direct impact on wood basic density and the slope of vulnerability curve, and an indirect and negative effect over the pressure imposing 50% of conductivity loss (P50) through them. Hydraulic diameter showed a direct negative effect on P50, but an indirect and positive influence over this variable through wood density on one hand, and through maximum hydraulic conductivity (ks max) and slope on the other. Our results highlight the complexity of the relationship between xylem efficiency and safety in species with solitary vessels such as Eucalyptus spp., with no evident compromise at the intraspecific level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  3. INTERFERENCE IN THE EUCALYPTUS PULP QUALITY AND YIELD DUE TO WOOD MULTIPLE USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Monteiro de Carvalho

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year plantation of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid established in the vicinity of Mogi-Guaçu/SP was evaluated, according to a simulation of multiple use of the wood. Part of the raw material produced was sent to sawn wood industry. The quality and yield of the cellulose produced in laboratory of three wood portions of the plantation was compared. In Treatment 1, the cellulose produced from the whole wood of the trees was evaluated; in Treatment 2 only the first portion of the tree was used, from wood of the soil base up to 4m height, wood that would be destined to sawnwood in a multiple use situation; finally, Treatment 3 evaluated the portion of the wood above 4 m of height. The possible interferences of multiple use of the wood in the yield and quality of the cellulose were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the retreat of the most vigorous logs of the trees didn't harm the quality and yield of the cellulose.

  4. Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Michele Santos Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

  5. Eucalyptus urophylla stands wood utilization at two different ages for production of particleboard panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the quality of wood particle panels manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12 years. To that end, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB and cement-bonded panels were produced in a laboratory and then analyzed for the following physical and mechanical properties: water absorption and thickness swell 2 and 24 hours after immersion, internal bond, compression parallel, as well as MOE and MOR from static bending. The obtained results demonstrate that tree age had little influence on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard, OSB and cement-bonded panels. After evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of these three panel types, all manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12, we can argue that our results are satisfactory in comparison to existing literature results.

  6. LONGITUDINAL RESIDUAL AND TANGENTIAL STRAIN (LRS and LRT IN SIX Eucalyptus spp. CLONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The species of Eucalyptus genus present high levels of growth stress. These stresses are mechanical efforts generated during the tree growth to help maintaining the balance of the cup, in response to environmental (light, wind and inclination of the land and silvicultural agents (pruning, thinning and planting density. The growth stresses are responsible for the cracks of tops, in logs and boards, and for the warp after the breaking down. This research evaluated the level of growth stress, measured by the longitudinal residual and tangential strain (DRL and DRT, around the circumference of the trunks of alive trees of six clones of Eucalyptus spp., at the age of 10.5 years, and verified the effect of the planting parcel. The clones belong to VMM-AGRO, and they are coming from a clonal test area implanted in the Bom Sucesso farm, located in Vazante-MG. For evaluating the experiment, the model adopted was the completely randomized one disposed in factorial outline with two factors (clone and portion in three repetitions. The results indicated that the average LRS was 0.093 mm and that the average LRT was 0.025 mm. It was verified that, for LRS, the clone effects and planting parcel were significant, while the interaction effect was not significant. For LRT the parcel and interaction effect were significant, while clone effect was not significant. Clones 44, 58 and 47 presented the smallest levels and better distributions of LRS, while, the clones 27, 44 and 58 presented the highest LRS levels. The clones 44 and 58 presented the best distribution and the smallest level of growth stress and may be considered potentially apt for producing sawn wood or solid wood.

  7. [Estimation of modulus of elasticity of Eucalyptus pellita wood by near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong-jun; Huo, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Li

    2009-09-01

    In the present study, the rapid prediction of wood modulus of elasticity (MOE) of Eucalyptus pellita by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is described. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and conventional mechanical testing methods were used to measure modulus of elasticity of small clear wood samples of Eucalyptus pellita. After collecting the near-infrared reflectance spectra of each sample from radial and tangential faces, the NIR spectra were preprocessed with the second-derivative methods, and regression models were built between 410 to 2 480 nm. The calibration models were established using two thirds of whole samples with the partial least squares method, and validation models were developed on an independent set (one third of whole samples). The analysis results showed that high correlation coefficients were obtained between the laboratory-determined MOE values and NIR prediction values of Eucalyptus pellita. The correlation coefficients of prediction model for MOE were 0.93 and 0.81, and RPD were 2.70 and 1.71. NIR analysis technique can realize the rapid prediction of the MOE of small clear wood samples of Eucalyptus pellita.

  8. Physical-mechanical and anatomical characterization in 26-year-old Eucalyptus resinifera wood

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Israel Luiz de; Longui, Eduardo Luiz; Freitas, Miguel Luiz Menezes; Zanatto, Antonio Carlos Scatena; Zanata, Marcelo; Florsheim, Sandra Monteiro Borges; Bortoletto Jr., Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to characterize Eucalyptus resinifera wood through physical and mechanical assays and wood anatomy studies, as well as determine the relationships between the properties and anatomy of wood. We used samples collected from the area close to the bark of ten 26-year-old E. resinifera trees. We concluded that the specific gravity (Gb), compression (f c0), and shear parallel to grain (f v0) were ranked in strength classes C30, C40 and C60, respectively, and that volu...

  9. Investigation of ESEM/EDX to measure liquor penetration and diffusion in Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grzeskowiak, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (ESEM/EDX) was optimised to measure the penetration and diffusion of cooking liquor into Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping. The moisture content...

  10. Identification of lipolytic enzymes isolated from bacteria indigenous to Eucalyptus wood species for application in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of determining substrate specificity at variable experimental conditions. Lipases and esterases were isolated from microorganisms cultivated from Eucalyptus wood species and then concentrated (cellulases removed...

  11. Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill in Galicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Regueira, L.; Proupin-Castineiras, J.; Rodriquez-Anon, J.A. [University of Santiago (Spain). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2002-03-01

    The possibility of retrieving the energy contained in forest residues originating from wood exploitation in Galicia (Spain) is evaluated. This study was made on Eucalyptus globulus Labill occupying a forest surface of 240 000 ha. This species plays an important role in the economical development of Galicia, as it is the main forest species for production of pulp. Sampling was made over 1999 in seven different zones, three main stations plus four selected for comparison, situated in Galicia. The residues originating from cutting were sorted into three different groups and their calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimetry. These calorific values, close to 7200 kJ kg{sup -1}, make possible the use of this residual biomass as an energy source. Calorific values were measured by static bomb calorimeter in an oxygen atmosphere. Flammability was determined using a standard epiradiator. Simultaneously, some other parameters, elementary chemical composition, heavy metal contents, moisture, density, ash percentage after combustion in the bomb, and main bioclimatic characteristics, were also determined. (author)

  12. Quality of Eucalyptus Wood Grown in Rio de Janeiro State for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias Francisco Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna, from production areas of Rio de Janeiro State, intended for energy use. The selection consisted of six trees per specie, at six years old. The wood samples had its basic density determined, then, was subjected to the pyrolysis process with 500 °C of final temperature. Charcoal, pyroligneous liquid and non-condensable gases yields were determined. In addition, the charcoal had its immediate analysis performed to determine the levels of volatiles matter, fixed carbon and ash content. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and principal component analysis. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis were effective to predict recommended species. Based on the results, the most recommended specie for energy purposes was the Eucalyptus grandis.

  13. Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. juvenile wood by sap displacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Marcel de Arruda Torres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzed the quality of the preservative treatment of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh juvenile wood and verified the influence of the inversion of the pieces, in preservative solution, in the distribution, penetration and retention of CCB in treated pieces. Trees of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were collected in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Tinto, Paraíba, Brazil, in a stand aged four years. In the stand were randomly chosen five trees, being three of them with the larger diameter. For the wood treatment it was used the sap displacement method by radial transpiration using a 2% solution of ingredients copper chrome borate (CCB and compared the effect of the inversion of pieces on the preservative solution. The distribution, penetration and retention were better in reversed pieces when compared with the ones non-reversed in the preservative solution.

  14. EFFECTS OF SOME BORON COMPOUNDS ON THE LEACHABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Tan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood preservation effectiveness of boron compounds against biological damagers and fire is well known. But these compounds are not widely used in preservation of wood because of their leachability from wood by rain water and making wood more hyroscopic than untreated wood in damp environments. Main aim of this study is; therefore, to improve the undesired leachability properties of some boron compounds by various water repellents (WRs. Aqueous solutions with polyethyleneglycole (PEG-400 of boric acid and sodium perborate were chosen as boron compounds. WRs were used as secondary treatment chemicals which were considered as dimensional stabilizer of wood and phsical bariers of boron retained at innerparts of treated wood. Results indicated that WRs were reduced leachability of boron from wood significantly (P<0.05. Boron salts applied with. PEG were more leachable than were of equeous solutions. WRs were not found effective on reducing the leachability of boron solved in PEG. Longer leaching time caused more leachant and reduction the phsical alleviation of WRs on boron leaching.

  15. Comprehensive genetic dissection of wood properties in a widely-grown tropical tree: Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gion, Jean-Marc; Carouché, Audrey; Deweer, Sylvie; Bedon, Franck; Pichavant, Frédérique; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Baillères, Henri; Rozenberg, Philippe; Carocha, Victor; Ognouabi, Nina; Verhaegen, Daniel; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Vigneron, Philippe; Plomion, Christophe

    2011-06-08

    Eucalyptus is an important genus in industrial plantations throughout the world and is grown for use as timber, pulp, paper and charcoal. Several breeding programmes have been launched worldwide to concomitantly improve growth performance and wood properties (WPs). In this study, an interspecific cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and E. grandis was used to identify major genomic regions (Quantitative Trait Loci, QTL) controlling the variability of WPs. Linkage maps were generated for both parent species. A total of 117 QTLs were detected for a series of wood and end-use related traits, including chemical, technological, physical, mechanical and anatomical properties. The QTLs were mainly clustered into five linkage groups. In terms of distribution of QTL effects, our result agrees with the typical L-shape reported in most QTL studies, i.e. most WP QTLs had limited effects and only a few (13) had major effects (phenotypic variance explained > 15%). The co-locations of QTLs for different WPs as well as QTLs and candidate genes are discussed in terms of phenotypic correlations between traits, and of the function of the candidate genes. The major wood property QTL harbours a gene encoding a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR), a structural enzyme of the monolignol-specific biosynthesis pathway. Given the number of traits analysed, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the genetic architecture of wood properties in this Eucalyptus full-sib pedigree. At the dawn of Eucalyptus genome sequence, it will provide a framework to identify the nature of genes underlying these important quantitative traits.

  16. Estimation of the mechanical properties of wood from Eucalyptus urophylla using near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério Andrade

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties studies of wood usually involve destructive wood assessments, with time-consuming teststhat use large amounts of resource (wood. Although this is not a limiting factor, it could be attenuated by the use of a nondestructivetechnique known as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. This technique has been applied to evaluate compounds containing C-H,N-H, S-H or O-H bonds, and involves quick analyses and can be applied to process control tasks. The objective of this work isto use the NIRS technique to obtain calibrations for mechanical properties of Eucalyptus sp. wood. A natural E. urophylla hybridat age 7 was used as obtained from V&M Florestal crops. Spectra were measured directly in solid wood (radial, tangential andtransverse faces and in ground wood, in diffuse reflectance mode, using a Bruker spectrometer in the 800 to 1,500 nm range. TheNIRS technique proved suitable to estimate modulus of elasticity in solid wood, with values r=0.91 and RPD=2.6, and in groundwood, with values r=0.87 and RPD=2.0. Modulus of rupture and compressive strength presented r values below 0.9. First andsecond derivative pretreatments provided a slight increase in correlation values for the properties in question. Calibrations fordifferent plank faces did not present a defined variation pattern. Solid wood and ground wood presented similar correlation valuesfor all properties.

  17. Quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis planted at three locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Angeli Sansígolo

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus grandis is one of the most popular species to use as raw material for pulp production in Brazil, as it provides excellent pulping, bleaching and papermaking results. The main objective of this study is to examine the quality of wood and pulp from a clone of Eucalyptus grandis, at age 4 years approximately, planted in three different soils, two of which being low fertility and one being a superior fertility soil, and their reflections on wood quality and pulping results. Chemical analyses of the soils followed guidelines developed by Raij et al. (2001, while physical and chemical properties of the wood followed ABTCP, TAPPI and ABNT standards. Chemical analyses of the soils pointed to lower fertility in Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada as opposed to higher fertility in Fazenda Mendes União. Results revealed stronger tendencies for the stand grown in the less fertile soils (Fazenda Limeira and Fazenda Tapera Queimada in comparison to the stand grown in more fertile soil (Fazenda Mendes União as to: higher wood and bark basic density, lower height and dry matter content, higher bark content, lower extractives content and higher holocellulose content, higher total and screened yields from pulping, lower specific wood consumption/t of pulp, and higher tear and tensile indices at low refining levels.

  18. Characterization of liquefied wood residues from different liquefaction conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd f. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2007-01-01

    The amount of wood residue is used as a measurement of the extent of wood liquefaction. Characterization of the residue from wood liquefaction provides a new approach to understand some fundamental aspects of the liquefaction reaction. Residues were characterized by wet chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and...

  19. ANATOMIC AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Eucalyptus CLONES WOOD AND ITS INFLUENCE UPON BONDING

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    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a heterogeneous and complex material made up from different elements distributed along the trunk in several proportions. Associated with hygroscopicity, they have an influence on wood processing, including bonding. Therefore the present study sought, not only through the anatomic characterization and measurement but also through the total extractive content in Eucalyptus clones wood, to find out the correlation between the quality and the bonding junctions. Pearson correlations were used, considering 39 and 26 clones in interaction with the urea- formaldehyde sticker. The anatomic characteristics, relative to frequency and size of conducting vessels, radial parenchyma and its total extractive content presented correlation with the evaluation of clone’s bonding quality as well as with the percentage of wood failure and glue-line shear.

  20. The effects of wood storage on the chemical composition and indigenous microflora of eucalyptus species used in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available eucalypt species [Eucalyptus nitens, E. grandis, and E. dunnii (of different site qualities)] wood and generated pulp was performed. This study aimed at determining the effects of wood storage at -20°C (for 6 months), by examining their chemical composition...

  1. Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antidiabetes drugs)Eucalyptus leaf extract might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. ... sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed. Some medications ...

  2. Decontamination of CCA-treated eucalyptus wood waste by acid leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Suzana Frighetto; Dos Santos, Heldiane Souza; Miranda, Luciana Gampert; Azevedo, Carla Maria Nunes; Maia, Sandra Maria; Pires, Marçal

    2016-03-01

    Preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) are used to increase the resistance of wood to deterioration. The components of CCA are highly toxic, resulting in growing concern over the disposal of the waste generated. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of Cu, Cr and As present in CCA-treated eucalyptus wood from utility poles removed from service in southern Brazil, in order to render them non-hazardous waste. The removal was carried out by acid leaching in bench-scale and applying optimal extractor concentration, total solid content, reactor volume, temperature and reaction time obtained by factorial experiments. The best working conditions were achieved using three extraction steps with 0.1 mol L(-1) H2SO4 at 75°C for 2h each (total solid content of 15%), and 3 additional 1h-long washing steps using water at ambient temperature. Under these conditions, removal of 97%, 85% and 98% were obtained for Cu, Cr and As, respectively, rendering the decontaminated wood non-hazardous waste. The wastewater produced by extraction showed acid pH, high organic loading as well as high concentrations of the elements, needing prior treatment to be discarded. However, rinsing water can be recycled in the extraction process without compromising its efficiency. The acid extraction is a promising alternative for CCA removal from eucalyptus wood waste in industrial scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality of Wood and Charcoal from Eucalyptus Clones for Ironmaster Use

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    Bárbara Luísa Corradi Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide variety of species and clones of Eucalyptus cultivated in Brazil, it is necessary to search for new information on wood properties, so that the selection of genetically superior material may be successful. The present study aimed to determine the properties of wood and charcoal from different clones of Eucalyptus spp. Six clones at the age of 7.5 years were evaluated and the samples were from a clonal, located in the city of Lassance, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Basic density, chemical composition, and higher heating value were determined. Carbonizations in a laboratory kiln were done and the levels of volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon, higher heating value, and bulk density of the charcoal produced were determined. Evaluated genetic materials showed differences in their properties. According to research results, several properties of wood should be considered together for the selection of clones for charcoal production. However, basic density and chemical composition of wood, especially high contents of lignin and low contents of extractives, are the properties that had more influence on charcoal yield and its quality. Concerning charcoal production for steelmaking, clone 6 stood out and, conversely, clone 4 showed inferior properties to those of others.

  4. Wood properties of Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus caribaea estimated by colorimetry

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    Patrícia Gomes Ribeiro Amorim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-destructive technologies has been very effective in characterization and evaluation of wood quality. This study aimed to characterize the technologically wood of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus grandis by Colorimetry. The study was conducted at the University of Brasilia (UNB in Physics and Engineering Laboratory the Laboratory of Forest Products/LPF - Brazilian Forest Service (SFB. Species were subjected to standard tests of basic density, shrinkage and bending. For the colorimetric determination of the parameters it was used a spectrophotometer according to the methodology adopted by Camargos (1999. The radial surface of the wood is most suitable for the collecting of the colorimetric parameters and prediction of properties. Property best estimated by this technique was the density, followed by modulus of elasticity (MOE and modulus of rupture (MOR.

  5. Parameters of quality of the woodworkability for determination of different usage of Eucalyptus wood

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    José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood products used in the furniture industry need to have wood work machine surfaces quality optimized andpatronized. There are some classification methods to determine the wood quality, including visual inspection, determination of theadvance per tooth (fz, rugosimeter and laser or just touching. After the wood classification it is determined the usage of the differentwood qualities. The empiricism of the quality parameters in the indication of uses is not always ideal. This study determined the qualityof surfaces of Eucalyptus flat wood and defined appropriate uses for the different quality classes obtained. It had been worked machinedifferent Eucalyptus samples by planer with speed of advance of 3,6,15 and 30 m*min-1. To classify the wood, the determination of theadvance per tooth (calculated fz and measured fz and the visual qualification (ASTMD 1666-87, 1995 were used. Later the woodusage according to quality was determined. The percentage of good samples decreased as the speed advance increased: reaching92%, 69%, 0% and 0% for advance speed of 3,6,15 and 30 m*min-1 respectively. Samples prepared at the speed of 3 and 6 m*min-1 were used to fabricate furniture, cabinet frame and thresholds. About 54%of samples prepared at the speed of 15 m*min-1 were usedfor railing, lambris, structural panels and flooring. About 46% and 100% of samples prepared at the speed of 15 and 30 m*min-1,respectively, were used to fabricate dividers, trusses, fences and, or, exterior gates.

  6. EFFECT OF AGE AND CLONE ON THE QUALITY OF Eucalyptus spp WOOD AIMING BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

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    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814587The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of age and clone on the quality of Eucalyptus spp wood aiming the production of charcoal and bioenergy. Four Eucalyptus spp clones at the ages of 57 and 69 months were evaluated. Four trees per clone in each age were evaluated. The average basic density, the basic density at the DBH, higher heating value and contents of lignin, total extractives, ashes, holocellulose an elemental chemica analylsis (C, H, N, S and O were evaluated. In the evaluation of the assay, and entirely randomized design in the factorial scheme 4 x 2 was used. Besides, a multivariate analysis of main components was made. In general, it was observed effect of age on wood quality. Ash, hydrogen and nitrogen contents tended to diminish with increases in age for all the clones evaluated. However, oxygen content presented an increase with the increase in age of the clones. Lignin content presented significant increase with age increase, being the contrary observed for holocellulose content. The clones at the age of 69 months presented the highest contents of lignin, but the same did not happen for basic density of wood. The clones I144 and I220 had the highest average values for this characteristic, what may be advantageous for charcoal production. 

  7. Quality of LVL panels produced with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benedito Guimarães Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to verify the quality of LVL panels manufactured with wood of five clones of Eucalyptus urophylla. Five LVL panels were produced for each clone, with 2 mm veneer, resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesive with a 320 g m-² weight, 1.47 MPa pressure for a period of 8 h at room temperature. In general, all clones showed potential to be used for production of LVL panels, especially clone 26, as it showed better performance regarding physical properties and bonding strength.

  8. EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis

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    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the fertilization in the amount and quality of the produced wood is one of the questions to be considered in the research of the Eucalyptus grandis. The present work aimed to evaluate the fertilization effect in the mechanical properties of Eucalyptus grandis. The population of Eucalyptus grandis was 21 years old and was managed under the system of selective thinning, with application of fertilizers. The factors used in this study were: presence or absence of fertilizers, two positions of log and five radial positions. The influences of the factors and of their combinations were evaluated regarding to compression strength, shear strength, modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity in static banding. The compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity had been influenced by the factors: fertilizer and radial positions of the log. There was also an increase in the direction of the pith-bark in all studied properties. A good positive relationship was found to exist among the compression strength, the shear, the modulus of rupture and the modulus of elasticity with radial position.

  9. Extracting value from Eucalyptus wood before kraft pulping: effects of hemicelluloses solubilization on pulp properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, C; Romero, J; Francisco, J L; Garrote, G; Parajó, J C

    2011-04-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to autohydrolysis for extracting hemicelluloses, and the resulting solids were assayed as substrates for kraft pulping and further Totally Chlorine Free (TCF) bleaching. The susceptibility of treated solids to kraft processing was assessed under selected experiments covering the optimum experimental range. In order to establish a basis for comparison, samples of untreated wood were also subjected to kraft delignification. The best kraft pulps obtained from autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence involving double alkaline oxygen and pressurized H(2)O(2) processing, and characterized using standard methods. The suitability of the final product obtained by autohydrolysis-kraft delignification-TCF bleaching for specific purposes is discussed on the basis of the experimental results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lignin isolated from steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips by phase separation and its affinity to Trichoderma reesei cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ai; Funaoka, Masamitsu

    2013-07-01

    Steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips were treated with p-cresol and 72% sulfuric acid at ambient temperature. Steam-exploded lignin was isolated as acetone-soluble and diethyl ether-insoluble compounds from the cresol layer. The lignin extraction yield was only 47%, and the amount of cresol grafted to lignin was much less than that in the case of eucalyptus lignin without steam explosion. Clearly, the steam explosion process depolymerized native lignin, and simultaneously, promoted polymerization via labile benzyl positions. The steam-exploded eucalyptus lignin adsorbed more Trichoderma reesei cellulase; however, its enzymatic activity was less than that of eucalyptus lignin that did not undergo steam explosion. It is evident that pretreatment potentially affects the affinity between lignin and cellulase and the resultant saccharification efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Qualidade de juntas coladas com lâminas de madeira oriundas de três regiões do tronco de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii Quality of wood joints glued with wood veneers from three trunk regions of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Rocha Vital

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de juntas coladas formadas pelas combinações de lâminas provenientes de três posições no tronco da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram empregados adesivos à base de poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150 g/m², em face simples para o poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidades e 300 g/m², em face dupla, para o adesivo resorcinólico. O teor médio de umidade das lâminas, no momento da colagem, foi igual a 14%. Os valores médios mais elevados de resistência ao cisalhamento foram obtidos nas juntas produzidas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna, coladas com adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído. A maior porcentagem de falha profunda na madeira foi obtida em juntas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, unidas com adesivo de poliacetato de alta viscosidade, seguidas das juntas de Eucalyptus grandis e coladas com adesivo de poliacetato de média viscosidade. As combinações de lâminas oriundas das seguintes posições no tronco: medula e casca, intermediária e casca e casca e casca resultaram em linhas de cola com maiores resistências ao cisalhamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the shear strength of glued wood joints from pith, outer and intermediary wood of Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii. High and medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate and resorcinol-phenol adhesives were applied at spread rate of 150 g/m² in single line and at spread rate of 300 g/m² in double glue line for the resorcinolic adhesive. The mean wood moisture content was 14%. Higher shear strength was obtained with Eucalyptus saligna veneer glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl resorcinolic adhesive. The highest percentage of wood failure was found on Pinus elliottii veneer glued with high viscosity polyvinyl acetate adhesive followed by

  12. Bleaching of kraft pulps produced from green liquor pre-hydrolyzed South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Andrew, JE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hemicellulose pre-extraction of South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips using green liquor, on subsequent kraft pulping and bleaching processes was studied. This was done in the context of a biorefinery mill producing both ethanol...

  13. QUALITY OF GRUE-BOND EUCALYPTUS WOOD SPECIMEN GLUED IN TWO DIFFERENT DENSITIES AND SHEAR PLANES

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    Moisés Silveira Lobão

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluate a glue-bond quality was also determined according to NBR 7190/97 in samples representing thetwo different densities and the shear planes. Eucalyptus lumber was purchased in the local market for the research purpose. It wasfoun, that the whole lot could be segregated into two sub-lots, one containing higher specific gravity timber, another containing lowerdensity wood, later, in samples made to represent the two different densities; the shear planes, however, included two possibilities: thetwo pieces that formed the block had their fibers both parallel or one of the parts had their fibers perpendicular to those of the otherpart. The adhesive used was resorcinol-formaldehyde. Shear strength was determined by compression using these blocks; thepercentage of wood failure was also measured. It was found that the low density wood glued better, because the average shear strengthof the blocks with fibers of the parts parallel to the direction of the force did not differ from the shear strength of solid wood. It was foundthe behavior of shear planes follows that of the samples made with fibers of the parts parallel to the shearing force.

  14. Influence of belt speed, grit sizes and pressure on the sanding of Eucalyptus grandis wood

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    Alexandre Jorge Duarte de Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sanding process is important to the quality of wood products. Sanding reduces imperfections in wood surfaces and it is important to the final product and application of paints or varnishes. There are few studies about sanding in the literature and finding out the relationship between the input parameters (i.e., species of wood, grit size, abrasive on the output parameters (i.e., roughness, force, pressure will help to improve this process. This study analyzed the influence of input parameters as belt speed (cutting speed, grit size and pressure on the output parameters as surface roughness, cutting force (sanding force and power consumption on cross-grain sanding of Eucalyptus grandis wood. The tests were performed with 3 types of grit sizes (80, 100 and 120 grit, 3 belt speeds (10, 11 and 12 m/s and 2 pressures (219.89 and 283.44 g/cm². The surface roughness was analyzed based on roughness average (Ra. Sanding efforts were analyzed by cutting force and power consumption. It was found that the 100 grit size provided the lowest cutting force. It was observed that the belt speed, pressure and grit size influenced the surface roughness, cutting force and power consumption. The best surface finishes were obtained in tests with higher pressure.

  15. Chemical characteristics and Kraft pulping of tension wood from Eucalyptus globulus labill

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    María Graciela Aguayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tension (TW and opposite wood (OW of Eucalyptus globulus trees were analyzed for its chemical characteristics and Kraft pulp production. Lignin content was 16% lower and contained 32% more syringyl units in TW than in OW. The increase in syringyl units favoured the formation of β-O-4 bonds that was also higher in TW than in OW (84% vs. 64%, respectively. The effect of these wood features was evaluated in the production of Kraft pulps from both types of wood. At kappa number 16, Kraft pulps obtained from TW demanded less active alkali in delignification and presented slightly higher or similar pulp yield than pulps made with OW. Fiber length, coarseness and intrinsic viscosity were also higher in tension than in opposite pulps. When pulps where refined to 30°SR, TW pulps needed 18% more revolutions in the PFI mill to achieve the same beating degree than OW pulps. Strength properties (tensile, tear and burst indexes were slightly higher or similar in tension as compared with opposite wood pulps. After an OD0(EOD1 bleaching sequence, both pulps achieved up to 89% ISO brightness. Bleached pulps from TW presented higher viscosity and low amount of hexenuronic acids than pulps from OW. Results showed that TW presented high xylans and low lignin content that caused a decrease in alkali consumption, increase pulp strength properties and similar bleaching performance as compared with pulps from OW.

  16. Influência da densidade básica da madeira na qualidade da polpa kraft de clones hibrídos de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden X Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake Effect of wood basic density on kraft pulp quality of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden X Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Setúbal Queiroz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados dois clones de Eucalyptus com densidades básicas de 447 e 552 kg/m³. O processo kraft foi utilizado para a produção de celulose, tendo sido aplicadas diferentes cargas de álcali para se obterem polpas com número kappa 18 ± 0,5. As polpas foram branqueadas pela seqüência ODEopDD, a alvuras de 90 ± 1% ISO, e refinadas, sendo suas propriedades físico-mecânicas e ópticas analisadas. A madeira de baixa densidade mostrou-se mais recomendável para a produção de celulose, por ter apresentado maior rendimento depurado, viscosidade da polpa mais elevada, ter requerido menor carga de álcali no cozimento, ter proporcionado menor teor de sólidos no licor residual e menor consumo de reagentes químicos no branqueamento. As propriedades mecânicas e estruturais das polpas não foram afetadas significativamente pela densidade básica das madeiras.Two hybrid Eucalyptus clones having 447 kg/m³ and 552 kg/m³ basic densities were used for this study. The kraft process was used for pulping the wood chips to kappa number 18±0.5 and different alkali charges were applied to reach this delignification target. Pulp was bleached to 90±1% ISO using the ODEopDD bleaching sequence. The bleached pulp was refined and its physical-mechanical properties were determined. The lower density wood was recommended for pulp production due to its lower alkali requirement for pulping, higher screened yield, superior pulp viscosity, lower black liquor solids content and lower bleaching chemical requirement. Wood basic density did not affect significantly the mechanical and structural pulp properties.

  17. Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral

    2006-08-01

    compressão longitudinal foi afetada pela região de origem da madeira. Os painéis fabricados com madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla, oriunda do Município de Três Marias, tiveram médias inferiores aos das chapas feitas com a mesma espécie, porém oriundas do Município do Rio Doce.The objectives of this work was to evaluate the properties of OSB (Oriented Strand Board. Wood was collected from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus cloeziana on the municipalities of Ponte Alta and Três Marias, in the state of Minas Gerais. Wood densities were respectively: Ponte Alta (0.55, 0.61 and 0.70g/cm³ and Três Marias (0.56, 0.58 e 0.69g/cm³. Strands of Pinus elliottii, derived from the city of Viçosa, with density of 0.45g/cm³, were added to strands of eucalyptus when necessary to keep board densities close to 0.70g/cm³. Flakes were fabricated in a laboratory disk flaker measuring approximately 20.00 x 0.46 x 90.00 mm. Phenol-formaldehyde adhesive was applied at 8% solid rate, in relation to particle dry mass. Part of the treatment was carried out with flakes from acetylated eucalyptus. The boards were pressed at 170°C and 32 kgf/cm² pressure. Boards properties were determined according to the ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002 and ASTM-D 1037 (1991 norms. The results were compared using the ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993 and CSA 0437-93 (1993 norms. OSB manufactured with any amount of acetylated flakes was more stable and absorbed less water. However the resistance to perpendicular traction of OSB with 100% of acetylated flakes was inferior to the stipulated by the CSA O437-0/93 (1993 norm. It was also found that acetylation had a negative effect on screw withdrawal resistance, module of rupture (parallel and perpendicular and longitudinal compression resistance (perpendicular of Eucalyptus grandis OSB having 100% of their flakes acetylated. Boards that presented numerically the highest means were manufactured with non-acetylated flakes of Eucalyptus grandis (Janka hardness

  18. Energy rating and productive of wood from reforestation of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the state of Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammal Filho, Fawaz Ali; Bruder, Edson Marcelo; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, wood consumption is increasing, and the need to increase the availability of commercial wood reforestation becomes essentially important. In the state of Sao Paulo a few species of Eucalyptus and Pinus have stood out for having high productivity and with updated technical genetic improvements to productivity can be increased to 60 %. The work has to evaluate the productivity and quality of wood provided with commercial reforestation species of Eucalyptus and Pinus genetically improved in the midwestern region of Sao Paulo. In this study we used six treatments: a seminal Eucalyptus grandis; two clones of Eucalyptus grandis, three hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis. Pinus were analyzed for five hybrid progenies of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and Pinus tecunumanii. We evaluated the productivity rates of each treatment and the quality of wood produced, by studying their average density and specific variations possible by the methods: TARG (Technique attenuation of gamma radiation from {sup 241}Am) and immersion. Productivity mass IMAM treatments for Eucalyptus S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 18.7, 17.0, 21.2, 28.1, 30.1 and 27.2 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments S1, C1, C2, H1, H2 and H3 were 451.3, 439.0, 411.9, 518.8, 526.4 and 526.3 kg/m{sup 3}. Productivity for Pinus mass IMAM treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 14.7, 13.5, 13.7, 14.8, 12.4 and 13.0 ton/ha.years respectively, and the density point to 12 % treatments H1, H2, H3, H4, H5 and S1 were 475, 522, 459, 478, 430 and 514 kg/m{sup 3}. These results are extremely important and come to contradict some literature results that correlate productivity gains with losses in density. It was concluded that the values of density and productivity of each treatment and sperm Pinus hybrids there was significant improvement in the indices assessed. While in the Eucalyptus the results were remarkable, reflecting the improvement in

  19. Transcriptional profiles of hybrid Eucalyptus genotypes with contrasting lignin content reveal that monolignol biosynthesis-related genes regulate wood composition

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    Tomotaka eShinya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected three-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis genotypes (AM063 and AM380 that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0% and 48.2%, -cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA and sucrose synthase (SUSY were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase (XTH than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis- related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL. Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents

  20. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries; Determinacao de cobre, cromo e arsenio em madeira preservada (Eucalyptus sp.) pelas espectrometrias de fluorescencia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias

    2014-07-01

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  1. Effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on properties of bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of eucalyptus wood in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng; Zhao, Zengli; Zheng, Anqing; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiaobo; Huang, Zhen; He, Fang; Li, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Eucalyptus wood powder was first subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment in a high-pressure reactor at 160-190°C, and subsequently fast pyrolyzed in a fluidized bed reactor at 500°C to obtain high quality bio-oil. This study focused on investigating effect of hydrothermal pretreatment on bio-oil properties. Hemicellulose and some metals were effectively removed from eucalyptus wood, while cellulose content was enhanced. No significant charring and carbonization of constituents was observed during hydrothermal pretreatment. Thus pretreated eucalyptus wood gave higher bio-oil yield than original eucalyptus wood. Chemical composition of bio-oil was examined by GC/MS and (13)C NMR analyses. Bio-oil produced from pretreated eucalyptus wood exhibited lower contents of ketones and acids, while much higher levoglucosan content than bio-oil produced from original eucalyptus wood, which would help to improve thermal stability of bio-oil and extract levoglucosan from bio-oil. Hydrothermal pretreatment also improved bio-oil fuel quality through lowering water content and enhancing heating value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Eucalyptus wood and coffee parchment for particleboard production: Physical and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Vanoli Scatolino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The wood panel industry is constantly growing, being necessary the innovation in technologies and raw materials to improve the quality of the final product. Considering the shortage and pressure to decrease the dependence of wood, there is an interest in other renewable materials such as agricultural wastes. Among these wastes, coffee parchment is one which deserves notoriety. An alternative use for coffee parchment could be for production of particleboard in association with wood particles. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee parchment for production of particleboard. The following percentages of wastes were used: 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% in association to eucalyptus wood. The panels were produced with 8% of urea formaldehyde (based on dry weight of particles. The pressing cycle consisted by: pre-pressing of 0.5 MPa for 10 minutes followed by pressing of 4.0 MPa, and temperature of 160° C for 15 minutes. The compaction ratio of particleboards produced using higher quantities of parchment improved the physical properties. The properties of Water Absorption (2 and 24 h and Thickness Swelling (2 h decreased with increasing percentage of coffee parchment. The Thickness Swelling (24 h showed not significant effect with an increase of coffee waste. The Modulus of Elasticity for coffee parchment particleboards was in the range 646.49 ± 112.65 to 402.03 ± 66.24 MPa, while the Modulus of Rupture ranged from 8.18 ± 1.39 to 4.45 ± 0.75 MPa. The results showed that 10% of coffee parchment could be added for production of particleboards.

  3. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

  4. Using wood residues as biomass for cooking energy in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sophanarith; Koike, Masao (Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)); Nophea Sasaki (Graduate School of Applied Informatics, University of Hyogo, Kobe (Japan))

    2007-07-01

    Due to rapid deforestation and fast growing population over the last three decades, a future shortfall of wood supply (wood and firewood) is expected in Cambodia. Therefore, alternative source of wood supply for cooking energy are needed. This alternative could potentially come from wood residues such as onsite and offsite residues. The aim of this report is to develop a modeling tool that can be used to estimate wood residues from logging (onsite) and wood processing (offsite), and to explore an appropriate system for distributing the wood residues in Cambodia. We analyze potential wood residues in evergreen, mixed and deciduous forests in Cambodia. For comparison, total wood residues are analyzed under three forest management scenarios: Business as usual (BAUSU), long-term economic gains (LEGA) and climate beneficial option (CLIBO). Under the BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO the potential onsite biomass is totally estimated at 1.67, 1.00, and 0.35 million Mg year' (1 Mg = 106 g = 1 ton), respectively. Total offsite (SW and VW) biomass per year is estimated at 1.00, 0.60, and 0.20 million Mg under the BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO, respectively. Total potential forest biomasses (onsite and offsite) are estimated at 2.68, 1.61 and 0.53 million Mg year' under BAUSU, LEGA and CLIBO, respectively. Our results suggested that, regardless of management scenarios forest biomasses are potentially available. Due to the fact that approximately 95% of Cambodian population depend mainly on fuel wood for daily cooking energy, effective system for distributing forest biomasses to the needed local population could greatly reduce the pressure on natural forest, which has been deforested and overexploited since the last few decades. (orig.)

  5. EFFECT OF THE SITE IN TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR KRAFT PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kerlly Ramalho Martins Benites

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the technological characteristics for pulp production from three eucalyptus clones planted in two different sites derived from experiments considered clonal test from a Brazilian pulp industry. It was determined the wood basic density, the fibers morphologies and the chemical composition of clones(extractives content, lignin and carbohydrates. Kraft pulping was made, using alkali different loads in order to obtain pulps with kappa number 18± 1. The quality of site did not influence on fiber length, the surface area of vessels for all clones, in additional to the syringyl / guaiacyl for clone C. The quality of site influenced on the wood density, wall thickness, extractives content, lignin and syringyl / guaiacyl ratio (except for clone C and carbohydrates. The cloneB showed the better performance on pulp production and an intermediate effect of site at technological characteristics, when comparing with Clones A and C. The Clone C showed the least effect of site on performance of pulp production and it was the only clone that showedno site effect in relation to syringyl/guaiacyl, indicating that this variable is an important parameter for pulp production regarding on performance and alkali loads.

  6. EFFECT OF Eucalyptus grandis WOOD REFINING ON THE FIBER MORFHOLOGY AND ON MDF PANELS PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of eucalypts wood for MDF panels producing is recent in Brazil and presents larger perspective of increase, in relationship to pine wood, due to the shorter harvesting cycle and integral use of the bark in the productive process, etc,. The present work evaluated the anatomical structure and properties of MDF panels manufactured at laboratory with Eucalyptus grandis fibers obtained in three treatments. It were evaluated the variations in heating time, digester and refining pressure and specific energy. MDF panels obtained in critical refining condition showed darker fibers and cell walls transversely broken and lower resistance to internal bond, surface soundness, withdrawal of screws and swelling in thickness. MDF panels obtained after less intensive refining condition showed better physical properties. Better refining conditions increase the bulk density and hinder the adhesive recover and fiber interlace, with worse physical and mechanics properties. Fiber morphology was evaluated through stereoscope and scanning electronic microscopic (SEM, establishing relationships between chips refining treatments and MDF panels properties.

  7. Wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis dominant and average trees submitted to drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Telles de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined, in trees of dominant and average diameter, the influence of air seasoning followed by kiln drying in the sawn wood quality of 14 years old stand of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, located in Capivari do Sul municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling of trees was performed after a pilot inventory on the basis of the dominant and average diameter at breast height (DBH. After cutting down the trees, there were selected the logs located between the DBH and 25% of commercial height. The logs were then sawn using into boards that were submitted to air seasoning from green up to 18% of moisture content, followed by kiln drying until 13% of moisture content. End checking and board crook were evaluate after sawing, following air seasoning and kiln drying. The results indicate that, both for dominant and average trees, end checking and board crook were not influenced by different wood process stage. However, the contrast between dominant and average trees shows that the magnitude of defects is higher in the average trees.

  8. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  9. Wood energy in Eucalyptus forest; A energia da madeira em floresta de eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica; Maziero, Felipe Luiz [Faculdadede Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP), Borucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to address the energy productivity of forest density. In an area of dystrophic, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dose is equivalent to 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn, the doses were the two three double and four times the dose 1. The spacings were 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8 x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, sample trees were harvested to analyze the gross calorific value of wood with bark. An evaluation of economic viability was based on the sale of briquettes. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8x1.0 m with level 2. The average values of calorific value were between 4717 and 4862 kcal/kg. The greatest potential energy was 109,845 kcal/tree obtained at spacing 2.8x2.5 m, with 3 doses of fertilization, but was similar to two doses. The highest yield was 316 Gcal/ha, in treating 2.8x0.5 m with higher fertilizer application. (author)

  10. Cinética da remoção dos extrativos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis durante polpação Kraft = Kinetics of the removal of Eucalyptus grandis wood extractives during Kraft pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sarto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a cinética da remoção dos extrativos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis durante polpação Kraft. As polpações foram efetuadas em reatores tubulares de aço, usando-se madeira na forma de serragem nas seguintes condições: álcali ativo = 14%, sulfidez = 25%, relação licor / madeira = 10 L kg-1 de madeira seca e temperaturas de 130, 150, 160 e 180ºC durante tempos de 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 min. Após as polpações foram realizadas análises do rendimento bruto e de extrativos totais no resíduo (polpa + rejeitos. Foram determinados extrativos totais (álcool etílico-tolueno (1:2, álcool etílico e água quente, respectivamente e extrativos solúveis em acetona. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos extrativos é degradada nos primeiros 30 min. do processo de polpação. Observou-se que a remoção ocorre em duas fases bem distintas: a primeira, rápida, quando a maioria dos extrativos é removida e a última, lenta, quando pequena fração dos extrativos é removida.The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of the removal ofEucalyptus grandis wood extractives during Kraft pulping. The pulping was done in steel tubular reactors using wood saw under the following conditions: active alkali = 14%, sulfidity = 25%; liquor-to-wood ratio = 10 L kg-1 of dry wood; and temperatures of 130, 150, 160 and 180°C during 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes. After pulping, analyses were conducted of the yield and extractives in residue (pulp and reject.Total extractives (ethyl alcohol-toluene (1:2, ethyl alcohol and hot water, respectively and soluble extractives in acetone were analyzed. The results showed that most extractives are degraded in the first 30 minutes of the pulping process. It was observed that the removal occurs in two different stages: the first is rapid, where the majority of the extractives are removed, and the last is slow, where few extractives are removed.

  11. RETENTION AND PENETRATION OF CCA IN WOOD OF FIRST AND SECOND ROTATION OF Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Agostini Valle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989292This study aimed to evaluate the retention and penetration of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C as well as some wood properties of two rotations of two natural hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, aiming their use as treated wood. The study was conducted with material from commercial plantations, with 63 months of age. For the wood characterization, the relationship sapwood-heartwood, the basic density and the size of fibers and vessels were evaluated. For the evaluation of treated wood, the penetration and retention of copper chrome arsenate (CCA type C were determined. Four trees per rotation and genetic material were used, which subsequently were split into three logs, in a total of 12 logs for each treatment. The preservative treatment was performed using the full cell process in autoclave using CCA solution with 2% concentration of active ingredients. The treatment process used was effective under the conditions required by the NBR 9480, with retention values ​​higher than the minimum required by the standard, which is 6.5 kg/m3 of CCA per treated wood, and in addition, provided deep penetration and regular condom in sapwood of all timber treated. There are no restrictions on the use of wood from the first and second rotation for preservative treatment, based on the properties evaluated. There was no correlation between the type C CCA retention and wood properties evaluated.

  12. Reactivity of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin units and delignification kinetics in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood using Py-GC-MS/FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Gominho, Jorge; Marques, António Velez; Pereira, Helena

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus sapwood and heartwood showed no differences in lignin content (23.0% vs. 23.7%) and composition: syringyl-lignin (17.9% vs. 18.0%) and guaiacyl-lignin (4.8% vs. 5.2%). Delignification kinetics of S- and G-units in heartwood and sapwood was investigated by Py-GC-MS/FID at 130, 150 and 170°C and modeled as double first-order reactions. Reactivity differences between S and G-units were small during the main pulping phase and the higher reactivity of S over G units was better expressed in the later pulping stage. The residual lignin composition in pulps was different from wood or from samples in the initial delignification stages, with more G and H-units. S/G ratio ranged from 3 to 4.5 when pulp residual lignin was higher than 10%, decreasing rapidly to less than 1. The S/H was initially around 20 (until 15% residual lignin), decreasing to 4 when residual lignin was about 3%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytotoxic and molecular impacts of allelopathic effects of leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus on soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Abdelmigid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus trees litter plays a crucial role in structuring plant populations and regulating crop quality. To help characterize the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus plantations and understand the interactions between tree litter and understorey plant populations, we performed two different genomic approaches to determine soybean (Glycine max crop plant response to biotic stress induced by leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus trees. For assessing cell death, a qualitative method of DNA fragmentation test (comet assay was employed to detect cleavage of the genomic DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments and help to characterize the apoptotic event among the experimental samples. In addition, quantitative method of genome analysis at the transcriptional level also was conducted to investigate the expression responses of soybean genome to allelochemicals. Expression of specific genes, which are responsible for the breakdown of proteins during programmed cell death PCD (cysteine proteases and their inhibitors, was examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqPCR. Results of both conducted analyses proved significant genetic effects of Eucalyptus leaf residues on soybean crop genome, revealed by steady increase in DNA damage as well as variation in the transcript levels of cysteine proteases and inhibitors. Further detailed studies using more sensitive methods are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus plantations on crops.

  14. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias, E-mail: matias@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako, E-mail: imsato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m{sup 3} of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m{sup -3}). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r{sup 2}>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ < 5mgkg{sup -1}) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  15. Co-gasification of pelletized wood residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos A. Alzate; Farid Chejne; Carlos F. Valdes; Arturo Berrio; Javier De La Cruz; Carlos A. Londono [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia (Colombia). Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada y Energias Alternativas

    2009-03-15

    A pelletization process was designed which produces cylindrical pellets 8 mm in length and 4 mm in diameter. These ones were manufactured using a blend of Pinus Patula and Cypress sawdust and coal in proportions of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% v/v of coal of rank sub-bituminous extracted from the Nech mine (Amaga-Antioquia). For this procedure, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as binder at three different concentrations. The co-gasification experiments were carried out with two kinds of mixtures, the first one was composed of granular coal and pellets of 100% wood and the second one was composed of pulverized wood and granular coal pellets. All samples were co-gasified with steam by using an electrical heated fluidized-bed reactor, operating in batches, at 850{sup o}C. The main components of the gaseous product were H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} with approximate quantities of 59%, 6.0%, 20%, 5.0%, and 9.0% v/v, respectively, and the higher heating values ranged from between 7.1 and 9.5 MJ/Nm{sup 3}.

  16. INFLUENCE OF CLONE HARVESTING AGE OF Eucalyptus grandis AND HYBRIDS OF Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla IN THE WOOD CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN KRAFT PULPABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Henrique Damasceno de Morais; Dalton Longue Júnior; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Elisa Helena da Costa Morais; Carolina Marangon Jardim

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The recent efforts on the quality of the wood used in pulp and paper mills has focused in many points, among them the influence of the raw material chemical characteristics in the production process and final product quality. Considering the current demand for younger trees, the effect of the wood harvesting age in the chemical composition and in the process variables becomes a very important fact for the industries of this sector. So, the objective of this study was to characterize ...

  17. Comparative interrogation of the developing xylem transcriptomes of two wood-forming species: Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Charles A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Myburg, Alexander A; Douglas, Carl J; Mansfield, Shawn D

    2015-06-01

    Wood formation is a complex developmental process governed by genetic and environmental stimuli. Populus and Eucalyptus are fast-growing, high-yielding tree genera that represent ecologically and economically important species suitable for generating significant lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analysis of the developing xylem and leaf transcriptomes of Populus trichocarpa and Eucalyptus grandis together with phylogenetic analyses identified clusters of homologous genes preferentially expressed during xylem formation in both species. A conserved set of 336 single gene pairs showed highly similar xylem preferential expression patterns, as well as evidence of high functional constraint. Individual members of multi-gene orthologous clusters known to be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis also showed conserved xylem expression profiles. However, species-specific expression as well as opposite (xylem versus leaf) expression patterns observed for a subset of genes suggest subtle differences in the transcriptional regulation important for xylem development in each species. Using sequence similarity and gene expression status, we identified functional homologs likely to be involved in xylem developmental and biosynthetic processes in Populus and Eucalyptus. Our study suggests that, while genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis show high levels of gene expression conservation, differential regulation of some xylem development genes may give rise to unique xylem properties. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Honey Lake hybrid geothermal wood residue power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toland, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Honey Lake Hybrid Geothermal Wood Residue Power Project with a planned output of 50 MW is undergoing feasibility studies funded by GeoProducts Corporation, Department of Water Resources, State of California, US Department of Energy and the Forest Service, USDA. The outlook is optimistic. It is reliably estimated that the required volume of woody biomass can be made available without environmental degradation.

  19. Stability of quantitative trait loci for growth and wood properties across multiple pedigrees and environments in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jules S; Potts, Brad M; Downes, Geoffrey M; Pilbeam, David; Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; Vaillancourt, René E

    2013-06-01

    · Eucalypts are one of the most planted tree genera worldwide, and there is increasing interest in marker-assisted selection for tree improvement. Implementation of marker-assisted selection requires a knowledge of the stability of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). This study aims to investigate the stability of QTLs for wood properties and growth across contrasting sites and multiple pedigrees of Eucalyptus globulus. · Saturated linkage maps were constructed using 663 genotypes from four separate families, grown at three widely separated sites, and were employed to construct a consensus map. This map was used for QTL analysis of growth, wood density and wood chemical traits, including pulp yield. · Ninety-eight QTLs were identified across families and sites: 87 for wood properties and 11 for growth. These QTLs mapped to 38 discrete regions, some of which co-located with candidate genes. Although 16% of QTLs were verified across different families, 24% of wood property QTLs and 38% of growth QTLs exhibited significant genotype-by-environment interaction. · This study provides the most detailed assessment of the effect of environment and pedigree on QTL detection in the genus. Despite markedly different environments and pedigrees, many QTLs were stable, providing promising targets for the application of marker-assisted selection. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. THREE-LAYER PARTICLEBOARD PRODUCTION WITH Pinus elliottii Engelm. WOOD AND THE ADDITION OF Eucalyptus pellita F.Muell. BARK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the physical and mechanical properties of three-layer particleboard manufactured with Eucalyptus pellita bark and Pinus elliottii wood. The mechanical properties evaluated were static bending (modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity and internal bonding, while physical ones were water absorption and thickness swelling. Three different bark and wood compositions in the core and on the layers were evaluated: one without bark and two with bark. It was even studied the addition or not of 1% of paraffin (over the particles dry weight, resulting in six treatments, each one with four repetitions. There were showed better results of MOR, MOE e LI among the treatments with bark and without paraffin than in those with bark and paraffin.

  1. A classification proposal for coefficients of variation in Eucalyptus experiments involving survival, growth and wood quality variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to present a classification proposal for coefficients of variation (CV in Eucalyptus experiments, aiming at providing a useful tool for experiments involving growth, survival and wood quality traits. Ninety-four studies were selected from a search for peer-reviewed journals yielding a total of 508 data. The CVs were classified as low, moderate, high and very high. The mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values, skewness and kurtosis were estimated to describe the distribution shape. The Shapiro-Wilk test confirmed that all variables satisfied the assumption of normality (p < 0.05. The results indicated that the growth traits had the highest variability, being variables strongly affected by the environment. In contrast, all variables related to wood quality (except extractives had the lowest range of CVs. In summary, the classification proposed in this report provides a useful tool for researchers interested in estimating the accuracy of their experiments.

  2. Mineral nutrients, biomass and litter deposition on Eucalyptus plantation under different residue management Nutrientes minerais, biomassa e deposição de serapilheira em plantio de Eucalyptus com diferentes sistemas de manejo de resíduos florestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francisco Jurado Bellote

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effect of different residue management systems in the plant nutrition status, nutrient contents in the litter and litter biomass yield, on Eucalyptus grandis plantation. Samples were taken on four residue management systems: (i removal of all residues from previous harvesting and NPK fertilization; (ii maintenance of all residues on soil surface and NPK fertilization; (iii removal all at bark  and commercial-size crop stems over 3 cm diameter and NPK fertilization; (iv removal of all residues from previous harvesting, NPK fertilization and addition of industrial waste (15 t.ha-1 of pulp and paper sludge, C:N ratio 25:1 and 4 t.ha-1 of wood ash, C:N ratio 30:1. Results showed that the maintenance of the forest residues on site improved the nutritional status of trees and increased productivity. Addition of industrial waste allowed expressive increase of Eucalyptus sp growth. Possible excesses of Ca from the industrial waste used  should be corrected, to avoid nutritional unbalance in the trees; independent of the treatment used, the amounts of K added to the soil are not enough to maintain appropriate tree nutritional status. Greater amounts of K should be added to correct soil nutritional deficiencies on this element. Neste trabalho foi avaliado o efeito de diferentes manejos de resíduos florestais no estado nutricional
    das árvores, no conteúdo de nutrientes na serapilheira e a biomassa de serapilheira produzida pelo Eucalyptus
    grandis. Foram avaliados quatro sistemas diferentes de manejo de resíduo: (i remoção de todo resíduo do sítio
    proveniente da colheita florestal e adubação NPK; (ii manutenção no sítio de todos os resíduos da colheita
    florestal e adubação NPK; (iii remoção do sítio de todo o resíduo da colheita com diâmetro superior a 3 cm e
    adubação NPK; (iv remoção de todos os resíduos da colheita, adubação NPK e adição de 15 t.ha-1 de resíduo
    celul

  3. INFLUENCE OF ANATOMICAL FEATURES AND EXTRACTIVES CONTENT WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden IN QUALITY BONDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina do Sacramento Albino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987561The study aimed to anatomically characterize and to quantify the total extractives in different positions of the log of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with 18 years of age and to assess their influence on the shear strength and percentage of wood failure in adhesive bonded joints with thermosetting resorcinol-formaldehyde. Histological slides were prepared for an anatomical study and determined the total extractive content. The preparation of bonded joints was made according to ASTM D 2339-98(2000. It was used the correlation coefficient of Pearson, 1% probability by t test to evaluate the correlation between the anatomical and extractives content with the quality of the glued joints. It was found that there was a correlation between the shear strength with the following characteristics: vessel diameter, wall width, length and width of the fiber, the width of the radius and total extractives content. For the percentage of wood failure, there was a correlation between this with the following characteristics: the frequency of vessels, thickness of the heat of fiber, and high frequency of lightning. Both the radial direction as in the longitudinal direction of the logs there was change in the values found for the measurement of the anatomical elements, the total amount of extractives, the shear test strength and the percentage of wood failure.

  4. Wood Anatomical Structure Of The Clones Of Eucalyptus Tereticornis Sm. Mysore Gum

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sreevani; R. V. Rao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wood being a natural material is very variable. This variability is attributed mostly to variations in the anatomical structure of the wood. The wood structure of five clones at macroscopic level and microscopic level is provided for the first time. In addition study on the general features of all the clones are also described. Thus the information provided is a starting point to understand the wood structure of the clonal material as well as identification of some of the clones on t...

  5. Mercury residues in wood ducks and wood duck foods in eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, R.C.; Dimmick, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    Liver, breast muscle and body fat from 50 juvenile and five adult wood ducks (Aix sponsa) collected on the Holston River, Tennessee were analyzed for total mercury content. Black fly larvae (Simulium vittatum) sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus), tapegrass (Vallisneria americanus), water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia), Elodea canadensis, and river bottom sediments were also analyzed to elucidate the distribution of mercury in the wood duck's environment. Liver tissues of juveniles contained the highest mean concentration of mercury (0.42 ppm). Mercury in breast muscle and body fat of juveniles averaged 0.15 and 0.10 ppm, respectively. Residues in corresponding tissues of adults were lower. Of environmental components tested, sediments had the highest mean concentration (0.76 ppm). Black fly larvae and aquatic plants had mean levels below 0.10 ppm.

  6. Comprehensive study on the chemical structure of dioxane lignin from plantation Eucalyptus globulus wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtuguin, D V; Neto, C P; Silva, A M; Domingues, P M; Amado, F M; Robert, D; Faix, O

    2001-09-01

    Results of a comprehensive study on the chemical structure of lignin from plantation Eucalyptus globulus Labill are presented. Lignin has been isolated by a modified mild acidolysis method and thoroughly characterized by functional group analysis, by a series of degradation techniques (nitrobenzene oxidation, permanganate oxidation, thioacidolysis, and Py-GC-MS), and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Plantation Eucalyptus globulus lignin was found to be of the S/G type with an extremely high proportion of syringyl (S) units (82-86%) and a minor proportion of p-hydrophenyl propane (H) units (roughly 2-3 mol %). Unknown C-6 substituted and 4-O-5' type syringyl substructures represent about 65% of lignin "condensed" structures. Eucalypt lignin showed high abundance of beta-O-4 (0.56/C(6)) structures and units linked by alpha-O-4 bonds (0.23/C(6)). The proportion of phenylcoumaran structures was relatively low (0.03/C(6)). Different kinds of beta-beta substructures (pino-/syringaresinol and isotaxiresinol types) in a total amount of 0.13/C(6) were detected. ESI-MS analysis revealed a wide molecular weight distribution of lignin with the center of gravity of mass distribution around 2500 u.

  7. Estratégia de análise da qualidade de madeira de Eucalyptus sp. para produção de celulose A laboratory technique to establish Eucalyptus sp. wood quality for kraft pulp production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lívio Gomide

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se uma nova técnica laboratorial de análise de qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus sp. para produção de polpa celulósica kraft. A técnica consiste em realizar, simultaneamente, quatro cozimentos de cavacos utilizando diferentes cargas de álcali ativo para estabelecer a característica de deslignificação da madeira. Pelo uso de equações de regressão, calcula-se o álcali ativo necessário para obter o número kappa desejado, o rendimento, a viscosidade e álcali consumido para o kappa objetivo. Os estudos estatísticos evidenciaram que uma única batelada de quatro cozimentos é suficiente, não sendo necessário realizar repetições.A new laboratory technique was tested to determine Eucalyptus sp. wood quality for kraft pulp production. This technique consists in performing four cooks simultaneously using different active alkali charges to establish the wood delignification characteristics. Based on regression equation it is possible to determine the alkali charge necessary to obtain a desired kappa number and the yield, viscosity and the alkali consumed for the target kappa. Statistical analysis demonstrated that a set of four cooks without replication is sufficient to determine the wood quality characteristics.

  8. Effect of thermal treatments on technological properties of wood from two Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cademartori, Pedro Henrique G; Missio, André L; Mattos, Bruno D; Gatto, Darci A

    2015-03-01

    The effect of thermal treatments on physical and mechanical properties of rose gum and Sydney blue gum wood was evaluated. Wood samples were thermally modified in a combination: pre-treatment in an autoclave (127°C - 1h) and treatment in an oven (180-240°C - 4h); and only treatment in an oven at 180-240°C for 4h. Chemical changes in the structure of woods were evaluated through infrared spectroscopy. Evaluation of physical properties was performed through mass loss, specific gravity, equilibrium moisture content and dimensional stability tests. Surface changes were analyzed through apparent contact angle technique and static bending tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical behavior. Use of pre-treatment in autoclave affected the properties analyzed, however oven, resulted in the highest changes on wood from both species. Chemical changes were related to the degradation of hemicelluloses. Moreover, a significant decrease of hygroscopicity and mechanical strength of thermally modified woods was observed, while specific gravity did not significantly change for either of the species studied. The best results of decrease of wettability were found in low temperatures, while dimensional stability increased as a function of temperature of exposure in oven. The highest loss of mechanical strength was observed at 240°C for both species.

  9. Wood Anatomical Structure Of The Clones Of Eucalyptus Tereticornis Sm. Mysore Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sreevani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wood being a natural material is very variable. This variability is attributed mostly to variations in the anatomical structure of the wood. The wood structure of five clones at macroscopic level and microscopic level is provided for the first time. In addition study on the general features of all the clones are also described. Thus the information provided is a starting point to understand the wood structure of the clonal material as well as identification of some of the clones on the overall structure. The growth rings were delimited by flattened fibres and parenchyma in clone 4 and clone 7. It can be seen that within tree variation of all the characteristics studied are height related and in certain cases encompass the variation within the clones and also among the clones. Development of growth rings in the present study is clone specific. The database thus generated will be useful for any species development from the point of view of wood quality.

  10. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 2. Vegetative propagation of Eucalypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of large-scale plantation establishment by various methods was examined, and the following conclusions were reached: seedling plantations are limited in potential yield due to genetic variation among the planting stock and often inadequate supplies of appropriate seed; vegetative propagation by rooted cuttings can provide good genetic uniformity of select hybrid planting stock; however, large-scale production requires establishment and maintenance of extensive cutting orchards. The collection of shoots and preparation of cuttings, although successfully implemented in the Congo and Brazil, would not be economically feasible in Florida for large-scale plantations; tissue culture propagation of select hybrid eucalypts offers the only opportunity to produce the very large number of trees required to establish the energy plantation. The cost of tissue culture propagation, although higher than seedling production, is more than off-set by the increased productivity of vegetative plantations established from select hybrid Eucalyptus.

  11. Identification of lipolytic enzymes isolated from bacteria indigenous to Eucalyptus wood species for application in the pulping industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnath, L; Sithole, B; Govinden, R

    2017-09-01

    This study highlights the importance of determining substrate specificity at variable experimental conditions. Lipases and esterases were isolated from microorganisms cultivated from Eucalyptus wood species and then concentrated (cellulases removed) and characterized. Phenol red agar plates supplemented with 1% olive oil or tributyrin was ascertained to be the most favourable method of screening for lipolytic activity. Lipolytic activity of the various enzymes were highest at 45-61 U/ml at the optimum temperature and pH of between at 30-35 °C and pH 4-5, respectively. Change in pH influenced the substrate specificity of the enzymes tested. The majority of enzymes tested displayed a propensity for longer aliphatic acyl chains such as dodecanoate (C12), myristate (C14), palmitate (C16) and stearate (C18) indicating that they could be characterised as potential lipases. Prospective esterases were also detected with specificity towards acetate (C2), butyrate (C4) and valerate (C5). Enzymes maintained up to 95% activity at the optimal pH and temperature for 2-3 h. It is essential to test substrates at various pH and temperature when determining optimum activity of lipolytic enzymes, a method rarely employed. The stability of the enzymes at acidic pH and moderate temperatures makes them excellent candidates for application in the treatment of pitch during acid bi-sulphite pulping, which would greatly benefit the pulp and paper industry.

  12. Identification of lipolytic enzymes isolated from bacteria indigenous to Eucalyptus wood species for application in the pulping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramnath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of determining substrate specificity at variable experimental conditions. Lipases and esterases were isolated from microorganisms cultivated from Eucalyptus wood species and then concentrated (cellulases removed and characterized. Phenol red agar plates supplemented with 1% olive oil or tributyrin was ascertained to be the most favourable method of screening for lipolytic activity. Lipolytic activity of the various enzymes were highest at 45–61 U/ml at the optimum temperature and pH of between at 30–35 °C and pH 4–5, respectively. Change in pH influenced the substrate specificity of the enzymes tested. The majority of enzymes tested displayed a propensity for longer aliphatic acyl chains such as dodecanoate (C12, myristate (C14, palmitate (C16 and stearate (C18 indicating that they could be characterised as potential lipases. Prospective esterases were also detected with specificity towards acetate (C2, butyrate (C4 and valerate (C5. Enzymes maintained up to 95% activity at the optimal pH and temperature for 2–3 h. It is essential to test substrates at various pH and temperature when determining optimum activity of lipolytic enzymes, a method rarely employed. The stability of the enzymes at acidic pH and moderate temperatures makes them excellent candidates for application in the treatment of pitch during acid bi-sulphite pulping, which would greatly benefit the pulp and paper industry.

  13. A microarray-based method for the parallel analysis of genotypes and expression profiles of wood-forming tissues in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezar Sabine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fast-growing Eucalyptus grandis trees are one of the most efficient producers of wood in South Africa. The most serious problem affecting the quality and yield of solid wood products is the occurrence of end splitting in logs. Selection of E. grandis planting stock that exhibit preferred wood qualities is thus a priority of the South African forestry industry. We used microarray-based DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis in combination with expression profiling to develop fingerprints and profile gene expression of wood-forming tissue of seven different E. grandis trees. Results A 1578-probe cDNA microarray was constructed by arraying 768 cDNA-AFLP clones and 810 cDNA library clones from seven individual E. grandis trees onto silanised slides. The results revealed that 32% of the spotted fragments showed distinct expression patterns (with a fold change of at least 1.4 or -1.4 and a p value of 0.01 could be grouped into clusters representing co-expressed genes. Evaluation of the binary distribution of cDNA-AFLP fragments on the array showed that the individual genotypes could be discriminated. Conclusion A simple, yet general method was developed for genotyping and expression profiling of wood-forming tissue of E. grandis trees differing in their splitting characteristics and in their lignin contents. Evaluation of gene expression profiles and the binary distribution of cDNA-AFLP fragments on the chip suggest that the prototype chip developed could be useful for transcript profiling and for the identification of Eucalyptus trees with preferred wood quality traits in commercial breeding programmes.

  14. Enzymatic hydrolyses of pretreated eucalyptus residues, wheat straw or olive tree pruning, and their mixtures towards flexible sugar-based biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Fernandes, Talita; Marques, Susana; Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus residues, wheat straw, and olive tree pruning are lignocellulosic materials largely available in Southern Europe and have high potential to be used solely or in mixtures in sugar-based biorefineries for the production of biofuels and other bio-based products. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ce...

  15. Demonstration of Sustainable Domestic and Tertiary Heating Systems using Agro/Forest/Wood Residues - Domoheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Miguel, M. Salve (ESCAN, S.A, Avda. Ferrol, 14, B-328029 Madrid (Spain)). e-mail: escan@escansa.com (and others)

    2008-10-15

    Potential of forest fuels in European Union reaches 40 million m3/year, the hectares of olive and vineyards are close to 4,7 million and 3,5 million respectively. Considering biomass residues have different characteristics, it exists high diversity of locally available raw-materials, as well as the possibility for raw material mixes, it is necessary to demonstrate the behaviour of new technologies with new raw materials and mixes, in order to facilitate their introduction in domestic and tertiary market. For the Demonstration and Investigation the Project DOMOHEAT was started, supported by the European Commission as a STREP Project. The project focuses on the demonstration of three innovative and sustainable medium size (60 - 100 kW) heating systems, (one for each country: Spain) for domestic and tertiary buildings, using lower quality wastes from agro/forest/wood production. Almond shell, pine cone, Olive pruning, chips from forest exploitation of Pines and Eucalyptus, pellets from sawdust and bark of Pine, will be the biomass raw materials (see fig. 1). The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the overall chains of three heating systems (one for each country), able to diversify the raw material (energy supply), reduce agro/forest/wood production problems and promoting the use of renewable thermal energy in European countries. Each heating system is based on a sustainable and integrated approach (fuel logistics and pre-treatment, energy production, maintenance rules, Normative). Raw material is a mix of fuels, which allow using the most economical fuel of the market, in addition it improves the availability, security of supply, and opportunities for demonstrate that heating from biomass is possible. Each combustion system designed (see fig. 2) is focused on technology tailored to special characteristics of biomass mix, in order to obtain better efficiency and minimum emissions: automatic cleaning system of the tubes for heat interchange, automatic

  16. Análise de critérios de qualidade da madeira de eucalipto para produção de celulose kraft Analysis of wood quality criteria of eucalyptus wood for kraft pulp production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Livio Gomide

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e cinco amostras de madeiras de clones de Eucalyptus, obtidas de diferentes regiões geográficas do Brasil, foram utilizadas para este estudo. Análises estatísticas demonstraram que a carga de álcali ativo para polpação, o teor de lignina e o teor de extrativos apresentaram efeitos significativos no rendimento da polpação kraft. A densidade básica da madeira não afetou significativamente o rendimento da polpação, mas sim o consumo de madeira para produção de celulose (m³ madeira/t celulose. Densidade básica, teor de lignina e teor de extrativos foram recomendados como critérios de qualidade da madeira a serem determinados para seleção de clones antes da determinação das características de polpação.Seventy five Eucalyptus wood clones obtained from different geographic regions in Brazil were used for this study. Based on statistical analysis it was demonstrated that an active alkali charge and also wood lignin and extractive contents presented a significant effect on pulping yield. Wood specific gravity did not present a significant effect on pulping yield but affected wood consumption for pulp production (m³wood/ ton pulp. Wood specific gravity, lignin content and extractive content were recommended as criteria to establish wood quality prior to pulping characteristics determination.

  17. Soil attributes and wood quality for pulp production in plantations of Eucalyptus grandis clone Atributos do solo e qualidade da madeira para produção de celulose em plantações clonais de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Gava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil attributes can affect the wood quality of eucalypt, which may result in considerable effect on cellulose production. This study evaluated the effect of different physical and chemical soil attributes on wood quality of Eucalyptus grandis for cellulose production. Five sites were selected at the Western Plateau of the State of São Paulo, planted with one clone of Eucalyptus grandis, with ages ranging between 6.5 and 7.0 years. Four soil types, with texture ranging from sandy to very clayey were found. At each site, three experimental plots were allocated with 100 trees each. Trees representative of each class frequency of diameter at breast height were harvested. Their biomass and wood components were characterized. The wood productivity and quality was affected by physical attributes of soil, mainly clay content, which is directly related to the amount of available water. Basic wood density did not changed at different soil types. Total lignin content decreased and holocellulose content exponentially increased as soil clay content increased (until about 350 to 400 g kg-1 of clay. The wood extractives content was not affected by soil attributes. Screened cellulose yield exponentially increased with soil clay content.Os atributos edáficos podem afetar a qualidade da madeira de eucalipto, o que pode resultar em considerável efeito sobre a produção de celulose. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de atributos físicos e químicos do solo na qualidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis usada para polpação celulósica. Foram selecionadas cinco áreas no planalto ocidental do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, plantadas com um mesmo clone de Eucalyptus grandis, com idades variando entre 6,5 e 7,0 anos de idade. Quatro classes de solo, com textura arenosa a muito argilosa, foram encontradas. Em cada uma das cinco áreas, foram demarcadas, aleatoriamente, 3 parcelas com 100 plantas cada. Em cada parcela, foram colhidas

  18. Acetosolv pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood. Pt. 1. The effect of operational variables on pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Antorrena, G. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gonzalez, J. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    The HCl-catalysed delignification of Eucalyptus globulus wood by aqueous acetic acid was optimized in accordance with an incomplete 3x3x3 factorial design with HCl concentration (0-0.05%), temperature (120-160 C) and reaction time (1-4 h) as independent variables and pulp yield, pulp lignin content and pulp potential glucose content as dependent variables. Empirical equations derived from the results satisfactorily predict the influence of the independent variables on these characteristics of the delignification process and the delignified pulps. (orig.)

  19. Comparação do fator de empilhamento sob diferentes condições para madeira de Eucalyptus grandis / A comparison of wood piling factor under different conditions for Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson dos Santos Lisboa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO presente trabalho tem por objetivo comparar os fatores de empilhamento obtidos em três métodos distintos de empilhamento: 1 empilhamento em cima do caminhão; 2 empilhamento mecânico no pátio da fábrica e 3 empilhamento manual no pátio da fábrica. Os dados empregados são originários de um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis, visando à produção de celulose e pertencente ao GRUPO LWART, situado no município de Lençóis Paulista, SP, cortado aos sete anos de idade através do sistema semi-mecanizado. Foram analisados dados provenientes de vinte pilhas de madeira, formadas por toras de 2,80 m de comprimento e diâmetro mínimo de 6,0 cm. O fator de empilhamento de cada pilha (FE foi obtido pela relação entre o volume da pilha em metros estéreos (st e o correspondente volume sólido em metros cúbicos (m³. O volume sólido (m³ foi obtido pelo método de Smalian. Para calcular o volume estéreo (st para três diferentes métodos de empilhamento foi utilizada uma régua graduada para medir a altura, a largura e o comprimento da pilha. Os três métodos de empilhamento foram comparados estatisticamente a partir de uma análise de variância, considerando um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde os métodos foram considerados tratamentos e as pilhas repetições. Na ocorrência de diferenças significativas entre tratamentos, o teste Tukey foi utilizado para comparar suas médias, considerando um nível de 5% de significância. A análise estatística indicou diferenças significativas entre o método de empilhamento manual ou tratamento 3, dos demais métodos, ou seja, método do empilhamento em cima do caminhão e método de empilhamento mecânico. Conclui-se então, que é errôneo aplicar um fator de empilhamento médio, se houver diferentes formas de empilhar a madeira.AbstractThe research objective has been to compare the wood piling factors obtained from three distinct methods: 1 piling up on the truck; 2 mechanical

  20. The impact of the addition of Eucalyptus grandis wood chips on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of plantation residues, as a result of clearfelling, on nutrient availability in plantation systems, as well as the difficulties during subsequent planting and harvesting, should be considered in the development of plantation management strategies. The aim of this experiment was to determine if the addition of stump ...

  1. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  2. Analysis of lifetime and residual strength of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is thought of as a working paper for the CTBA-seminar on Thematic network in the field for reliability based design of timber structures, Topic: Numerical methods for structural analysis. It is preliminary and quite informal in its structure. The intention is to present some wood...... graphically. The examples are subdivided in two groups. The first group is considered as an average of wood. Another group is considered respecting that each piece of wood is an individual.Constant loads and variable loads are considered. The latter are assumed to have "seasonal frequencies" with periods...

  3. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  4. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  5. Urban tree and woody yard residues : another wood resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Kenneth E. Skog

    2003-01-01

    Urban tree and woody yard residues are an important component of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in the United States. In 2000, approximately 14.5 million tons of urban tree and woody yard residues was generated, nearly 7% of total MSW. Some woody residues are being recovered for recycling, composting, or other uses, but a large proportion is simply discarded....

  6. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  7. Energy and raw material potentials of wood residue in the Pacific Coast States: a summary of a preliminary feasibility investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Grantham; Eldon Estep; John M. Pierovich; Harold Tarkow; Thomas C. Adams

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a preliminary investigation of feasibility of using wood residue to meet energy and raw material needs in the Pacific Coast States. Magnitude of needs was examined and volume of logging-residue and unused mill residue was estimated. Costs of obtaining and preprocessing logging residue for energy and pulp and particle board raw material were...

  8. Condensed lignin structures and re-localization achieved at high severities in autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus wood and their relationship with cellulose accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Fabio; Troncoso, Eduardo; Mendonça, Regis Teixeira; Freer, Juanita

    2015-09-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood was subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment at different severity factors. The pretreated materials were enzymatically saccharified at a substrate load of 10% (w/v) using a cellulase enzyme complex. Around 82-95% of original glucans were retained in the pretreated material, and the enzymatic hydrolysis yields ranged from 58% to 90%. The chemical and structural changes in the pretreated materials were investigated by microscopic (SEM, LSCM) and spectroscopic (2D-HSQC NMR and FT-IR) techniques. 2D-NMR results showed a reduction in the amounts of β-O-4 aryl-ether linkages and suggested the presence of newly condensed structures of lignin in the biomass pretreated at the more severe conditions. Furthermore, the microscopic analysis showed that lignin migrates out of the cell wall and re-deposits in certain regions of the fibers at the more severe conditions to form droplet-like structures and expose the cellulose surface. These changes improved the glucose yield up to 69%, on dry wood basis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Conference presentation: Dissolution of South African Eucalyptus sawdust wood in [Emim][OAc]/ co-solvent mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tywabi, Z

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient utilization of biomass is increasingly important due to the diminishing resources of fossil fuels worldwide. Wood, and most of other components of wood are burnt to produce energy. This presentation focuses on the dissolution of South...

  10. Genomic research in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poke, Fiona S; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Reid, James B

    2005-09-01

    Eucalyptus L'Hérit. is a genus comprised of more than 700 species that is of vital importance ecologically to Australia and to the forestry industry world-wide, being grown in plantations for the production of solid wood products as well as pulp for paper. With the sequencing of the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the recent completion of the first tree genome sequence, Populus trichocarpa, attention has turned to the current status of genomic research in Eucalyptus. For several eucalypt species, large segregating families have been established, high-resolution genetic maps constructed and large EST databases generated. Collaborative efforts have been initiated for the integration of diverse genomic projects and will provide the framework for future research including exploiting the sequence of the entire eucalypt genome which is currently being sequenced. This review summarises the current position of genomic research in Eucalyptus and discusses the direction of future research.

  11. Chemical characteristics and Kraft pulping of tension wood from Eucalyptus globulus labill Características químicas e polpação Kraft de madeira de tração de Eucalyptus globulus labill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Graciela Aguayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tension (TW and opposite wood (OW of Eucalyptus globulus trees were analyzed for its chemical characteristics and Kraft pulp production. Lignin content was 16% lower and contained 32% more syringyl units in TW than in OW. The increase in syringyl units favoured the formation of β-O-4 bonds that was also higher in TW than in OW (84% vs. 64%, respectively. The effect of these wood features was evaluated in the production of Kraft pulps from both types of wood. At kappa number 16, Kraft pulps obtained from TW demanded less active alkali in delignification and presented slightly higher or similar pulp yield than pulps made with OW. Fiber length, coarseness and intrinsic viscosity were also higher in tension than in opposite pulps. When pulps where refined to 30°SR, TW pulps needed 18% more revolutions in the PFI mill to achieve the same beating degree than OW pulps. Strength properties (tensile, tear and burst indexes were slightly higher or similar in tension as compared with opposite wood pulps. After an OD0(EOD1 bleaching sequence, both pulps achieved up to 89% ISO brightness. Bleached pulps from TW presented higher viscosity and low amount of hexenuronic acids than pulps from OW. Results showed that TW presented high xylans and low lignin content that caused a decrease in alkali consumption, increase pulp strength properties and similar bleaching performance as compared with pulps from OW.Madeira de tração e oposta de árvores de Eucalyptus globulus foram analisadas quanto a suas características químicas e produção de polpa Kraft. A caracterização química da madeira de tração (TW de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mostrou um conteúdo similar de celulose, alto conteúdo de xilanas e baixo conteúdo de lignina quando comparada com a madeira oposta (OW de uma mesma árvore. O conteúdo de lignina foi 16% menor e contém 32% mais unidades siringila em TW que em OW. O aumento das unidades siringila favoreceu a formação de ligações

  12. Variação radial da retratibilidade e densidade básica da madeira de Eucalyptus saligna Sm. Radial variation of shrinkage and specific gravity in Eucalyptus saligna Sm. wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A ultra-estrutura e a composição química da madeira, bem como suas propriedades físicas e mecânicas, variam significativamente entre espécies, entre árvores de uma mesma espécie e, mesmo, entre diferentes partes de uma mesma árvore. Com este trabalho objetivou-se o estudo dos parâmetros de retratibilidade e de densidade básica da madeira Eucalyptus saligna, com idade de 16 anos, proveniente de talhões experimentais da EMBRAPA Florestas, de Colombo, Paraná. As amostras foram retiradas à altura do DAP de quatro posições eqüidistantes a partir da medula em direção à periferia, correspondendo a 0, 33, 66 e 100%, com dimensões nominais de 1,0 x 2,0 x 3,0 cm, sendo a última dimensão no sentido longitudinal. Elas foram mantidas em câmara fechada com ventilação, próximo de soluções salinas supersaturadas, com o objetivo de proporcionar diferentes condições de umidade relativa. Uma vez atingidas as distintas condições de umidade de equilíbrio, as amostras foram secas em estufa a 105 ºC e obtidos os dados de retratibilidade e densidade básica da madeira nas posições mencionadas. Constataram-se valores de contração volumétrica mais baixos na região medular, apresentando um acréscimo para as demais posições. Comportamento semelhante foi observado para os coeficientes das contrações lineares nas direções tangencial e radial. O fator anisotrópico foi consideravelmente mais elevado na região medular, decrescendo substancialmente em direção ao alburno. A densidade básica não mostrou sinais efetivos de estabilidade, apesar de mostrar tendência de aumento em direção à periferia do tronco.The ultra structure and chemical composition of wood, as well as its physical and mechanical properties vary significantly among species, trees of a given species and even among different parts of a given tree. This work aimed to study the parameters of shrinkage and basic density of 16-year-old Eucalyptus saligna wood

  13. Financial cost-benefit analysis of investment possibilities in district heating system on wood residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to provide feasibility analysis of a long-term sustainable development concept for district heating based on wood residues. In this paper, the experimental study has been conducted starting from the data collected by field researches in municipality of Trstenik (town in Serbia with district heating system currently based on heavy fuel oil and lignite. Using the method of Financial Cost-Benefit Analysis, this study evaluates financial efficiency of investment in district heating plant based on wood residues and energy savings in district heating system. Findings show that such investment could be profitable from the financial point of view: Net Present Value of investment is positive, Financial Rate of Return is high (30.69%, and the pay-back period is relatively favourable (7 years. Moreover, the presented SWOT indicates that there are realistic prospects of implementation of district heating based on wood residues. However, this does not mean everything will go smoothly and easily, keeping in mind a number of challenges that each new concept of district heating contains immanently. Nevertheless, the results of this research could provide useful inputs for the decision makers when selecting appropriate models for improving performance of municipal district heating systems.

  14. Genomic selection for growth and wood quality in Eucalyptus: capturing the missing heritability and accelerating breeding for complex traits in forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Marcos D V; Resende, Márcio F R; Sansaloni, Carolina P; Petroli, Cesar D; Missiaggia, Alexandre A; Aguiar, Aurelio M; Abad, Jupiter M; Takahashi, Elizabete K; Rosado, Antonio M; Faria, Danielle A; Pappas, Georgios J; Kilian, Andrzej; Grattapaglia, Dario

    2012-04-01

    • Genomic selection (GS) is expected to cause a paradigm shift in tree breeding by improving its speed and efficiency. By fitting all the genome-wide markers concurrently, GS can capture most of the 'missing heritability' of complex traits that quantitative trait locus (QTL) and association mapping classically fail to explain. Experimental support of GS is now required. • The effectiveness of GS was assessed in two unrelated Eucalyptus breeding populations with contrasting effective population sizes (N(e) = 11 and 51) genotyped with > 3000 DArT markers. Prediction models were developed for tree circumference and height growth, wood specific gravity and pulp yield using random regression best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP). • Accuracies of GS varied between 0.55 and 0.88, matching the accuracies achieved by conventional phenotypic selection. Substantial proportions (74-97%) of trait heritability were captured by fitting all genome-wide markers simultaneously. Genomic regions explaining trait variation largely coincided between populations, although GS models predicted poorly across populations, likely as a result of variable patterns of linkage disequilibrium, inconsistent allelic effects and genotype × environment interaction. • GS brings a new perspective to the understanding of quantitative trait variation in forest trees and provides a revolutionary tool for applied tree improvement. Nevertheless population-specific predictive models will likely drive the initial applications of GS in forest tree breeding. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Evaluating the accuracy of genomic prediction of growth and wood traits in two Eucalyptus species and their F1 hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Biyue; Grattapaglia, Dario; Martins, Gustavo Salgado; Ferreira, Karina Zamprogno; Sundberg, Björn; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2017-06-29

    Genomic prediction is a genomics assisted breeding methodology that can increase genetic gains by accelerating the breeding cycle and potentially improving the accuracy of breeding values. In this study, we use 41,304 informative SNPs genotyped in a Eucalyptus breeding population involving 90 E.grandis and 78 E.urophylla parents and their 949 F1 hybrids to develop genomic prediction models for eight phenotypic traits - basic density and pulp yield, circumference at breast height and height and tree volume scored at age three and six years. We assessed the impact of different genomic prediction methods, the composition and size of the training and validation set and the number and genomic location of SNPs on the predictive ability (PA). Heritabilities estimated using the realized genomic relationship matrix (GRM) were considerably higher than estimates based on the expected pedigree, mainly due to inconsistencies in the expected pedigree that were readily corrected by the GRM. Moreover, the GRM more precisely capture Mendelian sampling among related individuals, such that the genetic covariance was based on the true proportion of the genome shared between individuals. PA improved considerably when increasing the size of the training set and by enhancing relatedness to the validation set. Prediction models trained on pure species parents could not predict well in F1 hybrids, indicating that model training has to be carried out in hybrid populations if one is to predict in hybrid selection candidates. The different genomic prediction methods provided similar results for all traits, therefore either GBLUP or rrBLUP represents better compromises between computational time and prediction efficiency. Only slight improvement was observed in PA when more than 5000 SNPs were used for all traits. Using SNPs in intergenic regions provided slightly better PA than using SNPs sampled exclusively in genic regions. The size and composition of the training set and number of SNPs

  16. Alterações na estrutura anatômica da madeira de cavacos de eucalyptus grandis em três condições de desfibramento para a confecção de painéis MDF Changes in the anatomical structure of eucalyptus grandis wood chips in three conditions wood chip refining for production of MDF panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da madeira de eucalipto na confecção de painéis MDF é recente, tornando-se necessário entender as modificações em sua estrutura anatômica durante as etapas do processo industrial, notadamente no desfibramento dos cavacos. Com esse objetivo, neste estudo foram aplicadas três condições diferenciadas de desfibramento dos cavacos, alterando-se (i o tempo de aquecimento, (ii as pressões de digestão e de desfibramento e (iii a energia específica de desfibramento, sendo avaliadas as características anatômicas dos componentes celulares da madeira. O aumento da intensidade de refino dos cavacos de madeira reduziu o comprimento médio das fibras e aumentou o porcentual de fibras quebradas, corroborando as imagens de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, além da diminuição do número dos vasos e de células de parênquima. Essa condição de desfibramento mais intensa promoveu, também, um característico escurecimento da coloração da polpa composta pelos elementos celulares da madeira. A aplicação de variáveis de desfibramento mais brandas aumentou a presença de feixes de fibras e do número de vasos e de parênquima, resultando em uma polpa de coloração mais clara. As alterações das características morfológicas dos componentes celulares da madeira dos cavacos de eucalipto, após o tratamento de desfibramento, relacionaram-se com as etapas do processo operacional e com a qualidade tecnológica dos painéis de fibras MDF.The use of eucalyptus wood for production of MDF panels is recent, becoming necessary to understand the changes in the anatomical structure during the stages of industrial processing, especially during wood chip refining. With this aim, in the present work three different conditions of wood chip refining were applied (i chip heating time, (ii digestion and refining pressures and (iii the specific refining energy, and the anatomical characteristics of wood cell components were evaluated

  17. Honey Lake hybrid geothermal wood residue power plant, Lassen County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The feasibility of a proposed 50 MW (gross) electric power project located near Wendel, California about 25 miles east of Susanville was studied. The project would be the first commercial power plant to combine the use of geothermal energy and wood fuel for power production. Wood fuel consisting primarily of various forms of forest management residues would be processed and partially dehydrated with geothermal energy prior to combustion. Geothermal energy would also be used for boiler feedwater heating and combustion air preheating. The study defines the range of site-specific benefits and economics of using wood fuel and moderate temperature geothermal energy, both of which are abundant and often located in proximity at many locations in the western United States. The study results document conclusively that overall project economics can be very favorable and that in addition to providing an important source of electric power, many benefits to forest land managers, local communities, project developers and the state of the environment can be derived from the combined use of moderate temperature geothermal energy and wood fuel.

  18. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  19. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by

  20. Influência da idade na resistência natural da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex. Maiden ao ataque de cupim de madeira seca (Cryptotermes brevis Tree age influence on Eucalyptus grandis wood natural resistance to deterioration by dry-wood termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou testar a resistência natural da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis de quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos ao ataque de cupins de madeira seca. As amostras foram retiradas da prancha diametral, na região próxima ao cerne mais externo, em número de seis unidades por tora, de cada uma das 16 árvores (quatro de cada idade. Cada par de amostras foi colocado em contato com 40 indivíduos, da espécie Cryptotermes brevis (cupim de madeira seca, avaliando-se cada par comparativamente com corpos-de-prova de madeira altamente suscetível ao ataque de cupins, no caso a madeira de Pinus elliottii, sob idênticas condições laboratoriais, mediante observações em intervalos periódicos. Ao término do ensaio foram registrados a porcentagem de cupins mortos e o número de furos, além do desgaste produzido por esses insetos. Verificou-se que a madeira de 10 anos foi a mais severamente atacada, com desgaste semelhante ao da testemunha. As madeiras de 14, 20 e 25 anos não diferiram estatisticamente entre si, quanto à resistência natural ao ataque de cupim de madeira seca, todas classificadas como de desgaste acentuado. A madeira de todas as idades mostrou-se altamente suscetível ao ataque de cupins, revelando a baixa resistência natural da espécie.The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability in the resistance to dry-wood termites of Eucalyptus grandis wood from commercial stands of four different ages (10, 14, 20 and 25 years old. Two logs were cut from sixteen different trees, four of each age. Six pairs of samples were taken from the most recent heartwood of a central board of a log. Each pair of samples was put in contact with 40 dry-wood termite individuals, Cryptotermes brevis. Samples of Pinus elliottii, a highly susceptible species, were also offered to the insects at the same time and under the same laboratory conditions in order to compare the results. The assay lasted for 45 days. After this

  1. Evaluation of a wood chipping system for eucalyptus tops for energy; Avaliacao de um sistema de cavaqueamento de ponteiras de eucalipto para aproveitamento energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, Juliana Lorensi do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Machado, Carlos Cardoso; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Sant' Anna, Cleverson de Mello [Departamento de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Vicosa, UFV, MG (Brazil)], E-mails: machado@ufv.br, amaury@ufv.br, cleverson@ufv.br; Seixas, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ], E-mail: fseixas@esalq.usp.br

    2011-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and to estimate costs of a wood chipping system for tree tops, which are considered residuals from wood harvesting, to be used for energy. The study was developed in a forest industry in the Para State, located in the north region of Brazil. The system was comprised by one wood chipper, two forwarders and one front loader. Data collection was based on time study, fuel consumption and chips load weighting. System average productivity was 17.51 tonnes per effective hour. Machine utilization rate was 51.9% due to many delays, mainly for repair and maintenance of the chipper. Chips transportation was considered to be the critical point of the system, due to some lack of trucks available for blowing chips. The system can produce between 94 and 162 times more energy than the energy consumed. System cost per effective hour was R$ 376.56, which means R$ 21.51/tonne of chips or R$ 2.70/G J. (author)

  2. Efeitos da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal na preservação da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo Effects of the purification and enrichment of wood tar creosote on preservation of Eucalyptus grandis wood, after 48 months of field testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da purificação e do enriquecimento do creosoto vegetal contra xilófagos, após 48 meses de instalação do ensaio de campo. Por destilação do alcatrão vegetal, obteve-se o creosoto vegetal bruto (creosoto 1, recuperado à temperatura de 110-255 °C. Uma fração dos destilados foi lavada com solução a 9% de bicarbonato de sódio, para obter o creosoto vegetal purificado (creosoto 2. Os creosotos 1 e 2 foram enriquecidos com 3% de naftenato de cobre; 3% de naftenato de zinco; 3% de naftenato de cobalto; 2% de TBTO; 2% de tribromofenato de tributil-estanho; 2% de pentaclorofenol; ou 0,4% de trióxido de arsênico. Estacas obtidas do alburno de Eucalyptus grandis foram tratadas pelo processo de célula cheia. A eficiência das soluções de creosoto vegetal foi comparada com a do creosoto mineral. O ensaio foi instalado em três localidades (Viçosa, Ponte Nova e Leopoldina. Os resultados indicam que o creosoto 2 + pentaclorofenol foi superior aos creosotos 1 e 2 + TBTO, aos creosotos 1 e 2 + naftenato de zinco e ao creosoto 1 puro, sendo semelhante ao creosoto mineral. O creosoto 2 foi superior ao creosoto 1 apenas para a localidade de Leopoldina. De modo geral, a vida média da madeira não-tratada ficou entre 12 e 24 meses, a da madeira tratada com o creosoto 1 + TBTO entre 24 e 37 meses e a da tratada com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de zinco entre 37 e 48 meses e a com o creosoto 1 + naftenato de cobalto, creosoto 2 puro e creosoto 2 + naftenato de zinco ou TBTO foi de 48 meses. No atual estágio da pesquisa, não é possível estimar a vida média da madeira tratada com as demais soluções preservativas testadas, pois ainda não atingiram os 60% das estacas quebradas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of purifying and enriching wood tar creosote against wood decay after 48 months in field testing. By distillation of wood tar, the crude wood tar (creosote 1 was

  3. Produtividade de madeira do eucalipto correlacionada com atributos do solo visando ao mapeamento de zonas específicas de manejo Eucalyptus wood productivity correlated with soil attributes aiming the mapping of management specifics regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel de Passos e Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A correta intervenção espacial na administração da lavoura, decorrente das zonas específicas de manejo do solo, aumenta a produtividade e a lucratividade agrícola. No ano de 2010, em Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (20° 20' S lat.; 51° 24' W long. foram empregadas correlações, espaciais e de Pearson, entre dados da planta de eucalipto e alguns atributos físico-químicos do solo, visando encontrar aquele que se correlacionasse bem com a produtividade de madeira. Para tanto, instalou-se uma rede geoestatística para a coleta de dados de solo e planta, com 120 pontos amostrais, num talhão de Eucalyptus camaldulensis de 2 anos. O solo foi um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Haplic Acrustox com declive de 0,025m m-1. O diâmetro basal da copa e a densidade do solo, por resultarem estreitas correlações com o volume de madeira, evidenciaram zonas específicas de manejo do solo intimamente associadas à produção de madeira do eucalipto.The perfect spatial intervention to manage the cultivation of the land, deriving from specific regions of the soil mapping, increases the agricultural productivity, as well as its clear gain. The relationships, spatial and Pearson, between eucalyptus data plant with some physical and chemical attributes of soil, in the growing season of 2011, in Selviria County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil (20° 20' S lat.; 51° 24' W long., were studied in order to obtain the one that could have the best relationship in order to improve the wood productivity. Thus, a geostatistical grid was installed for the soil and plant data collection, it contained 120 sample points, in plantation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis of 2 years old. The soil was a Dystrophic Red Latosol (Haplic Acrustox whit slope of 0.025m m-1. Due to their excellent relationship with wood productivity, the basis diameter of the crown and the bulk density showed management specific regions of soil whit high relation to eucalyptus wood productivity.

  4. Modificações na produtividade e nas características físicas e químicas da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis causadas pela adubação com lodo de esgoto tratado Changes in productivity and physicochemical characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis wood caused by sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O Eucalyptus grandis é uma das espécies mais cultivadas no Brasil devido à sua produtividade e qualidade da madeira. Avaliaram-se o efeito da aplicação de lodo de esgoto tratado (0 a 40 t ha-1 base seca e uma dose de adubo mineral nos atributos físicos e químicos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis de árvores com cinco anos de idade, no Município de Itatinga, São Paulo, Brasil. O tipo de solo foi caracterizado como Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico (argila = 120 g kg-1 na camada de 0-20 cm e o clima, como mesotérmico úmido (Cwa, segundo a classificação de Köeppen. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. O diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, a altura das árvores e o volume de madeira foram obtidos em todas as parcelas de oito árvores com DAP na classe de maior freqüência. As caracterizações físicas e químicas da madeira foram realizadas de acordo com as normas da ABTCP, TAPPI e ABNT. O lodo de esgoto diminuiu a densidade básica da madeira, mas não afetou os teores de celulose, lignina, extrativos e o poder calorífico da madeira. O decréscimo de densidade da madeira pela adubação com lodo de esgoto foi compensado pela maior produtividade de madeira.Eucalyptus grandis is the most planted species in Brazil due to its productivity and quality of wood. The effect of growing rates of treated sewage sludge (0 to 40 Mg. ha-1 dry base and one rate of mineral fertilizer on physicochemical attributes of Eucalyptus grandis wood were evaluated. The studied trees were five years old. The experimental area is located in the municipality of Itatinga, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The soil was characterized as a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (clay = 120 g kg-1 at 0-20 cm layer. The climate was characterized as a humid mesothermic (Cwa, according to Köeppen classification. The plots were established in a randomized complete block design, with 6 treatments and 4 replicates. The

  5. Bark- and wood-boring beetles on Scots pine logging residues from final felling: Effects of felling date, deposition location and diameter of logging residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Foit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the risk of bark- and wood-boring beetle pests, the extensive removal of logging residues is conducted in forests; however, this practice can lead to a loss of saproxylic insect diversity. Thus, finding a better pest management strategy is needed and requires additional information on the actual effects of various, differently treated logging residues for pest multiplication. In the present study, a total of 2,160 fragments of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. logging residues generated during final felling in a single stand in the Drahanská Highlands in the Czech Republic were examined for bark- and wood-boring beetles. The felling occurred on four dates in 2006 (in February, May, August and November. The logging residues from each felling were left scattered on the clear-cut area or were gathered into piles. The fauna inhabiting the logging residues were investigated by peeling off the bark during the first six months of the vegetative period following the felling. The logging residues hosted species-rich assemblages of bark- and wood-boring beetles (25 species were identified. Beetle occurrence was significantly affected by felling date, logging residue type (trunk fragment or branch and branch thinner or thicker than 1 cm, diameter and the manner in which the logging residues were deposited (freely scattered, top pile layer, or bottom pile layer. The Scots pine logging residues were a substrate for the significant multiplication of several potentially significant pests (particularly, Pityogenes chalcographus [Linnaeus], Ips acuminatus [Gyllenhal] and Pityophthorus pityographus [Ratzeburg]. The results indicated that the risk of pest reproduction can be minimised by felling the trees in August (and probably also September and October. For I. acuminatus and P. pityographus, the risk can be minimised by gathering the logging residues into piles.

  6. Combining ability of elite clones of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla with Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair Bison

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, eucalyptus breeding programs for cellulose production has used two species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. Nevertheless, it would be useful to introgress alleles from other species to improve wood quality and volume. The objective of this research was to evaluate the hybrid potential of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla from the Aracruz Celulose Company S. A. with Eucalyptus globulus clones. To do so, six elite clones were crossed with ten E. globulus clones in a half-diallel mating design. The resulting hybrid combinations as well as the four check clones were evaluated in randomized complete block experiments with single plant plots and 40 replicates from September to October 2001 at three Brazilian sites, Aracruz and São Mateus in the Espírito Santo state and Caravelas in Bahia State. Two years later the circumference at breast height (CBH and the wood density (WD were measured. The means were submitted to diallel analysis according to the Griffing method (1956, adapted by Geraldi and Miranda Filho (1988. Although the number of clones involved was small, the crossings of elite clones of E. grandis and E. urophylla with clones of E. globulus were promising, especially for wood quality gains.

  7. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood...

  8. Amendment of arsenic and chromium polluted soil from wood preservation by iron residues from water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Petersen, L. R.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , mostly in the deepest samplers. This is likely due to the formation of a pseudo-gley because of precipitation surplus. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium contaminated soil using WTR is a promising method but the transformation of ferrihydrite in soil proves a concern in case of waterlogged soils......An iron-rich water treatment residue (WTR) consisting mainly of ferrihydrite was used for immobilization of arsenic and chromium in a soil contaminated by wood preservatives. A leaching batch experiment was conducted using two soils, a highly contaminated soil (1033mgkg−1 As and 371mgkg−1 Cr......) and slightly contaminated soil (225mgkg−1 As and 27mgkg−1 Cr). Compared to an untreated reference soil, amendment with 5% WTR reduced leaching in the highly contaminated soil by 91% for Cr and 98% for As. No aging effect was observed after 103d. In a small field experiment, soil was mixed with 2.5% WTR in situ...

  9. Structure and pyrolysis characteristics of lignin derived from wood powder hydrolysis residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi; Qiu, Zejing; Wang, Congwei; Huang, Yanqin; Ma, Longlong; Wu, Shubin

    2012-09-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of wood powder acid hydrolysis residue (WAHR) were studied firstly in this study, and WAHL (lignin derived from WAHR) was separated successfully from WAHR based on an improved isolating method. The content of functional group such as phenolic hydroxyl group of guaiacyl, syringyl, and hydroxyl-phenyl units in WAHL were identified by (31)P-NMR and DFRC (derivatization followed by reductive cleavage) method. Thermal degradation experiments were carried out on a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer to show pyrolysis characteristics of WAHL. The compositions of pyrolysis products of WAHL were also studied throughout a pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) analyzer. It was shown that the pyrolysis of WAHL took place in a wide temperature range and there were two obvious peaks in the differential thermogravimetric diagram. Results of Py-GC-MS analysis indicated that pyrolysis products were mainly formed through cleavage of the β-O-4 connection and multiple pyrolysis.

  10. Utilização de eucaliptos e de madeiras nativas no armazenamento da aguardente de cana-de-açúcar Use of wood of Eucalyptus sp and native in the storage of the sugar cane spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Akira Mori

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar madeiras de diferentes espécies de eucaliptos e de madeiras nativas na construção de barris para o armazenamento da aguardente de cana-de-açúcar. Foram estudadas as propriedades químicas, anatômicas e físicas das madeiras e realizadas análises físico-químicas das aguardentes após doze meses de armazenamento. Os barris construídos com madeiras de eucaliptos apresentaram pouca permeabilidade a líquidos e também uma baixa estabilidade dimensional, provocando o descarte de grande parte deles. A análise química das diferentes madeiras de eucaliptos mostraram constituição constante em termos de polissacarídeos e lignina, diferindo no teor de extrativos, que é mais elevado em relação à madeira de carvalho. As análises físico-químicas das aguardentes armazenadas nestas madeiras apresentaram padrão de qualidade conforme a lei vigente, indicando o potencial da utilização desta madeira como barris para o armazenamento da aguardente. As madeiras nativas estudadas apresentaram baixa instabilidade dimensional e quase nenhum tipo de vazamento. A análise química destas madeiras também mostrou constituição constante em termos de polissacarídeos e lignina, e diferenças entre teores de extrativos, que foi também mais alto em relação a madeira de carvalho.As análises físico-químicas das aguardentes armazenadas nessas madeiras também apresentaram padrão normal segundo a lei vigente.The aim of this work was to evaluate different species of Eucalyptus and of native wood to make barrels for storage of sugar cane spirit. It was studied the chemical, anatomical and physical properties of the woods and made physical-chemical analyses of the sugar cane spirit storage during twelve months. The barrels made with wood of Eucalyptus presented little permeabilidade to liquids and a low dimensional estability, provoking discard of great part of them. The chemical composition of the different

  11. Nutrient removal capacity of wood residues for the Agro-environmental safety of ground and surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Dumont

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of wood residues in the removal of nutrients (ammonium-N; NH4-N from nutrient-rich (NH4-N waters. The water holding capacity of the wood materials was also determined. Carried out at Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, UK, this controlled laboratory experiment tested two wood residues; in length, one being 1-2cm and the other from 150 µm (microns to 9.5mm. Although a wide range of studies have shown the effectiveness and performance of various absorbent materials as animal beddings, such as straw (cereal straw, woodchip (sawdust, bark or wood shavings, bracken and rushes, only few have focused on the NH4-N sorption/desorption capacity. The depuration capacity of wood residues from nutrient-rich effluents such as those from cattle bedded on woodchip or straw will be controlled by processes such as sorption (adsorption-absorption and desorption of nutrients. Studies have reported the nitrogen removal capacity of woodchip materials and biochar from woodchip as well as removal of NH4+-N from domestic and municipal wastewater, farm dirty water, landfill and industry effluents. These studies have observed that the mechanism of removal of nitrogen is by either increasing NO3--N removal form leachate by enhancing N2O losses via denitrification (biochar as carbon source for denitrifiers or by decreasing NH4+-N in leachate through adsorption to negatively charged sites. Results showed that although the cation exchange capacity (CEC and surface area (SA are both fundamental properties of adsorbent materials, no correlation was found with CEC and adsorption or desorption. Nor did changes in pH appear to be sufficiently important to cause changes in CEC. For this reason, osmotic pressure appeared to be a more predominant parameter controlling processes of adsorption and desorption of NH4+-N in both wood residues. Thus, wood residues high in NH4+-N should be avoided, as they could have an opposite effect

  12. The impact of forest residue removal and wood ash amendment on the growth of the ectomycorrhizal external mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerberg, David; Wallander, Håkan

    2002-02-01

    Intensive harvesting of forest residues for energy production may lead to the depletion of organic matter and mineral nutrients in the forest floor. In order to restore nutrient content wood ash has been suggested as a fertiliser. Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are involved in the nutrient uptake of forest trees and this study investigates the influence of intensive harvesting and wood ash fertilisation on the external EM mycelium in forest soil. Nylon mesh bags filled with sand were buried in September 1997 in field plots which had or had not been intensively harvested. The effect of wood ash on the production of external EM mycelium was studied in mesh bags amended with wood ash. Mesh bags were retrieved in May and October 1998. The relative amount of fungal mycelia in the mesh bags was estimated with phospholipid fatty acid analysis. The fungi colonising the mesh bags were mainly (>90%) ectomycorrhizal. Fungal biomass in the mesh bags was low in the spring but high in the autumn. No significant effect on EM fungal biomass was observed in the mesh bags collected from intensively harvested plots compared with those from control plots, but wood ash amendment resulted in 2.4 times more EM fungal biomass (Pfree controls. The external EM mycelium had no effect on the dissolution rate of the wood ash. 80% of the potassium was lost from the wood ash within a month, whereas no phosphorus was lost during the experimental period (up to 13 months).

  13. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  14. Understanding and adding value to Eucalyptus fibre | Clarke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus wood has become one of the most important hardwood resources for pulp mills worldwide. Furthermore, bleached Eucalyptus pulp is used extensively both in paper-making globally where it is included in such diverse products as tissue, packaging, as well as printing papers and in chemical cellulose products ...

  15. Isolamento e seleção de fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira em florestas de Eucalyptus spp. com potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes Isolation and screening of wood white rot fungi from Eucalyptus spp. forests with potential for use in degradation of stumps and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kunieda de Alonso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou isolar fungos causadores da podridão-branca da madeira, a partir de basidiocarpos e de fragmentos de madeira de eucalipto coletados em várias regiões do país, bem como testar seu potencial de degradação de cepas e raízes mortas em plantios comerciais de eucalipto, após o corte raso. Para o isolamento dos fungos foi desenvolvido um meio de cultura de serragem de eucalipto-ágar. Dentre 292 isolados obtidos e submetidos ao teste de Bavendamm, 144 foram classificados como causadores de podridão-branca, capazes de produzir fenoloxidases. Dentre as nove relações C/N testadas, observou-se uma tendência de ocorrer maior degradação de cavacos naquelas iguais a 60 : 1, 200 : 1 e 300 : 1. Utilizando a relação C/N igual a 60 : 1, realizaram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a degradação de cavacos de Eucalyptus saligna por isolados fúngicos de podridão-branca. No primeiro experimento, avaliado aos 90 dias de incubação, foram selecionados sete isolados, que causaram perda de peso em cavacos superior ou igual à causada por Trametes versicolor, usado para comparação. No segundo experimento foram testados 46 isolados fúngicos. Dentre os mais eficientes estavam os sete isolados selecionados no primeiro teste, além de outros quatro isolados. Baseado na análise de DNA, seis isolados foram identificados, sendo três pertencentes à espécie Pycnoporus sanguineus, um ao gênero Peniophora sp., um ao gênero Pestalotiopsis sp. e um ao gênero Ganoderma sp.The aim of this work was to isolate native wood white-rot fungi from fungal fruit-bodies and eucalyptus wood fragments from different regions of Brazil and to test their potential for degrading dead stumps and roots in Eucalyptus plantings after harvest. Fungi isolates were obtained in a culture medium composed by Eucalyptus sawdust and agar. Among 292 isolates submitted to the Banvedamm test, 144 were classified as phenoloxidases producing isolates. Among nine C

  16. Breeding Eucalyptus for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edival A.V. Zauza; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; João Flávio da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations cover about 1.5 percent of the agricultural area in Brazil, and contribute to 4 percent of GDP and 3 percent in exports of forest products. Technological and research advances in silviculture and genetic improvement have increased productivity up to 80 m³ of wood/ha/year, with an average of 35 to 45 m³/ha/year. The greatest...

  17. Alcatrão ou creosoto de eucalipto na produção de adesivos fenólicos para colagem de madeira Wood adhesives from eucalyptus tar and creosote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos Pimenta

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has shown that Eucalyptus tar and creosote can be used in phenolic adhesive formulations (resols for wood products bonding. Some adhesives were prepared substituting 0; 17.7; 35.0 and 67.0% of the phenol by anhydrous tar and 0; 15.0 e 28.5% by creosote. In gluing Brazilian pine veneers, eucalypt tar and creosote based adhesives required longer pressing times for curing than conventional phenol-formaldehyde adhesives. By using 13C NMR, the number of carbons in side chains and hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and methoxyl groups related to 100 aromatic rings could be estimated in tar and creosote. In creosote, after reaction with excess formaldehyde in alkaline medium, only 0,28 hydroxymethyl groups was detected per phenolic ring. This low amount of hydroxymethylation explains the lack of reactivity in curing observed when creosote was introduced in a standard adhesive formulation.

  18. Pellets from biomass blends from agricultural residues. The alternative to wood; Biomischpellets aus landwirtschaftlichen Reststoffen. Die Alternative zu Holz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rombrecht, Hans-Bernd [BTU Cottbus LS KWT (Germany); Krautz, Gerd [CEBra e.V. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The Centrum fuer Energietechnologie Brandenburg e.V. (Cottbus, Federal Republic of Germany) examines the energetic use of effectively cultivated biomass from regional cultivation. Wood pellets are suitable as fuel, but actually have a price being greater than the price for fuel oil. Under this aspect, bio mixture pellets from agricultural residual substances are discussed as an alternative to wood pellets. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the advantages and disadvantages of bio mixture pellets. The composition and the characteristics of thirteen different mixture pellets also are presented.

  19. Caracterização da estrutura anatômica, densidade básica e morfologia de cavacos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis para a produção de painéis MDF Characterization of wood anatomy, basic density, and morphology of Eucalyptus grandis chips for MDF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O aumento na produção dos painéis "Medium Density Fiberboard" (MDF confeccionados com madeira de espécies de Eucalyptus spp de rápido crescimento evidencia a necessidade da caracterização dos seus componentes celulares, da densidade básica e da morfologia de cavacos. Com esse objetivo, foram coletadas três amostras de cavacos de madeira de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis, na linha de produção de indústria de painel. Em laboratório, os cavacos foram dissociados por maceração, para a avaliação das dimensões das fibras e dos vasos; determinou-se a densidade básica dos cavacos, bem como se caracterizaram a sua espessura e morfologia. Os resultados indicaram valores médios de 1005-19,7-11,8-3,9 µm para o comprimento, largura, diâmetro do lume e espessura média da parede das fibras, respectivamente. A densidade básica da madeira foi de 0,432 g/cm³ e a espessura dos cavacos, de 4,36 mm. Os valores médios de retenção dos cavacos foram de 0,9-16,9-44,5-30,7-6,1-0,9% nas peneiras 40, 25, 16, 8, 3,35 mm e fundo, respectivamente, sendo 75,2% retidos nas peneiras de 16-8 mm de abertura. Os resultados das análises anatômicas e morfológicas dos cavacos de madeira foram discutidos e comparados com informações da literatura especializada e correlacionados com o processo produtivo de chapas MDF.The increase of the MDF panels (Medium Density Fiberboard production by the use of the fast growing eucalypt wood species it evidences the need of the characterization of the cellular components, basic density and the chips morphology. With this aim 3 samples of wood chips of Eucalyptus grandis trees were collected, in the production line of panel industry. In laboratory, the wood chips were dissociated by maceration for the evaluation of the fiber and vessels dimensions; the wood basic density was determined and the thickness and morphology were characterized. The results indicated mean values of 1005-19,7-11,8-3,9 µm for the fiber length

  20. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  1. Characterization of the Interunit Bonds of Lignin Oligomers Released by Acid-Catalyzed Selective Solvolysis of Cryptomeria japonica and Eucalyptus globulus Woods via Thioacidolysis and 2D-NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kaori; Kaiho, Atsushi; Sakai, Ryo; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Okada, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-12-07

    Acid-catalyzed degradation of lignin in toluene containing methanol selectively yields C6-C2 lignin monomers and releases lignin oligomers, a potential raw feedstock for epoxy resins. We herein characterize the structures of the lignin oligomers by focusing on the changes in the interunit linkage types during solvolysis. The oligomeric lignin products were analyzed via thioacidolysis and 2D-HSQC-NMR. The results show that lignin oligomers ranging from monomers to tetramers are released through considerable cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages. The lignin oligomers from Cryptomeria japonica (softwood) mainly comprise β-5, β-1, and tetrahydrofuran β-β linkages, whereas Eucalyptus globulus (hardwood) yields oligomers rich in β-1 and syringaresinol β-β linkages. Both wood samples exhibit selective release of β-β dimers and a relative decrease in 5-5 and 4-O-5 bonds during solvolysis. The method presented for the separation of lignin oligomers without β-O-4 linkages and with linkages unique to each wood species will be useful for the production of lignin-based materials.

  2. Influência de idade e da posição radial nas dimensões das fibras e dos vasos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden Influence of age and radial position on fiber and vessel dimensions of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Castro Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a variação das dimensões das fibras e dos vasos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis com quatro diferentes idades (10, 14, 20 e 25 anos, proveniente de talhões comerciais. A amostragem do material na árvore foi feita através da coleta de três discos, retirados da base e das extremidades das duas primeiras toras, ambas com o comprimento comercial de 3 m. De cada disco, retiraram-se cinco amostras, de dimensões 1,0 x 1,0 x 1,0 cm, tomadas de pontos eqüidistantes, correspondentes a 0; 25; 50; 75; e 100% da seção, no sentido radial medula-casca, fazendo-se a medição das fibras e dos vasos. Verificou-se, em todos os parâmetros, o efeito da idade e da variação radial, no sentido medula-casca, à exceção da largura e do diâmetro do lume das fibras; todos os demais parâmetros apresentaram correlação positiva.The objective of this work was to evaluate the variability of wood quantitative anatomical characteristics (fibers and vessels of Eucalyptus grandis of four different ages (10, 14, 20 and 25 years, obtained from commercial stands. Tree material sampling was collected from three disks in the bottom and top of the first two logs, both three m long. Five samples were collected from each disc at the pith-to-bark direction at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the radii. In all cases, age and pith-to-bark direction were observed to have a marked influence on all the assays, except for fiber lumen diameter and width; all the other parameters showed a positive correlation.

  3. Study on the preparation of wood vinegar from biomass residues by carbonization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiaomei; Zhang, Shouyu; Hou, Baoxin; Zheng, Hongjun; Deng, Wenxiang; Liu, Dahai; Tang, Wenjiao

    2015-03-01

    In the paper, the production of wood vinegar from Chinese fir sawdust (FS), cotton stalk (CS) and bamboo sawdust (BS) by carbonization process was addressed. The wood vinegar yield was investigated and the organic compounds contained were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. It was found that the refined wood vinegar yield of FS increased firstly and then decreased with increasing carbonization temperature and the highest yield reached about 25% in 350-450°C. The relative contents of acids and ketones from FS decreased and that of phenols increased with increasing temperature. The relative contents of acids and phenols in the wood vinegars produced from the samples were in the order of BS>CS>FS and that of ketones reversed. KCl solution treatment caused a decrease in the relative contents of the phenols and ketones, but an increase in that of the acids in FS wood vinegar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lifetime and residual strength of wood subjected to static and variable load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    The DVM-theory (Damaged Viscoelastic Material) previously developed by the author to predict lifetime of wood subjected to static loads is further developed in this paper such that harmonic load variations can also be considered. Lifetime (real time or number of cycles) is predicted as a function...... is successfully compared with data from experiments representing different wood products. Master graphs are developed which can be used in fatigue design of wood products in general. These graphs are valid for any creep behavior (relaxation, moisture content) and materials quality (grading, strength level.......It is strongly emphasised throughout the paper that reliable mechanical durability studies on wood cannot be made if the influence of wood rheology is disregarded. Lifetime predicted by Palmgren-Miner methods may cause considerably overestimated time to failure, especially at low frequencies. Results from...

  5. Energy potential of residue from wood transformation industry in the central metropolitan area of the Principality of Asturias (northwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Sánchez, José Pablo; Gutiérrez-Trashorras, Antonio José; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    The development of modern cities favours the formation of metropolitan zones with urban and industrial areas. The central metropolitan area (CMA) of the Principality of Asturias (northwest Spain), takes up 9.6% of the territory and represents 78% of its population. The first and second wood transformation industries of the CMA generate rather large amounts of biomass residues suitable for both reclaim and energy valuation considering technical, economic, and environmental restrictions. The results obtained from the evaluation of the biomass and the bioenergy of these residues are 7.9 kt/year and 114.7 TJ/year, respectively. The location for the development of a densified solid biofuels plant to produce pellets from these available residues is proposed for the Siero municipality, which is in the CMA. The plant would have an annual potential production capacity for the conventional pelletization process equivalent to 10 MW of fuel output.

  6. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Mapping of QTLs related with wood quality and developmental characteristics in hybrids (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla Mapeamento de QTLs para características de qualidade da madeira e crescimento em híbridos (Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to characterize and identify QTLs for wood quality and growth traits in E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids. For this purpose a RAPD linkage map was developed for the hybrids (LOD=3 and r=0.40 containing 52 markers and 12 linkage groups. Traits related to wood quality and growth were evaluated in the QTL analyses. QTL analyses were performed using chi-square tests, single-marker, interval mapping and composite interval mapping analyses. All approaches led to the identification of similar QTLs associated with wood density, cellulose pulp yield and percentage of extractives, which were detected and confirmed by both the interval mapping and composite interval mapping methodologies. Some QTLs regions were confirmed only by the composite interval mapping methodology: percentage of soluble lignin, percentage of insoluble lignin, CBH and total height. Overlapping QTLs regions were detected, and these, can be the result of major genes involved in the regulation and control of the growth traits by epistatic interactions. In order to evaluate the effect of early selection using RAPD molecular data, molecular markers adjacent to QTLs were used genotype selection. The analysis of selection differential values suggests that for all the traits the phenotypic selection at seven years should generate larger genetic gains than early selection assisted by molecular markers and the combination of the strategies should elevate the selection efficiency.O presente trabalho teve como objetivos a caracterização e identificação de QTLs para características de crescimento e de qualidade da madeira em híbridos de eucalipto derivados do cruzamento entre E. grandis e E. urophylla. Para isso foi desenvolvido um mapa de ligação RAPD pouco saturado (LOD = 3 e r = 0,40 contendo 52 marcas e 12 grupos de ligação. Características de qualidade da madeira e características de crescimento foram avaliadas quanto à presença de QTLs. Foram utilizadas

  8. Lifetime and residual strength of wood subjected to static and variable load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1996-01-01

    The DVM-theory (Damaged Viscoelastic Material) previously developed by the author to predict lifetime of wood subjected to static loads is further developed in this paper such that variable loads can also be considered. Lifetime (real time or number of cycles) is predicted as a function of load...... is successfully compared with data from experiments representing different wood products. Algorithms and master graphs are developed which can be used in fatigue design of wood products in general. These graphs are valid for any creep behavior (relaxation, moisture content) and materials quality (grading...

  9. Avaliação do desempenho de ensaio não destrutivo em vigas de madeira de Eucalyptus citriodora e Pinus elliottii Assessment of the performance of non destructive tests in beams of Eucalyptus citriodora and Pinus eliottii wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gonçalves

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A madeira sempre foi e continua sendo importante material, quer seja para uso na construção civil ou na confecção de móveis; entretanto, o Brasil sempre foi marcado pelo desmatamento indiscriminado e pela falta de preocupação com a preservação e recuperação das espécies nativas. Esta devastação se deve a vários fatores, dentre eles, a falta de preparo técnico da indústria madeireira. Aliado a isto, a falta de conhecimento do material, por parte dos profissionais que se utilizam da madeira, faz com que haja tendência de se utilizar as mesmas espécies até seu total desaparecimento. Neste cenário, surge a perspectiva do uso das espécies de reflorestamento e, com ela, um desafio: conhecer e divulgar suas características e possibilidades de emprego. Neste contexto, a proposta deste trabalho avalia a utilização do ultra-som como método auxiliar na determinação de propriedades mecânicas da madeira, com vistas à classificação; para isto, verificou-se a existência de correlação entre os resultados obtidos em ensaios estáticos de flexão e aqueles obtidos em ensaios dinâmicos, utilizando-se a técnica do ultra-som, em vigas de Eucalyptus citriodora e Pinus elliottii. As correlações obtidas mostram que esta metodologia poderia ser utilizada na avaliação de peças estruturais e apontam para a possibilidade de implementação da técnica em métodos de classificação da madeira.Wood has always been an important material for the civil construction industry and for furniture manufactures. Nevertheless, Brazil has been roted for its indiscriminate deforestation and lack of preoccupation in preservation and reclamation of the native species. The reason for this deforestation is due to several factors, among them the lack of technology in the wood industry. On top of that, the lack of knowledge of the material properties induce the users to utilise always the same species until its exhaustion. To remedy this it is

  10. Anatomía comparada del leño de Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae de dos orígenes, ensayados en Santiago del Estero Comparative wood anatomy of two select origins of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae, implanted in Santiago del Estero, Argentine Chaco Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Graciela Moglia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la variabilidad radial en el leño de ejemplares de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. provenientes de dos orígenes selectos implantados en un ensayo en Santiago del Estero. Se compararon materiales provenientes del Huerto Semillero de Zimbabwe y de Emu Creek Queensland. Se estudiaron las secciones transversales de fuste a 1,30 m de altura de 7 ejemplares de 5 años de edad, de cada uno de los orígenes. Se extrajeron dos probetas sobre el radio Norte, tomadas una a 25% y otra al 80% de distancia con respecto a la médula. Se analizaron: frecuencia y diámetro de vasos, longitud de vasos y fibras, porcentaje de tejidos, tipos de vasos y radios. El análisis de la varianza se ajustó al diseño de muestreo de efectos anidados para «orígenes» y «árboles», utilizando las «distancias radiales a la médula» como medidas repetidas y se evaluó con un modelo mixto. Los dos orígenes estudiados presentan porosidad difusa, vasos solitarios y radios homogéneos. Ninguna de las variables estudiadas mostró diferencias significativas entre orígenes. Las longitudes de vasos y fibras mostraron diferencias significativas entre distancias. La frecuencia y longitud de vasos, frecuencia de radios y los porcentajes de tejidos mostraron diferencias significativas entre árboles.The aim of the present research was to study radial wood variation of two different origins in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. proceeding from a seed allotment in Zimbabwe and Emu Creek Queensland. For this study seven trees of 5 years old, of each origin, were selected from an implanted trial in Santiago del Estero. Two samples were taken from transverse sections at 1.30 m height on the North radius, one located at 25% and the other at 80% of distance to the pith. Frequency, diameter, and length of vessels, fiber length, tissues percentages and ray types were analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed using a nested design, for

  11. Comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder: Calculation of productivity and procurement cost of wood chips

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Takuyuki; Sakurai, Rin; Aruga, Kazuhiro; Nitami, Toshio; Sakai, Hideo; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    An experiment on comminution of logging residues with a tub grinder was carried out in order to calculate the productivity and procurement cost of wood chips. At the investigated site, the tub grinder had a hammer mill crusher at the bottom of the tub, and a grapple loader and a bucket loader worked as auxiliary machines for the grinder. As a result, the productivity of the tub grinder was 60.0 loose m3/PMH0, and the total comminuting cost was calculated as 5.637 US$/m3, indicating that th...

  12. Elemental analysis of ash residue from combustion of CCA treated wood waste before and after electrodialytic extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Element distribution in a combined fly ash and bottom ash from combustion of copper chromate arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) before and after electrodialytic extraction. The untreated ash contained various particles, including pieces....... Chemical analyses of untreated and treated ash confirmed that most As, but only smaller amounts of Cu and Cr was removed due to the electrodialytic extraction. Overall metal contents in the original ash residue were: 1.4 g As, 2.76 g Cu and 2.48 g Cr, after electrodialytic extraction these amounts were...

  13. Variation in natural durability of seven Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J.N. Franca; T.S.F.A. Franca; R.A Arango; B.M. Woodward; G.B. Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    Programs aimed at developing clones of hybrid trees are commonly established in Brazil to meet the demands of various forest-based industries. These programs have continually improved the quality of eucalyptus wood, which has the potential to reduce deforestation by lowering demand for other high-value species. This is particularly true in the lumber market, but little...

  14. Effect of the steam explosion pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus wood and sweet sorghum baggages; Efecto del pretratamiento con explosion por vapor en la hidrolisis enzimatica de madera de eucalipto y bagazo de sorgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, M. J.; Martinez, J. M.; Manero, J.; Saez, F.; Martin, C.

    1991-07-01

    The effect of steam explosion treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis yield of two different lignocellulosic substrates is studied. Raw materials have been pretreated in a pilot plant designed to work in batch and equipped with a reactor vessel of 2 1 working volume where biomass was heated at the desired temperature and then exploded and recovered in a cyclone. Temperatures from 190 to 230 degree celsius and reaction times from 2 to 8 min. have been assayed. The efficiency of the steam explosion treatment has been evaluated on the composition of the lignocellulosic materials as well as on their enzymatic hydrolysis yield using a cellulolytic complex from T. reesel. Results show a high solubilization rate of hemicelluloses and variable losses of cellulose and lignin depending on the conditions tested. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields of both substrates experimented remarkable increments, corresponding the highest values obtained to 210 degree celsius; 2 min. and 21O degree celsius; 4 min. for sorghum bagasse and eucalyptus wood respectively. (Author) 13 refs.

  15. Effect of moisture availability on wood density and vessel characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis in the warm temperate region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available intolerant of adverse conditions, and performs poorly when planted on shallow soils and/or on dry sites. A study was conducted to assess the effect of moisture availability on the wood density and vessel characteristics of E. grandis grown in the warm...

  16. Characterization of eucalyptus clones subject to wind damage

    OpenAIRE

    Zanuncio, Antônio José Vinha; Carvalho, Amélia Guimarães; Carneiro, Angélica de Cassia Oliveira; Valenzuela, Paulina; Gacitúa, William; Leite, Fernando Palha; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this work was to test a new methodology to assess the resistance of trees to wind damage and determine the characteristics that increase clone resistance to winds. Tree resistance to breakage, basic density, ultrastructure, anatomy, mechanical properties, and wood growth stress have been evaluated in seven Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla clones, collected from a region with a high incidence of wind damage. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the tr...

  17. Residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene applied to wood, metal and concrete for control of stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Frank H; Liu, Siwei; Zhao, Baige; Phillips, Thomas W

    2009-07-01

    Pyriproxyfen and hydroprene are insect growth regulators (IGRs) that have been evaluated to control insect pests of field crops, but there are limited reports of efficacy against stored-product insects. A laboratory study was conducted to determine residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen and hydroprene on wood, metal and concrete surfaces. Pyriproxyfen was applied to the surfaces at 1.15 and 2.3 mg active ingredient [AI] m(-2), while hydroprene was applied at the label rate of 19 mg AI m(-2). Late-instar larvae of Tribolium confusum Jacqueline DuVal, T. castaneum (Herbst), Oryzaephilus surinamenis L., Lasioderma serricorne (F.) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) were exposed with a food source on the treated surfaces. Residual testing was conducted at 1, 28 and 56 days post-treatment. Hydroprene was least persistent on concrete and generally most persistent on metal. Pyriproxyfen gave greater residual persistence than hydroprene, and there was no consistent difference in efficacy among the three surfaces. Efficacy varied among the five insect species, but generally P. interpunctella was the most tolerant species to both IGRs. Pyriproxyfen gave effective residual control of primary stored-product insect species by inhibiting adult emergence of exposed larvae. Results show that pyriproxyfen can be a useful addition for pest management programs in mills, warehouses and food storage facilities. (c) John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of organosolv pretreatment on the structural characteristics of lignin polymers and follow-up enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrates from Eucalyptus wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Shen, Xiao-Jun; Wen, Jia-Long; Xiao, Lin; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, Eucalyptus was subjected to organosolv pretreatment processes with aqueous 2-propanol at 200-220°C to obtain lignin with benign characters for its valorization and digestible substrates for bioethanol production. Results showed that different delignification ratios (64.00%-81.26%) and molecular weights (Mw=610-2680g/mol) of lignin fractions were dissociated from various pretreatment conditions, and the glucose yields of all the pretreated substrates significantly increased to 54.65-88.59% as compared to that of raw material (9.20%). Additionally, the amounts of β-O-4, β-β, and β-5 substructures were regularly decreased with the increased temperature and time. By contrast, the structural characteristics of the lignin fractions obtained with 70% 2-PrOH/water were less-altered than those with 50% 2-PrOH/water pretreatment. Remarkably, lignin with the lowest molecular weight (Mw=610g/mol) and less-altered chemical structure was achieved at 200°C for 120min, which is beneficial to subsequent catalytic degradation of lignin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Propriedades de chapas fabricadas com partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake e de Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. Properties of foils manufactured with particles of wood of Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake and of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Baptista Naumann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de madeira aglomerada fabricadas com partículas de Eucalyptus urophylla (massa específica = 0,55 g/cm³ e de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá (massa específica = 0,30 g/cm³. Foram confeccionadas chapas com cinco proporções de madeira e dois tipos de partículas (maravalhas e cavacos. As chapas apresentaram dimensões de 60 cm x 60 cm x 1 cm e massa específica média de 0,60 g/cm³. Utilizou-se adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído, na proporção de 8%. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 ºC e 3,2 MPa de pressão, em ciclos de 8 min, e as suas propriedades foram determinadas segundo a norma NBR 14810-3. A massa específica, a dureza Janka e a expansão linear não foram influenciadas pelas variáveis experimentais. De modo geral, o aumento na porcentagem de paricá elevou a resistência à flexão, ao arrancamento de parafuso e à tração perpendicular. O tipo de partícula afetou significativamente apenas a resistência à tração perpendicular e o inchamento em espessura. As chapas produzidas com partículas provenientes de cavacos (coeficiente de esbeltez menor tiveram maior resistência à tração perpendicular. Contudo, apresentaram valores mais elevados de inchamento em espessura.This work aimed to evaluate the properties of particleboards produced with Eucalyptus urophylla (density 0.55 g/cm³ and Schizolobium amazonicum (density 0.30 g/cm³.Five wood proportions and two types of particle (shavings and chips were used to manufacture the boards. Board dimension was 60 cm x 60 cm x 1 cm and average density 0.60g/cm³. Eight percent of urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used. Boards were pressed at 170 ºC and 32 kgf/cm² of pressure in 8 minute cycles. Board properties were determined according to NBR 14810-3 standard. There was no influence of the variables on board density and linear expansion. Generally,increasing the percentage of paricá increased

  20. Variação das dimensões dos elementos anatômicos da madeira de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden aos sete anos. Variation of anatomical structure of wood of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden with 7 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finê Thomaz ROCHA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A variação das dimensões dos elementos anatômicos do lenho tem um efeito marcante sobre a qualidade da madeira e o produto final. Visando obter melhores informações sobre o assunto, foram coletadas amostras de árvores dominantes, intermediárias e dominadas de Eucalyptus grandis aos sete anos, com o objetivo de verificar as variações das dimensões dos elementos anatômicos entre árvores, no sentido medula-casca e base-topo. De cada árvore foram retirados discos de madeira na base, 25, 50, 75 e 100% da altura comercial. Em cada disco foram demarcados corpos de prova a 0, 50 e 100% do raio. Os elementos anatômicos foram mensurados através de programa de análise de imagens. Os resultados permitem concluir que: (a das classes sociológicas, a dominante apresentou fibras 14% mais longas e 20% mais espessas, diâmetro de vasos 30% mais largo e raios 20% mais altos do que as outras classes; (b os maiores valores das dimensões das fibras e comprimento de vasos foram encontrados a 25% da altura comercial, os vasos apresentaram-se mais largos a 75% e a freqüência de raios foi maior no topo, e (c em todas as dimensões das fibras, o diâmetro e o comprimento dos vasos foram crescentes.The variation in the dimensions of the anatomical elements of the xylem has a marked effect on the quality of wood and on the final product. In order to obtain further information about this variation samples of dominant, intermediate and dominated 7-year-old Eucalyptus grandis trees were collected. The aim was to analyze the variation in the dimensions of the anatomical elements among trees in the pith-bark and base-top directions. Wood disks from the base, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the commercial height were removed from each tree. From each disk samples at 0, 50 and 100% of the radius were defined. The anatomical elements were measured through image analysis. The results indicate that: (a of all sociological classes, the dominant one showed fibers 14% longer

  1. Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Christie, SI

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available because total biomass also includes branches, bark, leaves, and roots. Many tree species have been used in planation forests in South Africa. The softwood plantations are predominantly Pinus patula, while the hardwoods are predominantly Eucalyptus... patula Eucalyptus grandis Component 20 years 8 years 7 years Bole wood 70.7 66.6 75.2 Branch wood 10.1 9.4 2.7 Bark 5.9 7.5 7.1 Leaves 1.5 3.6 2.3 Roots 11.5 (13.0) ~ (12.7) a 'Root biomass was not measured but is estimated to constitute 15...

  2. A percepção sobre o uso da madeira de eucalipto pelos fabricantes do polo moveleiro de Ubá-MG The perception of manufacturers of the furniture center of Ubá-MG about the use of eucalyptus wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Oliveira Borges Teixeira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou a percepção dos fabricantes do Polo Moveleiro de Ubá, MG, quanto à utilização da madeira de eucalipto para a fabricação de móveis. A crescente restrição ambiental ao uso de madeiras provenientes de florestas nativas tem estimulado a utilização da madeira de reflorestamento, principalmente a de eucalipto. Foram entrevistadas 17 empresas do segmento de sala de jantar, 21 do segmento de cama e 6 do segmento de móveis sob encomenda. A experiência de uso da madeira de eucalipto foi constatada em 43,2% das empresas, sendo os principais fatores que influenciaram seu uso: o fato de a madeira ser proveniente de floresta plantada e ter características uniformes, além da escassez de madeira oriunda de florestas nativas. Das empresas que nunca usaram a madeira de eucalipto, 88% já ouviram falar das suas potencialidades, mas não usavam porque tinham pouco conhecimento sobre o assunto, faltavam fornecedores, não havia demanda por parte dos consumidores e consideravam alto o preço dessa madeira. Conclui-se que a maioria das empresas tinha interesse em usar a madeira de eucalipto no futuro, desde que tenha maiores informações e que o preço seja acessível.The main objective of this work was to analyze the perception of the manufacturers of the furniture center of Ubá-MG, Brazil on the use of eucalyptus wood for furniture production. The increasing environmental restraint on the use of wood from native forests has stimulated the use of reforestation plantings specially of eucalyptus. A questionnaire was made and applied to the undertakers of the furniture center of Ubá, who use solid wood for furniture production, including seventeen of the dining-room section, twenty-one of the bedroom section and six of the made-to-order furniture section. The experience of using eucalyptus wood was observed in 43.2% of the enterprises. The main factors that influenced its use were: the fact that the lumber comes from planted

  3. Residual efficacy of methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae at different temperatures on varnished wood, concrete, and wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The residual efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene (Diacon II), was evaluated in bioassays using larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) exposed on varnished wood or unsealed concrete treated with a liquid formulation and held at different temperatures. When these surfaces were stored...

  4. Densidade básica da madeira de sete espécies e três clones de eucalipto antes e durante o cultivo de shiitake = Basic density of wood from seven species and three clones of eucalyptus before and during shiitake cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a densidade básica da madeira e casca de sete espécies (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. paniculata e E. pellita e três clones de eucalipto (híbridos de E. grandis x E. urophylla antes e durante o cultivo das linhagens LE-95/01 e LE-96/18 de shiitake (Lentinula edodes em toras. Cada linhagem de shiitake foi inoculada em nove toras de cada tipo de eucalipto com 1 m de comprimento e 9 a 14 cm de diâmetro. Assim, o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 20tratamentos e 9 repetições, sendo cada repetição correspondente a uma tora. As toras foram mantidas em estufa climatizada, com temperatura de 25 ± 5ºC e umidade relativa do ar entre 60-80% durante 12 meses. Para a determinação da densidade básica, analisaram-secunhas de discos e cascas de eucalipto recém-cortadas (sem inoculação das linhagens de L. edodes e em cunhas de discos retirados de toras já inoculadas com as linhagens de L. edodes após 8 e 12 meses de incubação. Verificou-se que a densidade básica da madeira, aolongo do ciclo de cultivo, foi reduzida em todos os tipos de eucalipto.Basic density of the wood and bark of seven eucalyptus species (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E.paniculata and E. pellita and three eucalyptus clones (E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids were evaluated before and during the cultivation of shiitake (Lentinula edodes strains LE-95/01and LE-96/18 in logs. Each shiitake strain was inoculated into 9 logs of each type of eucalyptus with length of 1 m and diameter of 9 to 14 cm. Thus, the experimental design was totally randomized, with 20 treatments and 9 repetitions, with each repetition corresponding to one log. The logs were kept in a greenhouse, under the temperature of25 ± 5ºC and relative air humidity between 60-80 %, during 12 months. To determine basic density, newly cut disks and barks wedges of eucalyptus (without the

  5. Kinetic modeling of kraft delignification of Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Rodriguez, F.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Moreno, D.; Garcia-Ochoa, F. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1997-10-01

    A kinetic model for the kraft pulping delignification of Eucalyptus globulus is proposed. This model is discriminated among some kinetic expressions often used in the literature, and the kinetic parameters are determined by fitting of experimental results. A total of 25 isothermal experiments at liquor-to-wood ratios of 50 and 5 L/kg have been carried out. Initial, bulk, and residual delignification stages have been observed during the lignin removal, the transitions being, referring to the lignin initial content, about 82 and 3%. Carbohydrate removal and effective alkali-metal and hydrosulfide consumption have been related with the lignin removal by means of effective stoichiometric coefficients for each stage, coefficients also being calculated by fitting of the experimental data. The kinetic model chosen has been used to simulate typical kraft pulping experiments carried out at nonisothermal conditions, using a temperature ramp. The model yields simulated values close to those obtained experimentally for the wood studied and also ably reproduces the trends of the literature data.

  6. MICRONUTRIENTS AND BIOMASS IN Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden STAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiele Dick

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The expansion of silviculture in Brazil, and the consequent intensive practices for soil preparation with high demand for fertilizers require sustainable nutrient management of forest sites. The objective of this study was to quantify the biomass and the micronutrient stocks of a 60-month-old Eucalyptus dunnii stand established in Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul. The stand was established in a Rhodic Paleudult soil with low fertility and texture varying between sandy loam and sandy-clay loam. For the sampling of stand biomass, twelve trees were harvested, sectioned at ground level, and subsequently fractionated into the components roots, leaves, branches, stembark and stemwood to determine the dry mass and micronutrient content. The total biomass of the stand was 67.49 Mg ha-1, with mass allocation in descending order from: stem wood > root > bark > branches > leaves. Total micronutrient stocks for boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn were 562.57, 401.46, 9913.28, 31877.82, and 766.96 g ha-1, respectively. In addition, we found greater accumulation of Zn in the wood, high Mn accumulation especially in the bark, and high Fe content in the roots. Therefore, based on these micronutrient levels and their allocation between biomass fractions, we emphasize that the practice of retaining forest residues on-site after harvest is essential for forest nutrition through nutrient cycling and for soil conservation and fertility.

  7. Fly ash classification efficiency of electrostatic precipitators in fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, and forest residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohenoja, Katja; Körkkö, Mika; Wigren, Valter; Österbacka, Jan; Illikainen, Mirja

    2018-01-15

    The increasing use of biomasses in the production of electricity and heat results in an increased amount of burning residue, fly ash which disposal is becoming more and more restricted and expensive. Therefore, there is a great interest in utilizing fly ashes instead of just disposing of it. This study aimed to establish whether the utilization of fly ash from the fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, and forest residues can be improved by electrostatic precipitator separation of sulfate, chloride, and some detrimental metals. Classification selectivity calculations of electrostatic precipitators for three different fuel mixtures from two different power plants were performed by using Nelson's and Karnis's selectivity indices. Results showed that all fly ashes behaved similarly in the electrostatic separation process SiO 2 resulted in coarse fractions with Nelson's selectivity of 0.2 or more, while sulfate, chloride, and the studied detrimental metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) enriched into fine fractions with varying selectivity from 0.2 to 0.65. Overall, the results of this study suggest that it is possible to improve the utilization potential of fly ashes from fluidized bed combustion in concrete, fertilizer, and earth construction applications by using electrostatic precipitators for the fractionating of fly ashes in addition to their initial function of collecting fly ash particles from flue gases. The separation of the finer fractions (ESP 2 and 3) from ESP 1 field fly ash is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative ecobalancing accounting of semi-central house heat supply from wood residues; Vergleichende Oekobilanzierung der semi-zentralen Hauswaermebereitstellung aus Holzreststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemann, Kirsten

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 almost 40 percent of the German final energy demand was used for room heating and hot water supply. To decrease environmental burdens and to save fossil resources a restructuring of the heating sector is needed. Therefore legislation enforces higher insulation standards of buildings and a more frequent use of renewable energies as well as heating networks. Wood as a renewable and storable energy source is an attractive fuel. However, it must be used as efficiently as possible because of limited wood supplies. Connecting buildings via a heating network is a good option since bigger heating plants can operate at higher efficiencies than small heaters. However, the higher insulation standards of the buildings often oppose the construction of a heating network, because heating networks work best with high energy demands and low network lengths. Therefore the environmental and economic feasibility of new heating networks needs to be checked beforehand. This thesis explores the environmental burdens of different semi- centralized heating networks using wood residues as fuel. A semi- centralized heating network is a network with no more than 500 customers and a heating plant with less than 5 MWth. While wood residues are used in the base load plant, peak load is covered by a gas heating plant. As a method to analyze the potential environmental burdens of the heat supply a life cycle assessment according to ISO 14040/44 is used. Opposed to former life cycle assessment studies, construction and operation of the network is included in the assessment. Even though the environmental impacts of the semi- centralized heating from wood residues are dominated by the heat supply, an observation of the impacts solely at the heating plant is not sufficient. By varying the boundary conditions of the heating network two main contributors to the environmental impacts are found. In addition to the heat production at the plant the type of the buildings in the settlement has a huge

  9. Kinetics of Eucalyptus globulus delignification in a methanol-water medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Rodriguez, F.; Santos, A.; Oliet, M.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.; Tijero, J. [Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1999-09-01

    The kinetics of Eucalyptus Globulus delignification in methanol-water pulping has been studied. A total of 17 isothermal runs at a liquor-to-wood ratio of 50 L/kg were carried out to develop the kinetic model describing the system. In a first series of experiments, eight models were considered to study the influence of temperature on the delignification rate. The most suitable model, which was discriminated according to statistical criteria, describes delignification as the consecutive dissolution of three lignin species: initial, bulk, and residual lignin, their content in wood being 10, 69, and 21%, respectively. Initial and residual delignification were considered as irreversible reactions and bulk delignification as reversible. The influence of hydrogen ion concentration was taken into account by means of a general power-law expression. The model proposed was taken into account by means of a general power-law expression. The model proposed was validated by reproducing the experimental data from four runs carried out under nonisothermal conditions and a liquor-to-wood ratio of 7 L/kg, which are closer to industrial operating conditions.

  10. RESISTÊNCIA BIOLÓGICA DA MADEIRA TRATADA DE Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus cloeziana A FUNGOS APODRECEDORES EM ENSAIOS DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Alan Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was converted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA. Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  11. Growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis grown in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a stand-level growth and yield model for short-rotationEucalyptus grandis grown for pulp wood production at Piggs Peak in Swaziland. The data were derived from a Nelder 1a spacing trial established with E. grandis clonal cuttings in 1998 and terminated in 2005. Planting density ...

  12. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a free by-product of the treatment of drinking water with high concentration of iron oxides and potential for arsenic sorption. This paper aims at applying Fe-WTR to a contaminated site, measuring the reduction in contaminant leaching, and discussing...... amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...... by 95% in the upper samplers. Dosage and mixing of Fe-WTR in the soil proved to be difficult in the deeper part of the field, and pore water concentrations of arsenic was generally higher. Despite water logged conditions no increase in dissolved iron or arsenic was observed in the amended soil. Our...

  13. Flexural properties of four fast-growing eucalypts woods deteriorated by three different field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Avila Delucis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Durability is a wood characteristic determined by several factors, making it difficult to investigate the service life of pieces designated for outdoor use. In this study, the decaying of juvenile and adult woods of four fast-growing eucalypts from southern Brazil subjected to three different exposure environments was monitored through mechanical properties (flexural test. The study material was obtained from adult trees of Eucalyptus botryoides, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata and Eucalyptus tereticornis. Field tests were conducted in the city of Piratini, southern Brazil, and samplings were carried out during 540 days of experiment. Comparing the four eucalypts, the decreasing order of biological resistance was: Eucalyptus tereticornis, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata and Eucalyptus botryoides. The mature wood showed greater and more stable physical-mechanical properties than juvenile wood.

  14. Residual wood polymers facilitate compounding of microfibrillated cellulose with poly(lactic acid) for 3D printer filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Armin; Mundigler, Norbert; Holzweber, Julian; Veigel, Stefan; Müller, Ulrich; Kovalcik, Adriana; Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is a fascinating material with an obvious potential for composite reinforcement due to its excellent mechanics together with high specific surface area. However, in order to use this potential, commercially viable solutions to important technological challenges have to be found. Notably, the distinct hydrophilicity of MFC prevents efficient drying without loss in specific surface area, necessitating storage and processing in wet condition. This greatly hinders compounding with important technical polymers immiscible with water. Differently from cellulose, the chemistry of the major wood polymers lignin and hemicellulose is much more diverse in terms of functional groups. Specifically, the aromatic moieties present in lignin and acetyl groups in hemicellulose provide distinctly less polar surface-chemical functionality compared to hydroxyl groups which dominate the surface-chemical character of cellulose. It is shown that considerable advantages in the production of MFC-filled poly(lactic acid) filaments for three-dimensional printing can be obtained through the use of MFC containing residual lignin and hemicellulose due to their advantageous surface-chemical characteristics. Specifically, considerably reduced agglomerations of MFC in the filaments in combination with improved printability and improved toughness of printed objects are achieved. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  15. Influence of nutrient availability, stand age, and canopy structure on isoprene flux in a Eucalyptus saligna experimental forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Funk; Christian P. Giardina; Alexander Knohl; Manuel T. Lerdau

    2006-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations occupy approximately 10 million ha of land in the tropics and, increasingly, afforestation and reforestation projects are relying on this genus to provide rapid occupation of degraded sites, large quantities of high-quality wood products, and high rates of carbon sequestration. Members of the genus Eucalyptus...

  16. Clonal variability for water use efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination ( 13C) in selected clones of a few Eucalyptus species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mohan Raju, B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus, one of the fast growing tree species extracts water from a depth of up to 15 meters. As a prolific producer of biomass/ wood, eucalyptus has been included as commercially important tree species under various afforestation programmes...

  17. Update on Project ARBRE: wood gasification plant utilising short rotation coppice and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, E. [TPs Termiska Processr AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Everard, D. [Arbre Energy Limited, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides an update on the development of Project ARBRE by ARBRE Energy Limited; a joint venture company comprising Yorkshire Water Plc, United Kingdom; TPS Termiska Processer AB, Sweden; and the Royal Schelde Group, the Netherlands. The project will establish some 1 000 hectares of short rotation coppices to provide a major part of the fuel requirement of a Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIG-CC) electricity generation plant. The remaining fuel requirement will come from forestry waste, although in the first 5 years most of the fuel will come from the forestry sources until the coppices are mature. The project will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, England, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 MW of electricity, enough electricity for 18 000 households. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK's Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from the European Commission's THERMIE Programme as a targeted BIG-CC project. The project's technical and environmental effects and benefits will be described, together with details of the award of the construction contract, the operating and maintenance contract and the forestry residues contract. (orig.)

  18. Do wood-based panels made with agro-industrial residues provide environmentally benign alternatives? An LCA case study of sugarcane bagasse addition to particle board manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Diogo Aparecido Lopes; Lahr, Francisco Antonio Rocco; Pavan, Ana Laura Raymundo

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is one of the main agro-industrial residues which can be used to produce wood-based panels. However, more investigations related to its environmental performance assessment are needed, focusing on questions such as: Does it provide environmental benefits? What are its main...... environmental impacts? Could it substitute wood as raw material? Accordingly, this paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of particle board manufactured with sugarcane bagasse residues.The cradle-to-gate assessment of 1 m3 of particle board made with sugarcane bagasse (PSB) considered three main......, it is suggested that the sugarcane bagasse be mixed up to 75 % during particle board manufacturing so that good quality properties and environmental performance of panels can be provided....

  19. Characterization of residues from thermal treatment of treated wood and extraction of Cu, Cr, As and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2005-01-01

    of small particles with wood structure with elevated Cu and Cr concentrations, but most particles were irregular shaped matrix particles rich in Si, Al and K. Cr was abundant in many different particles including the lignin skeleton of the small, unburned wood pieces, but also inside silica-based matrix...... from pyrolysis of treated waste wood. By SEM/EDX it was seen that the charcoal still showed wood structure with both tracheids and rays and that Cu, Cr and As were found inside this wood structure. Cu was found alone while Cr and As were often found together. By chemical analysis it was found, too...... particles. Ca was often found associated with char-like (porous) particles, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been formed during combustion. Cu was often associated with Cr in the unburned wood pieces, whereas it was less abundant inside the silica-based matrix particles. Cu was also found in an almost pure...

  20. Wood quality changes caused by mineral fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Sette Jr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diverse and important use of wood from fast growth eucalyptus plantations requires the analysis of the effect of mineral fertilizers on wood quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood density from Eucalyptus grandis trees (3 m x 2 m spacing fertilized with potassium and sodium (at planting, 6 th and 12th month. Fifteen (15 6 years old eucalyptus trees were selected (5 trees/treatment, cut and wood samples at DBH (1,3 m were taken for anatomical characteristics (fiber and vessels and wood density analysis. Results showed that eucalyptus trees treated with mineral fertilizers did not show significant alteration in average wood density, with radial profile model common to all three treatments, characterized by a values increase in the region next to the pith, toward to bark. Mineral fertilization influenced wood anatomical characteristics: treatment with sodium was characterized by thinner walls and lumen larger diameter; in treatment with potassium, larger vessels were detected.

  1. Análise química da madeira e casca de diferentes tipos de eucalipto antes e durante o cultivo de shiitake em toras Chemical analysis of the wood and bark of different eucalyptus types before and during the shiitake cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2010-02-01

    semelhantes ou superiores quando comparados com a madeira. O fator tipo de eucalipto (espécies e clones teve maior efeito que o fator linhagem de L. edodes na degradação da holocelulose e lignina.Chemical composition of the wood and bark of seven eucalyptus species (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. paniculata and E. pellita and three eucalyptus clones (E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids were evaluated before and during log cultivation of shiitake (Lentinula edodes strains LE-95/01 and LE-96/18. Each shiitake strain was inoculated into 9 logs, 1m in length and 9 to 14 cm in diameter, of each type of eucalyptus. The experimental design was complete randomized, with 20 treatments and 9 repetitions, with each log corresponding to a repetition. Logs were kept in a greenhouse, at 25 ºC ± 5 and relative air humidity between 60-80 %, for 12 months. Chemical composition was determined in newly cut disks and barks wedges of eucalyptus (without inoculation of L. edodes strains and disks wedges removed from inoculated logs after 8 of incubation. Results showed differences in holocelluose, lignin and total extractives contents in wood and bark after cutting and after 8 months of incubation in the eucalypt species and clones. The highest hollocelullose decomposition rate in wood, over the time, occurred in E. saligna (5.5%, pointing out this species as the most favorable for micelial development of L. edodes, whereas for bark, it occurred in clone 24 (22.2%. E. camaldulensis presented the highest lignin decomposition rate in wood (6.8%, over the time. Bark of E. grandis showed the highest lignin decomposition (21.9% among the tested eucalyptus. L. edodes degraded more holocellulose and lignin from bark than from wood, indicating the importance of this material. Bark of most eucalyptus types showed lower holocelluose content, higher total extractive content and lignin contents similar or higher compared with wood. The factor eucalypt type

  2. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kellison, R. C.; Russ Lea; Paul Marsh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation t...

  3. Forças de corte ortogonal 90-90 em três espécies de madeira de eucalipto do estado de São Paulo Orthogonal 90-90 cutting forces for three wood species of Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Néri

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No projeto de ferramentas de corte e potência de máquinas que compõem uma serraria, a força de corte ortogonal é o principal parâmetro utilizado. Estas forças variam em função da espécie, das condições da madeira a ser usinada (densidade, teor de umidade e orientação das fibras, da geometria da ferramenta (afiação, ângulo de cunha, espessura e largura da lâmina e das condições de usinagem (ângulo de ataque, velocidade de avanço, velocidade de corte, espessura e largura de corte. O corte 90-90 é de extrema importância, pois é muito utilizado no processamento primário da madeira. As espécies de reflorestamento, em especial as de eucalipto, vêm assumindo, dia-a-dia, significativa importância no mercado nacional e de exportação. Este trabalho apresenta resultados de ensaios de corte ortogonal 90-90, realizado utilizando-se corpos de prova de Eucalyptus das espécies citriodora, saligna e grandis. Os resultados mostram a influência dos parâmetros de usinagem adotados nas forças de corte e indicam a importância do seu conhecimento para a otimização dos processos de desdobro da madeira.Orthogonal cutting force is a fundamental parameter to design cutting tools and to determine to the required power necessary to operate a sawmill. This force varies within different species, and as a function of the wood condition (density, moisture content, fiber orientation, tool shape (sharpness angle, clearance angle, blade thickness and width as well as of the cutting equipment (rake angle, forward velocity, cutting speed, chip thickness and width. The 90-90 cutting is extremely important because it occurs during end-grain cutting. The reforestation species, in particular the eucalyptus, are acquiring increasing importance in the Brazilian domestic and export timber market. This paper reports the results of 90-90 orthogonal cutting tests, conducted using specimens from three species of Eucalyptus: citriodora, saligna and grandis

  4. CARACTHERIZATION OF BIOMASS ENERGY AND CARBONIZATION OF COFFEE GRAINS (Coffea arabica, L) AND (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), DUKE WOOD RESIDUES

    OpenAIRE

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale; Luiz Vicente Gentil; Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez; Alexandre Florian da Costa

    2007-01-01

    Brazil produces annually two million tons of coffee s husks from farms or industrial processing units. This wastematerial can be used for energy production; currently it is mainly used in agricultural practices as field straw cover up. This paperdeals with coffee s (Coffea arabica, L) husks biomass energy characteristics, including wood carbonization. As a reference, the samestudy was performed with a wood species regularly used for building construction named Cedrorana (Cedrelinga catenaefor...

  5. Caracterização tecnológica da madeira de Eucalyptus benthamii para produção de celulose kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Nogueira Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for kraft pulp production. A hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis, probably the most planted Eucalyptus clone in Brazil, was also analyzed for comparison purposes. Basic density, chemical composition and fiber dimensions were determined for the two species. The Eucalyptus benthamii wood presented an anatomical structure, basic density and fiber dimensions quite similar to those of other species planted by the Brazilian pulp industry. However, it presented poorer wood quality characteristics when compared to the hybrid urograndis species, with higher amounts of extractives and lignin, lower amount of glucans, more galactans and lower S/G ratio, characteristics leading to lower pulping yield. Additional studies should be carried out to establish its pulping, bleaching and paper strength properties.

  6. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  7. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND LIGNIN STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF SIMAROUBA VERSICOLOR WOOD ON ITS PULPING PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Cristina F. Silva,; José Lívio Gomide; Ricardo Balleirini Santos

    2012-01-01

    Simarouba versicolor wood was evaluated relative to its kraft pulping ability and compared with Eucalyptus urograndis wood. Comprehensive chemical analysis of wood and milled wood lignin (MWL) was performed, aiming to correlate wood and lignin structural features with kraft pulping response. Wood characterization of S. versicolor revealed higher lignin content (37.3%) and lower cellulose content (45.1%) than E. urograndis. 13C NMR spectroscopy was performed to characterize MWL, and the result...

  8. Potential of chopped heath biomass and spent growth media to replace wood chips as bulking agent for composting high N-containing residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, J; Reubens, B; Willekens, K; Van Waes, C; De Neve, S; Vandecasteele, B

    2017-07-15

    We investigated the potential of C-rich byproducts to replace wood chips as bulking agent (BA) during composting. The impact of these alternatives on the composting process and on compost stability and characteristics was assessed. Three BA (chopped heath biomass and spent growth media used in strawberry and tomato cultivation) were used for processing leek residues in windrow composting. All BA resulted in stable composts with an organic matter (OM) content suitable for use as soil amendment. Using chopped heath biomass led to high pile temperatures and OM degradation and a nutrient-poor compost with high C/P ratio appropriate for increasing soil organic carbon content in P-rich soils. Spent substrates can replace wood chips, however, due to their dense structure and lower biodegradation potential, adding a more coarse BA is required. Generally, the nutrient content of the composts with growth media was higher than the composts with wood chips and chopped heath biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  10. Fractionation of organic substances from the South African Eucalyptus grandis biomass by a combination of hot water and mild alkaline treatments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johakimu, Jonas K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An alternative way of fractionating lignocellulose biomass into its individual components, hemicelluloses, lignin and cellulose, was investigated. South African Eucalyptus grandis wood chips were fractionated using a combination of hot water...

  11. Wood (Bagassa guianensis Aubl) and green coconut mesocarp (cocos nucifera) residues as textile dye removers (Remazol Red and Remazol Brilliant Violet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Mônica S; de Farias, Robson F; Chaves, José Alberto Pestana; Santana, Sirlane A; Silva, Hildo A S; Bezerra, Cícero W B

    2017-12-15

    In this work the efficiency of two lignocellulosic waste materials, wood residues and coconut mesocarp, were investigated as adsorbents towards two representative textile dyes (Remazol Red, RR and Remazol Brilliant Violet, RBV). The moisture, carbohydrate, protein, lipid, ash and fiber contents of both natural matrices were characterized. The materials were also characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis and thermogravimetry. The adsorption of dyes was monitored by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. It was verified that both, coconut mesocarp (CM) and wood residues can act as effective adsorbents towards the investigated dyes. It is verified that the maximum adsorption capacity Γ M (mg g -1 ) for RBV and RR are 7.28 and 3.97 towards CM and 0.64 and 0.71 towrads SD. Furthermore, it was verified that the adsorption is strongly pH dependent and, as a general behavior, an increase in the pH value is associated with a decrease of the total amount of adsorbed dye. The adsorption of violet dye onto coconut mesocarp is well described by the Langmuir model, while all the remazol red fitted better with the Freundlich equation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transport of Residual Nitrogen and Carbon through Intact Soil Cores Amended with Stockpiled Feedlot Manure with Wood-Chip or Straw Bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J J; Beasley, B W; Drury, C F; Hao, X; Larney, F J

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact of using wood chips instead of straw bedding with feedlot manure on transport and leaching potential from feedlot manure is unknown. Our main objective was to determine if transport of total N, total organic N, NO-N, and nonpurgeable organic C (NPOC) to subsurface soil was lower for soils amended with feedlot manure if combined with wood chips compared with straw. A secondary objective was to compare transport of N and NPOC with organic amendments versus inorganic fertilizer. Stockpiled feedlot manure (SM) with wood chip (SM-WD) or barley straw (SM-ST) bedding at 39 Mg (dry wt.) ha, and inorganic fertilizer (IN) at 100 kg N ha, was applied annually for 13 yr to a clay loam soil in a replicated field experiment in southern Alberta, Canada. Intact soil cores were taken in fall 2011 (0-30 cm depth) from the three treatments, and the residual N and NPOC were eluted from the soil cores. Total N, total organic N, and NPOC were determined on filtered (1.0 μm) effluent samples that are primarily dissolved fraction but may contain some small particulate N and C. Peak concentrations, flow-weighted mean concentrations, and mass loss of total N, total organic N, NO-N, and NPOC were significantly ( ≤ 0.05) lower by 35 to 86% for SM-WD compared with SM-ST. Mean recoveries were also significantly lower for SM-WD than SM-ST by 0.07 to 8% (absolute difference). The transport behavior was similar for SM-WD and IN treatment, but solute transport was greater for SM-ST than for IN. Application of stockpiled feedlot manure with wood chips instead of straw bedding may be a beneficial management practice to reduce transport and leaching potential of N fractions and NPOC. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Soil fertility and growth of Eucalyptus grandis in Brazil under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silvicultural operations such as soil preparation, logging residue management and application of fertilisers can influence soil fertility, and hence nutrient uptake and tree growth. This paper reports the effect of site management practices of minimum and intensive cultivation of the soil on the growth of a stand of Eucalyptus ...

  14. Cut-to-length harvesting of short-rotation Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hartsough; David J. Cooper

    1999-01-01

    Traditional whole-tree harvesting systems work well in short-rotation hardwood plantations, but other methods are needed where it is desirable to leave the residues on the site. We tested a system consisting of a cut-to-length harvester, forwarder, mobile chipper, and chip screen to clearcut a 7-year-old plantation of Eucalyptus viminalis. Three...

  15. QUALIDADE DA SECAGEM CONVENCIONAL CONJUNTA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE Eucalyptus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian industry commonly dries different species of eucalypt in a same load because of the difficulty of identifying the species, hybrids and clones, and also by optimizing the use of the kiln. However, this practice is not recommended in the literature. The aim of this work was to verify the quality of grouped conventional drying of Eucalyptus saligna , Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii from clonal plantations. To this end, three loads were dried with the three species together in a pilot conventional dry kiln. The criteria used to analyze the quality of dried wood were final moisture content, end checks, cupping, collapse, moisture gradient and drying stresses. Eucalyptus grandis showed the best quality of drying, followed by Eucalyptus saligna , and both species have potential to be kiln dried together. Eucalyptus dunnii had the worst quality of drying, and should not be kiln dried together with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna. The basic density and shrinkage were good parameters for the expected quality of the drying of eucalyptus species, in which less dense and more dimensionally stable species had better quality of drying. The drying schedule used must be modified to further drying of these species, especially regarding to uniformity and conditioning periods, which were considered insufficient.

  16. Effect of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis ) and maize (Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Senegal, farmers often cultivate groundnut in association with eucalyptus plantations to increase their incomes. However eucalyptus plantations produce large amounts of litter, which impact on groundnut has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to investigate litter accumulation effect on growth, development, and ...

  17. Early growth results of three Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus nitens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth results of three Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus nitens hybrid clonal trials and their response to snow events. ... may be better suited to high-potential, mid-altitude sites exposed to light snow risk than the currently recommended pure species. Keywords: climate change , cold tolerant, forestry, GxN, South Africa

  18. Leaf blight of eucalyptus in nurseries. [Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaluddin; Soni, K.K.; Dadwal, V.S.

    1985-12-01

    A large number of seedlings of Eucalyptus are raised in forest nurseries for afforestation, road side and avenue plantations. Usually the sowing is done during February and the seedlings are maintained in polythene bags for the plantation during July. During the course of study of nursery diseases a severe leaf blight of Eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis E. tereticornis and E. hybrid) caused by Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus (Hansf.) Walker was recorded. Even the big trees of 10 to 15 years were found to be infected by this fungus. Phaeoseptoria eucalyptus (Hansf.) Walker was recorded on E. globulus from Mysore. Researchers also noticed this disease in Eucalyptus from Kerala. The present report indicated that the disease is being reported for the first time from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Rajastan. 2 references, 1 table.

  19. Regeneração de espécies nativas lenhosas sob plantio de Eucalyptus em área de Cerrado na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba, MG, Brasil Regeneration of wood natives species under Eucalyptus stand of Cerrado area in the Floresta Nacional of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Viana Neri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A regeneração de sub-bosques em plantios homogêneos tem estreita dependência de florestas vizinhas. Outros fatores exercem influência, como a ecologia da dispersão da espécie, os efeitos de borda e clareiras. Diante disto, procurou-se conhecer a florística e a estrutura da vegetação lenhosa de espécies nativas sob plantio de Eucalyptus em área de Cerrado na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba, MG, e verificar a variação da riqueza, da densidade e de indivíduos zoocóricos e anemocóricos da borda para o interior do talhão. Para tal, foram alocadas cinco parcelas de 5×40 m, subdivididas em parcelas 5×10 m. Foram encontradas 47 espécies e destas as que se destacaram foram Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil.e Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana, principalmente quanto à alta densidade. Das espécies amostradas 53% possuem dispersão zoocórica e 43% anemocórica. Verificou-se também a diminuição da riqueza, da densidade e da percentagem de indivíduos anemocóricos da borda para interior. Porém a percentagem de indivíduos zoocóricos aumentou no interior do talhão. A maior riqueza e densidade na borda dá-se pela dificuldade da dispersão de diásporos no interior do fragmento. O índice de diversidade (H'= 2,49 encontrado para este estudo foi próximo aos valores observados em estudos em regeneração sob Eucalyptus em áreas de Cerrado.The regeneration of understory in homogeneous stands is closely dependent of neighbour forests. Others factures also have influency such as the species dispersion ecology, the border effects and clearings. Therefore, the objective of this work were to study the floristic and structure of native woody plant species growing under stands of Eucalyptus in the Cerrado area in the Flona (Floresta Nacional - National Forest of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to determine the variations in richness, density and the zoochorous and anemochorous individual dispersions from the borders into the stand. To carry out

  20. Wood-polymer composite: physical and mechanical properties of some wood species impregnated with styrene and methyl methacrylate

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    Denise Ortigosa Stolf

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining wood-polymer composites (WPC displaying a performance superior to that of untreated wood from reforested genera. To this end, wood samples of Pine (Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis, whose density is compatible with this process, were impregnated with the polymeric monomers styrene and methyl methacrylate, using benzoyl peroxide to initiate the polymerization process forming free radicals. The vacuum-pressure method was used to impregnate the samples with monomer-initiator solution. The results indicated a significant improvement of all the properties investigated, including dimensional stability, for the Pine-WPC, while Eucalyptus-WPC, owing to the wood's low permeability, showed only increased values of hardness parallel and perpendicular to grain.

  1. CARACTHERIZATION OF BIOMASS ENERGY AND CARBONIZATION OF COFFEE GRAINS (Coffea arabica, L AND (Cedrelinga catenaeformis, DUKE WOOD RESIDUES

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    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil produces annually two million tons of coffee s husks from farms or industrial processing units. This wastematerial can be used for energy production; currently it is mainly used in agricultural practices as field straw cover up. This paperdeals with coffee s (Coffea arabica, L husks biomass energy characteristics, including wood carbonization. As a reference, the samestudy was performed with a wood species regularly used for building construction named Cedrorana (Cedrelinga catenaeformis,Duke. Coffee s husks was obtained from a farm 150 km far from Brasilia city and cedrorana sawdust from a local saw mill. Thispaper presents results from energy and biomass variables like moisture content, bulk density, lower and superior heating power, ashcontent, fixed carbon, volatile matter and volumetric energy. It has also studied carbonization, charcoal, pyroligneous licqor and noncondensablegases. A comparison between Coffee s husk with 0% moisture content and Cedrorana sawdust portrays the followingresults: bulk density 144.41 kg/m3, fixed carbon 10.31%, superior heating power 4.57 kWh (or 16.46 MJ or 3.933 Mcal/kg, charcoalcontent 40,64% and heating value per cubic meter 2,179 MJ/m3

  2. Laboratory studies of charcoal production from species of eucalyptus suited to Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, J.O.; Barrichelo, L.E.G.; Pontinha, A.A.S.

    1978-01-01

    To assess their suitability for charcoal production, wood from 6 species of Eucalyptus was carbonized and analyzed. The yield, fixed, carbon content and apparent density of charcoal were measured. In studies with E. grandis and E. urophylla, charcoal quality was found to increase with tree age. E. maculata produced charcoal with the most desirable characteristics.

  3. Cellulose fibril aggregation studies of eucalyptus dissolving pulps using atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presented will report on the use of AFM to study the CFA characteristics of dissolving pulp of a clone of Eucalyptus grown in compartments with contrasting growth rates (low and high), at different stages of the pulping process (solid wood...

  4. Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system

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    Márcio Viera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii and, of corn (Zea mays in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn; - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn; - 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black wattle + corn. The corn biomass evaluation (stem, leaves, straw, cob and grains was performed at treatments 100E; 100A; 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75% of eucalyptus + 25% of black wattle + corn; and - 25E:75A (25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle + corn. The biomass production from eucalyptus and from the black wattle, in both monospecific and mixed planting, did not differ in any of the assessed ages but, when evaluated by plants compartments, it was verified an interspecific competitive interaction from the eucalyptus on the black wattle, reducing the formation of crown biomass. The total production of corn biomass in agrosilvicutural systems with eucalyptus and with black wattle in monospecific or mixed plantings did not differ in the studied treatments.

  5. Kraft pulping and ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus pretreated by the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.12410

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    Claudio Salazar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus wood chips were decayed by the lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as a pretreatment step before kraft pulping. Weight and component losses of wood after the biotreatment were the following: weight (5%, glucans (1.5%, xylans (4.3%, lignin (5.7% and extractives (57.5%. The residual amount of lignin (expressed by the kappa number in pulps from biotreated wood chips was lower than that of pulps from the undecayed control. Depending on the delignification degree, kraft biopulps presented similar or up to 4% increase in pulp yield and 20% less hexenuronic acids (HexA than control pulps. The extended delignification with O2 decreases approximately 50% of the kappa number of the pulps and increases brightness, but had no effect in HexA reduction. The bleaching steps with chlorine dioxide (D0ED1 sequence decreased the kappa number up to 97%, increased pulp brightness up to 84% ISO and decreased HexA amount up to 91%. The use of C. subvermispora in biopulping of E. globulus generated important benefits during the production of kraft pulps that are reflected in a high pulp yield, low residual lignin content, low HexA amount, high brightness and viscosity of the biopulps as compared with pulps produced from untreated wood chips.

  6. QUALITY OF SAWN TIMBER DRYING OF Eucalyptus dunnii

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    Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the behaviour of Eucalyptus dunnii wood drying in a conventional pilot kiln was evaluated, using three drying schedules. Each drying schedule had an initial vaporization (presteaming of 3 hours after one hour of initial warming and an intermediate vaporization of 5 hours for the collapse recovery when the wood was at 17% of humidity. The results show that among the used drying schedule only the schedule regarded as the mildest presented a good result in terms of dry wood quality. Among the discovered defects, there were 37,5% of collapse, 35% of cupping and 10% of split. Hoviever, though from this total only 15% of the collapse and cupping were regarded as strong defects.

  7. Consortium of eucalyptus with forage sorghum in semiarid of Minas Gerais State

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    Carlos Juliano Brant Albuquerque

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective was to estimate the wood yield and essential oil content in three clones of eucalyptus that were planted in four contrasting arrangements and intercropped with sorghum. Eucalyptus clones MA2001 (Eucalyptus camaldulensis x E. tereticornis, A144 (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, and GG100 (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, were planted in single rows (10x2m, double rows (2x3+15m and 2x3+20m; and, triple rows (2x3x2+10m in a randomized, complete block design experiment with four replicates. Our results demonstrated that planting spacing did not influence the essential oil yield or diameter at breast height in the clones. However, higher density plantings were shown to result in higher fresh weight of branches and leaves per plant. MA2001 grew taller, produced higher quantity of fresh biomass of branches and leaves per plant and volume of wood per hectare, and yielded more essential oil yield than the other clones. We concluded that MA2001 is the most suitable of the clones tested here for cultivation in water deficit conditions.

  8. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Fan, Junjie; Zhao, Houyin; Zhou, Tuo; Hack, Pauline; Chan, Chia-Chun; Liou, Jian-Chang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150 degrees C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. This was also true when limestone was added while cofiring coal and chicken waste because the gaseous chlorine was reduced in the freeboard of the fluidized bed combustor, where the temperature was generally below 650 degrees C without addition of the secondary air. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650 degrees C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be

  9. Avaliação do crescimento micelial de linhagens de shiitake, da produção em toras de eucalipto e de alterações físicas da madeira = Evaluation of mycelium growth of shiitake strains, of production in Eucalyptus logs and of physical alteration of the wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento micelial das linhagens de shiitake LE-95/01, LE-96/18, LE-96/13, LE-98/55, LE-98/47, LE-95/02, LE-95/06 e LE-95/07, a sua produção em toras de eucalipto e as conseqüentes alterações em características físicas da madeira em decorrência da inoculação com a linhagem LE-96/18. O crescimento micelial foi avaliado em meio de cultura SA (serragem enriquecida com farelo-ágar a 25°C. No cultivo em toras, cada linhagem foi inoculada em 40 toras de Eucalyptus grandis com 1 m de comprimento e 9 a 14 cm de diâmetro. As toras foram mantidas em estufa climatizada, com temperatura de 25°C ± 3 e umidade relativa entre 75-90%, durante 6 meses. Em seguida, foi realizado um “choque de indução”, seguido da produção de basidiomas. Verificou-se que: (1 a linhagem LE-95/01 obteve as maiores produções, mesmo tendo crescimento mais lento no teste in vitro; (2 houve crescimento lento da linhagem LE-95/06 in vitro e baixa produção de basidiomas; (3 o teor de umidade das toras inoculadas com a linhagem LE-96/18 sofreu aumento ao longo do cultivo, enquanto a massa específica sofreu diminuição.The growth rate of 8 strains of shiitake (LE-95/01, LE-96/18, LE-96/13, LE-98/55, LE-98/47, LE-95/02, LE-95/06 and LE-95/07, the production of these in Eucalyptus logs at the first flush, and consequent alterations in physical characteristics of the wood due the inoculation with the strain LED-96/18 were evaluated. The mycelium growth was inoculated in SA medium (sawdust enriched with crumb-agar, in the absence of light, at 25°C. In log cultivation, each strain was inoculated in 40 logs of Eucalyptus grandis with 1 meter length and 9 to 14 cm of diameter. The logs were maintained at 25°C ± 3 and relative humidity of 75-90%, for 6 months. Subsequently, the first flush was accomplished, and it was verified: (1 the lineageLE-95/01 obtained the largest production and slower mycelium growth in vitro; (2 there was slow growth of the

  10. Methanol-based pulping of Eucalyptus globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilarranz, M.A.; Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Tijero, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1999-06-01

    The dissolution of wood components using organosolv pulping was discussed. Solvents such as ethanol and methanol can provide more efficient utilization of the lignocellulosic feedstock, ease of bleachability, and lower capital production costs compared to the kraft process. In this study, the autocatalyzed pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood in a methanol-water media was examined. The influence of pulping temperature, pulping time and methanol concentration on pulp properties were determined by a surface response method. One of the advantages of using methanol pulping of hardwoods compared to ethanol pulping is the low boiling point of methanol which makes its recovery easy from pulping black liquor by distillation. The price of methanol is also very low compared to other solvents. The optimum pulping conditions were found to be a cooking temperature of 185 degrees C, a cooking time of 110 minutes and a methanol concentration of 50 per cent. These conditions yielded a pulp with a low kappa number and a viscosity value of 110 mL/g. When ethanol pulping was used under the same conditions, the resulting pulp had a higher kappa number and a lower viscosity. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  11. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneto, Agustin G., E-mail: agustin.garcia@diq.uhu.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Vila, Carlos [Department of Textile and Paper Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa (Spain); Ariza, Jose [Chemical Engineering Department, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. {yields} ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. {yields} The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  12. Volume de madeira e concentração foliar de nutrientes em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis fertilizadas com lodos de esgoto úmido e seco Wood volume and foliar concentration of nutrients in Eucalyptus grandis after wet and dry sewage sludge application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Muller da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, diversos municípios estão construindo estações de tratamento de esgoto (ETEs, e futuramente serão produzidas anualmente milhares de toneladas de lodo para as quais deverá ser dada destinação adequada. O lodo de esgoto tratado (biossólido é o resíduo resultante do tratamento do esgoto urbano, e sua disposição final precisa ser bem planejada devido às implicações sanitárias, ambientais, econômicas e sociais. Apresenta elevado teor de matéria orgânica e de nutrientes e poderia ser utilizado como fertilizante em plantios florestais. Esta pesquisa foi realizada na Estação de Ciências Florestais de Itatinga (Universidade de São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de três doses (10, 20 e 30 t ha-1 dos lodos de esgoto úmido (torta e seco (granulado, complementados com K e B e aplicados ao solo nas linhas de plantio em parcelas experimentais de Eucalyptus grandis. Dezoito meses após a implantação das mudas no campo, o volume dos troncos demonstrou aumento significativo (ao redor de 130% no tocante ao crescimento dos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos úmido e seco em relação à testemunha sem aplicação de fertilizante, bem como teve resultado semelhante ao do tratamento com adubo mineral. Entretanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com a aplicação dos biossólidos úmido e seco. Com relação à nutrição mineral, foi observado aumento da concentração dos elementos P, Ca e Zn nas folhas com as maiores doses dos biossólidos, e verificou-se efeito inverso de Mn. As concentrações foliares de todos os nutrientes nos eucaliptos tratados com os biossólidos mantiveram-se dentro dos limites observados usualmente nas plantações comerciais, não havendo sinais de desequilíbrio nutricional.In Brazil, several municipalities are building waste treatment plants and in the future thousands of tons of sewage sludge will be generated. Sewage sludge is the waste left

  13. Plants in energy field. Eucalyptus. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.

    1982-01-01

    In Japan eucalyptuses booms have occurred, the first boom from 1954 to 1959, the second boom from 1970 to 1976 and the third boom from 1979 to the present. At the first boom the fundamental studies on eucalyptuses were started by governmental funds. In Wakayama Prefecture eucalyptuses were planted over the area of 200 hectares by a private company. At the second boom Matusdo City made the plan in which the whole city would be planted with eucalyptuses, resulting in taking eucalyptus cultivation one step ahead. Both booms were closed by some failures. Third boom emerged from the necessity in energy. Eucalyptus oil contains cineol (C/sub 10/H/sub 18/O), one of monoterpenes. The practical test of eucalyptus oil and hypothesis of eucalyptus root are described. Water-hyacinth live on poor quality water.

  14. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  15. Scale-up study on combustibility and emission formation with two biomass fuels (B quality wood and pepper plant residue) under BFB conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif Ahmed; de Jong, Wiebren; Jansens, Peter Johannes [Department of Process and Energy, Section Energy Technology, Faculty 3ME, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, NL-2628 CA, Delft (Netherlands); Aho, Martti; Vainikka, Pasi [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Spliethoff, Hartmut [TU Munich, Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Kraftanlagen, Boltzmannstrasse 15, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Combustion of two biomass fuels: demolition wood (DW) and pepper plant residue (PPR), was investigated from an emission viewpoint in a 20 kW{sub th} fluidized bubbling bed reactor and a 1 MW{sub th} fluidized bubbling bed test boiler. Fluidization velocity and boiler output were varied in the larger facility whereas they were kept constant in the smaller reactor. Traditional flue gases were analyzed. In addition, impactor measurements were carried out to determine the mass flow of the finest fly ash and toxic elements. These measurements were compared with EU emission directives for biomass co-incineration. It was possible to combust DW without operational problems. However, the DW was contaminated with lead, which tended to get strongly enriched in the fine fly ash. Pb tends to be adsorbed on the measurement line surfaces stronger than many other toxic elements and therefore proved difficult to collect and measure. Enrichment of Pb in the fine fly ash can be weakened by co-firing DW with PPR. Increasing the share of PPR up to 50% markedly reduces the toxic metal concentration in the finest fly ash. This, however, leads to increased mass flow of fine fly ash and increases the potential risks of operational problems such as bed agglomeration and fouling. (author)

  16. USO DA TÉCNICA DE RESISTOGRAFIA E DE VARIÁVEIS DENDROMÉTRICAS NA MODELAGEM DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DE POVOAMENTOS CLONAIS DE Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizete da Costa Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic density is a key property of wood quality for pulp production, but its determination is very time consuming and costly. The development of non-destructive sampling tools, efficient and low cost is important so the Resistograph can be an alternative. This study aimed to use drilling resistance amplitude data collected by the Resistograph, associated to dendrometrical variables, to develop models to estimate basic density in Eucalyptus clonal stands. It was used four hybrid clones of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla distributed in commercial plantations in Paraíba valley, with aging from 2 to 7 years. These materials were sampled by the Resistograph at 1.30 m above ground (DBH and the removal of a disk at the same height to determine the density in the laboratory. Single and multiple linear equations were selected starting with data usage by the Resistograph (amplitude as a predictor variable, and then dendrometric variables such as DBH, age, height, average height of dominant trees and quadratic mean diameter. The inclusion of these variables increased the accuracy of estimates. The best equation selected for all four clones, adjusted using the average amplitude (the Resistograph, associated with the average height of dominant trees, the tree age and quadratic mean diameter, presented R 2 aj equal to 68.80%, with error residual standard 0.0201 g/cm 3 or 4.31%. For each clone alone, the more accurate equations also were those involving the Resistograph variables of the individual and the population. Equations adjusted for only dendrometric variables showed precision measurements higher than the ones adjusted for only the Resistograph, in the case of all four clones, and superior to the Resistograph associated with the individual variables in the case of each clone alone. The Resistograph proved to be an efficient tool for the prediction of density. However, equally or more accurate estimates can be obtained without use of the

  17. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  18. Thermogravimetric characterization of polyester matrix composites reinforced with eucalyptus fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Fonseca Ferreira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The substitution of natural fibers for synthetic ones as reinforcement of polymer matrix composites is today not only the subject of investigation but also engineering applications. Natural fibers display environmental advantages in association with economic benefits related to comparatively lower cost as well as less energy consumption. Several natural lignocellulosic fibers (LCF's extracted from worldwide cultivated plants, such as sisal, coir, cotton, flax, among others, are successfully being used in composites. A great number of other LCF's, especially from wood species, has a reinforcement potential waiting to be explored. Thus, the objective of this short communication is to evaluate the thermogravimetric (TG/DTG behavior of polyester matrix composites reinforced with relatively higher volume fractions, 30, 40 and 50 vol%, of eucalyptus fibers. The incorporation of eucalyptus fibers slightly reduces the thermal stability of the polyester matrix by a small decrease in the onset of thermal degradation and the DTG peak temperature as compared to neat polyester. The limit for practical application of these composites could be set as 300 °C, before the onset of major weight loss. Keywords: Eucalyptus fiber, Polyester composites, Thermogravimetry, TG/DTG tests

  19. History and Status of Eucalyptus Improvement in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Rockwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first organized Eucalyptus research in Florida was begun by the Florida Forests Foundation in 1959 in southern Florida. This research was absorbed by the USDA Forest Service and the Florida Division of Forestry in 1968. In the early 1970s, the Eucalyptus Research Cooperative formed to provide additional support emphasized E. grandis, E. robusta, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis and developed cultural practices for commercial plantations in southern Florida. In 1978, this cooperative united with the Hardwood Research Cooperative at North Carolina State University until 1985 when the 14-year effort ended after three severe freezes from 1983 to 1985. Eucalyptus planting and research were continued with a Florida-wide focus by the University of Florida and collaborators starting in 1980. The collective accomplishments in terms of genetic resources and commercial planting are summarized. For example, fast-growing, freeze-resilient E. grandis seedlings are produced by advanced generation seed orchards, five E. grandis cultivars are commercially available, as are E. amplifolia and Corymbia torelliana seeds. Genetic improvement of these and other species is ongoing due to beneficial collaborations. Short Rotation Woody Crop systems are promising for increasing productivity and extending uses beyond conventional pulpwood to applications such as windbreaks, dendroremediation, and energy wood.

  20. Comparison of the compressive strength of impregnated and nonimpregnated eucalyptus subjected to two different pressures and impregnation times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemir Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The durability of wood is affected by several factors. For this reason, much research has been done on a variety of chemical compounds for impregnating wood, aimed at preserving it while simultaneously improving its properties. Recent studies of the properties of impregnated wood have demonstrated the possibility of substantially improving its mechanical characteristics. Thus, the purpose of this work was to compare the strength to parallel compression of wooden fibers (Eucalyptus grandis, both nonimpregnated and impregnated with a monocomponent resin, from the standpoint of pressure and impregnation time, aiming at its structural utilization. The results demonstrate that the compressive strength of impregnated test specimens is greater than that of nonimpregnated ones, indicating that monocomponent polyurethane resin can be considered suitable for impregnating wood, since it increases the compressive strength of eucalyptus.

  1. Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Doldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption

  2. The Eucalyptus spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Barbuy, Beatriz; Campos, Rodrigo P.; Castilho, Bruno V.; Gneiding, Clemens; Kanaan, Antonio; Lee, David; Lepine, Jacques R. D.; Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; de Oliveira, Ligia S.; Rodrigues, Francisco; Silva, J. M.; Strauss, C.; Taylor, Keith

    2003-03-01

    As part of the Brazilian contribution to the 4.2 m SOAR telescope project we are building the Integral Field Unit spectrograph, "SIFUS." With the aim of testing the performance of optical fibers with 50 microns core size on IFUs, we constructed a prototype of the IFU and a spectrograph that were installed at the 1.6 m telescope of the Observatório do Pico dos Dias (OPD), managed by Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA) in Brazil. The IFU has 512 fibers coupled to a LIMO microlens array (16 x 32) covering a 15" x 30" field on the sky. The spectrograph is a medium resolution instrument, operating in a quasi-Littrow mode. It was based on the design of the SPIRAL spectrograph built by the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The name Eucalyptus was given following the name of the native Australian tree that adapted very well in Brazil and it was given in recognition to the collaboration with the colleagues of the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The instrument first light occurred in the first semester of 2001. The results confirmed the possibility of using the adopted fibers and construction techniques for the SIFUS. We present the features of the instrument, some examples of the scientific data obtained, and the status of the commissioning, calibration and automation plans. The efficiency of this IFU was determined to be 53% during telescope commissioning tests.

  3. Fluidized bed catalytic pyrolysis of eucalyptus over hzsm-5: effect of acid density and ga modification on catalyst deactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of eucalyptus wood was performed on a continuous laboratory scale fluidized bed fast pyrolysis system. Catalytic activity was monitored from use of fresh catalyst up to a cumulative biomass to catalyst ratio (B/C) of 4/1 over extruded pellets of three different ZSM-5 catalys...

  4. Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2009-01-01

    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially...

  5. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  6. Fundamental characteristics of microwave explosion pretreatment of wood. I, Properties of temperature development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian-jun Li; Ke-yang Lu; Lan-ying Lin; Yong-dong Zhou; Zhi-yong Cai; Feng Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of microwave radiation intensity, radiation time and initial wood moisture content (MC) on the properties of temperature development in Eucalyptus urophylla wood samples during the microwave explosion pretreatment have been investigated using a new microwave pretreatment equipment. The results show that 1) with the increase of microwave...

  7. Study on wood vinegars for use as coagulating and antifungal agents on the production of natural rubber sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimark, Yodthong; Niamsa, Noi [Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)

    2009-06-15

    Coagulating and antifungal properties of wood vinegars in the preparation process of Hevea brasiliensis natural rubber (NR) sheets were investigated and compared with those of formic and acetic acids. The wood vinegars produced from biomasses such as inner coconut shell, bamboo and Eucalyptus woods were evaluated. It was found that plasticity retention index, Mooney viscosity and mechanical properties of NR coagulated by wood vinegars were similar to those using acetic acid and better than using formic acid. The antifungal efficiency of coagulants determined from a fungi growth area on NR sheet surfaces was found in the following order: coconut shell wood vinegar > bamboo wood vinegar {approx} Eucalyptus wood vinegar > acetic acid {approx} formic acid. The antifungal efficiency of the wood vinegars was strongly depended upon their phenolic compound contents and confirmed through the inhibitory growth of the main fungi, Penicillium griseofulvum, on potato dextrose agar. (author)

  8. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M. C.; Machado, H. N.; Neves, L.; Araujo, C.; Phillips, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus represent the main source of wood for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal and are affected by the complex of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species (Mycosphaerella leaf disease), which is an important foliage disease worldwide. This disease affect mainly young trees with juvenile-phase foliage, causing premature defoliation, decreased growth and wood production. Species of Mycosphaerella sensu lato reported on eucalypts in Portugal are M. communis, M. heimii, M. lateralis, M. madeirae, M. marksii M. walkeri, T. africana, T. molleriana, T. nubilosa and T. parva. In order to complete the survey, symptomatic leaves were collected from Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Morphological and molecular characterization was used to give an indication of the species occurrence and most frequent species (T. nubilosa) and the composition of the MLD complex that did not change after the latest review. (Author) 28 refs.

  9. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture.” Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  10. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  11. The quality of charcoal from various types of wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatim, B.B.; Hoi, W.K.

    1987-09-01

    Charcoals produced in the beehive kiln from rubberwood, acacia, eucalyptus and pine were analysed for fixed carbon, volatile matter, ash yield and moisture content and their calorific values evaluated and compared with charcoal produced from mangrove woods (Rhyzophorae) by the same method. Results indicate that the charcoals produced from the first-mentioned wood types are similar to that produced from the Rhyzophorae and are suitable for industrial use. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Processing conditions analysis of Eucalyptus globulus plywood bonded with resol-tannin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, P M; Peña, C; Ruseckaite, R A; Piter, J C; Mondragon, I

    2008-09-01

    Phenol-formaldehyde resol containing mimosa tannin extract was employed to produce plywood panels with two plies from Eucalyptus globulus veneers. The effect of processing conditions and tannin content on the gelation time of the adhesive in the glue line was evaluated by dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA). These results were related with shear strength and wood failure of glue line in the final panels. Hazardous petrochemical phenol could be partially substituted in resols in industrial applications by addition of mimosa tannin extracts.

  13. Utilização de surfactantes, na polpação kraft de madeira de eucalipto, como auxiliar na remoção de extrativos lipofílicos Surfactant utilization in kraft pulping of eucalyptus wood to improve lipophilic extractives removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deusanilde de Jesus Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Problemas de deposição de "pitch" em fábricas de celulose e de papel são atribuídos aos extrativos lipofílicos existentes na madeira. Uma das maneiras mais eficientes de controlar essa deposição é através da remoção de seus precursores do sistema, logo que possível, nas etapas de cozimento, lavagem da polpa marrom e pré-deslignificação com oxigênio. O uso de surfactantes como aditivos da polpação tem sido investigado, mas há grande deficiência de informações técnicas, e a aplicação industrial é, ainda, incipiente. A proposta deste trabalho foi analisar a viabilidade de minimizar a deposição de "pitch", intensificando a remoção de suas substâncias precursoras na etapa de polpação pelo uso de tensoativos sintéticos com propriedades umectantes e solubilizantes. Foram testados 20 princípios ativos de surfactantes em cozimento kraft convencional de madeira de eucalipto. Os resultados, alguns estatisticamente significativos, apontaram redução do teor de substâncias lipofílicas na polpa marrom. Foi observado que a remoção dos extrativos lipofílicos da madeira é afetada, inversamente, pelo teor de óxido de eteno na molécula do surfactante. Outros parâmetros de cozimento, como deslignificação, rendimento, teor de rejeitos e viscosidade da polpa, foram também avaliados.Extractives are pitch precursors and may decrease pulping efficiency and affect pulp quality. Probably, the most efficient way to minimize pitch problems is to remove their precursors from the system during cooking, pulp washing and oxygen delignification. Use of surfactants as pulping additives has been investigated but technical information is deficient and industrial application is very incipient. The objective of this study was to analyze the performance of different surfactants as additives for kraft pulping of Eucalyptus wood. Twenty surfactants with different basic chemical structures were used. The results demonstrated that

  14. Genetic control of wood density and bark thickness, and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tree diameter under and over bark at breast height (dbh), wood density and bark thickness were assessed on samples from control-pollinated families of Eucalyptus grandis, E. urophylla, E. grandis × E. urophylla and E. urophylla × E. grandis. The material was planted in field trials in the coastal Zululand region of South ...

  15. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...

  16. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Paz, I. C. P.; SANTIN, R. de C. M.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Rosa, O. P. P.; Dias, A. C. F.; QUECINE, M. C.; Azevedo,J.L. de; A.T.S. Matsumura

    2012-01-01

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus ...

  17. Chemical composition of essential oils and hydrosols of three Eucalyptus species from Senegal: Eucalyptus alba Renv, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus tereticornis Hook

    OpenAIRE

    Barka Ndiaye, El Hadji; Talla Gueye, Momar; Ndiaye, Ibrahima; Diop, Serigne Mbacké; Diop, Michel Bakar; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lognay, Georges

    2017-01-01

    The leaves of three eucalyptus species Eucalyptus Alba, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and ucalyptus tereticornis were collected in Kaolack (Senegal) and were extracted by steam distillation after 3, 7, 14 and 21 days of drying. The volatile components of aqueous distillates (hydrosols) were obtained by liquid–liquid extraction using n-hexane. The different extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spe...

  18. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  19. Synthesis and cure kinetics of liquefied wood/phenol/formaldehyde resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2008-01-01

    Wood liquefaction was conducted at a 2/1 phenol/wood ratio in two different reactors: (1) an atmospheric three-necked flask reactor and (2) a sealed Parr reactor. The liquefied wood mixture (liquefied wood, unreacted phenol, and wood residue) was further condensed with formaldehyde under acidic conditions to synthesize two novolac-type liquefied wood/phenol/...

  20. Resistance to Crack Propagation of Algerian Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim DAOUI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood is the most building materials widely used since prehistory for the construction of houses, tools, weapons. Accidents occurring during the use of materials caused by different defaults, as: knots, resin pockets, cracks. These various defaults and others are the starting point of the principle of crack mechanics. Our present work focuses on determining the resistance to crack propagation of three types of Algerians wood, (Aleppo pine, eucalyptus and oak, by calculating the energy release rate G (mode I. The estimation of factor G allows the possibility of fracture propagation.

  1. Regulatory Promotion of Waste Wood Reused as an Energy Source and the Environmental Concerns about Ash Residue in the Industrial Sector of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of the utilization of energy derived from waste wood in Taiwan, a highly industrialized country with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focuses on the status of waste wood generation and its management over the past decade. Findings show that the quantities of biomass waste collected for reuse purposes in the industrial sectors of Taiwan has exhibited an increasing trend, from about 4000 tons in 2001 to over 52,000 tons in 2010. Although waste wood can be reused as a fuel and raw material for a variety of applications based on regulatory promotion, the most commonly used end use is to directly utilize it as an auxiliary fuel in industrial utilities (e.g., boilers, heaters and furnaces for the purpose of co-firing with coal/fuel oil. The most progressive measure for promoting biomass-to-power is to introduce the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism according to the Renewable Energy Development Act passed in June 2009. The financial support for biomass power generation has been increasing over the years from 0.070 US$/kWh in 2010 to 0.094 US$/kWh in 2012. On the other hand, the environmental regulations in Taiwan regarding the hazard identification of wood-combusted ash (especially in filter fly-ash and its options for disposal and utilization are further discussed in the paper, suggesting that waste wood impregnated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA and other copper-based preservatives should be excluded from the wood-to-energy system. Finally, some recommendations for promoting wood-to-energy in the near future of Taiwan are addressed.

  2. Compaction and soil fertility after eucalyptus harvesting using Feller Buncher and Skidder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Piedade Sodero Martins Pincelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed, the impact of Feller Buncher and Skidder traffic in harvesting areas of eucalyptus in Mogi Guaçu, considering the compaction and fertilization effects in the range of soil next to the carrier during the cycle of forest growth. An increase in soil compaction, caused by machinery traffic in topsoil (0-10 cm, was observed in the area recently harvested. The soils of the study areas, with eucalyptus 1.4 and 6.0 years old, showed good fertility conditions, especially the older area, where decomposition of forest residues possibly contributed to such fertility.

  3. Beneficiation of Compression Debarked Wood Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Mattson

    1974-01-01

    Presents the results of a preliminary study of secondary beneficiation of compression debarked chips to reduce residual bark to acceptable amounts. Ballmilling is a feasible method of reducing residual bark and minimizing wood loss.

  4. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  5. Influence of ultrasound pretreatment on wood physiochemical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengbin; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zijian; Yi, Songlin; Mu, Jun; Wang, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    As an initial step to increase the use of renewable biomass resources, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of ultrasound pretreatment on structural changes of wood. Samples were pretreated by ultrasound with the power of 300W and frequency of 28kHz in aqueous soda solution, aqueous acetic acid, or distilled water, then pretreated and control samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results shown that ultrasound pretreatment is indeed effective in modifying the physiochemical structure of eucalyptus wood; the pretreatment decreased the quantity of alkali metals (e.g., potassium, calcium and magnesium) in the resulting material. Compared to the control group, the residual char content of samples pretreated in aqueous soda solution increased by 10.08%-20.12% and the reaction temperature decreased from 361°C to 341°C, however, in samples pretreated by ultrasound in acetic solution or distilled water, the residual char content decreased by 12.40%-21.45% and there were no significant differences in reactivity apart from a slightly higher maximum reaction rate. Ultrasound pretreatment increased the samples' crystallinity up to 35.5% and successfully removed cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin from the samples; the pretreatment also increased the exposure of the sample to the treatment solutions, broke down sample pits, and generated collapses and microchannels on sample pits, and removed attachments in the samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identificação e modelagem da autocorrelação residual no ajuste do modelo de Wood às curvas de lactação de cabras Identification and modeling of residual autocorrelation in the adjustments of Wood’s model to lactation curves of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Puerro de Melo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho apresentar uma metodologia de identificação e modelagem da autocorrelação residual considerando ajustes individuais do modelo de Wood às lactações de cabras leiteiras e também avaliar a influência de tal modelagem na qualidade do ajuste. O modelo de Wood foi ajustado individualmente às lactações, considerando três estruturas residuais. Na primeira, assumiu-se independência dos erros (EI para todas as lactações, na segunda, assumiu-se a estrutura de erros autoregressivos de primeira ordem (AR1 para todas as lactações e, na terceira, nomeada por EI-AR1, foi utilizada a estrutura de erros AR1 somente para as lactações que apresentaram autocorrelação residual, segundo o teste de Durbin-Watson, e de EI para as demais. As três situações de ajuste foram comparadas pelos percentuais de convergência e pelas médias dos quadrados médios dos erros (QME e dos coeficientes de determinação ajustados (R²aj. As médias dos QME e dos R²aj apresentaram valores semelhantes nas três situações de estrutura residual. No entanto, o modelo com estrutura EI-AR1 apresentou maior convergência, o que consiste em uma vantagem, já que permite que um maior número de animais seja avaliado quanto à sua curva de lactação. Portanto, em função da maior convergência obtida, o ajuste do modelo de Wood com a estrutura EI-AR1 consiste na opção mais indicada para grandes conjuntos de dados.The objective of this research was to present a methodology for identification and modeling of residual autocorrelation considering individual adjustments of the Wood's model to lactation dairy goats and evaluate the influence of such modeling in the quality of adjustment. The Wood's model was adjusted individually for lactations in three different ways, the first have assumed independence of errors (IE for all lactations, the second have assumed autoregressives first order errors (AR1 for all lactations and the third, named

  7. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  8. Wood Scrap Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachy, D.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated Utah's sawmill residue, logging residue and pinyon-juniper resource for use as an energy resource to replace supplement conventional fuels now in use. This was accomplished by analyzing existing and future supplies of wood suitable for energy use on a renewable basis and the cost effectiveness of using wood as compared to coal, natural gas, and propane. The promotion of the use and development of wood as a renewable resource to reduce Utah's dependency for selected residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial markets for conventional non-renewable forms of energy is also considered. 84 references, 21 figures, 32 tables.

  9. Early selection of Eucalyptus clones in retrospective nursery test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the framework of the eucalyptus breeding programme in the Congo, two retrospective tests were conducted using mature clones in the field and young cuttings under nursery conditions with two hybrids: 13 clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis* Eucalyptus grandis for the test TC 82-1B and 17 clones of Eucalyptus ...

  10. Cradle-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment of Wood Fuel Pellet Manufacturing from Hardwood Flooring Residues in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Reed; Richard Bergman; Jae-Woo Kim; Adam Tayler; David Harper; David Jones; Chris Knowles; Maureen E. Puettmann

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) data for wood fuel pellets manufactured in the Southeast United States. We surveyed commercial pellet manufacturers in 2010, collecting annual production data for 2009. Weighted-average inputs to, and emissions from, the pelletization process were determined. The pellet making unit process was...

  11. Characterization and comparison of a agricultural and forestry residues for energy purpose; Caracterizacao e comparacao de residuos agricolas e florestais para a producao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jofran Luiz de; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Pereira, Emanuele Graciosa; Machado, Cassio Silva; Bezerra, Maria da Conceicao Trindade [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: jofranluiz@yahoo.com.br, jadir@ufv.br

    2010-07-01

    The large volume of waste generated by the industry of wood processing and agriculture is a problem existing in almost all regions of Brazil. Several environmental problems occur as contamination of soil and groundwater due to the accumulation and improper disposal of residues from forestry and agriculture industries. Brazil has agricultural and economic conditions to develop and take advantage of technologies to use wood and other biomass for energy purposes, for being privileged in terms of territorial extension, sunlight and water, essential factors for biomass production on a large scale. The wood chips and coffee husks are low cost residues, renewable and sometimes under utilized, they are environmentally friendly and potentially capable of generating heat, steam and electric power, thus they can contribute as an alternative fuel for generation of energy. In this context, this study aims to characterize and compare residues from the production of coffee and furniture industry. The biomasses were characterized and analyzed for density, heating value, proximate analysis (volatiles, ash and fixed carbon) and elemental composition. Results indicates large energy potential for coffee husks, with HHV equals to 18,6 MJ/Kg slightly higher than the HHV of the eucalyptus chip (17,3 MJ/Kg). (author)

  12. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  13. ANALYSIS OF EUCALYPTUS GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER PORTICOS STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Ferreira Couri Petrauski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the structural behavior of porticos made from eucalyptus glued boards, using wood of Eucalyptus sp and resorcinol formaldehyde adhesive. Three units, in real scale, of tri-articulated straight porticos, with a 5 meter porthole and a 26º inclination, capable to support tiles covering placement were designed, constructed and subjected to load testing, until rupture. The amount of adhesive used in the construction of the porticos was 250 g/m2 and the bonding pressure of 1.3 MPa. The Hankinson model was employed as an estimator of the glued joints strength, under different angles between the fibers. The average value for the last resistance of the structures was 4.63 times the design load, according to the criteria established by the ABNT, 1997. The structures showed satisfactory mechanical performance and deformations lower than the ones allowed by the standard. It was concluded there is technical feasibility to manufacture porticos fully bonded with small thickness veneers.

  14. MANEJO DO SOLO E CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM ARGISSOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Prevedello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest species cultivation with rapid growth in Brazil has increased, mainly due to the diverse use of its wood and climate adaptation. The cultivation with minimum tillage in the forest sector stands out a way to increase productivity, combined with the maintenance of biodiversity and soil conservation. This study was conducted at the experimental area of State Foundation for Agricultural Research - Research Center for Forestry in Santa Maria - RS, with aimed to evaluate the effect of the soil tillage methods on soil physical properties and on initial development of Eucalyptus grandis, in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. Four soil management practices were compared: no-tillage; chisel tillage; chisel tillage plus harrowing and; rotary tillage (rotary tiller, installed in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil under no-tillage conditioned lower initial growth of eucalyptus due higher soil penetration resistance and bulk density, when compared with treatments with mobilization. The root distribution analysis in soil, despite being a qualitative method, was effective in demonstrating the effect of soil tillage for the Eucalyptus grandis plantation. The soil tillage with mobilization resulted in a higher initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis. The chisel tillage effects in the soil physical properties persisted after one year of soil tillage.

  15. The use and market for wood in the electrometallurgical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery L. Wartluft; Jeffery L. Wartluft

    1971-01-01

    Wood residues, particularly large chips, play an important role in the electric smelting of certain ferro-alloys. This is a report on the characteristics and growth potential of the market for wood in the electrometallurgicaI industry, including a brief account of how wood is used in electrometallurgical processes, a discussion of the preferred form of wood used, a...

  16. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  17. Aproveitamento de resíduos de painéis de madeira gerados pela indústria moveleira na produção de pequenos objetos Small objetcs manufactured with wood panel residues generated by rhe furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barbosa de Abreu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Os painéis reconstituídos à base de madeira ganharam espaço antes ocupado pela madeira maciça, o que tem gerado volume expressivo de resíduos. A indústria moveleira contribui para a geração desses resíduos, que se apresentam como alternativa viável para a exploração de sua aplicação na produção artesanal de pequenos objetos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo produzir pequenos objetos com painéis e com mistura de resíduos de painéis de madeira, a fim de comparar suas qualidades. A partir de 10 projetos gráficos, três artesãos confeccionaram 10 pequenos objetos, utilizando painéis de MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, OSB (Oriented Strand Board e compensado. Cada artesão produziu nove exemplares de cada objeto. Um quarto artesão confeccionou os mesmos objetos com resíduos de três empresas do polo moveleiro da cidade de Ubá, MG, com três repetições, sendo comparados os atributos de qualidade dos objetos. Concluiu-se que todos os painéis são adequados para a confecção dos objetos e alguns se destacam em relação a outros, conforme o atributo avaliado. Os objetos confeccionados com a mistura de resíduos de painéis de madeira tiveram acabamento uniforme e não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos produzidos com painéis com relação aos atributos funcionalidade, peso, proporção e simetria. A mistura de resíduos de diferentes painéis influenciou negativamente a avaliação dos atributos acabamento, beleza e cor. Um objeto produzido a partir de resíduos do mesmo painel pode ser mais harmonioso e atrativo. É tecnicamente viável a produção de pequenos objetos a partir de resíduos de painéis de madeira vindos de indústrias moveleiras.Wood residue panels have been used in substitution of solid wood. As a consequence, the volume of residues has been increasing day-by-day. The furniture industries are the major generators of these residues. Their use as raw material for the production of

  18. EFFECTS OF XYLAN IN EUCALYPTUS PULP PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Moreira Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for a better use of wood in the pulp industry has fuelled interest in a more rational use of its components, particularly xylans. The impact of xylans removal and of xylans redeposition on pulp properties for tissue and P&W paper grades are discussed in this paper. Kraft pulp (15.6% xylans treatment with 10-70 g.L-1 NaOH resulted in pulps of 14.5-5.9% xylans. The treatments decreased pulp lignin and HexA contents and caused significant positive impact on subsequent oxygen delignification and ECF bleaching. Xylan removal decreased pulp beatability, water retention value and tensile index but increased drainability, water absorption capacity, capillarity Klemm and bulk. Overall, xylan depleted pulps showed almost ideal properties for tissue paper grade pulps. In a second step of the research, xylans extracted from unbleached (BXL and bleached eucalyptus pulps (WXL by cold caustic extraction (CCE were added to a commercial brown pulp in the oxygen delignification (O-stage and further bleached. Xylans deposition occurred at variable degree (up to 7% on pulp weight depending upon the O-stage reaction pH. Pulp bleachability was not impaired by WXL xylan deposition but slightly negatively affected by BXL xylans. Pulp beatability was improved by xylan deposition. The deposited xylans were quite stable across bleaching and beating, with the WXL xylans being more stable than the BXL ones. At low energy consumption, the deposited xylans improved pulp physical and mechanical properties. Xylans extraction by CCE with subsequent deposition onto pulp in the O-stage proved attractive for manufacturing high xylan P&W paper grades.

  19. Eucalyptus production and the supply, use and efficiency of use of water, light and nitrogen across a geographic gradient in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production in the tropics, but little is known about the physiological processes that control growth and their regulation. We examined the main environmental factors controlling growth and resource use across a geographic gradient with clonal E. grandis x urophylla in north-eastern Brazil. Rates of...

  20. WOOD WELDING

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Theodoro Muller; Rafael Rodolfo de Melo; Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-01-01

    The term "wood welding" designates what can be defined as "welding of wood surfaces". This new process, that it provides the joint of wood pieces without the use of adhesives or any other additional material, provokes growing interest in the academic environment, although it is still in laboratorial state. Linear friction welding induced bymechanical vibration yields welded joints of flat wood surfaces. The phenomenon of the welding occurs in less time than 10 seconds, with the temperature in...

  1. Photosynthetic temperature responses of Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, M.; Beadle, C. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra, ACT (Australia). Div. of Forestry and Forest Products; Loughead, S. [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    1996-01-01

    Photosynthetic responses to temperature variations of four year old Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens were investigated. Temperatures varied between 10 degrees C and 35 degrees C, and were measured at approximately monthly intervals from early spring until midwinter. The photosynthetic temperature optimum was found to be linearly related to the average temperature of the preceding week during the entire nine month period. For E. globulus the optimum temperature for net photosynthesis increased from 17 degrees C to 23 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 degrees C to 16 degrees. The corresponding values for E. nitens were 14 to 20 degrees C as the mean daily temperature increased from 7 to 19 degrees C. The photosynthetic performance of E. nitens was less sensitive to temperatures above and below the optimum than E. globulus. In a second experiment E. globulus clones were acclimated in temperature-controlled greenhouses, and in a shadehouse in four climatically different regions of Tasmania. A comparison of light response curves of the plants showed that the maximum rate of net photosynthesis was affected by the growth temperature, whereas apparent quantum efficiency remained unchanged. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DA SUPERFÍCIE DA MADEIRA DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden TRATADA TERMICAMENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Pires de Moura Palermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the machined surface quality of Eucalyptus grandis wood submitted to heat treatment. The machining operations realized on the boards obtained from the processing of six trees were: planing, thicknessing, tear in horizontal drilling, drilling, drilling hinge and sanding. 208 boards of 125 x 25 x 500 mm were selected, with 104 untreated and 104 heat-treated boards at maximum temperature of 190ºC. The evaluation of the surface was performed according to ASTM D-1666/87 standard. The result showed that the Eucalyptus grandis wood presents a good behavior during the machining tests, obtaining notes 1 and 2 (excellent and good, except for drilling hinge test in the bolt hole and drilling with 12, 8, 6 mm, reaching notes between 2 and 4 (good, regular and bad. The heat treatment reduced the number of defects on the machined samples, except for torn grain in some machining operations.

  4. Investigação da presença de óleo essencial em Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker por meio da anatomia de seu lenho e casca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Fabrowski

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The material used in the present work came from 15 Eucalyptus smithii R. T. Baker trees grown in the experimental field of Embrapa Forests, in Colombo county, that were planted in 1988. The anatomical characterization of the wood and bark was accomplished using material prepared by Wood Anatomy and Identification Laboratory of IPT, and Wood Anatomy Laboratory of Federal University of Parana State. The essential oil extraction and analysis was made using ABNT procedures in the Phytochemistry Laboratory of Federal University of Parana State. The wood and bark of the Eucalyptus smithii had a homogeneous anatomical structure. In bark were found secretory cavities, but in wood they were not present, only quino veins and being the oil presence insignificant. The essential oil from bark had physical-chemistry characteristics in disagreement with international specifications for the eucalypt essential oils, rich in 1,8- cineole; therefore it is not economically viable to explore this component.

  5. Tropical wood resistance to the West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis: If termites can't chew….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Lírio; Haro, Marcelo M; Guedes, Nelsa Maria P; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2018-04-01

    The importance and impact of invasive species are usually considered based on their economic implications, particularly the direct damage that they cause. The West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) is an example and is a concern in structural lumber, furniture, and other wood products. Despite its importance, its tropical wood preferences and the wood physical characteristics contributing to resistance have not been investigated to date. Here, we developed wood testing units to allow the X-ray recording of termite colonization and then subsequently tested tropical wood resistance to the termite through free-choice and no-choice bioassays using these wood testing units. The relevance of wood density and hardness as determinants of such resistance was also tested, as was termite mandible wear. The wood testing units used allowed the assessment of the termite infestation and wood area loss, enabling subsequent choice bioassays to be performed. While pine (Pinus sp.), jequitiba (Cariniana sp.) and angelim (Hymenolobium petraenum) exhibited the heaviest losses and highest infestations; cumaru (Dipteryx odorata), guariuba (Clarisia racemosa), and purpleheart (Peltogyne sp.) showed the lowest losses and infestations; courbaril (Hymenaea courbaril), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), and tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis) exhibited intermediary results. Wood hardness and in particular wood density were key determinants of wood resistance to the termites, which exhibited lower infestations associated with greater mandible wear when infesting harder high-density wood. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Influence of coupling agent in compatibility of post-consumer HDPE in thermoplastic composites reinforced with eucalyptus fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Catto,André Luis; Stefani,Bruno Vicari; Ribeiro,Vanda Ferreira; Santana,Ruth Marlene Campomanes

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and wood fiber from species Eucalyptus grandis (EU) to manufacture experimental composite panels. The use of maleated polyethylene as coupling agent (CA) improved the compatibility between the fiber and plastic matrix. The mechanical properties of the resultant composites were compared with polymer with and without compatibilizer. The influence of the coupling agent (CA) in the polymer matrices and comp...

  7. Incineration of water pollutants with activated char from coal, wood, or crop residues in a system designed to produce energy and pyrolysis by-product chemicals. Final Technical completion report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E.; Gale, R.W.; Laquer, F.C.; Smith, K.E.; Bornhop, D.J.

    1982-11-18

    A wastewater-treatment system, particularly useful for treating chemical leachates, was developed on a laboratory scale. Subbituminous coal, 20-60-mesh, was pyrolyzed. A synthetic wastewater containing 3520 ppm total organic carbon was contacted with nonactivated char, char activated in water-saturated nitrogen at 850/sup 0/C, and coal ash. During a contact time of 0.5 hour, organic removals from the wastewater were 13.3% by nonactivated char, 38.8% by activated char, and 46.5% by ash. For a contact time of 72 hours, organic removals were about 25% for nonactivated char, 58.8% for activated char, and 53.4% for ash. This treatment system is applicable where large amounts of waste carbonaceous material (coal, wood, crop residues) are available. The spent char can be incinerated. Heat from incineration can be used in the pyrolysis step, and the coal ash can be recycled to the water-purification step.

  8. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vining, KJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages...

  9. Investigation on the effect of mixed rapeseed stalk residues with wood particles, and mixing of melamine and urea formaldehyde resin on properties of manufactured particleboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kord

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the possibility of using the rapeseed stalk mixed with industrial wood particles for manufacturing particleboard with target density of 0.7 gr/cm3 was considered. Variable factors such as mixing ratios of rapeseed stalk with industrial wood particles at five mixing levels of (0-100, 25-75, 50-50, 75-25 and 100-0 percent, mixing ratios of melamine resin with urea formaldehyde at three levels of 0-100, 15-85 and 30-70 percent, and kind of board at two levels of homogenate and layer were considered. 10 percent resin based on oven dried weight of particles, 2 percent catalyzer based on oven dried weight of resin, press temperature and time with 170 OC and 7 minute, press pressure and rate with 30 Kg/cm3 and 4.5 mm/min were fixed. Then, the boards were manufactured and the physical and mechanical properties including modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling were measured according to EN standard. Results indicated that the modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and thickness swelling of boards increased with increase rapeseed stalk loading; however, the internal bonding decreased. Also, the use of melamine urea formaldehyde resin caused to improve the mechanical strength and dimensional stability in the samples.

  10. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Avanzi,Junior Cesar; Norton,Lloyd Darrell; Silva,Marx Leandro Naves; Curi,Nilton; Oliveira,Anna Hoffmann; Silva,Mayesse Aparecida da

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the aggregate stability of tropical soils under eucalyptus plantation and native vegetation, and assess the relationships between aggregate stability and some soil chemical and physical properties. Argisols, Cambisol, Latosols and Plinthosol within three eucalyptus-cultivated regions, in the states of Espírito Santo, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais, Brazil, were studied. For each region, soils under native vegetation were compared to those under m...

  11. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  12. Functional Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cronhjort, Yrsa (ed.); Hughes, Mark (ed.); Paakkanen, Mikko (ed.); Sahi, Karola (ed.); Tukiainen, Pekka (ed.); Tulamo, Tomi (ed.); Vahtikari, Katja (ed.)

    2016-01-01

    Design has been recognized as a key discipline to bring ideas to the market. In addition to current research on human perceptions and the functional capacities of wood, this publication demonstrates the potential of wood in various applications. The designs are the results of three design courses, implemented during 2015 and 2016 at Aalto University in Finland. The Masters student courses included two Wood Studios at Aalto University’s School of Arts, Design and Architecture and the Integrate...

  13. Wood decomposing abilities of diverse lignicolous fungi on nondecayed and decayed beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Yu; Osono, Takashi; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We tested the decay abilities of 28 isolates from 28 lignicolous fungal species (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Zygomycota) with the pure culture test. We used beech wood powder in varying moisture conditions and decay stages (nondecayed, intermediately decayed and well decayed) as substrates. The weight loss in wood powder was -0.2-17.8%. Five isolates of Basidiomycota (Bjerkandera adusta, Mycena haematopus, Omphalotus guepiniformis, Trametes hirsuta, Trametes versicolor) caused high weight losses in nondecayed wood. We detected significant effects of decay stage on weight loss in wood in most isolates tested, whereas moisture content rarely had an effect on weight loss. Among Basidiomycota and Xylariaceae in Ascomycota weight loss was greater for nondecayed wood than for intermediately and well decayed wood. In contrast four isolates in Ascomycota (Scytalidium lignicola, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningii) caused substantial weight loss in intermediately and well decayed wood, although they rarely caused weight loss in nondecayed wood. Zygomycota caused low weight loss in wood. Wood decay stages also affected decomposition of wood chemical components. Acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) decomposition was reduced, whereas holocellulose decomposition was stimulated by some strains of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota in well decayed wood. T. harzianum in particular caused significant weight loss of holocellulose in well decayed wood, although this fungus caused negligible weight loss of both AUR and holocellulose in nondecayed wood. We discuss these changes in the decay patterns of AUR and holocellulose with varying wood decay stages in relation to the role of fungal decomposition of woody debris in forests.

  14. The Role of Eucalyptus Globulus Forest and Products in Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroja, L.; Dias, A.C.; Capela, I. [Environmental and Planning Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2006-01-15

    This study is a contribution to the ongoing debate about the selection of the approach for carbon accounting in wood products to be used, in the future, in the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Two accounting approaches are used in this analysis: the stock-change approach and the atmospheric-flow approach. They are applied to the Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus forest sector. To achieve this objective, the fluxes of wood removed from the forest are tracked through its life cycle, which includes products manufacture (mainly pulp and paper), use and final disposal (landfilling, incineration and composting). This study develops a framework to the estimation of carbon sequestration in the forest of E. globulus, a fast growing species, more specifically, in the calculation of the conversion factors such as bark and foliage percentages and densities, used to convert wood volumes into total biomass. A mass balance approach based on real data from mills is also proposed, in order to assess carbon emissions from wood processing. The results show that E. globulus forest sector was a carbon sink, but the magnitude of the carbon sequestration differs substantially depending on the accounting approach used. The contribution of the forest ecosystem was smaller than the aggregated contribution of wood products in use and in landfills (including industrial waste), which reinforces the role that wood products play in national carbon budgets.

  15. USE OF WOOD RESIDUES OF Pinus spp. FOR SUBSTITUTION TO THE FINE AGGREGATE IN THE PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE BLOCKS FOR STRUCTURAL MASONRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto José Miranda de Lima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813339This research was developed with the objective of evaluating the potential use of residues of the productionof Pinus spp. sawnwood, as substitution to the fine aggregate of the concrete used for the production ofblocks for structural masonry. The evaluation of the physical characteristics (density, porosity and waterabsorption and mechanics (compression and tension strength of the concrete was evaluated in agreementwith the ABNT normalization. Substitutions of the fine aggregate were tested by percentages of 0, 20,40, 60, 80 and 100% of residue of Pinus spp. in natura, Pinus spp. in natura and with addition of 4,5%CaCl2.2H2O and residue of Pinus spp. pre-treated with extraction in cold water for 48 hours (AF-48H.The compositions were initially used for the production, in laboratory, of cylindrical specimens of 50 mmdiameter, by the use of a molding system for vibrate-compression and later, for producing blocks, withoptimized compositions, in vibrate-press commercial machine. Satisfactory results were obtained withsubstitutions of up to 50% of the mineral fine aggregate for the residue of Pinus spp.

  16. Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Eucalyptus Globulus, Citrus Sinensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus), Citrus sinensis (Sweet orange) and Musa sapientium (Banana) on the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus was investigated in the laboratory. There were four treatments namely aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus, Orange, Banana, ...

  17. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE BÁSICA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla NA QUALIDADE DA POLPA BRANQUEADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rodrigues dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the wood basic density effect in two Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones (440 kg/m3 e 508 kg/m3 on bleached pulp quality (fiber dimensions and physical-mechanical properties. The woods performance on pulping, bleaching and beating results were analyzed. The Kraft pulping was carried out in forced circulation digester in order to obtain 17±1 kappa number targets. The pulps were bleached to 90±1 using delignification oxygen and D0EOPD1 bleaching sequence. Bleached pulp of low basic density clone showed, significantly, lowest revolutions number in the PFI mill to reach tensile index of 70 N.m/g, low Schopper Riegler degree and generated sheets with higher values to bulk and opacity. These characteristics and properties allow concluding that bleached pulp of low basic density clone was the most indicated to produce printing and writing sheets. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed higher values of bulk and capillarity Klemm and lower water retention value when analyzed without beating. The bleached pulp of high basic density clone showed more favorable characteristics to the production of tissue papers.

  18. Qualidade e rendimento do carvão vegetal de um clone híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla

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    Maíra Reis de Assis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the quality and yields of the charcoal of a Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clone commercially named GG100 for use in iron industry at different ages, plantation sites and spacing. The wood was carbonized in a laboratorial electric furnace (muffle furnace at a heating rate of 1.67 ºC min-1 until the final temperature of 450 ºC, remaining stabilized for 30 min. The gravimetric yield in charcoal, pyroligneous extract, non condensable gases and insoluble tar, proximate and elemental chemical composition, relative apparent density and higher heating value of the charcoal were determined. In general, the charcoal evaluated may be considered homogeneous based on chemical and physical aspects and can be used in the steel sector. The apparent relative density allowed the charcoal samples differentiation produced by the same pyrolysis condition. The results obtained suggest that the density of the charcoal is highly influenced by the wood origin. It was observed that higher values of higher heating values are positively related with carbon content and negatively related with oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen contents and with gravimetric yield in charcoal.

  19. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

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    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  20. A single cell model for pretreatment of wood by microwave explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Yongdong Zhou; Yonglin Yan; Zhiyong Cai; Fu Feng

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed to better understand the process of microwave explosion treatment of wood cells. The cell expansion and critical conditions concerning pressure and temperature of ray parenchyma cells in Eucalyptus urophylla were simulated during microwave pretreatment. The results indicate that longitudinal and circumferential stresses were generated...

  1. The effect of planting density on the wood quality of South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a wood property and sawn board quality study performed on disc samples and sawlogs taken from a 23-year-old Eucalyptus grandis Nelder 1a spacing trial at J.D.M. Keet plantation near Tzaneen. Ten trees from each of four markedly different planting densities were chosen to provide ...

  2. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  3. Effects of Allelochemicals of Some Eucalyptus Species on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the effects of allelochemicals of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globules on germination and root elongation using leguminous crop ground nut (Arachis hypogea) as bioassay material. The experiments were conducted in sterilized ...

  4. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  5. Forest biomass and wood waste resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  6. Wood colors and their coloring matters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-03-01

    A number of colored specialty woods, such as ebony, rosewood, mahogany and amboyna, and commercially important woods, such as morus, logwood, Brazilwood, Japanese yellowwood, blackwood, kwila, red beech and myrtle beech, exhibit a wide range of colors from black, violet, dark red, reddish brown, to pale yellow. These colors are not only due to colored pigments contained in extractives from those woods but also to insoluble polymers. Wood and bark from many species of both hardwood and softwood trees contain many types of flavonoid compounds. Research on flavonoids has been conducted mainly from two points of view. The first is chemotaxonomy with flavonoid compounds as taxonomic markers, and the second relates to the utilization of woods for pulp and paper and the use of tannins from bark for wood adhesives. Most chemotaxonomic studies have been conducted on flavonoids in the extracts from softwoods such as Podocarpus, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Taxus, Libocedrus, Tsuja, Taxodium, Sequoia, Cedrus, Tsuga, Abies and Picea. Hardwood chemotaxonomic studies include those on Prunus and Eucalyptus species. Studies on flavonoids in pulp and paper production were conducted on Eucalyptus woods in Australia and woods from Douglas fir in the USA and larch in Japan. Flavonoids as tannin resources from black wattle tannin and quebracho tannin have been used commercially as wood adhesives. Flavonoids in the bark from radiata pine and southern pine, from western and eastern hemlock, southern red oak and Quercus dentata are also discussed. In addition, the distribution of flavonoids among tree species is described, as is the first isolation of rare procyanidin glycosides in nature.

  7. Comparative study on liquefaction of creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and untreated southern pine wood: effects of acid catalyst content, liquefaction time, temperature, and phenol to wood ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Creosote- and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste and untreated southern pine wood were liquefied with phenol and sulfuric acid. The effects of sulfuric acid content, liquefaction time, liquefaction temperature, and phenol to wood ratio on liquefaction rate (i.e., wood residue content) were investigated and analyzed by analysis of variance (...

  8. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-10-11

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons.

  9. Wood hydrolysis and hydrolysate detoxification for subsequent xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Converti, A.; Perego, P.; Zilli, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' ; Dominguez, J.M. [Universidad de Vigo, Ourense (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Politecnico; Silverio da Silva, S. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL) (Brazil). Departamento de Biotecnologia

    2000-11-01

    A great deal of work has been done during the last decade to develop alternative processes for the integral utilization and revaluation of vegetable biomass. Hardwoods (in particular Eucalyptus globulus) were demonstrated to be of particular interest, because of their rapid growth as well as of the excellent quality of the wood pulp that can be obtained. Today only the cellulose fraction is used for paper production from wood pulp, whereas the lignin and hemicellulose fractions are burnt to produce heat or wasted. This process could be performed in a more profitable way by fractionating the woody material into these fractions and separately using them in different processes. (orig.)

  10. Caracterização tecnológica, para produção de celulose, da nova geração de clones de Eucalyptus do Brasil Technological characterization of the new generation of Eucalyptus clones in Brazil for kraft pulp production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lívio Gomide

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados clones de Eucalyptus de última geração, pertencentes às principais empresas brasileiras de celulose. Os estudos consistiram numa caracterização tecnológica detalhada da qualidade das madeiras utilizadas no processamento fabril das empresas. Foram realizadas análise químicas detalhadas das madeiras e cozimentos kraft, simulando-se uma das modernas técnica de digestor contínuo. Os resultados indicaram a alta qualidade dos clones de Eucalyptus atualmente plantados no Brasil para produção de celulose.Last generation of Eucalyptus clones pulped by the main Brazilian kraft pulp mills were used for this study. Detailed chemical analysis of the woods were carried out to establish the wood quality. Laboratory simulation of a modern continuous digester technique was used for pulp production. Results demonstrated the high quality of Eucalyptus clones wood that are being planted in Brazil for kraft pulp production.

  11. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  12. Industrial wood productivity in the United States, 1900-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    The productivity of U.S. wood and paper product output in terms of wood input is computed and displayed in graphs. Background tables provide supporting data. The productivity trend parallels trends in the recovered paper utilization rate. Recycling and wood residue use are key factors in productivity gains.

  13. Antibacterial Effect of Eucalyptus microtheca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mansour Seyyednejad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants have now attracted more attention due to their antibacterial activity and also increasing antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Native plants of each region are potential resources for this purpose. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to detect the antibacterial effect of Eucalyptus microtheca (Myrtaceae family which is currently used as an antibacterial fumigation medicine. Materials and Methods: Using standard disk diffusion method, the antibacterial activity, MIC, and MBC indexes of alcoholic extracts from this plant were tested on some pathogenic bacteria. The structural changes following the exposure to these extracts were also investigated in test bacteria. Results: Significant antibacterial activity was found against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which among them, Escherichia. coli and Pseudomonas. aeruginosa showed the most sensitivity and Staphylococcus. aureus the least. The value of MIC and MBC for both extracts was 8 mg/mL for E. coli, while they were 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL for Bacillus cereus, respectively. Both MIC and MBC values of methanolic and ethanolic extracts against P. aeruginosa were 8 and 16 mg/mL respectively. SEM revealed structural changes in the affected bacteria that suggest the cell wall was the main target site of active constituents. Conclusions: It can be concluded that this plant has potential application in infection control, especially against E. coli and P. aeruginosa and regarding their recent reported epidemic, this plant can be a good choice for antibiotic discovery.

  14. Effects of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on soil properties in and around sacred natural sites in the northern Ethiopian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu Wassie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Eucalyptus (common name eucalyptus are widely planted all across Ethiopia—including on large areas of land previously allocated to food production. In recent decades eucalyptus has also increasingly been planted on lands around and within “church forests,” sacred groves of old-aged Afromontane trees surrounding Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido churches. These revered holy sites have long been recognized for their cultural values and also for their ecosystem services—including their potential to support species conservation and restoration, as church forests are some of the only remaining sanctuaries for many of Ethiopia’s indigenous and endemic plant and animal populations. Ethiopian Orthodox church communities have a long history of planting and nurturing indigenous tree seedlings to sustain church forest groves. However, due to the fast-growing nature of eucalyptuscombined with its widely recognized socio-economic benefits (as fuelwood, charcoal, construction wood, etc., this introduced species has been widely plantedaround church forests—in some cases even replacing native tree species within church forests themselves. In many developing country contexts the introduction of exotic eucalyptus has been shown to have ecological impacts ranging from soil nutrient depletion, to lowering water tables, to allelopathic effects. In this study, we collected soil samples from indigenous forest fragments (church forests, adjacent eucalyptus plantations, and surrounding agricultural land to examine how eucalyptus plantations in Ethiopian Orthodox church communitiesmight impact soil quality relative to alternative land uses. Soil properties, including organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were measured in samples across 20 church forest sites in South Gondar, East Gojjam, West Gojjam, Awi, and Bahir Dar Liyu zones in the Amhara Region of the northern Ethiopian Highlands. Findings indicate that although soil in

  15. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  16. Botanical, Phytochemical, and Anticancer Properties of the Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Jyoti Bhuyan, Deep; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) is mainly native to Australia; however, some species are now distributed globally. Eucalyptus has been used in indigenous Australian medicines for the treatment of a range of aliments including colds, flu, fever, muscular aches, sores, internal pains, and inflammation. Eucalyptus oils containing volatile compounds have been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries for a multitude of purposes. In addition, Eucalyptus extracts containing nonvolatile compounds are also an important source of key bioactive compounds, and several studies have linked Eucalyptus extracts with anticancer properties. With the increasing research interest in Eucalyptus and its health properties, this review briefly outlines the botanical features of Eucalyptus, discusses its traditional use as medicine, and comprehensively reviews its phytochemical and anticancer properties and, finally, proposes trends for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Chemical transformations of organic matter during the composting of wood industry wastes (residues); Transformacoes quimicas da materia organica durante a compostagem de residuos da industria madeireira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budziak, Cristiane R.; Maia, Claudia M.B.F.; Mangrich, Antonio S. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mangrich@quimica.ufpr.br

    2004-06-01

    Composting of sawdust and paper mill sludge, using a 'Kneer' process reactor, was studied in an attempt to elaborate upon organic matter transformation during the process and to define parameters to measure the compost maturity level. Temperature, electron paramagnetic resonance data, ash and C, H, N and S contents, and a spectroscopic method using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) for alkaline (pH = 8.5) and solid samples was used to study the maturity of the compost samples. These parameters were measured in 6 humic acids extracted from the compost samples during 29 days. The results of this work show that the 'Kneer' process is efficient in transforming ligno-celulitic residues in a short time (29 days), into an organic fertilizer material with application perspectives (author)

  18. Efeito do teor de lignina da madeira de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. no desempenho da polpação kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valim Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was analyzed the lignin content effect of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wood in kraft pulping optimization. Seventy-two laboratory cooking were made with wood chips obtained from six Eucalyptus globulus trees selected from a group of 50 trees. The wood chips from three trees with the lowest lignin content, with average 20.53%, were mixed proportionally based on the tree weights, obtaining the sample of low lignin content wood. The same was made to obtain the sample for wood chips with the highest lignin content, with average 23.02%. The two lignin levels were statistically different. The two wood samples had basic densities statistically not different. Using three maximum temperatures levels (160, 165 and 170ºC, and three active alkali charged (17, 18.5 and 20%, the wood chips were converted to kraft pulps. The pulps were then characterized to analyze the influence of the distinct treatments employed in the cooking on their properties. The effect of the cooking conditions was expressed by mathematical models in order to determine the optimum points for each of the evaluated properties. The optimization process indicated maximum temperature of 168ºC, and active alkali of 19%, for maximum kraft pulping yield to achieve kappa number 18; this result was for woods with low lignin content. For woods containing the high lignin content, the optimization showed maximum cooking temperature of 169ºC and active alkali of 19% for kappa number of 18. The average reduction of 2.49% in wood lignin content resulted a correspondent gain of 2.2% in the kraft yield (o.d. basis and a reduction on the active alkali charge of 1.2% (o.d. basis to achieve kappa numbers from 16 to 19, preserving pulp properties. If the option is to work with kappa number 19 instead of 16, the gain in kraft yield is approximately 2%. Therefore, when working with low lignin content wood and kappa number 19 instead of 16, a substantial gain of approximately 4.2% is

  19. Electrophysiological responses of eucalyptus brown looper Thyrinteina arnobia to essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista-Pereira Luciane G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is frequently attacked by the Brazilian eucalyptus brown looper, Thyrinteina arnobia. This caterpillar is regarded as the main lepidopterous pest of Eucalyptus and yet no practical and environmentally acceptable method of control currently exists. Electroantennographic techniques (EAG have never before been used to detect semiochemicals that affect the behavior of T. arnobia. Thus, in this work, the ability of T. arnobia males and females to detect volatile essential oils of seven Eucalyptus species was investigated by EAG. We demonstrated that T. arnobia antennal olfactory system clearly showed differential sensitivity to several compounds, by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD. Twenty-eight compounds were identified that elicited responses in T. arnobia, indicating that GC-EAD analysis may well be a useful means of screening active plant extracts for compounds that contribute to the observed behavior of this defoliator. The results also suggest that this species uses several volatile cues to find its host.

  20. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagen Li

    Full Text Available Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR, expressed sequence tag (EST derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS, and diversity arrays technology (DArT markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10-56 months of age and wood density (56 months were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa.

  1. Seasonal Variation of Carbon Metabolism in the Cambial Zone of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinski, Ilara G F; Moon, David H; Lindén, Pernilla; Moritz, Thomas; Labate, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus species are the most widely hardwood planted in the world. It is one of the successful examples of commercial forestry plantation in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries. The tree is valued for its rapid growth, adaptability and wood quality. Wood formation is the result of cumulative annual activity of the vascular cambium. This cambial activity is generally related to the alternation of cold and warm, and/or dry and rainy seasons. Efforts have focused on analysis of cambial zone in response to seasonal variations in trees from temperate zones. However, little is known about the molecular changes triggered by seasonal variations in trees from tropical countries. In this work we attempted to establish a global view of seasonal alterations in the cambial zone of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden, emphasizing changes occurring in the carbon metabolism. Using transcripts, proteomics and metabolomics we analyzed the tissues harvested in summer-wet and winter-dry seasons. Based on proteomics analysis, 70 proteins that changed in abundance were successfully identified. Transcripts for some of these proteins were analyzed and similar expression patterns were observed. We identified 19 metabolites differentially abundant. Our results suggest a differential reconfiguration of carbon partioning in E. grandis cambial zone. During summer, pyruvate is primarily metabolized via ethanolic fermentation, possibly to regenerate NAD(+) for glycolytic ATP production and cellular maintenance. However, in winter there seems to be a metabolic change and we found that some sugars were highly abundant. Our results revealed a dynamic change in E. grandis cambial zone due to seasonality and highlight the importance of glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation for energy generation and maintenance in Eucalyptus, a fast growing tree.

  2. Correspondence between performance of Eucalyptus spp trees selected from family and clonal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, C A F; Gonçalves, F M A; Rosse, L N; Costa, R R G F; Ramalho, M A P

    2011-06-21

    We examined the correspondence in performance between trees selected from a family test and their respective clones from a clonal test of Eucalyptus. Full-sib families were obtained from controlled pollination among individuals of Eucalyptus grandis and between E. grandis and E. urophylla. The hybridizations did not follow a factorial scheme. The family tests were carried out at three locations in Eunápolis and Itabela counties, in Bahia, Brazil, in 2003. Four hundred and ninety-seven high-performance trees were selected, by the individual BLUP procedure, in the family tests at two years of age, based on wood volume. The clones from these trees and 14 checks were evaluated in clonal tests carried out in the same region in 2006. The wood volume of the clones was evaluated at two years of age. Trait correlation between the trees selected from the family and clonal tests was low. The estimate of the coincidence between the best trees and the best clones using an average of the different intensities of selection was only 27%. These results demonstrate that the selection of trees in the family test should not be too drastic; otherwise the chance plus clones may be overlooked.

  3. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  4. Avaliação e efeito da compactação do solo, devido à freqüência de tráfego, na produção de madeira de eucalipto Evaluation and effect of soil compaction due to traffic frequency on Eucalyptus wood production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Seixas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A compactação do solo devido ao tráfego de máquinas de colheita de madeira, assim como a extensão da área impactada, constitui fator de preocupação, em virtude da possibilidade de efeitos prejudiciais para o crescimento da floresta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da freqüência de tráfego de um trator mais carreta na compactação do solo e na produtividade de um plantio de Eucalyptus grandis, no final da primeira rotação de sete anos. A compactação do solo, avaliada por meio da densidade e resistência à penetração, foi determinada para tratamentos com 1, 3, 5, 10 e 20 passadas do veículo carregado com 12,5 estéreos de madeira, com peso total de oito toneladas, além de uma testemunha sem a ocorrência de tráfego. Após as cinco primeiras passadas ocorreram cerca de 80% do adensamento total do solo, resultante das 20 passadas, sendo recomendado restringir o tráfego de veículos dentro do talhão na menor área possível, diminuindo-se a extensão de possíveis efeitos da compactação sobre o povoamento florestal. Contudo, nessa situação em particular a compactação do solo não prejudicou o crescimento das árvores em nenhum dos tratamentos avaliados.Soil compaction resulting from forestry machine traffic may reduce forest production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of traffic frequency on soil compaction and Eucalyptus grandis forest productivity after a seven-year rotation. Soil bulk density and cone penetrometer resistance measurements were used as indicators to evaluate soil compaction resulting from tractor plus trailer traffic, a total of 8 tons load, after 1, 3, 5, 10, 20 vehicle passes and a control with no traffic. Around 80% of total soil compaction after 20 vehicle passes resulted after the first five vehicle passes, with no significant change after that. This indicates the necessity to restrict vehicle traffic to smaller areas in the forest, even with that area

  5. Use of fractional factorial design for selection of nutrients for culturing Paecilomyces variotii in eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Almeida e Silva

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A eucalyptus hemicellulose fraction was hydrolysed by treating eucalyptus wood chips with sulfuric acid. The hydrolysate was used as the substrate to grow Paecilomyces variotii IOC-3764 cultured for 72 or 96 hours. The influence of the inhibitors, nutrients and fermentation time was verified by a 28-4 and, subsequently, a 25-1 fractional factorial design. The effects of the inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural, nutrients (rice bran, urea, potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and sodium phosphate and fermentation time were investigated. The highest yield (10.59 g/L of biomass was obtained when the microorganisms were cultivated for 72 hours in a medium composed of 30 g/L rice bran, 9.4 g/L ammonium sulfate (2 g/L nitrogen and 2 g/L sodium phosphate.

  6. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  7. Eucalyptus-wheat interaction on Ethiopian Nitosols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidanu, S.; Mamo, T.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past few years a single row of Eucalyptus globulus trees planted along the borders of cropland has come to dominate central highland agroforestry practices. Although evidence is scanty, there is a perception that this practice adversely affects crop productivity. An on-farm trial was

  8. Micropropagation of frost-resistant Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel Boulay

    1983-01-01

    A method for the in vitro propagation of frost resistant eucalyptus is presented. It was used for the propagation of 2-30 years old trees. This method is presently used for the fast production of mother trees from selected trees.

  9. Allelopathic Effects of Eucalyptus Tereticornis on Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water extracts of leaves (green, brown and decayed stages) and bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis were tested for seed germination and primary root and shoot development of Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings. There was no significant difference in the germination percentage of Phaseolus vulgaris due to the treatments of ...

  10. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jorge; Farias, Oscar; Quiroz, Roberto; Yañez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In south-central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (Nothofagus oblique), and mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were burned in a single-chamber slow-combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. In each experiment, 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and levoglucosan analyses. Mean particulate matter emission factors were 2.03, 4.06, and 3.84 g/kg dry wood for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. The emission factors were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency. The mean emission factors of the sums of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle phases were 1472.5, 2134.0, and 747.5 μg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene were present in the particle phase in higher proportions compared with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were analyzed. Mean levoglucosan emission factors were 854.9, 202.3, and 328.0 mg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Since the emissions of particulate matter and other pollutants were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency, implementing more efficient technologies would help to reduce air pollutant emissions from wood combustion. Residential wood burning has been identified as a significant source of air pollution in populated areas. Local wood species are combusted for home cooking and heating, which releases several toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Air pollutant emissions depend on the type of wood and the technology and operational conditions of the wood stove. A better understanding of emissions from

  11. Acoustic Wave Velocity as a Selection Trait in Eucalyptus nitens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blackburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in Eucalyptus nitens have revealed favourable genetic correlations exist between acoustic wave velocity (AWV in standing trees and modulus of elasticity (MOE, which can determine the suitability of trees for structural timber and/or engineered wood products. This study investigates the strength and stability of genetic variation in standing tree AWV across a range of environments in Tasmania, where there are a number of large plantation estates and breeding trials. Trees under study were from open-pollinated progeny trials established in 1993. Across sites, for standing tree AWV the ranking of E. nitens races did not change and within-race additive genetic correlations were strong (0.61 to 0.99. Heritabilities (0.16 to 0.74 and coefficients of additive genetic variation (2.6 to 4.8 were moderate for this trait. Correlations between standing tree AWV and both basic density and diameter at breast height (DBH were favourable. Results indicate that there is potential to improve MOE in E. nitens through the exploitation of genetic variation in AWV among and within races, the expression of genetic variation in AWV is relatively stable across different growing environments, and past selection for basic density and growth in pulpwood breeding programs is unlikely to have adversely affected MOE.

  12. First insights into the functional role of vasicentric tracheids and parenchyma in eucalyptus species with solitary vessels: do they contribute to xylem efficiency or safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Fernandez, María Elena; Gyenge, Javier; Meyra, Ariel; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Monteoliva, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hydraulic specific conductivity (k s ) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) with size and number of vessels has been studied in many angiosperms. However, few of the studies link other cell types (vasicentric tracheids (VT), fibre-tracheids, parenchyma) with these hydraulic functions. Eucalyptus is one of the most important genera in forestry worldwide. It exhibits a complex wood anatomy, with solitary vessels surrounded by VT and parenchyma, which could serve as a good model to investigate the functional role of the different cell types in xylem functioning. Wood anatomy (several traits of vessels, VT, fibres and parenchyma) in conjunction with maximum k s and VC was studied in adult trees of commercial species with medium-to-high wood density (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.). Traits of cells accompanying vessels presented correlations with functional variables suggesting that they contribute to both increasing connectivity between adjacent vessels-and, therefore, to xylem conduction efficiency-and decreasing the probability of embolism propagation into the tissue, i.e., xylem safety. All three species presented moderate-to-high resistance to cavitation (mean P 50 values = -2.4 to -4.2 MPa) with no general trade-off between efficiency and safety at the interspecific level. The results in these species do not support some well-established hypotheses of the functional meaning of wood anatomy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Chemical composition of 8 eucalyptus species' essential oils and the evaluation of their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 1957, Tunisia introduced 117 species of Eucalyptus; they have been used as fire wood, for the production of mine wood and to fight erosion. Actually, Eucalyptus essential oil is traditionally used to treat respiratory tract disorders such as pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. A few investigations were reported on the biological activities of Eucalyptus oils worldwide. In Tunisia, our previous works conducted in 2010 and 2011 had been the first reports to study the antibacterial activities against reference strains. At that time it was not possible to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against clinical bacterial strains and other pathogens such as virus and fungi. Methods The essential oils of eight Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman, Korbous (North East Tunisia) and Souinet arboreta (North of Tunisia) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and microbroth dilution methods against seven bacterial isolates: Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. In addition, the bactericidal, fungicidal and the antiviral activities of the tested oils were carried out. Results Twenty five components were identified by GC/FID and GC/MS. These components were used to correlate with the biological activities of the tested oils. The chemical principal component analysis identified three groups, each of them constituted a chemotype. According to the values of zone diameter and percentage of the inhibition (zdi, % I, respectively), four groups and subgroups of bacterial strains and three groups of fungal strains were characterized by their sensitivity levels to Eucalyptus oils. The cytotoxic effect and the antiviral activity varied significantly within Eucalyptus species oils. Conclusions E. odorata showed the strongest activity against S. aureus, H. influenzae, S. agalactiae, S. pyogenes

  14. Chemical composition of 8 eucalyptus species' essential oils and the evaluation of their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaissi Ameur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1957, Tunisia introduced 117 species of Eucalyptus; they have been used as fire wood, for the production of mine wood and to fight erosion. Actually, Eucalyptus essential oil is traditionally used to treat respiratory tract disorders such as pharyngitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. A few investigations were reported on the biological activities of Eucalyptus oils worldwide. In Tunisia, our previous works conducted in 2010 and 2011 had been the first reports to study the antibacterial activities against reference strains. At that time it was not possible to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against clinical bacterial strains and other pathogens such as virus and fungi. Methods The essential oils of eight Eucalyptus species harvested from the Jbel Abderrahman, Korbous (North East Tunisia and Souinet arboreta (North of Tunisia were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and microbroth dilution methods against seven bacterial isolates: Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. In addition, the bactericidal, fungicidal and the antiviral activities of the tested oils were carried out. Results Twenty five components were identified by GC/FID and GC/MS. These components were used to correlate with the biological activities of the tested oils. The chemical principal component analysis identified three groups, each of them constituted a chemotype. According to the values of zone diameter and percentage of the inhibition (zdi, % I, respectively, four groups and subgroups of bacterial strains and three groups of fungal strains were characterized by their sensitivity levels to Eucalyptus oils. The cytotoxic effect and the antiviral activity varied significantly within Eucalyptus species oils. Conclusions E. odorata showed the strongest activity against S. aureus, H. influenzae

  15. Integrated production of nano-fibrillated cellulose and cellulosic biofuel (ethanol) by enzymatic fractionation of wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Ronald Sabo; Xiaolin Luo

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of integrating the production of nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC), a potentially highly valuable biomaterial, with sugar/biofuel (ethanol) from wood fibers. Commercial cellulase enzymes were used to fractionate the less recalcitrant amorphous cellulose from a bleached Kraft eucalyptus pulp, resulting in a highly crystalline and...

  16. Effects of Urban Waste and Mineral Fertilizers Applications on Eucalyptus grandis Growth and Soil Conditions Efeito da Aplicação de Lixo Urbano Compostado e de Adubos Minerais no Solo e na Produtividade de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Castro Andrade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Forest plantations have been studied as a potential ecosystem able to absorb organic residues as fertilizers or soil conditioners. This study evaluate the effects of the application of composted organic waste and mineral fertilizers in a Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden plantation with 86 months of age in Neossolo Quartzarênico. It was analyzed wood production, litter decomposition and the physical and chemical changes in the soil properties. It was observed that the municipal composted organic wastes resulted in an increase of 45.6% in wood volume, as compared to the control. It also increase the velocity of the litter
    decomposition on average of 28% and 16% for leaves and twigs respectively, increasing the pH level values and the availability of water in the soil (from 13% to 25% more available water in the first layer of the soil, 0 -10 cm. 
    As florestas têm sido estudadas como ecossistemas aptos à absorver resíduos orgânicos, utilizados como fertilizantes e condicionadores do solo. Este trabalho avaliou no Município de Itatinga, SP, em Neossolo Quartzarênico, os efeitos da aplicação de lixo urbano compostado e da adubação mineral em plantações de Eucalyptus grandis com 86 meses de idade. Foram analisadas as produtividades de madeira, a decomposição da serapilheira e as propriedades químicas e físicas do
    solo. Verificou-se que a aplicação de lixo urbano aumentou a produtividade de E. grandis com relação à testemunha, com um ganho de 45,6 % no volume cilíndrico de madeira. O solo com aplicação de lixo urbano apresentou um menor tempo de decomposição da serapilheira, em média com reduções de 28 % para folhas e de 16 % para galhos, com aumentos no pH e na água disponível no solo de 13 % a 25 %, na camada de 0 a 10 cm de profundidade, que podem justificar a maior
    produção de madeira obtida no final da rotação, em

  17. Wood as an adherend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie

    1991-01-01

    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  18. Stumps of Eucalyptus globulus as a Source of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Polyphenols

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    Ângelo Luís

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available These past years have seen an enormous development of the area of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Eucalyptus globulus is widely cultivated in subtropical and Mediterranean regions in intensive short rotation coppice plantations. In the Portuguese context, E. globulus is the third species in terms of forest area. The stump is the basal part of the tree, including the near-the-ground stem portion and the woody roots that remain after stem felling. The purpose of this work was to study the phytochemical profile and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of several crude stump wood and stump bark extracts of E. globulus, comparing it with similar extracts of E. globulus wood (industrial chips. The results showed the presence of high concentrations of total phenolic compounds (>200 mg GAE/g extract and flavonoids (>10 mg QE/g extract in E. globulus stump extracts. Generally the stump wood extracts stands out from the other ones, presenting the highest percentages of inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. It was also possible to conclude that the extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria, presenting low MIC values. This study thus provides information supporting the economic valorization of E. globulus stump wood.

  19. Stumps of Eucalyptus globulus as a source of antioxidant and antimicrobial polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Ângelo; Neiva, Duarte; Pereira, Helena; Gominho, Jorge; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2014-10-13

    These past years have seen an enormous development of the area of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. Eucalyptus globulus is widely cultivated in subtropical and Mediterranean regions in intensive short rotation coppice plantations. In the Portuguese context, E. globulus is the third species in terms of forest area. The stump is the basal part of the tree, including the near-the-ground stem portion and the woody roots that remain after stem felling. The purpose of this work was to study the phytochemical profile and to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of several crude stump wood and stump bark extracts of E. globulus, comparing it with similar extracts of E. globulus wood (industrial chips). The results showed the presence of high concentrations of total phenolic compounds (>200 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoids (>10 mg QE/g extract) in E. globulus stump extracts. Generally the stump wood extracts stands out from the other ones, presenting the highest percentages of inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. It was also possible to conclude that the extracts were more active against Gram-positive bacteria, presenting low MIC values. This study thus provides information supporting the economic valorization of E. globulus stump wood.

  20. Wood Availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.; Layos Mayr, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of the amount of wood that could potentially be harvested in a country can be accomplished using several approaches. A simple indicator is the balance between annual fellings and Net Annual Increment. However, this indicator does not take into account the actual age-class distribution of

  1. The Eucalyptus Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein (TIP gene subfamily: genomic organization, structural features and expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Iara Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant aquaporins are water channels implicated in various physiological processes, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, the Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein (TIP gene subfamily of Eucalyptus, an economically important woody species, was investigated and characterized. A genome-wide survey of the Eucalyptus grandis genome revealed the presence of eleven putative TIP genes (referred as EgTIP, which were individually assigned by phylogeny to each of the classical TIP1–5 groups. Homology modelling confirmed the presence of the two highly conserved NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala motifs in the identified EgTIPs. Residue variations in the corresponding selectivity filters, that might reflect differences in EgTIP substrate specificity, were observed. All EgTIP genes, except EgTIP5.1, were transcribed and the majority of them showed organ/tissue-enriched expression. Inspection of the EgTIP promoters revealed the presence of common cis-regulatory elements implicated in abiotic stress and hormone responses pointing to an involvement of the identified genes in abiotic stress responses. In line with these observations, additional gene expression profiling demonstrated increased expression under polyethylene glycol-imposed osmotic stress. Overall, the results obtained suggest that these novel EgTIPs might be functionally implicated in eucalyptus adaptation to stress.

  2. Composição da madeira e do carvão vegetal de Eucalyptus urophylla em diferentes locais de plantio

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    Aliny Aparecida dos Reis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of planting sites on the elemental chemical composition of Eucalyptus urophylla wood and the quality of its charcoal and to verify the statistical relations among the properties measured in wood and charcoal. It was used twelve 7-years old trees from E. urophylla clone from Curvelo, Itacambira and Turmalina counties located in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The elemental chemical composition (C, H, N, S and O of the wood and C/H and C/N relations were determined. The wood was carbonized in a laboratorial muffle furnace. It was determinate the gravimetric yields in charcoal, in pyroligneous extract and, by difference, the noncondensable gases. The apparent relative density, the higher heating value, the proximate chemical composition and the yield in fixed carbon of the charcoals were also determined. The caloric value of charcoal was influenced by its proximate chemical composition. In the wood, it was observed significant effect from site on hydrogen content and C/H relation. The location also influenced the ash content and gravimetric yields in charcoal and fixed carbon, so it is considered important to consider the effect of planting site for charcoal production from the Eucalyptus urophylla clone studied.

  3. Equipment for biomass. Wood burners; Materiels pour la biomasse, les chaudieres bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieze, B. [SA Compte R., 63 - Arlanc (France)

    1997-12-31

    A review of the French classification of biomass wastes (and more especially wood and wood wastes) concerning classified burning equipment, is presented: special authorization is thus needed for burning residues from wood second transformation processes. Limits for combustion product emission levels are detailed and their impact on wood burning and process equipment is examined: feeder, combustion chamber, exchanger, fume treatment device, residue disposal. Means for reducing pollutant emissions are reviewed

  4. In silico evaluation of the Eucalyptus transcriptome

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    Renato Vicentini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The expressed sequence tags (ESTs produced in the Forests project provide an invaluable opportunity to assess the Eucalyptus transcriptome. Besides providing information on the different proteins produced by this plant, it is possible to infer gene expression profiles because non-normalized cDNA libraries were used. The EST frequency from any gene is correlated to the transcript levels in the tissues from which the cDNA libraries were constructed. The goal of this work was to identify Eucalyptus genes that showed either differential expression pattern or were ubiquitously expressed in the tissues sampled in the Forests project. Six robust statistical tests and very restrictive rules were applied to gain confidence in the in silico data aiming to avoid false positives. Several genes with interesting expression profiles were identified and some of them were validated by RT-PCR.

  5. Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

  6. Exploitation des fleurs de Entada africana, Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats montrent que les ouvrières de A. m. adansonii fréquentaient Trichillia emetica pour le nectar exclusivement. Entada africana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Psidium guajava et S. longepedonculata étaient visitées pour le nectar et le pollen. Le plus grand nombre de butineuses simultanément en activité sur les ...

  7. EFEITO DA TERMORRETIFICAÇÃO NAS PROPRIEDADES MECÂNICAS DAS MADEIRAS DE Pinus taeda E Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Modes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of thermal treatment, employed under two treatment conditions on mechanical properties of wood of Pinus taeda L. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. From each species, three 25-year tress were sampled, and from each one, it was taken the first 2-meter long log, which was obtained from two boards of size 7,0 x 20,0 cm (thickness x width respectively diametrically opposite from where 30 specimens were saw for each treatment. At the first one, called the combined one, the woods were subjected to heat treatment by autoclaving at 130 / ± 3°C and pressure of 2 kgf / cm ² for 3 hours and, after a conditioning period, subjected to heat in an electric oven at 160 / ± 1°C for the same period. The second treatment consisted only of heat treatment in oven. It was also evaluated the pieces of wood without treatment (control. The mechanical properties were evaluated by means of tests for determining the modulus of elasticity and rupture in bending, maximum resistance to compression parallel to the grain and Janka hardness according to ASTM D 143 (1995, and the impact resistance according to ABNT NBR 7190 (1997. For Pinus taeda wood, it was observed that treatment in an oven gave the worst outcomes, both due to the reduction in the values of supported load of a greater number of mechanical properties evaluated, but also as compared to the lowest increments in resistance when it was observed an increase to the same ones with heat treatment. In Eucalyptus grandis, the combined treatment decreased the greatest number of mechanical properties of wood.

  8. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  9. Genetic and environmental factors affecting rooting in Eucalyptus Grandis X Eucalyptus Longistrata hybrid cuttings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ?jo, J.A. and Borralho, N.M.G. 1997. Short Note: Importance of additive genetic and specific combining ability effects for rooting ability of stem cuttings in Eucalyptus globulus. Silvae Genetica 46: 307-308. Luckman, G.A. and Menary, R.S. 2002.... References Borralho, N.M.G. and Wilson, P.J. 1994. Inheritance of initial survival and rooting ability in Eucalyptus globulus stem cuttings. Silvae Genetica 43: 238-242. DWAF. 2008. Report on Commercial Timber Resources and Primary Roundwood Processing...

  10. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  11. Mineral supplementation and productivity of the Shiitake mushroom on eucalyptus logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queiroz Elvio Cardoso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian reports on Shiitake mushroom [Lentinula edodes (Berkeley Pegler] productivity grown on Eucalyptus saligna (Sm. logs are optimistic. The current production on this kind of wood is, however, low and variable. Aiming at increasing Shiitake mushroom productivity, the present work studied interactions among three concentrations of mineral supplement and three Shiitake strains (Le 95/01, 96/17 and 96/18 grown on seventh cut eucalyptus logs. Mineral fertilization was carried out when the logs were submerged in water to induce fruiting bodies, using the following saline concentrations: zero (no fertilizers added, 0.05% (equivalent to 0.35 g L-1 of ammonium sulfate with 18% nitrogen and 0.15 g L-1 of superphosphate with 34% phosphorus and 0.50%. Fertilization of the Le 95/01 strain increased productivity, but logs inoculated with the Le 96/17 strain were more productive only at 0.05% concentration while in the Le 96/18 strain, mineral supplementation decreased in productivity. The radial growth of these Shiitake strains (in sawdust-agar medium and with the same saline concentrations used in the log experiment showed that all strains reacted positively to fertilization and that positive results for the Le 95/01 strain and negative results for Le 96/18 on eucalyptus logs are due to the natural higher competitiveness of the first Le 95/01 in relation to the latter Le 96/18 strain. Mineral fertilization increases the productivity provided that the logs are well colonized by Shiitake mushrooms.

  12. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The water extracts of leaves (green, brown and decayed stages) and bark of Eucalyptus tereticornis were tested for seed ... percentage of Phaseolus vulgaris due to the treatments of water extracts of leaves and bark of Eucalyptus, also affected the ... chemicals from its leaves or litter which inhibits the germination or growth ...

  13. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, other antiinflammatory phenolic compounds were detected in Pitascia lentiscus extract including syringic acid and p-coumaric acid, while chlorogenic acid was detected in Eucalyptus spp. leaf extract. Conclusion: Reduction in the levels of Il-6 and TNF-α upon the effect of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia ...

  14. A diverse assemblage of Botryosphaeriaceae infect Eucalyptus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Botryosphaeriaceae cause endophytic infections of leaves and bark of various trees, including Eucalyptus, and they apparently persist in this state for extended periods of time. Under conditions of stress, these fungi cause many different disease symptoms on Eucalyptus, of which stem and branch cankers and die-back ...

  15. Diseases on Eucalyptus species in Zimbabwean plantations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe embarked on planting Eucalyptus species in the early 1900s. Based on a robust breeding programme, it has become a major source of seed for other countries in and outside Africa. Tree health surveys conducted on Eucalyptus in some east and southern African countries over the past two decades have ...

  16. Energy, chemicals and carbon: future options for the Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current Eucalyptus value chain and the possible drivers that may impact upon it. The potential consequences of climate change on the growth and yield of Eucalyptus are discussed and the impact of the security of oil reserves and increased costs of fossil-fuel-derived energy and raw materials upon ...

  17. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The worthiness of investments in eucalyptus growing has been determined using the net present value (NPV) criterion. It has been proved that investments in eucalyptus growing in perpetuity (forever) and being harvested on a four (4) year rotation period can earn a present value of a perpetual periodic annuity of Ug. shs ...

  18. Eucalyptus Forest Information System for the Portuguese pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Fonseca; Rita Crespo; Henk Feith; Jose Luis Carvalho; Antonio Macedo; Joao Pedro Pina

    2000-01-01

    To support the management of the Portuguese eucalyptus forest, the Association of Portuguese Pulp and Paper Industries (CELPA) decided to develop a Eucalyptus Forest Information System (EFIS). The specific goals of the EFIS are: characterization and development of the eucalyptus forest over time; planning of successive national eucalyptus forest inventories; estimation...

  19. Effects of extractives and ash on natural resistance of four woods to xylophogous termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the natural resistance of wood of four tree species to Nasutitermes corniger Motsch. xylophogous termite attack and correlate the resistance with the amount of extract and ash in the chemical composition of the tested species. The species evaluated were Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan. var. cebil (Gris. Alts., Tabebuia aurea (Mart. Bureau., Amburana cearensis (Allem. A.C.Sm. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Test samples with dimensions of 2.00 x 10.16 x 0.64 cm (radial x longitudinal x tangential were obtained at two positions (external heartwood and sapwood of each species. The samples were exposed to action of termites for 45 days in food preference assay. The content of wood extractives was obtained through the sawdust that went through sieve of 40 mesh and were retained in the 60 mesh. The natural resistance was not associated with wood extractive contents. The wood more resistant to termite attack was the Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil in the two positions (external heartwood and sapwood and Eucalyptus camaldulensis wood presented the greatest wear. The biological resistance of wood was correlated with ash content, i.e., the species with the highest levels was the most resistant to termite attack.

  20. A microsatellite-based consensus linkage map for species of Eucalyptus and a novel set of 230 microsatellite markers for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Emlyn R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalypts are the most widely planted hardwood trees in the world occupying globally more than 18 million hectares as an important source of carbon neutral renewable energy and raw material for pulp, paper and solid wood. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs in Eucalyptus have been localized on pedigree-specific RAPD or AFLP maps seriously limiting the value of such QTL mapping efforts for molecular breeding. The availability of a genus-wide genetic map with transferable microsatellite markers has become a must for the effective advancement of genomic undertakings. This report describes the development of a novel set of 230 EMBRA microsatellites, the construction of the first comprehensive microsatellite-based consensus linkage map for Eucalyptus and the consolidation of existing linkage information for other microsatellites and candidate genes mapped in other species of the genus. Results The consensus map covers ~90% of the recombining genome of Eucalyptus, involves 234 mapped EMBRA loci on 11 linkage groups, an observed length of 1,568 cM and a mean distance between markers of 8.4 cM. A compilation of all microsatellite linkage information published in Eucalyptus allowed us to establish the homology among linkage groups between this consensus map and other maps published for E. globulus. Comparative mapping analyses also resulted in the linkage group assignment of other 41 microsatellites derived from other Eucalyptus species as well as candidate genes and QTLs for wood and flowering traits published in the literature. This report significantly increases the availability of microsatellite markers and mapping information for species of Eucalyptus and corroborates the high conservation of microsatellite flanking sequences and locus ordering between species of the genus. Conclusion This work represents an important step forward for Eucalyptus comparative genomics, opening stimulating perspectives for evolutionary studies and

  1. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of wood with polyhydric alcohols and its application in preparation of polyurethane (PU) foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Zhifeng Zheng; Chung-Yun Hse

    2012-01-01

    Microwave radiation was used as the heating source in southern pine wood liquefaction with PEG/ glycerin binary solvent. It was found that microwave heating was more efficient than conventional oil bath heating for wood liquefaction. The wood residue content of the H2SO4 catalyzed liquefied wood dropped to zero within 5 min with microwave heating. The resulting...

  2. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of wood with polyhydric alcohols and its application in preparation of polyurethane (PU) foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Zhifeng Zheng; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Microwave radiation was used as the heating source in southern pine wood liquefaction with PEG/glycerin binary solvent. It was found that microwave heating was more efficient than conventional oil bath heating for wood liquefaction. The wood residue content of the H2SO4 catalyzed liquefied wood dropped to zero within 5 min with microwave heating. The resulting...

  3. Optimal stomatal conductance in relation to photosynthesis in climatically contrasting Eucalyptus species under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroult, Arnaud; Lin, Yan-Shih; Bourne, Aimee; Medlyn, Belinda E; Ellsworth, David S

    2013-02-01

    Models of stomatal conductance (g(s)) are based on coupling between g(s) and CO(2) assimilation (A(net)), and it is often assumed that the slope of this relationship ('g(1) ') is constant across species. However, if different plant species have adapted to different access costs of water, then there will be differences in g(1) among species. We hypothesized that g(1) should vary among species adapted to different climates, and tested the theory and its linkage to plant hydraulics using four Eucalyptus species from different climatic origins in a common garden. Optimal stomatal theory predicts that species from sub-humid zones have a lower marginal water cost of C gain, hence lower g(1) than humid-zone species. In agreement with the theory that g(1) is related to tissue carbon costs for water supply, we found a relationship between wood density and g(1) across Eucalyptus species of contrasting climatic origins. There were significant reductions in the parameter g(1) during drought in humid but not sub-humid species, with the latter group maintaining g(1) in drought. There are strong differences in stomatal behaviour among related tree species in agreement with optimal stomatal theory, and these differences are consistent with the economics involved in water uptake and transport for carbon gain. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. A model for predicting the growth of Eucalyptus globulus seedling stands in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, G.; Morales, M.; Pukkala, T.; Miguel, S. de

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most planted species in the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia, where growing conditions are different from most places where eucalyptus have been studied. This prevents a straightforward utilization of models fitted elsewhere. In this study a distance-independent individual-tree growth model for E. globulus plantations in Bolivia was developed based on data from 67 permanent sample plots. The model consists of sub-models for dominant height, tree diameter increment, height-diameter relationship and survival. According to model-based simulations, the mean annual increment with the optimal rotation length is about 13 m3 ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 on medium-quality sites and 18 m{sup 3} ha{sup -}1 yr -1 on the best sites. A suitable rotation length for maximizing wood production is approximately 30 years on medium sites and 20 years on the most productive sites. The developed models provide valuable information for further studies on optimizing the management and evaluating alternative management regimes for the species. (Author) 22 refs.

  5. Clones de Eucalyptus versus a produção de polpa celulósica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The wood quality is defined by combining several intrinsic characteristics of the tree to its use. This research aimed to evaluate some of the wood characteristics of Eucalyptus clones and its performance in kraft pulping. Fifteen clones, 5.8 years-old were used, two trees from each clone, totaling thirty trees. The evaluated wood characteristics were: basic density, fiber dimensions (fiber length, wall thickness, lumen diameter and chemical composition (cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, extractives and ash contents. Four samples were cooked at the laboratory for each tree, using different active alkali, to establish the delignification curve. These alkali loads were selected after exploratory cooking to obtain an eighteen kappa number at the medium point of the curve. In the cooking were appraised the screened, the pulp viscosity and consumed alkali. The yield results varied from 43.4 to 52.0%, the active alkali from 17.5 to 23.4%, the consumed alkali from 15.5 to 20.0% and the pulp viscosity from 19.9 to 61.4 cP.

  6. Avaliação do teor de umidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis por medidores elétricos resistivos. Evaluation of the Eucalyptus grandis lumber moisture content by resistancetype moisture meters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Guarnetti dos SANTOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivoverificar a precisão de dois tipos de medidoreselétricos de teor de umidade durante o processo desecagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Foramretiradas amostras representativas de 14 tábuas deEucalyptus grandis e secas em estufa elétrica a40 ºC de temperatura, até que o material atingisse10% de umidade. Durante a secagem foramdeterminados, periodicamente, o teor de umidadeatravés do método de massas correntes e deverificações simultâneas com um medidor elétricoportátil (EMM e com o sistema de controle de umsecador convencional (KCS. Os resultados mostraramque: (1 o sensor de umidade KCS pode substituiro método gravimétrico durante a secagem damadeira; (2 o medidor do teor de umidade EMMsubestima os reais teores de umidade durante asecagem da madeira e não é indicado parasubstituir o método gravimétrico de determinação de umidade.The aim of the study was to evaluate theprecision of two types of electric moisture metersduring the drying process of Eucalyptus grandisboards. Samples were obtained from 14 boards ofEucalyptus grandis and they were dried in electriclaboratory oven at 40 ºC of temperature, until thewood achieve 10% of moisture content. During thedrying, the moisture content was determined bygravimetric method and simultaneous checks by anelectric moisture meter (EMM and by kilncontrol system (KCS. The results showed that:(1 the KCS can replace the gravimetric methodduring the wood drying; (2 the EMMunderestimate the real moisture content during thedrying of boards and it is not indicate as substituteof the gravimetric method.

  7. Modeling changes in organic carbon stocks for distinct soils in southeastern brazil after four eucalyptus rotations using the century model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Miguel Nascimento Lima

    2011-06-01

    with the statistical procedure to test the identity of analytical methods. Only for lower soil C stocks, the model over-estimated the C stock in the 0-20 cm layer. Thus, the Century model is highly promising to detect changes in C stocks in distinct soil orders under eucalyptus, as well as to indicate the impact of harvest residue management on SOM in future rotations.

  8. Comparative effect of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of southeast Nigeria to access the effect of amending soil with plant residues on maize performance. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, combination of wood ash ...

  9. Fast pyrolysis of eucalyptus waste in a conical spouted bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutio, Maider; Lopez, Gartzen; Alvarez, Jon; Olazar, Martin; Bilbao, Javier

    2015-10-01

    The fast pyrolysis of a forestry sector waste composed of Eucalyptus globulus wood, bark and leaves has been studied in a continuous bench-scale conical spouted bed reactor plant at 500°C. A high bio-oil yield of 75.4 wt.% has been obtained, which is explained by the suitable features of this reactor for biomass fast pyrolysis. Gas and bio-oil compositions have been determined by chromatographic techniques, and the char has also been characterized. The bio-oil has a water content of 35 wt.%, and phenols and ketones are the main organic compounds, with a concentration of 26 and 10 wt.%, respectively. In addition, a kinetic study has been carried out in thermobalance using a model of three independent and parallel reactions that allows quantifying this forestry waste's content of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  11. NUTRIENT ALLOCATION IN Eucalyptus saligna Sm. STANDS IN THE REGION OF GUAÍBA - RIO GRANDE DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Witschoreck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research conducted in Eucalyptus saligna Sm. stands, between 2 and 7 years of age, in the region of Guaíba - RS, had as objective: to estimate the nutrients stock in the biomass. On the basis of the forest inventory, trees of medium diameter were collected and fractionated in leaf, branch, bark, wood and root. The accumulated litter was evaluated with sampling units of 1 m2. Samples of arboreal components and litter were collected to estimate the dry matter and nutritional content. Nutrients stock was obtained through the product between the average biomass of each component and the average concentration of nutrients. For the average of stands, the stock of nutrients showed the following order of accumulation, for biomass components: wood > root > leaf > bark > branch; and for nutrients: Ca > N > K > Mg > P.

  12. Effect of age on calorific value and some mechanical properties of three Eucalyptus species grown in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulugeta Lemenih; Tsegaye Bekele [Wondo Genet College of Forestry, Shashemene (Ethiopia)

    2004-09-01

    The effect of age on calorific value, specific gravity, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of three plantation grown Eucalyptus species in the south-central highlands of Ethiopia was investigated. The species investigated were Eucalyptus globulus Labill., E. saligna Sm. and E grandis W. Hill ex Maid. The investigation was made on sample trees taken from age sequences of stands of the three species. Calorific values were determined on sample discs taken at 4, 8, 12 and 16 m up the stems of the sample trees. Calorific values were also determined for heartwood and sapwood of each disc separately. Specific gravity, MOR and MOE were investigated on a 1 -m long sample log taken from the butt end of each sample tree. The results showed that there was no significant difference in calorific values between the three species when considering a similar age category. Similarly, there was no significant difference in calorific values between disc positions and wood types (heartwood versus sapwood) within species. However, calorific values tend to increase along the tree stem towards the treetop for each of the three species. Correlation between calorific values of each disc position and tree age was generally weak and dominantly negative for E. saligna and E. globulus, but positive for E. grandis. On the other hand, there was a weak but positive correlation between tree age and specific gravity and MOR for the three species. MOE was almost non-correlated with age. Generally, the results showed that waiting for older ages for the three Eucalyptus species may not further increase their calorific values. Hence, stands of the three Eucalyptus species can be harvested and used for fuelwood at an early age as traditionally managed on short-rotation basis. (author)

  13. Characterization of Cytospora isolates from wood cankers of declining grapevine in North America, with the descriptions of two new Cytospora species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytospora species are ubiquitous pathogens of woody plants, causing dieback and wood cankers in numerous perennial hosts, including agronomic crops (e.g., Prunus), timber trees (e.g., Eucalyptus), and riparian hosts (e.g., Salix). Cytospora chrysosperma, C. cincta, and C. leucostoma have been report...

  14. Universal fractionation of lignin–carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) from lignocellulosic biomass: an example using spruce wood

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xueyu; Gellerstedt, Goran; Li, Jiebing

    2013-01-01

    It is of both theoretical and practical importance to develop a universally applicable approach for the fractionation and sensitive lignin characterization of lignin–carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) from all types of lignocellulosic biomass, both natively and after various types of processing. In the present study, a previously reported fractionation approach that is applicable for eucalyptus (hardwood) and flax (non-wood) was further improved by introducing an additional step of barium hydroxid...

  15. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Stockwell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning, crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS, and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg−1 fuel burned, single scattering albedos (SSAs, and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs. From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC emission factors (g kg−1 fuel burned. The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg−1 for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ∼ 80 gases in all. The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68 was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10. Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg−1, organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg−1, and HCN

  16. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Christian, Ted J.; Goetz, J. Douglas; Jayarathne, Thilina; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Saikawa, Eri; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Panday, Arnico K.

    2016-09-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient) combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning), crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS), and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm) based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs) for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg-1 fuel burned), single scattering albedos (SSAs), and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs). From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC) emission factors (g kg-1 fuel burned). The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg-1) for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ˜ 80 gases in all). The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68) was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10). Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg-1), organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg-1), and HCN (2.01 ± 1.25 g kg-1), where the latter could

  17. EFFECT OF TAXATION ON PRODUCTION COST, ON ROTATION AND ON REFORM OF Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira de Rezende

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to determine the influence of tributes on the optimum economical age of harvestingEucalyptus spp. stands, to determine the number of cuttings between the reform of Eucalyptus spp. stands, to determine and analyzethe contribution of tributes to the wood production costs. Many tributes are due on the forest sector. In this study, the tributesconsidered are the ones falling on the production of forest on products and services (TMS, income tax on businessoperation (ITJP, social raw material, not including, therefore, those which are due on industrialization. They are: forestrate (FR, cadastrum and registration rate (CRR, chainsaw record rate (MRR, chainsaw ownership tax (MPT, landownership tax (RTT, commercialization tax contribution on profit (SCP, contribution for financing of social security(CFSS, Contribution for the National Institute of Social Security (CNISS, contribution for the social integration program(CSIP, rural syndicate contribution (RSH. The criterion utilized to determine economic rotation and to determine theoptimum moment to renew the stand was the Net Present Value (NPV, considering an infinite planning horizon. The resultsobtained allowed to identify the ratio of the tributes in the total wood production cost.. It was found that the optimumharvesting time, not considering the tributes, occurred at 7 years o age; considering all the tributes, the optimum age occurredat 8 years. By not considering tributes would cause to unduly anticipate the optimum harvesting age. The optimum momentto make the renewal of the stand, not considering the tributes, occurred at 21 years, after the third cutting. However,taking into account the tributes, it would occur at 32 years (after the fourth cutting. By not considering the effect oftributation would cause one to unduly antecipate the optimum time to renew the stand. Tributation stands for 37.78% ofwood production cost, i.e., taxes contribute with 3.8%, imposts with 25

  18. Advancing Eucalyptus genomics: identification and sequencing of lignin biosynthesis genes from deep-coverage BAC libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudrna David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eucalyptus species are among the most planted hardwoods in the world because of their rapid growth, adaptability and valuable wood properties. The development and integration of genomic resources into breeding practice will be increasingly important in the decades to come. Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries are key genomic tools that enable positional cloning of important traits, synteny evaluation, and the development of genome framework physical maps for genetic linkage and genome sequencing. Results We describe the construction and characterization of two deep-coverage BAC libraries EG_Ba and EG_Bb obtained from nuclear DNA fragments of E. grandis (clone BRASUZ1 digested with HindIII and BstYI, respectively. Genome coverages of 17 and 15 haploid genome equivalents were estimated for EG_Ba and EG_Bb, respectively. Both libraries contained large inserts, with average sizes ranging from 135 Kb (Eg_Bb to 157 Kb (Eg_Ba, very low extra-nuclear genome contamination providing a probability of finding a single copy gene ≥ 99.99%. Libraries were screened for the presence of several genes of interest via hybridizations to high-density BAC filters followed by PCR validation. Five selected BAC clones were sequenced and assembled using the Roche GS FLX technology providing the whole sequence of the E. grandis chloroplast genome, and complete genomic sequences of important lignin biosynthesis genes. Conclusions The two E. grandis BAC libraries described in this study represent an important milestone for the advancement of Eucalyptus genomics and forest tree research. These BAC resources have a highly redundant genome coverage (> 15×, contain large average inserts and have a very low percentage of clones with organellar DNA or empty vectors. These publicly available BAC libraries are thus suitable for a broad range of applications in genetic and genomic research in Eucalyptus and possibly in related species of Myrtaceae

  19. Avaliação de resíduos de painéis de madeira gerados por indústrias moveleiras para aproveitamento na confecção de pequenos objetos: estudo de caso Evaluation of residues of wood boards generated by furniture industries for their utilization in the production of small objects: study of case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barbosa de Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A indústria moveleira produz uma quantidade de resíduos que, normalmente, é descartada no meio ambiente ou utilizada como combustível em caldeiras e similares, ou apenas queimada. Alternativas para utilização desses resíduos têm sido alvo de pesquisas, destacando-se a confecção de pequenos objetos, na forma de artesanato. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar os resíduos de indústrias do pólo moveleiro de Ubá/MG. No levantamento quantitativo, constatou-se que as empresas geraram resíduos dos mesmos tipos de painéis de madeira. Os resíduos mais comuns foram de aglomerado e MDF (Medium Density Fiber. Observou-se grande variabilidade das dimensões desses resíduos, principalmente em sua largura. Concluiu-se que alguns resíduos não apresentaram dimensões adequadas para a confecção de determinados objetos e que se torna necessária uma seleção prévia desses resíduos para direcioná-los a trabalhos mais minuciosos, de forma a viabilizar a sua utilização.The furniture industry generates an amount of residues, which, normally, is discarded in the environment or destined to steam production in boilers. The handmade production of small wood board objects is an outstanding alternative to take advantage of these residues. The general aim of this study was to evaluate residues in furniture industries located at the pole of Ubá/MG. Through the survey and the analysis of the data, one established that the industries generate residues from the same kind of wood board. The most common residues were of particleboard and MDF (Medium Density Fiber. One observed a great diversity of residue dimensions, mainly in width. One concluded that some residues did not present adequate dimensions for the manufacturing of some objects and that there is a necessity of previous residues selection, in order to destine them to more detailed works and make possible their use.

  20. Use of sawdust Eucalyptus sp. in the preparation of activated carbons Utilização de serragem de Eucalyptus sp. na preparação de carvões ativados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Martucci Couto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wood sawdust is a solid residue, generated in the timber industry, which is of no profitable use and can cause serious environmental problems if disposed inadequately. The aim of this study was to use the eucalyptus sawdust in the preparation of activated carbons AC and test them as adsorbents of methylene blue (MB and phenol, representative pollutants from aqueous effluents of various industries. The eucalyptus sawdust was characterized by instrumental analysis such as elementary analysis (CHNS-O, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The activated carbons were prepared by physical activation with carbon dioxide AC_CO2, (10º C min-1, 850º C, 1h and by chemical activation with potassium carbonate AC_K2CO3 (10º C min-1, 850º C, 3h. The AC_CO2 and AC_K2CO3 were characterized by CHN-O, TGA, FTIR, N2 adsorption/desorption (BET to evaluate the specific surface area and SEM. The resulting activated carbons were tested for their ability to adsorb MB and phenol in water. The activated carbons produced in this work were predominantly microporous and showed specific surface area of about 535 m² g-1. The AC_K2CO3 was more effective in the adsorption of MB (81 mg g-1 and phenol (330 mg g-1 than AC_CO2 (32 mg g-1 and 172 mg g-1, respectively, for MB and phenol.A serragem é um resíduo sólido, gerado na indústria madeireira, que não tem uso rentável e pode causar sérios problemas ambientais quando disposta inadequadamente. Neste estudo, objetivou-se utilizar a serragem de eucalipto na preparação de carvões ativados (AC e testá-los como adsorventes do corante azul de metileno (MB e fenol; moléculas que representam poluentes de efluentes industriais. A serragem de eucalipto foi caracterizada por análises instrumentais, tais como: análise elementar (CHNS-O, análise termogravimétrica (TGA, espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FTIR e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM

  1. Fertilization Response, Light Use, and Growth Efficiency in Eucalyptus Plantations across Soil and Climate Gradients in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Meulman Leite da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization increases productivity in Eucalyptus plantations, but losses in productivity associated with soil fertility continue at operational scales. In this study, we evaluated the fertilization response (FR, light use efficiency (LUE and growth efficiency (GE, i.e., the amount of wood biomass accumulated per unit of light absorbed (LUE and per unit of leaf area index of Eucalyptus plantations. We used a “twin plot” approach, with 161 blocks representing 52,700 ha of planted forests that spanned a broad range of edaphoclimatic conditions in southeastern Brazil. The normal plots (NP were part of a permanent inventory network, whereas the twin plots (TP received extra high levels of fertilization and extra weed control after fertilization. The intensive management (twin plots led to a large increase of 5.3 Mg·ha−1·year−1 of wood increment. The region without dry periods and with soils with high clay content was most responsive to fertilization, with a 15% increment in the LUE and 10% increase in the GE of the TPs compared with those of the NPs. Our results suggested that water availability was the primary element affecting productivity and potential response to fertilization. With this information, decisions can be made on which regions should receive priority fertilization investments. However, more research is required to determine the most limiting nutrient in each type of environment.

  2. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VI. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm: the natural system interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-05-01

    A review of pertinent literature covered the following: eucalypt background, the candidate species, biomass plantation considerations, effects of site production, leachate and allelopathy, and some exotic flora considerations. The comparative eucalypt field survey covers mined land stands, unmined south Florida stands, and Glade County eucalypt stands. The problem of eucalypt naturalization is discussed.

  3. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  4. EFEITO DA APLICAÇÃO DO POTÁSSIO, DO SÓDIO E DA DISPONIBILIDADE HÍDRICA NA DENSIDADE APARENTE A 12% DE UMIDADE DO LENHO JUVENIL DE ÁRVORES DE Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Resende Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Expressive area of forest plantations fast-growing of eucalyptus in Brazil and in other regions of the world is under the influence of climate change, water stress and low soil fertility, affecting the growth and the quality of the wood from the trees. This study aimed to evaluate the apparent density at 12% relative humidity of the wood of Eucalyptus grandis trees with 12, 24 and 36 months, with reduced rainfall and nutrition K and Na. The treatments were defined by two water regimes (100% and 66% of rainfall, with artificial reduction with polyethylene sheeting and three types of nutrition: K (K - 4.5 kmol/ha, N (Na - 4.5 kmol/ha and control. The apparent density of the samples of diameter at breast height was determined by densitometry profile from digital images of rays X. The results indicated a significant difference in nutrition treatments and water availability in relation to the density of the wood. The radial apparent density profiles showed higher differences in the wood from the third year of evaluation. Digital images of the wood obtained by X-rays allowed to analyze the variation of the apparent density of the wood. Work results may be used as subsidies for the adoption of silvicultural practices in forest plantations in areas with water stress and/or affected by climate change as well as the partial replacement of K by Na.

  5. Utilizing hardwood logging residue: a case study in the Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Paul Craft

    1976-01-01

    An Appalachian hardwood timber stand that contained 6,700 board feet per acre of sawtimber was harvested by clearcutting. After the merchantable sawlogs were removed, this stand contained 69.3 tons per acre of green wood residue. Thirty-three and one-third tons of residue were from tops of merchantable sawtimber; 36 tons were from residual trees. Treetop residue...

  6. Preliminary study on flakeboard panels made from aspen slash wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Yu; Alan Rudie; Zhiyong Cai

    2010-01-01

    The disposal of forest-thinning residue is one of the major problems for sustainable forest management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the technical possibility of utilizing aspen logging slash wood with a diameter ranging from 50 to 76 mm for flakeboard production. Influences of weight ratio between slash wood and commercial flakes on the selected...

  7. Organosolv delignification of Eucalyptus globulus: Kinetic study of autocatalyzed ethanol pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliet, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Santos, A.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.; Tijero, J.

    2000-01-01

    The autocatalyzed delignification of Eucalyptus globulus in 50% ethanol (w/w) was modeled as the irreversible and consecutive dissolution of initial, bulk, and residual lignin. Their respective contributions to total lignin was estimated as 9, 75, and 16%. Isothermal pulping experiments were carried out to evaluate an empirical kinetic model among eight proposals corresponding to different reaction schemes. The calculated activation energy was found to be 96.5, 98.5, and 40.8 kJ/mol for initial, bulk, and residual delignification, respectively. The influence of hydrogen ion concentration was expressed by a power-law function model. The kinetic model developed here was validated using data from nonisothermal pulping runs.

  8. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  9. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kelly J; Romanel, Elisson; Jones, Rebecca C; Klocko, Amy; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Hefer, Charles A; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Naithani, Sushma; Ranik, Martin; Wesley-Smith, James; Solomon, Luke; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Myburg, Alexander A; Strauss, Steven H

    2015-06-01

    As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages, and compared these with transcriptomes of diverse vegetative tissues, including leaves, roots, and stems. A subset of 4807 genes (13% of protein-coding genes) were differentially expressed between floral buds of either stage and vegetative tissues. A similar proportion of genes were differentially expressed among all tissues. A total of 479 genes were differentially expressed between early and late stages of floral development. Gene function enrichment identified 158 gene ontology classes that were overrepresented in floral tissues, including 'pollen development' and 'aromatic compound biosynthetic process'. At least 40 floral-dominant genes lacked functional annotations and thus may be novel floral transcripts. We analyzed several genes and gene families in depth, including 49 putative biomarkers of floral development, the MADS-box transcription factors, 'S-domain'-receptor-like kinases, and selected gene family members with phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains. Expanded MADS-box gene subfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis included SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), SEPALLATA (SEP) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) Arabidopsis thaliana homologs. These data provide a rich resource for functional and evolutionary analysis of genes controlling eucalypt floral development, and new tools for breeding and biotechnology. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Role of construction debris in release of copper, chromium, and arsenic from treated wood structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Steven A. Halverson; Jeffrey J. Morrell; John. Simonsen

    Recent research on the release of wood preservatives from treated wood used in sensitive environments has not considered the potential contribution from construction residues. This study sought to develop leaching rate data for small construction debris and compare those to the release rate from treated wood itself. Western hemlock boards were pressure treated with...

  11. Parâmetros dendrométricos e correlações com propriedades tecnológicas em um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis Dendrometric parameters and correlations with technological properties in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Gomes Gonçalves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade da madeira aparentemente está associada às características dendrométricas, que por sua vez são influenciadas pelas condições de crescimento. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a caracterização dendrométrica e a realização de correlações de Pearson entre alguns parâmetros tecnológicos da madeira do híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis sob três estratos silviculturais. Os dados dendrométricos foram analisados mediante a análise de regressão. Os resultados mostraram que o híbrido apresenta comportamento similar ao das demais madeiras da mesma espécie que cresceram em outras regiões, destacando-se a espessura do alburno no E1 (talhadia simples, 70 meses e com um desbaste, com pouca variação ao longo do fuste. Todas as árvores apresentaram, em geral, baixa conicidade ao longo do fuste e baixo volume de casca entre os estratos. Na correlação de Pearson foram avaliados entre si nove parâmetros dendrométricos, sete físicos e três mecânicos, longitudinalmente em seções de 3 m e na posição medula-casca nas duas primeiras toras. Os coeficientes encontrados demonstram haver fortes correlações entre as propriedades, destacando-se a densidade básica em relação às demais características e o coeficiente de anisotropia, ambas importantes no processo de desdobro e secagem da madeira. Não houve correlações significativas nas contrações lineares e volumétricas ao longo do comprimento do fuste. A variação radial mostrou boas correlações entre todas as propriedades mecânicas avaliadas nas duas primeiras toras. Em contrapartida, as propriedades físicas avaliadas na posição radial não apresentaram correlações significativas.Wood quality is apparently associated with the dendrometric characteristics that are influenced by growth conditions. The aim of this study was the dendrometric characterization and realization of Pearson Correlations among some technological parameters in

  12. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    Berenice K. de Alcântara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al, a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  13. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  14. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeancarlos Moreno; Gabriel López; Raúl Siche

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, t...

  15. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D. [Electrical and Energy Engineering Department, University of Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2006-12-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43{sup o}28'N, and longitude 3{sup o}48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  16. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. © 2014 CIRAD. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Nutrient fluxes in rainfall, throughfall and stemflow in Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -canopy-closure (mature) Eucalyptus stands in the northern Dukuduku and southern KwaMbonambi commercial plantation forestry areas of Zululand, South Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and relevance of nutrient ...

  18. Effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis stand Conversion into Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    term site effect. In view of this, a study was conducted in Koga watershed, northwestern Ethiopia, to investigate whether croplands afforested with Eucalyptus camaldulensis can be reused for annual crop production after its removal. In this study ...

  19. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  20. Material Utilization of Organic Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinemann, Jan Christoph; Pleissner, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Each year, 1.3 billion tons of food waste is generated globally. This waste traces back to industrial and agricultural producers, bakeries, restaurants, and households. Furthermore, lignocellulosic materials, including grass clippings, leaves, bushes, shrubs, and woods, appear in large amounts. Depending on the region, organic waste is either composted, burned directly, or converted into biogas. All of the options set aside the fact that organic residues are valuable resources containing carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and phosphorus. Firstly, it is clear that avoidance of organic residues is imperative. However, the residues that accumulate nonetheless should be utilized by material means before energy production is targeted. This review presents different processes for the microbial utilization of organic residues towards compounds that are of great importance for the bioeconomy. The focus thereby is on the challenges coming along with downstream processing when the utilization of organic residues is carried out decentralized. Furthermore, a future process for producing lactic acid from organic residues is sketched.

  1. Activités antimicrobiennes des huiles essentielles de Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les huiles essentielles de Eucalyptus citriodora et Eucalyptus houseana récoltées à N'Débougou (Mali) ont été testées sur les bactéries Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus et le champignon Candida albicans. Nous avons utilisé la méthode de diffusion en Agar pour de la détermination des activités antibactériennes.

  2. Propriedades de flexão estática da madeira úmida e a 12% de umidade de um clone de eucalyptus saligna smith sob o efeito do espaçamento e da adubação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Roberto Haselein

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The bending properties of a Eucalyptus saligna Smith clone were studied. Thirty trees, with age of approximately ten years, coming from Klabin-Riocell forests were used in the tests. The specimens, manufactured following ASTM D143-94 (1995, were tested in two series: after conditioning in standard room (200C and 65% relative humidity or after water soaking. The results indicated values 1,296 and 1,4 times larger for air-dried when compared to moist wood, for bending stiffness and strength, respectively. Wood density, modulus of rupture and elasticity increased with fertilization and tree spaci ng.

  3. IMPREGNATION OF WOOD COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Derya Gezer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of wood based structural panel and lumber composites become to increase since the wood supply is changing due to the limit of larger dimension solid sawn lumber and insufficient solid woods with enough high strength as well. As we substitute wood composites for solid wood in protected application, these composite must show resistance to wood-destroying organisms such as fungi and insects. Accordingly, the exterior structural composites is required to be treated with preservatives. This paper provides an understanding of preservative treated wood composites. The objectives of this paper includes studying how to add preservative to wood composites, examining additive effect on glue-line and evaluating the best method of manufacturing wood composites treated with preservatives.

  4. WEED CONTROL AND BORON NUTRITION ON Eucalyptus IN SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the control of weeds in the rows of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis with herbicides applied singly or combined with boron (B, as well as, the response of Eucalyptus plants to this micronutrient. The experiments were carried out in a split-plot with randomized complete block design, with three replicates. Six treatments were applied to the plots: (i weeded control, (ii control without weeding, (iii glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (10 g ai ha-1 + 0.05% v / v mineral oil, (iv glyphosate (1080 g ae  ha-1 + isoxaflutole (112.5 g ai ha-1,  (v glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1 and  (vi oxyfluorfen (480 g ai ha-1. The sub-plots consisted of the absence or presence of 4 kg of boric acid (H3BO3 - 17% B in 100 L of water. The addition of boric acid in the solution containing the herbicides did not affect the weed control. There was an increase in boron content in the soil and consequently an increase in the boron levels in the eucalyptus leaves. The combined application of herbicides plus boric acid is perfectly suitable for preventing dry of the pointer on eucalyptus plants. Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; chemical control; herbicides; micronutrients; Urochloa decumbens.

  5. Fuzzy logic applied to prospecting for areas for installation of wood panel industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Paterlini, Ewerthon Mattos; Fiedler, Nilton Cesar; Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Domingues, Getulio Fonseca; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Juvanhol, Ronie Silva; Branco, Elvis Ricardo Figueira; Mota, Pedro Henrique Santos; da Silva, Lilianne Gomes; Pirovani, Daiani Bernardo; de Jesus, Waldir Cintra; Santos, Ana Carolina de Albuquerque; Leite, Helio Garcia; Iwakiri, Setsuo

    2017-05-15

    Prospecting for suitable areas for forestry operations, where the objective is a reduction in production and transportation costs, as well as the maximization of profits and available resources, constitutes an optimization problem. However, fuzzy logic is an alternative method for solving this problem. In the context of prospecting for suitable areas for the installation of wood panel industries, we propose applying fuzzy logic analysis for simulating the planting of different species and eucalyptus hybrids in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The necessary methodological steps for this study are as follows: a) agriclimatological zoning of different species and eucalyptus hybrids; b) the selection of the vector variables; c) the application of the Euclidean distance to the vector variables; d) the application of fuzzy logic to matrix variables of the Euclidean distance; and e) the application of overlap fuzzy logic to locate areas for installation of wood panel industries. Among all the species and hybrids, Corymbia citriodora showed the highest percentage values for the combined very good and good classes, with 8.60%, followed by Eucalyptus grandis with 8.52%, Eucalyptus urophylla with 8.35% and Urograndis with 8.34%. The fuzzy logic analysis afforded flexibility in prospecting for suitable areas for the installation of wood panel industries in the Espírito Santo State can bring great economic and social benefits to the local population with the generation of jobs, income, tax revenues and GDP increase for the State and municipalities involved. The proposed methodology can be adapted to other areas and agricultural crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Yellow Dye Extraction from Eucalyptus Grandis Bark.

    OpenAIRE

    Chengeto Zvavamwe; Cathrine Khetiwe Mkandhla; Clever Mpofu; Vernon Phiri; Felicity Bgwoni; Bettina Khonzokuhle Ncube; Mafika Sibutha; Joel Tshuma

    2016-01-01

    In this article, yellow dye was extracted from Eucalyptus Grandis bark using methanol solvent at a temperature of 250C and pressure of 1 atmosphere. The extraction process was optimized by varying extraction material-to-liquor ratio, in the ratios of 1:100, 1:50, 3:100, 1:25, 1:20, 3:50, 7:100, 2:25, 9:100 and 1:10. The extraction pH was varied from 1 to 13 at an interval of pH 1. The mass of the dye extract was found to be directly proportional to the mass of the bark at each pH. The optimum...

  7. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTIVES AND DENSITY ON NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOODS TO TERMITE Nasutitermes corniger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the natural resistance of wood to wood-destroying organisms is of fundamental importance in the choice of species to be used in buildings and furniture industry. Thus, the effects of extractives and wood density on biological resistance of Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Corymbia torelliana, Eucalyptus cloeziana, Tectona grandis and Caesalpinia echinata woods to the xylophagous termite Nasutitermes corniger was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Test samples, with dimensions of 2.00 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal in four positions in pith-bark direction (internal heart, intermediate heart, outer heart and sapwood were taken. The woods were exposed to termite action for 28 days in no-choice feeding test. The samples not selected for the termite test were turned into sawdust and the extractive contents were obtained using the shavings that passed through the sieve of 40 and were retained in the sieve of 60 mesh. The wood natural resistance, within the pith-bark positions, for the studied species, is not correlated with the density and extractive content. However, among the woods, those with higher density and extractive content are more resistant. The woods with greater biological resistance to the termite Nasutitermes corniger (smaller mass loss, waste and survival time of insects are Corymbia torelliana and Caesalpinia echinata and of less resistance is Casuarina equisetifolia.

  8. Supercritical water gasification of Eucalyptus grandis and related pyrolysis char: Effect of feedstock composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Jeanne; Schwarz, Cara E; Burger, Andries J

    2016-09-01

    Eucalyptus grandis (E. grandis) wood and char products derived from pyrolysis of E. grandis wood, were gasified in supercritical water at 450°C - with and without the use of a homogeneous (K2CO3) and heterogeneous (Ni/Al2O3-SiO2) catalyst. Gas yields and gasification efficiencies were measured experimentally and compared to calculated thermodynamic equilibrium values, specifically considering the effects of the O/C ratio and volatile matter content of the feed material. Thermodynamically, feed material with lower O/C ratios (0.22) typically resulted in higher CH4 yields (30mol/kgfeed,dry) and gasification efficiencies (188%). However, experimentally, feed material with lower O/C ratios and lower volatile matter resulted in the lowest CH4 yields and gasification efficiencies. Furthermore, a linear relationship between the carbon efficiency (CE) and both the volatile matter content and O/C ratio of the feed material was found to hold true in both catalytic and non-catalytic experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Property of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaf Oils from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpun Siramon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to evaluate antifungal activities of leaf essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. originating from Thailand against 9 fungal strains. The leaf samples were collected from 3 different clones. The fungi examined in this study were (1 household molds: Aspergillus niger , Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Penicillium citrinum, (2 wood rot fungi: Fomitopsis palustris and Trametes versicolor, (3 plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium oxysporum, Thanatephorus cucumeris and Rhizopus oryzae. The results revealed that E. camaldulensis leaf oils provided 100% inhibition of the mycelial growth of T. cucumeris (5 mg/m L , and C. globosum (10 mg/m L . No inhibition effect was observed against R. oryzae even at the concentration of 10 mg/m L . A medium to low inhibitory activities against the mycelial growth of the six other fungi were found. The essential oils of E. camaldulensis leaf have potency as an antimicrobial agent especially against seedling blight pathogens and it could also act as moderate agents against household molds and wood rot fungi. Therefore, even if they need relatively higher concentration for the controlling agents, they deserve as the alternatives to hazardous synthetic fungicides from the ecological viewpoints.

  10. Effects of Planting Density on Transpiration, Stem Flow and Interception for Two Clones Differing in Drought Tolerance in a High Productivity Eucalyptus Plantation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, R. M.; Hakemada, R.; Ferraz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Eucalypt plantations cover about 20 M hectares worldwide and expansion is expected to mainly occur in marginal growing areas where dry conditions may lead to water conflicts. One of the principal reasons for the expansion of Eucalyptus plantations is rapid wood growth but these forests also transpire large amounts of water. Genotype selection and planting density, are key factors regulating carbon and water tradeoffs at a stand scale, but few studies have examined these simultaneously especially in highly productive clonal plantations. Our goal in this study was to examine the effects of planting density on carbon and water interactions using a drought tolerant and drought sensitive eucalyptus clone. This work is part of a larger study (TECHS project - Tolerance of Eucalyptus Clones to Hydric and Thermal Stresses) and is located in a flat Oxisol in southeast of Brazil. A drought tolerant (E. grandis x E. camaldulensis (Grancam) and drought sensitive clone E. grandis x E. urophylla (Urograndis) were planted at four densities ranging from 600 to 3.000 stem ha-1. We measured transpiration using thermal heat dissipation probes, wood growth, canopy interception and stemflow during a full year (21 to 33 months old). Precipitation during the study period was 738 mm. Independently of genetics, growth increased with increasing density. Transpiration also increased with planting density and ranged from 515-595 mm at wider spacing to 735-978 mm at tighter spacing. Interception increased with planting density representing 18-22% of precipitation versus 13-14% in wider spacing while stem flow represented 2-5% in denser spacing and 1-2% at broader spacing. When density was higher than 1.250 and 1.750 stems ha-1 in Urograndis and Grancam clones, respectively, the water balance were negative. On a stand scale, results show both genetics and spacing can be used as silvicultural tools to better manage the tradeoff between wood growth and water consumption.

  11. Characterization of black carbon and organic contaminants in wood ash from different feedstocks and types of furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Agustin; Rey-Salgueiro, Ledicia; Omil, Beatriz; Martinez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2015-04-01

    Due to their important concentration of nutrient and charcoal, wood ash from biomass power plants (WA) can be used as a fertilizer and organic amendment in intensively managed soils. Unlike biochar produced in under anoxic conditions, the nature of the organic compounds present in wood ash has been scarcely studied. Due to the incomplete combustion, wood ash may contain a wide range of organic compounds, from charred to highly condensed refractory biomass, which determines the possibilities of WA as an organic amendment. In addition, the possible environmental risk of this practice must be assessed by determining the content of water-soluble and insoluble organic contaminants. due to the incomplete combustion of organic matter, organic pollutants, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), can be formed and can remain in the combustion residue. Also, the four alkyl benzene volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the ortho, para, and meta xylenes) can be formed, depending on certain conditions during combustion. For this study 15 biomass power stations in Spain were selected. In all of them the feedstock is pine or eucalyptus branches and bark. Nine of them were bottom wood ash generated from wood fires furnaces, obtained from grate-fired or water-tube boilers. Whereas four of them were fly ash, obtained in cyclone separators. The samples were collected following a common procedure to ensure the representiveness of the sampling. Bottom ash samples were fraccionated in three fractions: 5mm. Each fraction was characterized for organic matter and BTEX, styrene and total petroleum hydrocarbons Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. For each analyzes, three replicates were analyzed per sample. Mixes wood ash shows higher amounts of charred material than fly ash. The 13 C CPMAS NMR, DSC/TG and FTIR analysis showed the loss of carbohydrates and aliphatic constituents and revealed the formation of aromatic compounds. The atomic H/C ratios, NMR

  12. Growth and nutrition of eucalyptus clones seedlings inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco deSousa Lima; Carla daSilva Sousa

    2014-01-01

    ... (five fungal species and five eucalyptus clones), with five replications. In general, the mycorrhizal symbiosis significantly increased the growth and nutrition of eucalyptus seedlings, when compared to the non-inoculated seedlings...

  13. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  14. Potential of eleven Eucalyptus species for the production of essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Paulo Henrique Müller da; Brito,José Otávio; Silva Junior,Francides Gomes da

    2006-01-01

    Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aimi...

  15. Climate effects of wood used for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros, Jan P.M.; Van Minnen, Jelle G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Arets, Eric J.M.M. [Alterra, Wageningen University WUR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wood growth and natural decay both take time, and this is an important aspect of sustainability assessments of wood used for energy. Wood taken from forests is a carbon-neutral energy source in the long term, but there are many examples of potential sources of wood used for bioenergy for which net emission reductions are not achieved in 10 to 40 years - the time frame for most climate policy mitigation targets. This is caused by two factors. The first factor relates to the fact that the carbon cycles of wood have a long time span. After final felling, CO2 fixation rates are initially relatively low, but increase again as forests regrow. This regrowth takes many years, sometimes more than a century. Wood residues can either be used or left in the forest. By using them, the emissions from the otherwise decaying residues (taking 2 to 30 years) would be avoided. The second factor concerns the fact that, if the wood is used for bioenergy, then fossil energy emissions are being avoided. However, the direct emission levels from bioenergy are higher than those related to the fossil energy it replaces. These additional emissions also have to be compensated. The carbon debt caused by both factors has to be paid back first, before actual emission reductions can be realised. For wood residues (from harvesting or thinning) that are used to replace coal or oil products, these payback times are relatively short, of the order of 5 to 25 years, mainly depending on location and type of residue (longer if they replace gas). This is also the case when using wood from salvage logging. In most cases, when using wood from final felling directly for energy production, payback times could be many decades to more than a century, with substantial increases in net CO2 emissions, in the meantime. This is especially the case for many forests in Europe, because they are currently an effective carbon sink. Additional felling reduces average growth rates in these forests and thus the sequestration

  16. Wood and charcoal quality from planted forest in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the wood and charcoal quality of young Eucalyptus spp. trees, and to verify the influence of age and clone on the energy performance of these fuels. It was sampled the clones 1277 and 0321 of Eucalyptus spp. in two ages (46 and 58 months. The characteristics determined in the wood were: chemical molecular and elementary, basic density, carbon stocks and lignin by volume, the energy density and heating values (higher and lower. The charcoal was produced in an electric furnace (muffle with the final temperature of 450 °C. It was conducted the mass balance and carbonization energy, beyond the immediate evaluation of the chemical composition, apparent density and calorific value of charcoal. The clone 1277, at the age 58 months, is the most suitable for the charcoal production for steel industry and direct combustion of wood, because it showed better results for basic density, energy density, carbon stocks and lignin per unit volume and the lignin content of the wood. The clonal effect and age did not influence the content of fixed carbon and volatile materials, the calorific values, the gravimetric yield in charcoal and energy losses of carbonization.

  17. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  18. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  19. Energy from wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.I. Zerbe

    2004-01-01

    In most developing countries wood and charcoal are the predominant fuels for preparation of food to maintain the quality of life that encompasses the majority of citizens. In many developing countries wood fuels are also important for small and medium size industries. Moreover, energy from wood continues to be important in industrial countries. In the USA biomass...

  20. Wood Formation in Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Mauriat; Gregoire Le Provost; Phillippe Rozenberg; Sylvain Delzon; Nathalie Breda; Bruno Clair; Catherine Coutand; Jean-Christoph Domec; Thierry Fourcaud; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Raul Herrera; Jean-Charles Leple; Nicolas Richet; Jean-Francois Trontin; Christophe Plomion

    2014-01-01

    Among the ecosystem services provided by forests, wood provisioning takes a central position. Wood and derived products have played a critical role in the evolution of human kind and demand for raw material is increasing in a foreseeable future. Wood is used for energy production, construction and a wide variety of products for which different properties are required....

  1. Improved yield parameters in catalytic steam gasification of forestry residue; optimizing biomass feed rate and catalyst type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corujo, Andrea; Yerman, Luis; Arizaga, Beatriz; Brusoni, Mariana; Castiglioni, Jorge [Laboratorio de Fisicoquimica de Superficies, DETEMA Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Gral. Flores 2124, CC 1157, 11800-Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2010-12-15

    The catalytic gasification (900 C) of forestry industry residue (Eucalyptus saligna) was laboratory-studied. Biomass feed rate and type and amount of catalyst were assayed for their effect on the gasified product composition and the overall energy yield of the gasification reaction. The use of a calcined dolomite catalyst resulted in a combustible gas mixture of adequate calorific power (10.65 MJ m{sup -3}) for use as fuel, but neither the product gas composition nor the energy yield varied significantly with widely different amounts of the catalyst (2 g and 20 g). The use of NiO-loaded calcined dolomite catalysts did not affect the product gas composition significantly but led to a 30% increase in the total product gas volume and to a reduction in the rate of tar and char formation. The catalyst loaded with the smallest amount of NiO studied (0.4 wt%. Ni/Dol) led to the highest energy yield (21.50 MJ kg{sup -1} on a dry-wood basis) based on the use of the gasified product as fuel. The gasified product was found to have an adequate H{sub 2}/CO molar ratio and H{sub 2} content for use as synthesis gas source and partial source of H{sub 2}. (author)

  2. Uso de antraquinona en cocción kraft de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Jorge Felipe Quintana

    2011-01-01

    En la presente disertación se verificó de manera experimental el efecto de la adición de Antraquinona al proceso de cocción batch convencional para una mezcla industrial de Eucalyptus globulus E. nitens.; en lo que respecta a su capacidad de aumentar la velocidad de la reacción de deslignificación y proporcionar estabilidad a las hemicelulosas y celulosas de la fibra. Lo anterior se logró con experiencias de laboratorio fijando las condiciones de cocción de acuerdo a la operación de los dig...

  3. Environmental Impacts of Diverting Crop Residues to Fuel Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    1997-01-01

    Shortage of fuel wood has lead many rural people to switch to using agricultural residues as an alternative energy source. However this has not always been met with universal acclaim due to the role of residues as fertilisers. Although crop residues and animal manure as a nutrient source has been

  4. Evaluation of the potential energy briquettes made with corn stubble (Zea mays) and soybean residue (Glycine max (L.)) combined with waste wood; Avaliacao do potencial energetico de briquetes confeccionados com residuo de milho (Zea mays) e residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Oyama, Paulo; Possan, Edna; Bittencourt, Paulo R.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br, oyama_pt@hotmail.com, epossan@gmail.com, paulob@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The agriculture industry produces a large amount of biomass whose use constitutes an economically viable alternative energy through the compression of the lignocellulosic portion, replacing the wood with an equivalent product. This is possible through the briquette, which is a very efficient way to concentrate the available energy in biomass. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of burning briquettes. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electro mechanics and burning at the Laboratory of Environmental UTFPR Campus Medianeira / PR. For the analysis, the energy balance of the combinations we used a bomb calorimeter IKA C5000, Laboratory of Biomass Energy (LEB), Federal University of Parana - UFPR. From the results we can conclude that in all aspects of the briquettes made from soybean residues are more efficient and still points to the need for studies to the development of more efficient equipment for these specific applications. (author)

  5. Emission of volatile organic compounds from Portuguese eucalyptus forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, T.V.; Pio, C.A. [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento

    2001-07-01

    Emission to the atmosphere of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by Eucalyptus globulus was studied in the laboratory with young specimen, and in the field with adult trees. Eucalyptus emits both monoterpenes and isoprene. The leaves of young trees emit at higher rates than the leaves of adult trees. The emission of isoprene is highly predominant during the day. The emission of isoprene is dependent on temperature and solar radiation. The emission rate follows the Guenther algorithm if a based emission factor of 32 {mu}gg{sub dw} {sup -1}h{sup -1} is used, increasing with temperature, to a maximum at 40{sup o}C. At higher temperatures there is a decrease in the emission rate. The main C{sub 10} emitted is 1,8-cineol. Cineol emissions increase exponentially with temperature, and are also seasonally dependent. Application of the emission algorithm to the Portuguese eucalyptus forests shows that during summer isoprene and monoterpene emissions by eucalyptus are of the same order of anthropogenic VOC production. Furthermore, in certain regions, in the center-north of Portugal, where eucalyptus forests are predominant, isoprene emissions can reach an order of magnitude higher than anthropogenic production of VOCs during daytime periods in July and August. (Author)

  6. Preliminary studies on chemical weed control in eucalyptus (hybrid) nursery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.; Desappa; Singh, C.D.

    1985-12-01

    Weeds adversely affect the germination and growth of seedlings in the Eucalyptus hybrid nursery beds. Manual weeding which is generally followed is time consuming, difficult and less effective. In order to overcome this problem a study was undertaken for effective control of weeds in Eucalyptus hybrid nursery by means of preemergence weedicides viz. Baseline (profluralin), Pendimethaline (Stemp 30 EC), Ronster (Oxadiazen) and Simazine. They were applied to nursery beds as pre-emergence spray, at 1.5, 1.5, 0.5 and 1 kg/ha respectively. Basalin was most effective in controlling both dicot and monocot weeks followed by pendimethaline and Ronster. Simazine was lethal to both Eucalyptus and weed seed germination. Seedling of Eucalyptus in Basalin treated plots were more in number (153/sq ft.), taller (24 cm) and healthier compared to other weedicide treatments. Maximum number of dicot and monocot weeds were found in control plot, consequently, seedling growth was very much suppressed. The studies indicated that preemergence chemical weedicides could be effectively used to control nursery weeds and that Basalin weedicide is more effective in controlling both dicot and monocot weeds and appear to be a suitable chemical weedicide for Eucalyptus hybrid nurseries. 8 references, 3 tables.

  7. Análise dos resíduos madeireiros gerados nas marcenarias do município de Viçosa - Minas Gerais An analysis of the wood residues generated by carpentry shops in Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaíra Morais dos Santos Hurtado de Mendoza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os resíduos gerados nas marcenarias do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e propor ações potencializadoras para o seu melhor aproveitamento. Foram coletados dados sobre os resíduos de madeira gerados em 17 marcenarias da cidade, por intermédio da aplicação de questionários. Os resultados mostraram que a serragem, os sarrafos, as maravalhas e os cavacos foram os principais tipos de resíduos produzidos, sendo a serragem o resíduo mais abundante. As máquinas que mais geraram resíduos foram a desengrossadeira e a desempenadeira. A maioria das marcenarias doava ou vendia os resíduos produzidos. Constatou-se que não havia preocupação por parte dos proprietários das marcenarias quanto à agregação de valor ao resíduo gerado e quais os danos ambientais que estes poderiam ocasionar. A partir dos resultados, propuseram-se as seguintes medidas de melhor aproveitamento dos resíduos gerados: geração de energia através da queima direta de resíduos oriundos da madeira sólida, fabricação de briquetes, fertilizantes e de "pequenos objetos de madeira" (POM.The objectives of this work were to analyze the residues produced by carpentry shops in Viçosa and to propose actions that would lead to their better use. For this, data were gathered from questionnaires sent to 17 shops in town. The results showed that sawdust, wood strips, planner shavings and chips are the more common type of residues, sawdust being the most abundant. The machines that produced most of the waste were the planners and the jointers. Most of the shops either donate or sell their waste. It was found that the owners showed no regard to increasing the value of the residue or to environmental damage they may cause. Based on the information collected, the following measures are indicated for waste utilization: generation of energy through direct burning of solid wood residues, production of briquet and fertilizers and production

  8. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exig

  9. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  10. Combining hot-compressed water and ball milling pretreatments to improve the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaki Tsuyoshi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lignocellulosic biomass such as wood is an attractive material for fuel ethanol production. Pretreatment technologies that increase the digestibility of cellulose and hemicellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass have a major influence on the cost of the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation processes. Pretreatments without chemicals such as acids, bases or organic solvents are less effective for an enzymatic hydrolysis process than those with chemicals, but they have a less negative effect on the environment. Results The enzymatic digestibility of eucalyptus was examined following a combined pretreatment without chemicals comprising a ball milling (BM and hot-compressed water (HCW treatment. The BM treatment simultaneously improved the digestibility of both glucan and xylan, and was effective in lowering the enzyme loading compared with the HCW treatment. The combination of HCW and BM treatment reduced the BM time. The eucalyptus treated with HCW (160°C, 30 minutes followed by BM (20 minutes had an approximately 70% yield of total sugar with a cellulase loading of 4 FPU/g substrate. This yield was comparable to the yields from samples treated with HCW (200°C, 30 minutes or BM (40 minutes hydrolyzed with 40 FPU/g substrate. Conclusion The HCW treatment is useful in improving the milling efficiency. The combined HCW-BM treatment can save energy and enzyme loading.

  11. INDIRECT ORGANOGENESIS FROM LEAF EXPLANTS AND IN VITRO SHOOTS MULTIPLICATION OF Eucalyptus benthamii X Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana de Oliveira-Cauduro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814572The aims of this research were to evaluate different culture media for indirect organogenesis and shoot multiplication of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. For organogenesis, leaf explants were used to test the following treatments: two culture media (MS N/2 and JADS supplemented with 0.1 μM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and thidiazuron (TDZ (0.1 or 0.5 μM, with or without PVP- 40 (250 mg L-1. The percentage of oxidized explants, callus forming explants, explants with anthocyanin, buds, shoots and the shoot number per explant were evaluated. In the multiplication experiment, isolated shoots were cultivated in MS, JADS and WPM media, all supplemented with 1.11 μM BAP. Four subcultures were carried out every 28 days. In every subculture the explant oxidation, partial or total leaf chlorosis, fresh mass and mean number of shoot per explant were evaluated. The MS N/2 medium supplemented with 0.1 μM NAA and 0.5 μM TDZ promoted the highest rate of organogenesis (8.3% and the culture media MS supplemented with 1.11 μM BAP the multiplication rate was higher than in the other media, in the first and the second subcultures (9.28 and 9.24, respectively, without differences between the three media in the following subcultures. 

  12. Investigation of bio-composites using Novolac type liquefied wood resin: effects of liquefaction and fabrication conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Wood liquefaction using an organic solvent and an acid catalyst has long been studied as a novel technique to utilize biomass as an alternative to petroleum-based products. Oxalic acid is a weaker organic acid than a mineral acid and wood liquefaction with oxalic acid as a catalyst will result in a higher amount of wood residue than that with a mineral acid....

  13. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  14. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  15. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Tony

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

  16. Secagem de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel C. E. Rozas M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos torretes e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tensões de secagem, todas realizadas a 100ºC. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos. Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribuídos à aplicação de um programa de secagem gradual, às diferentes vaporizações a que a madeira foi submetida, como também ao fato de ter-se aplicado a técnica de anelamento e vaporização.

  17. Polyamines as salinity biochemical marker in callus of eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Lima Pace Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers have been used for the analysis of plant cells submitted to several types of stress, among them salinity. This work aimed at analyzing the effect of saline stress in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis on polyamine contents. Explants (hypocotyls obtained from seeds were inoculated in callus inductive medium, submitted to different levels of NaCl and analyzed at 10, 20 and 30 days after the inoculation. The free polyamines were extracted, isolated and quantified using TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography. Putrescine content was higher and a fall in the spermidine content was observed in callus submitted to salinity condition. The results showed that polyamine accumulation is related to NaCl exposure in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis. The decrease in spermine content could be used as a biochemical marker for Eucalyptus callus subjected to salinity.

  18. EFFECT OF THINNING AND FERTILIZATION ON Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden PITH DISPLACEMENT AND LOG END SPLITTlNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of thinning and fertilization on some log properties which influence sawn wood yield in a 21 year-old grown Eucalyptus grandis stand. Three selective thinning intensities (37, 50 and 75%, presence or absence of fertilizers on the beginning of the thinning, two diameter classes and two logs taken from two different vertical positions were taken as the study factors. The influence of the factors and their combination on tree growth stresses were indirectly evaluate through log end splitting and pith displacement in relation to its normal central position. Thinning, fertilization, diameter class and log position on the tree height did not have significant effect on pith displacement. The logs from fertilized plots presented higher log end splitting index than others.

  19. Opportunities in utilization of agricultural residues in bio-composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, corn stalk as an agricultural residue was mixed with oak wood fiber to produce medium density fiberboards (MDF). Urea formaldehyde resin was used as binder. Hygroscopic and mechanical properties were evaluated according to the commercial standards in MDF production. Partial substitution of wood fiber ...

  20. Influence of temperature, mixing and time of residue on the degradation of organic trace materials during thermal treatment of waste wood; Einfluss von Temperatur, Durchmischung und Verweilzeit auf den Abbau organischer Spurenstoffe bei der thermischen Behandlung von Abfallholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, M. [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Griebel, H. [Fels-Werke GmbH, Goslar (Germany); Scholz, R. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    1998-09-01

    Waste wood, e.g. window frames or sleepers treated with coal tar pitch, are usually incinerated after crushing and removal of foreign materials (glass, metal etc.). Organic trace elements, e.g. PAH, PCB, chlorobenzenes, PCDD and PCDF must be removed after combustion. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Abfallhoelzer, wie z.B. Fensterrahmen oder mit Steinkohlenteerpech behandelte Eisenbahnschwellen, werden nach Zerkleinerung und Abtrennung von Wert- und Stoerstoffen (Glas, Metalle usw.) haeufig in Rostsystemen thermisch behandelt. Bei der Diskussion der Prozessbedingungen liegt ein besonderer Schwerpunkt in der Fragestellung nach geeigneten Abbaubedingungen fuer organische Spurenstoffe wie polyaromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK), polychlorierte Biphenyle (PCB), Chlorbenzole, polychlorierte Dibenzodioxine (PCDD) und polychlorierte Dibenzofurane (PCDF) im Nachverbrennungsprozess. (orig./SR)

  1. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  2. Structure and function of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Regis B. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many human uses to which various woods are suited, at a fundamental level wood is a complex biological structure, itself a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of the plant. Although humans have striven to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood...

  3. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116) in land subject to the sandy process in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Eduardo Lorensi; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Machado, Rafael Goulart; Eckhardt, Daniel Pazzini; Dahmer, Sabrina de Fátima Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, inoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116), produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the São Francisco de Assis city, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production then non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter.

  4. Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden inoculated with Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116 in land subject to the sandy process in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lorensi de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalypts is one of the main species used for commercial reforestation in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and early growth of eucalyptus trees in an area subject to sandy process after three years of growth. The Eucalyptus grandis seedlings were grown in a greenhouse, innoculated or not with the isolated ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus microcarpus (UFSC-Pt116, produced in peat or Entisol. After 120 days, the seedlings were transplanted to an area subject to the sandy process, in the city of São Francisco de Assis, RS. The plants have been evaluated regarding survival, height, stem diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium levels and total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus, organic phosphorus and wood production on different days after planting. The seedlings grown on the Entisol which was inoculated with the isolated UFSC-Pt116 presented higher survival rates, height, stem diameter, nitrogen concentration and wood production compared to the non-inoculated seedlings. Inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi enhanced the production of E. grandis seedlings in survival rates, height, stem diameter.

  5. Improved prediction of hardwood tree biomass derived from wood density estimates and form factors for whole trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. MacFarlane; Neil R. Ver Planck

    2012-01-01

    Data from hardwood trees in Michigan were analyzed to investigate how differences in whole-tree form and wood density between trees of different stem diameter relate to residual error in standard-type biomass equations. The results suggested that whole-tree wood density, measured at breast height, explained a significant proportion of residual error in standard-type...

  6. Wood liquefaction with phenol by microwave heating and FTIR evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiyun Li; Chungyun Hse; Tefu Qin

    2015-01-01

    We examined wood liquefaction using phenol and mixed acid catalysts with microwave heating, and compared that with similar processes that use oil bath heating. The reaction time for microwave heating to achieve a residue content was one sixth, one eighteenth, and one twenty-fourth of that from oil bath heating, respectively, for phenol to wood (P/W) ratios of 2.5/1, 2/...

  7. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  8. Monitoramento do teor de umidade de madeiras de Pinus elliottii Engelm. E Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, sob diferentes temperaturas de secagem, através do ultra-som

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of evaluating the viability of use of ultrasonic technique to estimate the wood moisture content during the drying process, samples of Pinus elliottii Engelm. and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden with dimensions of 3.5 cm thick, 10 cm width and 25 cm long were submitted to drying temperatures of 20, 40 and 70ºC. A PUNDIT ultrasonic equipment with plane face transducers by 50 KHz was used to measure sound velocity in the longitudinal direction of the wood. Results indicated increase of estimated ultrasonic speed with reduction of moisture content. This relationship showed to be valid for the wood from green to the end of the drying process, and the best determination coefficients were found in the eucalypt wood (R² = 81%. Although no influence of the species in the ultrasonic speed has been observed, this one was influenced by the wood specific gravity and by the drying temperature. The effect of the specific mass was directly proportional for the pinus wood. Opposite effect was observed in eucalypt wood. The ultrasonic speed tended to decrease as drying temperature increased for both species. Results suggest that this method presents good potential for the control of the drying process.

  9. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  10. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora; Compostos polifenolicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6{sup -}trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  11. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeancarlos Moreno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, the extraction with the lowest production costs (0.57 Nuevos Soles by mL of essential oil is reached when the leaves have moisture between 25 and 30% and are extracted with times between 98 and 126 min

  12. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF PANELS MANUFACTURED WITH BAMBOO (Bambusa vulgaris Schr.-WOOD COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of derived products from bamboo for some countries and the wood shortage in some areas of Brazil, this work analyzed the quality of boards composed by particles of Eucalyptus sp. and bamboo strips (Bambusa vulgaris Schr.. The panels were produced with a density of 0.60 g/cm³ and 10% of urea-formaldehyde adhesive. The influence of the epidermis on the properties of the panels was also evaluated. The panels were constituted by five layers: core (Eucalyptus sp. or bamboo particles, layers of reinforcement (bamboo strips and finish faces (particles of same nature as the core. The press time was 8 minutes, at 120ºC. None of the treatments satisfied the quality patterns established by A208.1 (ANSI, 1987 and DIN 68761 (1-1961, (3-1971 (GERMAN STANDARDS COMMITTEE, 1971 codes. However, particleboards produced exclusively by bamboo or combined with wood presented a similar behavior to those produced exclusively of wood, showing to be a viable alternative. The modulus of rupture (MOR and elasticity (MOE were approximately the same in all treatments due to the irregular distribution of the layers in the mattress. The absence of epidermis tended to reduce the thickness swelling (2 and 24 hours and internal bond strength, however, without significant statistical difference. Therefore, other parameters of production of boards using bamboo, such as density and adhesive content, should be investigated in order to check whether the removal of epidermis is a really advantageous procedure.

  13. [Biomass- and energy allocation in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at different stand ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun-Ying; Chen, Shao-Xiong; Han, Fei-Yang; Chen, Wen-Ping; Wu, Zhi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was made on the biomass- and energy allocation in 1-4-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at Beipo Forest Farm of Suixi County in Guangdong Province. Stand age had significant effects on the retained biomass of the plantations (P biomass was in the range of 10.61-147.28 t x hm(-2). Both the total biomass and the biomass of above- and belowground components increased with increasing stand age. The proportions of leaf-, branch- and bark biomass to total biomass decreased with year, while that of stem biomass was in reverse. The biomass allocation of the components in 1- and 2-year-old plantations decreased in order of stem > branch > bark > root > leaf, and that in 3- and 4 -year-old plantations was in order of stem > root > branch > bark > leaf. The mean ash content (AC) of the five components at different stand ages ranged from 0.47% to 5.91%, being the highest in bark and the lowest in stem. The mean gross caloric value (GCV) and ash free caloric value (AFCV) of different components ranged from 17.33 to 20. 60 kJ x g(-1) and from 18.42 to 21.59 kJ x g(-1) respectively. Of all the components, leaf had the highest GVC and AFCV, while bark had the lowest ones. Stand age had significant effects on the GVC of branch, stem, and bark, and on the AFCV of leaf, stem, and bark (P 0.05). The retained energy of 1-4-year-old plantations ranged from 199.98 to 2837.20 GJ x hm(-2), with significant differences among the stand ages (P energy of various components and plantations increased with stand age, and the energy allocation of various components had the same trend as biomass allocation.

  14. Clonal propagation on Eucalyptus by cuttings in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Chaperon

    1983-01-01

    A.FO.CEL has developed a technique for mass propagation by cuttings of Eucalyptus in France. This technique is described from the selection of the ortet to the mass propagation of the clone for afforestation: the first stage is the mobilization of the ortet, the second stage is called pre-propagation which includes rejuvenating and rooting conditioning, the third stage...

  15. A technique to identify annual growth rings in Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many eucalypt species do not show distinct growth rings because cambial activity does not show a strong response to seasonal variation in climate. Eucalyptus grandis, one of the most important commercial hardwood species in South Africa, is one such example of a species that does not have well-defined growth rings.

  16. Statistical sampling and modelling for cork oak and eucalyptus stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of modern statistical methods to solve problems on sampling, optimal cutting time and agricultural modelling in Portuguese cork oak and eucalyptus stands. The results are contained in five chapters that have been submitted for publication

  17. The annual pattern of sap flow in two Eucalyptus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual pattern of sap flow in two Eucalyptus species established in the vicinity of gold-mine tailings dams in central South Africa. ... Despite prolonged water deficits, both species survived well and maintained sufficient vigour to permit the quick recovery of high transpiration rates in the following summer. This resilience ...

  18. Sub-Acute Hepatoxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub–acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), ...

  19. The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extracts of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa were studied for in vitro microbial activities by agar dilution method. ... Accelerated gradient chromatography (AGC) gave fractions of the extract of T. catappa that were more active on Candida albicans and Escherichia coli than the crude ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  1. Performance of Eucalyptus dunnii as influenced by vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997, a trial was initiated to determine the impact of eight vegetation control treatments on the growth of Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden at a warm-temperate site in the ... Tree growth was monitored throughout the rotation and this, together with the cost of the various weeding operations during re-establishment, was used to ...

  2. A tool for identifying potential Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shy seed production in orchards of Eucalyptus nitens is a major barrier to the deployment of genetic gain in South African plantations. A machine learning method was used to identify optimal sites for the establishment of E. nitens seed orchards within the plantation forestry landscape of the summer rainfall region of South ...

  3. Ongoing molecular studies of Eucalyptus powdery mildew in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. R. Fonseca; L. M. S. Guimaraes; R. P. Pires; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; A. C. Alfenas

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew diseases are caused by biotrophic fungi in the Erysiphales. These fungal pathogens are easily observed by the whitish powdery appearance caused by their colonization of the aerial surfaces on living plants (Stadnik & Rivera, 2001) (Figure 1). In Brazil, powdery mildew of Eucalyptus spp is increasing under the current nursery production...

  4. Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilisation is routinely used to improve tree nutrition, providing profitable returns on large investments. Growth responses to fertilisation differ ... We used this approach with 131 blocks of twin-plots to represent an area of 34 540 ha in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Clonal plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla were ...

  5. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eucalyptus is an important short rotation pulpy woody plant, grown widely in the tropics. Recently, many genomic programmes are underway leading to the accumulation of voluminous genomic and expressed sequence tag sequences in public databases. These sequences can be utilized for analysis of simple sequence ...

  6. Nutritional sustainability of Eucalyptus plantations : a case study at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional sustainability of a short-rotation Eucalyptus grandis plantation system was evaluated in a trial located at Karkloof, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, by determining nutrient pools and fluxes. Nutrient pools in the forest floor and biomass (above- and below-ground) were assessed by destructive sampling. The size ...

  7. Diagnosing foliar nutrient dynamics of Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilisation is one of the most cost-effective methods of increasing and maintaining the productivity of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in South Africa. This silvicultural practice can be optimised by using the foliar nutrient ratios measured in plants at maximum growth as a guideline for fertiliser application. The foliar nutrient ...

  8. Coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens : results from a field survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine factors which could have a positive influence on the coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens , a field survey was carried out at Draycott, near Estcourt in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Five measures of the ability to coppice (stump survival, height of coppice, number of dominant shoots, coppicing ...

  9. Responses of Eucalyptus species to fertilizer applications made at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early research trials in South Africa have shown that Eucalyptus species generally respond positively to the addition of nutrients at planting. However, as most of these research trials were located in KwaZulu-Natal, it was important to investigate the nature of the response in other afforested regions of the country where this ...

  10. Using chlorophyll fluorescence to determine stress in Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot trial was conducted to determine the effect of light, water and nutrient stress on the fluorescence emission of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. Flourescence measurements were made on potted plants with a Hansatech Plant Efficiency Analyser, every one to two days from stress initiation until trial termination. The results ...

  11. The potential of young, green finger-jointed Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is a timber-scarce country that will most probably experience a shortage of structural softwood lumber in the near future. In this study the concept of using young, green finger-jointed Eucalyptus grandis lumber was evaluated for possible application in roof truss structures while the timber is still in the green, ...

  12. Assessment of acidity levels in Eucalyptus Camaldulensis barks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bark samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis obtained from Bauchi and Gombe States were analysed spectrophotometrically for their sulphate-sulphur content. The aim was to assess the extent of sulphur pollution in the environment. The results showed that S concentration ranged from 0.79 to 1.70mg/g for samples from ...

  13. Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...

  14. Site and stand analysis for growth prediction of Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently concluded growth studies based on permanent sampling plots established across Eucalyptus grandis plantations yielded useful information for revising the current knowledge on site-growth relationships in the region. The Chapman-Richards model was used to define the height growth curves over a range of sites.

  15. Quality assessment of essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the course of this study, essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and three Boswellia rivae species were analyzed using GC-MS. Comparison of the chemical compositions of 1,8-cineole and α-pinene in the assessment of these oils' quality will help in the production of high value essential oils that will enhance the economic ...

  16. Shoot and root morphogenesis from Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...

  17. Genetic characterisation of a Eucalyptus nitens base breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The measurement and statistical analysis of data from eight Eucalyptus nitens trials, established in the summer rainfall forestry region of South Africa during the 1980s and 1990s, have enabled the characterisation of the Institute for Commercial Forestry Research's breeding population. Provenance testing showed that the ...

  18. Growth models for six Eucalyptus species in Angola | Delgado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study developed growth models for Eucalyptus saligna Sm., E. camaldulensis Dehnh., E. macarthurii H.Deane & Maiden, E. resinifera Sm., E. siderophloia Benth. and E. grandis Hill ex. Maiden, for the central highlands of Angola, and used these models to simulate the development of stand characteristics.

  19. Impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the avian breeding community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nesting bird species in natural forests and Eucalyptus plantations on the Amani Plateau, East Usambara, were studied during the breeding season of September 2003 to March 2004. Some forest birds — like barbets, batis, broadbills, doves, flycatchers, greenbuls, hornbills, and tinkerbirds — utilised similar nest sites ...

  20. Soil carbon estimation from eucalyptus grandis using canopy spectra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping soil fertility parameters, such as soil carbon (C), is fundamentally important for forest management and research related to forest growth and climate change. This study seeks to establish the link between Eucalyptus grandis canopy spectra and soil carbon using raw and continuum-removed spectra. Canopy-level ...

  1. Growth potential of Eucalyptus cypellocarpa as an alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A genotype environment interaction was present between two sites, as indicated by low Type B correlations of 0.47 and 0.53 for basal area and volume, respectively. This indicated that different populations of E. cypellocarpa should be developed for the cold and warm sites. Keywords: Eucalyptus cypellocarpa, genotype ...

  2. Simultaneous growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous stand-level growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis in Zimbabwe were developed from Correlated Curve Trend (CCT) and Nelder wheel experiments replicated on five different sites. Nonlinear three-stage least squares method was used to simultaneously fit prediction and projection equations for ...

  3. Optimization of Steam Distillation of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with optimization of yield of Eucalyptus tereticornis oil in steam distillation using response surface methodology (RSM). The factors considered were mass of solute/solvent ratio (A), extraction time. (B) and steam rate (C). These parameters were varied at two levels. Conditions of optimum oil ...

  4. Strategies for the selection of uncontaminated Eucalyptus explants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential high yields of Eucalyptus shoot multiplication achieved with a temporary immersion culture system such as RITA® are compromised by losses caused by microbial contamination particularly bacteria, characteristic of the explants used to initiate the cultures. Disinfection of the explants through antibiotic ...

  5. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii

    2009-07-01

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous "cloud" of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  6. Water use by short rotation Eucalyptus woodlots in southern Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugunga, C.P.; Kool, D.; Wijk, van M.T.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus is abundant in Rwanda, mainly planted in short rotation woodlots, scattered in small clusters over the hilly landscape. A study was done in Butare and Busoro catchments, southern Rwanda from May to November 2007 to estimated water use of eucalypts in representative catchments in Rwanda,

  7. Influence of irrigation and fertilisation on early growth of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of irrigation and fertilisation on early growth of Eucalyptus grandis. Janine M Campion, Mary C Scholes. Abstract. No Abstract Available Discovery and Innovation Vol.15(3&4) 2003: 213-220. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Growth responses of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to pruning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responses of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to pruning (removal of 0 or 60% of the green crown depth) in two lifts and nitrogen (N) fertiliser application (0 [N0], 100 [N1], 300 [N3] and 500 [N5] kg N ha–1) were compared at a site in south-east Tasmania under conditions where both species can be successfully grown.

  9. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  10. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LVL PANELS MADE FROM Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Alfonso Lara Palma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly aimed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of LVL panels made from Eucalyptus grandis, from reforestation at the region of Sengés, in Paraná state, Brazil. LVL panels were manufactured using 23 veneers (2,4mm thick each one in commercial dimension of 2.500 mm long and 1,200 mm wide. The properties of static bending were analyzed (strength and rigidity in beams of the LVL, in the flatwise and edgewise positions. The properties of compression parallel to grain and shear parallel in the plans L-X and L-Y and density in this LVL panels were also analyzed according to ASTM-D 5456/4761 and ASTM-D 198 codes. The mean values to flatwise bending MOE and MOR were 13114 MPa and 88.76 MPa, respectively, and for edgewise bending MOE and MOR were 15871 MPa and 88.63 MPa, respectively. The density (12% of the LVL panels and of the veneers were 690 kg/m3 and 649 kg/m3. The mean values to parallel compression MOE and MOR were 16856 MPa and 58.05 MPa, respectively. The mean values of the maximum resistance to shear parallel in the plans L-X and L-Y were 5.96 MPa and 591 MPa, respectively. All these values reached partially or they passed the medium limits of reference (normative codes, researches and commercial catalogs established for LVL panels and original solid wood, attesting overall the quality of those panels produced with this wood.

  11. Combination of steam explosion and laccase-mediator treatments prior to Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sampedro, R; Eugenio, M E; Carbajo, J M; Villar, J C

    2011-07-01

    The effect of a pretreatment consisting of steam explosion (SE) followed by a laccase mediator system (LMS) stage on Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulping has been evaluated and compared with fungal pretreatments. Pretreatment with SE and LMS was more efficient than pretreatments using Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes sp. I-62. Steam explosion not only improved the enzyme penetration into the wood chips and shortened the pulping process by 60%, but also extracted around 50% of the hemicelluloses which could be converted into value-added products. The optimal conditions for the LMS treatment were 3h, 3UA/g and 40°C. Compared to SE, the SE/LMS treatment yielded an increase in delignification of 13.9% without affecting pulp properties, provided a similar screened kraft yield, and reduced consumption of chemical reagents Na(2)S and NaOH by 11.5% and 6.3%, respectively. Therefore, SE/LMS is a promising pretreatment for converting the pulp mill into a forest bio-refinery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of flooring produced from small diameters logs of Eucalyptus sp. clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Reinaldo Moreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated two Eucalyptus clones, MN 249 and MN 89, for the flooring production using small diameters logs. It was considered the wood physical properties - NBR 7190/97 (ABNT, 1997 and simulation of the product in service (ASTM D 2394/83 with two thicknesses, 8 and 14 mm. The basic density of the clone 89 NM was the highest one (0,615 g/cm3. The contractions were more pronounced in clone NM 249, however, the anisotropy coefficient of this clone was small. In the simulation tests, the floor produced by clone MN 249 presented the lowest deformation rate. The floor of 8 mm, in addition to the differences between clones, there was significant interaction between the positions for the indentation test caused by loads applied in small areas. The deformations obtained for the floor with 14 mm thickness, produced with the MN clone 89, were higher than those found in the literature for the indentation load applied on a small area test. The clone MN 249 presented the best results in both thicknesses.

  13. Cloning and endogenous expression of a Eucalyptus grandis UDP-glucose dehydrogenase cDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica T. Veneziano Labate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH catalyzes the oxidation of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc to UDP-glucuronate (UDP-GlcA, a key sugar nucleotide involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides. A full-length cDNA fragment coding for UGDH was cloned from the cambial region of 6-month-old E. grandis saplings by RT-PCR. The 1443-bp-ORF encodes a protein of 480 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 53 kDa. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the conversion of UDP-Glc to UDP-GlcA, confirming that the cloned cDNA encodes UGDH. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA showed a high degree of identity with UGDH from several plant species. The Southern blot assay indicated that more than one copy of UGDH is present in Eucalyptus. These results were also confirmed by the proteomic analysis of the cambial region of 3- and 22-year-old E. grandis trees by 2-DE and LC-MS/MS, showing that at least two isoforms are present. The cloned gene is mainly expressed in roots, stem and bark of 6-month-old saplings, with a lower expression in leaves. High expression levels were also observed in the cambial region of 3- and 22-year-old trees. The results described in this paper provide a further view of the hemicellulose biosynthesis during wood formation in E. grandis.

  14. Strong and Optically Transparent Films Prepared Using Cellulosic Solid Residue Recovered from Cellulose Nanocrystals Production Waste Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianqian Wang; J.Y. Zhu; John M. Considine

    2013-01-01

    We used a new cellulosic material, cellulosic solid residue (CSR), to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) for potential high value applications. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were produced from CSR recovered from the hydrolysates (waste stream) of acid hydrolysis of a bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEP) to produce nanocrystals (CNC). Acid hydrolysis greatly facilitated...

  15. Changes in essential oil during enzyme-assisted ensiling of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudai, N; Weinberg, Z G; Larkov, O; Ravid, U; Ashbell, G; Putievsky, E

    2001-05-01

    Changes in essential oil during ensiling of lemongrass and lemon eucalyptus were studied. Wilted lemongrass and eucalyptus leaves were ensiled in 0.25-L anaerobic jars. Samples consisted of a control (no additives) and a treated sample (0.5% glucose and lactic acid bacteria and 1% cellulase plus 1% hemicellulase plus pectinase). Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 6, 10, and 36 for analysis of essential oil. Essential oil was obtained by extraction and by hydrodistillation. Extraction efficacy of essential oil from the lemongrass was improved by the enzyme treatment, but it was much lower than the amount obtained by distillation. The major components of the essential oil were neral and geranial. In the eucalyptus, total essential oils obtained by distillation decreased during ensiling, and the amount was similar to the amount obtained by extraction. Citronellal, which was the major component of the essential oil in the fresh eucalyptus leaves, decreased, whereas isopulegol and 3,8-terpinolhydrate increased during ensiling.

  16. Caracterização dos produtos líquidos e do carvão da pirólise de serragem de eucalipto Characterization of liquid products and char from the pyrolysis of eucalyptus sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton F. Martins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the low temperature pyrolysis as an alternative conversion process for residual biomass and for obtaining gaseous, liquid and solid chemical feedstocks. Using a bench electrical pyrolysis oven, four product fractions from eucalyptus sawdust were obtained: a gaseous one, two liquid (aqueous and oily, and a solid residue (char. These products were characterized by different analytical methods. The liquid fractions showed themselves as potential sources for input chemicals. The residual char revealed appreciable adsorption capability. The process demonstrated good efficiency, generating at least two fractions of great industrial interest: bio oil and char.

  17. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  18. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  19. Dissolution of South African Eucalyptus sawdust wood in [Emim][OAc]/Co-solvent mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tywabi, Zikhona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available that the surface morphology of the regenerated cellulose samples exhibited a structure that was rather loose, disordered and curly: this was probably due to removal of lignin and decrease in cellulose crystallinity....

  20. Biopitch produced from eucalyptus wood pyrolysis liquids as a renewable binder for carbon electrode manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biomass as a clean source of fuel, chemicals and materials is growing fast. What is attractive about biomass is its renewability and that it is CO2 balanced and sulfur-free. Biomass pyrolysis produces charcoal, bio-oil and gases in different proportions, depending on the technology and raw material used. In this study biopitch, a substitute for fossil pitches in electrodes, was produced from bio-oil distillation in bench-scale equipment. Biopitch and charcoal were mixed and thermically modified to give prebaked electrodes. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the biopitch and final electrodes were measured and compared with those of coal tar and petroleum materials. Despite their similar application, biomaterials are structurally and chemically different from minerals. The oxygen content in biopitch is ca 20 wt% and in mineral pitches it is no more than 2 wt%. Characterization experiments for electrode samples measured electrical resistivity, Young's modulus, rupture strength, density, porosity and proximate analysis.