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Sample records for eucalyptus globulus plantation

  1. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  2. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  3. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    Full Text Available Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira. We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  4. Managing for water-use efficient wood production in Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. White; John F. McGrath; Michael G. Ryan; Michael Battaglia; Daniel S. Mendham; Joe Kinal; Geoffrey M. Downes; D. Stuart Crombie; Mark E. Hunt

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that thinning and nitrogen fertiliser can increase the mass of wood produced per volume of water used (evapotranspiration) by plantations of Eucalyptus globulus. We have called this plantation water productivity (PWPWOOD) and argue that, for a given genotype, this term integrates the effects of management, site and climate on both...

  5. Yield models for Eucalyptus globulus fuelwood plantations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukkala, T.; Pohjonen, V. (Joensuu Univ. (FI). Faculty of Forestry)

    1990-01-01

    Based on 53 tree analyses and 105 sample plots of Eucalyptus globulus, models for volume and biomass at single tree and stand levels were developed. The possible growing sites were divided into four site classes. In seedling stands, the site class I corresponds to yield class 44 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, in coppice stands to yield class 46 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. The site class IV corresponds in seedling stand to yield class 9 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, in coppice stands to yield class 13 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. The maximum mean annual increment was reached in seedling stands at the age of 18-19 years, in coppice stands at the age of 14 years. (author).

  6. Organic matter production in an age series of Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Tamil Nadu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, J D.S.; Bora, N K.S.; Tandon, V N; Thapliyal, H D

    1984-08-01

    The distribution of organic matter in an age series of Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Tamil Nadu is discussed. The total biomass ranges from 38 tonnes (5 years) to 220 tonnes (16 years) per ha with 85 to 88 percent being contributed by the aboveground parts and 15 to 12 percent by the roots and the average annual production of non-photosynthetic components is at its peak (19 tonnes/ha) at the age of 7 years. 17 references, 4 tables.

  7. Assessing nitrogen fixation in mixed- and single-species plantations of Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, David I; Schortemeyer, Marcus; Stock, William D; Bauhus, Jürgen; Khanna, Partap K; Cowie, Annette L

    2007-09-01

    Mixtures of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Acacia mearnsii de Wildeman are twice as productive as E. globulus monocultures growing on the same site in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia, possibly because of increased nitrogen (N) availability owing to N(2) fixation by A. mearnsii. To investigate whether N(2) fixation by A. mearnsii could account for the mixed-species growth responses, we assessed N(2) fixation by the accretion method and the (15)N natural abundance method. Nitrogen gained by E. globulus and A. mearnsii mixtures and monocultures was calculated by the accretion method with plant and soil samples collected 10 years after plantation establishment. Nitrogen in biomass and soil confirmed that A. mearnsii influenced N dynamics. Assuming that the differences in soil, forest floor litter and biomass N of plots containing A. mearnsii compared with E. globulus monocultures were due to N(2) fixation, the 10-year annual mean rates of N(2) fixation were 38 and 86 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in 1:1 mixtures and A. mearnsii monocultures, respectively. Nitrogen fixation by A. mearnsii could not be quantified on the basis of the natural abundance of (15)N because such factors as mycorrhization type and fractionation of N isotopes during N cycling within the plant confounded the effect of the N source on the N isotopic signature of plants. This study shows that A. mearnsii fixed significant quantities of N(2) when mixed with E. globulus. A decline in delta(15)N values of E. globulus and A. mearnsii with time, from 2 to 10 years, is further evidence that N(2) was fixed and cycled through the stands. The increased aboveground biomass production of E. globulus trees in mixtures when compared with monocultures can be attributed to increases in N availability.

  8. Ecophysiological responses of a young blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation to weed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Alieta; Worledge, Dale; Sands, Peter; Ottenschlaeger, Maria L; Paterson, Steve C; Mendham, Daniel; O'Grady, Anthony P

    2012-08-01

    Early weed control may improve the growth of forest plantations by influencing soil water and nutrient availability. To understand eucalypt growth responses to weed control, we examined the temporal responses of leaf gas-exchange, leaf nitrogen concentration (N) and water status of 7-month-old Eucalyptus globulus L. trees in a paired-plot field trial. In addition, we monitored the growth, leaf N and water status of the competing vegetation in the weed treatment. By the end of the 11-month experiment, complete weed control (WF treatment) of largely woody competitors increased the basal diameter of E. globulus by 14%. As indicated by pre-dawn water potentials of > - 0.05 MPa, interspecies competition for water resources was minimal at this site. In contrast, competition for N appeared to be the major factor limiting growth. Estimations of total plot leaf N (g m(-2) ground) showed that competing vegetation accounted for up to 70% of the total leaf N at the start of the trial. This value fell to 15% by the end of the trial. Despite increased leaf N(area) in WF trees 5 months after imposition of weed control, the photosynthetic capacity (A(1500)) of E. globulus was unaffected by treatment suggesting that the growth gains from weed control were largely unrelated to changes in leaf-level photosynthesis. Increased nutrient availability brought about by weed control enabled trees to increase investment into leaf-area production. Estimates of whole-tree carbon budget based on direct measurements of dark respiration and A(1500) allowed us to clearly demonstrate the importance of leaf area driving greater productivity following early weed control in a nutrient-limited site.

  9. Resource Communication. Temporal optimization of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Botequim, B.; Oliveira, T.M.; Ager, A.; Pirotti, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to support fire and forest management planning in eucalypt plantations based on economic, ecological and fire prevention criteria, with a focus on strategic prioritisation of fuel treatments over time. The central objective was to strategically locate fuel treatments to minimise losses from wildfire while meeting budget constraints and demands for wood supply for the pulp industry and conserving carbon. Area of study: The study area was located in Serra do Socorro (Torres Vedras, Portugal, covering ~1449 ha) of predominantly Eucalyptus globulus Labill forests managedcultivated for pulpwood by The Navigator Company. Material and methods: At each of four temporal stages (2015-2018-2021-2024) we simulated: (1) surface and canopy fuels, timber volume (m3 ha-1) and carbon storage (Mg ha-1); (2) fire behaviour characteristics, i.e. rate of spread (m min-1), and flame length (m), with FlamMap fire modelling software; (3) optimal treatment locations as determined by the Landscape Treatment Designer (LTD). Main results: The higher pressure of fire behaviour in the earlier stages of the study period triggered most of the spatial fuel treatments within eucalypt plantations in a juvenile stage. At later stages fuel treatments also included shrublands areas. The results were consistent with observations and simulation results that show high fire hazard in juvenile eucalypt stands. Research highlights: Forest management planning in commercial eucalypt plantations can potentially accomplish multiple objectives such as augmenting profits and sustaining ecological assets while reducing wildfire risk at landscape scale. However, limitations of simulation models including FlamMap and LTD are important to recognise in studies of long term wildfire management strategies. (Author)

  10. Temporal optimisation of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Martin; Brigite Botequim; Tiago M. Oliveira; Alan Ager; Francesco Pirotti

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to support fire and forest management planning in eucalypt plantations based on economic, ecological and fire prevention criteria, with a focus on strategic prioritisation of fuel treatments over time. The central objective was to strategically locate fuel treatments to minimise losses from wildfire while meeting budget constraints and demands...

  11. Resource Communication. Temporal optimization of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Martin

    2016-07-01

    Material and methods: At each of four temporal stages (2015-2018-2021-2024 we simulated: (1 surface and canopy fuels, timber volume (m3 ha-1 and carbon storage (Mg ha-1; (2 fire behaviour characteristics, i.e. rate of spread (m min-1, and flame length (m, with FlamMap fire modelling software; (3 optimal treatment locations as determined by the Landscape Treatment Designer (LTD. Main results: The higher pressure of fire behaviour in the earlier stages of the study period triggered most of the spatial fuel treatments within eucalypt plantations in a juvenile stage. At later stages fuel treatments also included shrublands areas. The results were consistent with observations and simulation results that show high fire hazard in juvenile eucalypt stands. Research highlights: Forest management planning in commercial eucalypt plantations can potentially accomplish multiple objectives such as augmenting profits and sustaining ecological assets while reducing wildfire risk at landscape scale. However, limitations of simulation models including FlamMap and LTD are important to recognise in studies of long term wildfire management strategies. Keywords: Eucalypt plantations; Fire hazard; FlamMap; fuel treatment optimisation; Landscape Treatment Designer; wildfire risk management.

  12. Fungi associated to bark lesions of Eucalyptus globulus stems in plantations from Uruguay Fungos asociados as lesões da casca do caule de Eucalyptus globulus em plantações no uruguai

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    Raquel Alonso

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Trees with stem bark lesions are frequently observed in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations, particularly in the central west region of Uruguay. These lesions constitute a problem for trunk decortications at harvest and they also facilitate the access of fungi that could cause wood decay. Seven, three and oneyear-old plantations, located at three sites in close proximity were selected. Four types of trunk lesions were present in trees regardless the age of plantation and more than one type was found in each plantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the fungal composition associated with these lesions and compare them to healthy tissues and try to find out the origin of these symptoms. Another purpose was to elucidate the real role of the fungi considered pathogens by means of experimental inoculations. Segments from lesions and healthy tissues yielded 897 fungal isolates belonging to 32 taxa, 681 isolates from bark lesions and 216 from healthy tissues. Both healthy and symptomatic tissues showed similar fungal species composition, but with differences in frequencies of colonization. Cytospora eucalypticola Van der Westhuizen, Botryosphaeria spp., Pestalotiopsis guepinii (Desm. Stey. and Penicillium spp. were the dominant species isolated. As symptoms were not reproduced after experimental inoculation with Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. & Duggar and B. eucalyptorum Crous, & M.J. Wingf, it could be suggested that these lesions were originated by unfavorable environmental conditions. The frost that occurred for several days out of season and flooding may have been involved in the development of bark lesion.As lesões na casca de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. são frequentemente observadas nas plantações da Região Centro-Oeste do Uruguai. Constituem problema para o descortiçamento na colheita e, além disso, facilita a penetraçao de fungos apodrecedores da madeira. Selecionaram-se plantações com 1, 3 e 7 anos de idade, em tr

  13. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W c ; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W a ) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha -1 at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha -1 at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed

  14. Above-ground biomass production and allometric relations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. coppice plantations along a chronosequence in the central highlands of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewdie, Mulugeta; Olsson, Mats; Verwijst, Theo [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Production Ecology, P.O. Box 7043, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-03-15

    Eucalyptus plantations are extensively managed for wood production in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass (dry matter) production, partitioning and dynamics over time. Data from 10 different Eucalyptus globulus stands, with a plantation age ranging from 11 to 60 years and with a coppice-shoot age ranging from 1 to 9 years were collected and analyzed. Above-ground tree biomass of 7-10 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weights of tree components (W{sub c}; leaves, twigs, branches, stembark, and stemwood) and total above-ground biomass (W{sub a}) were estimated as a function of diameter above stump (D), tree height (H) and a combination of these. The best fits were obtained, using combinations of D and H. When only one explanatory variable was used, D performed better than H. Total above-ground biomass was linearly related to coppice-shoot age. In contrast a negative relation was observed between the above-ground biomass production and total plantation age (number of cutting cycles). Total above-ground biomass increased from 11 t ha{sup -1} at a stand age of 1 year to 153 t ha{sup -1} at 9 years. The highest dry weight was allocated to stemwood and decreased in the following order: stemwood > leaves > stembark > twigs > branches. The equations developed in this study to estimate biomass components can be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations under the assumption that the populations being studied are similar with regard to density and tree size to those for which the relationships were developed. (author)

  15. EucaTool®, a cloud computing application for estimating the growth and production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain

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    Alberto Rojo-Alboreca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present the software utilities and explain how to use EucaTool®, a free cloud computing application developed to estimate the growth and production of seedling and clonal blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain.Area of study: Galicia (NW Spain.Material and methods: EucaTool® implements a dynamic growth and production model that is valid for clonal and non-clonal blue gum plantations in the region. The model integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves, number of stems per hectare (mortality function and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass and carbon content.Main results: EucaTool® can be freely accessed from any device with an Internet connection, from http://app.eucatool.com. In addition, useful information about the application is published on a related website: http://www.eucatool.com.Research highlights: The application has been designed to enable forest stakeholders to estimate volume, biomass and carbon content of forest plantations from individual trees, diameter classes or stand data, as well as to estimate growth and future production (indicating the optimal rotation age for maximum income by measurement of only four stand variables: age, number of trees per hectare, dominant height and basal area.Keywords: forest management; biomass; seedling; clones; blue gum; forest tool.

  16. Modelling stand biomass fractions in Galician Eucalyptus globulus plantations by use of different LiDAR pulse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Ferreiro, E.; Miranda, D.; Barreiro-Fernandez, L.; Bujan, S.; Garcia-Gutierrez, J.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.

    2013-07-01

    Aims of study: To evaluate the potential use of canopy height and intensity distributions, determined by airborne LiDAR, for the estimation of crown, stem and aboveground biomass fractions. To assess the effects of a reduction in LiDAR pulse densities on model precision. Area of study: The study area is located in Galicia, NW Spain. The forests are representative of Eucalyptus globulus stands in NW Spain, characterized by low-intensity silvicultural treatments and by the presence of tall shrub. Material and methods: Linear, multiplicative power and exponential models were used to establish empirical relationships between field measurements and LiDAR metrics. A random selection of LiDAR returns and a comparison of the prediction errors by LiDAR pulse density factor were performed to study a possible loss of fit in these models. Main results: Models showed similar goodness-of-fit statistics to those reported in the international literature. R2 ranged from 0.52 to 0.75 for stand crown biomass, from 0.64 to 0.87 for stand stem biomass, and from 0.63 to 0.86 for stand aboveground biomass. The RMSE/MEAN 100 of the set of fitted models ranged from 17.4% to 28.4%. Models precision was essentially maintained when 87.5% of the original point cloud was reduced, i.e. a reduction from 4 pulses m{sup 2} to 0.5 pulses m{sup 2}. Research highlights: Considering the results of this study, the low-density LiDAR data that are released by the Spanish National Geographic Institute will be an excellent source of information for reducing the cost of forest inventories. (Author)

  17. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D.

    2006-01-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43 o 28'N, and longitude 3 o 48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  19. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M. C.; Machado, H. N.; Neves, L.; Araujo, C.; Phillips, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus represent the main source of wood for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal and are affected by the complex of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species (Mycosphaerella leaf disease), which is an important foliage disease worldwide. This disease affect mainly young trees with juvenile-phase foliage, causing premature defoliation, decreased growth and wood production. Species of Mycosphaerella sensu lato reported on eucalypts in Portugal are M. communis, M. heimii, M. lateralis, M. madeirae, M. marksii M. walkeri, T. africana, T. molleriana, T. nubilosa and T. parva. In order to complete the survey, symptomatic leaves were collected from Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Morphological and molecular characterization was used to give an indication of the species occurrence and most frequent species (T. nubilosa) and the composition of the MLD complex that did not change after the latest review. (Author) 28 refs.

  20. Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue Gum, Blue Mallee, Blue Mallee Oil, Eucalipto, Eucalypti Folium, Eucalyptol, Eucalyptol Oil, Eucalyptus blatter, Eucalyptus bicostata, Eucalyptus Essential Oil, Eucalyptus Oil, Eucalyptus fructicetorum, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus Leaf, Eucalyptus odorata, Eucalyptus ...

  1. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  2. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  3. Physiological and biochemical responses to severe drought stress of nine Eucalyptus globulus clones: a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granda, Víctor; Delatorre, Carolina; Cuesta, Candela; Centeno, María L; Fernández, Belén; Rodríguez, Ana; Feito, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    Seasonal drought, typical of temperate and Mediterranean environments, creates problems in establishing plantations and affects development and yield, and it has been widely studied in numerous species. Forestry fast-growing species such as Eucalyptus spp. are an important resource in such environments, selected clones being generally used for production purposes in plantations in these areas. However, use of mono-specific plantations increases risk of plant loss due to abiotic stresses, making it essential to understand differences in an individual clone's physiological responses to drought stress. In order to study clonal differences in drought responses, nine Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) clones (C14, C46, C97, C120, C222, C371, C405, C491 and C601) were gradually subjected to severe drought stress (<14% of field capacity). A total of 31 parameters, physiological (e.g., photosynthesis, gas exchange), biochemical (e.g., chlorophyll content) and hormonal (abscisic acid [ABA] content), were analysed by classic and multivariate techniques. Relationships between parameters were established, allowing related measurements to be grouped into functional units (pigment, growth, water and ABA). Differences in these units showed that there were two distinct groups of E. globulus clones on the basis of their different strategies when faced with drought stress. The C14 group (C14, C120, C405, C491 and C601) clones behave as water savers, maintaining high water content and showing high stomatal adjustment, and reducing their aerial growth to a great extent. The C46 group (C46, C97, C222 and C371) clones behave as water spenders, reducing their water content drastically and presenting osmotic adjustment. The latter maintains the highest growth rate under the conditions tested. The method presented here can be used to identify appropriate E. globulus clones for drought environments, facilitating the selection of material for production and repopulation environments. © The

  4. Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available he sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposition in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K, half life (t0,5 and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 . The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%. The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

  5. Soil and dasometric characterization of a Eucalyptus globulus Labill plantation and management proposal in the lower montane thorny steppe zone, Riobamba, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guallpa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the growth and yield of the Tasmanian blue gum plantation in Tunshi-ESPOCH homestead in varying physiographic conditions, soil properties and management; for this reason it was decided to assess its forest mass. Circular plots were installed with 12.62 m radius at an intensity of 5-6% ha-1. Through systematic unaligned sampling for lifting dasometric information and digging three pits stand-1, using stratified sampling for variables of the place. The application of statistical estimators, determined at an altitude of 2755 amsl, a total average tree volume estimated-1 of 2.32 m3 compared with 0.25 m3 at an altitude of 2929 amsl. Two areas of conservation and other forest use were defined. There are significant associations between total unit volume of T. blue against altitude, organic matter content, cationic exchange capacity at surface level and level of boron underlying level, generating a management strategy for each defined area.

  6. Are post-dispersed seeds of Eucalyptus globulus predated in the introduced range? Evidence from an experiment in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Deus

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. have been expanding rapidly worldwide. The species is considered invasive in several regions. While in the native range, post-dispersal seed predation is known to severely limit eucalypt recruitment, there is no experimental evidence of seed predation in the introduced range. We hypothesised that E. globulus seeds largely escape predation in Portugal, which may explain its prolific recruitment in some locations. We tested this hypothesis in central Portugal by exposing E. globulus seeds to the local fauna. For comparison purposes, we also used seeds from locally common species: Acacia dealbata Link (alien, larger, elaiosome-bearing seeds and Cistus salviifolius L. (native, similarly sized seeds. We installed 30 feeding stations across three study sites, each one dominated by one study species. Each feeding station featured four feeders with different animal-access treatments: invertebrates; vertebrates; full access; no access (control. We placed five seeds of each plant species every day in each feeder and registered the number of seeds missing, eaten and elaiosome detached over 9 summer days. Eucalyptus globulus seeds were highly attractive to fauna in the three sites. Nearly half of E. globulus seeds were predated or removed, thus contradicting our hypothesis. Surprisingly, E. globulus and A. dealbata seeds were used by animals in similar proportions and C. salviifolius seeds were the least preferred. Vertebrates were the predominant seed predators and preferred the alien seeds. Invertebrates used all seed species in similar proportions. We found spatial variation regarding the predominant type of seed predators and the levels of seed predation according to the following patterns: predominance of vertebrates; predominance of invertebrates; negligible seed predator activity. Locations with negligible seed predation were abundant and scattered across the study area. Such spatial variation may

  7. A model for predicting the growth of Eucalyptus globulus seedling stands in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, G.; Morales, M.; Pukkala, T.; Miguel, S. de

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus is one of the most planted species in the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia, where growing conditions are different from most places where eucalyptus have been studied. This prevents a straightforward utilization of models fitted elsewhere. In this study a distance-independent individual-tree growth model for E. globulus plantations in Bolivia was developed based on data from 67 permanent sample plots. The model consists of sub-models for dominant height, tree diameter increment, height-diameter relationship and survival. According to model-based simulations, the mean annual increment with the optimal rotation length is about 13 m3 ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 on medium-quality sites and 18 m{sup 3} ha{sup -}1 yr -1 on the best sites. A suitable rotation length for maximizing wood production is approximately 30 years on medium sites and 20 years on the most productive sites. The developed models provide valuable information for further studies on optimizing the management and evaluating alternative management regimes for the species. (Author) 22 refs.

  8. Methodology for logistic planning of forest roads for harvesting Eucalyptus globulus Labill. using optimization tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal Robert, Orlando; Lopez, Cesar Amilcar

    2011-01-01

    Using an un capacitated and non directed network model, we propose a methodology for the preliminary design of second order forests roads to extract products from Eucalyptus globulus plantations using an aerial cable system to minimize road network construction costs. The model takes into account topographical conditions and road construction costs related to the terrain slope. In order to solve the problem the Dijstrak algorithm was used, in which the minimum cost of the shortest paths that connect all the stockyards are defined. In addition, the Kruskal algorithm was used to obtain the minimum spanning tree. Finally, the network was connected to an open road for the timber to be taken to consumption centers. In order to develop the algorithms mentioned above, an application on Mat lab was designed, which gave an easier handling of the cartography data obtained from these algorithms.

  9. Uso de antraquinona en cocción kraft de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Jorge Felipe Quintana

    2011-01-01

    En la presente disertación se verificó de manera experimental el efecto de la adición de Antraquinona al proceso de cocción batch convencional para una mezcla industrial de Eucalyptus globulus E. nitens.; en lo que respecta a su capacidad de aumentar la velocidad de la reacción de deslignificación y proporcionar estabilidad a las hemicelulosas y celulosas de la fibra. Lo anterior se logró con experiencias de laboratorio fijando las condiciones de cocción de acuerdo a la operación de los dig...

  10. Phytoremediation efficiency OF CD by Eucalyptus globulus transplanted from polluted and unpolluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Wang, Jinji

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of plants to uptake heavy metals from contaminated soils has shown great phytoremediation potential. The development, resistibility and Cd extraction of Eucalyptus globulus individuals from metalliferous and clean sites in different years were analyzed under a specific environment. Eucalyptus globulus planted in Guiyu for phytoremediation or cultivated in an uncontaminated, natural environment for economic purposes were transplanted to Yuecheng town, which, in recent years, has been involved in the e-waste dismantling and recycling business, to compare the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulus trees grown in different environments. Trees cultivated in polluted areas can remove far more Cd and Hg from the contaminated soil than the individuals from clean soils because metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus can produce more biomass and uptake more heavy metals than nonmetalliferous plants per year. As polluted environments negatively affect the growth of plants, we speculated that the phytoremediation efficiency of metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus should decrease over time and that nonmetalliferous trees should adapt to the local environment.

  11. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with leaf diseases on Eucalyptus globulus in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodoro, M.G.; Ferreira, M.A.; Guimarães, L.M.S.; Mafia, R.G.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Alfenas, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf blight and defoliation caused by Teratosphaeria species is one of the most important leaf diseases of Eucalyptus globulus. Due to the importance of this tree species for the production of pulp and paper, and recent reports of severe leaf disease symptoms in Brazil, the present study was

  12. Comparison of Fractionation Techniques of CO2 Extracts from Eucalyptus Globulus - Composition and Insecticidal Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topiař, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Machalová, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 202-210 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fractinacion * eucalyptus globulus * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry , Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2015

  13. Water stress and recovery in the performance of two Eucalyptus globulus clones: physiological and biochemical profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Barbara; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Neves, Lucinda; Brossa, Ricard; Dias, Maria Celeste; Costa, Armando; Castro, Bruno B; Araújo, Clara; Santos, Conceição; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Pinto, Glória

    2014-04-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are among the most productive forest stands in Portugal and Spain, being mostly used for pulp production and, more recently, as an energy crop. However, the region's Mediterranean climate, with characteristic severe summer drought, negatively affects eucalypt growth and increases mortality. Although the physiological response to water shortage is well characterized for this species, evidence about the plants' recovery ability remains scarce. In order to assess the physiological and biochemical response of Eucalyptus globulus during the recovery phase, two genotypes (AL-18 and AL-10) were submitted to a 3-week water stress period at two different intensities (18 and 25% of field capacity), followed by 1 week of rewatering. Recovery was assessed 1 day and 1 week after rehydration. Drought reduced height, biomass, water potential, NPQ and gas exchange in both genotypes. Contrarily, the levels of pigments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F(v) /F(m) and (φPSII)), MDA and ABA increased. During recovery, the physiological and biochemical profile of stressed plants showed a similar trend: they experienced reversion of altered traits (MDA, ABA, E, g(s), pigments), while other parameters did not recover ((φPSII), NPQ). Furthermore, an overcompensation of CO(2) assimilation was achieved 1 week after rehydration, which was accompanied by greater growth and re-establishment of oxidative balance. Both genotypes were tolerant to the tested conditions, although clonal differences were found. AL-10 was more productive and showed a more rapid and dynamic response to rehydration (namely in carotenoid content, (φPSII) and NPQ) compared to clone AL-18. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Rethinking Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Based Land Use Systems in Smallholder Farmers Livelihoods: A Case of Kolobo Watershed, West Shewa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyisa Dadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their restriction, smallholder farmers have been continuing growing Eucalyptus globulus in the cultivated land in the central highland of Ethiopia. Literature has shown controversial issues against E. globulus. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the compatibility of E. globulus in the smallholder farmers’ land use system. Soil samples were collected from five different land uses and analysed for selected physical and chemical properties. The socioeconomic contribution of E. globulus was collected through household surveys from 110 households. Analysis of soil showed that organic carbon (OC, total nitrogen (TN and cation exchange capacity (CEC were significantly higher (P<0.05 under E. globulus compared to the cultivated land. The survey results also showed that the largest proportion (58% of households was interested in growing E. globulus because of its multiple uses. About 83% of households responded that E. globulus help them to attain food security through increasing the purchasing power of smallholder farmers to buy agricultural inputs and food. This study has substantiated the role of E. globulus in the land use system of smallholder farmers. Most of the soil fertility indicators were better under E. globulus. The present finding reveals that E. globulus degrade the soil seemingly difficult to generalise. Growing E. globulus must be promoted under appealing land use to enhance smallholder farmers’ livelihoods. Removing E. globulus from the land use system may jeopardise the food security situation of many households.

  15. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco López; M. Trinidad García; Vicente Mena; J. Mauricio Loaiza; Minerva A. M. Zamudio; Juan C. García

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or be...

  16. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani-Samani Amir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer (Acari: Mesostigmata is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobacterium spp. and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is also known to cause itching dermatosis in humans. In this study acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae were studied. Methods: After extracting the essential oil, different concentrations of the plant extract were prepared. Then, acaricidal effect of different concentrations was tested on poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, by dropping 3-4 drops of essential oil on mites. Repellent activity of essential oil was tested by Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. After the test, total number of killed and repellent mites reported. Results: Concentration of 1:2 or 50% had more acaricidal effect on mites. Also essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had repellent activity against red mites. Conclusion: This study showed that essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus had acaricidal and repellent activities against red mites. Hence it might be used as a herbal acaricide against it to kill and to reduce the chemical resistance in this specie.

  17. Water erosion risk prediction in eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are normally found in vulnerable ecosystems such as steep slope, soil with low natural fertility and lands that were degraded by agriculture. The objective of this study was to obtain Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors and use them to estimate water erosion risk in regions with eucalyptus planted. The USLE factors were obtained in field plots under natural rainfall in the Rio Doce Basin, MG, Brazil, and the model applied to assess erosion risk using USLE in a Geographic Information System. The study area showed rainfall-runoff erosivity values from 10,721 to 10,642 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Some soils (Latosols had very low erodibility values (2.0 x 10-4 and 1.0 x 10-4t h MJ-1 mm-1, the topographic factor ranged from 0.03 to 10.57 and crop and management factor values obtained for native forest, eucalyptus and planted pasture were 0.09, 0.12 and 0.22, respectively. Water erosion risk estimates for current land use indicated that the areas where should receive more attention were mainly areas with greater topographic factors and those with Cambisols. Planning of forestry activities in this region should consider implementation of other conservation practices beyond those already used, reducing areas with a greater risk of soil erosion and increasing areas with very low risk.

  18. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects against UVB-induced photoaging by enhancing collagen synthesis via regulation of TGF-β/Smad signals and attenuation of AP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bom; Hwang, Eunson; Seo, Seul A; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2018-01-01

    UV irradiation triggers the overproduction of matrix metalloproteinases and collagen degradation, which in turn causes increased pigmentation, dryness, and deep wrinkling of the skin. These chronic symptoms are collectively referred to as photoaging. Eucalyptus globulus is an evergreen tree that is widely used in cosmetics because of its antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of 50% ethanol extracts of Eucalyptus globulus on UV-induced photoaging in vitro and in vivo. Normal human dermal fibroblasts were treated with Eucalyptus globulus at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL after UVB or non-UVB irradiation. We found that Eucalyptus globulus suppressed the expression of MMPs and IL-6, but increased the expression of TGF-β1 and procollagen type 1. In addition, Eucalyptus globulus inhibited activation of the AP-1 transcription factor, an inducer of MMPs. Eucalyptus globulus was also found to regulate TGF-β/Smad signaling by reversing the activity of negative Smad regulators. Lastly, in vivo studies showed that topical application of Eucalyptus globulus on UVB-irradiated hairless mice reduced wrinkle formation and dryness by down-regulating MMP-1 and up-regulating expression of elastin, TGF-β1, and procollagen type 1. Taken together, these data suggest that Eucalyptus globulus may be a useful agent in cosmetic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of an acetic acid tolerant Spathaspora passalidarum strain through evolutionary engineering with resistance to inhibitors compounds of autohydrolysate of Eucalyptus globulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales, Paulina; Gentina, Juan Carlos; Aroca, German

    2017-01-01

    -fold higher than those obtained with the native strain, respectively. Inhibitors composition present inEucalyptus globulus autohydrolysate were (g L−1): acetic acid, 4.7; furfural, 1.0; HMF, 0.36; formic acid, 0.6;syringaldehyde, 0.14 and vanillin, 0.017. When Eucalyptus globulus autohydrolysate...

  20. A model system to study the lignification process in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Pedro; Cesarino, Igor; Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Ferrari, Ilse Fernanda; Kiyota, Eduardo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    Recalcitrance of plant biomass is closely related to the presence of the phenolic heteropolymer lignin in secondary cell walls, which has a negative effect on forage digestibility, biomass-to-biofuels conversion and chemical pulping. The genus Eucalyptus is the main source of wood for pulp and paper industry. However, when compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar, relatively little is known about lignin biosynthesis in Eucalyptus and only a few genes were functionally characterized. An efficient, fast and inexpensive in vitro system was developed to study lignification in Eucalyptus globulus and to evaluate the potential role of candidate genes in this biological process. Seedlings were grown in four different conditions, in the presence or absence of light and with or without sucrose in the growth medium, and several aspects of lignin metabolism were evaluated. Our results showed that light and, to a lesser extent, sucrose induced lignin biosynthesis, which was followed by changes in S/G ratio, lignin oligomers accumulation and gene expression. In addition, higher total peroxidase activity and differential isoperoxidase profile were observed when seedlings were grown in the presence of light and sucrose. Peptide sequencing allowed the identification of differentially expressed peroxidases, which can be considered potential candidate class III peroxidases involved in lignin polymerization in E. globulus. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carolina G; Reigosa, Manuel J; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Pedrol, Nuria

    2018-01-01

    In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids) were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus aqueous extract

  2. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina G Puig

    Full Text Available In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus

  3. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigosa, Manuel J.; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.

    2018-01-01

    In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids) were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus aqueous extract

  4. Antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus capitatus and Schinus molle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karenth LÓPEZ-MENESES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Essential oils (EO of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus L., thymus (Thymus capitatus L. pirul (Schinus molle L. were evaluated for their efficacy to control Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme growth and their ability to produce mycotoxins. Data from kinetics radial growth was used to obtain the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The IC50 was used to evaluate spore germination kinetic and mycotoxin production. Also, spore viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. All EO had an effect on the radial growth of both species. After 96 h of incubation, thymus EO at concentrations of 1000 and 2500 µL L–1 totally inhibited the growth of F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus, respectively. Eucalyptus and thymus EO significantly reduced spore germination of A. parasiticus. Inhibition of spore germination of F. moniliforme was 84.6, 34.0, and 30.6% when exposed to eucalyptus, pirul, and thymus EO, respectively. Thymus and eucalyptus EO reduced aflatoxin (4% and fumonisin (31% production, respectively. Spore viability was affected when oils concentration increased, being the thymus EO the one that reduced proliferation of both fungi. Our findings suggest that EO affect F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus development and mycotoxin production.

  5. Torrefaction of wood and bark from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens: Focus on volatile evolution vs feasible temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga-Pérez, Luis E.; Segura, Cristina; Bustamante-García, Verónica; Gómez Cápiro, Oscar; Jiménez, Romel

    2015-01-01

    Torrefaction is a thermal pretreatment leading to the improvement of most of the fuel properties of biomass, namely energy density, HHV (higher heating value), grindability and hydrophobicity. The aim of this study is to identify the most feasible temperature to carry out torrefaction of Eucalyptus globulus and nitens, based on chemical evidences associated to the release of volatiles during thermal treatment of biomass. With that end: (i) Devolatilization kinetics, (ii) Effects of temperature and residence time and (iii) volatiles composition during torrefaction of both wood and bark were analyzed. In all cases DTG (derivative thermogravimetric curves) exhibited the typical shape of lignocellulosic materials, with three decomposition phases and two reaction zones. Values of activation energies for hemicellulose decomposition, were in agreement with those reported in the literature (121–170 kJ/mol). Carboxylic acids, water and phenolic compounds showed two peaks, which were associated to torrefaction (below 310 °C) and pyrolysis (310–410 °C) respectively. The most feasible temperatures for torrefaction were estimated as a function of these peaks, and it ranged between 295 °C and 310°C for all samples. Main volatile species at the torrefaction peaks were distributed as Water > Acetic Acid > CO_2 > Others, while Levoglucosan formation was marginal, due to the catalytic effect of inorganics. - Highlights: • Identification of torrefaction peaks for E. globulus and E. nitens using dynamic TGA-MS. • Devolatilization kinetics of E. globulus and E. nitens (wood and bark). • Effect of operation parameters on torrefaction of E. globulus and E. nitens. • Most feasible temperatures for torrefaction based on chemical and thermal evidences. • Definition of atomic indicator to estimate degradation degree based on TGA-MS.

  6. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  7. Effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves on soil organisms involved in leaf degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martins

    Full Text Available The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5-20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25-5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6-41.2 mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates.

  8. The Role of Eucalyptus Globulus Forest and Products in Carbon Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroja, L.; Dias, A.C.; Capela, I.

    2006-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the ongoing debate about the selection of the approach for carbon accounting in wood products to be used, in the future, in the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Two accounting approaches are used in this analysis: the stock-change approach and the atmospheric-flow approach. They are applied to the Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus forest sector. To achieve this objective, the fluxes of wood removed from the forest are tracked through its life cycle, which includes products manufacture (mainly pulp and paper), use and final disposal (landfilling, incineration and composting). This study develops a framework to the estimation of carbon sequestration in the forest of E. globulus, a fast growing species, more specifically, in the calculation of the conversion factors such as bark and foliage percentages and densities, used to convert wood volumes into total biomass. A mass balance approach based on real data from mills is also proposed, in order to assess carbon emissions from wood processing. The results show that E. globulus forest sector was a carbon sink, but the magnitude of the carbon sequestration differs substantially depending on the accounting approach used. The contribution of the forest ecosystem was smaller than the aggregated contribution of wood products in use and in landfills (including industrial waste), which reinforces the role that wood products play in national carbon budgets

  9. Complex linkage between soil, soil water, atmosphere and Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, C.; Tiwari, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Eucalyptus is most widely planted genus grown in waste land of eastern region of India to meet the pulp industry requirements. Sustainability of these plantations is of concern because in spite of higher demand water and nutrients of plantations, they are mostly planted on low-fertility soils. This study has been conducted to quantify effect of 25 years old, a fully established eucalyptus plantations on i.) Alteration in physico-chemical and hydrological properties of soil of eucalyptus plantation in comparison to soil of natural grassland and ii.) Spatio-temporal variation in soil moisture under eucalyptus plantations. Soil physico-chemical properties of two adjacent plots covered with eucatuptus and natural grasses were analyzed for three consecutive depths (i.e. 0-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) with five replications in each plot. Soil infiltration rate and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were measured in-situ to incorporate the influence of macro porosity caused due to roots of plantations. Daily soil moisture at an interval of 10 cm upto 160 cm depth with 3 replications and Leaf Area Index (LAI) at an interval of 15 days with 5 replications were recorded over the year. Significant variations found at level of 0.05 between soil properties of eucalyptus and natural grass land confirm the effect of plantations on soil properties. Comparative results of soil properties show significant alteration in soil texture such as percent of sand, organic matter and Ks found more by 20%, 9% and 22% respectively in eucalyptus plot as compare to natural grass land. Available soil moisture (ASM) was found constantly minimum in top soil excluding rainy season indicate upward movement of water and nutrients during dry season. Seasonal variation in temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and leaf area index (LAI) influenced the soil moisture extraction phenomenon. This study clearly stated the impact of long term establishment of eucalyptus plantations make considerable

  10. Adaptación de la madera de Eucalyptus globulus a la normativa europea de durabilidad natural

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo, D.; Troya, M. T. de,; Baso, Carlos; Touza, M.; Prieto, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    La madera de Eucalyptus globulus en algunos países como Australia es recomendada para situaciones de riesgo de ataque de organismos xilófagos por su elevada durabilidad. En Galicia esta madera ha sido utilizada desde hace muchas décadas en estructuras y carpinterías, que aún hoy perduran. Sin embargo, la norma europea EN-350-2 encuadra la especie E. globulus en la peor categoría de durabilidad natural, situación que no se corresponde con la realidad. El objetivo de este proyecto es constatar ...

  11. Events Associated with Early Age-Related Decline in Adventitious Rooting Competence of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumond, Márcio L; de Araujo, Artur T; de Oliveira Junkes, Camila F; de Almeida, Márcia R; Matsuura, Hélio N; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2017-01-01

    The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus , the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline. There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) total activity increased with loss of rooting competence. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern. In good agreement, TAA1 , a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1 , suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression ( TPL , IAA12 ) or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1 , showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. globulus rooting by a combination of factors. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process.

  12. Events Associated with Early Age-Related Decline in Adventitious Rooting Competence of Eucalyptus globulus Labill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumond, Márcio L.; de Araujo, Artur T.; de Oliveira Junkes, Camila F.; de Almeida, Márcia R.; Matsuura, Hélio N.; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur G.

    2017-01-01

    The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus, the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline. There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) total activity increased with loss of rooting competence. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern. In good agreement, TAA1, a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1, suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression (TPL, IAA12) or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1, showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. globulus rooting by a combination of factors. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process. PMID:29067033

  13. Macrocarpal C isolated from Eucalyptus globulus inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase 4 in an aggregated form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Eisuke; Kawakami, Kazuhiro; Kawabata, Jun

    2018-12-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Various synthetic inhibitors have been developed to date, and plants containing natural DPP-4 inhibitors have also been identified. Here, 13 plant samples were tested for their DPP-4 inhibitory activity. Macrocarpals A-C were isolated from Eucalyptus globulus through activity-guided fractionation and shown to be DPP-4 inhibitors. Of these, macrocarpal C showed the highest inhibitory activity, demonstrating an inhibition curve characterised by a pronounced increase in activity within a narrow concentration range. Evaluation of macrocarpal C solution by turbidity, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry indicated its aggregation, which may explain the characteristics of the inhibition curve. These findings will be valuable for further study of potential small molecule DPP-4 inhibitors.

  14. RECOVERY OF LOGGING RESIDUES THROUGH BALER ON FORWARDER: EXPERIENCE WITH Eucalyptus globulus IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Acuña

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study presents results of tests on the recovery of Eucalyptus globulus logging residues. Leftovers were packed with an ENFO-2002 baler on a forwarder, taking advantage of a cut-to-length harvesting system for two conditions of residual biomass, i.e., with and without bark. A continuous field study was carried out, controlling 16.4 scheduled hours in seven days. Delays in the operation stemmed mainly by the visits of the client company and supervision by phone. The baler had an average utilization capacity of 81% for both evaluated conditions and produced an average of 36.2 bales with and 22.2 bales without bark per productive area. An average dry biomass productivity of 5.85 and 5.46 Mg h-1 was reached for similar conditions of residual biomass. Significant differences emerged when the type of harvesting was compared to mean dry weight, between types of harvesting, and mean baling time. Thus, the presence of bark in the logging residues of E. globulus increases the productivity of the baler.

  15. Impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the avian breeding community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nesting bird species in natural forests and Eucalyptus plantations on the Amani Plateau, East Usambara, were studied during the breeding season of September 2003 to March 2004. Some forest birds — like barbets, batis, broadbills, doves, flycatchers, greenbuls, hornbills, and tinkerbirds — utilised similar nest sites ...

  16. Nutritional sustainability of Eucalyptus plantations : a case study at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional sustainability of a short-rotation Eucalyptus grandis plantation system was evaluated in a trial located at Karkloof, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, by determining nutrient pools and fluxes. Nutrient pools in the forest floor and biomass (above- and below-ground) were assessed by destructive sampling. The size ...

  17. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Eucalyptus globulus Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rui M. A.; Oliveira, Eduardo L. G.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Couto, Ricardo M.; Simões, Pedro C.; Neto, Carlos P.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Silva, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100–200 bar), co-solvent (ethanol) content (0, 5 and 8% wt), and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt) of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold. PMID:22837719

  18. Linking photosynthesis and leaf N allocation under future elevated CO2 and climate warming in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharwood, Robert E.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Whitney, Spencer M.; Ellsworth, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Leaf-level photosynthetic processes and their environmental dependencies are critical for estimating CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. These estimates use biochemical-based models of photosynthesis that require accurate Rubisco kinetics. We investigated the effects of canopy position, elevated atmospheric CO2 [eC; ambient CO2 (aC)+240 ppm] and elevated air temperature (eT; ambient temperature (aT)+3 °C) on Rubisco content and activity together with the relationship between leaf N and Vcmax (maximal Rubisco carboxylation rate) of 7 m tall, soil-grown Eucalyptus globulus trees. The kinetics of E. globulus and tobacco Rubisco at 25 °C were similar. In vitro estimates of Vcmax derived from measures of E. globulus Rubisco content and kinetics were consistent, although slightly lower, than the in vivo rates extrapolated from gas exchange. In E. globulus, the fraction of N invested in Rubisco was substantially lower than for crop species and varied with treatments. Photosynthetic acclimation of E. globulus leaves to eC was underpinned by reduced leaf N and Rubisco contents; the opposite occurred in response to eT coinciding with growth resumption in spring. Our findings highlight the adaptive capacity of this key forest species to allocate leaf N flexibly to Rubisco and other photosynthetic proteins across differing canopy positions in response to future, warmer and elevated [CO2] climates. PMID:28064178

  19. EFFECT OF LIGNIN CONTENT OF Eucalyptus globulus WOOD IN KRAFT PULPING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valim Cardoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was analyzed the lignin content effect of Eucalyptus globulus wood in kraft pulping optimization. Seventy-two laboratory cooking were made with wood chips obtained from six Eucalyptus globulus trees selected from a group of 50 trees. The wood chips from three trees with the lowest lignin content, with average 20,53%, were mixed proportionally based on the tree weights, obtaining the sample of low lignin content wood. The same was made to obtain the sample for wood chips with the highest lignin content, with average 23,02%. The two lignin levels were statistically different. The two wood samples had basic densities statistically not different. Using three maximum temperatures levels (160, 165 and 170ºC, and three active alkali charged (17, 18,5 and 20%, the wood chips were converted to kraft pulps. The pulps were then characterized to analyze the influence of the distinct treatments employed in the cooking on their properties. The effect of the cooking conditions was expressed by mathematical models in order to determine the optimum points for each of the evaluated properties. The optimization process indicated maximum temperature of 168ºC, and active alkali of 19%, for maximum kraft pulping yield to achieve kappa number 18; this result was for woods with low lignin content. For woods containing the high lignin content, the optimization showed maximum cooking temperature of 169ºC and active alkali of 19% for kappa number of 18. The average reduction of 2,49% in wood lignin content resulted a correspondent gain of 2,2% in the kraft yield (o.d. basis and a reduction on the active alkali charge of 1,2% (o.d. basis to achieve kappa numbers from 16 to 19, preserving pulp properties. If the option is to work with kappa number 19 instead of 16, the gain in kraft yield is approximately 2%. Therefore, when working with low lignin content wood and kappa number 19 instead of 16, a substantial gain of approximately 4,2% is obtained

  20. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeancarlos Moreno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, the extraction with the lowest production costs (0.57 Nuevos Soles by mL of essential oil is reached when the leaves have moisture between 25 and 30% and are extracted with times between 98 and 126 min

  1. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  2. [Ovicidal and larvicidal activity in vitro of Eucalyptus globulus essential oils on Haemonchus contortus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Iara T F; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; de Oliveira, Lorena M B; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana L F; Vieira, Luiz da S; Oliveira, Fabrício R; Queiroz-Junior, Eudson M; Portela, Bruno G; Barros, Renata S; Chagas, Ana C S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate ovicidal and larvicidal effects of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil (EGEO) on Haemonchus contortus. The chemical composition determination of EGEO was through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Egg hatch test (EHT) was performed in concentrations 21.75; 17.4; 8.7; 5.43 e 2.71 mg x mL(-1). In larval development test (LDT) were used the concentrations 43.5; 21.75; 10.87; 5.43 e 2.71 mg x mL(-1). Each trial was conducted by negative control with Tween 80 (3%) and positive control, 0.02 mg x mL(-1) of thiabendazole in EHT and 0.008 mg x mL(-1) of ivermectin in LDT. The maximum effectiveness of EGEO on eggs was 99.3% in concentration of 21.75 mg x mL(-1) and on larvae was 98.7% in concentration 43.5 mg x mL(-1). The concentration of EGEO that inhibits 50% of the eggs and larvae was 8.3 and 6.92 mg x mL(-1), respectively. The oil chemical analysis identified as main component the monoterpen 1,8-cineol. EGEO presented ovicidal and larvicidal activities in vitro, revealing a good potential for use in the control of sheep and goat gastrointestinal nematodes.

  3. Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus: steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C; Eugenio, Maria E

    2014-09-01

    Steam explosion and steam pre-treatment have proved capable of enhancing enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials. However, until now, these methods had not been compared under the same operational conditions and using the same raw material. Both pre-treatments lead to increased yields in the saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus; but results have been better with steam pre-treatments, despite the more accessible surface of exploded samples. The reason for this finding could be enzymatic inhibition: steam explosion causes a more extensive extraction of hemicelluloses and releases a greater amount of degradation products which can inhibit enzymatic action. Enzymatic inhibition is also dependent on the amount and chemical structure of lignin, which was also a contributing factor to the lower enzymatic yields obtained with the most severe pre-treatment. Thus, the highest yields (46.7% glucose and 73.4% xylose yields) were obtained after two cycle of steam treatment, of 5 and 3 min, at 183°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Steam torrefaction of Eucalyptus globulus for producing black pellets: A pilot-scale experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga-Pérez, Luis E; Grandón, Héctor; Flores, Mauricio; Segura, Cristina; Kelley, Stephen S

    2017-08-01

    Steam torrefaction of Eucalyptus globulus was performed at temperatures between 245°C and 265°C in a 100kg/h pilot plant. Torrefied biomass was then pelletized in a 300kg/h unit and the pellets were subject to durability, density and combustion tests. The structural changes measured with FTIR were studied along with the combustion behavior of the materials. Compositional analysis showed that increasing the torrefaction temperature reduced both hemicellulose fraction and overall mass yield (MY). Furthermore, there was a linear relationship between the energy yield (EY) and mass yield (EY=[1.04-0.9(1-MY)]) for these samples. The ignition and comprehensive indexes confirmed that the stability of the torrefied biomass in a combustion environment was higher than for untreated biomass. Finally, pellets showed high durability (98%), and had an energy density (13-14GJ/m 3 ), which is comparable to low-rank coals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by using Eucalyptus Globulus Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Madheswaran; Saravanan, Shanmugam

    2017-12-01

    A single step eco-friendly, energy efficient and economically scalable green method was employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. In this work, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract as reducing and capping agent along with water as solvent at normal room temperature is described. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from aqueous silver nitrate solution by adding the leaf extract. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible Spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscope (FTIS). X-ray diffraction studies brought to light the crystalline nature and the face centered cubic structure of the silver nanoparticles. Using HR-TEM. the nano sizes and morphology of the particles were studied. The mean sizes of the prepared silver nanoparticles ranged from 30 to 36 nm. The density of the particles was tuned by varying the molar ratio of silver nitrate. FTIS studies showed the functional group of organic molecules which were located on the surface of the silver nanoparticles. Originating from the leaf extracts, these organic molecules reduced and capped the particles.

  6. BAYESIAN PREDICTION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS IN Eucalyptus globulus CLONES UNDER WATER SUPPLY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Mora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989297A Bayesian analysis of genetic parameters for growth traits at twelve months after planting was carried out in twenty nine Eucalyptus globulus clones in southern Chile. Two different environmental conditions were considered: 1 Non-irrigation and; 2 Plants were irrigated with a localized irrigation system. The Bayesian approach was performed using Gibbs sampling algorithm in a clone-environment interaction model. Inheritability values ​​were high in the water supply condition (posterior mode: H2=0.41, 0.36 and 0.39 for height, diameter and sectional area, respectively, while in the environment without irrigation, the inheritabilities were significantly lower, which was confirmed by the Bayesian credible intervals (95% probability. The posterior mode of the genetic correlation between sites was positive and high for all traits (r=0.7, 0.65 and 0.8, for height, diameter and sectional area, respectively and according to the credible interval, it was statistically different from zero, indicating a non-significant interaction.

  7. Management of Eucalyptus plantations influence small mammals’ density: evidences from Southern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, D; Carrilho, M; Mexia, T; Kobel, M; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Rosalino, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Forestry plantations, and particularly those of exotic Eucalyptus, are important man-made systems in Europe, and especially in Portugal, where these represent now the largest fraction of forested areas. Eucalyptus plantations may have impacts on vertebrate communities in Europe; however, these have

  8. Effects of irrigation on water use and water use efficiency in two fast growing Eucalyptus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Jose Stape; Michael G. Ryan; Auro C. Almeida; Juan Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations occupy almost 20 million ha worldwide and exceed 3.7 million ha in Brazil alone. Improved genetics and silviculture have led to as much as a three-fold increase in productivity in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil and the large land area occupied by these highly productive ecosystems raises concern over their...

  9. CARACTERIZACION DE GENES DESHIDRINA EN EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS CUYA EXPRESION ES INDUCIDA POR LA ACLIMATACION A BAJA TEMPERATURA

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDEZ REYES, MARTA ALEJANDRA

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus es una especie importante para la producción de pulpa de madera en Chile, sin embargo presenta una gran sensibilidad a temperaturas de congelamiento. Durante los últimos años, muchos estudios han enfocado sus esfuerzos en dilucidar los mecanismos que regulan la respuesta de las plantas a baja temperatura, mediante el análisis de la expresión génica. En el presente trabajo se estudia la expresión de genes deshidrina durante el proceso de aclimatación a baja temperatura y...

  10. CARACTERIZACION DE GENES DESHIDRINA EN EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS CUYA EXPRESION ES INDUCIDA POR LA ACLIMATACION A BAJA TEMPERATURA

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDEZ REYES ; MARTA ALEJANDRA; FERNANDEZ REYES ; MARTA ALEJANDRA

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus globulus es una especie importante para la producción de pulpa de madera en Chile, sin embargo presenta una gran sensibilidad a temperaturas de congelamiento. Durante los últimos años, muchos estudios han enfocado sus esfuerzos en dilucidar los mecanismos que regulan la respuesta de las plantas a baja temperatura, mediante el análisis de la expresión génica. En el presente trabajo se estudia la expresión de genes deshidrina durante el proceso de aclimatación a baja temperatura y la...

  11. Efeito do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus sobre espécies produtoras de aflatoxinas

    OpenAIRE

    Georgia Rocha Vilela

    2007-01-01

    Há relatos na literatura de alguns compostos naturais de plantas que são usados para preservação de alimentos e no controle do desenvolvimento de fungos e bactérias que ocorrem em plantas, grãos, cereais e derivados. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar "in vitro" o efeito do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus e seu composto majoritário sobre o crescimento micelial dos fungos Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus parasiticus e a produção de aflatoxinas. A composição química do...

  12. MODELACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE LA PODA Y RALEO SOBRE LAS DEFORMACIONES RESIDUALES LONGITUDINALES EN Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Navarrete; Carolina Valenzuela; Leif Nutto

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Se estudió una plantación de Eucalyptus globulus ubicada en el sector precordillerano andino de la región del Bío Bío, Chile, c on el objetivo de evaluar y modelar el efecto de la poda y raleo sobre las deformaciones residuales longitudinales (DRL) . El lugar de estudio correspondió a un rodal de 12 años de edad, el cual fue intervenido a los 2 años y medio de establecido, donde se evaluaron distintas intensidades de poda (0% y 60% de la altura total) y densidades de raleo (1.6...

  13. MODELACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE LA PODA Y RALEO SOBRE LAS DEFORMACIONES RESIDUALES LONGITUDINALES EN Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete, Eduardo; Valenzuela, Carolina; Nutto, Leif

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Se estudió una plantación de Eucalyptus globulus ubicada en el sector precordillerano andino de la región del Bío Bío, Chile, con el objetivo de evaluar y modelar el efecto de la poda y raleo sobre las deformaciones residuales longitudinales (DRL). El lugar de estudio correspondió a un rodal de 12 años de edad, el cual fue intervenido a los 2 años y medio de establecido, donde se evaluaron distintas intensidades de poda (0% y 60% de la altura total) y densidades de raleo (1.600 árb·ha...

  14. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

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    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  15. EFECTO DE LA DENSIDAD DE PLANTACIÓN EN LA RENTABILIDAD DE PLANTACIONES DE Eucalyptus globulus

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    Emilio Guerra-Bugueño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio evaluó, económicamente, la respuesta de densidades de plantación y marcos de espaciamiento de Eucalyptus globulus establecido con fines pulpables. La técnica de Montecarlo se usó para examinar el efecto de las variaciones de precios y la tasa de descuento sobre la rentabilidad. El ensayo fue realizado en el Valle Central de la IX Región de Chile. Los tratamientos fueron: 1,000 árboles·ha-1(T1; 1,428 árboles·ha-1 (T2; 1,667 árboles·ha-1 (T3 y 2,000 árboles·ha-1 (T4. El volumen de producción de cada tratamiento se midió a la edad de cosecha (10 años y posteriormente se realizó un análisis financiero, para obtener la rentabilidad (valor actual neto [VAN], valor económico del suelo [VES] y tasa interna de retorno [TIR]. Los mayores valores de VAN se obtuvieron con el T1 (US$ 330·ha-1 y T4 (US$ 322·ha-1. Los pronósticos obtenidos para el VAN de T1 mostraron una probabilidad de ocurrencia de 73 %, resultando ser la opción menos riesgosa para la inversión. Los mayores rendimientos volumétricos (T4 y T3 no propician las mayores rentabilidades, pues el incremento de la densidad de plantación aumenta los costos por unidad de planta con relación al manejo de suelos, control de malezas y fertilización.

  16. Control of Botrytis cinerea in Eucalyptus globulus Mini-Cuttings Using Clonostachys and Trichoderma Strains Control de Botrytis cinerea en miniestacas de Eucalyptus globulus Utilizando Cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma

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    Salomé Zaldúa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. causes the disease known as gray mold in more than 200 hosts. It is one of the most important pathogens in Chilean forest nurseries and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is one of the most susceptible species, especially in vegetative reproduction systems. Clonostachys and Trichoderma strains were selected as potential biocontrol agents of gray mold in previous research by the authors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antagonistic fungi to control B. cinerea in E. globulus mini-cuttings. Five fungi strains were tested and applied weekly, two Clonostachys and three Trichoderma (5 x 10(6 conidia mL-1. In addition, comparison treatments were also used: absolute control (water and fungicide application. The experiment was carried out under operational conditions to produce E. globulus mini-cuttings. The Clonostachys UDC-A10 and UDC-A11 strains reduce mini-cutting mortality caused by B. cinerea in 54 and 71%, respectively, and with effects similar to those achieved by fungicides. Clonostachys UDC-A11 reduces the disease progression rate with the same statistical results as fungicides. A negative effect of applying fungicides on rooting of the surviving mini-cuttings was also confirmed. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of Clonostachys as a control agent against gray mold disease in E. globulus mini-cuttings.Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. ocasiona la enfermedad conocida como moho gris en más de 200 hospederos. En Chile es uno de los patógenos más importantes en viveros forestales, siendo Eucalyptus globulus Labill. una de las especies más susceptibles, especialmente en los sistemas de reproducción vegetativa. En investigaciones previas, realizadas por los autores, se seleccionaron cepas de Clonostachys y Trichoderma como potenciales agentes de biocontrol del moho gris. El objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia de hongos antagonistas en el control de B. cinerea en mini-estacas de E

  17. Thinning regimes and initial spacing for Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Filho, Antonio C; Mola-Yudego, Blas; González-Olabarria, José R; Scolforo, José Roberto S

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of different thinning regimes on clonal Eucalyptus plantations growth. Four different trials, planted in 1999 and located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, were used. Aside from thinning, initial planting density, and post thinning fertilization application were also evaluated. Before canopy closure, and therefore before excessive competition between trees took place, it was found that stands planted under low densities (667 trees per hectare) presented a lower mortality proportion when compared to stand planted under higher densities (1111 trees per hectare). However, diameter growth prior to thinning operations was not statistically different between these two densities, presenting an overall mean of 4.9 cm/year. After canopy closure and the application of the thinning treatments, it was found that thinning regimes beginning early in the life of the stand and leaving a low number of residual trees presented the highest diameter and height growth. Unthinned treatments and thinning regimes late in the life of the stand (after 5.5 years), leaving a large number of residual trees presented the highest values of basal area production. The choice of the best thinning regime for Eucalyptus clonal material will vary according to the plantation objective.

  18. Predicted stand volume for Eucalyptus plantations by spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Siti; Teodoro, RV; Myrna, GC; Nathaniel, CB; Leonardo, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    The main objective of the present study was to assess nonlinear models generated by integrating the stand volume growth rate to estimate the growth and yield of Eucalyptus. The primary data was done for point of interest (POI) of permanent sample plots (PSPs) and inventory sample plots, in Aek Nauli sector, Simalungun regency,North Sumatera Province,Indonesia. from December 2008- March 2009. Today,the demand for forestry information has continued to grow over recent years. Because many forest managers and decision makers face complex decisions, reliable information has become the necessity. In the assessment of natural resources including plantation forests have been widely used geospatial technology.The yield of Eucalyptus plantations represented by merchantable volume as dependent variable while factors affecting yield namely stands variables and the geographic variables as independent variables. The majority of the areas in the study site has stand volume class 0 - 50 m3/ha with 16.59 ha or 65.85 % of the total study site.

  19. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

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    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  20. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

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    CALLISTO M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  1. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

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    M. CALLISTO

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  2. Quantification and economic valuation of the capture of CO2 for Eucalyptus plantations, established by the Preca in the carboniferous Basins of Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Highland Cundiboyacense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Fonseca, Sandra Ximena; Molano Morales, Miguel Angel

    2001-01-01

    This study, as first measure it looks for to quantify the tons of CO 2 captured by the increment in the biomass of forestall plantations of the Eucalyptus genus established by the PRECA of Ecocarbon in the carboniferous basins of the Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Highland Cundiboyacense and in second measure to determine the economic value that the sale of this environmental service can represent for a developing country as Colombia. The results obtained for each one of the plantations in each carboniferous basin are determined, and statistical models that will allow calculating the capture of CO 2 carried out by plantations of three different species of Eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis, e. grandis and E. globulus), starting from the volume in foot of the timber only barked

  3. Quantification and economic valuation of the capture of CO2 for plantations of the Eucalyptus, genus, settled down by the PRECA in the carboniferous basins of Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Cundiboyacense Highland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz F, Sandra Ximena; Molano M, Miguel Angel

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the first measure is to quantify the tons of CO 2 captured by the increment in the biomass of forest plantations of the Eucalyptus genus, settled down by the PRECA of Ecocarbon in the carboniferous basins of the Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Cundiboyacense highland and in second measure to determine the economic value that the sale of this environmental service can represent for a developing country as Colombia. The results obtained for each one of the plantations settled down in each carboniferous basin are determined and statistical models that will allow to calculate the capture of CO 2 carried out by plantations of three different species of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis, E. grandis and E. globulus)

  4. O comportamento de pés-mãe de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. sujeitos a diferentes níveis de azoto e potássio Influence of nitrogen and potassium on Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mother plants

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    H. M. Ribeiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Nos sistemas de propagação vegetativa de plantas o estado nutricional dos pés-mãe é determinante para o sucesso do enraizamento das estacas que estes originam. Como tal, a recente implementação, em Portugal, da técnica de propagação vegetativa de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus por enraizamento de estacas caulinares, justifica plenamente o estudo da fertilização de pés-mãe desta espécie e o seu efeito no enraizamento das estacas. Assim, e com o objectivo de avaliar o efeito do azoto e do potássio no crescimento de pés-mãe de E. globulus e no enraizamento das estacas obtidas, foi instalado um ensaio de fertilização que decorreu durante um período de 2 anos. No ensaio utilizaram-se 2 clones desta espécie (HD161 e CN5 e testaram-se 6 modalidades de fertilização, correspondentes à combinação de 3 níveis de azoto (50, 100, 200 mg N L-1 e 2 de potássio (50 e 100 mg K L-1 na solução nutritiva utilizada. No primeiro ano de crescimento (1998 os pés-mãe foram sujeitos a uma poda de formação, tendo-se avaliado a biomassa recolhida. No segundo ano (1999, para além da biomassa recolhida, determinou-se também o número de estacas produzidas por pé-mãe e a capacidade de enraizamento dessas estacas. Com o delineamento experimental utilizado não se observaram, em todos os parâmetros avaliados, diferenças significativas entre os dois níveis de potássio, nem interacções significativas entre o potássio e os restantes factores em estudo. Relativamente ao azoto, a análise dos dados obtidos permitiu concluir que o aumento da concentração de azoto na solução nutritiva, de 50 para 200 mg L-1, originou aumentos significativos da biomassa recolhida nas podas, da produção de estacas e da percentagem de enraizamento das estacas, contrariando a ideia que o aumento da disponibilidade de azoto pode conduzir uma redução do enraizamento. Os resultados permitem assim concluir que o azoto é determinante para o

  5. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and of Casearia sylvestris Sw. on cropsEfeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e de Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

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    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is characterized by the harmful or benefic effects caused by secondary metabolites, that are produced by plants, microorganisms or fungi and are released in the environment, on the development of natural biological systems or implemented ones. This study aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and wild coffee (Casearia sylvestris Sw. on the germination and initial development of mustard (Brassica campestris L., cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. italica, kale (Brassica pekinensis L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. grand rapids, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, turnip (Brassica rapa L., rucola (Eruca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.. Six concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 100% and compared to control (distilled water, with five replicates of each concentration, being ten seeds of each crop distributed in each replicate. The aqueous extracts of E. globulus and C. sylvestris reduced significantly the percentage of seed germination, the index of germination speed and the initial growth of the above ground part and roots of all cultivated species, being the reduction of these parameters higher with the increment of the aqueous extracts concentration, which led to thicker and atrophied roots with a higher number of absorbent hairs. Therefore, the results indicate an existence of allelopathic potential of E. globulus and C. sylvestris.A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos que metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas, microrganismos ou fungos liberados no ambiente exercem sobre o desenvolvimento de sistemas biológicos naturais ou implantados. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Sw. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de

  6. Estimations of evapotranspiration in an age sequence of Eucalyptus plantations in subtropical China.

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    Wenfei Liu

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species are widely planted for reforestation in subtropical China. However, the effects of Eucalyptus plantations on the regional water use remain poorly understood. In an age sequence of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantations, the tree water use and soil evaporation were examined by linking model estimations and field observations. Results showed that annual evapotranspiration of each age sequence Eucalyptus plantations was 876.7, 944.1 and 1000.7 mm, respectively, accounting for 49.81%, 53.64% and 56.86% of the annual rainfall. In addition, annual soil evaporations of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old were 318.6, 336.1, and 248.7 mm of the respective Eucalyptus plantations. Our results demonstrated that Eucalyptus plantations would potentially reduce water availability due to high evapotranspiration in subtropical regions. Sustainable management strategies should be implemented to reduce water consumption in Eucalyptus plantations in the context of future climate change scenarios such as drought and warming.

  7. [Growth effect of eucalyptus-acacia mixed plantation in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeng-Jiang; Xu, Da-Ping; Chen, Wen-Ping; Huang, Lie-Jian; Li, Shang-Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree species. In the 2-3 years old mixed plantation, the wind-throw of A. crassicarpa decreased markedly with increasing ratio of Eucalyptus U6, the decrement being 26.14% when the Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa ratio was 3 : 1, but the survival rates of Eucalyptus U6 and A. crassicarpa had no significant difference under different planting modes. Mixed planting retarded the A. crassicarpa growth to some extent, with the DBH being 90% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A. crassicarpa. In the 6 years old 1 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa plantation, the Eucalyptus U6 individuals with DBH > 15 cm occupied 32.1%; while in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, they only accounted for 5.83%. Mixed planting with 2 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa could obtain a maximum total biomass of 198.8 m3 x hm(-2), which was 118.8% of the total biomass in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, or 169.9% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. Mixture of Eucalyptus with Acacia would be a good choice to produce Eucalyptus trees with larger DBH.

  8. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below -1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for improved productivity under water-limiting conditions

  9. Deposição de serapilheira e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × E. globulus

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    Márcio Viera

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar a deposição de serapilheira e nutrientes em plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus globulus, em Eldorado do Sul-RS. Foram alocadas sistematicamente quatro parcelas de 20 m × 20 m, cada uma com quatro coletores de serapilheira de 1 m². A serapilheira foi coletada quinzenalmente, entre janeiro/2007 e dezembro/2010. A produção de serapilheira foi crescente, com o aumento da idade do povoamento, sendo 6,9 Mg ha-1 aos seis e 8,5 Mg ha-1 aos nove anos. A fração folhas correspondeu, em média, a 66,9% da serapilheira total, seguida pelos galhos finos (14,7%, miscelânea (10,5% e galhos grossos (7,9%. A deposição apresentou padrão sazonal, sendo maior no período de aumento da temperatura do ar. A fração folhas foi responsável por maior parte do retorno de nutrientes via serapilheira, variando de 58,2 a 81,8% da quantidade de Cu e N, respectivamente.

  10. Functional relationships between wood structure and vulnerability to xylem cavitation in races of Eucalyptus globulus differing in wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Monteoliva, Silvia; Gyenge, Javier; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Fernandez, María Elena

    2018-02-01

    Wood density can be considered as a measure of the internal wood structure, and it is usually used as a proxy measure of other mechanical and functional traits. Eucalyptus is one of the most important commercial forestry genera worldwide, but the relationship between wood density and vulnerability to cavitation in this genus has been little studied. The analysis is hampered by, among other things, its anatomical complexity, so it becomes necessary to address more complex techniques and analyses to elucidate the way in which the different anatomical elements are functionally integrated. In this study, vulnerability to cavitation in two races of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. with different wood density was evaluated through Path analysis, a multivariate method that allows evaluation of descriptive models of causal relationship between variables. A model relating anatomical variables with wood properties and functional parameters was proposed and tested. We found significant differences in wood basic density and vulnerability to cavitation between races. The main exogenous variables predicting vulnerability to cavitation were vessel hydraulic diameter and fibre wall fraction. Fibre wall fraction showed a direct impact on wood basic density and the slope of vulnerability curve, and an indirect and negative effect over the pressure imposing 50% of conductivity loss (P50) through them. Hydraulic diameter showed a direct negative effect on P50, but an indirect and positive influence over this variable through wood density on one hand, and through maximum hydraulic conductivity (ks max) and slope on the other. Our results highlight the complexity of the relationship between xylem efficiency and safety in species with solitary vessels such as Eucalyptus spp., with no evident compromise at the intraspecific level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Targeting oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase, proinflammatory cytokine, dopamine and GABA by eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus) to alleviate ketamine-induced psychosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monu; Jindal, Deepak Kumar; Parle, Milind; Kumar, Anil; Dhingra, Sameer

    2018-02-20

    Essential oil of eucalyptus species is among the most common traded essential oils in the world. There is an increasing interest in the application of eucalyptus oil as a natural additive in food and pharmaceutical industry. The present study was undertaken to identify the phytoconstituents present in the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus leaves (EO) and ascertain their protective effect against ketamine-induced psychosis in rats. GC-MS technique was used for analysis of phytoconstituents present in EO. Ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce psychosis in rats. Photoactometer, forced swim test and pole climb avoidance test were used to evaluate the protective effects of the EO (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) on acute and chronic administration. Bar test was used to test the side effect of EO. Biochemical and neurochemical estimations were carried out to explore the possible mechanism of action. GC-MS analysis of EO showed the presence of a number of biologically active compounds. EO at the dose of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, p.o. on acute and chronic administration, decreased locomotor activity, immobility duration and latency to climb the pole. EO was effective to facilitate the release of GABA, increase GSH levels, inhibit dopamine neurotransmission and decrease TNF-α levels as well as diminish AChE activity in different regions of the brain. EO at the dose of 500, 1000 mg/kg did not produce cataleptic behavior in rats. EO at the dose of 500, 1000 mg/kg produced protective effects against ketamine-induced psychosis and can be further explored clinically against neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. Eucalyptus plantations and the steel industry in Amazonia - A contribution from the 3-PG model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, Maurel; Piketty, Marie Gabrielle; Morello, Thiago Fonseca; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Mesquita Neto, Franscisco

    2011-01-01

    The Carajas steel industry sector in the Brazilian Amazon has aroused protest on environmental grounds because of its heavy reliance on charcoal. The charcoal is mainly produced from natural forest biomass, with direct and indirect impacts on deforestation and forest ecosystem degradation. Establishing eucalyptus plantations for fuel on degraded pastures could be a workable alternative. Few such plantations exist as yet, and because there are no validated assessments of their production potential, a study was conducted to provide consolidated estimations of the growth and productivity of the Carajas eucalyptus plantations. The estimations were obtained with the 3-PG model (Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth). The model parameters are based on growth data for the eucalyptus plantations established by a company in Breu Branco municipality in Brazil's Para State. Calibrating the model with local data proved to be far more effective than using the parameters set for eucalyptus plantations in other areas in Brazil, South Africa or Australia. The simulations made show that the current annual average growth rate, over a six-year period, of about 20 m"3 per hectare could increase to 30 m"3 with appropriate fertilisation and effective underbrush control. They also suggest that production could be higher without water deficit. Plantation zones shall be selected as a priority in areas where the dry season is the least severe around Carajas. These 3-PG model settings have made it a more effective management tool for industrial plantations in Amazonian conditions. (authors)

  13. Studies on the antidandruff activity of the essential oil of coleus amboinicus and eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Selvakumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of the essential oil of Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules as potential antidandruff agent. Methods: Fresh leaves of Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules were collected from the Horticultural Research Station, Yercaud, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. The collected leaves were washed thoroughly and shade dried for 7-10 days. The essential oils from both the dried plant leaves were obtained by hydro distillation procedure. The chemical compositions of hydro distilled essential oils were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The pure essential oils and the essential oils diluted with coconut oil of the two plants were used to check antidandruff activity against the dandruff causing fungus Malassezia furfur by agar well diffusion assay. Results: The average yield of essential oil from Coleus amboinicus (0.89% and Eucalyptus globules (0.77%. The results of GC-MS revealed that the presence of eight compounds from Coleus amboinicus essential oil and five constituents from Eucalyptus globules representing 90.45% and 96.32% of the total oil respectively. The major component was identified as Thymol (phenolic rich compocnd (41.3% in Coleus amboinicus and in Eucalyptus globules the major constituents was 1-8, Cineol (91.61%. In the antidandruff activity the broad range of inhibitory zone was observed in Eucalyptus globules (37mm oil compare to Coleus amboinicus (31mm. Ketaconazole based shampoo used as a standard. Conclusion: This study would direct to the establishment of a natural compound from Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules as an antidandruff agent which can be used for the production of potential antifungal drug and novel pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical leads.

  14. Efeito do teor de lignina da madeira de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. no desempenho da polpação kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valim Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was analyzed the lignin content effect of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wood in kraft pulping optimization. Seventy-two laboratory cooking were made with wood chips obtained from six Eucalyptus globulus trees selected from a group of 50 trees. The wood chips from three trees with the lowest lignin content, with average 20.53%, were mixed proportionally based on the tree weights, obtaining the sample of low lignin content wood. The same was made to obtain the sample for wood chips with the highest lignin content, with average 23.02%. The two lignin levels were statistically different. The two wood samples had basic densities statistically not different. Using three maximum temperatures levels (160, 165 and 170ºC, and three active alkali charged (17, 18.5 and 20%, the wood chips were converted to kraft pulps. The pulps were then characterized to analyze the influence of the distinct treatments employed in the cooking on their properties. The effect of the cooking conditions was expressed by mathematical models in order to determine the optimum points for each of the evaluated properties. The optimization process indicated maximum temperature of 168ºC, and active alkali of 19%, for maximum kraft pulping yield to achieve kappa number 18; this result was for woods with low lignin content. For woods containing the high lignin content, the optimization showed maximum cooking temperature of 169ºC and active alkali of 19% for kappa number of 18. The average reduction of 2.49% in wood lignin content resulted a correspondent gain of 2.2% in the kraft yield (o.d. basis and a reduction on the active alkali charge of 1.2% (o.d. basis to achieve kappa numbers from 16 to 19, preserving pulp properties. If the option is to work with kappa number 19 instead of 16, the gain in kraft yield is approximately 2%. Therefore, when working with low lignin content wood and kappa number 19 instead of 16, a substantial gain of approximately 4.2% is

  15. MODELACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE LA PODA Y RALEO SOBRE LAS DEFORMACIONES RESIDUALES LONGITUDINALES EN Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Navarrete

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se estudió una plantación de Eucalyptus globulus ubicada en el sector precordillerano andino de la región del Bío Bío, Chile, c on el objetivo de evaluar y modelar el efecto de la poda y raleo sobre las deformaciones residuales longitudinales (DRL . El lugar de estudio correspondió a un rodal de 12 años de edad, el cual fue intervenido a los 2 años y medio de establecido, donde se evaluaron distintas intensidades de poda (0% y 60% de la altura total y densidades de raleo (1.600 árb·ha -1 (sin raleo y 800 árb·ha -1 . En cada tratamiento definido por la combinación de los dos niveles de poda y raleo, se estudió además, el efecto de la clase de copa (dominante, codominante e intermedia sobre el comportamiento de las DRL. En cada unidad de muestreo se registraron variables a nivel de árbol individual, estimando los parámetros de rodal más relevantes. Se muestreó un total de 36 árboles, midiéndose en cada uno de ellos las DRL a nivel del Dap con un extensómetro diseñado por el CIRAD-Forêt. Los resultados determinaron que la poda y raleo no afectaron significativamente el comportamiento de las DRL en Eucalyptus globulus ; en cambio, la clase de copa, tuvo un efecto altamente significativo sobre la variación de las deformaciones residuales, presentando los árboles dominantes mayores niveles de deformación que las clases de copa codominante e intermedia, respectivamente. El modelo de estimación incluyó como variables predictivas del comportamiento de las DRL , las expresiones logarítmicas del Dap y del inverso multiplicativo de la varianza de los radios de copa, además de la poda, presentando un R 2 de 0,44 y un EEE de 0,132.

  16. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and...

  17. Chemical and structural analysis of Eucalyptus globulus and E. camaldulensis leaf cuticles: a lipidized cell wall region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eGuzmán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant cuticle has traditionally been conceived as an independent hydrophobic layer that covers the external epidermal cell wall. Due to its complexity, the existing relationship between cuticle chemical composition and ultra-structure remains unclear to date. This study aimed to examine the link between chemical composition and structure of isolated, adaxial leaf cuticles of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus by the gradual extraction and identification of lipid constituents (cutin and soluble lipids, coupled to spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. The soluble compounds and cutin monomers identified could not be assigned to a concrete internal cuticle ultra-structure. After cutin depolymerization, a cellulose network resembling the cell wall was observed, with different structural patterns in the regions ascribed to the cuticle proper and cuticular layer, respectively. Our results suggest that the current cuticle model should be revised, stressing the presence and major role of cell wall polysaccharides. It is concluded that the cuticle may be interpreted as a modified cell wall region which contains additional lipids. The major heterogeneity of the plant cuticle makes it difficult to establish a direct link between cuticle chemistry and structure with the existing methodologies.

  18. Sanitary and nutritional characterization of honeybee colonies in Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Invernizzi, C.; Santos, E.; García, E.; Daners, G.; Di Landro, R.; Saadoun, A.; Cabrera, C.

    2011-01-01

    In Uruguay, many beekeepers transport their colonies to Eucalyptus grandis plantations at the end of the summer and autumn, obtaining important honey harvests. However, at the end of the flowering period the colonies become extremely weakened undergoing high levels of mortality. Nutritional and health problems could explain the weakening of colonies. In order to find out the causes for this weakening, colonies of the same size were taken to an E. grandis plantation, split up in three groups d...

  19. Atividade ovicida e larvicida in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus sobre Haemonchus contortus Ovicidal and larvicidal activity in vitro of Eucalyptus globulus essential oils on Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara T. F. Macedo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus (OEEG sobre a eclosão e desenvolvimento de larvas de Haemonchus contortus. A determinação da composição química do OEEG foi feita por meio de cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massa. No teste de eclosão de ovos (TEO, utilizaram-se as concentrações 21,75; 17,4; 8,7; 5,43 e 2,71 mg.mL-1; e no de desenvolvimento larvar (TDL as concentrações foram 43,5; 21,75; 10,87; 5,43 e 2,71 mg.mL-1. Cada ensaio foi acompanhado por um controle positivo, 0,02 mg.mL-1 tiabendazol, no TEO e 0,008 mg.mL-1 ivermectina no TDL, e por um controle negativo com o diluente Tween 80 (3%. A eficácia máxima obtida pelo OEEG sobre ovos foi de 99,3% na concentração de 21,75 mg.mL-1 e, sobre larvas, 98,7% na concentração de 43,5 mg.mL-1. A concentração do OEEG, que inviabilizou 50% dos ovos e das larvas do parasito, foi de 8,3 e 6,92 mg.mL-1, respectivamente. A análise química do óleo identificou como principal componente o monoterpeno 1,8-cineol. O OEEG apresentou atividade ovicida e larvicida in vitro sobre H. contortus, determinando um bom potencial para utilização no controle de nematóides gastrintestinais de ovinos e caprinos.The objective of this work was to evaluate ovicidal and larvicidal effects of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil (EGEO on Haemonchus contortus. The chemical composition determination of EGEO was through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Egg hatch test (EHT was performed in concentrations 21.75; 17.4; 8.7; 5.43 e 2.71 mg.mL-1. In larval development test (LDT were used the concentrations 43.5; 21.75; 10.87; 5.43 e 2.71 mg.mL-1. Each trial was conducted by negative control with Tween 80 (3% and positive control, 0.02 mg.mL -1 of thiabendazole in EHT and 0.008 mg.mL-1 of ivermectin in LDT. The maximum effectiveness of EGEO on eggs was 99.3% in concentration of 21.75 mg.mL-1 and on larvae was 98.7% in concentration 43

  20. In vitro effect of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil on Penicillium sp.Efeito in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento de Penicillium sp.

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    Marcia Holanda Nozaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium sp. is the casual agent of moulds, considered the main citrus post-harvest disease, causing loss on the quality and quantity of marketable fruits. Besides economic loss, it can be included costs, transportation and fruit storage problems. The present work had the objective to verify the fungitoxic action of Eucalyptus globules essential oil on the in vitro control of Penicillium sp., evaluating mycelial growth, production and spores germination. The experiment was conduced on the Microbiology laboratory of PUC, Toledo campus, with eight treatments: 1%, 0,5%, 0,25%, 0,1%, 0,05% e 0,025% concentrations of eucalyptus oil added to PDA media (potato-dextrose-agar, negative control (PDA with addition of 40mg of azoxystrobin/L and positive control (PDA media only. The experimental design was according to a completely randomized design, with five replicates each treatment. The eucalyptus essential oil inhibited significantly the growth in the 1%, 0,5% e 0,25% concentrations, not differing statistically from control with fungicide azoxystrobin. The treatments presented the same behavior for spores production. For spores germination, the 1% e 0,5% concentrations had better control than treatment with azoxystrobin and the concentration of 0,25%. Others oil concentrations did not present significative results on the evaluations, being statistically equal to positive control (PDA.O fungo Penicillium sp. é o agente causal dos bolores, considerada a principal doença pós-colheita em citros, levando à perdas na qualidade e quantidade dos frutos comercializáveis. Além de perdas econômicas, uma vez que nas perdas pós-colheitas estão inclusos os custos, transporte e armazenagem de frutos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a ação fungitóxica do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus no controle in vitro de Penicillium sp., avaliando seu crescimento micelial, produção e a germinação de esporos. O experimento foi conduzido no

  1. Diseases on Eucalyptus species in Zimbabwean plantations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe embarked on planting Eucalyptus species in the early 1900s. Based on a robust breeding programme, it has become a major source of seed for other countries in and outside Africa. Tree health surveys conducted on Eucalyptus in some east and southern African countries over the past two decades have ...

  2. Chemical characteristics and Kraft pulping of tension wood from Eucalyptus globulus labill Características químicas e polpação Kraft de madeira de tração de Eucalyptus globulus labill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Graciela Aguayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tension (TW and opposite wood (OW of Eucalyptus globulus trees were analyzed for its chemical characteristics and Kraft pulp production. Lignin content was 16% lower and contained 32% more syringyl units in TW than in OW. The increase in syringyl units favoured the formation of β-O-4 bonds that was also higher in TW than in OW (84% vs. 64%, respectively. The effect of these wood features was evaluated in the production of Kraft pulps from both types of wood. At kappa number 16, Kraft pulps obtained from TW demanded less active alkali in delignification and presented slightly higher or similar pulp yield than pulps made with OW. Fiber length, coarseness and intrinsic viscosity were also higher in tension than in opposite pulps. When pulps where refined to 30°SR, TW pulps needed 18% more revolutions in the PFI mill to achieve the same beating degree than OW pulps. Strength properties (tensile, tear and burst indexes were slightly higher or similar in tension as compared with opposite wood pulps. After an OD0(EOD1 bleaching sequence, both pulps achieved up to 89% ISO brightness. Bleached pulps from TW presented higher viscosity and low amount of hexenuronic acids than pulps from OW. Results showed that TW presented high xylans and low lignin content that caused a decrease in alkali consumption, increase pulp strength properties and similar bleaching performance as compared with pulps from OW.Madeira de tração e oposta de árvores de Eucalyptus globulus foram analisadas quanto a suas características químicas e produção de polpa Kraft. A caracterização química da madeira de tração (TW de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. mostrou um conteúdo similar de celulose, alto conteúdo de xilanas e baixo conteúdo de lignina quando comparada com a madeira oposta (OW de uma mesma árvore. O conteúdo de lignina foi 16% menor e contém 32% mais unidades siringila em TW que em OW. O aumento das unidades siringila favoreceu a formação de ligações

  3. Dust loadings on some common plants near Lucknow city. [Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, M.; Dwivedi, A.K.; Kulshreshtha, K.; Ahmad, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Eight plant species - Acacia melanoxylon, Bauhinia malabarica, Bougain-villea glabra, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Eucalyptus globulus, Ipomoea fistulosa and Peltophorum pterocarpum - were collected from a newly established suburb colony of Lucknow city, where the major pollutant is dust, to study the dust cleansing efficiency of the plant canopy and also to establish the correlation between the leaf morphological characteristics and their dust trapping potential. The dust load, in milligrams per square centimeter of leaf surface, was measured and related to foliar epidermal and cuticular characteristics, and morphological features.

  4. Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and nutrient manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    We examined resource limitations on growth and carbon allocation in a fast-growing, clonal plantation of Eucalyptus grandis urophylla in Brazil by characterizing responses to annual rainfall, and response to irrigation and fertililization for 2 years. Productivity measures included gross primary production (GPP), total belowground carbon allocation (...

  5. Inhibition of growth and biofilm formation of clinical bacterial isolates by NiO nanoparticles synthesized from Eucalyptus globulus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Samia; Ahmed, Bilal; Khan, Mohammad Saghir; Al-Shaeri, Majed; Musarrat, Javed

    2017-10-01

    Nanotechnology based therapeutics has emerged as a promising approach for augmenting the activity of existing antimicrobials due to the unique physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs). Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) have been suggested as prospective antibacterial and antitumor agent. In this study, NiO-NPs have been synthesized by a green approach using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract and assessed for their bactericidal activity. The morphology and purity of synthesized NiO-NPs determined through various spectroscopic techniques like UV-Visible, FT-IR, XRD, EDX and electron microscopy differed considerably. The synthesized NiO-NPs were pleomorphic varying in size between 10 and 20 nm. The XRD analysis revealed the average size of NiO-NPs as 19 nm. The UV-Vis spectroscopic data showed a strong SPR of NiO-NPs with a characteristic spectral peak at 396 nm. The FTIR data revealed various functional moieties like C=C, C-N, C-H and O-H which elucidate the role of leaf biomolecules in capping and dispersal of NiO-NPs. The bioactivity assay revealed the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of NiO-NPs against ESβL (+) E. coli, P. aeruginosa, methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus. Growth inhibition assay demonstrated time and NiO-NPs concentration dependent decrease in the viability of treated cells. NiO-NPs induced biofilm inhibition was revealed by a sharp increase in characteristic red fluorescence of PI, while SEM images of NiO-NPs treated cells were irregular shrink and distorted with obvious depressions/indentations. The results suggested significant antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of NiO-NPs which may play an important role in the management of infectious diseases affecting human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Concerted transcription of auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis-related genes underlies improved adventitious rooting of microcuttings derived from far-red treated Eucalyptus globulus Labill mother plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedell, Carolina Michels; de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-12-01

    Economically important plant species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, are often rooting recalcitrant. We have previously shown that far-red light enrichment applied to E. globulus donor-plants improved microcutting rooting competence and increased rooting zone/shoot carbohydrate ratio. To better understand this developmental response, the relative expression profiles of genes involved in auxin signaling (ARF6, ARF8, AGO1), biosynthesis (YUC3) and transport (AUX1, PIN1, PIN2); sucrose cleavage (SUS1, CWINV1), transport (SUC5), hexose phosphorylation (HXK1, FLN1) and starch biosynthesis (SS3) were quantified during adventitious rooting of E. globulus microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far-red or white light. Expression of auxin transport-related genes increased in the first days of root induction. Far-red enrichment of donor plants induced ARF6, ARF8 and AGO1 in microcuttings. The first two gene products could activate GH3 and other rooting related genes, whereas AGO1 deregulation of the repressor ARF17 may relief rooting inhibition. Increased sink strength at the basal stem with sucrose unloading in root tissue mediated by SUC and subsequent hydrolysis by SUS1 were also supported by gene expression profile. Fructose phosphorylation and starch biosynthesis could also contribute to proper carbon allocation at the site of rooting, as evidenced by increased expression of related genes. These data are in good agreement with increased contents of hexoses and starch at the cutting base severed from far-red exposed donor plants. To sum up, pathways integrating auxin and carbohydrate metabolism were activated in microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far red light enrichment, thereby improving rooting response in E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining autohydrolysis and ionic liquid microwave treatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of Eucalyptus globulus wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigual, Victoria; Santos, Tamara M; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Alonso, M Virginia; Oliet, Mercedes; Rodriguez, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    The combination of autohydrolysis and ionic liquid microwave treatments of eucalyptus wood have been studied to facilitate sugar production in a subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis step. Three autohydrolysis conditions (150 °C, 175 °C and 200 °C) in combination with two ionic liquid temperatures (80 °C and 120 °C) were compared in terms of chemical composition, enzymatic digestibility and sugar production. Morphology was measured (using SEM) and the biomass surface was visualized with confocal fluorescence microscopy. The synergistic cooperation of both treatments was demonstrated, enhancing cellulose accessibility. At intermediate autohydrolysis conditions (175 °C) and low ionic liquid temperature (80 °C), a glucan digestibility of 84.4% was obtained. Using SEM micrographs, fractal dimension (as a measure of biomass complexity) and lacunarity (as a measure of homogeneity) were calculated before and after pretreatment. High fractals dimensions and low lacunarities correspond to morphologically complex and homogeneous samples, that are better digested by enzyme cocktails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mixed plantations of Eucalyptus and leguminous trees enhance biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Craig D. Whitesell; Thomas H. Schubert

    1985-01-01

    Two Eucalyptus species-E. saligna Sm. and E. grandis Hill-are especially favored in Hawaii forwood, fiber, and fuel production because of their quick growth and high yields. Their growth is limited, however, on many sites by low levels of available nitrogen. Supplemental nitrogen can be provided by nitrogen-...

  9. Review Paper Les plantations d'Eucalyptus au Sahel : distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOUMARE

    la Francophonie pour avoir soutenu cette étude à travers une bourse de formation. RESUME ..... 1968-2000. Climat saharien. Climat sahélien. Climat soudano-sahélien. Frontières des .... universalis: Global cultivated Eucalyptus forests Map ...

  10. Mapping aboveground carbon stocks using LiDAR data in Eucalyptus spp. plantations in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Samuel de Padua Chaves e Carvalho; Andrew T. Hudak; e Luiz Carlos Estraviz. Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Fast growing plantation forests provide a low-cost means to sequester carbon for greenhouse gas abatement. The aim of this study was to evaluate airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) to predict aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks in Eucalyptus spp. plantations. Biometric parameters (tree height (Ht) and diameter at breast height (DBH)) were collected from...

  11. A principal component approach for predicting the stem volume in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil using airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew T. Hudak; Lee A. Vierling; Veraldo Liesenberg; Samuel P. C. e Carvalho; Luiz C. E. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Improving management practices in industrial forest plantations may increase production efficiencies, thereby reducing pressures on native tropical forests for meeting global pulp needs. This study aims to predict stem volume (V) in plantations of fast-growing Eucalyptus hybrid clones located in southeast Brazil using field plot and airborne Light Detection...

  12. Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Márcia R; Ruedell, Carolina M; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Sperotto, Raul A; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2010-09-20

    Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR); however, reliable use of this technique requires reference genes for normalization. There is no single reference gene that can be regarded as universal for all experiments and biological materials. Thus, the identification of reliable reference genes must be done for every species and experimental approach. The present study aimed at identifying suitable control genes for normalization of gene expression associated with adventitious rooting in E. globulus microcuttings. By the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes in E. globulus: 18S, ACT2, EF2, EUC12, H2B, IDH, SAND, TIP41, TUA, UBI and 33380. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in microccuttings rooted in vitro, in presence or absence of auxin, along six time-points spanning the process of adventitious rooting. Overall, the stability profiles of these genes determined with each one of the algorithms were very similar. Slight differences were observed in the most stable pair of genes indicated by each program: IDH and SAND for geNorm, and H2B and TUA for NormFinder. Both programs identified UBI and 18S as the most variable genes. To validate these results and select the most suitable reference genes, the expression profile of the ARGONAUTE1 gene was evaluated in relation to the most stable candidate genes indicated by each algorithm. Our study showed that expression stability varied between putative reference genes tested in E. globulus. Based on the AGO1 relative expression

  13. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio T C C Rachid

    Full Text Available Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.

  14. Intercropped Silviculture Systems, a Key to Achieving Soil Fungal Community Management in Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that. PMID:25706388

  15. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Fonseca, Eduardo S; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M; Tiedje, James M; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.

  16. Captura de carbono en rebrotes de eucalyptus globulus labill “eucaliptus” en motil, provincia de Otuzco del departamento de La Libertad-Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro Nureña, Rafael Otoniel

    2017-01-01

    It was determined biomass, carbon content in plots of 250 square meters in 10 stands of eucalyptus plantations in the village of Motil Agallpampa district of the province of Otuzco, La Libertad, Peru .Was determined models biomass and carbon was determined by regression analysis based on the method of least squares ,method presented by Adler (1980); for this combinations of independent variables dap and height were selected using a spreadsheet (Excel). The equations chosen were those with the...

  17. Biomass harvesting in Eucalyptus plantations in Western Australia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australia is at an early stage of exploring the use of forest biomass to generate energy. This study evaluated the biomass yield and the productivity rates of equipment for harvesting biomass in a poor-quality eucalypt plantation. The operation consisted of a tracked feller-buncher, grapple skidder and mobile chipper.

  18. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  19. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiong Li

    Full Text Available Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR and a second rotation (SR stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC and soil organic matter (SOC stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1, respectively and forest floor carbon (FFC conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1. The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  20. Les plantations d' Eucalyptus au Sahel: distribution, importance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grâce à leur plasticité et leur rusticité, les espèces du genre Eucalyptus sont parmi les essences forestières les plus utilisées pour le reboisement en vue de lutter contre la désertification au Sahel. Toutefois, l'expansion rapide de ces espèces originaires d'Australie dans le Sahel, est surtout liée au succès économique de ...

  1. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onice Teresinha Dall'Oglio

    Full Text Available The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order.

  2. Can the Understory Affect the Hymenoptera Parasitoids in a Eucalyptus Plantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall’Oglio, Onice Teresinha; Ribeiro, Rafael Coelho; Ramalho, Francisco de Souza; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; de Assis Júnior, Sebastião Lourenço; Rueda, Rosa Angélica Plata; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    The understory in forest plantations can increase richness and diversity of natural enemies due to greater plant species richness. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the presence of the understory and climatic season in the region (wet or dry) can increase the richness and abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids in Eucalyptus plantations, in the municipality of Belo Oriente, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In each eucalyptus cultivation (five areas of cultivation) ten Malaise traps were installed, five with the understory and five without it. A total of 9,639 individuals from 30 families of the Hymenoptera parasitoids were collected, with Mymaridae, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae and Braconidae being the most collected ones with 4,934, 1,212, 619 and 612 individuals, respectively. The eucalyptus stands with and without the understory showed percentage of individuals 45.65% and 54.35% collected, respectively. The understory did not represent a positive effect on the overall abundance of the individuals Hymenoptera in the E. grandis stands, but rather exerted a positive effect on the specific families of the parasitoids of this order. PMID:26954578

  3. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  4. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, P.H.M.; Poggiani, F.; Laclau, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha - '1) and 86 % higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  5. Applying Sewage Sludge to Eucalyptus grandis Plantations: Effects on Biomass Production and Nutrient Cycling through Litterfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian cities sewage sludge is dumped into sanitary landfills, even though its use in forest plantations as a fertilizer and soil conditioner might be an interesting option. Sewage sludge applications might reduce the amounts of mineral fertilizers needed to sustain the productivity on infertile tropical soils. However, sewage sludge must be applied with care to crops to avoid soil and water pollution. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of dry and wet sewage sludges on the growth and nutrient cycling of Eucalyptus grandis plantations established on the most common soil type for Brazilian eucalypt plantations. Biomass production and nutrient cycling were studied over a 36-month period in a complete randomized block design. Four experimental treatments were compared: wet sewage sludge, dry sludge, mineral fertilizer, and no fertilizer applications. The two types of sludges as well as mineral fertilizer increased significantly the biomass of Eucalyptus trees. Wood biomass productions 36 months after planting were similar in the sewage sludge and mineral fertilization treatments (about 80 tons ha−1 and 86% higher than in the control treatment. Sewage sludge application also affected positively leaf litter production and significantly increased nutrient transfer among the components of the ecosystem.

  6. [Community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantations at different slope locations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhong, Yu; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wan-qin

    2010-09-01

    To understand the effects of slope location on the community structure of soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantation, an investigation was made on the soil fauna in 3 E. grandis plantations at different slope locations in the hilly area of Sichuan Province from January to October 2009. A total of 39,2762 individuals were observed, belonging to 146 groups, 7 phyla, 16 classes, and 31 orders. The community composition, trophic group, diversity, and seasonal dynamics of soil fauna in the plantations all varied with slope. The abundance of macro-fauna, xeric meso- and micro-fauna, saprophagous macro-fauna, and omnivorous xeric meso- and micro-fauna increased with the decrease of slope, indicating that soil fauna had sensitive responses to the soil environmental factors affected by slope. Significant differences in the diversity of soil saprophagous macro-fauna and hygrophilous meso- and micro-fauna were observed at different slope locations, suggesting that these two faunal groups could be used as the indicators of the habitat heterogeneity of E. grandis plantations at different slope. Overall, slope location had definite effects on the community structure and distribution of soil fauna in the E. grandis plantations, but the effects were not statistically significant.

  7. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Eucalyptus globulus Bark—A Promising Approach for Triterpenoid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus bark contains significant amounts of triterpenoids with demonstrated bioactivity, namely triterpenic acids and their acetyl derivatives (ursolic, betulinic, oleanolic, betulonic, 3-acetylursolic, and 3-acetyloleanolic acids. In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Eucalyptus globulus deciduous bark was carried out with pure and modified carbon dioxide to recover this fraction, and the results were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane. The effects of pressure (100–200 bar, co-solvent (ethanol content (0, 5 and 8% wt, and multistep operation were studied in order to evaluate the applicability of SFE for their selective and efficient production. The individual extraction curves of the main families of compounds were measured, and the extracts analyzed by GC-MS. Results pointed out the influence of pressure and the important role played by the co-solvent. Ethanol can be used with advantage, since its effect is more important than increasing pressure by several tens of bar. At 160 bar and 40 °C, the introduction of 8% (wt of ethanol greatly improves the yield of triterpenoids more than threefold.

  8. Landfill: Comparison of pedogenesis between sites of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh plantation and naturalized herbaceus vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfranco, J. W.; Marlats, R. M.; Baridon, E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was compared different levels of pedogenetics process between sites with Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation and naturalized grass. The trial was installed on landfill soil cover in Villa Domínico, Buenos Aires Province, Argentine, CEAMSE, 34°40’S,50’’; 58°18’45’’W; 4m osl. At five age of trees and forteen of the Landfill was realized the following determination: 1- Physical and Chemicals caracterization of own microsite tree and analogical microsite without trees inf...

  9. Main lepidopteran pest species from an eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha V Zanuncio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera species were monitored in a plantation of Eucalyptus grandis in the Municipality of Bom Despacho, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil from March 1987 to February 1992. A total of 547 species were collected and divided in: primary pests: 13; secondary pests: 20; species without defined importance to eucalyptus: 79; and non-identified species: 435. These four groups had a mean of 5231.29; 338.18; 438.16 and 2222.87 individuals with a total of 8229.87 individuals collected per trap. The number of species without defined importance to eucalyptus, and non-identified species, increased during the collecting period of five years while those of primary and secondary pests showed similar numbers in all years. The most collected primary pests Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll and Stenalcidia sp. (Geometridae showed higher frequencies during the driest and coldest periods of the year, whereas Psorocampa denticulata Schaus (Notodontidae was most frequent during periods of higher rainfall. Species of groups III and IV increased in diversity with eucalyptus age. This area has a high probability of outbreaks of eucalyptus defoliating caterpillars, especially T. arnobia. For this reason, lepidopteran pests should be monitored in this plantation during the driest and coldest periods of the year, when they can reach population peaks. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 553-560. Epub 2006 Jun 01.De marzo de 1987 a febrero de 1992 se realizó un monitoreo con trampas luminosas en plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis en Bom Despacho, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Se recolectaron 547 especies del orden Lepidoptera: plagas primarias: 13; plagas secundarias: 20; especies sin importancia definida para el cultivo de eucalipto: 79; y especies no identificadas: 435. Estos cuatro grupos tuvieron medias de 5231.29; 338,18; 438.16 y 2222.87 individuos por trampa respectivamente, para un total de 8229.87 lepidopteros recolectados por trampa. Durante los cinco años hubo un aumento del número de

  10. VARIABILIDAD Y RELACION ENTRE LAS PROPIEDADES ANATOMICAS, QUIMICAS Y LA APTITUD PULPABLE, EN CLONES DE EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS.

    OpenAIRE

    RAMIREZ VIDAL, MAURICIO HERNAN; RAMIREZ VIDAL, MAURICIO HERNAN

    2008-01-01

    Se estudió la variación de la anatomía de la madera, variables biornétricas, aptitud pulpable y propiedades de la pulpa, en 14 clones de E. globulus de 7 años de edad, creciendo en un ensayo clonal en la zona de Arauco, región del Bio-Bio, Chile. Las Cara 61p.

  11. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur P. A. Pereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0–20 cm and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E and A. mangium (A plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N and an E. grandis, and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A. The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient (qCO2 showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our

  12. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Arthur P. A.; Zagatto, Maurício R. G.; Brandani, Carolina B.; Mescolotti, Denise de Lourdes; Cotta, Simone R.; Gonçalves, José L. M.; Cardoso, Elke J. B. N.

    2018-01-01

    Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0–20 cm) and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E) and A. mangium (A) plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N) and an E. grandis, and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A). The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A) increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient (qCO2) showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF) and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our results are

  13. Acacia Changes Microbial Indicators and Increases C and N in Soil Organic Fractions in Intercropped Eucalyptus Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Arthur P A; Zagatto, Maurício R G; Brandani, Carolina B; Mescolotti, Denise de Lourdes; Cotta, Simone R; Gonçalves, José L M; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2018-01-01

    Intercropping forest plantations of Eucalyptus with nitrogen-fixing trees can increase soil N inputs and stimulate soil organic matter (OM) cycling. However, microbial indicators and their correlation in specific fractions of soil OM are unclear in the tropical sandy soils. Here, we examined the microbial indicators associated with C and N in the soil resulting from pure and intercropped Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium plantations. We hypothesized that introduction of A. mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation promotes changes in microbial indicators and increases C and N concentrations on labile fractions of the soil OM, when compared to pure eucalyptus plantations. We determined the microbial and enzymatic activity, and the potential for C degradation by the soil microbial community. Additionally, we evaluated soil OM fractions and litter parameters. Soil (0-20 cm) and litter samples were collected at 27 and 39 months after planting from the following treatments: pure E. grandis (E) and A. mangium (A) plantations, pure E. grandis plantations with N fertilizer (E+N) and an E. grandis , and A. mangium intercropped plantations (E+A). The results showed that intercropped plantations (E+A) increase 3, 45, and 70% microbial biomass C as compared to A, E+N, and E, at 27 months after planting. The metabolic quotient ( q CO 2 ) showed a tendency toward stressful values in pure E. grandis plantations and a strong correlation with dehydrogenase activity. A and E+A treatments also exhibited the highest organic fractions (OF) and C and N contents. A canonical redundancy analysis revealed positive correlations between microbial indicators of soil and litter attributes, and a strong effect of C and N variables in differentiating A and E+A from E and E+N treatments. The results suggested that a significant role of A. mangium enhance the dynamics of soil microbial indicators which help in the accumulation of C and N in soil OF in intercropped E. grandis plantations. Our results

  14. Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. In all, 402 species were collected, of which 10 were primary pests, nine were secondary pests, and the remaining bore no definite relevance to eucalyptus. Primary pests formed a low percentage of the total species, although they recorded a high percentage of the total number of individuals. The abundance of secondary pests, except in Caracuru, was less than 150 specimens annually. Primary pests showed higher population peaks during periods of low precipitation. The small number of species and the high abundance of primary and secondary pests could be due to the availability of food, or a deficiency in natural biological control. This suggests the possibilities of population outbreaks in the eucalyptus plantations. The period of highest occurrence for insect species in these crops must be identified so that suitable strategies can be developed for Integrated Pest Management.

  15. Converging patterns of vertical variability in leaf morphology and nitrogen across seven Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil and Hawaii, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam P. Coble; Alisha Autio; Molly A. Cavaleri; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Across sites in Brazil and Hawaii, LMA and Nmass were strongly correlated with height and shade index, respectively, which may help simplify canopy function modeling of Eucalyptus plantations. Abstract Within tree canopies, leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen per unit area (Narea) commonly increase with height. Previous research has suggested that these patterns...

  16. Leaf area index estimation with MODIS reflectance time series and model inversion during full rotations of Eucalyptus plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maire, Le G.; Marsden, C.; Verhoef, W.; Ponzoni, F.J.; Seen, Lo D.; Bégué, A.; Stape, J.L.; Nouvellon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) of fast-growing Eucalyptus plantations is highly dynamic both seasonally and inter-annually, and is spatially variable depending on pedo-climatic conditions. LAI is very important in determining the carbon and water balance of a stand, but is difficult to measure during a

  17. Impacts of population structure and analytical models in genome-wide association studies of complex traits in forest trees: a case study in Eucalyptus globulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo P Cappa

    Full Text Available The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model ( UMM on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303 with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S:G ratio, a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S:G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  18. Impacts of Population Structure and Analytical Models in Genome-Wide Association Studies of Complex Traits in Forest Trees: A Case Study in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Martín N.; Acuña, Cintia; Borralho, Nuno M. G.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Marcucci Poltri, Susana N.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of association genetics to identify genes or genomic regions controlling complex traits has generated a flurry of interest. Such phenotype-genotype associations could be useful to accelerate tree breeding cycles, increase precision and selection intensity for late expressing, low heritability traits. However, the prospects of association genetics in highly heterozygous undomesticated forest trees can be severely impacted by the presence of cryptic population and pedigree structure. To investigate how to better account for this, we compared the GLM and five combinations of the Unified Mixed Model (UMM) on data of a low-density genome-wide association study for growth and wood property traits carried out in a Eucalyptus globulus population (n = 303) with 7,680 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Model comparisons were based on the degree of deviation from the uniform distribution and estimates of the mean square differences between the observed and expected p-values of all significant marker-trait associations detected. Our analysis revealed the presence of population and family structure. There was not a single best model for all traits. Striking differences in detection power and accuracy were observed among the different models especially when population structure was not accounted for. The UMM method was the best and produced superior results when compared to GLM for all traits. Following stringent correction for false discoveries, 18 marker-trait associations were detected, 16 for tree diameter growth and two for lignin monomer composition (S∶G ratio), a key wood property trait. The two DArT markers associated with S∶G ratio on chromosome 10, physically map within 1 Mbp of the ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) gene, providing a putative independent validation of this marker-trait association. This study details the merit of collectively integrate population structure and relatedness in association analyses in undomesticated, highly

  19. Effect of the activity of the Brazilian polyherbal formulation: Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Peltodon radicans Pohl and Schinus terebinthifolius Radd in inflammatory models

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    Karina C.P. Medeiros

    Full Text Available The Brazilian polyherbal formulation (BPF is composed by dyes of Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Peltodon radicans Pohl and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi in alcohol at 13.3° GL. The formulation is popularly used in Paraíba state, Brazil since 1889 and it is used as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the polyherbal formulation. For this purpose it was used the12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA and capsaicin-induced mouse ear edema and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The BPF at dose of 26 mL/Kg inhibited both 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA and capsaicin-induced ear edema by 49% (p < 0.05 and 24% (p < 0.01 respectively. Preliminary results on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema demonstrated that oral administration also inhibited the paw edema by approximately 29%. The results demonstrate that the Brazilian polyherbal formulation has anti-inflammatory activity and the better dose was the one used by the population.

  20. A Biorefinery Cascade Conversion of Hemicellulose-Free Eucalyptus Globulus Wood: Production of Concentrated Levulinic Acid Solutions for γ-Valerolactone Sustainable Preparation

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    Sandra Rivas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to preliminary aqueous processing to remove water-soluble extractives and hemicelluloses, and the resulting solid (mainly made up of cellulose and lignin was employed as a substrate for converting the cellulosic fraction into mixtures of levulinic and formic acid through a sulfuric acid-catalyzed reaction. These runs were carried out in a microwave-heated reactor at different temperatures and reaction times, operating in single-batch or cross-flow modes, in order to identify the most favorable operational conditions. Selected liquid phases deriving from these experiments, which resulted in concentrated levulinic acid up to 408 mmol/L, were then employed for γ-valerolactone production by levulinc acid hydrogenation in the presence of the commercial 5% Ru/C catalyst. In order to assess the effects of the main reaction parameters, hydrogenation experiments were performed at different temperatures, reaction times, amounts of ruthenium catalyst and hydrogen pressure. Yields of γ-valerolactone in the range of 85–90 mol % were obtained from the hydrogenation of the wood-derived solutions containing levulinic acid, obtained by single-batch operation or by the cross-flow process. The negative effect of co-produced formic acid present in crude levulinic acid solutions was evidenced and counteracted efficiently by allowing the preliminary thermal decomposition of formic acid itself.

  1. ESTIMATIVA DA BIOMASSA E DO CONTEÚDO DE NUTRIENTES DE UM POVOAMENTO DE Eucalyptus globulus (Labillardière SUB-ESPÉCIE maidenii

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estimar a produção de biomassa acima do solo e determinar o conteúdo de nutrientes nos diferentes componentes das árvores de um povoamento de Eucalyptus globulus subespécie maidenii. Os dados foram coletados em um talhão de 4 anos de idade, plantado em solo argiloso, no município de Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul. Para determinar a quantidade de biomassa, foi utilizada uma equação de regressão (lnY = a + b * lnX cujos coeficientes foram calculados com base em nove árvores amostradas em diferentes classes diamétricas. A biomassa total acima do solo foi de 83,2 Mg ha-1, em que 13; 10; 9 e 68 % encontravam-se distribuídos nas folhas, ramos, casca e madeira, respectivamente. Do total dos elementos na árvore, na madeira do tronco foram encontrados 29; 29; 40; 12,5 e 34% de N, P, K, Ca e Mg respectivamente. Já na copa das árvores, esses mesmos elementos representaram 64; 56; 48,5; 32 e 39%. A casca foi o componente que acumulou as maiores quantidades de cálcio, (55,3% do total.

  2. Reactivity of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin units and delignification kinetics in the kraft pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood using Py-GC-MS/FID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana; Gominho, Jorge; Marques, António Velez; Pereira, Helena

    2012-11-01

    Eucalyptus globulus sapwood and heartwood showed no differences in lignin content (23.0% vs. 23.7%) and composition: syringyl-lignin (17.9% vs. 18.0%) and guaiacyl-lignin (4.8% vs. 5.2%). Delignification kinetics of S- and G-units in heartwood and sapwood was investigated by Py-GC-MS/FID at 130, 150 and 170°C and modeled as double first-order reactions. Reactivity differences between S and G-units were small during the main pulping phase and the higher reactivity of S over G units was better expressed in the later pulping stage. The residual lignin composition in pulps was different from wood or from samples in the initial delignification stages, with more G and H-units. S/G ratio ranged from 3 to 4.5 when pulp residual lignin was higher than 10%, decreasing rapidly to less than 1. The S/H was initially around 20 (until 15% residual lignin), decreasing to 4 when residual lignin was about 3%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ensaios clínicos toxicológicos, fase I, de um fitoterápico composto (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill

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    Patrícia Trindade C. Paulo

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foram realizados ensaios clínicos toxicológicos, fase I, do produto fitoterápico composto pelas plantas medicinais Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill. O estudo foi realizado no Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley/UFPB/PB e, para isto, foram selecionados 28 voluntários sadios, sendo 14 homens e 14 mulheres que ingeriram por via oral, ininterruptamente durante 8 semanas, 15 mL do produto, três vezes ao dia; e no 3º e 7º dia, 3ª e 6ª semanas e 24 h após a 8ª semana, foram feitas avaliações clínicas e laboratoriais para análise da toxicidade aguda e crônica. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os pacientes não apresentaram alterações clínicas, laboratoriais e reações adversas significantes, apenas pequenas alterações foram detectadas no sangue através da aspartato transaminase (AST e fosfatase alcalina no grupo feminino para um p < 0,05; no entanto, estes valores determinados permaneceram dentro dos valores de normalidade para indivíduos adultos. Conclui-se que estes dados, em complementação àqueles obtidos com os estudos pré-clínicos, confirmam a baixa toxicidade do produto fitoterápico.

  4. Predicción bayesiana de parámetros genéticos en clones de Eucalyptus globulus bajo condiciones de suplemento hídrico

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    Freddy Mora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis Bayesiano de parámetros genéticos del crecimiento en 29 clones de Eucalyptus globulus de doce meses de edad, en el sur de Chile. Se consideraron dos condiciones ambientales contrastantes en cuanto a la disponibilidad hídrica: 1. Sin irrigación, y 2. Las plantas se irrigaron con un sistema localizado de riego. Para el análisis Bayesiano se utilizó el algoritmo de Gibbs en un modelo de interacción clonambiente. Los valores de heredabilidad fueron altos en la condición de riego (moda a posteriori de H^2=0,41, 0,36 y 0,39 para la altura, diámetro y área basal, respectivamente, en tanto que en la situación sin riego, los valores de las heredabilidades fueron significativamente más bajos; confirmado por medio de los intervalos de credibilidad Bayesianos (95 % de probabilidad. La moda a posteriori de la correlación genética entre sitios fue positiva y alta para las tres características (r=0,7, 0,65 y 0,8, para altura, diámetro y área basal, respectivamente, y de acuerdo al intervalo de credibilidad, esta correlación fue estadísticamente diferente de cero, indicando una interacción no significativa.

  5. Effects of the interception of litterfall by the understory on carbon cycling in eucalyptus plantations of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Wang, Jun; Huang, Yuhui; Hui, Dafeng; Wen, Meili

    2014-01-01

    For the purposes of forest restoration, carbon (C) fixation, and economic improvement, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla) has been widely planted in South China. The understory of eucalyptus plantations is often occupied by a dense community of the fern Dicranopteris dichotoma, which intercepts tree canopy leaf litter before it reaches the ground. To understand the effects of this interception of litterfall on C cycling in eucalyptus plantations, we quantified the mass of intercepted litter and the influences of litterfall interception on litter decomposition and soil respiration. The total mass of E. urophylla litterfall collected on the understory was similar to that collected by the traditional litter trap method. All of the eucalyptus litterfall is intercepted by the D. dichotoma canopy. Of the litterfall that was intercepted by D. dichotoma, 20-40% and 60-80% was intercepted by the top (50-100 cm) and bottom (0-50 cm) of the understory canopy, respectively. Intercepted litterfall decomposed faster at the bottom of understory canopy (at the base of the plants) than at the top, and decomposition was slower on the soil surface in the absence of understory than on any location in the understory canopy. Soil respiration was highest when both the understory and litter were present and was lowest when both the understory and litter were absent. These results indicate that litterfall interception changed carbon flow between aboveground and belowground through litter decomposition and soil respiration, which changed carbon cycling in eucalyptus plantations. The effects of the understory on litter decomposition and soil respiration should be considered in ecosystem carbon models.

  6. Effects of the interception of litterfall by the understory on carbon cycling in eucalyptus plantations of South China.

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    Long Yang

    Full Text Available For the purposes of forest restoration, carbon (C fixation, and economic improvement, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla has been widely planted in South China. The understory of eucalyptus plantations is often occupied by a dense community of the fern Dicranopteris dichotoma, which intercepts tree canopy leaf litter before it reaches the ground. To understand the effects of this interception of litterfall on C cycling in eucalyptus plantations, we quantified the mass of intercepted litter and the influences of litterfall interception on litter decomposition and soil respiration. The total mass of E. urophylla litterfall collected on the understory was similar to that collected by the traditional litter trap method. All of the eucalyptus litterfall is intercepted by the D. dichotoma canopy. Of the litterfall that was intercepted by D. dichotoma, 20-40% and 60-80% was intercepted by the top (50-100 cm and bottom (0-50 cm of the understory canopy, respectively. Intercepted litterfall decomposed faster at the bottom of understory canopy (at the base of the plants than at the top, and decomposition was slower on the soil surface in the absence of understory than on any location in the understory canopy. Soil respiration was highest when both the understory and litter were present and was lowest when both the understory and litter were absent. These results indicate that litterfall interception changed carbon flow between aboveground and belowground through litter decomposition and soil respiration, which changed carbon cycling in eucalyptus plantations. The effects of the understory on litter decomposition and soil respiration should be considered in ecosystem carbon models.

  7. Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Farah A.; Fechtal M.; Chaouch A.

    2002-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies a...

  8. ESTABLISHMENT TECHNIQUES FOR TROPICAL LEGUMES IN THE UNDERSTORY OF A EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION

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    Maria Luiza Franceschi Nicodemo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated establishment methods for a mixture of herbaceous forage legumes [Centrosema acutifolium, Clitoria ternatea, Pueraria phaseoloides, Stylosanthes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata + S. macrocephala, Calopogonium mucunoides, Lablab purpureus, Arachis pintoi, and Aeschynomene villosa] under the shade of an Eucalyptus grandis plantation submitted to thinning (40% 8 years after planting in Anhembi, São Paulo (22°40'S, 48°10'W, altitude of 455 m. The experiment started in December 2008 and consisted of the comparison of the following four types of seed incorporation by light disc harrowing: (1 broadcast sowing without seed incorporation; disc harrowing before (2 or after (3 planting, and (4 disc harrowing before and after planting. Ninety days after planting, the number of legume plants/m2 and the percentage of ground cover by the plants varied between the treatments tested; however, the treatments had no effect on the dry matter accumulation of forage legumes. Disc harrowing before planting yielded superior results compared to the treatments without disc harrowing and disc harrowing after planting. At the end of the experimental period, the plots contained Arachis, Centrosema, Stylosanthes, and Pueraria. The dry matter accumulated by Centrosema corresponded to 73% of total dry matter yield of the plots. The participation of Arachis, Centrosema and Stylosanthes in final dry matter composition of the plots varied according to establishment method. The advantages of the use of species mixtures rather than monocultures in the understory of forest plantations were discussed.

  9. CARACTERIZACION DE RIZOBACTERIAS PROMOTORAS DEL ENRAIZAMIENTO DE ESTACAS DE EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS LABILL. : MECANISMOS DE ACCION Y FLUCTUACION POBLACIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    DIAZ PERALTA, KATY PAULINA; DIAZ PERALTA, KATY PAULINA

    2009-01-01

    Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus spp en Chile, son altamente valoradas en el mercado mundial, su producción se basa en la propagación vegetativa de plantas en viveros, a través de estacas y miniestacas; sin embargo, ex iste una variabilidad en el potencial del enraizamiento entre clones de especies e híbridos del género, lo cual no permite obtener el total de plantas en los programas de producción clonal. Diversos estudios han demostrado que bacterias rizosféricas denominadas bacterias promotor...

  10. Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft

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    Javier Doldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption

  11. [Distribution pattern of meso-micro soil fauna in Eucalyptus grandis plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wanqin

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, meso-micro soil fauna were extracted and collected by Baermann's and Tullgren' s method, and their distribution pattern in the Eucalyptus grandis plantation of Hongya County, Sichuan Province was studied. A total of 13 550 specimens were collected, belonging to 6 phyla, 13 classes, and 26 orders. Acarina, Nematoda, Collembola were the dominant groups, and Enchytraeidae was the frequent one. The group and individual numbers of meso-micro soil fauna varied with seasons, being the maximum in autumn or winter, fewer in summer, and the minimum in spring. The density of meso-micro soil fauna in soil profile decreased rapidly with increasing soil depth, but a converse distribution was observed from time to time in 5 - 10 cm and 10 - 15 cm soil layers. The meso-micro soil fauna collected by Baermann's and Tullgren's method had a density of 3. 333 x 10(3) - 2. 533 x 10(5) ind x m(-2) and 1.670 x 10(2) - 2.393 x 10(5) ind x m(-2), respectively, and the decreasing rate of the density with the increase of soil depth was higher for those collected by Tullgren's method. The density-group index of meso-micro soil fauna in the E. grandis plantation was the lowest in spring, but the highest in autumn or summer. There were no significant differences in the density of meso-micro soil fauna and in the density-group index between E. grandis plantation and Quercus acutissima secondary forest.

  12. ESTUDIOS SOBRE EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO DE Acromyrmex lundi Guering (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE Y SU EFECTO SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE PROCEDENCIAS DE Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Myrtaceae

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    Carmen Lidia Martínez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El ataque de las hormigas cortadoras es una de las principales razones de pérdida de plantas durante la etapa de establecimiento de un monte forestal. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la intensidad de forrajeo de Acromyrmex lundi asociado a algunas condiciones ambientales y procedencias de Eucalyptus globulus y estimar el impacto de la herbivoría sobre el crecimiento inicial de estos árboles. Dos ensayos se llevaron a cabo durante dos temporadas estivo-otoñales consecutivas, en el Campo Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Luján, Argentina. Los materiales de diferentes procedencias fueron dispuestos en bloques equidistantes a 5 m de un nido activo de A. lundi. Durante doce semanas se contabilizó el número de hojas cortadas por las hormigas y se registraron algunas variables meteorológicas. En el segundo año la mitad de las parcelas fue protegida de las hormigas y se midieron variables de crecimiento. Los materiales de todas las procedencias fueron atacadas por A. lundi, aunque el número de hojas cosechada fue significativamente diferente sólo entre los orígenes Flinders Island (52,5 hojas y Nullo Mountain (28,5 hojas. El número de días lluviosos fue el único factor ambiental que se relacionó positivamente con la actividad de las hormigas.Todos los tratamientos redujeron significativamente la altura, el diámetro y el área foliar cuando fueron atacados por las hormigas. Las distintas procedencias compensaron diferencialemnte la herbivoría. Se discuten los resultados en función de los criterios a tener en cuenta para la selección de materiales genéticos como herramienta de manejo y control del ataque de A. lundi.

  13. Drought increases heat tolerance of leaf respiration in Eucalyptus globulus saplings grown under both ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Paul P. G.; Crous, Kristine Y.; Ayub, Gohar; Duan, Honglang; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Ellsworth, David S.; Tjoelker, Mark G.; Evans, John R.; Tissue, David T.; Atkin, Owen K.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in increasing atmospheric [CO2], rising growth temperature (T), and greater frequency/severity of drought, with each factor having the potential to alter the respiratory metabolism of leaves. Here, the effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], sustained warming, and drought on leaf dark respiration (R dark), and the short-term T response of R dark were examined in Eucalyptus globulus. Comparisons were made using seedlings grown under different [CO2], T, and drought treatments. Using high resolution T–response curves of R dark measured over the 15–65 °C range, it was found that elevated [CO2], elevated growth T, and drought had little effect on rates of R dark measured at T CO2], growth T, and drought on T response of R dark. However, drought increased R dark at high leaf T typical of heatwave events (35–45 °C), and increased the measuring T at which maximal rates of R dark occurred (T max) by 8 °C (from 52 °C in well-watered plants to 60 °C in drought-treated plants). Leaf starch and soluble sugars decreased under drought and elevated growth T, respectively, but no effect was found under elevated [CO2]. Elevated [CO2] increased the Q 10 of R dark (i.e. proportional rise in R dark per 10 °C) over the 15–35 °C range, while drought increased Q 10 values between 35 °C and 45 °C. Collectively, the study highlights the dynamic nature of the T dependence of R dark in plants experiencing future climate change scenarios, particularly with respect to drought and elevated [CO2]. PMID:25205579

  14. Classification of Small-Scale Eucalyptus Plantations Based on NDVI Time Series Obtained from Multiple High-Resolution Datasets

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    Hailang Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus, a short-rotation plantation, has been expanding rapidly in southeast China in recent years owing to its short growth cycle and high yield of wood. Effective identification of eucalyptus, therefore, is important for monitoring land use changes and investigating environmental quality. For this article, we used remote sensing images over 15 years (one per year with a 30-m spatial resolution, including Landsat 5 thematic mapper images, Landsat 7-enhanced thematic mapper images, and HJ 1A/1B images. These data were used to construct a 15-year Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series for several cities in Guangdong Province, China. Eucalyptus reference NDVI time series sub-sequences were acquired, including one-year-long and two-year-long growing periods, using invested eucalyptus samples in the study region. In order to compensate for the discontinuity of the NDVI time series that is a consequence of the relatively coarse temporal resolution, we developed an inverted triangle area methodology. Using this methodology, the images were classified on the basis of the matching degree of the NDVI time series and two reference NDVI time series sub-sequences during the growing period of the eucalyptus rotations. Three additional methodologies (Bounding Envelope, City Block, and Standardized Euclidian Distance were also tested and used as a comparison group. Threshold coefficients for the algorithms were adjusted using commission–omission error criteria. The results show that the triangle area methodology out-performed the other methodologies in classifying eucalyptus plantations. Threshold coefficients and an optimal discriminant function were determined using a mosaic photograph that had been taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle platform. Good stability was found as we performed further validation using multiple-year data from the high-resolution Gaofen Satellite 1 (GF-1 observations of larger regions. Eucalyptus planting dates

  15. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeão, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.

  16. Carbon stored in forest plantations of Pinus caribaea, Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus deglupta in Cachí Hydroelectric Project

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    Marylin Rojas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations are considered the main carbon sinks thought to reduce the impact of climate change. Regarding many species, however, there is a lack of information in order to establish metrics on accumulation of biomass and carbon, principally due to the level of difficulty and the cost of quantification through direct measurement and destructive sampling. In this research, it was evaluated carbon stocks of forest plantations near the dam of hydroelectric project Cachí, which belongs to Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad. 25 unit samples were evaluated along some plantations that contain three different species. 30 Pinus caribacea trees, 14 Cupressus lusitanica and 15 Eucalyptus deglupta were extracted. The biomass was quantified by means of the destructive method. First of all, every component of the tree was weighed separately; then, sampling was obtained in order to determine the dry matter and the carbon fraction. 110 biomass samples from the three species were analyzed in laboratory, including all the components (leaves, branches, shaft, and root. The carbon fraction varied between 47,5 and 48,0 for Pinus caribacea; between 32,6 and 52,7 for Cupressus lusitanica, and beween 36,4 and 50,3% for Eucalyptus deglupta. The stored carbon was 230, 123, and 69 Mg ha-1 in plantations of P. caribaea, C. lusitanica and E. deglupta, respectively. Approximately, 75% of the stored carbon was detected in the shaft.

  17. Comparative gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of essential oils extracted using 4 methods from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus L.

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    Yasmeen Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eucalyptus globulus L. (family, Myrtaceae is one of the world′s most widely planted genera. E. globulus L., commonly referred to as Tasmanian blue gum, is a fast growing, evergreen tree, native to Tasmania and South-East Australia. Apart from its extensive use in pulp industry, it is also produces Oleum Eucalypti (eucalyptus oil that is extracted on commercial scale in many countries such as China, India, South Africa, Portugal, Brazil, and Tasmania, as a raw material in perfumery, cosmetics, food beverage, aromatherapy, and phytotherapy. Materials and Methods: Traditional hydrodistillation (HD, solvent extraction (SE, ultrasonication (US, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE were conducted for the extraction of essential oil from the leaves of E. globulus. Each oil was evaluated in terms of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPTLC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR fingerprinting with qualitative and semi-quantitative composition of the isolated essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS, the extract yield of essential oil was 2.60%, 2.2%, 2.0%, and 3.6% v/w, respectively, for HD, SE, US, and SFE. Results: A total of 53 compounds were identified by GCMS. Comparative analysis indicated that SFE was favorable for extraction of monoterpene hydrocarbon, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, and oxygenated sesquiterpene hydrocarbon. HD, SE, and US had certain advantages in the extraction of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons organic acid and esters. Overlay, FTIR spectra of oil samples obtained by four extraction methods were superimposed with each other showing similar components. The maximum separation of compound seen at 254 nm and lesser at 366 nm by HPTLC fingerprinting which again showed superimposed chromatograms. Conclusion: It is concluded that different extraction method may lead to different yields of essential oils where the choice of appropriate method is very important to obtained more desired

  18. Effects of exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations on soil properties in and around sacred natural sites in the northern Ethiopian Highlands

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    Alemayehu Wassie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Eucalyptus (common name eucalyptus are widely planted all across Ethiopia—including on large areas of land previously allocated to food production. In recent decades eucalyptus has also increasingly been planted on lands around and within “church forests,” sacred groves of old-aged Afromontane trees surrounding Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido churches. These revered holy sites have long been recognized for their cultural values and also for their ecosystem services—including their potential to support species conservation and restoration, as church forests are some of the only remaining sanctuaries for many of Ethiopia’s indigenous and endemic plant and animal populations. Ethiopian Orthodox church communities have a long history of planting and nurturing indigenous tree seedlings to sustain church forest groves. However, due to the fast-growing nature of eucalyptuscombined with its widely recognized socio-economic benefits (as fuelwood, charcoal, construction wood, etc., this introduced species has been widely plantedaround church forests—in some cases even replacing native tree species within church forests themselves. In many developing country contexts the introduction of exotic eucalyptus has been shown to have ecological impacts ranging from soil nutrient depletion, to lowering water tables, to allelopathic effects. In this study, we collected soil samples from indigenous forest fragments (church forests, adjacent eucalyptus plantations, and surrounding agricultural land to examine how eucalyptus plantations in Ethiopian Orthodox church communitiesmight impact soil quality relative to alternative land uses. Soil properties, including organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were measured in samples across 20 church forest sites in South Gondar, East Gojjam, West Gojjam, Awi, and Bahir Dar Liyu zones in the Amhara Region of the northern Ethiopian Highlands. Findings indicate that although soil in

  19. Leaf area index estimation of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill. in plantations

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    Dubal Papamija-Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimated leaf area index (LAI in Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill. plantations in four farms in the Smurfit Kappa Carton de Colombia (SKCC with three farms located in the city of Popayan (Cauca and one located in the municipality of Restrepo (Valle del Cauca. Each farm had three fertilized and three unfertilized plots with 64 individuals in each. We used three methods, Plant Canopy Analyzer 2000 (PCA 2000, flat photograph PIPEcv software and a destructive method, which was generated using a mathematical model. The first two methods were measured bimonthly for a year and the final method required trees being cut to measure their diameter. Estimation of leaf area index was 2.01 for PCA 2000, 3.12 for PIPEcv and 2.83 for the mathematical model. These values correspond to the average and range of leaf area indices obtained for each method on all farms. Statistically the three methodologies developed in this study were not closely related.

  20. Nickel-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus ultramafic ecotype isolated from nickel mines in New Caledonia strongly enhance growth of the host plant Eucalyptus globulus at toxic nickel concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourand, Philippe; Ducousso, Marc; Reid, Robert; Majorel, Clarisse; Richert, Clément; Riss, Jennifer; Lebrun, Michel

    2010-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Pisolithus albus (Cooke & Massee), belonging to the ultramafic ecotype isolated in nickel-rich serpentine soils from New Caledonia (a tropical hotspot of biodiversity) and showing in vitro adaptive nickel tolerance, were inoculated to Eucalyptus globulus Labill used as a Myrtaceae plant-host model to study ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Plants were then exposed to a nickel (Ni) dose-response experiment with increased Ni treatments up to 60 mg kg( - )(1) soil as extractable Ni content in serpentine soils. Results showed that plants inoculated with ultramafic ECM P. albus were able to tolerate high and toxic concentrations of Ni (up to 60 μg g( - )(1)) while uninoculated controls were not. At the highest Ni concentration tested, root growth was more than 20-fold higher and shoot growth more than 30-fold higher in ECM plants compared with control plants. The improved growth in ECM plants was associated with a 2.4-fold reduction in root Ni concentration but a massive 60-fold reduction in transfer of Ni from root to shoots. In vitro, P. albus strains could withstand high Ni concentrations but accumulated very little Ni in its tissue. The lower Ni uptake by mycorrhizal plants could not be explained by increased release of metal-complexing chelates since these were 5- to 12-fold lower in mycorrhizal plants at high Ni concentrations. It is proposed that the fungal sheath covering the plant roots acts as an effective barrier to limit transfer of Ni from soil into the root tissue. The degree of tolerance conferred by the ultramafic P. albus isolates to growth of the host tree species is considerably greater than previously reported for other ECM. The primary mechanisms underlying this improved growth were identified as reduced Ni uptake into the roots and markedly reduced transfer from root to shoot in mycorrhizal plants. The fact that these positive responses were observed at Ni concentrations commonly observed in serpentinic soils suggests that

  1. Microwave Accelerated Green Synthesis of Stable Silver Nanoparticles with Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity on Clinical Isolates.

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    Khursheed Ali

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid microwave assisted method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was developed using aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus(ELE, and their antibacterial and antibiofilm potential investigated. With this aim, the aqueous solutions of ELE and AgNO3(1 mM were mixed (1:4 v/v, and microwave irradiated at 2450 Mhz, for 30 sec. The instant color change of the ELE-AgNO3 mixture from pale yellow to dark brown indicated ELE-AgNPs synthesis. The intensity of peak at 428 nm in UV-Vis spectra, due to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs, varied with the amount of ELE, AgNO3 concentration, pH and time of incubation. The biosynthesized ELE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, FTIR and TGA analyses. The size of ELE-AgNPs was determined to be in range of 1.9-4.3 nm and 5-25 nm, with and without microwave treatment, respectively. SEM exhibited the capping of AgNPs with the ELE constituents, and validated by FTIR analysis. The FTIR data revealed the presence of plant organic constituents and metabolites bound to ELE-AgNPs, which contributes for their stability. The antimicrobial activity of ELE-AgNPs was assessed by growth and biofilm inhibition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA clinical bacterial isolates. The results demonstrated that S. aureus were more sensitive to ELE-AgNPs than E. coli and P. aeruginosa. MRSA exhibited higher sensitive than MSSA, whereas P. aeruginosa were more sensitive than E. coli to ELE-AgNPs treatment. Also, significant (83 ± 3% and 84 ± 5% biofilm inhibition was observed in case of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The results elucidated environmentally friendly, economical and quick method for production of colloidal bio-functionalized ELE-AgNPs, for effectual clinical applications, as broad

  2. Oligo-carrageenan kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system increase the level of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellin A3 and trans-zeatin in Eucalyptus globulus trees.

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    González, Alberto; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Zúiga, Gustavo; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-08-20

    Eucalyptus globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa showed an increase in NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione levels and activation of the thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) system which enhance photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth. In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and the activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) increased the level of growth-promoting hormones, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of ascorbate synthesis, lycorine, glutathione synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), NADPH synthesis, CHS-828, and thioredoxin reductase activity, auranofine, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for four additional months. Eucalyptus trees treated with OC kappa showed an increase in the levels of the auxin indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A3 (GA3) and the cytokinin trans-zeatin (t-Z) as well as a decrease in the level of the brassinosteroid epi-brassinolide (EB). In addition, treatment with lycorine, BSO, CHS-828 and auranofine inhibited the increase in IAA, GA3 and t-Z as well as the decrease in EB levels. Thus, the reducing redox status and the activation of TRR/TRX system induced by OC kappa increased the levels of IAA, GA3 and t-Z levels determining, at least in part, the stimulation of growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  3. COMPORTAMENTO ESPECTRAL DE FOLHAS DE Eucalyptus globulus (Labill. ATACADAS POR Mycosphaerella spp. NAS REGIÕES DO VISÍVEL E DO INFRAVERMELHO PRÓXIMO DO ESPECTRO ELETROMAGNÉTICO

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    Diogo Belmonte Lippert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the spectral behavior of leaves of Eucalyptus globulus attacked in four different severity levels by Mycosphaerella spp. in different positions in the canopy of the tree in the four seasons, considering two regions of the electromagnetic spectrum: visible and near infrared. The plant material was collected in all seasons, in different positions in the tree (base, middle and top of the canopy extract. In the laboratory, leaves were classified into four levels of severity (healthy, little, medium and heavy fire and then made measurements of spectral reflectance measured with a spectroradiometer. The spectral behavior of Eucalyptus globules leaves is characteristic according to the severity degree of the disease, differing primarily in the other high levels of infection by Mycosphaerella spp. and differ mainly of healthy leaves and leaves which are little attacked, in both regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, this behavior occurs for different treetop positions and climate seasons, varying the amount of reflected energy. It is concluded that the reflectance of the Eucalyptus globules leaves attacked by Mycosphaerella spp. differs according to the position in the tree crown and the weather station when they were collected and to the advanced levels of disease severity.

  4. Decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus em regiões do interior e do litoral de Portugal Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus in the littoral and inland areas of Portugal

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    C. Ribeiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, pela metodologia dos litter-bags, a decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster (PP e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus (EG, considerando a taxa de decomposição e a dinâmica de libertação dos nutrientes mais relevantes para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas florestais. Os estudos decorreram no litoral da Região Centro (Furadouro, Óbidos, quer com folhas de EG quer com agulhas de PP, no interior da Região Norte (Vila Pouca de Aguiar, com agulhas de PP, e numa situação intermédia com folhas de EG (Pegões e Rio Maior. Para igual período, a taxa de decomposição das agulhas de PP, estimada pelo modelo exponencial simples, foi inferior à determinada para as folhas de EG, sendo a diferença mais acentuada na fase inicial da decomposição (6 meses, em que a perda de peso das agulhas de PP foi cerca de metade da observada para as folhas de EG. Durante a fase inicial decomposição, tanto das folhas de EG como das agulhas de PP, ocorreu uma assinalável libertação de P, K e de Mg. A libertação do N dependeu da taxa de decomposição, observando- -se imobilização para as agulhas de PP com mais baixa taxa de decomposição, e libertação rápida para as folhas de EG com mais elevada taxa de decomposição. No caso do Ca o factor diferenciador foi a espécie, sendo a respectiva libertação baixa para as agulhas de PP, mas acentuada para as folhas de EG. As folhas verdes de resíduos de abate de EG decompuseram-se e libertaram os nutrientes mais rapidamente do que as folhas senescentes da mesma espécie.Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster (PP and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus (EG was assessed using the litterbag methodology. Decomposition rate of these residues and release dynamics of nutrients with more relevance to the sustainability of forest systems were measured. The study was carried out in the litoral of Central Portugal (Furadouro,Óbidos, using both PP and EG, in inland of North Portugal (Vila Pouca

  5. Biomass and nutrient distribution in an age series of eucalyptus hybrid plantation in Tamil Nadu. I. Distribution of organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, J D.S.; Sharma, S C

    1985-12-01

    The distribution of organic matter in an age series of Eucalyptus hybrid plantation in Tamil Nadu has been discussed. It was observed that (i) the rotation age for E. hybrid can be fixed at 7 years where the Mean Annual Production (MAP) is at the maximum, (ii) Pollachi seems to be comparatively better site for E. hybrid planting, presumably due to higher leaf efficiency (III) to increase the productivity in a coppiced crop thinning is essential as the lower stand density give a better chance for high leaf production and consequently higher biomass. 7 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  6. Below-ground biomass production and allometric relationships of eucalyptus coppice plantation in the central highlands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razakamanarivo, Ramarson H.; Razakavololona, Ando; Razafindrakoto, Marie-Antoinette; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Albrecht, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Short rotations of Eucalyptus plantations under coppice regime are extensively managed for wood production in Madagascar. Nevertheless, little is known about their biomass production and partitioning and their potential in terms of carbon sequestration. If above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on established allometric relations, below-ground (BGB) estimates are much less common. The aim of this work was to develop allometric equations to estimate biomass of these plantations, mainly for the root components. Data from 9 Eucalyptus robusta stands (47–87 years of plantation age, 3–5 years of coppice-shoot age) were collected and analyzed. Biomass of 3 sampled trees per stand was determined destructively. Dry weight of AGB components (leaves, branches and stems) were estimated as a function of basal area of all shoots per stump and dry weight for BGB components (mainly stump, coarse root (CR) and medium root (MR)) were estimated as a function of stump circumference. Biomass was then computed using allometric equations from stand inventory data. Stand biomass ranged from 102 to 130 Mg ha −1 with more than 77% contained in the BGB components. The highest dry weight was allocated in the stump and in the CR (51% and 42% respectively) for BGB parts and in the stem (69%) for AGB part. Allometric relationships developed herein could be applied to other Eucalyptus plantations which present similar stand density and growing conditions; anyhow, more is needed to be investigated in understanding biomass production and partitioning over time for this kind of forest ecosystem. -- Highlights: ► We studied the potential of old eucalyptus coppices in Madagascar to mitigate global warming. ► Biomass measurement, mainly for below-ground BGB (stump, coarse-medium-and fine roots) was provided. ► BGB allometry relationships for short rotation forestry under coppice were established. ► BGB were found to be important with their 102-130MgC ha -1 (<77% of the C in

  7. Growth variation and heritability in a second-generation Eucalyptus urophylla progeny test at Lad Krating Plantation, Chachoengsao province, Thailand

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    Lucky Nhlanhla Dlamini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, Eucalyptus urophylla was introduced with the main purpose of supplying raw material for pulp and chip wood production. The demand for genetically improved seed is increasing to support high productivity plantation establishment. One of the tree improvement activities established to meet the high demand for improved seed was a second generation progeny test at Lad Krating Plantation, Thailand to provide the best material for the successful plantation program. The aim of the current study was to compare growth variation of the first and second generation of Eucalyptus urophylla progeny that could provide information on suitable families for improved quality seed. The progeny test comprised the best 45 half-sib families selected from 80 half-sib families of the first-generation progeny test. The design of the progeny test was a randomized and complete block design (16 trees/plot × 45 plots/block × 9 blocks, with 4 rows of 4 trees at a spacing of 2 m × 1 m. Growth was assessed at age 3 yr. The average height and diameter at breast height over bark (DBH, was 13.72 m, and 8.75 cm, respectively. There were highly significant (p < 0.01 differences among provenances and families in both height and DBH. The individual heritability values for height and DBH were 0.48 and 0.60, respectively. The family heritability values for height and DBH were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. These 45 half-sib families proved to be genetically superior ensuring higher productivity and contributing to the success of the Forest Industry Organization plantation at Lad Krating.

  8. Kraft pulping and ECF bleaching of Eucalyptus globulus pretreated by the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.12410

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    Claudio Salazar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus globulus wood chips were decayed by the lignin-degrading fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as a pretreatment step before kraft pulping. Weight and component losses of wood after the biotreatment were the following: weight (5%, glucans (1.5%, xylans (4.3%, lignin (5.7% and extractives (57.5%. The residual amount of lignin (expressed by the kappa number in pulps from biotreated wood chips was lower than that of pulps from the undecayed control. Depending on the delignification degree, kraft biopulps presented similar or up to 4% increase in pulp yield and 20% less hexenuronic acids (HexA than control pulps. The extended delignification with O2 decreases approximately 50% of the kappa number of the pulps and increases brightness, but had no effect in HexA reduction. The bleaching steps with chlorine dioxide (D0ED1 sequence decreased the kappa number up to 97%, increased pulp brightness up to 84% ISO and decreased HexA amount up to 91%. The use of C. subvermispora in biopulping of E. globulus generated important benefits during the production of kraft pulps that are reflected in a high pulp yield, low residual lignin content, low HexA amount, high brightness and viscosity of the biopulps as compared with pulps produced from untreated wood chips.

  9. Clay content drives carbon stocks in soils under a plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil

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    Tanise Luisa Sausen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil carbon accumulation is largely dependent on net primary productivity. To our knowledge, there have been no studies investigating the dynamics of carbon accumulation in weathered subtropical soils, especially in managed eucalyptus plantations. We quantified the seasonal input of leaf litter, the leaf decomposition rate and soil carbon stocks in an commercial plantation of Eucalyptus saligna Labill. in southern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate, through multiple linear regression, the influence that certain chemical characteristics of litter, as well as chemical and physical characteristics of soil, have on carbon accumulation in soil organic matter fractions. Variables related to the chemical composition of litter were not associated with the soil carbon stock in the particulate and mineral fractions. However, certain soil characteristics were significantly associated with the carbon stock in both fractions. The concentrations of nutrients associated with plant growth and productivity, such as phosphorus, sulfur, copper and zinc, were associated with variations in the labile carbon pool (particulate fraction. Clay content was strongly associated with the carbon stock in the mineral fraction. The carbon accumulation and stabilization in weathered subtropical Ultisol seems to be mainly associated with the intrinsic characteristics of the soil, particularly clay content, rather than with the quantity, chemical composition or decomposition rate of the litter.

  10. Eucalyptus beyond its native range: Environmental issues in exotic bioenergy plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Eric D. Vance; Thomas R. Fox; Matias Kirst

    2013-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus is native to Australia and Indonesia but has been widely planted in many countries. Eucalyptus has proven to be particularly successful in tropical and subtropical regions. Several species are also successful in some temperate regions, but problems with sudden and severe frosts pose limitations. Current...

  11. Herbicide site preparation and release options for eucalyptus plantation establishment in the western gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; John Johnson; Eric L. Taylor; Brad Osbon

    2012-01-01

    Cold-tolerant species of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) are increasingly grown in the Western Gulf region as short-rotation pulpwood feedstock. Operational chemical suppression of competing vegetation has been relatively costly and inefficient because it requires frequent applications of glyphosate applied via backpack sprayers. A series of studies...

  12. Water Erosion in a Two Year Old Stand of Eucalyptus benthamii under three Plantation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, J.; Bertol, I.; Marioti, J.; Ramos, J. C.; Flores, M. C.; Tanaka, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    The preparation of the soil is the main issue of soil management. Thus, it is also one of the main operations with regard to management of planted forest during the whole productive process. Soil preparation is thought to directly affect various processes of the hydrologic cycle, water erosion, crop productivity and, subsequently, play an important role both for the environment and for the invested capital. Therefore knowledge of the effect of each specific soil management system on forest production is viewed as an essential issue. Based on these considerations, the aim of this work was to quantify soil and water losses by water erosion during the seasons of the year with the highest rainfall intensity in the south hemisphere, i.e. spring and summer in a two year old stand planted with Eucalyptus benthamii. This tree species was planted following three different conditions: 1) soil mechanical preparation in furrows following the land slope, 2) soil mechanical preparation in furrows dug perpendicular to the slope and 3) semi-mechanical preparation by digging an individual hole for each plant. The field experiment was located in Otacílio Costa municipality, SC, Brazil, at the Gropp forest farm owned by the Kablin SA company, 841 m asl altitude. The soil was classified as a "Cambissolo Húmico Alumínico Léptico" according with the Brazilian Soil Classification System with a slope of about 0.12 m m-1. The experimental design consisted of randomly located erosion plots with 3 repetitions, thus a total of 9 plots. The surface area of the plots was 12 x 24 m and they were oriented so that the main side followed the land slope. Suspended sediments and water losses were channelled to collecting tank at the end of the plot. Runoff water and eroded sediments were weakly measured, so that they correspond to cumulative weakly rainfall. The highest soil and water losses were recorded in plots with furrows dug perpendicular to the slope and the lowest ones corresponded to the

  13. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil

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    C. M. G. Simeão

    Full Text Available Abstract Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005. The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae, Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae, an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae; during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae. Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae, Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae, Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae, Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.

  14. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  15. Water uptake by two river red gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis) clones in a discharge site plantation in the Western Australian wheatbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John K.; Morgan, Anne L.; Akilan, Kandia; Farrell, Richard C. C.; Bell, David T.

    1997-12-01

    The heat-pulse technique was used to estimate year-long water uptake in a discharge zone plantation of 9-year-old clonal Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. near Wubin, Western Australia. Water uptake matched rainfall closely during weter months but exceeded rainfall as the dry season progressed. Average annual water uptake (1148 mm) exceeded rainfall (432 mm) by about 2.7 fold and approached 56% of pan evaporation for the area. The data suggest that at least 37% (i.e. ( {1}/{2.7}) × 100 ) of the lower catchment discharge zone should be planted to prevent the rise of groundwater. Water uptake varied with soil environment, season and genotype. Upslope trees used more water than did downslope trees. Water uptake was higher in E. camaldulensis clone M80 than in clone M66 until late spring. The difference reversed as summer progressed. Both clones, however, have the potential to dry out the landscape when potential evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall. This variation in water uptake within the species indicates the potential for manipulating plantation uptake by matching tree characteristics to site characteristics. Controlled experiments on the heat-pulse technique indicated accuracy errors of approximately 10%. This, combined with the ability to obtain long-term, continuous data and the superior logistics of use of the heat-pulse technique, suggests that results obtained by it would be much more reliable than those achieved by the ventilated chamber technique.

  16. Leaf Diseases On Eucalyptus Pellita F. Muell In Plantation Of Pt Surya Hutani Jaya At Sebulu East Kalimantan

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    Iin Arsensi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus pellita is often grown in monoculture can be susceptible to disease whether grown in the nursery or the field. Currently in the plantation of PT Surya Hutani Jaya Sebulu is developing E. pellita derived from seed and clonal. The results were then called family. To determine the benefits to trees the company deliberately does not preserve this area so there will be generated trees family that excel in both productivity and resistance to pests and diseases. This study is aimed at determining the symptoms and signs of disease on the leaves the microorganisms that cause disease on the leaves as well as the incidence and severity of pathogen that attacks the leaves of E. pellita. The research was conducted at PT Surya Hutani Jaya Sebulu Kutai Kartanegara Regency East Kalimantan and continued with the identification of pathogens at the Laboratory of Forest Protection Faculty of Forestry University of Mulawarman. The object of this research was E. pellita of a 6 year old plantation spacing of 3 amp61620 2 m. The origin of E. pellita is a clone from Riau. Symptoms of the disease found at the progeny test were leaf spot and leaf blight. The pathogens were Cercospora sp. Pestalotia sp. Curvularia sp. Bipolaris sp. Marsonina sp. and Dactylaria sp. The incidence of leaf spot pathogen was 83.3 and leaf blight was 80.6 with the severity of 9.7 and 12.5 respectively.

  17. Survey to evaluate escape of Eucalyptus spp. seedlings from plantations in southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; John A. Stanturf; William J. Hammond; Donald L. Rockwood; Evelyn S. Wenk; Joseph J. O’Brien

    2013-01-01

    Interest in biomass-based energy in the southeastern Unites States has led to increased need for fast-growing tree species. Several Eucalyptus species exhibit characteristics that make them attractive in the bioenergy context. However, some of these also possess traits that suggest they could become invasive. To make a preliminary assessment of the...

  18. Evaluation of the throughfall and stemflow nutrient contents in mixed and pure plantations of Acacia mangium, Pseudosamenea guachapele and Eucalyptus grandis.

    OpenAIRE

    BALIEIRO, F. de C.; FRANCO, A. A.; FONTES, R. L. F.; DIAS, L. E.; CAMPELLO, E. F. C.; FARIA, S. M. de.

    2008-01-01

    The interception of the rainfall by the forest canopy has great relevance to the nutrient geochemistry cycle in low fertility tropical soils under native or cultivated forests. However, little is known about the modification of the rainfall water quality and hydrological balance after interception by the canopies of eucalyptus under pure and mixed plantations with leguminous species, in Brazil. Samples of rainfall (RF), throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) were collected and analyzed in pure pl...

  19. Mortality of the defoliator Euselasia eucerus (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae by biotic factors in an Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Zanuncio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae is a Brazilian native species commonly found in Eucalyptus plantations. Biotic mortality factors of this defoliator were studied in a Eucalyptus urophylla plantation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil aiming to identify natural enemies and their impact on this insect. Euselasia eucerus had biotic mortality factors during all development stages. The most important were Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé and Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae during egg stage (48.9%, a tachinid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae during larval stages (10% and Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae during pupal stage (52.2%. The parasitism rate was higher in the basal part of the plant canopy (37.8%.Euselasia eucerus (Hewitson, 1872 (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae é uma espécie brasileira nativa, comumente encontrada em plantios de Eucalyptus. Um estudo da mortalidade por fatores bióticos desse desfolhador foi feito em um plantio de Eucalyptus urophylla no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar os inimigos naturais e seu impacto sobre esse lepidóptero. Euselasia eucerus possui fatores bióticos de mortalidade durante todas as suas fases de desenvolvimento. Os mais importantes foram Trichogramma maxacalii Voegelé e Pointel, 1980 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae durante a fase de ovo (48,9%, um Diptera: Tachinidae durante a fase de larva (10% e Itoplectis sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae durante a fase pupal (52,2%. A taxa de parasitismo foi mais elevada na parte basal de plantas de eucalipto (37,8%.

  20. Survey of Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Eucalyptus plantations in the region of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Márcio S.; Delia Lucia, Terezinha M.C.; Mayhé-Nunes, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    This Work was conducted in Eucalyptus stands at the Itapoã farm of the Mannesmann Fi-El Florestal Ltda. in Paraopeba, MG. The species of fungus growing-ants and leaf-cutting ants found in regrowth areas and in harvesting phase plantings were: Acromyrmex balzani Emery, 1890; Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel 1908; Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus Forel, 1893; Atta laevigala (F. Smith, 1858); Alta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908; Mycocepurus goeldii Forel, 1893; Sericomyrmex sp.; Trach...

  1. BALANCE OF WATER AND ENERGY FOR EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS WITH PARTIAL SOIL COVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonçalves dos Reis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813329Eucalyptus plots with initial development ages presented discontinuity in soil cover, resulting in greaterexposure of the leaves to wind and solar radiation, which alters soil-plant-atmosphere interactions. Theobjective of this study was to study the components of the water and energy balances along the first yearof eucalyptus development in the Brazilian coastal plain region. The experimental site is located in anarea belonging to the company Fibria in the municipality of Aracruz, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Thespace between the planted eucalyptus trees in the area studied was 3 x 3 m and the data of planting wason August 15th , 2004. The period of study lasted from the planting date until the plot reached an ageof 19 months. It was verified that there was a greater availability of energy during the summer and theprecipitation directly influenced the energy balance where during the period of study the energy available necessary for evapotranspiration was always greater than the fraction necessary for heating the soil-plantatmospheresystem, presenting a λE/Rn ratio of 59.57%. It was also observed that the water balance with themodeled evapotranspiration showed a good correspondence with the observed moisture content, presentinga determination coefficient of 0,94. In the majority of trees, greater indices of leaf and root system areasfavored evapotranspiration, indicating that most energy available was utilized for changing the phase ofwater

  2. Response in water yield to the thinning of Pinus radiata, Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lesch, W

    1997-12-15

    Full Text Available . radiata plantation in the Biesievlei catchment, annual stream flow increased by between 10 and 71% (19-99 mm). These increases persisted for three and two years after the thinning, respectively. A final thinning in the same catchment removed only 22...

  3. Escala diagramática para quantificação da severidade de manchas em folhas de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. causadas por Teratosphaeria nubilosa (Cooke Crous & U. Braun

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    Martha Maria Passador

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaf spot (Mycosphaerella leaf disease = MLD caused by Teratosphaeria nubilosa has caused damage in eucalypt plantations in southern and southeastern Brazil. The need to assess the disease in the field to evaluate of this damage, efficiency control, evaluation of germplasm induces to the necessity of having a visual scale for evaluation of disease. The objective was to develop a diagrammatic scale for young leaves and one for adult leaves of Eucalyptus globules for MLD. To do so, the leaves collected in the field were scanned for image analysis. The damaged area, the healthy leaf area and the external area of the same scale RGB (Red, Green, Blue were determined. Subsequently, it was determinate the levels of severity depending on the sample distribution with seven levels for young leaves and six for adult leaves. For the visual acuity test and validate the scale, the leaves were evaluated for severity, with and without scale. With this proposed scales, the assessors showed good accuracy both for young and adult leaves with R2=0,98 and R2=0,80, respectively. The importance of the development of diagrammatic scales for assessing MLD in eucalyptus must to the fact that allows quantification of the symptoms accurately and precisely.

  4. Modeling of Carbon Sequestration on Eucalyptus Plantation in Brazililian Cerrado Region for Better Characterization of Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, J. D.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Managed Forests have important roles in climate change due to their contribution to CO2 sequestration stored in their biomass, soils and products therefrom. Terrestrial net primary production (NPP, kgC/m2), equal to gross primary production minus autotrophic respiration, represents the carbon available for plant allocation to leaves, stems, roots, defensive compounds, and reproduction and is the basic measure of biological productivity. Tree growth, food production, fossil fuel production, and atmospheric CO2 levels are all strongly controlled by NPP. Accurate quantification of NPP at local to global scales is therefore central topic for carbon cycle researchers, foresters, land and resource managers, and politicians. For recent or current NPP estimates, satellite remote sensing can be used but for future climate scenarios, simulation models are required. There is an increasing trend to displace natural Brazilian Cerrado to Eucalyptus for paper mills and energy conversion from biomass. The objective of this research exercise is to characterize NPP from managed Eucalyptus plantation in the Brazilian Cerrado. The models selected for this study were the 3-PG and Biome-BGC. The selection of these models aims to cover a range of complexity that allow the evaluation of the processes modeled as to its relevance to a best estimate of productivity in eucalyptus forests. 3-PG model is the simplest of the models chosen for this exercise. Its main purpose is to estimate productivity of forests in timber production. The model uses the relationship of quantum efficiency in the transformation of light energy into biomass for vegetative growth calculations in steps in time of one month. Adverse weather conditions are treated with reduction factors applied in the top efficiency. The second model is the Biome-BGC that uses biology and geochemistry principles to estimate leaf-level photosynthesis based on limiting factors such as availability of light and nutrient constraints. The

  5. BIOMASS IN Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. PLANTATIONS IN BUENOS AIRES PROVINCE, ARGENTINA

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    Paula Ferrere

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in the West of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina with the objective of adjusting functions of biomass of individual trees, in their different compartments and in the understorey. Stands of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. were identified, with ages between 4 and 14 years-old. Twenty-one individuals were felled with diameters ranging from 9,2 to 32,5 cm. Simple and multiple regression models were developed and volume, branch leaf and stem biomass were estimated. The best volume equations were based on lineal models and the most adequate behavior was obtained with d2. To estimate leaf, branch and stem, ln-ln models have been suggested, with diameter and h or only diameter. The leaf biomass presented the weakest adjustment. The distribution of trees biomass agrees with the bibliography. The proportion of crown biomass decreases with age; on the other hand, the proportion of stem biomass increases with age.

  6. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  7. BIODIVERSIDAD VEGETAL ASOCIADA A PLANTACIONES FORESTALES DE Pinus caribaea MORELET Y Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL ESTABLECIDAS EN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA PLANT BIODIVERSITY ASSOCIATED TO FOREST PLANTATIONS WITH Pinus caribaea MORELET AND Eucalyptus pellita F. MUELL. ESTABLISHED IN VILLANUEVA, CASANARE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández Méndez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se analizó en una plantación ubicada en el bosque húmedo tropical la posibilidad que tienen las especies nativas de formar un sotobosque bajo plantaciones de Pinus caribaea y Eucalyptus pellita. Se establecieron parcelas permanentes en las plantaciones por especie, edad y tratamiento silvicultural; parcelas similares se instauraron en bosque natural y sabana. Se registraron individuos clasificados por tamaño y hábito. Se determinaron 49 familias botánicas y 102 especies. La mayor y menor diversidad se presentó en el bosque natural y en la sabana con 53 y 18 especies, respectivamente. Entre plantaciones, se encontró mayor diversidad en P. caribaea, con 46 especies, que en E. pellita con 38 especies. El cociente de mezcla indicó una vegetación heterogénea en todos los usos. Los índices Margalef y Menhinick mostraron que el bosque es más diverso, seguido de las plantaciones de mayor edad y por último la sabana. Los índices de Shannon y Simpson califican todos los sitios con vegetación heterogénea. Los tratamientos tuvieron diferencias estadísticas significativas en número de individuos, especies y categorías de tamaño, a excepción de las herbáceas. En cuanto a composición y abundancias se destacan tres grandes grupos: bosque con plantaciones maduras, plantaciones de edades intermedias y plantaciones jóvenes con sabana. Se observó una alta betadiversidad entre los tratamientos, que compartían menos del 50% de las especies y abundancias, según los índices Jaccard y Sorensen. Entre plantaciones se presentó el mayor número de especies compartidas. Se concluye que las plantaciones albergan buena cantidad de biodiversidad vegetal de sotoboque y no impiden el establecimiento de especies nativas.Abstract. It was analized in a plantation located in the tropical rainforest, the possibility that native species forming an understory in Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus pellita plantations. Were established permanent plots

  8. Combined effect of pulse density and grid cell size on predicting and mapping aboveground carbon in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Alberto; Hudak, Andrew Thomas; Klauberg, Carine; Vierling, Lee Alexandre; Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos; de Padua Chaves Carvalho, Samuel; Rodriguez, Luiz Carlos Estraviz; Cardil, Adrián

    2017-12-01

    LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying a variety of forest attributes, including aboveground carbon (AGC). Pulse density influences the acquisition cost of LiDAR, and grid cell size influences AGC prediction using plot-based methods; however, little work has evaluated the effects of LiDAR pulse density and cell size for predicting and mapping AGC in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LiDAR pulse density and grid cell size on AGC prediction accuracy at plot and stand-levels using airborne LiDAR and field data. We used the Random Forest (RF) machine learning algorithm to model AGC using LiDAR-derived metrics from LiDAR collections of 5 and 10 pulses m -2 (RF5 and RF10) and grid cell sizes of 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. The results show that LiDAR pulse density of 5 pulses m -2 provides metrics with similar prediction accuracy for AGC as when using a dataset with 10 pulses m -2 in these fast-growing plantations. Relative root mean square errors (RMSEs) for the RF5 and RF10 were 6.14 and 6.01%, respectively. Equivalence tests showed that the predicted AGC from the training and validation models were equivalent to the observed AGC measurements. The grid cell sizes for mapping ranging from 5 to 20 also did not significantly affect the prediction accuracy of AGC at stand level in this system. LiDAR measurements can be used to predict and map AGC across variable-age Eucalyptus plantations with adequate levels of precision and accuracy using 5 pulses m -2 and a grid cell size of 5 m. The promising results for AGC modeling in this study will allow for greater confidence in comparing AGC estimates with varying LiDAR sampling densities for Eucalyptus plantations and assist in decision making towards more cost effective and efficient forest inventory.

  9. Near-surface distributions of soil water and water repellency under three effluent irrigation scemes in a blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thwaites, L.A.; Rooij, de G.H.; Salzman, S.; Allinson, G.; Stagnitti, F.; Carr, R.; Versace, V.; Struck, S.; March, T.

    2006-01-01

    Water repellent soils are difficult to irrigate and susceptible to preferential flow, which enhances the potential for accelerated leaching to groundwater of hazardous substances. Over 5 Mha of Australian soil is water repellent, while treated municipal sewage is increasingly used for irrigation.

  10. Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...

  11. Dynamics of soil exploration by fine roots down to a depth of 10 m throughout the entire rotation in Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul eLaclau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although highly weathered soils cover considerable areas in tropical regions, little is known about exploration by roots in deep soil layers. Intensively managed Eucalyptus plantations are simple forest ecosystems that can provide an insight into the belowground growth strategy of fast-growing tropical trees. Fast exploration of deep soil layers by eucalypt fine roots may contribute to achieving a gross primary production (GPP that is among the highest in the world for forests. Soil exploration by fine roots down to a depth of 10 m was studied throughout the complete cycle of Eucalyptus plantations. Intersects of fine roots, less than 1 mm in diameter, and medium-sized roots, 1-3 mm in diameter, were counted on trench walls in a chronosequence of 1-, 2-, 3.5- and 6-year-old plantations on a sandy soil, as well as in an adjacent 6-year-old stand growing in a clayey soil. Two soil profiles were studied down to a depth of 10 m in each stand (down to 6 m at ages 1 and 2 years. The root intersects were counted on 224 m2 of trench walls in 15 pits. Monitoring the soil water content showed that, after clear-cutting, almost all the available water stored down to a depth of 7 m was taken up by tree roots within 1.1 year of planting. The soil space was explored intensively by fine roots down to a depth of 3 m from 1 year after planting, with an increase in anisotropy in the upper layers throughout the stand cycle. About 60% of fine root intersects were found at a depth of more than 1 m, irrespective of stand age. The root distribution was isotropic in deep soil layers and kriged maps showed fine root clumping. The results showed that a considerable volume of soil was explored by fine roots in eucalypt plantations on deep tropical soils, which might prevent water and nutrient losses by deep drainage after canopy closure and contribute to maximizing resource uses.

  12. Exploring the performance of the SEDD model to predict sediment yield in eucalyptus plantations. Long-term results from an experimental catchment in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, P.; Cogliandro, V.; Callegari, G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, long-term sediment yield data, collected in a small (1.38 ha) Calabrian catchment (W2), reafforested with eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus occidentalis Engl.) are used to validate the performance of the SEdiment Delivery Distributed Model (SEDD) in areas with high erosion rates. At first step, the SEDD model was calibrated using field data collected in previous field campaigns undertaken during the period 1978-1994. This first phase allowed the model calibration parameter β to be calculated using direct measurements of rainfall, runoff, and sediment output. The model was then validated in its calibrated form for an independent period (2006-2016) for which new measurements of rainfall, runoff and sediment output are also available. The analysis, carried out at event and annual scale showed good agreement between measured and predicted values of sediment yield and suggested that the SEDD model can be seen as an appropriate means of evaluating erosion risk associated with manmade plantations in marginal areas. Further work is however required to test the performance of the SEDD model as a prediction tool in different geomorphic contexts.

  13. Fertilization during the establishment of a Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation in the northern Brazilian Amazon = Adubação no estabelecimento de um plantio de Eucalyptus camaldulensis na Amazônia setentrional brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de Freitas Iwata

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forestry plantations should be regarded as an alternative sustainable land-use system in degraded savannah areas. They contribute to the maintenance of productive processes in degraded soils that are of economic importance for local inhabitants; in addition, in the ecological sense, timber and non-timber products from planted forests reduce the exploitation pressure on native forests. Eucalyptus plantations on degraded savannahs in the northern Brazilian Amazon may help to reduce exploitation pressure on native forests. However, there is no information regarding the nutrients rates that would allow faster eucalyptus growth in that region. A trial was installed in an Yellow Latosol (Oxisol soil type adopting a one-half-type fractionalfactorial design with four rates of N, P, and K. Functions were adjusted for the dependent variables height, diameter at breastheight (DBH, leaf tissue nutrient content, and soil-chemical attributes. Interaction N versus K was observed on tree heightwith a maximum of 7.8 m recorded at 200 kg ha-1 of N and 50 kg ha-1 of K. Phosphorus fertilization promoted greater DBH growth with maximum value at 120 kg ha-1 of P; however, the highest gain was obtained at 30 kg ha-1 of P. The NPK rates that maximized Eucalyptus camaldulensis growth were 200, 30, and 50 kg ha-1, respectively. Plantações de eucalipto, em áreas de lavrado degradadas na Amazônia Setentrional brasileira, devem contribuir para diminuir a pressão de exploração em florestas nativas. Porém, não há informações sobre as doses de nutrientes que permitem o rápido crescimento do eucalipto nesta região. Um experimento para avaliar a resposta à adubação do Eucalyptus camaldulensis foi instalado em Latossolo Amarelo, adotando o delineamento fatorial fracionário com quatro doses de nitrogênio (N, fósforo (P e potássio (K. Funções foram ajustadas para as seguintes variáveis dependentes: altura, diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, conteúdo de

  14. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  15. Technological status diagnosis used by partners of a Eucalyptus plantation reforesting company in Divinopolis, MG, Brazil; Levantamento do nivel tecnologico utilizado por parceiros no plantio de eucalipto de uma empresa reflorestadora na regiao de Divinopolis, MG, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccon, Eliane [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), DF (Mexico)]. Email: ececcon@miranda.ecologia.unam.mx

    1999-07-15

    Among the reforesting companies holding a partnership program on eucalyptus plantations with small and medium farmers in Minas Gerais, the Pains Florestal S.A. stands out for creating a research and development program in agroforestry systems with eucalyptus. Following a successful biological research, the need for a more specific diagnosis of the social-economic conditions emerged in order to assess the viability of the program. It was found that the company's partners lack important financial resources to start new agricultural and forest enterprises in their lands. Additionally, their technological level was low. The main income sources are livestock, corn plantations and charcoal production. On the other hand, most farmers presented a high level of interest in beginning new activities, provided credit conditions were available. (author)

  16. Soil and water losses in eucalyptus plantation and natural forest and determination of the USLE factors at a pilot sub-basin in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Pereira Christofaro Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring water erosion and the factors that control soil and water loss are essential for soil conservation planning. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil and water losses by water erosion under natural rainfall in eucalyptus plantations established in 2001 (EF2, and 2004 (EF1, native forest (NF and bare soil (BS, during the period of 2007 to 2012; and to determine the USLE factors: rain erosivity (R, erodibility (K of a Red Argisol and the cover-management factor (C for EF1, EF2 and NF at a pilot sub-basin, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. The R factor was estimated by the EI30 index, using rainfall data from a gauging station located at the sub-basin. The soil and water losses were monitored in erosion plots, providing consistent data for the estimation of the K and C factors. The sub-basin presented an average erosivity of 4,228.52 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. The average annual soil losses em EF1 and EF2 (0.81 e 0.12 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively were below of the limit of tolerance, 12.9 Mg ha-1 year-1. The percentage values of water loss relating to the total rainfall decreased annually, approaching the values observed at the NF. From the 5th year on after the implantation of the eucalyptus systems, soil losses values were similar to the ones from NF. The erodibility of the Red Argisol was of 0.0026 Mg ha h ha-1 MJ-1mm-1 and the C factor presented values of 0.121, 0.016 and 0.015 for EF1, EF2 and NF, respectively.

  17. Dissolved organic carbon in water fluxes of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in northeastern Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia Tesón; Víctor H Conzonno; Marcelo F Arturi; Jorge L Frangi

    2014-01-01

    Water fluxes in tree plantations and other ecosystems carry dissolved organic carbon (DOC) provided by atmospheric inputs, autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms and from the lysis of dead material. These compounds may be colorless or provide a yellow-to-brown color to water and may also absorb visible light due to the presence of chromophores in the chemical...

  18. Levantamento de Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em povoamento de Eucalyptus na região de Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil Survey of Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Eucalyptus plantations in the region of Paraopeba, Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Araújo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This Work was conducted in Eucalyptus stands at the Itapoã farm of the Mannesmann Fi-El Florestal Ltda. in Paraopeba, MG. The species of fungus growing-ants and leaf-cutting ants found in regrowth areas and in harvesting phase plantings were: Acromyrmex balzani Emery, 1890; Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel 1908; Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus Forel, 1893; Atta laevigala (F. Smith, 1858; Alta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908; Mycocepurus goeldii Forel, 1893; Sericomyrmex sp.; Trachymyrmex fuscus Emery, 1894 and three morphospecies of Trachymyrmex Forel, 1893. Taxa belonging to the genus Atta Fabricius, 1804 represented 39.14 and 41.22% of the total number of nests found in the regrowth area and in the harvesting phase plantings, respectively. For Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 these values were 14.34 and 13.16%; for Trachymyrmex, 40.59 and 30.89%; for Mycocepurus Forel, 1893, 5.34 and 12.50% and Sericomyrmex Mayr, 1865, 0.59 and 2.23% in the regrowth area and in the harvesting phase plantations, respectively.

  19. Developing and Evaluating Composites Based on Plantation Eucalyptus Rotary-cut Veneer and High-density Polyethylene Film as Novel Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To achieve value-added utilizations of plantation timbers, eucalyptus veneer/high-density polyethylene film composites were prepared, with process-factors (PF (hot-pressing temperature, HT; hot-pressing duration, HD; hot-pressing pressure, HP; HDPE-film content, HC and composite-properties (CP (water-resistant bonding-strength, BS; modulus of rupture, MOR; modulus of elasticity, MOE investigated. According to thermal analyses, 140 to 180 °C was appropriate for HT. Based on statistical analyses, HD was easier to affect CP, while MOE was easier to be affected by PF. Quantitative relationships between PF and CP were determined by the neural-network (ANN modeling. In ANN simulation surveys, CP displayed Gaussian distributions (R2 > 0.9 when PF changed in current ranges, with positive correlations between BS and MOR (R2 ≈ 0.5. Combining ANN and the genetic-algorithm, optimal processes (HT, 160 °C; HD, 50 s/mm; HP, 1.3 MPa; HC, 6 layers were found, and optimal results (BS, 1.30 MPa; MOR, 86.94 MPa; MOE, 8.33 GPa were comparable to various reported poplar-plywoods. Microscopic images demonstrated that composite interfaces were formed by the mechanical interlocking. The optimal BS attained Chinese standards for water-resistant plywoods, so proposed composites can serve as water-resistant and formaldehyde-free building materials for furniture and interior design.

  20. Whole-tree transpiration and water-use partitioning between Eucalyptus nitens and Acacia dealbata weeds in a short-rotation plantation in northeastern Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mark A.; Beadle, Christopher L.

    1998-01-01

    Whole-tree water use in 4- and 8-year-old plantations of Eucalyptus nitens Deane and Maiden (ex Maiden) in the presence and absence of Acacia dealbata Link. weeds was estimated by the heat pulse velocity technique during a six-week summer period. Maximum sap velocities were recorded between 5 and 15 mm under the cambium for both eucalypt and acacia trees, and marked radial and axial variations in sap velocity were observed. The latter source of variation was most pronounced in mixed stands where crowns were asymmetrical. Mean daily sap flux ranged from 1.4 to 103.6 l day(-1) for eucalypts and from acacias. Stem diameter explained 98% of the variation in sapwood area for E. nitens and 89% for A. dealbata, and was determined to be a suitable parameter for scaling water use from the tree to stand level. Plot transpiration varied from 1.4 to 2.8 mm day(-1) in mixed 8-year-old plots and was 0.85 mm day(-1) in a mixed 4-year-old plot. The degree of A. dealbata infestation was associated with absolute plot water use and regression models predicted that, in the absence of acacia competition, plot water use for the 8-year-old stand would approach 5-6 mm day(-1) during the growing season.

  1. The influence of liming on soil chemical properties and on the alleviation of manganese and copper toxicity in Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistathis, T; Alifragis, D; Papaioannou, A

    2015-03-01

    Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations, suffering from Mn and Cu toxicity, were limed in order to reduce Cu and Mn solubility in soil. The purposes of the present work were: i) to study the changes in soil chemical properties after the addition of CaCO3, ii) to investigate the influence of liming on the reduction of Mn and Cu toxicity. After the addition of CaCO3 (three applications, during three successive years), pH and CaCO3 content were significantly increased, while organic C and N were significantly reduced. Exchangeable Ca concentrations have been slightly, or significantly, increased, while those of Mg have been decreased; in addition, ratios Ca/Mg and C/N have been significantly increased after liming. Impressive reductions of DTPA extractable Cu and Mn concentrations (more than 10 times in most cases) were recorded. It was also found that trees without Mn and Cu toxicity symptoms (healthy tress) before liming did not have, in many cases, significantly greater leaf Mn, Cu and Fe concentrations, than trees after soil liming (all the trees were healthy). This probably happened because excess Mn and Cu quantities had been accumulated into their root system. Finally, leaf Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations of trees suffering from toxicity were significantly decreased after soil liming, while leaf Fe concentrations, in all the plant species studied, were increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 27-36, 2014 27 Quality assessment of essential oils of Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the course of this study, essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and three Boswellia rivae species were analyzed using ... parts of the plant, including leaves, flowers, seeds, rhizomes ..... oil and its major component 1,8-cineole against fungal.

  3. Micorriza arbuscular em plantações de Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell no litoral norte da Bahia, Brasil Arbuscular mycorrhiza in Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell plantations in the north littoral of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano V.M. Araújo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available As micorrizas arbusculares são de longa data conhecidas e exploradas devido à importância ecológica e aos efeitos no crescimento e na nutrição das plantas. Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, particularmente nas áreas em estudo, apresenta comportamento diferenciado quando comparado com outras espécies de eucaliptos, instalando-se em sítios de solos pobres e textura arenosa, com crescimento reduzido, dificuldades para a formação das mudas e problemas nutricionais. Objetivando avaliar a percentagem de colonização radicular e a densidade de esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantações de E. cloeziana, foram realizadas coletas de solo rizosférico e de raízes em 20 áreas, distribuídas em seis municípios do Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Os resultados médios da percentagem de colonização variaram de 10% a 96,66% e a densidade de esporos variou de 3 a 110 esporos/50cm³ de solo, demonstrando a grande suscetibilidade do E. cloeziana à micorrização.The arbuscular mycorrhizal are known and explored long ago due to the ecological significance and the effects in the growth and nutrition of the plants. Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, particularly in the studied sites, exhibit differenced behaviour when compared with other eucaliptus species, establishing in sites of the poor soils and sandy texture, with reduced growth, difficulty to formation of the seedling and nutritional problems. Aiming to evaluate the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, as well as the density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores in E. cloeziana plantations, rhizospheric soil and roots samples were collected in twenty sites, distributed in six municipalities of Bahia state, Brazil. The mean results of percentage root colonization ranged from 10 to 96.66% and spore number ranged from 3 to 110 spores/50cm³ soil, demonstrating high susceptibility of the E. cloeziana to mycorrhization.

  4. SITE INDEX CURVES AND HYPSOMETRIC RELATIONSHIP FOR Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR THE CAMPOS GERAIS REGION, PARANA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Aparecida de Souza Retslaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to fit mathematical models for the construction of Site Index curves and to estimate heights at different ages for Eucalyptus grandis in the Campos Gerais region, Parana State. The data used to fit the models came from permanent, temporary plots and pre-harvesting inventory, covering ages from 2.5 to 26.5 years. Several models were tested to represent the sites and the hypsometric relationship. The Site Index curves were constructed by the guide-curve method. For the Site Index, the Chapman-Richards model showed the best fit and precision statistics, generating 5 Site Index curves (range of 5 m with the Chapman-Richards model. The four hypsometric models tested showed satisfactory performance and similar statistics and the inclusion of the variables dominant height or site index did not substantially improve the goodness of fit statistics, but the residues were more homogeneous and closer to zero.

  5. Riqueza de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae epigéicas em povoamentos de Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae de diferentes idades no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Richness of epigaeic ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Eucalyptus spp. plantations with different ages in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalho Fonseca

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve as comunidades de formigas de solo em povoamentos de eucalipto implantados em ecossistema de restinga no Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas de formigas foram feitas em seis povoamentos de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e de Eucalyptus saligna Smith com idades de 31, 19, sete e cinco anos. Para as coletas de formigas, foram selecionados ao acaso 24 talhões, quatro por povoamento. Em cada talhão, foram traçados três transectos com 100 m de comprimento, afastados entre si 12 m. Ao longo dos transectos, foram enterradas 30 armadilhas, tipo pitfall, com iscas de sardinha, afastadas entre si 10 m e mantidas por 24 horas. Foi coletado um total de 21.033 formigas pertencentes a cinco subfamílias, 12 tribos, 19 gêneros e 49 espécies. De acordo com o estimador de riqueza jackknife de primeira ordem, não houve diferenças significativas entre as riquezas das comunidades de formigas considerando as espécies de eucalipto (U = 81,500; g.l.=1; P=0,582 e as idades dos povoamentos (U=2,504; g.l.=3; P=0,547. Os resultados indicam que a riqueza de espécies de formigas não está relacionada à espécie de eucalipto e/ou à idade do povoamento implantado na restinga.The present study describes the epigaeic ant communities in eucalyptus plantations in sandbank in Rio Grande do Sul State. Ant collections were performed in six plantations of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus saligna Smith with ages varying between five to 31 years old. A total of 24 areas (four/area were randomly selected for ant collections. In each one, three transects of 100 m were designed at intervals of 12 m. Along each transect, ten pitfall traps with sardine baits were placed, at intervals of 10 m for a 24-hour-period. A total of 21,033 ants were collected, belonging to five subfamilies, 12 tribes, 19 genera and 49 species. According to the jackknife estimator of first order, there was no significant difference between the ant communities richness

  6. Effect of age on calorific value and some mechanical properties of three Eucalyptus species grown in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulugeta Lemenih; Tsegaye Bekele [Wondo Genet College of Forestry, Shashemene (Ethiopia)

    2004-09-01

    The effect of age on calorific value, specific gravity, modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of three plantation grown Eucalyptus species in the south-central highlands of Ethiopia was investigated. The species investigated were Eucalyptus globulus Labill., E. saligna Sm. and E grandis W. Hill ex Maid. The investigation was made on sample trees taken from age sequences of stands of the three species. Calorific values were determined on sample discs taken at 4, 8, 12 and 16 m up the stems of the sample trees. Calorific values were also determined for heartwood and sapwood of each disc separately. Specific gravity, MOR and MOE were investigated on a 1 -m long sample log taken from the butt end of each sample tree. The results showed that there was no significant difference in calorific values between the three species when considering a similar age category. Similarly, there was no significant difference in calorific values between disc positions and wood types (heartwood versus sapwood) within species. However, calorific values tend to increase along the tree stem towards the treetop for each of the three species. Correlation between calorific values of each disc position and tree age was generally weak and dominantly negative for E. saligna and E. globulus, but positive for E. grandis. On the other hand, there was a weak but positive correlation between tree age and specific gravity and MOR for the three species. MOE was almost non-correlated with age. Generally, the results showed that waiting for older ages for the three Eucalyptus species may not further increase their calorific values. Hence, stands of the three Eucalyptus species can be harvested and used for fuelwood at an early age as traditionally managed on short-rotation basis. (author)

  7. Supplementary data: Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation. R. Yasodha, R. Sumathi, P. Chezhian, S. Kavitha and M. Ghosh. J. Genet. 87, XX-XX. Tm. CT. 2222. NA. 60 125. 192. Table 1. List of EST-SSR primers developed for E. globulus. No. of. Tm Product. Acc. no. SSR repeats. Forward primer.

  8. Characterization of abiotic stress genes from different species of eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Kausar, H.; Saleem, F.; Zafarullah, A.

    2015-01-01

    The stresses causing dehydration damage to the plant cell like cold, drought, and high salinity are the most frequent environmental stresses that influence plant growth, development and restraining productivity in cultivated areas world-wide. Many drought, salinity and cold inducible genes causing tolerance to environmental stresses in many plants include Dehydrin1 (DHN1), Dehydrin2 (DHN2), Dehydrin10 (DHN10), putative phosphate transporter (Ecpt2), choline monooxygenase (CMO) and DREB/CBF1c genes. Gene specific primer pairs were designed for each gene using DNAStar software. These genes were amplified from different species of eucalyptus such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. tereticornis and E. gunii through PCR. Dehydrin2 gene of E. camaldulensis and dehydrin10 gene of E. globulus were cloned using the TA Cloning Kit with pCR 2.1 vector and sequenced. The Dehydrin genes sequences were submitted to GeneBank: Eucalyptus globulus dehydrin10 gene (Accession No. HG915712) and E. camaldulensis dehydrin 2 gene (Accession No. HG813113). The amino acid sequence of Dehydrin10 from E. globulus showed 97% homology to E. globulus DHN10 (JN052210) and Dehydrin2 from E. camaldulensis presented 94% homology to E. globulus DHN2 (JN052209). These genes can be employed in generating drought resistant crop plants. (author)

  9. DETERMINACIÓN DE MEDIOS DE CULTIVO Y PH PARA LA MASIFICACIÓN in vitro DE CEPAS DE Suillus luteus Aubl. ASOCIADAS A Pinus radiata D. Don Y Scleroderma citrinum Pers. ASOCIADAS A Eucalyptus globulus Labill. DE LA REGIÓN DEL BIOBÍO, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available El uso de agentes biológicos en la producción en vivero ha aflorado como un elemento que permite no sólo mejorar la calidad morfológica y fisiológica de las plantas, sino que también posibilitar un mayor éxito en el ámbito silvicultural de una plantación. Estos agentes biológicos requieren de un ambiente óptimo para crecer, asociarse y reproducirse. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la dependencia del pH y el medio de cultivo en el crecimiento in vitro de distintas cepas de Suillus luteus y Scleroderma citrinum asociadas a Pinus radiata y Eucalyptus globulus, respectivamente. El estudio se realizó en condiciones controladas de temperatura y humedad, disponiendo los inóculos en placas Petri con diferentes medios cultivo, evaluando parámetros de crecimiento y biomasa a los 38 días para S. luteus y 105 días para S. citrinum. Los resultados indican que tanto el medio de cultivo, el pH del medio, así como las cepas de cada especie estudiada, son determinantes en las respuestas de crecimiento de los hongos ectomicorrícicos in vitro evaluados. Las cepas de S. luteus se desarrollaron adecuadamente en un medio de cultivo con abundancia de nutrientes (BAF, MMN como en baja presencia de ellos (EMA, y con pH más bien ácido (4,8 y 5,8. Por otro lado, las cepas de S. citrinum presentaron, para los mismos ambientes, un desarrollo inferior y lento, no obstante, la cepa Sc8 se reprodujo de forma óptima y rápida bajo un medio de cultivo BAF y con un pH moderadamente ácido de 5,8.

  10. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J

    2015-06-11

    Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissues and functionally characterized five TPS genes from E. grandis. Compared to other sequenced plant genomes, Eucalyptus grandis has the largest number of putative functional TPS genes of any sequenced plant. We discovered 113 and 106 putative functional TPS genes in E. grandis and E. globulus, respectively. All but one TPS from E. grandis were expressed in at least one of seven plant tissues examined. Genomic clusters of up to 20 genes were identified. Many TPS are expressed in tissues other than leaves which invites a re-evaluation of the function of terpenes in Eucalyptus. Our data indicate that terpenes in Eucalyptus may play a wider role in biotic and abiotic interactions than previously thought. Tissue specific expression is common and the possibility of stress induction needs further investigation. Phylogenetic comparison of the two investigated Eucalyptus species gives insight about recent evolution of different clades within the TPS gene family. While the majority of TPS genes occur in orthologous pairs some clades show evidence of recent gene duplication, as well as loss of function.

  11. Genetic basis of resistance in eucalyptus spp. pathosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lucio Mauro da Silva Guimaraes; Marcos Deon Vilela Resende

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus is the most widely planted hardwood crop in world-wide tropical and subtropical regions because of its high growth rate, broad adaptability, and multipurpose wood properties. Until the 1970s, the Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil were practically disease free. However, plantations have continued to expand into warmer...

  12. MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

  13. Genomic research in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poke, Fiona S; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Reid, James B

    2005-09-01

    Eucalyptus L'Hérit. is a genus comprised of more than 700 species that is of vital importance ecologically to Australia and to the forestry industry world-wide, being grown in plantations for the production of solid wood products as well as pulp for paper. With the sequencing of the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the recent completion of the first tree genome sequence, Populus trichocarpa, attention has turned to the current status of genomic research in Eucalyptus. For several eucalypt species, large segregating families have been established, high-resolution genetic maps constructed and large EST databases generated. Collaborative efforts have been initiated for the integration of diverse genomic projects and will provide the framework for future research including exploiting the sequence of the entire eucalypt genome which is currently being sequenced. This review summarises the current position of genomic research in Eucalyptus and discusses the direction of future research.

  14. Effect of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis ) and maize (Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However eucalyptus plantations produce large amounts of litter, which impact on groundnut has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to investigate litter accumulation effect on growth, development, and groundnut root infection by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia, a greenhouse experiment was performed ...

  15. Production de biomasse et quantification des flux d’azote dans une plantation mixte d’Eucalyptus urophylla x grandis et d’Acacia mangium au Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Tchichellé , Sogni Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Forest plantations represent 5% of the world forest area but provide more than one third of world wood supply. Sustainability of these systems is based on the long-term maintenance of their fertility without using fertilizers. The introduction of nitrogen (N) fixing species in forest plantations is one of the solutions to take-up this challenge. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of the introduction of Acacia mangium in pure stand of eucalypts on tree growth, biomass production an...

  16. Plant and bird diversity in natural forests and in native and exotic plantations in NW Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Vânia M.; Pereira, Henrique M.; Guilherme, João; Vicente, Luís

    2010-03-01

    Forest ecosystems have been subjected to continuous dynamics between deforestation and forestation. Assessing the effects of these processes on biodiversity could be essential for conservation planning. We analyzed patterns of species richness, diversity and evenness of plants and birds in patches of natural forest of Quercus spp. and in stands of native Pinus pinaster and exotic Eucalyptus globulus in NW Portugal. We analyzed data of forest and non-forest species separately, at the intra-patch, patch and inter-patch scales. Forest plant richness, diversity and evenness were higher in oak forest than in pine and eucalypt plantations. In total, 52 species of forest plants were observed in oak forest, 33 in pine plantation and 28 in eucalypt plantation. Some forest species, such as Euphorbia dulcis, Omphalodes nitida and Eryngium juresianum, were exclusively or mostly observed in oak forest. Forest bird richness and diversity were higher in both oak and pine forests than in eucalypt forest; evenness did not differ among forests. In total, 16 species of forest birds were observed in oak forest, 18 in pine forest and 11 in eucalypt forest. Species such as Certhia brachydactyla, Sitta europaea and Dendrocopos major were common in oak and/or pine patches but were absent from eucalypt stands. Species-area relationships of forest plants and forest birds in oak patches had consistently a higher slope, at both the intra and inter-patch scales, than species-area relationships of forest species in plantations and non-forest species in oak forest. These findings demonstrate the importance of oak forest for the conservation of forest species diversity, pointing the need to conserve large areas of oak forest due to the apparent vulnerability of forest species to area loss. Additionally, diversity patterns in pine forest were intermediate between oak forest and eucalypt forest, suggesting that forest species patterns may be affected by forest naturalness.

  17. Eucalyptus sp. at the Intersection of Environment and Culture in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy M Garrett Kluthe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Eucalyptus are popular on small farms throughout Kenya, and include species such as Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalpytus globulus, and Eucalyptus grandis. Although they are fast-growing and perform well on marginal land, these trees are associated with negative environmental effects in Africa and elsewhere they have been introduced. In-person surveys were conducted with small farmers in Kenya to determine patterns of Eucalyptus sp. stand use and cultural importance. It was found that despite acknowledged short and long term environmental consequences, Eucalyptus sp. remains popular for medium term economic investment. These findings are consistent with other reports of Eucalyptus sp. woodlots serving as funding sources for education, health emergencies, etc., in parts of the world where bank loans are unavailable. Further, it was found that some farmers are using modified silviculture practices to ameliorate the negative effects of Eucalyptus sp., and others are seeking indigenous alternatives.           

  18. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus plantation forests has been degrading in last decades. Enhancement of alleopathy of Eucalyptus trees under drought conditions would partly contribute to biodiversity reduction and environment degradation in Eucalyptus plantation forests. For existing Eucalyptus plantation forests of Yunnan, I suggest that some improvement measures should be adopted. Artificial weeding and cleaning in Eucalyptus plantation forests should be banned. Density of Eucalyptus trees needs to be reduced. Biodiversity should be artificially improved in Eucalyptus plantation forests. In the future, the mountains and lands with better vegetation cover must not be reclaimed for Eucalyptus planting. Eucalyptus plantation forests should be made in barren mountains and lands with poor biodiversity.

  19. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry.

  20. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Mansilla, J.P.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus, mostly native to Australia, are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. These plantations represent an important source of fuel-wood, structural timber and pulp. Eucalyptus plantations are, however, vulnerable to infection by pathogens, including

  1. Projecting potential adoption of genetically engineered freeze-tolerant Eucalyptus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Ernest Dixon IV; Robert C. Abt; Navinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Development of commercial Eucalyptus plantations has been limited in the United States because of the species’ sensitivity to freezing temperatures. Recently developed genetically engineered clones of a Eucalyptus hybrid, which confer freeze tolerance, could expand the range of commercial plantations. This study explores how...

  2. Ocorrência e atividade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantios de eucalipto (eucalyptus sp. no litoral norte da Bahia, Brasil Occurrence and activity arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in eucalypt (eucalyptus sp. plantations in the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Sousa Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, tecnologias alternativas vêm sendo estudadas visando tornar o cultivo do eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp. mais econômico e sustentável. Entre estas, as associações micorrízicas merecem destaque devido aos inúmeros benefícios que proporcionam às plantas hospedeiras. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e atividade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantios de eucalipto utilizados comercialmente pela Copener Florestal Ltda. no litoral norte da Bahia. Foi observada grande variabilidade na densidade de esporos (36,2 a 203,2 esporos em 50 g de solo, colonização micorrízica (10,6 a 57,8% e nos teores de glomalina facilmente extraível e total (0,34 a 1,92 mg g de solo-1 e 0,48 a 3,88 mg g de solo-1 nos plantios de eucalipto. Os resultados neste estudo permitiram concluir que, embora os clones apresentem suscetibilidade à micorrização em condições de campo, variações nas características do solo afetam aspectos ecológicos dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nos plantios de eucalipto da Copener Florestal Ltda. no litoral norte da Bahia.In recent decades, alternative technologies have been studied in order to make the cultivation of eucalyptus more economical and sustainable. Among these, the mycorrhizal associations deserve mention because of the many benefits they provide to host plants. Mycorrhizal fungi (AMF form mutualistic association with plant roots, promoting greater uptake of nutrients to the host, which in turn yields products of photosynthesis to the fungus. With the establishment of the association, the plants become more resistant to adverse conditions such as nutrient-poor soil, low pH, high temperature, water stress, decreased microbial activity, among other biotic and abiotic stresses. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and activity of mycorrhizal fungi in eucalypt plantations used commercially by Copener Florestal Ltda. northern coast of Bahia. A high variability in

  3. Wood density and anatomy of three Eucalyptus species: implications for hydraulic conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Barotto, Antonio J.; Monteoliva, Silvia; Gyenge, Javier; Martínez-Meier, Alejandro; Moreno, Karen; Tesón, Natalia; Fernández, María Elena

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To characterize wood anatomical traits of three Eucalyptus species that differ in wood density and ecological requirements, and to examine the relationships between some anatomical features, wood density, and theoretical xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks).Area of study: We analyzed 86 trees from three sites of Argentina (Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires Provinces).Methods: The sampled trees were Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis and E. viminalis ranging from 11 to 15 years old. One ...

  4. Wood density and anatomy of three Eucalyptus species: implications for hydraulic conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio J. Barotto; Silvia Monteoliva; Javier Gyenge; Alejandro Martínez-Meier; Karen Moreno; Natalia Tesón; María Elena Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To characterize wood anatomical traits of three Eucalyptus species that differ in wood density and ecological requirements, and to examine the relationships between some anatomical features, wood density, and theoretical xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks). Area of study: We analyzed 86 trees from three sites of Argentina (Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires Provinces). Methods: The sampled trees were Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis and E. viminalis ranging from 11 to 15 years...

  5. Influencia del cambio climático en los escenarios del futuro sobre plantaciones de Eucalipto Influence of climate change on future scenarios on Eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhasmin Paiva Rody

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El género Eucalyptus presenta gran potencial con fines comerciales y es la especie de árbol más plantada en Brasil. Las perspectivas del cambio climático en las proyecciones futuras del IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indican que se pueden producir pérdidas significativas en las actividades agrícolas y forestales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar las zonas aptas para plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis, sobre la base de datos climatológicos y de relieve en los escenarios futuros. El trabajo fue desarrollado en la provincia del Espirito Santo (ES-Brasil. Fueron utilizadas las normales de clima obtenidas de estaciones pluviométricas. El balance de agua se calculó por el método de Tornthwaite y Mather. Se estimó la temperatura con base en los datos de latitud y altitud. Se utilizaron los datos SRTM para obtener la altitud y la declividad para las zonas de mecanización agrícola. Para la interpolación de los datos se utilizó el método del inverso del cuadrado de la distancia. Los datos de escenarios futuros se obtuvieron del modelo HADCM3 del IPCC en escenarios A (pesimista y B (optimista estimados para los años de 2020, 2050 y 2080. Se estima que las zonas aptas para plantaciones se redujeron en ambos escenarios, llegando a la reducción de 71,7% y 82,5% en el escenario A y B, respectivamente para el año de 2080. El déficit de agua actuó como un factor limitante en la plantación. Deben llevarse a cabo nuevos estudios relacionando la aptitud de la especie en el contexto del cambio climático.The genus Eucalyptus presents a large commercial potential and it is the arboreal species most planted in Brazil. Perspectives of climate change in the future projections of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change indicate that productivity losses may occur in diverse agricultural and forestry crops. The objective of this study was to determine the zones apt for planting of eucalyptus based on relief and

  6. Balanço de nutrientes em povoamento de Eucalyptus saligna implantado sobre Cambissolo Háplico no RS Nutrient balance in plantation of Eucalyptus saligna planted on Inceptisol in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mazurana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A fragilidade de um sistema florestal pode ser avaliada através do balanço de nutrientes, destacando a eficiência da ciclagem sendo que, em certos casos, a adubação deve ser utilizada para manter ou elevar a produtividade do sistema. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o comportamento de diferentes sistemas de preparo de solo em Cambissolo Háplico e sua influência nas perdas de nutrientes transportados por erosão em área cultivada com Eucalyptus saligna. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro métodos de preparo do solo: subsolagem interrompida com resíduo (SIR, subsolagem contínua com resíduo (SCR, subsolagem contínua sem resíduo (SSR e coveamento mecânico (CME, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições por tratamento. O sistema SSR apresentou as maiores perdas de nutrientes quando comparadas com as dos outros métodos de preparo de solo. As maiores perdas de nutrientes pela erosão hídrica foram, pela ordem, K > Ca > Mg > P > Cu > B. Os sistemas de preparo SIR e SSR apresentaram os maiores teores de nutrientes contidos na parte aérea e o menor balanço nutricional, respectivamente.The forest system fragility can be evaluated through nutrient balance, with an emphasis in the cycling efficiency to maintain or elevate of productivity of system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different soil tillage systems on nutrient losses transported by erosion on an Inceptisol with Eucalyptus saligna. Four tillage systems were tested: interrupted deep chiseling with residue (SIR, continuous deep chiseling with residue (SCR, continuous deep chiseling without residue (SSR and mechanical pitting (CME. The SIR system showed the greatest nutrient losses. The loss of nutrients was higher by water erosion, in the following order, K > Ca > Mg > P > Cu > B. SIR and SSR tillage systems had the highest levels of nutrients in shoots and lower nutritional balance, respectively.

  7. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  8. Evaluation of the throughfall and stemflow nutrient contents in mixed and pure plantations of Acacia mangium, Pseudosamenea guachapele and Eucalyptus grandis Avaliação do conteúdo de nutrientes na água de precipitação interna e de escoamento pelo tronco em plantios de Acacia mangium, Pseudosamenea guachapele e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The interception of the rainfall by the forest canopy has great relevance to the nutrient geochemistry cycle in low fertility tropical soils under native or cultivated forests. However, little is known about the modification of the rainfall water quality and hydrological balance after interception by the canopies of eucalyptus under pure and mixed plantations with leguminous species, in Brazil. Samples of rainfall (RF, throughfall (TF and stemflow (SF were collected and analyzed in pure plantations of mangium (nitrogen fixing tree -NFT, guachapele (NFT and eucalyptus (non-nitrogen fixing tree -NNFT and in a mixed stand of guachapele and eucalyptus in Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Nine stemflow collectors (in selected trees and nine pluviometers were randomly disposed under each stand and three pluviometers were used to measure the incident rainfall during 5.5 months. Mangium conveyed 33.4% of the total rainfall for its stem. An estimative based on corrections for the average annual precipitation (1213 mm indicated that the rainfall's contribution to the nutrient input (kg ha-1 was about 8.42; 0.95; 19.04; 6.74; 4.72 and 8.71 kg ha-1 of N-NH4+, P, K+, Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+, respectively. Throughfall provided the largest contributions compared to the stemflow nutrient input. The largest inputs of N-NH4+ (15.03 kg ha-1 and K+ (179.43 kg ha-1 were observed under the guachapele crown. Large amounts of Na+ denote a high influence of the sea. Mangium was the most adapted species to water competitiveness. Comparatively to pure stand of eucalyptus, the mixed plantation intensifies the N, Ca and Mg leaching by the canopy, while the inputs of K and P were lower under these plantations.A interceptação da chuva pela copa das florestas tem grande relevância no ciclo biogeoquímico de nutrientes nos solos de baixa fertilidade sob florestas nativas e plantadas. Entretanto, pouco se sabe sobre as modificações na qualidade dessa água e no balan

  9. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  10. Soil microbial community structure and function responses to successive planting of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Falin; Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Kai; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Huailin; Wu, Bing; Shi, Qian

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have shown soil degradation after the conversion of native forests to exotic Eucalyptus plantations. However, few studies have investigated the long-term impacts of short-rotation forestry practices on soil microorganisms. The impacts of Eucalyptus successive rotations on soil microbial communities were evaluated by comparing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) abundances, compositions, and enzyme activities of native Pinus massoniana plantations and adjacent 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th generation Eucalyptus plantations. The conversion from P. massoniana to Eucalyptus plantations significantly decreased soil microbial community size and enzyme activities, and increased microbial physiological stress. However, the PLFA abundances formed "u" shaped quadratic functions with Eucalyptus plantation age. Alternatively, physiological stress biomarkers, the ratios of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid and Gram+ to Gram- bacteria, formed "n"' shaped quadratic functions, and the ratio of cy17:0 to 16:1omega7c decreased with plantation age. The activities of phenol oxidase, peroxidase, and acid phosphatase increased with Eucalyptus plantation age, while the cellobiohydrolase activity formed "u" shaped quadratic functions. Soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, soil organic carbon, and understory cover largely explained the variation in PLFA profiles while soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, and understory cover explained most of the variability in enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil microbial structure and function under Eucalyptus plantations were strongly impacted by plantation age. Most of the changes could be explained by altered soil resource availability and understory cover associated with successive planting of Eucalyptus. Our results highlight the importance of plantation age for assessing the impacts of plantation conversion as well as the importance of reducing disturbance for plantation management.

  11. Breeding Eucalyptus for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edival A.V. Zauza; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; João Flávio da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations cover about 1.5 percent of the agricultural area in Brazil, and contribute to 4 percent of GDP and 3 percent in exports of forest products. Technological and research advances in silviculture and genetic improvement have increased productivity up to 80 m³ of wood/ha/year, with an average of 35 to 45 m³/ha/year. The greatest...

  12. Nitrogen Alters Initial Growth, Fine-Root Biomass and Soil Organic Matter Properties of a Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Plantation in a Recently Afforested Grassland in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel W. D. Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilization effects on Eucalyptus growth and soil carbon (C stocks are still controversial. We set up an N fertilization experiment in southern Brazil to evaluate initial tree growth and changes in soil organic matter (SOM. Four N levels (24–Reference, 36, 48 and 108 kg ha−1 of N were tested and tree growth was assessed during the first two years. Afterwards, representative trees were chosen to evaluate fine-root biomass (FRB and its spatial distribution. Soil was sampled to a 40-cm depth and SOM was fractionated in Particulate (POM and Mineral-Associated Organic Matter (MAOM for C and N content, and δ13C determination. Positive N effect on tree growth was seen only for tree height. N addition resulted in higher FRB. Changes in SOM were more expressive in top-soil layers. Overall, afforestation had positive effects on soil C. Increasing reference N dose resulted in higher C and N content in both SOM fractions. C and N dynamics were tightly correlated, especially in MAOM. Eucalypt-derived C was on average three-fold higher in POM. In summary, we showed that N fertilization may have positive but limited effects on tree growth, nevertheless it enhances fine-root biomass and C and N accumulation in SOM pools.

  13. Impacts of Smallholder Tree Plantation in Amhara Region of Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    more on the environmental and hydrological effects and impacts of eucalyptus ...... to scale up plantation practices by prioritizing certain areas of intervention in ... and natural fertilizer (ex. manure) and agronomic practices such as crop.

  14. A tool for identifying potential Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shy seed production in orchards of Eucalyptus nitens is a major barrier to the deployment of genetic gain in South African plantations. A machine learning method was used to identify optimal sites for the establishment of E. nitens seed orchards within the plantation forestry landscape of the summer rainfall region of South ...

  15. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  16. Potential of eleven Eucalyptus species for the production of essential oils Potencial de onze espécies de eucalipto para a produção de óleos essenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aiming to increase the availability of commercial species and the relationship between oil production and climatic conditions. Eucalyptus leaves were seasonally sampled (three months interval for distillation and determination of productivity and chemical composition of oil - contents of oils main components. Eucalyptus viminalis showed the highest potential for cineol, and standed out among the species not yet used commercially. Influenced by soil moisture contents and air temperature, the lowest and the highest oil production happened respectively in Spring and Summer. Water deficiency in Spring caused the lowest oil production. In the Summer, on the other hand, the highest oil production was observed when temperatures were higher and no water deficiency registered. There was no climatic influence on the main oil chemical component.A maioria das plantações de Eucalyptus brasileiras tem como objetivo a produção de papel e carvão, mas o uso das espécies para madeira, construção e extração de óleo essencial tem aumentado. Neste trabalho foram estudadas onze espécies de eucalipto quanto ao potencial para a obtenção de óleo essencial. Entre as espécies estudadas, nove não têm sido utilizadas na obtenção comercial de óleo. Para efeito comparativo, avaliou-se também duas outras espécies, o Eucalyptus citriodora e o Eucalyptus globulus, as quais são amplamente utilizadas, respectivamente, para a obtenção de óleo aromatizante e óleo para

  17. Microbial biomass and activity in litter during the initial development of pure and mixed plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium Biomassa e atividade microbiana da serapilheira durante o desenvolvimento inicial de plantios puros e mistos de Eucalyptus grandis e Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on microbial activity and biomass in forestry plantations often overlook the role of litter, typically focusing instead on soil nutrient contents to explain plant and microorganism development. However, since the litter is a significant source of recycled nutrients that affect nutrient dynamics in the soil, litter composition may be more strongly correlated with forest growth and development than soil nutrient contents. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining correlations between soil C, N, and P; litter C, N, P, lignin content, and polyphenol content; and microbial biomass and activity in pure and mixed second-rotation plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium before and after senescent leaf drop. The numbers of cultivable fungi and bacteria were also estimated. All properties were correlated with litter C, N, P, lignin and polyphenols, and with soil C and N. We found higher microbial activity (CO2 evolution in litter than in soil. In the E. grandis monoculture before senescent leaf drop, microbial biomass C was 46 % higher in litter than in soil. After leaf drop, this difference decreased to 16 %. In A. mangium plantations, however, microbial biomass C was lower in litter than in soil both before and after leaf drop. Microbial biomass N of litter was approximately 94 % greater than that of the soil in summer and winter in all plantations. The number of cultivable fungi and bacteria increased after leaf drop, especially so in the litter. Fungi were also more abundant in the E. grandis litter. In general, the A. mangium monoculture was associated with higher levels of litter lignin and N, especially after leaf drop. In contrast, the polyphenol and C levels in E. grandis monoculture litter were higher after leaf drop. These properties were negatively correlated with total soil C and N. Litter in the mixed stands had lower C:N and C:P ratios and higher N, P, and C levels in the microbial biomass. This suggests more

  18. ESTADO NUTRICIONAL DE Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake SOB DIFERENTES ESPAÇAMENTOS NA REGIÃO DE CERRADOS DE MINAS GERAIS NUTRITIONAL STATE OF Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake PLANTATIONS UNDER DIFFERENT SPACINGS IN THE SAVANNAH OF THE MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o estado nutricional de populações de eucaliptos (Eucalyptus urophylla, om três anos de idade, plantadas em diferentes densidades, nos eguintes espaçamentos: 3,0 m x 2,0 m,0; 3,0 m x 3,0 m; 3,0 m x ,0 m,0; 3,0 m x 5,0 m; 4,0 m x 2,25 m; 6,0 m x 1,5 m; 5,0 m x 1,8 ; e 9,0 m x 1,0 m. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Bocaiúva-MG. Foram avaliados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e B nas folhas, em sete épocas de amostragem. Os teores de nutrientes variaram com a época de amostragem, sendo os menores teores encontrados no período seco, para os nutrientes N, P e K. não houve interação entre espaçamentos e épocas para os teores de Mg. Os menores teores de Ca ocorreram no mês de dezembro, com exceção da população no espaçamento 9,0 m x 1,0 m. Os teores de N, P, S e B não foram influenciados pelos espaçamentos, e não apresentaram níveis considerados como deficientes, independentemente do espaçamento e da época.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Eucalipto; nutrição mineral; densidade.

    This study aimed to evaluate the mineral nutrition of three years old Eucalyptus urophylla plantations, grown in different population densities in the following spacings: 3.0 m x 2.0 m; 3.0 m x 3.0 m; 3.0 m x 4.0 m; 3.0 m x 5.0 m; 4.0 m x 2.25 m; 6.0 m x 1.5 m; 5.0 m x 1.8 m; and 9.0 m x 1.0 m. The experiment was carried out at Bocaiuva, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and B leaf content was evaluated at seven sampling dates. The nutrient content varied with sampling date; N, P, and K lowest levels were found in the dry period. No interaction was observed between spacing and sampling date for Mg. Lowest Ca levels occurred in December, except for 9.0 m x 1.0 m spacing. Spacing did not influence N, P, S, and B content

  19. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghaffar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan. EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%, α-pinene (31.4%, citrinyl acetate (13.3%, eugenol (11.8% and terpenene-4-ol (10.2% were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani. Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively. The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  20. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Yameen, Muhammad; Kiran, Shumaila; Kamal, Shagufta; Jalal, Fatima; Munir, Bushra; Saleem, Sadaf; Rafiq, Naila; Ahmad, Aftab; Saba, Iram; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-11-18

    Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan). EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (31.4%), citrinyl acetate (13.3%), eugenol (11.8%) and terpenene-4-ol (10.2%) were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani). Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively) followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively). The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  1. Wood Permeability in Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the flow of air and water in Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood. Wood was collected from four trees aged 37 years in an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. Planks were cut off the basal logs to produce specimens for air and water permeability testing. Results indicated that the longitudinal permeability to air and water of E. grandis wood were, on average, 5% and 10% higher, respectively, than that of E. dunnii wood. E. grandis and E. dunnii wood showed neither air nor water flow in the test for permeability transversal to the fibers, and longitudinal permeability to air exceeded that to water by approximately 50 fold in both species.

  2. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  3. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase, SAND (SAND protein, ACT (actin, and A-Tub (α-tubulin genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin. It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified

  4. Actinomycetes from Eucalyptus and their biological activities for controlling Eucalyptus leaf and shoot blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himaman, Winanda; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Duangmal, Kannika

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, Eucalyptus plantations rapidly expand across the country. Leaf and shoot blight caused by Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans is a serious disease in Eucalyptus plantations. In this study, a total of 477 actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from roots and rhizosphere soil of Eucalyptus. Four hundred and thirty nine isolates were classified as streptomycetes and 38 isolates were non-streptomycetes. Among these isolates, 272 (57.0%), 118 (24.7%) and 241 (50.5%) isolates were antagonistic to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans, respectively. All isolates were tested for their abilities to produce siderophores, indole acetic acid (IAA) and solubilise phosphate. Most isolates (464, 97.3%) produced siderophores. The majority of isolates (345, 72.3%) solubilised phosphate. In addition, almost half of these isolates (237, 49.7%) produced indole acetic acid. Strain EUSKR2S82 which showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all tested fungi with plant growth promoting ability was selected to test with Eucalyptus. This strain could colonize plant roots and increase Eucalyptus roots length. In a detached leaves bioassay, the disease severity of EUSKR2S82-inoculated Eucalyptus leaves was only 30% compared to 95% in the control treatment. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain EUSKR2S82 was related to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL-B 2714(T) (99.44% similarity). Identification of non-streptomycete isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequences classified them into 9 genera: Actinoallomurus, Actinomadura, Amycolatopsis, Cryptosporangium, Microbispora, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nonomuraea and Pseudonocardia. It is evident that Eucalyptus tree harbored several genera of actinomycetes. The selected isolate, EUSKR2S82 showed potential as a candidate for biocontrol agent of leaf and shoot blight of Eucalyptus and to promote growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Gmb

  5. Allelopathy in agroforestry systems: the effects of leaf extracts ofCupressus lusitanica and threeEucalyptus spp. on four Ethiopian crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisanework N.; Michelsen, Anders

    1993-01-01

    The potential allelopathic effect ofCupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis andE. saligna on seed germination, radicle and seedling growth was investigated with four crops:Cicer arietinum (chickpea),Zea mays (maize),Pisum sativum (pea) andEragrostis tef (teff). Aqueous leaf ex...

  6. Patterns of Reproductive Isolation in Eucalyptus-A Phylogenetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Matthew J; Holland, Barbara; Steane, Dorothy A; Jones, Rebecca C; Nicolle, Dean; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2015-07-01

    We assess phylogenetic patterns of hybridization in the speciose, ecologically and economically important genus Eucalyptus, in order to better understand the evolution of reproductive isolation. Eucalyptus globulus pollen was applied to 99 eucalypt species, mainly from the large commercially important subgenus, Symphyomyrtus. In the 64 species that produce seeds, hybrid compatibility was assessed at two stages, hybrid-production (at approximately 1 month) and hybrid-survival (at 9 months), and compared with phylogenies based on 8,350 genome-wide DArT (diversity arrays technology) markers. Model fitting was used to assess the relationship between compatibility and genetic distance, and whether or not the strength of incompatibility "snowballs" with divergence. There was a decline in compatibility with increasing genetic distance between species. Hybridization was common within two closely related clades (one including E. globulus), but rare between E. globulus and species in two phylogenetically distant clades. Of three alternative models tested (linear, slowdown, and snowball), we found consistent support for a snowball model, indicating that the strength of incompatibility accelerates relative to genetic distance. Although we can only speculate about the genetic basis of this pattern, it is consistent with a Dobzhansky-Muller-model prediction that incompatibilities should snowball with divergence due to negative epistasis. Different rates of compatibility decline in the hybrid-production and hybrid-survival measures suggest that early-acting postmating barriers developed first and are stronger than later-acting barriers. We estimated that complete reproductive isolation can take up to 21-31 My in Eucalyptus. Practical implications for hybrid eucalypt breeding and genetic risk assessment in Australia are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For

  7. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseaae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  8. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  9. Comparative transcriptional analysis provides new insights into the molecular basis of adventitious rooting recalcitrance in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; de Bastiani, Daniela; Gaeta, Marcos Letaif; de Araújo Mariath, Jorge Ernesto; de Costa, Fernanda; Retallick, Jeffrey; Nolan, Lana; Tai, Helen H; Strömvik, Martina V; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-10-01

    Adventitious rooting (AR) is essential in clonal propagation. Eucalyptus globulus is relevant for the cellulose industry due to its low lignin content. However, several useful clones are recalcitrant to AR, often requiring exogenous auxin, adding cost to clonal garden operations. In contrast, E. grandis is an easy-to-root species widely used in clonal forestry. Aiming at contributing to the elucidation of recalcitrance causes in E. globulus, we conducted a comparative analysis with these two species differing in rooting competence, combining gene expression and anatomical techniques. Recalcitrance in E. globulus is reversed by exposure to exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which promotes important gene expression modifications in both species. The endogenous content of IAA was significantly higher in E. grandis than in E. globulus. The cambium zone was identified as an active area during AR, concentrating the first cell divisions. Immunolocalization assay showed auxin accumulation in cambium cells, further indicating the importance of this region for rooting. We then performed a cambium zone-specific gene expression analysis during AR using laser microdissection. The results indicated that the auxin-related genes TOPLESS and IAA12/BODENLOS and the cytokinin-related gene ARR1may act as negative regulators of AR, possibly contributing to the hard-to-root phenotype of E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  11. Shady Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Frida

    2011-01-01

    This article explores practices of protection played out in a coastal plantation in a village in Tamil Nadu. I argue that these practices are articulations of different but coexisting theorizations of shelter, and that the plantation can be seen as that which emerges at the intersections between...

  12. Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations across gradients in site and stand conditions. ... The control plot may typically be a permanent plot of an inventory network, providing representative information for a company's decisionmaking. The paired twin-plot receives intensive management ...

  13. Diagnosing foliar nutrient dynamics of Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilisation is one of the most cost-effective methods of increasing and maintaining the productivity of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in South Africa. This silvicultural practice can be optimised by using the foliar nutrient ratios measured in plants at maximum growth as a guideline for fertiliser application. The foliar nutrient ...

  14. Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m2 (double line. The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm2, a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

  15. Differences in nitrogen cycling and soil mineralisation between a eucalypt plantation and a mixed eucalypt and #Acacia mangium# plantation on a sandy tropical soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tchichelle, Sogni Viviane; Epron, Daniel; Mialoundama, Fidèle; Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Harmand, Jean-Michel; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Mareschal, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable wood production requires appropriate management of commercial forest plantations. Establishment of industrial eucalypt plantations on poor sandy soils leads to a high loss of nutrients including nitrogen (N) after wood harvesting. An ecological intensification of eucalypt plantations was tested with the replacement of half of the Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis by Acacia mangium in the eucalypt monoculture to sustain soil fertility through enhancement of the N biological cycle. ...

  16. An overview of industrial tree plantation conflicts in the global South: conflicts, trends, and resistance struggles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Overbeek (Wilfridus); M. Kröger (Markus); J. Gerber (Julien-François)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the past two decades, industrial tree plantations (ITPs), typically large-scale, intensively managed, even-age monoculture plantations, mostly exotic trees like fast-growing eucalyptus, pine and acacia species, but also rubber and oil palm, all destined for industrial processe s

  17. Eucalyptus oil poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S; Wiggins, J

    1980-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of eucalyptus oil by a 3-year-old boy caused profound central nervous system depression within 30 minutes, but he recovered rapidly after gastric lavage. The extreme toxicity of eucalyptus oil is emphasised.

  18. Eucalyptus and Water Use in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine M. Albaugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus genus yields high rates of productivity and can be grown across a wide range of site types and climates for products such as pulp, fuelwood, or construction lumber. In addition, many eucalypts have the ability to coppice, making this genus an ideal candidate for use as a biofuel feedstock. However, the water use of Eucalyptus is a controversial issue, and the impacts of these fast-growing trees on water resources are well documented. Regardless, the demand for wood products and water continues to rise, providing a challenge to increase the productivity of forest plantations within water constraints. This is of particular relevance for water-limited countries such as South Africa which relies on exotic plantations to meet its timber needs. Research results from water use studies in South Africa are well documented and legislation restrictions limit further afforestation. This paper outlines techniques used to quantify the water use of eucalypt plantations and provides recommendations on where to focus future research efforts. Greater insights into the water use efficiency of clonal material are needed, as certain eucalypt clones show fast growth and low water use. To better understand water use efficiency, estimates should be combined with monitoring of stand canopy structure and measurements of physiological processes.

  19. Opportunities and challenges in industrial plantation mapping in big data era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J.; Xiao, X.; Qin, Y.; Chen, B.; Wang, J.; Kou, W.; Zhai, D.

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing demand in timer, rubber, palm oil in the world market, industrial plantations have dramatically expanded, especially in Southeast Asia; which have been affecting ecosystem services and human wellbeing. However, existing efforts on plantation mapping are still limited and blocked our understanding about the magnitude of plantation expansion and their potential environmental effects. Here we would present a literature review about the existing efforts on plantation mapping based on one or multiple remote sensing sources, including rubber, oil palm, and eucalyptus plantations. The biophysical features and spectral characteristics of plantations will be introduced first, a comparison on existing algorithms in terms of different plantation types. Based on that, we proposed potential improvements in large scale plantation mapping based on the virtual constellation of multiple sensors, citizen science tools, and cloud computing technology. Based on the literature review, we discussed a series of issues for future scale operational paddy rice mapping.

  20. Nutritional disorders in Eucalyptus citriodora. [In Portugese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, H P; Simoes, J W; de Oliveira, G D; Sarruge, J R; Poggiani, F

    1977-01-01

    Eucalyptus spp., especially E. citriodora, when grown on the poor soils characteristic of cerrado areas in Brazil, sometimes show signs of an unusual disorder. The youngest leaves in the crown (and later most of the older leaves) wither but remain attached to the shoots, and the bark splits and exudes gum. Samples of leaves from a 4-year-old E. citriodora plantation in Sao Paulo that showed these symptoms were collected and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The disorder is attributed to general malnutrition, and especially to a lack of S, Ca and P.

  1. Transfer Rates of 238U and 232Th for E. globulus, A. mearnsii, H. filipendula and Hazardous Effects of the Usage of Medicinal Plants From Around Gold Mine Dump Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Tshivhase

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plant consumption can be a source of human exposure to radioactive elements such as 238U and 232Th, which can lead to internal radiation doses. The uptake of 238U and 232Th from soils to the leaf samples of three different medicinal plant species (Eucalyptus globulus, Acacia mearnsii and Hyparrhenia filipendula from the purlieu of the Princess gold mine dump, an abandoned contaminated tailings storage site (TSS, located at longitude 27°55′00″E and latitude 26°09′30″S in Davidsonville (Roodepoort, west of Johannesburg, South Africa was measured. This was done using ICP-MS spectrometry and substantial differences were observed in the soil-plant transfer factor (TF values between these radionuclides. The plant species E. globulus exhibited the highest uptake of 238U, with an average TF of 3.97, while that of H. filipendula was 0.01 and the lowest TF of 0.15 × 10−2 was measured for A. mearnsii. However, in the case of 232Th, the highest average TF was observed for A. mearnsii (0.29, followed by E. globulus (0.10 and lowest was measured for H. filipendula (0.27 × 10−2. The ratio of TF average value i.e., 238U to 232Th in the soil-plant leaves was 38.05 for E. globulus, 0.01 for A. mearnsii and 4.38 for H. filipendula.

  2. Transfer Rates of 238U and 232Th for E. globulus, A. mearnsii, H. filipendula and Hazardous Effects of the Usage of Medicinal Plants From Around Gold Mine Dump Environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshivhase, Victor M.; Njinga, Raymond L.; Mathuthu, Manny; Dlamini, Thulani C.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plant consumption can be a source of human exposure to radioactive elements such as 238U and 232Th, which can lead to internal radiation doses. The uptake of 238U and 232Th from soils to the leaf samples of three different medicinal plant species (Eucalyptus globulus, Acacia mearnsii and Hyparrhenia filipendula) from the purlieu of the Princess gold mine dump, an abandoned contaminated tailings storage site (TSS), located at longitude 27°55′00″E and latitude 26°09′30″S in Davidsonville (Roodepoort, west of Johannesburg, South Africa) was measured. This was done using ICP-MS spectrometry and substantial differences were observed in the soil-plant transfer factor (TF) values between these radionuclides. The plant species E. globulus exhibited the highest uptake of 238U, with an average TF of 3.97, while that of H. filipendula was 0.01 and the lowest TF of 0.15 × 10−2 was measured for A. mearnsii. However, in the case of 232Th, the highest average TF was observed for A. mearnsii (0.29), followed by E. globulus (0.10) and lowest was measured for H. filipendula (0.27 × 10−2). The ratio of TF average value i.e., 238U to 232Th in the soil-plant leaves was 38.05 for E. globulus, 0.01 for A. mearnsii and 4.38 for H. filipendula. PMID:26690462

  3. Exotic Eucalyptus leaves are preferred over tougher native species but affect the growth and survival of shredders in an Atlantic Forest stream (Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walace P Kiffer

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of leaves of native and exotic tree species on the feeding activity and performance of the larvae of Triplectides gracilis, a typical caddisfly shredder in Atlantic Forest streams. Leaves of four native species that differ in chemistry and toughness (Hoffmannia dusenii, Miconia chartacea, Myrcia lineata and Styrax pohlii and the exotic Eucalyptus globulus were used to determine food preferences and rates of consumption, production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM, growth and survival of shredders. We hypothesized that the consumption rates of leaves of Eucalyptus and their effects on the growth and survival of shredders could be predicted by leaf chemistry and toughness. The larvae preferred to feed on soft leaves (H. dusenii and M. chartacea independently of the content of nutrients (N and P and secondary compounds (total phenolics. When such leaves were absent, they preferred E. globulus and did not consume the tough leaves (M. lineata and S. pohlii. In monodietary experiments, leaf consumption and FPOM production differed among the studied leaves, and the values observed for the E. globulus treatments were intermediate between the soft and tough leaves. The larvae that fed on H. dusenii and M. chartacea grew constantly over five weeks, while those that fed on E. globulus lost biomass. Larval survival was higher on leaves of H. dusenii, M. chartacea and S. pohlii than on E. globulus and M. lineata leaves. Although E. globulus was preferred over tougher leaves, long-term consumption of leaves of the exotic species may affect the abundance of T. gracilis in the studied stream. Additionally, our results suggest that leaf toughness can be a determining factor for the behavior of shredders where low-quality leaves are abundant, as in several tropical streams.

  4. Exotic Eucalyptus leaves are preferred over tougher native species but affect the growth and survival of shredders in an Atlantic Forest stream (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffer, Walace P; Mendes, Flavio; Casotti, Cinthia G; Costa, Larissa C; Moretti, Marcelo S

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of leaves of native and exotic tree species on the feeding activity and performance of the larvae of Triplectides gracilis, a typical caddisfly shredder in Atlantic Forest streams. Leaves of four native species that differ in chemistry and toughness (Hoffmannia dusenii, Miconia chartacea, Myrcia lineata and Styrax pohlii) and the exotic Eucalyptus globulus were used to determine food preferences and rates of consumption, production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM), growth and survival of shredders. We hypothesized that the consumption rates of leaves of Eucalyptus and their effects on the growth and survival of shredders could be predicted by leaf chemistry and toughness. The larvae preferred to feed on soft leaves (H. dusenii and M. chartacea) independently of the content of nutrients (N and P) and secondary compounds (total phenolics). When such leaves were absent, they preferred E. globulus and did not consume the tough leaves (M. lineata and S. pohlii). In monodietary experiments, leaf consumption and FPOM production differed among the studied leaves, and the values observed for the E. globulus treatments were intermediate between the soft and tough leaves. The larvae that fed on H. dusenii and M. chartacea grew constantly over five weeks, while those that fed on E. globulus lost biomass. Larval survival was higher on leaves of H. dusenii, M. chartacea and S. pohlii than on E. globulus and M. lineata leaves. Although E. globulus was preferred over tougher leaves, long-term consumption of leaves of the exotic species may affect the abundance of T. gracilis in the studied stream. Additionally, our results suggest that leaf toughness can be a determining factor for the behavior of shredders where low-quality leaves are abundant, as in several tropical streams.

  5. Plants of an Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera Plantas de Eucalyptus atacadas por Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Species of Scolytidae and Platypodidae were evaluated in a plantation using a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Wood disks with galleries were taken from 15 eucalyptus trees between 0.5 and 1.5 m height. After collection, all trees attacked were burned. Woodborers obtained from these disks were identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus, Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. This is the first report of D. cristatus, a Brazilian native species, damaging eucalyptus, which shows its adaptation to this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ataque de Scolytidae e Platypodidae em talhão de clone Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla na região de Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Discos de madeira com galerias desses insetos foram retirados de 15 árvores de eucalipto entre 0,5 e 1,5 m de altura. Após a coleta deste material, as árvores atacadas foram queimadas. Os indivíduos da ordem Coleoptera obtidos desses discos foram identificados como Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus e Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae e Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. O ataque de D. cristatus, espécie nativa do Brasil, ao eucalipto ainda não havia sido relatado, o que mostra sua adaptação a essa planta.

  6. Occurrence of proscopiidae in Eucalyptus spp.: analysis of the infestations and spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to report the occurrence of proscopiidae and to quantify its infestation and spatial distribution in one experimental plantation of eucalypt clones. The study was conducted in an experimental field with eucalypt hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (clones GG100, Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (H13 and of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (VM01. The plantation was established in three continuous blocks with 512 plants with 3 m x 2 m, in Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Infestation of proscopiidae insects was detected two months after planting . The insects were collected for identification. The attacked trees were geo-referenced and the injuries were quantified. The spatial pattern of proscopiidae he attack was determinated using the location information of the damaged plants, which have been submitted to a quadrats analyses using Morisita and binomial dispersion indexes. All the collected insects have been identified as Tetanorhynchus smithi Rehn, 1904 (Orthoptera, Proscopiidae. The infestation differed significantly among the three eucalypts clones and aggregated spatial pattern of attack was observed. This is the first report of this species of proscopiidae in eucalyptus in Mato Grosso State.

  7. Damage caused by different levels of artificial defoliation, simulating the leaf-cutting ants attack on young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis Danos causados por diferentes níveis de desfolha artificial para simulação do ataque de formigas cortadeiras em Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Reis Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The artificial defoliation allows to measure the defoliation intensity caused by insects. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the damages caused by leaf-cutting ants in young plantations of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus grandis using different levels of artificial defoliation. A classification was established according to defoliation levels that were caused by leaf-cutting ants in P. taeda: level 1: 50%, level 2: 75%, level 3: 100% and level 4: 100%, including the cut of the apical meristem. And in E. grandis: level 1: 50% of defoliation; level 2: 75% and level 3: 100%. After one year, the P. taeda seedlings had losses in diameter and height for defoliation level above 75%. Seedlings severely defoliated (level 4, had losses of 37.0% in height and 45.4% in diameter. The E. grandis seedlings had losses since three months old and the reductions were proportional to the defoliation intensity. After one year, the losses of 13.3% in height and 20% in diameter were verified in plants with 100% of defoliation. P. taeda plants are more damaged by leaf-cutting attack.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.65.37

    A desfolha artificial permite mensurar a intensidade do dano devido à desfolha causada por insetos. No presente estudo, buscou-se avaliar os danos causados por formigas cortadeiras em plantios de Pinus taeda e Eucalyptus grandis com 30 dias de idade. Foi estabelecida uma classificação baseada em níveis de desfolha semelhantes aos causados por formigas cortadeiras. Para P. taeda, os níveis foram: N1: 50%, N2: 75%, N3: 100% e N4: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Para E. grandis, os níveis foram N1: 50%, N2: 75% e N3: 100% de desfolha, incluindo o corte do meristema apical. Após um ano, as mudas de P. taeda tiveram perdas em altura e diâmetro nos níveis de N2 a N4. Mudas de P. taeda desfolhadas no nível N4 apresentaram perdas de

  8. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Mycosphaerella species associated with Eucalyptus nitens leaf defoliation in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, G.C.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is an important plantation tree species in South Africa, where it is grown for paper and pulp production. The growth and performance of E. nitens in South Africa is, however, reduced substantially by Mycosphaerella leaf blotch (MLB) disease. The aim of this study was to determine

  10. The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan; Sebastiao Fonseca; Rodolfo A. Loos; Ernesto N. Takahashi; Claudio R. Silva; Sergio R. Silva; Rodrigo E. Hakamada; Jose Mario de A. Ferreira; Augusto M. N. Lima; Jose Luiz Gava; Fernado P. Leite; Helder B. Andrade; Jacyr M. Alves; Gualter G. C. Silva; Moises R. Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the potential growth of clonal Eucalyptus plantations at eight locations across a 1000+ km gradient in Brazil by manipulating the supplies of nutrients and water, and altering the uniformity of tree sizes within plots. With no fertilization or irrigation, mean annual increments of stem wood were about 28% lower (16.2 Mg...

  11. Antimicrobial potential of Eucalyptus globulus against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, F. I.; Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus are among the most common species isolated from bovine mastitis. The pathogenesis of this bacterium is facilitated by a number of virulence factors, including the ability to adhere to abiotic surfaces and/or host tissues often leading to biofilms' formation. From the clinical perspective, the most important feature of Staphytococcus species' biofilms is their high tolerance to the conventional antimicrobial therapy. So, the increasing number of bovine m...

  12. Acaricidal and repellent activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani-Samani Amir; Madreseh-Ghahfarokhi Samin; Dehghani-Samani Azam; Pirali-Kheirabadi Khodadad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: By considering an increase in drug resistance against red mites, finding the nonchemical herbal acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Mesostigmata) is necessary to kill them and to reduce the chemical resistance against chemical acaricides in this specie. Dermanyssus gallinae is a potential vector of the causal agent of several viral diseases such as Equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. It can be a vector of bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Mycobac...

  13. Carbon Storage and Allocation Pattern in Plant Biomass among Different Forest Plantation Stands in Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yuanqi; Liu, Zhanfeng; Rao, Xingquan; Wang, Xiaoling; Liang, Chenfei; Lin, Yongbiao; Zhou, Lixia; Cai, Xi-an; Fu, Shenglei

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand how carbon storage and allocation patterns vary among plantation types, we estimated carbon allocation between above- and below-ground compartments in four subtropical plantations and a naturally recovered shrubland (as a control). Results indicated that the carbon storage and allocation pattern varied greatly among forest types and was highly dependent on specific traits of trees and understory vegetation. The fast-growing species, such as Eucalyptus urophylla, accumul...

  14. Genome-wide variation in recombination rate in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gion, Jean-Marc; Hudson, Corey J; Lesur, Isabelle; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-08-09

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary process. It not only generates diversity, but influences the efficacy of natural selection and genome evolution. There can be significant heterogeneity in recombination rates within and between species, however this variation is not well understood outside of a few model taxa, particularly in forest trees. Eucalypts are forest trees of global economic importance, and dominate many Australian ecosystems. We studied recombination rate in Eucalyptus globulus using genetic linkage maps constructed in 10 unrelated individuals, and markers anchored to the Eucalyptus reference genome. This experimental design provided the replication to study whether recombination rate varied between individuals and chromosomes, and allowed us to study the genomic attributes and population genetic parameters correlated with this variation. Recombination rate varied significantly between individuals (range = 2.71 to 3.51 centimorgans/megabase [cM/Mb]), but was not significantly influenced by sex or cross type (F1 vs. F2). Significant differences in recombination rate between chromosomes were also evident (range = 1.98 to 3.81 cM/Mb), beyond those which were due to variation in chromosome size. Variation in chromosomal recombination rate was significantly correlated with gene density (r = 0.94), GC content (r = 0.90), and the number of tandem duplicated genes (r = -0.72) per chromosome. Notably, chromosome level recombination rate was also negatively correlated with the average genetic diversity across six species from an independent set of samples (r = -0.75). The correlations with genomic attributes are consistent with findings in other taxa, however, the direction of the correlation between diversity and recombination rate is opposite to that commonly observed. We argue this is likely to reflect the interaction of selection and specific genome architecture of Eucalyptus. Interestingly, the differences amongst

  15. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 2. Vegetative propagation of Eucalypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of large-scale plantation establishment by various methods was examined, and the following conclusions were reached: seedling plantations are limited in potential yield due to genetic variation among the planting stock and often inadequate supplies of appropriate seed; vegetative propagation by rooted cuttings can provide good genetic uniformity of select hybrid planting stock; however, large-scale production requires establishment and maintenance of extensive cutting orchards. The collection of shoots and preparation of cuttings, although successfully implemented in the Congo and Brazil, would not be economically feasible in Florida for large-scale plantations; tissue culture propagation of select hybrid eucalypts offers the only opportunity to produce the very large number of trees required to establish the energy plantation. The cost of tissue culture propagation, although higher than seedling production, is more than off-set by the increased productivity of vegetative plantations established from select hybrid Eucalyptus.

  16. Bioenergy for District Bioheating System (DBS) from eucalyptus residues in a European coal-producing region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes-Sánchez, José P.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.; López-González, Luis M.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper introduces a combined method to evaluate bioenergy. • Forest biomass needs to be studied as a fuel supplier and carbon sink. • The forests under study produce about 28 kt dry and 0.15 Mt CO 2 per year. • Examined a District Bioheating System (DBS) with the available biomass. - Abstract: Since forest biomass can substitute for CO 2 -emitting fossil fuels in the energy sector, forest management can greatly affect the global carbon cycle. Eucalyptus globulus has adapted very well in the coal region of the Principality of Asturias (Northwestern Spain) and has become highly regarded as a valuable raw material for the pulp and paper industry. In the present work, the Eucalyptus globulus is studied as a key natural energy source in order to improve existing methods and develop new ways of optimizing the evaluation and use of both forest biomass and woody residue in energy systems, in accordance with sustainable forestry industry safety and environmental requirements. The feasibility of utilizing forest biomass instead of natural gas in a District Bioheating System (DBS) has been examined based on an analysis of its economical and environmental impacts.

  17. Transferability of microsatellite markers located in candidate genes for wood properties between Eucalyptus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia V. Acuña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study:  To analyze the feasibility of extrapolating conclusions on wood quality genetic control between different Eucalyptus species, particularly from species with better genomic information, to those less characterized. For this purpose, the first step is to analyze the conservation and cross-transferability of microsatellites markers (SSRs located in candidate genes.Area of study: Eucalyptus species implanted in Argentina coming from different Australian origins.Materials and methods: Twelve validated and polymorphic SSRs in candidate genes (SSR-CGs for wood quality in E. globulus were selected for cross species amplification in six species: E. grandis, E. saligna, E. dunnii, E. viminalis, E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis.Main results: High cross-species transferability (92% to 100% was found for the 12 polymorphic SSRs detected in E. globulus. These markers revealed allelic diversity in nine important candidate genes: cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3, the transcription factor LIM1, homocysteine S-methyltransferase (HMT, shikimate kinase (SK, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 2 (XTH2, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD and peroxidase (PER.Research highlights: The markers described are potentially suitable for comparative QTL mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding (MAB and for population genetic studies across different species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus.Keywords: validation; cross-transferability; SSR; functional markers; eucalypts; Symphyomyrtus.

  18. QUALIDADE DA SECAGEM CONVENCIONAL CONJUNTA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE Eucalyptus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian industry commonly dries different species of eucalypt in a same load because of the difficulty of identifying the species, hybrids and clones, and also by optimizing the use of the kiln. However, this practice is not recommended in the literature. The aim of this work was to verify the quality of grouped conventional drying of Eucalyptus saligna , Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii from clonal plantations. To this end, three loads were dried with the three species together in a pilot conventional dry kiln. The criteria used to analyze the quality of dried wood were final moisture content, end checks, cupping, collapse, moisture gradient and drying stresses. Eucalyptus grandis showed the best quality of drying, followed by Eucalyptus saligna , and both species have potential to be kiln dried together. Eucalyptus dunnii had the worst quality of drying, and should not be kiln dried together with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna. The basic density and shrinkage were good parameters for the expected quality of the drying of eucalyptus species, in which less dense and more dimensionally stable species had better quality of drying. The drying schedule used must be modified to further drying of these species, especially regarding to uniformity and conditioning periods, which were considered insufficient.

  19. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta C-13 in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E-grandis x camaldulensis and E-grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, D

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available - cial clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. implying that less water-use-efficient trees were more productive (Bond and Stock 1990). Similarly, growing season WUE and delta13C were positively correlated in western larch and Eucalyptus globulus... regimes DEBBIE LE ROUX,1,2 WILLIAM D. STOCK,3 WILLIAM J. BOND3 and DAVID MAPHANGA4 1 Division of Forest Science and Technology, CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa 2 Present address: Department of Botany, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA 3 Department...

  20. Selective Herbicides for Cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Minogue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition control is essential for successful eucalyptus plantation establishment, yet few selective herbicides have been identified. Five herbicides, flumioxazin, imazamox, imazapic, oxyfluorfen, and sulfometuron methyl, were evaluated for selective weed control in the establishment of genetically modified frost tolerant Eucalyptus urograndis clones. Herbicides were applied at two or three rates, either before or after weed emergence, and compared to a nontreated control and to near-complete weed control obtained with glyphosate directed sprays. Applications prior to weed emergence were most effective for weed control and, with the exception of imazapic, all resulted in enhanced eucalyptus growth relative to the nontreated control. Among postemergent treatments, only imazamox enhanced stem volume. Among selective herbicide treatments, preemergent 2240 g ha−1 oxyfluorfen produced the best growth response, resulting in stem volume index that was 860% greater than the nontreated control, although only 15% of the volume index obtained with near-complete weed control. Imazapic was the most phytotoxic of all herbicides, resulting in 40% mortality when applied preemergent. Survival was 100% for all other herbicide treatments. This research found the previously nontested herbicides imazamox and imazapic to be effective for selective weed control and refined application rate and timing of five herbicides for use in clonal plantations.

  1. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults

    OpenAIRE

    Juan, Laura W.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N.; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martín; Masuh, Hector M.

    2011-01-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida...

  2. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  3. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Eucalyptus infected with Calonectria pseudoreteaudii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanzhu; Guo, Wenshuo; Feng, Lizhen; Ye, Xiaozhen; Xie, Wanfeng; Huang, Xiuping; Liu, Jinyan

    2015-02-06

    Cylindrocladium leaf blight is one of the most severe diseases in Eucalyptus plantations and nurseries. There are Eucalyptus cultivars with resistance to the disease. However, little is known about the defense mechanism of resistant cultivars. Here, we investigated the transcriptome and proteome of Eucalyptus leaves (E. urophylla×E. tereticornis M1), infected or not with Calonectria pseudoreteaudii. A total of 8585 differentially expressed genes (|log2 ratio| ≥1, FDR ≤0.001) at 12 and 24hours post-inoculation were detected using RNA-seq. Transcriptional changes for five genes were further confirmed by qRT-PCR. A total of 3680 proteins at the two time points were identified using iTRAQ technique.The combined transcriptome and proteome analysis revealed that the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway, terpenoid biosynthesis, signalling pathway (jasmonic acid and sugar) were activated. The data also showed that some proteins (WRKY33 and PR proteins) which have been reported to involve in plant defense response were up-regulated. However, photosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism and protein metabolism were impaired by the infection of C. pseudoreteaudii. This work will facilitate the identification of defense related genes and provide insights into Eucalyptus defense responses to Cylindrocladium leaf blight. In this study, a total of 130 proteins and genes involved in the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway, terpenoid biosynthesis, signalling pathway, cell transport, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and protein metabolism in Eucalyptus leaves after infected with C. pseudoreteaudii were identified. This is the first report of a comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of Eucalyptus in response to Calonectria sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbon Storage and Allocation Pattern in Plant Biomass among Different Forest Plantation Stands in Guangdong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqi Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how carbon storage and allocation patterns vary among plantation types, we estimated carbon allocation between above- and below-ground compartments in four subtropical plantations and a naturally recovered shrubland (as a control. Results indicated that the carbon storage and allocation pattern varied greatly among forest types and was highly dependent on specific traits of trees and understory vegetation. The fast-growing species, such as Eucalyptus urophylla, accumulated more carbon in plant biomass. The biomass carbon was about 1.9- and 2.2-times greater than the 10-species mixed plantation and Castanopsis hystrix plantations, respectively. Meanwhile, the plantations sequestered 1.5- to 3-times more carbon in biomass than naturally recovered shrubland. The carbon allocation pattern between above- and below-ground compartments also varied with plantation type and stand age. The ratio of tree root carbon to tree aboveground carbon decreased with stand age for Eucalyptus urophylla and the 10-species mixed plantation. In contrast, the ratio increased for Acacia crassicarpa. Our data suggested that planting the fast-growing species in the degraded land of subtropical China was an effective choice in terms of carbon sequestration. The information about carbon allocation patterns was also valuable for decision making in sustainable forest management and climate change mitigation.

  5. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  6. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Apis meOifera) on black ironbark. (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before ...

  7. Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Christie, SI

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available of such functions, determined from forestry trial data in South Africa, are shown below. Harrison et al. (1994) give the following result for P. patula in Nelshoogte, South Africa: Vste, . = Vf~,,at(1- exp(-0.141 l(1-0.6782exp(-O.OO13TP))i)) 3"°935 with n = 218... an expected life of more than 20 years. In South Africa most construction timber falls into this category, as well as timber destined to be permanently buried underground as mine supports. The C stored in timber products can be calculated as: Cp = ~aVkPk E...

  8. Potencial de onze espécies de eucalipto para a produção de óleos essenciais

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paulo Henrique Müller da; Brito, José Otávio; Silva Junior, Francides Gomes da

    2006-01-01

    Most Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil aim the production of paper and charcoal, but the use of the species for lumbering, construction and extraction of essential oil has increased. Eleven species of Eucalyptus were assessed in regard to their essential oil production potential, nine never used before for commercial, essential oil extraction. Assessements were compared with Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus, already explored in oil production for perfume and medical purposes, aimi...

  9. USE OF TREND IMPACT ANALYSIS AFFECTS PROJECTIONS OF EUCALYPTUS CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Lotfi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus forestry is an important source of competitive advantage for Brazil and, since eucalyptus is a basic raw material for industrial segments that are undergoing great expansion, monitoring the growth rate of cultivated area is increasingly relevant.This study resorted to Trend Impact Analysis (TIA to forecast the planting of eucalyptus in Brazil’s reforested areas, adjusting the linear regression of historical data in the light of three events that were under way or that will probably influence the trend: timber funds, the world financial crisis and Biomass to Liquid (BTL technology.The results allow one to infer that, in the short term, eucalyptus cultivation will expand at a rate similar to that of the linear curve, adversely affected by the world crisis and positively affected by timber funds.By 2016, however, the expansion of eucalyptus plantations is expected, largely because of the commercial scale of BTL technology.Key words: Trend Impact Analysis. Eucalyptus. Future Studies.

  10. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  11. Estimating foliar nitrogen in Eucalyptus using vegetation indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Ramalho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N has commonly been applied in Eucalyptus stands in Brazil and it has a direct relation with biomass production and chlorophyll content. Foliar N concentrations are used to diagnose soil and plant fertility levels and to develop N fertilizer application rates. Normally, foliar N is obtained using destructive methods, but indirect analyses using Vegetation Indexes (VIs may be possible. The aim of this work was to evaluate VIs to estimate foliar N concentration in three Eucalyptus clones. Lower crown leaves of three clonal Eucalyptus plantations (25 months old were classified into five color patterns using the Munsell Plant Tissue Color Chart. For each color, N concentration was determined by the Kjeldahl method and foliar reflectance was measured using a CI-710 Miniature Leaf Spectrometer. Foliar reflectance data were used to obtain the VIs and the VIs were used to estimate N concentrations. In the visible region, the relationship between N concentration and reflectance percentage was negative. The highest correlations between VIs and N concentrations were obtained by the Inflection Point Position (IPP, r = 0.97, Normalized Difference Red-Edge (reNDVI, r = 0.97 and Modified Red-Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (mNDI, r = 0.97. Vegetation indexes on the red edge region provided the most accurate estimates of foliar N concentration. The reNDVI index provided the best N concentration estimates in leaves of different colors of Eucalyptus urophylla × grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla × urophylla (R2 = 0.97 and RMSE = 0.91 g kg−1.

  12. Seletivicty of eucalyptus genotypes to herbicides rates / Seletividade de genótipos de eucalipto a doses de herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siumar Pedro Tironi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to quantify the herbicide selectivity applied at post-emergence of eucalyptus in different rates. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions in the period from January to March 2007 at the Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel in Universidade Federal de Pelotas – Capão do Leão-RS. Experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. Treatments were in a factorial scheme: factor A - eucalyptus genotypes (E. globulus e E. saligna, factor B - herbicides (isoxaflutole, oxyfluorfen, bispyribac-sodium and sethoxydim+diclosulam, and factor C – rates of the registered average for weed control (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200%. Phytotoxicity, height, stem diameter and dry matter were evaluated. E. globulus genotype was more sensitive to herbicides than E. saligna. The mixture of the herbicides sethoxydim plus diclosulam showed potential to be used in eucalyptus. Bispyribac-sodium herbicide was the most toxic and isoxaflutole was the most selective to the studied genotypes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a seletividade de herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência na cultura do eucalipto em função de diferentes doses. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, pertencente a Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, no Município de Capão do Leão – RS, no período de janeiro a março de 2007. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi completamente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial, onde o fator A testou genótipos de eucalipto (E. globulus e E. saligna, o fator B comparou quatro herbicidas (isoxaflutole, oxyfluorfen, bispyribac-sodium e sethoxydim+diclosulam e o fator C doses (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200% da dose média registrada para controle de plantas daninhas. As variáveis avaliadas foram fitotoxicidade, estatura, diâmetro do caule e matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas de eucalipto. O gen

  13. Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there interclonal variation in response to experimentally imposed water stress? ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... However, water stress reduced shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity with significant interclonal effects.

  14. LEVANTAMENTO DA ENTOMOFAUNA EM PLANTIOS DE Eucalyptus spp. POR MEIO DE ARMADILHA LUMINOSA EM SÃO FRANCISCO DE ASSIS - RS

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    Juliana Garlet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of eucalyptus has become an important economic activity in Brazil. However, with the increase of the plantation areas, some entomological problems tend to increase in the same proportion. The constant monitoring of the insects associated with homogeneous planting systems is very important in order to seek the development of programs for integrated pest management. Thus, the purpose of this study was to perform a survey on the insect populations associated with Eucalyptus spp., in São Francisco de Assis, RS. The collects were carried out by light traps from July 2008 to August 2009 in three-year-old stands with the species: Eucalyptus dunni, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla . The insects collected were analyzed using the faunistic indices, frequency, abundance, diversity, and constancy. The correlation between the pest species identified and the meteorological variables for the period were also performed. We collected 3623 individuals belonging to eight orders (Blattodea, Coleoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Mantodea and Odonata. Three species and three genus of lepidoptera defoliators considered of economic importance were identified: Automeris illustris, Eupseudosoma sp., Sabulodes sp., Sarsina sp., Thyrinteina arnobia and Agrotis ipsilon as well as the borer Phoracantha semipunctata . Our results show that there are important pest species of Eucalyptus already established in the region therefore some constant monitoring is required so that these species do not cause damage to plantations.

  15. Amenability of Acacia and Eucalyptus Hardwood Pulps to Elemental Chlorine-Free Bleaching: Application and Efficacy of Microbial Xylanase

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    Avdhesh Kumar Gangwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the results of a biobleaching study of acacia (A. mangium and eucalyptus (E. globulus hardwood kraft pulps with commercial xylanase (Optimase CX 72 L. The comparative study was carried out using an elemental chlorine-free (ECF bleaching sequence (D0EPD1D2 after the enzyme (X stage. The enzyme treatment resulted in improved optical properties with a reduction in bleach chemical consumption. At an equivalent bleach chemical consumption, a brightness gain of 2.1 and 1.7 units and a whiteness gain of 2.7 and 2.3 units were observed with xylanase treatment in acacia and eucalyptus pulps, respectively. In ECF bleaching using the D0EPD1D2 sequence, a final brightness was achieved to the extent of 90% ISO and 89% ISO for acacia and eucalyptus, respectively, at an equivalent charge of bleach chemicals. The post-color (PC number was also reduced by up to 45% for both hardwood pulps compared with the control. The bleachability of acacia was observed to be significantly higher than that of eucalyptus. In addition, a 17.0% and 23.0% reduction in chlorine dioxide and sodium hydroxide, respectively, were obtained for both hardwood pulps after xylanase pre-bleaching, thus indicating an environmentally friendly approach to the process.

  16. Expansion of eucalyptus culture in the municipalities of Minas Gerais and territorial management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Rezende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development of monoculture index (MI of eucalyptus as a key element for the management of the territory, from the perspective of sustainable development. We analyzed the "geography" of the eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, to support the planning, organization, control and use of territory. The Monoculture index proposed, which is an important tool for land management, was developed and validate by its application to municipalities of Minas Gerais state. It was shown that the culture of Eucalyptus represents a low rate of monoculture in the state of Minas Gerais and that the geography of this culture is compatible with sustainable territorial expansion. Therefore, these results contribute to the definition of public land management in Minas Gerais and the methodology used can be applied to other states.

  17. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Daniel; Santos, Cristiane Alcantara dos; Silva, Mylenne Calcciolari Pinheiro da; Bonfim, Joice Andrade; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness an...

  18. Equations for predicting biomass in 2- to 6-year-old Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig D. Whitesell; Susan C. Miyasaka; Robert F. Strand; Thomas H. Schubert; Katharine E. McDuffie

    1988-01-01

    Eucalyptus saligna trees grown in short-rotation plantations on the island of Hawaii were measured, harvested, and weighed to provide data for developing regression equations using non-destructive stand measurements. Regression analysis of the data from 190 trees in the 2.0- to 3.5-year range and 96 trees in the 4- to 6-year range related stem-only...

  19. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/087/01/0021-0025 ... Eucalyptus is an important short rotation pulpy woody plant, grown widely in the tropics. ... In this study, in silico analysis of 15,285 sequences representing partial and full-length mRNA from Eucalyptus species for their use in developing SSRs or microsatellites ...

  20. History and Status of Eucalyptus Improvement in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Rockwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first organized Eucalyptus research in Florida was begun by the Florida Forests Foundation in 1959 in southern Florida. This research was absorbed by the USDA Forest Service and the Florida Division of Forestry in 1968. In the early 1970s, the Eucalyptus Research Cooperative formed to provide additional support emphasized E. grandis, E. robusta, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis and developed cultural practices for commercial plantations in southern Florida. In 1978, this cooperative united with the Hardwood Research Cooperative at North Carolina State University until 1985 when the 14-year effort ended after three severe freezes from 1983 to 1985. Eucalyptus planting and research were continued with a Florida-wide focus by the University of Florida and collaborators starting in 1980. The collective accomplishments in terms of genetic resources and commercial planting are summarized. For example, fast-growing, freeze-resilient E. grandis seedlings are produced by advanced generation seed orchards, five E. grandis cultivars are commercially available, as are E. amplifolia and Corymbia torelliana seeds. Genetic improvement of these and other species is ongoing due to beneficial collaborations. Short Rotation Woody Crop systems are promising for increasing productivity and extending uses beyond conventional pulpwood to applications such as windbreaks, dendroremediation, and energy wood.

  1. Cambios anatómicos y morfológicos en plántulas de Eucalyptus sp. en respuesta a diferentes niveles de luz Anatomical and morphological changes in Eucalyptus sp. seedlings in response to different levels of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Guarnaschelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron respuestas en la anatomía y morfología de plántulas de Eucalyptus globulus subesp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis y Eucalyptus camaldulensis creciendo bajo diferentes niveles de luz. Las plantas fueron expuestas a tres regímenes de iluminación: pleno sol (C, 50 % (S50 y 75% de restricción lumínica (S75 y regadas diariamente. Se midieron características morfológicas y anatómicas del follaje, se calcularon coeficientes foliares e índices de plasticidad. Al disminuir la disponibilidad lumínica, las plantas mostraron cambios asociados a la aclimatación a la sombra. Se observaron aumentos en el área foliar y en los coeficientes foliares. Paralelamente se detectaron disminuciones en el espesor de las hojas, de la epidermis, del parénquima en empalizada y en la densidad de estomas. La biomasa foliar y la biomasa total diminuyeron significativamente bajo el nivel S75. El aumento en el nivel de restricción lumínica produjo cambios proporcionales en el espesor de hojas y en el coeficiente de área foliar. Independientemente del nivel de sombra, se detectaron diferencias entre especies, que podrían asociarse a las condiciones ambientales de sus áreas de origen. Si bien se observaron algunas diferencias en los índices de plasticidad, los valores promedio de las tres especies fueron similares. Esto sugiere que, para los caracteres considerados en este estudio, el grado de aclimatación a la sombra fue similar.Responses in the anatomy and morphology of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings, growing under different levels of light were evaluated. Seedlings were submitted to three levels of irradiance: full sun (C, 50% (S50 and 75% of light restriction (S75 and irrigated daily. Morphological and anatomical characteristics were measured; foliar coefficients and indexes of plasticity were calculated. As light availability diminished, plants showed changes associated with shade

  2. Caracterização da matéria orgânica do solo em fragmentos de mata atlântica e em plantios abandonados de eucalipto Quality of soil organic matter in fragments of atlantic forest and abandoned eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana do Couto Miranda

    2007-10-01

    capacidade de ceder elétrons para reações químicas do solo.The organic matter dynamics in Atlantic forest ecosystems must be understood to ensure the efficiency of conservation programs. Chemical characteristics of humic substances are important because they reflect the soil genesis processes and soil management, and can be used as indicator of the organic matter quality. The purpose of this study was to test the organic matter quality as a marker of the soil environment in areas of native Atlantic forest developed on a distrophyc Gleysol and a distrophyc Cambisol and in abandoned plantations of eucalyptus of different ages, at the União Biological Reserve, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the humified fractions of the soil organic matter and humic acids were evaluated by chemical and spectroscopic methods, in two soil layers (0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m. Soil fertility of the Biological Reserve was very low, representing a limiting factor for the humification process. Humic substances represented less than 50 % of the oxidized carbon, indicating that most of the organic matter consists of non-humic substances. Consequently, forest litterfall plays a central role in the plant/microorganism nutrition. The relative distribution of the humic fraction was not altered by the plant cover or soil class. The chemical nature of the humic acids was similar to fulvic acids. These characteristics were expressed by a low carbon content, high H/C and O/C ratios and high acidity values which resulted in humified material with low chemical evolution. Infrared spectroscopy indicated the effect of the soil class and plant cover on the chemical quality of the humic acids. The fluorescence intensity of humified material isolated from the Atlantic forest area was high, suggesting higher lability and capacity to release electrons for chemical reactions in the soil.

  3. Wood density and anatomy of three Eucalyptus species: implications for hydraulic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barotto, A.J.; Monteoliva, S.; Gyenge, J.; Martínez-Meier, A.; Moreno, K.; Tesón, N.; Fernández, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To characterize wood anatomical traits of three Eucalyptus species that differ in wood density and ecological requirements, and to examine the relationships between some anatomical features, wood density, and theoretical xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks). Area of study: We analyzed 86 trees from three sites of Argentina (Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires Provinces). Methods: The sampled trees were Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis and E. viminalis ranging from 11 to 15 years old. One stem disc was cut from each tree to determine wood density and identify quantitative anatomical features of vessels and fibers. Vessel composition (S, size - to-number ratio, a measure of vessel size distribution) and lumen fraction (F, the total sapwood area available for water transport) were estimated. Results: E. grandis, the species with the highest growth rates, presented the highest theoretical Ks. This was associated with anatomical features such as a high density of wide vessels resulting in high F. On the other hand, E. viminalis, the species with the lowest growth rates and highest resistance to environmental stress, showed lower Ks as a result of a low density of wide vessels. These two species differed not only greatly in wood density but also in fiber characteristics. In the case of E. globulus, vessels were relatively narrow, which resulted in the lowest theoretical Ks, fibers were small, and wood density intermediate. Research highlights: F had greater influence on Ks than S. The anatomical characteristics and wood density could only partly explain the differential growth or resistance to stress of the studied species.

  4. Wood density and anatomy of three Eucalyptus species: implications for hydraulic conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Barotto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To characterize wood anatomical traits of three Eucalyptus species that differ in wood density and ecological requirements, and to examine the relationships between some anatomical features, wood density, and theoretical xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks. Area of study: We analyzed 86 trees from three sites of Argentina (Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires Provinces. Methods: The sampled trees were Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis and E. viminalis ranging from 11 to 15 years old. One stem disc was cut from each tree to determine wood density and identify quantitative anatomical features of vessels and fibers. Vessel composition (S, size - to-number ratio, a measure of vessel size distribution and lumen fraction (F, the total sapwood area available for water transport were estimated. Results: E. grandis, the species with the highest growth rates, presented the highest theoretical Ks. This was associated with anatomical features such as a high density of wide vessels resulting in high F. On the other hand, E. viminalis, the species with the lowest growth rates and highest resistance to environmental stress, showed lower Ks as a result of a low density of wide vessels. These two species differed not only greatly in wood density but also in fiber characteristics. In the case of E. globulus, vessels were relatively narrow, which resulted in the lowest theoretical Ks, fibers were small, and wood density intermediate. Research highlights: F had greater influence on Ks than S. The anatomical characteristics and wood density could only partly explain the differential growth or resistance to stress of the studied species.

  5. Wood density and anatomy of three Eucalyptus species: implications for hydraulic conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barotto, A.J.; Monteoliva, S.; Gyenge, J.; Martínez-Meier, A.; Moreno, K.; Tesón, N.; Fernández, M.E.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: To characterize wood anatomical traits of three Eucalyptus species that differ in wood density and ecological requirements, and to examine the relationships between some anatomical features, wood density, and theoretical xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks). Area of study: We analyzed 86 trees from three sites of Argentina (Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires Provinces). Methods: The sampled trees were Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis and E. viminalis ranging from 11 to 15 years old. One stem disc was cut from each tree to determine wood density and identify quantitative anatomical features of vessels and fibers. Vessel composition (S, size - to-number ratio, a measure of vessel size distribution) and lumen fraction (F, the total sapwood area available for water transport) were estimated. Results: E. grandis, the species with the highest growth rates, presented the highest theoretical Ks. This was associated with anatomical features such as a high density of wide vessels resulting in high F. On the other hand, E. viminalis, the species with the lowest growth rates and highest resistance to environmental stress, showed lower Ks as a result of a low density of wide vessels. These two species differed not only greatly in wood density but also in fiber characteristics. In the case of E. globulus, vessels were relatively narrow, which resulted in the lowest theoretical Ks, fibers were small, and wood density intermediate. Research highlights: F had greater influence on Ks than S. The anatomical characteristics and wood density could only partly explain the differential growth or resistance to stress of the studied species.

  6. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  7. Isotopic abundance of 13 C and contribution of eucalyptus biomass to soil organic matter conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Figueiredo Severo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: It has become possible to evaluate the conversion of soil organic matter (SOM in pastures and arboreal crops due to the difference between the photosynthetic cycles of Eucalyptus (C3 and most grasses (C4. The auto analyzer method coupled to the IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer in the present study evaluated the 13C content in soil profiles of Eucalyptus plantations of different ages (2, 10 and 21 years, in natural regeneration areas and natural grazing fields, and estimated the SOM conversion of each crop type of. The initial management of all sampled areas was natural pasture. The following profile layers were evaluated: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50, 50-70 and 70-90cm, and the contribution of Eucalyptus biomass over the years of farming was estimated in the SOM conversion process. After 2 years of planting Eucalyptus, the beginning of pasture carbon conversion process occurred in the surface layer (0-5cm. Ten years after planting, the process of converting organic matter by arboreal crops reached the layers up to 20cm. After 21 years of planting and in natural regeneration areas, the entire profile has already been changed by planting Eucalyptus and native tree species.

  8. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant mate...

  9. A novel genome-wide microsatellite resource for species of Eucalyptus with linkage-to-physical correspondence on the reference genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattapaglia, Dario; Mamani, Eva M C; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Faria, Danielle A

    2015-03-01

    Keystone species in their native ranges, eucalypts, are ecologically and genetically very diverse, growing naturally along extensive latitudinal and altitudinal ranges and variable environments. Besides their ecological importance, eucalypts are also the most widely planted trees for sustainable forestry in the world. We report the development of a novel collection of 535 microsatellites for species of Eucalyptus, 494 designed from ESTs and 41 from genomic libraries. A selected subset of 223 was evaluated for individual identification, parentage testing, and ancestral information content in the two most extensively studied species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus. Microsatellites showed high transferability and overlapping allele size range, suggesting they have arisen still in their common ancestor and confirming the extensive genome conservation between these two species. A consensus linkage map with 437 microsatellites, the most comprehensive microsatellite-only genetic map for Eucalyptus, was built by assembling segregation data from three mapping populations and anchored to the Eucalyptus genome. An overall colinearity between recombination-based and physical positioning of 84% of the mapped microsatellites was observed, with some ordering discrepancies and sporadic locus duplications, consistent with the recently described whole genome duplication events in Eucalyptus. The linkage map covered 95.2% of the 605.8-Mbp assembled genome sequence, placing one microsatellite every 1.55 Mbp on average, and an overall estimate of physical to recombination distance of 618 kbp/cM. The genetic parameters estimates together with linkage and physical position data for this large set of microsatellites should assist marker choice for genome-wide population genetics and comparative mapping in Eucalyptus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Calder

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to

  11. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, I. R.; Rosier, P. T. W.; Prasanna, K. T.; Parameswarappa, S.

    Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i) whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii) farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to penetrate raises the

  12. Eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion-impregnated chitosan film: antibacterial effects against a clinical pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumar S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Saranya Sugumar, Amitava Mukherjee, Natarajan Chandrasekaran Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore, India Abstract: Eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus nanoemulsion was formulated using low- and high-energy emulsification methods. Development of nanoemulsion was optimized for system parameters such as emulsifier type, emulsifier concentration, and emulsification methods to obtain a lower droplet size with greater stability. The minimized droplet diameter was achieved using the high-energy method of ultrasonication. Tween 80 was more effective in reducing droplet size and emulsion appearance when compared to Tween 20. Stable nanoemulsion was formulated with Tween 80 as a surfactant, and the particle size was found to be 9.4 nm (1:2 v/v. The eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion was impregnated into chitosan (1% as a biopolymer in varying concentrations. Further, the film was characterized by moisture content, microscopic study, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Also, the film with and without nanoemulsion was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus. The nanoemulsion-impregnated chitosan film showed higher antibacterial activity than chitosan film. These results support the inclusion of nanoemulsion-impregnated chitosan film in wound management studies. Keywords: essential oil, emulsion, biopolymer, impregnation, thin film, wound isolate

  13. Drastic population size change in two populations of the Golden-striped salamander over a forty year period - are eucalypt plantations to blame?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last half century the Iberian peninsula has seen the large scale planting of exotic gum trees (Eucalyptus sp.) therewith reducing space for native wildlife. An additional effect of the gum tree plantations may be the lowering of the water table in adjacent streams, to which amphibian

  14. Effiacy of citronella and eucalyptus oils against Musca domestica, Cimex lectularius and Pediculus humanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehangir Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess potential impacts of two indigenous plant oils: the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus for their insecticidal effect against Musca domestica (house fly, Cimex lectularius (bed bug and Pediculus humanus (louse. Methods: The oils of these two medicinal plants were applied separately at various concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mL/cup in cups lined with filter paper containing the target insects. Mortality was evaluated after fixed intervals (6, 12 and 24 h subsequent to the release of adult insects. Results: Results showed that both oils exhibited concentration and time dependent mortality against the tested insects. Data pertaining to present investigation clearly showed that percentage mortality owing to these botanicals against these medical pests was significantly high (98.33% at the rate of 3 mL for 24 h of exposure, followed by 2 and 1 mL concentrations with 12 and 6 h of exposure times. Conclusions: The results suggest that these plant oils possess good insecticidal properties against house fly, bed bug, and louse, and are safe to humans. Furthermore, the molecular (biochemical based study of these botanicals against diverse species of pests will be of much significance to control these pest insects.

  15. Oligo-Carrageenan Kappa-Induced Reducing Redox Status and Increase in TRR/TRX Activities Promote Activation and Reprogramming of Terpenoid Metabolism in Eucalyptus Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR/thioredoxin(TRX system induced by oligo-carrageenan (OC kappa in Eucalyptus globulus activate secondary metabolism increasing terpenoid synthesis, trees were sprayed on the leaves with water, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and (GSH synthesis and TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofine, respectively, and with OC kappa and cultivated for four months. The main terpenoids in control Eucalyptus trees were eucalyptol (76%, α-pinene (7.4%, aromadendrene (3.6%, silvestrene (2.8%, sabinene (2% and α-terpineol (0.9%. Treated trees showed a 22% increase in total essential oils as well as a decrease in eucalyptol (65% and sabinene (0.8% and an increase in aromadendrene (5%, silvestrene (7.8% and other ten terpenoids. In addition, treated Eucalyptus showed seven de novo synthesized terpenoids corresponding to carene, α-terpinene, α-fenchene, γ-maaliene, spathulenol and α-camphenolic aldehyde. Most increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids have potential insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Trees treated with CHS-828, lycorine, BSO and auranofine and with OC kappa showed an inhibition of increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids. Thus, OC kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system enhance secondary metabolism increasing the synthesis of terpenoids and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

  16. Oligo-carrageenan kappa-induced reducing redox status and increase in TRR/TRX activities promote activation and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Cutiño, Marlen; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-06-05

    In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin(TRX) system induced by oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa in Eucalyptus globulus activate secondary metabolism increasing terpenoid synthesis, trees were sprayed on the leaves with water, with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC) and (GSH) synthesis and TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and auranofine, respectively, and with OC kappa and cultivated for four months. The main terpenoids in control Eucalyptus trees were eucalyptol (76%), α-pinene (7.4%), aromadendrene (3.6%), silvestrene (2.8%), sabinene (2%) and α-terpineol (0.9%). Treated trees showed a 22% increase in total essential oils as well as a decrease in eucalyptol (65%) and sabinene (0.8%) and an increase in aromadendrene (5%), silvestrene (7.8%) and other ten terpenoids. In addition, treated Eucalyptus showed seven de novo synthesized terpenoids corresponding to carene, α-terpinene, α-fenchene, γ-maaliene, spathulenol and α-camphenolic aldehyde. Most increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids have potential insecticidal and antimicrobial activities. Trees treated with CHS-828, lycorine, BSO and auranofine and with OC kappa showed an inhibition of increased and de novo synthesized terpenoids. Thus, OC kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system enhance secondary metabolism increasing the synthesis of terpenoids and reprogramming of terpenoid metabolism in Eucalyptus trees.

  17. Preliminary study of prairies forested with Eucalyptus sp. at the northwestern Uruguayan soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-Letelier, L.; Eguren, G.; Castineira, C.; Parra, O.; Panario, D.

    2004-01-01

    The forestation of Uruguayan natural prairie soil does not always ensure an increase of soil carbon sink. - The land cover change of Uruguayan Forestal Plan provoked biogeochemical changes on horizon Au 1 of Argiudols; in native prairies which were replaced by monoculture Eucalyptus sp. plantation with 20 year rotations as trees. Five fields forested and six natural prairies were compared. The results not only show a statistical significant soil acidification, diminution of soil organic carbon, increase of aliphaticity degree of humic substances, and increase of affinity and capacity of hydrolytic activity from soil microbial communities for forested sites with Eucalyptus sp. but also, a tendency of podzolization and/or mineralization by this kind of land cover changes, with a net soil organic lost of 16.6 tons ha -1 in the horizon Au 1 of soil under Eucalyptus sp. plantation compared with prairie. Besides, these results point out the necessity of correction of the methodology used by assigned Uruguayan commission to assess the national net emission of greenhouse gases, since the mineralization and/or podzolization process detected in forested soil imply a overestimation of soil organic carbon. The biochemical parameters show a statistical significant correlation between the soil organic carbon status and these parameters which were presented as essential for the correct evaluation of Uruguayan soil carbon sink

  18. Improving phosphorus availability from Patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, Felipe Carlos Alvarez; Muraoka, Takashi; Trevizam, Anderson Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P) fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla E. grandis) was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP), phosphate rock (PR) and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR). The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR) > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR) > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer. (author)

  19. Immunolocalization of hydrophobin HYDPt-1 from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Pisolithus tinctorius during colonization of Eucalyptus globulus roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tagu, D; De Bellis, R; Balestrini, R; De Vries, OMH; Piccoli, G; Stocchi, [No Value; Bonfante, P; Martin, F

    The immunolocalization of one of the hydrophobins of Pisolithus tinctorius (HYDPt-1) is reported. Hydrophobin proteins play key roles in adhesion and aggregation of fungal hyphae, and it is already known that formation of ectomycorrhizas on eucalypt roots enhances the accumulation of hydrophobin

  20. Ecological Stoichiometric Characteristics of Two Typical Plantations in the Karst Ecosystem of Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danbo Pang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reforestation has been widely adopted to restore soil fertility and ecosystem service function in the rocky desertification region of southwestern China. However, there has been limited research concerning the stoichiometry of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P and nutrient resorption rate of plantations in karst ecosystems. In this study, we selected plantations of Pinus yunnanensis Franch. (PY and Eucalyptus maideni F. Muell. (EM in Yunnan Province. The C, N, and P concentrations and the C:N:P stoichiometry in different soil layers (0–10 cm, 10–20 cm, and 20–30 cm were examined. The nutrient limitation and nutrient resorption efficiency were also analyzed. The leaf C and N concentrations in the PY plantation were higher than that in the EM plantation; the P concentration demonstrated the opposite trend, both in green and senesced leaves. Soil C, N, and P concentrations in the EM plantation were much greater than in the PY plantation at all three depths and decreased with the depth of the soil. In addition, the high ratios of C:P, N:P, C:Available P, and N:Available P in soil coupled with the ratios of N:P in leaves indicate that the EM plantation has a greater P deficiency than the PY plantation. In the EM plantation, the relatively low P concentrations in senesced leaves indicates efficient TP (Total phosphorus resorption, which highlights that the high reuse proficiency of P could have favored moderating P limitation in the karst ecosystem. This research aids in understanding the stoichiometric characteristics that mediate forest properties, and provides a basis for management of vegetation in karst ecosystems.

  1. Effects of Successive Harvests on Soil Nutrient Stocks in Established Tropical Plantation Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, L.; McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale plantation forests in tropical regions alter biogeochemical processes, raising concerns about the long-term sustainability of this land use. Current commercial practices result in nutrient export with removed biomass that may not be balanced by fertilizer application. Consequent changes in a landscape's nutrient distributions can affect the growth of future plantations or other vegetation. Prior studies have reported changes in soil chemical and physical properties when plantation forests replace pastures or native vegetation, but few have examined the impacts of multiple harvest cycles following plantation establishment. This study analyzed macronutrient and carbon content of soil samples from the world's most productive plantation forests, in southeastern Brazil, to understand the long-term effects of plantation forests on soil nutrient stocks and soil fertility. Soil was collected from Eucalyptus plantation sites and adjacent vegetation in 2004 and again in 2016, after at least one full cycle of harvesting and replanting. We found that within surface soil (0-10 cm) Mg and N did not change significantly and C, P, K and Ca concentrations generally increased, but to varying extents within individual management units. This trend of increasing nutrient concentrations suggests that additional harvests do not result in cumulative nutrient depletion. However, large changes in Ca and K concentrations in individual plantation units indicate that added fertilizer does not consistently accumulate in the surface soil. Analysis of deeper soil layers and comparison to unfertilized vegetation will help to determine the fate of fertilizers and native soil nutrients in repeatedly harvested plantations. These results address the necessity of long-term investigation of nutrient changes to better understand and determine the impacts of different types of land use in the tropics.

  2. Characterization of Ant Communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Twigs in the Leaf Litter of the Atlantic Rainforest and Eucalyptus Trees in the Southeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora R. de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of Atlantic Rainforest and extensive eucalyptus plantations are part of the landscape in the southeast region of Brazil. Many studies have been conducted on litter ant diversity in these forests, but there are few reports on the nesting sites. In the present study, we characterized the ant communities that nest in twigs in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forests and eucalyptus trees. The colony demographics associated with the physical structure of the nest were recorded. In the eucalyptus forests, the study examined both managed and unmanaged plantations. During five months, all undecomposed twigs between 10 and 30 cm in length containing ants found within a 16-m2 area on the surface of the leaf litter were collected. A total of 307 nests and 44 species were recorded. Pheidole, Solenopsis, and Camponotus were the most represented genera. Pheidole sp.13, Pheidole sp.43 and Linepithema neotropicum were the most populous species. The dense ombrophilous forest and a eucalyptus plantation unmanaged contained the highest number of colonized twigs; these communities were the most similar and the most species rich. Our results indicate that the twigs are important resources as they help to maintain the litter diversity of dense rain forest and abandoned eucalypt crops.

  3. The push for plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben; Casse, Thorkil; Nielsen, Thomas Theis

    2013-01-01

    We observe signs of social differentiation, where poor households end up serving as causal labour for the richer families on their acacia plantations. In addition, the poor can be rendered more vulnerable after becoming labourers, because they may not longer have an alternative source of income, ...

  4. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagen Li

    Full Text Available Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR, expressed sequence tag (EST derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS, and diversity arrays technology (DArT markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10-56 months of age and wood density (56 months were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa.

  5. Defense responses in plants of Eucalyptus elicited by Streptomyces and challenged with Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salla, Tamiris D; Astarita, Leandro V; Santarém, Eliane R

    2016-04-01

    Elicitation of E. grandis plants with Streptomyces PM9 reduced the gray-mold disease, through increasing the levels of enzymes directly related to the induction of plant defense responses, and accumulation of specific phenolic compounds. Members of Eucalyptus are economically important woody species, especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of this genus are susceptible to pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea (gray mold). Biological control of plant diseases using rhizobacteria is one alternative to reduce the use of pesticides and pathogen attack. This study evaluated the metabolic and phenotypic responses of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus plants treated with Streptomyces sp. PM9 and challenged with the pathogenic fungus B. cinerea. Metabolic responses were evaluated by assessing the activities of the enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase as well as the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The incidence and progression of the fungal disease in PM9-treated plants and challenged with B. cinerea were evaluated. Treatment with Streptomyces sp. PM9 and challenge with B. cinerea led to changes in the activities of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds in the plants at different time points. Alterations in enzymes of PM9-treated plants were related to early defense responses in E. grandis. Gallic and chlorogenic acids were on average more abundant, although caffeic acid, benzoic acid and catechin were induced at specific time points during the culture period. Treatment with Streptomyces sp. PM9 significantly delayed the establishment of gray mold in E. grandis plants. These results demonstrate the action of Streptomyces sp. PM9 in inducing plant responses against B. cinerea, making this organism a potential candidate for biological control in Eucalyptus.

  6. Comparative Genomics Analyses Reveal Extensive Chromosome Colinearity and Novel Quantitative Trait Loci in Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qijie; Li, Mei; Yu, Xiaoli; Guo, Yong; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gan, Siming

    2015-01-01

    Dense genetic maps, along with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected on such maps, are powerful tools for genomics and molecular breeding studies. In the important woody genus Eucalyptus, the recent release of E. grandis genome sequence allows for sequence-based genomic comparison and searching for positional candidate genes within QTL regions. Here, dense genetic maps were constructed for E. urophylla and E. tereticornis using genomic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tag (EST) derived SSR, EST-derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (EST-CAPS), and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. The E. urophylla and E. tereticornis maps comprised 700 and 585 markers across 11 linkage groups, totaling at 1,208.2 and 1,241.4 cM in length, respectively. Extensive synteny and colinearity were observed as compared to three earlier DArT-based eucalypt maps (two maps with E. grandis × E. urophylla and one map of E. globulus) and with the E. grandis genome sequence. Fifty-three QTLs for growth (10–56 months of age) and wood density (56 months) were identified in 22 discrete regions on both maps, in which only one colocalizaiton was found between growth and wood density. Novel QTLs were revealed as compared with those previously detected on DArT-based maps for similar ages in Eucalyptus. Eleven to 585 positional candidate genes were obained for a 56-month-old QTL through aligning QTL confidence interval with the E. grandis genome. These results will assist in comparative genomics studies, targeted gene characterization, and marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus and the related taxa. PMID:26695430

  7. MANEJO DO SOLO E CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM ARGISSOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Prevedello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest species cultivation with rapid growth in Brazil has increased, mainly due to the diverse use of its wood and climate adaptation. The cultivation with minimum tillage in the forest sector stands out a way to increase productivity, combined with the maintenance of biodiversity and soil conservation. This study was conducted at the experimental area of State Foundation for Agricultural Research - Research Center for Forestry in Santa Maria - RS, with aimed to evaluate the effect of the soil tillage methods on soil physical properties and on initial development of Eucalyptus grandis, in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. Four soil management practices were compared: no-tillage; chisel tillage; chisel tillage plus harrowing and; rotary tillage (rotary tiller, installed in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil under no-tillage conditioned lower initial growth of eucalyptus due higher soil penetration resistance and bulk density, when compared with treatments with mobilization. The root distribution analysis in soil, despite being a qualitative method, was effective in demonstrating the effect of soil tillage for the Eucalyptus grandis plantation. The soil tillage with mobilization resulted in a higher initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis. The chisel tillage effects in the soil physical properties persisted after one year of soil tillage.

  8. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries; Determinacao de cobre, cromo e arsenio em madeira preservada (Eucalyptus sp.) pelas espectrometrias de fluorescencia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias

    2014-07-01

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  9. Eucalyptus as a landscape tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Douglas Hamilton

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-two species of Eucalyptus were evaluated at the University of California re- search station in San Jose. The purpose: to find acceptable new street and park trees. Growth rates and horticultural characteristics were noted. Forty-three species were studied in locations statewide to evaluate site adaptation and landscape usefulness; flooded, cold, dry, saline....

  10. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias

    2014-01-01

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  11. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  12. Manganese accumulation and its relation to "eucalyptus shoot blight in the Vale do Rio Doce"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Palha Leite

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus Shoot Blight in the Vale do Rio Doce (ESBVRD is an anomaly that leads to reduced growth and, in more extreme cases, to death of eucalyptus plants. Initially diagnosed in plantations in the region of the Vale do Rio Doce, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, this problem has also been found in plantations in other regions of the country and even in other countries. Although the symptoms of this anomaly are well-known, its causes are not yet understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cause-effect relationship between accumulation of manganese (Mn in eucalyptus clones and ESBVRD. Characterization of the environment in areas of greater occurrence of this problem in regard to soil, climate and fluctuation of the water table was undertaken in eucalyptus plantations of the Celulose Nipo-brasileira S.A. (Cenibra company in the region of the Vale do Rio Doce. Plant tissues were sampled in two situations. In the first situation, diagnosis occurred in the initial phase of the anomaly in clones with differentiated tolerance to the problem; in the second situation, diagnosis was made in a single clone, considered to be sensitive, in two time periods - in the phase with the strong presence of symptoms and in the recovery phase, in areas of occurrence and in areas of escape from the problem. The most ESBVRD-sensitive clone showed much higher (4.8 times higher leaf Mn contents than more tolerant clones. In plants with the anomaly, Mn leaf contents were greater than 3,070 mg kg-1, much greater than the quantity found in those without the anomaly (734 mg kg-1. In the period in which the symptoms began to wane, there was a sharp decline in leaf Mn contents, from 2,194 to 847 mg kg-1. Manganese content in the above ground part and plant litter (44.4 g ha-1 in the area of occurrence of the anomaly was three times greater than that found in these same components (14.1 g ha-1 in the area of absence of the symptom. Based on the evidence found

  13. Avaliação da nutrição de plantações jovens de eucalipto por análise foliar e métodos não destrutivos Nutrition evaluation in young Eucalyptus plantation by foliar analysis and non-destructive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Madeira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o crescimento e estado nutritivo de jovens Eucalyptus por análise foliar tradicional (teores de N, P e pigmentos fotossintéticos e com o medidor de clorofila SPAD-502. Efectuou-se uma gestão diferenciada dos resíduos de abate da plantação anterior, com incorporação dos resíduos no solo (I, remoção dos resíduos (R, e distribuição dos resíduos à superfície (S; aplicou-se um fertilizante azotado (IF, RF e SF e introduziuse uma leguminosa do género Lupinus (IL e RL. Não houve diferenças significativas no crescimento entre I, R e S. A aplicação de fertilizante intensificou o crescimento em SF e IF. O teor foliar de N foi no início positivamente afectado pelo Lupinus (IL e RL. Após a primeira aplicação de fertilizante, este teor foi significativamente superior em IF, RF e SF, esbatendo-se a diferença entre tratamentos após as aplicações seguintes; semelhante padrão foi observado para os pigmentos e o SPAD. Os valores de SPAD correlacionaram-se (PThe growth and nutritional state of young Eucalyptus was evaluated by foliar analysis (contents of N, P and photosynthetic pigments and the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter. An experimental system was used with different harvest residues management, such as incorporation of residues into the soil (I, removal of residues (R, and distribution of residues on the soil surface (S, with N fertiliser application (IF, RF and SF, and with the leguminous Lupinus seeding (IL and RL. No significant differences in growth were found between the I, R and S. Application of fertiliser increased growth in the SF and IF. Initially, foliar N content was positively affected by the leguminous (RL and IL. After the first fertiliser application, a higher N content was observed in the IF, RF and SF, the differences being reduced in the following applications; a similar trend was observed for extracted pigments and SPAD values. Foliar N contents were correlated (P<0.05 with SPAD values. The

  14. Eucalypt plantations reduce the diversity of macroinvertebrates in small forested streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordero–Rivera, A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use patterns of a river basin have a significant effect on the structure and function of river ecosystems. Changes in the composition of riparian plant communities modify the quantity, quality and seasonality of leaf–litter inputs, determining changes in macroinvertebrate colonization and activity. The main goal of this study was to test the effect of land–use modifications, and particularly the impact of eucalypt plantations, on the macroinvertebrate communities of sixteen headwater streams. Macroinvertebrates were counted and identified to family level. Land uses were classified in five categories using aerial photography: native forest, eucalypt plantations, agricultural land, shrubland, and urban areas. We found that macroinvertebrate diversity increased with basin size and with the proportion of basin covered by native forest. This variable correlated negatively with the land occupied by eucalypt plantations. Macroinvertebrate richness diminished with the increase of land surface covered by eucalypt plantations, and a similar tendency was observed with diversity. Furthermore, streams whose drainage basin was mainly covered by Eucalyptus were more likely to dry up in summer. This observation adds to evidence from previous studies that concluded that fast–growing tree plantations affect hydric resources, an important ecosystem service in the context of global warming. To minimize the impact of industrial sylviculture, we suggest that maintaining and/or restoring riparian forests could mitigate the effects of intensive eucalypt monocultures.

  15. Quercitol and osmotic adaptation of field-grown Eucalyptus under seasonal drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stefan K; Livesley, Stephen J; Merchant, Andrew; Bleby, Timothy M; Grierson, Pauline F

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the role of quercitol in osmotic adjustment in field-grown Eucalyptus astringens Maiden subject to seasonal drought stress over the course of 1 year. The trees grew in a native woodland and a farm plantation in the semi-arid wheatbelt region of south Western Australia. Plantation trees allocated relatively more biomass to leaves than woodland trees, but they suffered greater drought stress over summer, as indicated by lower water potentials, CO(2)assimilation rates and stomatal conductances. In contrast, woodland trees had relatively fewer leaves and suffered less drought stress. Plantation trees under drought stress engaged in osmotic adjustment, but woodland trees did not. Quercitol made a significant contribution to osmotic adjustment in drought-stressed trees (25% of total solutes), and substantially more quercitol was measured in the leaves of plantation trees (5% dry matter) than in the leaves of woodland trees (2% dry matter). We found no evidence that quercitol was used as a carbon storage compound while starch reserves were depleted under drought stress. Differences in stomatal conductance, biomass allocation and quercitol production clearly indicate that E. astringens is both morphologically and physiologically 'plastic' in response to growth environment, and that osmotic adjustment is only one part of a complex strategy employed by this species to tolerate drought.

  16. Advances in reproductive biology and seed production systems of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus globulus is the main eucalypt species grown in Australian plantations. The focus on seedling deployment systems, coupled with exploitation of large, open-pollinated base populations for breeding purposes over the last two decades, has required a detailed understanding of the reproductive biology of this ...

  17. Responses to mild water deficit and rewatering differ among secondary metabolites but are similar among provenances within Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, Adam B; Potts, Brad M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Hovenden, Mark J; Davies, Noel W; McAdam, Scott A M; Ross, John J; Rodemann, Thomas; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M

    2016-02-01

    Water deficit associated with drought can severely affect plants and influence ecological interactions involving plant secondary metabolites. We tested the effect of mild water deficit and rewatering on physiological, morphological and chemical traits of juvenile Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. We also tested if responses of juvenile eucalypts to water deficit and rewatering varied within species using provenances across a rainfall gradient. Both species and all provenances were similarly affected by mild water deficit and rewatering, as only foliar abscisic acid levels differed among provenances during water deficit. Across species and provenances, water deficit decreased leaf water potential, above-ground biomass and formylated phloroglucinol compound concentrations, and increased condensed tannin concentrations. Rewatering reduced leaf carbon : nitrogen, and total phenolic and chlorogenic acid concentrations. Water deficit and rewatering had no effect on total oil or individual terpene concentrations. Levels of trait plasticity due to water deficit and rewatering were less than levels of constitutive trait variation among provenances. The overall uniformity of responses to the treatments regardless of native provenance indicates limited diversification of plastic responses when compared with the larger quantitative variation of constitutive traits within these species. These responses to mild water deficit may differ from responses to more extreme water deficit or to responses of juvenile/mature eucalypts growing at each locality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Thermodynamic Study of Adsorption of Phenol, 4-Chlorophenol, and 4-Nitrophenol on Activated Carbon Obtained from Eucalyptus Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Giovanny Rincón-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons from shell eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus were prepared by chemical activation through impregnation with solutions of two activators: sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, the surface areas for activated carbons with base were 780 and 670 m2 g−1 and the solids activated with acid were 150 and 80 m2 g−1. These were applying in adsorption of priority pollutants: phenol, 4-nitrophenol, and 4-chlorophenol from aqueous solution. Activated carbon with the highest adsorption capacity has values of 2.12, 2.57, and 3.89 on phenol, 4-nitrophenol, and 4-chlorophenol, respectively, and was activated with base. In general, all carbons adsorption capacity was given in the following order: 4-chlorophenol > 4-nitrophenol > phenol. Adsorption isotherms of phenols on activated carbons were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radusckevisch-Kanager models, finding great association between them and experimental data. A thermodynamic study was performed, the exothermic nature and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process were confirmed, and the favorability of adsorption on activated carbons with NaOH was confirmed by energy relations and concluded that the adsorption process of phenolic compounds from the activated carbon obtained is physical. The pH of solutions and pH at point of zero charge of the solid play an important role in the adsorption process.

  19. Matching species and sites for biomass plantations in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, V.D.; Takahashi, P.K.; Singh, D.; Khan, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Two methods for matching species and sites for biomass plantations in Hawaii were utilized to estimate biomass yields and production costs for Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, and Leucaena leucocephala. The 'analogous site' method matches the environmental conditions, including soil, rainfall, temperature, and insolation parameters, of well-characterized experimental biomass research sites which produce known yields of these species with similar land areas, or with those areas that can be made similar through soil amendments and improvement, where no field trials exist. The result is the identification of sites with biomass growth, yield, and cost performances which are analogous to the experimental site. The 'regression model' method relates known site-specific biomass productivity with environmental and soil conditions and management practices developed from sites featuring widely different and distinct environmental conditions. Equations then enable the prediction of biomass performance and production costs for each species at any location statewide. The analytical results, using a geographical information system database and the above methods, are presented in map form to expedite the site selection process which indicates expected biomass yield and cost for several fast-growing tropical hardwood species in Hawaii

  20. The role of plantation sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Peter

    2001-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that in the long term biofuel should play a significant role in global climate policy. Recent technological developments, as well as sustainable development criteria, would favour growing biofuel in community- scale plantations in developing countries. It is also pointed out that the lead times involved in growing biofuels are so great that the inclusion of biofuel plantation sinks in the CDM for the first commitment period would be desirable. It is suggested that to meet opposition to the inclusion of plantation sinks in the first commitment period plantation, sinks should be linked to biofuels technology development and production, and a biofuels obligation for plantation sink projects in the CDM should be established. (Author)

  1. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  2. Early selection of Eucalyptus clones in retrospective nursery test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the framework of the eucalyptus breeding programme in the Congo, two retrospective tests were conducted using mature clones in the field and young cuttings under nursery conditions with two hybrids: 13 clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis* Eucalyptus grandis for the test TC 82-1B and 17 clones of Eucalyptus ...

  3. New species, hyper-diversity and potential importance of Calonectria spp. from Eucalyptus in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Chen, S F; Mou, X; Zhou, X D; Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J

    2015-03-01

    Plantation forestry is expanding rapidly in China to meet an increasing demand for wood and pulp products globally. Fungal pathogens including species of Calonectria represent a serious threat to the growth and sustainability of this industry. Surveys were conducted in the Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces of South China, where Eucalyptus trees in plantations or cuttings in nurseries displayed symptoms of leaf blight. Isolations from symptomatic leaves and soils collected close to infected trees resulted in a large collection of Calonectria isolates. These isolates were identified using the Consolidated Species Concept, employing morphological characters and DNA sequence comparisons for the β-tubulin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene regions. Twenty-one Calonectria species were identified of which 18 represented novel taxa. Of these, 12 novel taxa belonged to Sphaero-Naviculate Group and the remaining six to the Prolate Group. Southeast Asia appears to represent a centre of biodiversity for the Sphaero-Naviculate Group and this fact could be one of the important constraints to Eucalyptus forestry in China. The remarkable diversity of Calonectria species in a relatively small area of China and associated with a single tree species is surprising.

  4. Plantation Houses of North Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Robles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Plantation conjures an image that identifies the North Florida / South Georgia region of the U. S. Leon County attracted many cotton planters from Georgia, Virginia, Maryland, North and South Carolina in the 1820’s to the 1850’s. Up to the beginning of the Civil War, Leon County was the 5th largest producer of cotton counting all counties from Florida and Georgia. The Civil War brought the plantation culture to a standstill. The plantations transformed the environment based on their need for open fields in which to cultivate different crops, or raise a variety of animals with the help of slaves. From the 1900’s many plantations abandoned their land to nature producing a deep change in the local landscape. Today plantations are not used as much for planting crops but more for hunting or as tree farms. The hunting plantations do not grow crops but provide good conditions for the hunting of animals and birds. Other plantations were torn apart, sold and now are part of the Tallahassee urban fabric. In other words, they disappeared. The transformation of the plantations has been slow and steady, and has become the image of the area, even the region. The paper shows five plantations that represent five different evolutions of these traditional landscapes. The landscapes have evolved to accommodate the very local but fluid definition of place. It is this transformation, this evolving identity which helped preserve some of the traditional landscapes and the traditional architecture on them. The most prominent feature of the plantation is the “Big House” or plantation house. The house embodies all aspects of the plantation life style. The construction materials and methods reflected the times, the technologies and the available resources. The research has been done mainly in the archives of the Tallahassee Trust for Historic Preservation. The results, still pending, explain the land typology as it evolved from the golden decades

  5. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Taher Maghsoodlou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil compositionfrom leaves and flowers of E. microthecaand E. viminalisleavesgrowing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013.After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results: In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%, aromadendrene (12.773%, α-pinene (6.752%, globulol (5.997%, ledene (5.665%, P-cymen (5.251%, and β-pinene (5.006% were the major constituents.  In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%, O-cymen (13.522%, β-pinene (11.082%, aromadendrene (7.444%, α-phellandrene (7.006%, globulol (5.419%, and 9-octadecenamide (5.414% were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%, α-pinene (13.379%, limonene (5.443%, and globulol (3.054%. Conclusion: The results showed the essential oils fromthe aerial parts of Eucalyptus speciesare a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  6. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  7. Identification of a STOP1-like protein in Eucalyptus that regulates transcription of Al tolerance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Kihara-Doi, Tomonori; Nishikubo, Nobuyuki; Kawazu, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Kobayashi, Yasufumi; Iuchi, Satoshi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-06-01

    Tolerance to soil acidity is an important trait for eucalyptus clones that are introduced to commercial forestry plantations in pacific Asian countries, where acidic soil is dominant in many locations. A conserved transcription factor regulating aluminum (Al) and proton (H⁺) tolerance in land-plant species, STOP1 (SENSITIVE TOPROTON RHIZOTOXICITY 1)-like protein, was isolated by polymerase chain reaction-based cloning, and then suppressed by RNA interference in hairy roots produced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Eucalyptus STOP1-like protein complemented proton tolerance in an Arabidopsis thaliana stop1-mutant, and localized to the nucleus in a transient assay of a green fluorescent protein fusion protein expressed in tobacco leaves by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Genes encoding a citrate transporting MULTIDRUGS AND TOXIC COMPOUND EXTRUSION protein and an orthologue of ALUMINUM SENSITIVE 3 were suppressed in transgenic hairy roots in which the STOP1 orthologue was knocked down. In summary, we identified a series of genes for Al-tolerance in eucalyptus, including a gene for STOP1-like protein and the Al-tolerance genes it regulates. These genes may be useful for molecular breeding and genomic selection of elite clones to introduce into acid soil regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In silico characterization of microsatellites in Eucalyptus spp.: abundance, length variation and transposon associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Rabello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the abundance of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSR, in 19 Eucalyptus EST libraries from FORESTs, containing cDNA sequences from five species: E. grandis, E. globulus, E. saligna, E. urophylla and E. camaldulensis. Overall, a total of 11,534 SSRs and 8,447 SSR-containing sequences (25.5% of total ESTs were identified, with an average of 1 SSR/2.5 kb when considering all motifs and 1 SSR/3.1 kb when mononucleotides were not included. Dimeric repeats were the most abundant (41.03%, followed by trimerics (36.11% and monomerics (19.59%. The most frequent motifs were A/T (87.24% for monomerics, AG/CT (94.44% for dimerics, CCG/CGG (37.87% for trimerics, AAGG/CCTT (18.75% for tetramerics, AGAGG/CCTCT (14.04% for pentamerics and ACGGCG/CGCCGT (6.30% for hexamerics. According to sequence length, Class II or potentially variable markers were the most commonly found, followed by Class III. Two sequences presented high similarity to previously published Eucalyptus sequences from the NCBI database, EMBRA_72 and EMBRA_122. Local blastn search for transposons did not reveal the presence of any transposable elements with a cut-off value of 10-50. The large number of microsatellites identified will contribute to the refinement of marker-assisted mapping and to the discovery of novel markers for virtually all genes of economic interest.

  9. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  10. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  11. Edge type affects leaf-level water relations and estimated transpiration of Eucalyptus arenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas E; Tausz, Michael; Kasel, Sabine; Volkova, Liubov; Merchant, Andrew; Bennett, Lauren T

    2012-03-01

    While edge effects on tree water relations are well described for closed forests, they remain under-examined in more open forest types. Similarly, there has been minimal evaluation of the effects of contrasting land uses on the water relations of open forest types in highly fragmented landscapes. We examined edge effects on the water relations and gas exchange of a dominant tree (Eucalyptus arenacea Marginson & Ladiges) in an open forest type (temperate woodland) of south-eastern Australia. Edge effects in replicate woodlands adjoined by cleared agricultural land (pasture edges) were compared with those adjoined by 7- to 9-year-old eucalypt plantation with a 25m fire break (plantation edges). Consistent with studies in closed forest types, edge effects were pronounced at pasture edges where photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance were greater for edge trees than interior trees (75m into woodlands), and were related to greater light availability and significantly higher branch water potentials at woodland edges than interiors. Nonetheless, gas exchange values were only ∼50% greater for edge than interior trees, compared with ∼200% previously found in closed forest types. In contrast to woodlands adjoined by pasture, gas exchange in winter was significantly lower for edge than interior trees in woodlands adjoined by plantations, consistent with shading and buffering effects of plantations on edge microclimate. Plantation edge effects were less pronounced in summer, although higher water use efficiency of edge than interior woodland trees indicated possible competition for water between plantation trees and woodland edge trees in the drier months (an effect that might have been more pronounced were there no firebreak between the two land uses). Scaling up of leaf-level water relations to stand transpiration using a Jarvis-type phenomenological model indicated similar differences between edge types. That is, transpiration was greater at pasture than

  12. Eucalyptus gunnii: A possible source of bioenergy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Mary; Moore, Tom [UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2008-10-15

    Eucalyptus are widely grown throughout the world for timber, essential oil, fuel, biomass and cut foliage. In experiments in University College Dublin (UCD), Eucalyptus gunnii yielded an average dry weight of 4.74 kg per plant per annum, equivalent to 12.59 t dm ha{sup -1}. The average calorific values of 17.60 MJ kg{sup -1} (leafy material) and 17.09 MJ kg{sup -1} (woody material) are less than the values reported for other species of Eucalyptus. (author)

  13. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen-Sarma, P K; Thakur, M L

    1983-12-01

    In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

  14. First insights into the functional role of vasicentric tracheids and parenchyma in eucalyptus species with solitary vessels: do they contribute to xylem efficiency or safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Fernandez, María Elena; Gyenge, Javier; Meyra, Ariel; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Monteoliva, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hydraulic specific conductivity (k s ) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) with size and number of vessels has been studied in many angiosperms. However, few of the studies link other cell types (vasicentric tracheids (VT), fibre-tracheids, parenchyma) with these hydraulic functions. Eucalyptus is one of the most important genera in forestry worldwide. It exhibits a complex wood anatomy, with solitary vessels surrounded by VT and parenchyma, which could serve as a good model to investigate the functional role of the different cell types in xylem functioning. Wood anatomy (several traits of vessels, VT, fibres and parenchyma) in conjunction with maximum k s and VC was studied in adult trees of commercial species with medium-to-high wood density (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.). Traits of cells accompanying vessels presented correlations with functional variables suggesting that they contribute to both increasing connectivity between adjacent vessels-and, therefore, to xylem conduction efficiency-and decreasing the probability of embolism propagation into the tissue, i.e., xylem safety. All three species presented moderate-to-high resistance to cavitation (mean P 50 values = -2.4 to -4.2 MPa) with no general trade-off between efficiency and safety at the interspecific level. The results in these species do not support some well-established hypotheses of the functional meaning of wood anatomy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Shifts in the bacterial community composition along deep soil profiles in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Pedro Avelino Maia; Bini, Daniel; Durrer, Ademir; Robin, Agnès; Bouillet, Jean Pierre; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Our knowledge of the rhizosphere bacterial communities in deep soils and the role of Eucalyptus and Acacia on the structure of these communities remains very limited. In this study, we targeted the bacterial community along a depth profile (0 to 800 cm) and compared community structure in monospecific or mixed plantations of Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis. We applied quantitative PCR (qPCR) and sequence the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize composition of bacterial communities. We identified a decrease in bacterial abundance with soil depth, and differences in community patterns between monospecific and mixed cultivations. Sequence analysis indicated a prevalent effect of soil depth on bacterial communities in the mixed plant cultivation system, and a remarkable differentiation of bacterial communities in areas solely cultivated with Eucalyptus. The groups most influenced by soil depth were Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria (more frequent in samples between 0 and 300 cm). The predominant bacterial groups differentially displayed in the monospecific stands of Eucalyptus were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Our results suggest that the addition of an N2-fixing tree in a monospecific cultivation system modulates bacterial community composition even at a great depth. We conclude that co-cultivation systems may represent a key strategy to improve soil resources and to establish more sustainable cultivation of Eucalyptus in Brazil. PMID:28686690

  16. Distribution of Blue Gum Chalcid, Leptocybe invasa and it's Damage on Eucalyptus in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutitu, K.E; Otieno, B.O; Oeba, V.O; Nyeko, P.; Day, R.K

    2007-01-01

    Blue Gum chalcid is a gall-forming wasp, which causes an extensive damage to Eucalyptus. It attacks mostly seedlings and field saplings. It causes damage on it's host by forming massive typical bump-shaped galls on trees canopy, specifically on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems of new growths. The pest was first reported in Kenya and Uganda in 2002 attacking the three major commercially grown Eucalyptus species; Eucalyptus grandis, E. camaldulennsis, E. saligna in East Africa. Eucalyptus is fast growing and widely planted in both plantations and farmers' woodlots. It is important for both industrial and domestic use. It is a major source of income generation for rural poor families. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, incidence and severity patterns of L. invasa and possible relationship to environment and biophysical factors in East Africa. Over 312 randomly selected stands were assessed for BGC incidence to it's distribution. In each identified stand 60 trees were selected from 3 randomly established plots of 20 trees each and BGC damage/incidence assessed on a 4-point scale. This was to determine the incidence and severity patterns. ANOVA using generalized linear procedures, regression analysis and correlation were done to determine the relationship between the percentage incidence of L. invasa infestation against altitude, age interval, agro-ecological zones and topography. There was widespread of pest in all the districts sampled. There was significant difference (p 0.05) on L. invasa incidence among the three species. The study recommends that. further studies on damage and L. invasa population dynamics relationship to environment and biophysical factors should be conducted

  17. Soil microbial community structure and diversity are largely influenced by soil pH and nutrient quality in 78-year-old tree plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Guo, Zhiying; Chen, Chengrong; Jia, Zhongjun

    2017-04-01

    Forest plantations have been recognised as a key strategy management tool for stocking carbon (C) in soils, thereby contributing to climate warming mitigation. However, long-term ecological consequences of anthropogenic forest plantations on the community structure and diversity of soil microorganisms and the underlying mechanisms in determining these patterns are poorly understood. In this study, we selected 78-year-old tree plantations that included three coniferous tree species (i.e. slash pine, hoop pine and kauri pine) and a eucalypt species in subtropical Australia. We investigated the patterns of community structure, and the diversity of soil bacteria and eukaryotes by using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes. We also measured the potential methane oxidation capacity under different tree species. The results showed that slash pine and Eucalyptus significantly increased the dominant taxa of bacterial Acidobacteria and the dominant taxa of eukaryotic Ascomycota, and formed clusters of soil bacterial and eukaryotic communities, which were clearly different from the clusters under hoop pine and kauri pine. Soil pH and nutrient quality indicators such as C : nitrogen (N) and extractable organic C : extractable organic N were key factors in determining the patterns of soil bacterial and eukaryotic communities between the different tree species treatments. Slash pine and Eucalyptus had significantly lower soil bacterial and eukaryotic operational taxonomical unit numbers and lower diversity indices than kauri pine and hoop pine. A key factor limitation hypothesis was introduced, which gives a reasonable explanation for lower diversity indices under slash pine and Eucalyptus. In addition, slash pine and Eucalyptus had a higher soil methane oxidation capacity than the other tree species. These results suggest that significant changes in soil microbial communities may occur in response to chronic disturbance by tree plantations, and highlight

  18. Avaliação da madeira de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake em ensaios de usinagem, visando à produção moveleira Evaluation of the woods of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake During machining tests for use by the furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Alves de Souza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a potencialidade de uso da madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, de 6 e 8 anos, e Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, de 10 anos, no que tange aos processos de usinagem, visando ao seu uso na indústria de móveis. A madeira utilizada originou-se de plantios comerciais cultivados em sistema de consórcio agrossilvipastoril, proveniente da Votorantim Metais Zinco S/A, situada no Município de Vazante, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Utilizaram-se seis árvores por clone, totalizando 18 exemplares. Foram realizados os seguintes ensaios de usinagem: corte paralelo às fibras, corte transversal às fibras, fresagem, aplainamento, furação, furação para espiga, furação para cavilha e moldura. Os resultados mostraram-se satisfatórios, com destaque para o clone de Eucalyptus urophylla com 8 anos, principalmente nos ensaios de corte paralelo e furação para espiga, apresentando grande potencial de uso da espécie para produção de móveis. A madeira dos clones testados apresentou bom desempenho na realização dos ensaios de usinagem, no que se refere à trabalhabilidade, não havendo entraves na sua utilização como fonte de matéria-prima na indústria moveleira.The objective of this research was to conduct machining tests in woods of 6 and 8-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla and of a ten-year old Eucalyptus camaldulensis and to evaluate their possible use by the furniture industry. The wood samples were obtained from six trees of each clone, planted in a consortium with cattle and grain, owned by Votorantim Metals and Zinc. The plantation is located in the neighborhood of the city of Vazante, in the State of Minas Gerais. The following essays were conducted: cut by a table saw either parallel or perpendicular to the grain; shaping; planing; drilling; routing; mortising and drilling for dowels. All the samples yielded satisfactory results, mainly the eight year old Eucalyptus urophylla, during

  19. Supply chain optimization of sugarcane first generation and eucalyptus second generation ethanol production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, J.G.G.; Junginger, H.M.; Verstegen, J.A.; Lin, T.; Rodríguez, L.F.; Ting, K.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hilst, F. van der

    2016-01-01

    impact on overall production costs. Utilizing all the predefined sugarcane and eucalyptus supply regions up to 2030, the results showed that on average the GHG emission intensity of sugarcane cultivation and processing is −80 kg CO_2/m"3, while eucalyptus GHG emission intensity is 1290 kg CO_2/m"3. This is due to the high proportion of forest land that is expected to be converted to eucalyptus plantations. Future optimization studies may address further economic or GHG emission improvement potential by optimizing the GHG emission intensity or perform a multi-objective optimization procedure.

  20. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MACROSSOPIC, MICROSCOPIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS SPEJES, SPEJES, CULTIVATED IN IRAN, WITH STANDARD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samsam shariat sadeghi-aliabadi

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the volatile oil of staendard species of Eucalyptus with those species cultivated in Iran. The investigation was carried out as bellow:"nA The seeds of elven species were supplied from Germany and cultivated in Research Center of Agriculture of Isfahan and then extracted for volatile oil and cineole."nB Besides, we supplied 2 species from Isfahan, 7 species from Fars province, 9 from Khuzestan province, one from Tehran and one from Hormozgan, province."nC We extracted total volatile oil of 28 E. species, then injected to G. G. column and the results were as follow:"n1 - In the following species : E. saligna, E. loxophleba and E. Stratycalyx from Esfahan province. E."nloxophleba, E.camaldulensis, E.stratycalyx, intertexta and E. caleicultrix from Fars"nprovince. E. Stratycalyx, E. OCCidsntalis, E. gillii and E. sargentii from khozestan prcvince. E. globulus from Tehran and E. camaldulensis from Hormozgan province. The amount of essential oil extracted from the mentioned species was in accord with the standard of pharmacopial level. But the extracted oil from others was not as standard levl."n2 - E. gillii, E. camaldulensis, E. sargentii and OCCidentalis from khouzestan and the species of"nE.intertexta, E. camaldulensis, E. lansdownean from fars and the species of E. camaldulensis, E. saligna from Esfahan and the species of E. globulus from Tehran, the amount of measured cineol was in accordance the standard pharmacopeial level."n3 - Some of the species studied such as : were qualified for the amount of Alpha and Beta pinen.

  1. Marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattapaglia, D.

    2007-01-01

    Planted Eucalyptus occupies globally more than 18 million hectares and has become the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, supplying high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications. In this chapter an overview is presented on the status and perspectives of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in species of Eucalyptus. After an introduction to the main features of modern eucalypt breeding and clonal forestry, some applications of molecular markers in support to operational breeding are presented. By reviewing the status of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Eucalyptus, the challenges and some realistic prospects for the application of MAS to improve relevant traits are outlined. With the expected availability of more powerful genomic tools, including a draft of the Eucalyptus genome, the main challenges in implementing MAS will be in phenotyping trees accurately, analysing the overwhelming amount of genomic data available and translating this into truly useful molecular tools for breeding. (author)

  2. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vining, KJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages...

  3. Intercrops under coconut plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmud, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The successes of growing intercrops under coconut plantations are controlled by environmental factors which are influenced by the coconut growth and characters, interception of solar radiation, as well as the coconut space and system of planting. Assuming that soil fertility be able to be manipulated by certain treatments, then climatic factors become priority to be considered for selection of intercrops. Coconut palms grow well on areas of 500 m asl., 27-32 deg. C temperature, and 1,500-3,000 mm in annual rainfall with even distribution throughout the year. Each kind (tall, dwarf, hybrid) of coconut performs specific growth characters, mainly on its root system and canopy coverage, as well as general conditions due to its growth phase (young, productive, senile). Above such conditions greatly influence the kind of crops suitable for development under coconut trees. However space and system of coconut planting give various conditions of interception solar radiation to ground surface, which means by manipulating both space and system, environmental requirement is able to be achieved accordingly [in

  4. Regeneration and transformation of Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Esteki, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia Molecular, Biotecnologia e Bioempreendedorismo em Plantas Eucalyptus grandis is the most widely used species in planted forests in tropical and subtropical areas. The traits of interest underlying Eucalyptus breeding programs concern productivity and wood quality for the pulp and paper industry, as well as biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. The development of an efficient transformation protocol is necessary to explore eucalypt resources th...

  5. Consequences to precipitation regimes of replacing native Brazilian Cerrado by managed Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, M. B.; Mota, F. C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north, to the edges of what used to be the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. In this study, it is investigated the potential impacts of the substitution of Cerrado to the eco-hydrological characteristics of the region. The focus here is Eucalyptus plantation, which has increased substantially in the last decade due to government incentives. Two eddy-covariance (EC) systems were installed, one in an undisturbed Cerrado Stricto area and other in a recently-established Eucalyptus plantation. The two areas are 1,400m apart and are subjected to the same meteorology and similar edaphic conditions. Besides instrumentation typical of EC towers, a soil-moisture profiling system was installed in each site. Surface flux data from the eddy-covariance towers, along with daily upper air sounding profiles collected at the Brasília International Airport (located 10Km from the towers), were used to drive a simplified Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) slab model in order to investigate possible consequences of a large-scale shift from Cerrado to Eucalyptus to precipitation regimes in the region. Preliminary results show that replacing Cerrado for

  6. Effects of Allelochemicals of Some Eucalyptus Species on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the effects of allelochemicals of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globules on germination and root elongation using leguminous crop ground nut (Arachis hypogea) as bioassay material. The experiments were conducted in sterilized ...

  7. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supply of woody products from the existing forest resources is decreasing. ... Key words: Household level investments; Eucalyptus; financial profitability. ... eucalyptus (kalitunsi) tree species to other forest tree ... financial analyses is an assumption that market prices eucalyptus woodlot is situated in ... not be of good quality.

  8. Modeling changes in organic carbon stocks for distinct soils in southeastern brazil after four eucalyptus rotations using the century model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Miguel Nascimento Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM plays an important role in carbon (C cycle and soil quality. Considering the complexity of factors that control SOM cycling and the long time it usually takes to observe changes in SOM stocks, modeling constitutes a very important tool to understand SOM cycling in forest soils. The following hypotheses were tested: (i soil organic carbon (SOC stocks would be higher after several rotations of eucalyptus than in low-productivity pastures; (ii SOC values simulated by the Century model would describe the data better than the mean of observations. So, the aims of the current study were: (i to evaluate the SOM dynamics using the Century model to simulate the changes of C stocks for two eucalyptus chronosequences in the Rio Doce Valley, Minas Gerais State, Brazil; and (ii to compare the C stocks simulated by Century with the C stocks measured in soils of different Orders and regions of the Rio Doce Valley growing eucalyptus. In Belo Oriente (BO, short-rotation eucalyptus plantations had been cultivated for 4.0; 13.0, 22.0, 32.0 and 34.0 years, at a lower elevation and in a warmer climate, while in Virginópolis (VG, these time periods were 8.0, 19.0 and 33.0 years, at a higher elevation and in a milder climate. Soil samples were collected from the 0-20 cm layer to estimate C stocks. Results indicate that the C stocks simulated by the Century model decreased after 37 years of poorly managed pastures in areas previously covered by native forest in the regions of BO and VG. The substitution of poorly managed pastures by eucalyptus in the early 1970´s led to an average increase of C of 0.28 and 0.42 t ha-1 year-1 in BO and VG, respectively. The measured C stocks under eucalyptus in distinct soil Orders and independent regions with variable edapho-climate conditions were not far from the values estimated by the Century model (root mean square error - RMSE = 20.9; model efficiency - EF = 0.29 despite the opposite result obtained

  9. A high-density Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT microarray for genome-wide genotyping in Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myburg Alexander A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of molecular marker technologies have allowed important advances in the understanding of the genetics and evolution of Eucalyptus, a genus that includes over 700 species, some of which are used worldwide in plantation forestry. Nevertheless, the average marker density achieved with current technologies remains at the level of a few hundred markers per population. Furthermore, the transferability of markers produced with most existing technology across species and pedigrees is usually very limited. High throughput, combined with wide genome coverage and high transferability are necessary to increase the resolution, speed and utility of molecular marker technology in eucalypts. We report the development of a high-density DArT genome profiling resource and demonstrate its potential for genome-wide diversity analysis and linkage mapping in several species of Eucalyptus. Findings After testing several genome complexity reduction methods we identified the PstI/TaqI method as the most effective for Eucalyptus and developed 18 genomic libraries from PstI/TaqI representations of 64 different Eucalyptus species. A total of 23,808 cloned DNA fragments were screened and 13,300 (56% were found to be polymorphic among 284 individuals. After a redundancy analysis, 6,528 markers were selected for the operational array and these were supplemented with 1,152 additional clones taken from a library made from the E. grandis tree whose genome has been sequenced. Performance validation for diversity studies revealed 4,752 polymorphic markers among 174 individuals. Additionally, 5,013 markers showed segregation when screened using six inter-specific mapping pedigrees, with an average of 2,211 polymorphic markers per pedigree and a minimum of 859 polymorphic markers that were shared between any two pedigrees. Conclusions This operational DArT array will deliver 1,000-2,000 polymorphic markers for linkage mapping in most eucalypt pedigrees

  10. Shorter Harvest Cycles Counteract Increasing Annual Productivity in Industrial Plantation Forests: Trends from Three Decades of Remote Sensing in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D.; Jackson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation forestry can produce woody biomass many times faster than native vegetation, particularly in the tropical regions where plantations have expanded rapidly in the past three decades. However, activists and practitioners have raised concerns over the sustainability of intensive plantations, suggesting that changes to soil properties may inhibit vegetation growth after multiple harvest cycles. We use a 32-year time series of remotely sensed vegetation indices derived from Landsat data, coupled with recent geospatial and wood volume data from plantation companies, to identify trends in management and vegetation productivity in thousands of individual eucalyptus plantation stands. We find that peak vegetation index values at canopy closure, which are correlated with annual wood volume increment, increase over successive harvest cycles, while the length of each cycle decreases. These opposing trends suggest that the number of harvests required to produce a given wood volume peaks around the second harvest cycle and then declines, likely due to refinement of management practices. Across the region, vegetation index data do not support the hypothesized decrease in productivity over multiple harvest cycles. Additional field data and ongoing soil analyses will complement the remote sensing approach to quantifying plantations' long-term effects on the land they occupy.

  11. Plantation livelihoods in central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulstrup, Andreas Waaben

    2014-01-01

    disturbances. The Vietnamese Government has formulated policies aimed at achieving dual objectives of socio-economic development and environmental protection through the expansion of plantation forests. Negative social impacts and worrying environmental trends have been noted by a number of scholars. However...

  12. The presence of some artificial and natural radionuclides in a Eucalyptus forest in the south of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca, F.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    2001-01-01

    Long-lived artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) were studied in a Eucalyptus plantation located in the south-west of Spain. Radionuclide concentrations were determined in different types of samples corresponding to specific forest components (soil, trees, herbs and litter). Depth profile distributions were obtained in two selected core soils. Two layers were separately measured in three other cores. The concentration factor, defined as the ratio between the mean activity concentration in a component and the mean activity concentration in the soil, was calculated for each component. The biomass of different components was estimated in order to evaluate the total density concentration (Bq/ha) of the artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) in the Eucalyptus plantation. The transfer of the radionuclides between the different forest components can be inferred from the results. Additionally, other naturally occurring radionuclides ( 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Ac) were determined for comparison. Transport of radionuclides from forest to a nearby pulp mill is also discussed

  13. EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  14. STAND-LEVEL PROGNOSIS OF EUCALYPTUS CLONES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Luiza Marques da Silva Binoti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to train, implement and evaluate the efficiency of artificial neural networks (ANN to perform production prognosis of even-aged stands of eucalyptus clones. The data used were from plantations located in southern Bahia, totaling about 2,000 acres of forest. Numeric variables, such as age, basal area, volume and categorical variables, such as soil class texture, spacing, land relief, project and clone were used. The data were randomly divided into two groups: training (80% and generalization (20%. Three types of networks were trained: perceptron, multilayer perceptron networks and radial basis function. The RNA that showed the best performance in training and generalization were selected to perform the prognosis with data from the first forest inventory. We conclude that the RNA had satisfactory results, showing the potential and applicability of the technique in solving measurement and forest management problems.

  15. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  16. Botanical, Phytochemical, and Anticancer Properties of the Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Jyoti Bhuyan, Deep; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) is mainly native to Australia; however, some species are now distributed globally. Eucalyptus has been used in indigenous Australian medicines for the treatment of a range of aliments including colds, flu, fever, muscular aches, sores, internal pains, and inflammation. Eucalyptus oils containing volatile compounds have been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries for a multitude of purposes. In addition, Eucalyptus extracts containing nonvolatile compounds are also an important source of key bioactive compounds, and several studies have linked Eucalyptus extracts with anticancer properties. With the increasing research interest in Eucalyptus and its health properties, this review briefly outlines the botanical features of Eucalyptus, discusses its traditional use as medicine, and comprehensively reviews its phytochemical and anticancer properties and, finally, proposes trends for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Clonal propagation of eucalyptus by tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehra-Palta, A.

    1982-07-01

    Multiple adventitious buds were induced on cotyledons, shoot tips and nodal stem segments of Eucalyptus species cultured on a defined nutrient medium supplemented with the cytokinin zeatin and the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The adventitious buds could be recycled on cytokinin medium to produce more buds thus providing the possibility of producing large clones from selected genotypes. The adventitious shoots were rooted in auxin medium and some of the resulting propagules were outplanted in the field. These techniques have the potential for use in the genetic improvement of Eucalyptus. (Refs. 15).

  18. Farmers experience on Blue Gum Chalcid, Leptocybe invasa, Infestation on Eucalyptus Species in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyeko, P; Mutitu, K.E; Otieno, B; Oeba, V; Day, R.K

    2007-01-01

    Understanding indigenous knowledge and practices is important in facilitating the development and introduction of pest management technologies that meet farmers aspirations. The apper documents farmer's knowledge, perceptions and control practices of gall-forming wasps, leptocybe invasa Fisher and LaSalle in Uganda and Kenya with the aim of developing integrated management of the pest. Although the vast majority of farmeres interviewed had observed that symptoms of L. invasa infestation on Eucalyptus, very few of them were aware of causative agent. They reported the infestation as causing reduced growth rate, tree deformation and mortality. However farmers did not attempt to control the infeatation because they did not know suitable control methods and/or the casuse. Less than 20% of the farmers had recieved advice on L. invavsa, suggesting poor flow of tree pest information to farmers. Even after observing severe L. invasa, most farmers interviewed still wanted to plant Eucalyptus and they saw trees as source of several products and services, especially firewood and construction materials. As plantation forestry is developed and promoted, there is a need to integrate farmers' knowledge about tree pests into the development processes in order to improve their management practices

  19. Initial analysis of the Eucalyptus super clone fertilized with swine wastewater sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaino Paula Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of waste has gradually increased due to the large swine production and with this comes the concern about the final destination of the product. This study aimed to analyze the initial behavior of Eucalyptus super clone (AEC 1528, fertilized with swine sludge and compared to chemical fertilizer. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replications, with the volumes: 1.25, 2.5, 5 liters; 0 liters of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizer. The plants were irrigated with water from a well at the Rio Verde University, increasing the amount according to plant growth. After 120 days, we evaluated the height of the plants, stem diameter, relation between stem diameterand plantsheight, weight of the fresh matter, weight of the dry matter,root weight, leaf areaand mortality. There were significant differences in relation to plant height, the fresh matterweightand the dry matterweight. For the other characteristics there was no negative influence with the use of  different volumes of sewage sludge in eucalypts hybrid. It was observedthat, the application of biosolids (sludge from swine is an effective alternative fertilizer in eucalyptus plantations.

  20. Effects of Treatment Materials on the Physical Properties of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Bardak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine effects on retention and shrink levels of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. which treated with some commercial preservative types, borates, polyethylene glycol, and water repellents. In this study, four type impregnation chemicals were chosen: 1. Commercial preservative types, [Ammonium sulphate, Vacsol-WR WR and Immersol-WR (WR], 2. Borates chemicals, [Boric acid, Borax, Boric acid+ Borax] 3. Polyethylene glycol such as Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400 4. Water repellents [Styrene, Methylmetacrylate.]. As a result, retention % and shrink levels of Eucalyptus wood was lower treated with commercial preservative types and borates preservatives compare to other treatment chemicals. However, retention % levels of Eucalyptus wood treated with WR chemicals were highly significant levels. According to their leachability period although PEG 400 showed antishrink effectiveness other treatments didnt showed antishrink efficiency.

  1. Private valuation of carbon sequestration in forest plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitart, A. Bussoni [Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de la Republica. Avda. E. Garzon, 780, CP 12.900, Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, L.C. Estraviz [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' , Universidad de Sao, Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Approval of the Clean Development Mechanism, provided for in the Kyoto Protocol, enables countries with afforested land to trade in carbon emissions reduction certificates related to carbon dioxide equivalent quantities (CO{sub 2-e}) stored within a certain forest area. Potential CO{sub 2-e} above base line sequestration was determined for two forest sites on commercial eucalyptus plantations in northern Brazil (Bahia). Compensation values for silvicultural regimes involving rotation lengths greater than economically optimal were computed using the Faustmann formula. Mean values obtained were US$8.16 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} and US$7.19 (MgCO{sub 2-e}){sup -} {sup 1} for average and high site indexes, respectively. Results show that carbon supply is more cost-efficient in highly productive sites. Annuities of US$18.8 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and US$35.1 Mg C{sup -} {sup 1} and yearly payments of US$4.4 m{sup -} {sup 3} and US$8.2 m{sup -} {sup 3} due for each marginal cubic meter produced were computed for high and average sites, respectively. The estimated value of the tonne of carbon defines minimum values to be paid to forest owners, in order to induce a change in silvicultural management regimes. A reduction of carbon supply could be expected as a result of an increase in wood prices, although it would not respond in a regular manner. For both sites, price elasticity of supply was found to be inelastic and increased as rotation length moved further away from economically optimal: 0.24 and 0.27 for age 11 years in average- and high-productivity sites, respectively. This would be due to biomass production potential as a limiting factor; beyond a certain threshold value, an increase in price does not sustain a proportional change in carbon storage supply. The environmental service valuation model proposed might be adequate for assessing potential supply in plantation forestry, from a private landowner perspective, with an economic opportunity cost. The model is

  2. Variación genética en plántulas de Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Martínez Hernández

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa en plántulas de 7 meses de edad pertenecientes a 42 familias de polinización libre de tres especies de Eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. resinifera, y E. rudis. El ensayo se estableció en condiciones de vivero con germoplasma colectado en plantaciones establecidas en la cuenca del Valle de México. Los resultados indicaron la existencia de variación significativa (P≤0.05 entre especies y entre familias dentro de especies para las variables altura, diámetro, número de hojas y número de ramas, aunque no en el área foliar. A nivel de especies se encontraron diferencias significativas en todas las variables relacionadas con la acumulación y distribución de biomasa, excepto en el peso seco de las hojas. También se encontró una variación significativa (P≤0.01 a nivel de familias dentro de especies en el peso seco del tallo, el peso seco de hojas y la biomasa aérea mientras que el peso seco de las ramas y la biomasa de raíz no presentaron una variación significativa entre las familias. El componente de variación de familias dentro de especies aportó del 2 al 12 % de la variación fenotípica total, mientras que las especies contribuyeron sólo del 0.5 a 7.5 de esta variación. El mayor porcentaje de variación se presentó dentro de parcelas, con valores de 80 a 90 % del total en todas las variables de crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa de las plántulas.

  3. Growth potential limits drought morphological plasticity in seedlings from six Eucalyptus provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Pablo H; Fernández, Roberto J

    2016-02-01

    Water stress modifies plant above- vs belowground biomass allocation, i.e., morphological plasticity. It is known that all species and genotypes reduce their growth rate in response to stress, but in the case of water stress it is unclear whether the magnitude of such reduction is linked to the genotype's growth potential, and whether the reduction can be largely attributed to morphological adjustments such as plant allocation and leaf and root anatomy. We subjected seedlings of six seed sources, three from each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (potentially fast growing) and E. globulus (inherently slow growing), to three experimental water regimes. Biomass, leaf area and root length were measured in a 6-month glasshouse experiment. We then performed functional growth analysis of relative growth rate (RGR), and aboveground (leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass ratio (LMR)) and belowground (root length ratio (RLR), specific root length (SRL) and root mass ratio (RMR)) morphological components. Total biomass, root biomass and leaf area were reduced for all Eucalyptus provenances according to drought intensity. All populations exhibited drought plasticity, while those of greater growth potential (RGRmax) had a larger reduction in growth (discounting the effect of size). A positive correlation was observed between drought sensitivity and RGRmax. Aboveground, drought reduced LAR and LMR; under severe drought a negative correlation was found between LMR and RGRmax. Belowground, drought reduced SRL but increased RMR, resulting in no change in RLR. Under severe drought, a negative correlation was found between RLR, SRL and RGRmax. Our evidence strongly supports the classic ecophysiological trade-off between growth potential and drought tolerance for woody seedlings. It also suggests that slow growers would have a low capacity to adjust their morphology. For shoots, this constraint on plasticity was best observed in partition (i.e., LMR) whereas for

  4. Intercropped Silviculture Systems, a Key to Achieving Soil Fungal Community Management in Eucalyptus Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed...

  5. Water storage in soil: Eucalyptus urophylla plantation under different spacing compared to the cerrado vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Renato Lara de; Ferreira, Mozart Martins; Dias Junior, Moacir de Souza; Morais, Erico Jose de; Silva, Clemente Jose Gusmao Carneiro da

    1997-01-01

    This paper carried out a study at Fazenda Pe do Morro, in Bocaiuva - State of Minas Gerais - Brazil, aiming the analysis of the soil hydric deficiency. The region climate was classified as Aw, according to Koppen, an presents a temperature ranging from 11 to 35 deg C, with an average of 17 deg C during the coldest month and 20.5 deg C during the warmest month. The soil presents a red-dark latosoil texture. The soil humidity was determined by using the neutron slowing-down technique, with a 503 DR CPN probe and an 50 mCi Am/Be source

  6. Fertilization value of municipal sewage sludge for Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudani Leila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatment produces a large amount of sludge. The different uses of eliminations sludge such as landfills or incineration have consequences negative for the environment, the agricultural use has increased worldwide, especially in crops and few or no studies have been conducted with forest plantations in Algeria. The objective of this study is to assess fertilizing characteristics of the sludge from the wastewater treatment plant of Tiaret (Algeria. One-year-old saplings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were transplanted into pots with sludge/soil mixtures where sludge content was 20%, 40% and 60%. Biometric measurements (height, base diameter, diameter at mid-height and the number of leaves were performed during six months after planting. Results demonstrated the positive effect of sludge application. A significant difference in height increment and number of leaves was found between the control and sludge-treated plants. Biometric values for all sludge mixtures were higher than those for control plants (100% soil. The mixture, which contained 60% sludge, gives the best result, except for a diameter of stem. Plants grown on sludge/soil mixture had average height 49.4 ± 24.1 cm and average number of leaves 68.8 ± 6.2 while average height for plants grown on soil was 34.3 ± 12.8 cm and average number of leaves was 40 ± 3.8. Sludge application provides soil amendment and additional nutrient supply for planted trees.

  7. Managing a Coastal Bluegum (Eucalyptus globules) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Osterling

    1983-01-01

    Eucalyptus was thought to be a replacement to oak and other hardwoods for many products. Thousands of acres have been planted and now are in need of management. Management techniques are discussed in context with a coastal stand of approximately 300 acres of mixed aged bluegum. Potential markets are explored.

  8. Determination of pectin content of eucalyptus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coetzee, B.; Schols, H.A.; Wolfaardt, F.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about the occurrence of pectin in wood and it is speculated that between 10 mg g-1 and 40 mg g-1 of wood consists of pectin. The present study aimed to quantify pectin in eucalyptus wood and to determine the influence of tree species, yield potential of the site, tree age class

  9. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  10. Aspectos biológicos de Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometriadae provenientes de lagartas criadas em folhas de Eucalyptus cloeziana ou de Psidium guajava sob condições de campo Biological aspects of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lep.: Geometridae adults originated from caterpillars reared on leaves of Eucalyptus cloeziana or Psidium guajava under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os plantios de Eucalyptus no Brasil podem sofrer danos por espécies nativas de insetos de diversas ordens, como Orthoptera, Coleoptera e Lepidoptera. Esses insetos podem alimentar-se tanto de mirtáceas brasileiras como goiabeira, gabirobeira, jabuticabeira, entre outras, como de espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Entre os desfolhadores, destaca-se Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae como o mais daninho dessa ordem para a eucaliptocultura brasileira. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar aspectos biológicos de adultos de T. arnobia provenientes de lagartas alimentadas com plantas de eucalipto e, ou, goiabeira. Adultos deste inseto criados em folhas de eucalipto e, ou, de goiabeira apresentaram diferenças significativas para a maioria dos aspectos biológicos avaliados, exceto para a duração dos períodos de préoviposição, de oviposição e razão sexual. Assim, insetos herbívoros que vivem em hospedeiros filogeneticamente próximos ao eucalipto são capazes de causar danos consideráveis em reflorestamentos com espécies desse grupo, o que provavelmente ocorre pelo fato de elas estarem ainda em processo de adaptação a essa praga que atacaria o eucalipto, por estar fugindo da pressão exercida por barreiras físicas e químicas existentes nas mirtáceas nativas brasileiras.Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil may be damaged by native insects of many orders including Orthoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. These insects feed on Brazilian tree species of the family Myrtaceae to which the genus Eucalyptus belongs. The Lepidoptera Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll (Lepidoptera: Geometridae is the most harmful defoliator of Eucalyptus in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate biological aspects of T. arnobia adults originated from caterpillars fed on guava or eucalyptus plants. Adults of T. arnobia originated from caterpillars reared with eucalyptus or guava leaves presented significant differences for most biological

  11. Dual RNA-sequencing of Eucalyptus nitens during Phytophthora cinnamomi challenge reveals pathogen and host factors influencing compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febe Elizabeth Meyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands remains an important concern on forest tree species. The pathogen causes root and collar rot, stem cankers and dieback of various economically important Eucalyptus spp. In South Africa, susceptible cold tolerant Eucalyptus plantations have been affected by various Phytophthora spp. with P. cinnamomi considered one of the most virulent. The molecular basis of this compatible interaction is poorly understood. In this study, susceptible Eucalyptus nitens plants were stem inoculated with P. cinnamomi and tissue was harvested five days post inoculation. Dual RNA-sequencing, a technique which allows the concurrent detection of both pathogen and host transcripts during infection, was performed. Approximately 1% of the reads mapped to the draft genome of P. cinnamomi while 78% of the reads mapped to the Eucalyptus grandis genome. The highest expressed P. cinnamomi gene in planta was a putative crinkler effector (CRN1. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the high similarity of this P. cinnamomi CRN1 to that of Phytophthora infestans. Some CRN effectors are known to target host nuclei to suppress defense. In the host, over 1400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in comparison to mock inoculated trees, including suites of pathogenesis related (PR genes. In particular, a PR-9 peroxidase gene with a high similarity to a Carica papaya PR-9 ortholog previously shown to be suppressed upon infection by Phytophthora palmivora was down-regulated two-fold. This PR-9 gene may represent a cross-species effector target during P. cinnamomi infection. This study identified pathogenicity factors, potential manipulation targets and attempted host defense mechanisms activated by E. nitens that contributed to the susceptible outcome of the interaction.

  12. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness and diversity of AMF spores, the rate of AMF mycorrhizal root colonization, enzymatic activity and soil and litter C, N and P. There was an increase in AMF root colonization of E. grandis when intercropped with A. mangium as well as an increase in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the presence of leguminous trees. AMF colonization and phosphatase activities were both involved in improvements in P cycling and P nutrition in soil. In addition, P cycling was favored in the intercropped plantation, which showed negative correlation with litter C/N and C/P ratios and positive correlation with soil acid phosphatase activity and soil N and P concentrations. Intercropping A. mangium and E. grandis maximized AMF root colonization of E. grandis and phosphatase activity in the soil, both of which accelerate P cycling and forest performance.

  13. PRODUÇÃO DE SERAPILHEIRA EM FLORESTA ESTACIONAL SEMIDECIDUAL E EM PLANTIOS DE Pterogyne nitens Tul. e Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake NO SUDOESTE DA BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Pereira Santos Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litter is a major component responsible for maintaining the productive capacity of forests; thus, knowledge on their production and composition can provide information to adjust management techniques. The objective of this study was to evaluate the monthly litter fall in a Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and two pure forest plantations ( Pterogyne nitens and e de Eucalyptus urophylla , located in city of Vitoria da Conquista, Bahia state, as well as to analyze the influence of climatic factors in this production. Leaf litter samples were collected during ten months, using 0.25 m 2 square collectors. The materials collected were screened (fractions: leaves, branches, bark and reproductive structures and dried in a dry kiln at 60° C. The monthly average litter productions were 544.6, 522.6 and 179.5 kg ha -1 in areas of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest, Eucalyptus urophylla and Pinus nitens , respectively. The leaves represented an increasing proportion of litter in three coverages (65% of the total. The average monthly production of leaves was higher in native forest, followed by Eucalyptus urophylla and Pinus nitens . The contribution of branches was significantly lower in the Pinus nitens and did not vary between Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Eucalyptus urophylla . The production of reproductive materials varied in the order: Eucalyptus urophylla > Seasonal Semideciduous Forest > Pinus nitens . The bark fraction did not vary between Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Pinus nitens , being higher in Eucalyptus urophylla . There was a significant negative correlation between total production and average air temperature in all studied coverage. Only on Pinus nitens were found significant associations with the litter production variables precipitation and wind speed. Eucalyptus urophylla forest and Seasonal Semideciduous Forest have similar aspects regarding leaf litter production, 67% higher than the production of Pinus nitens . The temporal

  14. Toxicidad, efecto antialimentario y repelente de metabolitos secundarios de Eucalyptus globulus (Labill) (Myrtaceae) sobre coleópteros de importancia agrícola

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Serafina

    2013-01-01

    Las plantas aromáticas y sus aceites esenciales han sido utilizados desde la antigüedad como condimento, por su sabor y aroma; también como agente antimicrobiano e insecticida, para repeler insectos y/o para proteger los productos almacenados. Constituyen eficaces alternativas a los plaguicidas sintéticos convencionales de amplio espectro con baja toxicidad para el medio ambiente, mayor biodegradabilidad y baja generación de resistencia. El objetivo de este trabajo fue: I) analizar la composi...

  15. Stand mid-diameter extraction mid-distances influence in the harvesting costs of Eucalyptus globulus forest system in the Chile central zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, Alonso; Lopez, Ana M; Nieto, Victor M

    2008-01-01

    A whole tree and in-wood chipping harvesting system was studied by modelling and dynamic simulation. The iThink environment was used to build an application for simulating the operation of the harvesting system, using both deterministic and stochastic models (Isee systems, Inc. 2007). The variables used in this study were the mean diameter at breast height and the mean skidding distance of the stand. In this way, the influence of these variables in the systems cost per cubic meter was determined. This study exhibits a technical approach for establishing more appropriate payment fees, considering that the harvesting costs vary according to the stand characteristics.

  16. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during the dry season. Both hybrids differ in productivity when grown under water deficit. Results Pyrosequencing of RNA extracted from shoot apices provided extensive transcriptome coverage - a catalog of 129,993 unigenes (49,748 contigs and 80,245 singletons) was generated from 398 million base pairs, or 1.14 million reads. The pyrosequencing data enriched considerably existing Eucalyptus EST collections, adding 36,985 unigenes not previously represented. Digital analysis of read abundance in 14,460 contigs identified 1,280 that were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, 155 contigs showing differential expression between treatments (irrigated vs. non irrigated conditions during the dry season), and 274 contigs with significant genotype-by-treatment interaction. The more productive genotype displayed a larger set of genes responding to water stress. Moreover, stress signal transduction seemed to involve different pathways in the two genotypes, suggesting that water shortage induces distinct cellular stress cascades. Similarly, the response of functional proteins also varied widely between genotypes: the most productive genotype decreased expression of genes related to photosystem, transport and secondary metabolism, whereas genes related to primary metabolism and cell organisation were over-expressed. Conclusions For the most productive genotype, the ability to express a broader set of genes in response to water availability appears to be a key characteristic in the maintenance

  17. Contribution of Eucalyptus Harvest Residues and Nitrogen Fertilization to Carbon Stabilization in Ultisols of Southern Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Caparelli Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Eucalyptus forests in southern Bahia (BA are planted in soils with a sandy surface layer and humid tropical climate, conditions that lead to soil carbon (C decomposition. Recent studies have shown that nitrogen (N may be important for soil C stabilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Eucalyptus harvest residues and nitrogen fertilization to C stabilization in Ultisols of southern BA. The experiment was conducted in Eucalyptus clonal plantations cultivated in two regions of Eunápolis, BA, Brazil, with different clay content: southern region (140 g kg-1 of clay and western region (310 g kg-1 of clay. Five treatments were evaluated: one control (CTR, without Eucalyptus harvest residues and N fertilization, and four treatments with harvest residues combined with four rates of N fertilization: 0, 25, 50, and 100 kg ha-1. Soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40, and 0.40-0.60 m layers at the beginning and the end of the experiment (36 months. The amount of C and N and the C and N isotopic ratio (δ13C and δ15N of particulate organic matter (POM and mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM were determined. In the southern region after 36 months, the C-MAOM stocks in the 0.00-0.10 m layer of the CTR decreased by 33 %. The addition of harvest residue followed by 100 kg ha-1 N increased C-POM and N-POM stocks (0.00-0.10 m compared to the CTR, and the final N-POM stocks and residue-C recovery in the surface soil layer were positively correlated with the increase in N fertilization rates. In the western region, residue maintenance resulted in increased C-MAOM stocks (0.00-0.10 m compared to the CTR, but an increase in N availability reduced this increment. The increase in N fertilization rates did not alter C stocks, but reduced N stocks of POM and MAOM in the upper soil layer. At the end of the experiment, N fertilizer recovery (0.00-0.60 m was similar among the regions evaluated. In

  18. Intervalo hídrico óptimo en suelos argiudoles plantados con Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Least limiting water range in argiudoll soils under eucalyptus dunnii maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Damiano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El Intervalo Hídrico Óptimo (IHO es el rango de agua del suelo dentro del cual el crecimiento de la planta está menos limitado por el potencial de agua, la aireación y la resistencia del suelo a la penetración de raíces. El IHO es a menudo determinado en cultivos, pero su aplicación en estudios de plantaciones forestales son escasos. Los objetivos fueron: a estimar el IHO del suelo en plantaciones de Eucalyptus dunnii joven y adulto usando funciones de edafo-transferencia; b relacionar funcionalmente la frecuencia de humedad observada localizada fuera del IHO (p fuera con el IHO y determinar si la relación es influenciada por el tipo de suelo y las condiciones meteorológicas del período de crecimiento. Se estimó el IHO en suelos Argiudoles Típico y Abrúptico, usando funciones de edafo-transferencia (FT de retención hídrica y resistencia del suelo. La frecuencia de humedad observada fuera del rango del IHO (p fuera fue evaluada estadísticamente usando el modelo PROC CATMOD. El IHO aumentó de 0,009 cm³ cm-³ (horizonte Bt arcillo limoso a 0,207 cm³ cm-3 (horizonte C franco limoso. El modelo de regresión logística muestra que pfuera se relacionó negativamente con el IHO (R² = 0,83***. La pendiente del modelo (b1 = -30,5475 no varió por condiciones climáticas pero la ordenada al origen resultó influenciada por este parámetro (b o seco = 5,0083; b o húmedo = 3,5207. El modelo fundamental-empírico sostuvo al IHO como un indicador de calidad física del suelo apto para evaluar factores climáticos que inciden sobre el consumo de agua en eucaliptos.The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR integrates water potential, aeration and mechanical resistance conditions that can be limiting to plant growth. The LLWR was often determined in field crops, but studies performed under tree plantations are scarce. In this study, soil LLWR was determined in young and mature Eucalyptus dunnii plantations using pedo-transfer functions. Frequency

  19. Effects of autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis on influence of chemical components and crystallinity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Morais, Alaine Patrícia; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; de Oliveira Neto, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Samples of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust were autohydrolyzed in aqueous conditions to reach temperatures in the range 110-190°C and reaction times of 0-150min in a minireactor. In each minireactor were used a liquor:wood ratio (10:1 L:kg dry wood), in order to assess the effects of the autohydrolysis severity and the crystalline properties of cellulose. The content of extractives, lignin, holocellulose, cellulose, hemicelluloses and crystallinity index obtained from the solid fraction after autohydrolysis of sawdust were determined. This study demonstrated that the hemicelluloses were extensively removed at 170 and 190°C, whereas cellulose was partly degraded to Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust. The lignin content decreased, while the extractives content increased. It was defined that during autohydrolysis, had a slight decreased on crystalline structure of cellulose of Eucalyptus urogandis and Eucalyptus grandis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plantation forests, climate change and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Pawson; A. Brin; E.G. Brockerhoff; D. Lamb; T.W. Payn; A. Paquette; J.A. Parrotta

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 4 % of the world’s forests are plantations, established to provide a variety of ecosystem services, principally timber and other wood products. In addition to such services, plantation forests provide direct and indirect benefits to biodiversity via the provision of forest habitat for a wide range of species, and by reducing negative impacts on natural forests...

  1. Plantation forests and biodiversity: oxymoron or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; John A. Parrotta; Christopher Quine; Jeffrey Sayer

    2008-01-01

    Losses of natural and semi-natural forests, mostly to agriculture, are a significant concern for biodiversity. Against this trend, the area of intensively managed plantation forests increases, and there is much debate about the implications for biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive review of the function of plantation forests as habitat compared with other land...

  2. Is Eucalyptus Cryptically Self-incompatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Tasmien N; Johnson, Steven D

    2007-12-01

    The probability that seeds will be fertilized from self- versus cross-pollen depends strongly on whether plants have self-incompatibility systems, and how these systems influence the fate of pollen tubes. In this study of breeding systems in Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis, epifluorescence microscopy was used to study pollen tube growth in styles following self- and cross-pollinations. Pollen tubes from self-pollen took significantly longer than those from cross-pollen to grow to the base of the style in both E. urophylla (120 h vs. 96 h) and E. grandis (96 h vs. 72 h). In addition, both species exhibited reduced seed yields following self-pollination compared with cross-pollination. The present observations suggest that, in addition to a late-acting self-incompatibility barrier, cryptic self-incompatibility could be a mechanism responsible for the preferential out-crossing system in these two eucalypt species.

  3. Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

  4. Estrogenicity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Pine/Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Gustavo; Barra, Ricardo; Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio; Rivas, Meyling; Bahamonde, Paulina; Munkittrick, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Juvenile rainbow were exposed to Pine and Eucalyptus PPME along with an in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge. • Fish exposed to PPME showed induced levels of plasma vitellogenin and female gonad maturation. • Male fish showed intersex characteristics in laboratory and in situ assays. • Tertiary treated PPME from Eucalyptus production have stronger estrogenic effects on juvenile fish. - Abstract: Pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) have been shown to increase gonad size, cause early maturation, and disrupt hormone functions in native and non-native Chilean fish. In this study, we assessed reproductive (plasma vitellogenin; VTG, gonad development) and metabolic (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) end points, relative liver size (LSI) and condition factor (K) of juvenile female and male rainbow trout exposed to effluents. Unlike previous studies, which have focus either on the specific effects of effluent on fish in laboratory exposures or biotic population statuses downstream of discharge sites, we simultaneously assessed the impacts of PPMES on trout using two approaches: (1) laboratory exposures of tertiary treated PPME produced from processing Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus radiata; and (2) in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge of the same pulp mill. Despite an increase in the average gonadosomatic index (GSI) in exposed fish, no statistical differences in gonad size between exposed and unexposed individuals was detected. However, both female and male fish exposed to effluents showed significantly higher concentrations of plasma VTG, so more in fish exposed to Eucalyptus-based effluent when compared to Pinus PPME. In addition, male fish showed intersex characteristics in all exposure assays (Eucaliptus and Pinus) and, despite the low concentration of effluent in the river (<1% [v/v]), similar responses were observed in the caged fish. Finally, EROD activity was induced in both in situ exposures and

  5. Estrogenicity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to Pine/Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Gustavo, E-mail: gchiang@centromeri.cl [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Barra, Ricardo [Aquatic Systems Research Unit, EULA–Chile Environmental Sciences Centre, University of Concepción, Concepcion (Chile); Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio [Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología y Contaminación Ambiental (ECoA), IIMyC-CONICET-UNMdP, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Rivas, Meyling [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Natural and Oceanographic Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bahamonde, Paulina; Munkittrick, Kelly R. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Juvenile rainbow were exposed to Pine and Eucalyptus PPME along with an in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge. • Fish exposed to PPME showed induced levels of plasma vitellogenin and female gonad maturation. • Male fish showed intersex characteristics in laboratory and in situ assays. • Tertiary treated PPME from Eucalyptus production have stronger estrogenic effects on juvenile fish. - Abstract: Pulp and paper mill effluents (PPMEs) have been shown to increase gonad size, cause early maturation, and disrupt hormone functions in native and non-native Chilean fish. In this study, we assessed reproductive (plasma vitellogenin; VTG, gonad development) and metabolic (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity; EROD) end points, relative liver size (LSI) and condition factor (K) of juvenile female and male rainbow trout exposed to effluents. Unlike previous studies, which have focus either on the specific effects of effluent on fish in laboratory exposures or biotic population statuses downstream of discharge sites, we simultaneously assessed the impacts of PPMES on trout using two approaches: (1) laboratory exposures of tertiary treated PPME produced from processing Eucalyptus globulus or Pinus radiata; and (2) in situ bioassay downstream of the combined discharge of the same pulp mill. Despite an increase in the average gonadosomatic index (GSI) in exposed fish, no statistical differences in gonad size between exposed and unexposed individuals was detected. However, both female and male fish exposed to effluents showed significantly higher concentrations of plasma VTG, so more in fish exposed to Eucalyptus-based effluent when compared to Pinus PPME. In addition, male fish showed intersex characteristics in all exposure assays (Eucaliptus and Pinus) and, despite the low concentration of effluent in the river (<1% [v/v]), similar responses were observed in the caged fish. Finally, EROD activity was induced in both in situ exposures and

  6. STATUS KESUBURAN TANAH DI BAWAH TEGAKAN EUCALYPTUS PELLITA F.Muell: STUDI KASUS DI HPHTI PT. ARARA ABADI, RIAU (Soil fertility under Eucalyptus pellita F.Muell stands: Case study in PT. Arara Abadi, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung B. Supangat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Informasi status kesuburan tanah di hutan tanaman sangat diperlukan sebagai dasar penyusunan rencana teknik manipulasi lingkungan pertumbuhan seperti pemupukan dan tindakan silvikultur lainnya.  Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi status kesuburan tanah di bawah tegakan Eucalyptus pellita pada rotasi ketiga, melalui analisis sifat fisik, kimia dan biologi tanah.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanah Typic Kandiudults pada lokasi HTI E. pellita rotasi ketiga di Perawang memiliki tingkat kesuburan yang rendah baik secara fisik, kimia maupun biologi, dan lebih rendah dibandingkan pada tanah di hutan alam. Kenaikan umur tanaman E. pellita membentuk ekosistem hutan yang semakin mantap bagi perbaikan sifat fisik, kimia dan biologi secara umum, yang ditunjukkan perbaikan sebagian besar dari  parameter yang diamati.  Berdasarkan hasil identifikasi status kesuburan tanah di atas, dalam pengelolaan tanah di lahan HTI, diperlukan perlakuan upaya manipulasi lingkungan pertumbuhan seperti pemupukan dan weeding secara tepat melalui uji coba dan penelitian yang lebih teknis baik dalam skala laboratorium maupun lapangan.  Untuk itu, disarankan adanya penelitian lanjutan untuk mengetahui tingkat kerentanan tanah di lahan HTI E. pellita baik secara hidrologis maupun keharaan pada masing-masing umur tanaman, sehingga upaya pengelolaan lahan tanaman menjadi lebih baik.   ABSTRACT Information on status of forest soil fertility in the plantation forest is needed as a basis for planning the manipulation techniques of growth environmental such as fertilization and other silvicultural techniques. The study aims to evaluate the soil fertility status under eucalyptus pellita stands on the third rotation, through the analysis of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The results showed that the soil of Typic Kandiudults at E. pellita stands in Perawang on the third rotation has a low fertility level, physically, chemically and biologically

  7. Improving phosphorus availability from Patos phosphate rock for Eucalyptus: a study with 32P radiotracer; Melhorando a disponibilidade de fosforo da rocha fosforica de Patos para eucalipto: um estudo com radiotracador 32P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Felipe Carlos Alvarez [Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agriculturea Tropical (INIFAT), Santiago de las Vegas, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: falvarez@cena.usp.br; Muraoka, Takashi; Trevizam, Anderson Ricardo [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fertilidade do Solo; Franzini, Vinicius Ide [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Solos e Nutricao de Plantas; Rocha, Alexandre Prado [Escola de Engenharia de Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2006-01-15

    Eucalyptus plantation in Brazil is generally set on low fertility soils, therefore phosphorus (P) fertilization is mandatory and increases the cost of plantation operation. Using species that more efficiently uptake phosphorus from less soluble sources is an interesting option. However, little is known about eucalyptus regarding its ability of using less soluble forms of phosphorus. The use of P by eucalyptus (E. urophylla, E. grandis, and E. urophylla E. grandis) was studied in greenhouse using a loamy-textured, hipodystrophic Typic Haplustox from the Cerrado region, and 32P isotopic method. The P sources tested were triple superphosphate (TSP), phosphate rock (PR) and the triple superphosphate mixed with PR (TSP+PR). The effectiveness of P sources in terms of increasing dry matter yield was TSP = (TSP + PR) > PR, and the P uptake followed the order (TSP + PR) > TSP > PR for both species plus the hybrid. The increase in P uptake from PR due to TSP influence was 217.3% for E. urophylla, 235.7% for E. grandis, and 28.7% for E. urophylla E. grandis, indicating an enhancement effect of TSP on the effectiveness of PR. The hybrid E. urophylla E. grandis was the most efficient genotype on P soil use and E. grandis most exigent in P fertilizer. (author)

  8. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS ON PHASEOLUS. VULGARIS SEEDLINGS. Sale, F.A.. Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of ..... Sale, F.A. (2009). Allelopathic influence of Acacia auriculiformis. Eucalyptus citriodora and Gliricidia sepium on germination, growth and yield of millet.

  9. Energy, chemicals and carbon: future options for the Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current Eucalyptus value chain and the possible drivers that may impact upon it. The potential consequences of climate change on the growth and yield of Eucalyptus are discussed and the impact of the security of oil reserves and increased costs of fossil-fuel-derived energy and raw materials upon ...

  10. Eucalyptus Forest Information System for the Portuguese pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Fonseca; Rita Crespo; Henk Feith; Jose Luis Carvalho; Antonio Macedo; Joao Pedro Pina

    2000-01-01

    To support the management of the Portuguese eucalyptus forest, the Association of Portuguese Pulp and Paper Industries (CELPA) decided to develop a Eucalyptus Forest Information System (EFIS). The specific goals of the EFIS are: characterization and development of the eucalyptus forest over time; planning of successive national eucalyptus forest inventories; estimation...

  11. USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards manufactured with Eucalyptus grandis wood presented similar or higher average values for physical and mechanical properties, in comparison to Pinus taeda, which is the main species used for OSB production in Brazil.

  12. Performance of Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1986-01-01

    Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna were compared at four locations on the island of Hawaii to seek seed sources better than those in current use which were introduced earlier from unrecorded locations in Australia. A broad range of latitude and elevation was represented among the provenances. At all four...

  13. Variation in natural durability of seven Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J.N. Franca; T.S.F.A. Franca; R.A Arango; B.M. Woodward; G.B. Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    Programs aimed at developing clones of hybrid trees are commonly established in Brazil to meet the demands of various forest-based industries. These programs have continually improved the quality of eucalyptus wood, which has the potential to reduce deforestation by lowering demand for other high-value species. This is particularly true in the lumber market, but little...

  14. Energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, J M

    1981-12-01

    Firewood is the chief of source of energy in Arunachal Pradesh. The entire quantity of fuelwood is collected from the adjoining forests by the villagers as a matter of traditional right. The use of gobar gas plant is uneconomical because of the lower temperatures prevailing in major portions of the year. The anticipated requirement of fuelwood for 1990 and 2000 is of the order of 5.88 and 8.23 million m/sup 3/, respectively. Through the present fuelwood requirements have not attained critical dimensions, the hacking of forests in and around the habitations is creating serious environmental problems. Programs have been initiated for raising energy plantations in Arunachal Pradesh. An outline of the programs underway and projects proposed are presented. The main problem in implementation are inadequacy of funds. The removal of this constraint will help in solving the anticipated energy crisis in this area at the same time affording sufficient environmental protection.

  15. Global options for biofuels from plantations according to IMAGE simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battjes, J.J.

    1994-07-01

    In this report the contribution of biofuels to the renewable energy supply and the transition towards it are discussed for the energy crops miscanthus, eucalyptus, poplar, wheat and sugar cane. Bio-electricity appears to be the most suitable option regarding energetic and financial aspects and in terms of avoided CO 2 emissions. The IMAGE 2.0 model is a multi-disciplinary, integrated model designed to simulate the dynamics of the global society-biosphere-climate system, and mainly used here for making more realistic estimates. Dynamic calculations are performed to the year 2100. An IMAGE 2.0-based Conventional Wisdom scenario simulates, among other things, future energy demand and supply, future food production, future land cover patterns and future greenhouse gas emissions. Two biofuel scenarios are described in this report. The first consists of growing energy crops on set asides. According to a 'Conventional Wisdom' scenario, Canada, the U.S. and Europe and to a lesser extent Latin America will experience set asides due to a declining demand in agricultural area. The second biofuel scenario consists of growing energy crops on set asides and on 10% of the agricultural area in the developing countries. Growing energy crops on all of the areas listed above leads to an energy production that consists of about 12% of the total non-renewable energy use in 2050, according to the 'Conventional Wisdom' scenario. Furthermore, the energy related CO 2 emissions are reduced with about 15% in 2050, compared to the Conventional Wisdom scenario. Financial aspects will have great influence on the success of growing energy crops. However, energy generated from biomass derived from plantations is currently more expensive than generating it from traditional fuels. Levying taxes on CO 2 emissions and giving subsidies to biofuels will reduce the cost price difference between fossil fuels and biofuels

  16. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  17. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eGonzález

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control, with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1, or treated with inhibitors of NAD(PH, ascorbate (ASC and glutathione (GSH syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS, adenosine 5´-phosphosulfate reductase (APR, involved in C, N and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  18. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione syntheses and TRR/TRX activities enhancing photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Moenne, Fabiola; Gómez, Melissa; Sáez, Claudio A; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the effect of OC kappa in redox status, photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth in Eucalyptus globulus, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa at 1 mg mL(-1), or treated with inhibitors of NAD(P)H, ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH) syntheses and thioredoxin reductase (TRR) activity, CHS-828, lycorine, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), and auranofin, respectively, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for 4 months. Treatment with OC kappa induced an increase in NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses, TRR and thioredoxin (TRX) activities, photosynthesis, growth and activities of basal metabolism enzymes such as rubisco, glutamine synthetase (GlnS), adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), involved in C, N, and S assimilation, respectively, Krebs cycle and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes. Treatment with inhibitors and OC kappa showed that increases in ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced NADPH synthesis, increases in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced ASC and GSH syntheses, and only the increase in NADPH enhanced TRR/TRX activities. In addition, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH, and TRR/TRX enhanced photosynthesis and growth. Moreover, the increase in NADPH, ASC and TRR/TRX enhanced activities of rubisco, Krebs cycle, and purine/pyrimidine synthesis enzymes, the increase in GSH, NADPH, and TRR/TRX enhanced APR activity, and the increase in NADPH and TRR/TRX enhanced GlnS activity. Thus, OC kappa increases NADPH, ASC, and GSH syntheses leading to a more reducing redox status, the increase in NADPH, ASC, GSH syntheses, and TRR/TRX activities are cross-talking events leading to activation of photosynthesis, basal metabolism, and growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  19. Effects of understory vegetation and litter on plant nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, N:P ratio and their relationships with growth rate of indigenous seedlings in subtropical plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N], phosphorus ([P], and N:P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation. We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N:P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N:P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N:P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N:P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth.

  20. Oldest Known Eucalyptus Macrofossils Are from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaloa, María C.; Nixon, Kevin C.; González, Cynthia C.; Wilf, Peter; Cúneo, N. Rubén; Johnson, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data indicate that the

  1. Oldest known Eucalyptus macrofossils are from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A Gandolfo

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data

  2. In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulus Estevão Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs, an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis, has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST clusters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX. Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y and cytosolic (TRXh, have been found in the transcriptome. Putative typical TRXs have been identified in fifteen clusters, four m-type, seven h-type, two f-type, one cluster for each x/y-types and one putative homologue of the TDX gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. One cluster presents an atypical active site WCMPS, different from the conserved WCGPC present in the other 15 clusters, and corresponds to a subgroup of cytosolic thioredoxins. Except in specific libraries from callus, roots, seedlings and wood tissues, thioredoxin deduced ESTs are found in all remaining libraries. According to the calculated frequencies of ESTs, chloroplastic thioredoxins are preferentially present in green tissues such as leaves whilst cytoplasmic thioredoxins are more general but demonstrate elevated frequencies in seedlings and flower tissues. TRX frequency patterns in the Eucalyptus transcriptome seem to indicate a good coherence with data from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression.

  3. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  4. ESTOQUES DE CARBONO E NITROGÊNIO EM ARGISSOLO SUBMETIDO AO MONOCULTIVO DE Eucalyptus urograndis E EM ROTAÇÃO COM Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of sustainable systems of soil management has led researchers to develop new techniques of cultivation. Among them, studies with forest species able to fix atmospheric N2 and increase C and N stocks in labile and stable soil organic matter (SOM stand out in Brazil. The study aimed to evaluate changes in stocks of C and N in fractions of humic substances, light fraction of SOM and microbial biomass in soils of short-rotation Eucalyptus “urograndis”, long rotation plantations and stands of Acacia mangium which succeeded short rotation eucalyptus monoculture, in comparison to the soil of native forest (Atlantic Forest. It was obtained the total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN stocks, C and N stocks in the fractions of humic substances (fulvic acid fraction-AF, humic acid fraction-HA and humin fraction-H, C and N in light fraction of SOM (C-LOM and N-LOM and C and N microbial biomass (CMB and N-MB. The results indicated that the short rotation eucalyptus cultivation reduced total organic carbon stocks, total nitrogen, C and N in the humic substances, and N storage in the microbial biomass compared to Acacia mangium soil. The cultivation of Acacia mangium and the increase of the eucalyptus rotation time increased stocks of C and N of the labile (C-LOM, N-LOM and C-MB and stable fractions (C and N in humic substances indicating a significant recovery of their stocks to levels approaching those original (native, and higher than stocks obtained in the soil of short rotation eucalypt.

  5. Heterosis may result in selection favouring the products of long-distance pollen dispersal in Eucalyptus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa E Silva

    Full Text Available Using native trees from near the northern and southern extremities of the relatively continuous eastern distribution of Eucalyptus globulus in Tasmania, we compared the progenies derived from natural open-pollination (OP with those generated from within-region and long-distance outcrossing. Controlled outcrossing amongst eight parents - with four parents from each of the northern and southern regions - was undertaken using a diallel mating scheme. The progeny were planted in two field trials located within the species native range in southern Tasmania, and their survival and diameter growth were monitored over a 13-year-period. The survival and growth performances of all controlled cross types exceeded those of the OP progenies, consistent with inbreeding depression due to a combination of selfing and bi-parental inbreeding. The poorer survival of the northern regional (♀N♂N outcrosses compared with the local southern regional outcrosses (♀S♂S indicated differential selection against the former. Despite this mal-adaptation of the non-local ♀N♂N crosses at both southern sites, the survival of the inter-regional hybrids (♀N♂S and ♀S♂N was never significantly different from that of the local ♀S♂S crosses. Significant site-dependent heterosis was detected for the growth of the surviving long-distance hybrids. This was expressed as mid-parent heterosis, particularly at the more northern planting site. Heterosis increased with age, while the difference between the regional ♀N♂N and ♀S♂S crosses remained insignificant at any age at either site. Nevertheless, the results for growth suggest that the fitness of individuals derived from long-distance crossing may be better at the more northern of the planting sites. Our results demonstrate the potential for early-age assessments of pollen dispersal to underestimate realised gene flow, with local inbreeding under natural open-pollination resulting in selection favouring the

  6. Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) from eucalyptus sawdust as a dry strength agent of unrefined eucalyptus handsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, María Evangelina; Felissia, Fernando Esteban; Area, María Cristina; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Tarrés, Quim; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-03-30

    Nanofibrillated cellulose has been obtained from the cellulosic fraction of eucalyptus sawdust. The fractionation process involved the partial removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. CNF was obtained using TEMPO oxidation with NaOCl in basic medium followed by mechanical homogenization. The obtained CNF was subsequently used as a dry strength agent on unbleached unrefined eucalyptus pulp. The addition of 3, 6 and 9 wt.% of CNF increased lineally the tensile index of handsheets to about 55 N mg(-1) at 35°SR, compatible with papermachine runnability. The other mechanical properties also increased substantially, and porosity decreased moderately. The estimated specific surface and average diameter of these CNF were 60 m(2)g(-1), and of 41.0 nm, respectively. The addition of 9 wt.% of CNF produced an increase in mechanical strength, equivalent to that produced by PFI refining at 1600 revolutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice K. de Alcântara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al, a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  8. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

  9. Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, parica (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8% amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002. It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

  10. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. © 2014 CIRAD. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Development during indirect organogenesis in Eucalyptus grandis x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BQWUPC1

    isolation or from a region of the stem immediately above the callus. Roots developed ... In this study, the same clone (Eucalyptus grandis urophylla hybrid) was used and .... strands and they linked these with shoot formation, whilst. Arvore et al.

  12. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation ... cific regions of the genome of different species (Marques et ..... Received 21 June 2007, in revised form 11 September 2007; accepted 12 September 2007.

  13. Antifungal activity of lemon, eucalyptus, thyme, oregano, sage and lavender essential oils against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is very important to find out the protection of products of natural origin as an alternative to synthetic fungicides. The promising alternative is the use of the essential oils (EOs. Essential oils from plants have great potential as a new source of fungicide to control the pathogenic fungi.The main objective of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of lemon (Citrus lemon L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus LABILL., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. sage (Salvia officinalis L. and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia MILLER. EOs against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis isolated from grapes and their ability to affect the growth. It was tested by using the vapor contact with them. At first both tested isolates were identified by using PCR method. Sequence data of 18S rRNA supported the assignment of these isolates to the genus Aspergillus and species A. niger (ITS region: KT824061; RPB2: KT824060 and A. tubingensis (ITS region: KT824062; RPB2: KT824059. Second, EO antifungal activity was evaluated. The effect of the EO volatile phase was confirmed to inhibit growth of A. niger and A tubingensis. EOs were diluted in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide final volume of 100 μL. Only 50 μL this solution was distributed on a round sterile filter paper (1 x 1 cm by micropipette, and the paper was placed in the center of the lid of Petri dishes. Dishes were kept in an inverted position. The essential oils with the most significant activity were determined by method of graded concentration of oils - minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs. The most effective tested EOs were oregano and thyme oils, which totally inhibited growth of tested isolates for all days of incubation at 0.625 μL.cm-3 (in air with MFDs 0.125 μL.cm-3 (in air. Lavender EO was less active aginst tested strains (MIDs 0.313 μL.cm-3. The results showed that the tested EOs had antifungal activity, except lemon and eucalyptus. Sage EO was the only

  14. Discount Rate and Timber Rotation: the Case of Eucalyptus Saligna

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Restrepo; Mauricio Alviar

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling’s method. The methodology consists of calculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern region of the state of A...

  15. Effect of silicon application to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the population of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of silicon in forestry has increased recently as it is directly related to improved resistance to insect pests. The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, occurs in all eucalypt producing regions in Brazil. Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of silicon applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the psyllid population. In the first experiment, the applications were made via soil (calcium silicate and leaves (potassium silicate in a nine months old E. camaldulensis plantation. In the second experiment, we evaluated silicon on seedlings, incorporating it into the substrate (soil or applying it on leaves (foliar. Monthly, for 24 months, the number of psyllid eggs and immatures were counted on leaf samples. The plant height was measured at 9, 12, 16 and 24 months (experiment 1 and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months (experiment 2 after application. The numbers of eggs and immatures were lower in periods of higher precipitation, indicating less psyllid attack during the rainy season. The psyllid population was lower in treatments with application of silicon both foliar and via soil compared to control. No significant differences were found in the height of E. camaldulensis plants.

  16. APPRAISAL OF THE SNAP MODEL FOR PREDICTING NITROGEN MINERALIZATION IN TROPICAL SOILS UNDER EUCALYPTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip James Smethurst

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Nitrogen Availability Predictor (SNAP model predicts daily and annual rates of net N mineralization (NNM based on daily weather measurements, daily predictions of soil water and soil temperature, and on temperature and moisture modifiers obtained during aerobic incubation (basal rate. The model was based on in situ measurements of NNM in Australian soils under temperate climate. The purpose of this study was to assess this model for use in tropical soils under eucalyptus plantations in São Paulo State, Brazil. Based on field incubations for one month in three, NNM rates were measured at 11 sites (0-20 cm layer for 21 months. The basal rate was determined in in situ incubations during moist and warm periods (January to March. Annual rates of 150-350 kg ha-1 yr-1 NNM predicted by the SNAP model were reasonably accurate (R2 = 0.84. In other periods, at lower moisture and temperature, NNM rates were overestimated. Therefore, if used carefully, the model can provide adequate predictions of annual NNM and may be useful in practical applications. For NNM predictions for shorter periods than a year or under suboptimal incubation conditions, the temperature and moisture modifiers need to be recalibrated for tropical conditions.

  17. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF RELIEF INFLUENCE ON EUCALYPTUS FORESTS: INTERACTION BETWEEN SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhasmin Paiva Rody

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the differences in radiation intensity as a function of distinct relief exposure surfaces and to quantify these effects on the leaf area index (LAI and other variables expressing eucalyptus forest productivity for simulations in a process-based growth model. The study was carried out at two contrasting edaphoclimatic locations in the Rio Doce basin in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two stands with 32-year-old plantations were used, allocating fixed plots in locations with northern and southern exposure surfaces. The meteorological data were obtained from two automated weather stations located near the study sites. Solar radiation was corrected for terrain inclination and exposure surfaces, as it is measured based on the plane, perpendicularly to the vertical location. The LAI values collected in the field were used. For the comparative simulations in productivity variation, the mechanistic 3PG model was used, considering the relief exposure surfaces. It was verified that during most of the year, the southern surfaces showed lower availability of incident solar radiation, resulting in up to 66% losses, compared to the same surface considered plane, probably related to its geographical location and higher declivity. Higher values were obtained for the plantings located on the northern surface for the variables LAI, volume and mean annual wood increase, with this tendency being repeated in the 3PG model simulations.

  18. Evaluating Potential Changes in Fire Risk from Eucalyptus Plantings in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Goodrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewed interest in short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and bioproducts has prompted a reevaluation of the Eucalyptus species for the southern United States. One question that arises about the potential effects of introducing a nonnative species is what effect will there be on fire behavior. Our approximate answer based on modeling fire behavior using the Fuel Characteristic Classification System is that surface fire behavior in young stands differs little from surface fires common to pine plantations in the southern Coastal Plain. By the age of 9, the absence of a shrub layer, along with an increased height to live crown, reduced initiation potential despite increased bark shedding. When a shrub layer was introduced in the model, the initiation potential became equivalent to common Pinus fuelbeds. If a crown is ignited, however, the potentials for transmissivity and spread are very high, and the potential for crown fire behavior is more severe. Our modeling effort suggests that fire behavior at the stand level differs little from current conditions and points to the importance of avoiding the development of a shrub layer. Stands managed on short rotation (less than 10 years will likely be harvested before bark shedding presents a significant spotting problem.

  19. Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... plantations, it is clear that separation of the trees from their natural enemies has resulted in exceptional performance.

  20. Harvester Productivity for Row Thinning Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; Walter C. Anderson

    1980-01-01

    Tivo tree harvesters currently being used to thin southern pine plantations were evaluated to determine the effects of stand characteristics on machine productivity. Production rates for row thinning loblolly plantations are presented by stand age, site index, and stand density.

  1. WEED CONTROL AND BORON NUTRITION ON Eucalyptus IN SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the control of weeds in the rows of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis with herbicides applied singly or combined with boron (B, as well as, the response of Eucalyptus plants to this micronutrient. The experiments were carried out in a split-plot with randomized complete block design, with three replicates. Six treatments were applied to the plots: (i weeded control, (ii control without weeding, (iii glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (10 g ai ha-1 + 0.05% v / v mineral oil, (iv glyphosate (1080 g ae  ha-1 + isoxaflutole (112.5 g ai ha-1,  (v glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1 and  (vi oxyfluorfen (480 g ai ha-1. The sub-plots consisted of the absence or presence of 4 kg of boric acid (H3BO3 - 17% B in 100 L of water. The addition of boric acid in the solution containing the herbicides did not affect the weed control. There was an increase in boron content in the soil and consequently an increase in the boron levels in the eucalyptus leaves. The combined application of herbicides plus boric acid is perfectly suitable for preventing dry of the pointer on eucalyptus plants. Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; chemical control; herbicides; micronutrients; Urochloa decumbens.

  2. Vertical distribution of soil extractable organic C and N contents and total C and N stocks in 78-year-old tree plantations in subtropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Dong, Haibo; Lan, Zhongming; Bacon, Gary; Hao, Yanbin; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have focused on the effects of long-term forest plantations on the soil profile of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks. In this study, we selected 78-year-old tree plantations that included three coniferous tree species (i.e., slash pine, hoop pine and kauri pine) and a Eucalyptus species in subtropical Australia. We measured soil extractable organic C (EOC) and N (EON) contents and total C and N stocks under different tree species on the forest floor and along a soil profile to 100 cm depth. The results showed that Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil EOC contents (3.3 Mg ha -1 ) than the other tree species (EOC of 1.9-2.3 Mg ha -1 ) and had significantly higher EON (156 kg ha -1 ) contents than slash pine (107 kg ha -1 ). Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil C (58.9 Mg ha -1 ) and N (2.03 Mg ha -1 ) stocks than the other tree species (22.3-27.6 Mg C ha -1 and 0.71-1.23 Mg N ha -1 ) at 0-100 cm depth. There were no differences in soil C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth among the coniferous tree species. Forest floor C stocks had stronger effects on mineral soil total N stocks than fine root biomass, whereas fine root biomass exerted stronger effects on soil total C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth than forest floor C and N stocks. Our results addressed large differences in soil C and N stocks under different tree species, which can provide useful information for local forest management practices in this region.

  3. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  4. Hemipteran diversity in Endau-Rompin plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Asraf; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    Study on hemipteran at Endau Rompin Plantation (LER), Pahang was conducted at oil palm plantation planted at different type of soils. The aim of the study was to determine hemipteran diversity in oil palm ecosystem. Sampling was done from April 2012 to September 2012 by using Malaise and impact traps. Cicadellidae was the most abundance and dominance family with 105 individuals and 6 species (=morphospecies) recorded. The rarefaction curve becomes flatter to the right indicating a reasonable number of individual samples have been taken. Peat area show high Shannon index and Margalef index values compared to clay area.There were significant differences in hemipteran community between three type of soils (χ2=98.751,df=58,p<0.05). As such, hemipteran abundance in oil palm plantation is affected by the type of soil.

  5. Phytophagy on eucalyptus plants increases the development and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae = Fitofagia em plantas de eucaliptos aumenta o desenvolvimento e a reprodução do predador Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant feeding on biological aspects of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae was evaluated. Nymphs and adults of this predator were fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae on Eucalyptus urophylla plants inthe field or only with pupae of this prey in the laboratory. The development and nymphal survival, as well as the pre-oviposition period, number of egg masses, number, fertility and viability of eggs and the longevity of females of this predator were evaluated. The eucalyptus plants improved the development of P. nigrispinus. This demonstrates that this predator can present higher population growth with eucalyptus plants and T. molitor pupae than in the laboratory (controlled conditions only with this prey. These plants can supply nutrients that can the population growth and efficiency of P. nigrispinus for biological control in eucalyptus plantations.O efeito da alimentação em plantas sobre os aspectos biológicos de Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae foi avaliado. Ninfas e adultos desse predador foram alimentados com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleotpera: Tenebrionidae em plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla no campo ou, apenas, em laboratório. O desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência ninfal desse predador, além do período de pré-oviposição, número de posturas, viabilidade dos ovos e afertilidade e longevidade de fêmeas foram avaliados. A planta de eucalipto proporcionou um incremento no desenvolvimento de P. nigrispinus. Isto demonstra que esse predador pode apresentar maior crescimento populacional com plantas de eucalipto e pupas de T. molitor alimentado com apenas a presa (condições controladas. A planta pode fornecer nutrientes que aumentam o crescimento populacional e a eficiência de P. nigrispinus para o controle biológico em plantios de eucalipto.

  6. Nitrogen supply and demand in short-rotation sweetgum plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Andrew Scott; James A. Burger; Donald J. Kaczmarek; Michael B. Kane

    2004-01-01

    Intensive management is crucial for optimizing hardwood plantation success, and nitrogen (N) nutrition management is one of the most important practices in intensive management. Because management of short-rotation woody crop plantations is a mixture of row-crop agriculture and plantation forestry, we tested the usefulness of an agronomic budget modified for deciduous...

  7. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva; Edvins Ratnieks; Teotônio Francisco de Assis; Celso Edmundo B. Foelkel; Jorge Vieira Gonzaga; Giovanni Willer Ferreira

    1997-01-01

    Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m), para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m). Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinon...

  8. From research plots to prototype biomass plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, W.A.; Vanstone, B.J.; Gambles, R.L.; Zsuffa, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    The development of biomass energy plantations is now expanding from the research plot phase into the next level of development at larger scale plantings. This is necessary to provide: more accurate information on biomass yields, realistic production cost figures, venues to test harvesting equipment, demonstration sites for potential producers, and a supply of feedstock for prototype conversion facilities. The paper will discuss some of these objectives and some of the challenges encountered in the scale-up process associated with a willow prototype plantation project currently under development in Eastern Canada.

  9. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3) and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  10. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU9’(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU12’ (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis ‘GLUC3’ (G3) and E. urophylla ‘GLU4’(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID

  11. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12, E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3 and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4, were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM, the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  12. Rain nutrients contents, through fall, and runoff in coffee plantation with different shading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Robledo, Alvaro

    2003-01-01

    Are presented the amount of nutrients found in the rain water, through fall and run-off for full sunlight coffee plantations and coffee plantations shaded with Guamo (Inga sp), Nogal (cordia alliodora), pine (pinus oocarpa) and eucalyptus (eucaliptus grandis) trees. In the rain water for the different ecosystems were measured on average 9.9 kg.ha 1 .y 1 of potassium, 27.9 kg.ha 1 .y 1 of calcium and 8.6 kg.ha 1 .y 1 of magnesium, which are within the values found in humid forests of other tropical conditions. The average amounts of nutrients that enter the round in the through fall are 85.4 kg.ha-1.y-1 for potassium, 41.1 kg.ha 1 .y 1 for calcium, 12.0 kg.ha 1 .y 1 for magnesium and 21.9 for nitrates kg.ha 1 .y 1 . These concentrations are higher than those observed in the rain water. It is observed a great variability in the amount of the chemical elements for the different shade trees, which is related to the species used for shading. In relation to pH, the foliage washing water (through fall) shows an average value of 6.7 for the ecosystems in study; the lowest values in ph appear for the association of the coffee with the eucalyptus and the pine, pH of 6.3 and - 6.4 respectively. The amounts of nutrients that are mobilized in the run-off water, present average values of 11.0 kg.ha 1 .y 1 for potassium, 6.2 kg.ha 1 .y 1 for calcium, 2.5 kg.ha 1 .y 1 for magnesium and 3.3 kg.ha 1 .y 1 for nitrates. The results of the experiment demonstrate that the potassium is the element of greater mobility in the foliage washing water and in the run-off water. The higher concentrations of potassium, calcium and magnesium are observed in those samples of rain taken after a prolonged dry period, as it was the case during El Nino 1997-1998 event

  13. Harvesting costs and utilization of hardwood plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim P. McDonald; Bryce J. Stokes

    1994-01-01

    The use of short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) practices in hardwoods to meet fiber supply needs is becoming increasingly widespread. Total plated area of short rotation hardwood fiber plantations is currently about 22,000 ha (McDonald and Stokes 1993). That figure should certainly to grow in response to public concerns over loss of natural hardwood stands. With...

  14. The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Mutual Help Association, Abbeville, LA.

    The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program started in 1970 as an alternative to poverty for sugar cane workers in Louisiana. The document discusses the various aspects of the poverty conditions that exist in the area, such as: housing, diet, health, education, and lack of consumer information, and how these existing conditions are to be changed…

  15. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil on...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on honey...

  17. Performance of tropical legumes grown as understory of a eucalypt plantation in a seasonally dry area of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza F. Nicodemo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine tropical legumes were grown outside the canopy and in the understory of an 8-year-old Eucalyptus grandis stand in order to assess their seasonal production and forage quality for 4 evaluation periods. Incident photosynthetically active radiation in the understory was 18% of that outside the canopy. In the understory, production of Lablab purpureus, Centrosema schiedeanum, Clitoria ternatea, Pueraria phaseoloides, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Aeschynomene villosa, Estilosantes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata + S. macrocephala, Calopogonium mucunoides and Arachis pintoi was <1 kg/ha/d for most samples. Even considering this low production, the large area available for animal production in forest plantations might justify the interest in legumes because of their high nutritive value. Lablab purpureus produced the greatest amount of dry matter in the understory in the establishment phase (12.1 kg/ha/d, but did not persist. It could be a suitable candidate for a cover legume species mixture to provide early growth. Centrosema schiedeanum developed rapidly and showed a high capacity for ground cover (>70% and persistence, and had high nitrogen concentration, thus demonstrating good potential for protecting soils and promoting nutrient cycling in forest plantations. Another species with potential is A. pintoi, which established slowly but towards the end of the experiment showed moderate to high understory ground cover.Keywords: Dry matter production, forage quality, shade, silvopastoral system.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3151-160

  18. An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla N. Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei is one the greatest threats to eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. The effects of rainfall to reduce the abundance of lerp of Glycaspis brimblecombei on experimentally infested seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were assessed. The number of lerps on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of every leaf of 60 seedlings was recorded, before and after submission to the following treatments: "artificial rain", "leaf wetting" and control. A drastic reduction in lerp abundance per plant was observed after the treatments "leaf wetting" and artificial rain (F = 53.630; p Teste experimental da chuva como agente de controle de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei é uma das maiores ameaças das plantações de eucalipto do Brasil. Foram avaliados os efeitos da água na redução da abundância de conchas desse inseto em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis infestadas experimentalmente. Foi quantificado o número de conchas nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de todas as folhas de 60 mudas, antes e após a aplicação dos seguintes tratamentos: "chuva artificial", "molhamento das folhas" e controle. Foi observada uma drástica redução na abundância de conchas nos tratamentos "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" (F = 53,630; p < 0,001, o que não ocorreu para o tratamento controle ao longo do experimento (F = 1,450; p = 0,232. Ao final do experimento, a abundância de conchas foi significativamente menor no tratamento "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" do que no tratamento controle. Dessa forma, dois dias de chuva mostraram ser eficientes para diminuir mais que 50% da população de conchas, com quase 100% de eficiência após 5 dias de experimento. Nossos resultados

  19. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exig

  20. EFEITO DA APLICAÇÃO DO POTÁSSIO, DO SÓDIO E DA DISPONIBILIDADE HÍDRICA NA DENSIDADE APARENTE A 12% DE UMIDADE DO LENHO JUVENIL DE ÁRVORES DE Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Resende Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Expressive area of forest plantations fast-growing of eucalyptus in Brazil and in other regions of the world is under the influence of climate change, water stress and low soil fertility, affecting the growth and the quality of the wood from the trees. This study aimed to evaluate the apparent density at 12% relative humidity of the wood of Eucalyptus grandis trees with 12, 24 and 36 months, with reduced rainfall and nutrition K and Na. The treatments were defined by two water regimes (100% and 66% of rainfall, with artificial reduction with polyethylene sheeting and three types of nutrition: K (K - 4.5 kmol/ha, N (Na - 4.5 kmol/ha and control. The apparent density of the samples of diameter at breast height was determined by densitometry profile from digital images of rays X. The results indicated a significant difference in nutrition treatments and water availability in relation to the density of the wood. The radial apparent density profiles showed higher differences in the wood from the third year of evaluation. Digital images of the wood obtained by X-rays allowed to analyze the variation of the apparent density of the wood. Work results may be used as subsidies for the adoption of silvicultural practices in forest plantations in areas with water stress and/or affected by climate change as well as the partial replacement of K by Na.

  1. LEVANTAMENTO POPULACIONAL E ANÁLISE FAUNÍSTICA DE LEPIDOPTERA EM Eucalyptus spp. NO MUNICÍPIO DE PINHEIRO MACHADO, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderlei Bernardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to collect, to study and to characterize the fauna of lepidopterous associated with Eucalyptus spp., plantation in the Municipality of Pinheiro Machado, in RS state. In the period of October 2005 to October 2007, every 15 days, collections of insects were accomplished with three light traps. After selection and transfixion procedures, the lepidopterous were identified based on entomological collections and specialized literature. Two thousand and twenty individuals belonging to 14 families, 106 genera and 220 species were collected. The families with the highest number of species collected were: Noctuidae (59, Geometridae (30, Arctiidae (28 and Saturniidae (14. According to the fauna classification the most species were considered not dominant, uncommon, rare and accidental. Among the species identified, there were some whose larvae are defoliators of the eucalypts: Oxydia agliata, (Geometridae, Sarsina violascens (Lymantriidae, Automeris illustris, Eacles imperialis magnifica and Lonomia obliqua (Saturniidae, which needs to have their populations monitored.

  2. Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando Castellanos, Dolly Melissa; Burgos Zabala, Ludy Beatriz; Rivera Botia, Diego Mauricio; Rubiano Garrido, Maria Fernanda; Divan Baldini, Vera Lucia; Bonilla Buitrago, Ruth Rebeca

    2010-01-01

    The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ≤ 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ANATOMY AND DRYING IN Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus urophylla WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying is an important step to using wood and anatomical characteristics influence this process. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between anatomy and wood drying. Samples with 2 x 2 x 4 cm were obtained from eight Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clones at 1.3 m height to evaluate the anatomy and drying in climate chamber during 15 days. Cell wall fraction was established as the parameter that best correlated with drying, the Pearson correlation coefficient between this parameter and moisture was -0.8986, -0.6580, 0.9216, 0.8743, 0.7131 and 0.8727 for saturated wood, and after 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 days of drying, respectively. The frequency and vessel size, as well as the height and width of the rays showed low relation with wood drying. Wood anatomy, mainly the cell wall fraction, influences moisture losses and should be considered in wood drying programs.

  4. Multi-functional energy plantation; Multifunktionella bioenergiodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies; Berndes, Goeran; Fredriksson, Fredrik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Resource Theory; Kaaberger, Tomas [Ecotraffic, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    There exists a significant potential for utilising perennial energy plantations in protecting and restoring polluted water and land resources in Sweden. By optimising the design, location and management, several additional environmental services could be obtained which will increase the value of the energy plantations, thereby improving future market conditions for biomass. Multi-functional energy plantations (mainly Salix but also energy grass) can be divided into two categories, those designed for dedicated environmental services (e.g. vegetation filters for wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and shelter belts against soil erosion), and those generating more general benefits (e.g. soil carbon accumulation, increased soil fertility, cadmium removal and increased hunting potential). The practical potential of those two categories is estimated to be equivalent to up to 3% and more than 20% of the total Swedish arable land, respectively. The regional conditions of utilising multi-functional plantations vary, however, with the best possibilities in densely populated areas dominated by farmland. The economic value of multi-functional plantations is normally highest for those designed for dedicated environmental services. Purification of wastewater has the highest value, which could exceed the production cost in conventional Salix plantations, followed by treatment of polluted drainage water in vegetation filters and buffer zones (equivalent to more than half of the production cost), recirculation of sewage sludge (around half of the production cost), erosion control (around one fourth) and increased hunting potential (up to 15% of the production cost). The value of increased hunting potential varies due to nearness to larger cities and in which part of Sweden the plantation is located. The economic value of cadmium removal and increased soil fertility is equivalent to a few percent of the production cost, but the value of cadmium removal might increase in the

  5. Ocorrência do gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae atacando plantas de eucalipto em Minas Gerais Coconut tree grashopper, Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae feeding on eucalyptus trees in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os danos causados pelo gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae em plantas de eucalipto, no município de Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em junho de 2001. As amostragens foram realizadas, contando-se o número total de plantas por linha e o de plantas atacadas por classe de desfolha de 10%, a cada dez linhas de plantio, em cinco talhões de eucalipto com sinais de ataque desse gafanhoto. Calculou-se a porcentagem de desfolha por talhão e por planta de eucalipto. A porcentagem de desfolha por planta na área atacada foi de 3,70%, variando de 0,84 a 7,93%, enquanto a de plantas atacadas por talhão foi de 4,80%, variando de 1,88 a 11,54%. Os danos causados por E. cristata não justificaram medidas de controle, mas foram feitas avaliações para acompanhar a evolução do ataque desse inseto, cujas populações reduziram-se a níveis inexpressivos após 30 dias de sua constatação nesse plantio de eucalipto.Damage caused by the coconut tree grasshopper, Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae was evaluated in an eucalyptus plantation in Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in June 2001. Samplings were obtained by counting the number of plants per line and the number of defoliated plants in classes of 10% in 10 planting lines of five blocks of an eucalyptus plantation. Mean percentage of defoliation per plant in the area attacked by this pest was 3.70%, varying from 0.84 to 7.93%, while the number of plants attacked by eucalyptus block was 4.80%, varying from 1.88 to 11.54%. Damage by E. cristata did not justify control measures. Evaluation of this insect showed that its population was reduced to inexpressive numbers 30 days after it was found in this eucalyptus plantation.

  6. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneto, Agustin G.; Vila, Carlos; Ariza, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. → ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. → The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  7. Secagem de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel C. E. Rozas M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos torretes e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tensões de secagem, todas realizadas a 100ºC. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos. Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribuídos à aplicação de um programa de secagem gradual, às diferentes vaporizações a que a madeira foi submetida, como também ao fato de ter-se aplicado a técnica de anelamento e vaporização.

  8. Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

  9. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias; Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako

    2013-01-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m 3 of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m -3 ). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r 2 >0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ -1 ) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias, E-mail: matias@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako, E-mail: imsato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m{sup 3} of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m{sup -3}). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r{sup 2}>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ < 5mgkg{sup -1}) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  11. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial to machined (final condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content to machined condition. Eucalyptus grandis wood was the most dimensionally stable and presented the smallest volume loss due to shrinkage. Although they had different shrinkage behaviors, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods presented the same drying quality regarding machining and total volume losses. These species can be considered the same for kiln drying. Eucalyptus dunnii wood presented the worst quality in drying, and should not be kiln dried in the same batch with the other species.

  12. EMPIRICAL MODELS FOR DESCRIBING FIRE BEHAVIOR IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCIAL EUCALYPT PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Leonardo Alves White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling forest fire behavior is an important task that can be used to assist in fire prevention and suppression operations. However, according to previous studies, the existing common worldwide fire behavior models used do not correctly estimate the fire behavior in Brazilian commercial hybrid eucalypt plantations. Therefore, this study aims to build new empirical models to predict the fire rate of spread, flame length and fuel consumption for such vegetation. To meet these objectives, 105 laboratory experimental burns were done, where the main fuel characteristics and weather variables that influence fire behavior were controlled and/or measured in each experiment. Dependent and independent variables were fitted through multiple regression analysis. The fire rate of spread proposed model is based on the wind speed, fuel bed bulk density and 1-h dead fuel moisture content (r2 = 0.86; the flame length model is based on the fuel bed depth, 1-h dead fuel moisture content and wind speed (r2 = 0.72; the fuel consumption proposed model has the 1-h dead fuel moisture, fuel bed bulk density and 1-h dead dry fuel load as independent variables (r2= 0.80. These models were used to develop a new fire behavior software, the “Eucalyptus Fire Safety System”.

  13. Assessing biomass based on canopy height profiles using airborne laser scanning data in eucalypt plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gracioso Peres Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to map the stem biomass of an even-aged eucalyptus plantation in southeastern Brazil based on canopy height profile (CHPs statistics using wall-to-wall discrete return airborne laser scanning (ALS, and compare the results with alternative maps generated by ordinary kriging interpolation from field-derived measurements. The assessment of stem biomass with ALS data was carried out using regression analysis methods. Initially, CHPs were determined to express the distribution of laser point heights in the ALS cloud for each sample plot. The probability density function (pdf used was the Weibull distribution, with two parameters that in a secondary task, were used as explanatory variables to model stem biomass. ALS metrics such as height percentiles, dispersion of heights, and proportion of points were also investigated. A simple linear regression model of stem biomass as a function of the Weibull scale parameter showed high correlation (adj.R2 = 0.89. The alternative model considering the 30th percentile and the Weibull shape parameter slightly improved the quality of the estimation (adj.R2 = 0.93. Stem biomass maps based on the Weibull scale parameter doubled the accuracy of the ordinary kriging approach (relative root mean square error = 6 % and 13 %, respectively.

  14. CALIBRAÇÃO DO MODELO 3-PG PARA Eucalyptus saligna Smith NA REGIÃO DE GUAÍBA - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Kneipp Londero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe study aimed to calibrate the model 3-PG forEucalyptus salignafor the following the diameter variablesat breast height (DBH, total height, wood volume and branch, bark and wood biomass. The study tookplace in the region of Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Clonal plantations ofEucalyptus salignainvarious spacings were used. Six different ages were selected along the crop cycle (2nd to 7th year. Afterthe forest inventory was carried out, the biomass of three trees fractionated into wood, bark, branches andleaves was collected. The biomass of roots on the average tree of each plot was measured to a depth of 1m. Physical and chemical analyses were performed in soil samples from the layers: 0 to 20 cm, 20 to 40 cmand 40 to 100 cm. Litter deposition was estimated by allocating 4 square collectors of 0.5 m². The leaf areawas obtained through digital photographs and thus the specific leaf area was estimated. The physiologicalparameters were measured in six plots, one at each age. Climatic parameters were provided by EEA ofUFRGS University, located in Eldorado do Sul, RS state. The model validation was not statistically accepted, but their estimated data can be used to estimate the studied variables, demonstrating the potential ofits use although additional studies for the application of the model to this species are still needed.

  15. The potential of grey alder plantation forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytter, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

    1996-12-31

    A survey concerning the potential use of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) in short rotation forestry is performed. The most important characters in this context are discussed. It is concluded that grey alder is an interesting contributor in plantation forestry, because it has a high woody biomass production, is more or less self-supporting with nitrogen, and is well adapted to the conditions in Fennoscandia and Balticum. 36 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  16. Innovating tree plantation design: spiralographing agroforestry

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, J.H.N.; Crous-Duran, J.; Merouani, H.; Paulo, J.A.; Tomé, M.

    2014-01-01

    Poster Most of forestry or agroforestry artificial plantations either have an orthogonal design, or curvilinear under contour lines to prevent soil erosion. These designs are known to maximize machinery workflow or erosion control respectively. As in many occasions in land use management, what optimizes machinery operation is not what optimizes prevention of soil loss and vice versa. An alternative and intermediate design system such as an Archimedes spiral could offer ...

  17. The Health Risks of Belgian Illicit Indoor Cannabis Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Cuypers, Eva; Bonneure, Arne-Jan; Gotink, Joachim; Stassen, Mirna; Tytgat, Jan; Van Damme, Patrick

    2018-04-10

    We assessed the prevalence of potential health hazards to intervention staff and cannabis growers in Belgian indoor cannabis plantations. Surface mold swab samples were taken at 16 Belgian indoor plantations contained mostly Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. However, their precise health impact on intervention staff and illicit growers is unclear as no molds spore concentrations were measured. Atmospheric gas monitoring in the studied cannabis plantations did not reveal dangerous toxic substances. Health symptoms were reported by 60% of 221 surveyed police, but could not be linked to specific plantation characteristics. We conclude that Belgian indoor cannabis plantations pose a potential health threat to growers and intervention staff. AS there are currently no clear safety guidelines for seizure and dismantling of Belgian indoor cannabis plantations, we recommend first responders to follow strict safety rules when entering the growth rooms, which include wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Verification of 3-PG growth and water-use predictions in twelve Eucalyptus plantation stands in Zululand, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, PJ

    2004-05-17

    Full Text Available April1993March1997September1995June1993Ageatstart(years)3.084.927.081.585.175.753.176.087.143.254.757.00 P.J. Dye et al. / Forest Ecology and Management 193 (2004) 197?218 199 monthly mean daylight vapour pressure deficit (mbar). Months were defined...- aged over each month. Hourly temperature and rela- tive humidity data were used to calculate vapour pressure deficits (D). Vapour pressure deficit was averaged over each day (Dday) from 0600 to 1800 h, and used in the calculation of monthly means...

  19. Evaluating variations of physiology-based hyperspectral features along a soil water gradient in Eucalyptus grandis plantation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available a raised platform. Foliar macronutrient concentrations for N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg and Na and their corresponding spectral features were also evaluated. The spectral signals for leaf water-normalized difference water index (NDWI), water band index (WBI...

  20. Total Belowground Carbon Allocation in a Fast-growing Eucalyptus Plantation Estimated Using a Carbon Balance Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian P. Giardina; Michael G. Ryan

    2002-01-01

    Trees allocate a large portion of gross primary production belowground for the production and maintenance of roots and mycorrhizae. The difficulty of directly measuring total belowground carbon allocation (TBCA) has limited our understanding of belowground carbon (C) cycling and the factors that control this important flux. We measured TBCA over 4 years using a...

  1. Neotropical Migratory Bird Communities in a Developing Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson; Richard N. Conner; J. Howard Williamson

    1993-01-01

    Birds were censused annually from 4 250-x80-in transects in a young pine plantation from age to 2 to 17 to assess changes in the bird community.Bird abundance was low and the bird communitry was the least diverse when the pine plantation was sparsely vegetated at age 2. As the plantation developed rapidly into the shrub stage, the bird communitry became more abundant...

  2. Crescimento de eucalipto sob efeito de desfolhamento artificial Eucalyptus growth under the effect of artificial defoliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Rodrigues Matrangolo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do desfolhamento total, realizado após o plantio e ao longo do primeiro ano de cultivo, sobre o crescimento de Eucalyptus grandis, desde a implantação até ao corte do povoamento. Foram avaliados cinco tratamentos: sem desfolhamento; um desfolhamento aos 56 dias após o plantio (DAP; dois desfolhamentos, aos 56 e 143 DAP; dois desfolhamentos, aos 56 e 267 DAP; e três desfolhamentos, aos 56, 143 e 278 DAP. Foram mensurados os diâmetros do tronco a 1,3 m e a altura total de 60 árvores por tratamento, em oito avaliações, do 21º ao 92º mês de cultivo. O crescimento médio em cada tratamento foi descrito por modelos de regressão não lineares e comparados por testes de identidade para comparar as tendências entre a testemunha e os demais tratamentos. O desfolhamento causou reduções significativas nas taxas de crescimento em diâmetro e altura das plantas, e diminuição expressiva no faturamento ao final da rotação, mesmo quando realizado uma única vez, no início do plantio. Maiores danos, no entanto, foram verificados após consecutivos desfolhamentos ao longo do primeiro ano de cultivo. A manutenção de áreas que tenham sofrido desfolhamento total na fase inicial de plantio pode tornar-se uma medida economicamente inviável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of total defoliation at planting initial stages, and along the first year of cultivation, on Eucalyptus grandis growth, from planting to plantation cut. Five treatments were tested: without defoliation; one defoliation, at 56th day after planting (DAP; two defoliations, at 56th and 143th DAP; two defoliations, at 56th and 267th DAP; and three defoliations, at 56th, 143th and 278th DAP. Trunk diameter at 1.30-m height and the total height of 60 trees were measured from the 21st to the 92th cultivation months. The average growth of each treatment was described by nonlinear models and compared by identity

  3. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora; Compostos polifenolicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6{sup -}trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  4. Automated Plantation Mapping in Indonesia Using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpatne, A.; Jia, X.; Khandelwal, A.; Kumar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Plantation mapping is critical for understanding and addressing deforestation, a key driver of climate change and ecosystem degradation. Unfortunately, most plantation maps are limited to small areas for specific years because they rely on visual inspection of imagery. In this work, we propose a data-driven approach which automatically generates yearly plantation maps for large regions using MODIS multi-spectral data. While traditional machine learning algorithms face manifold challenges in this task, e.g. imperfect training labels, spatio-temporal data heterogeneity, noisy and high-dimensional data, lack of evaluation data, etc., we introduce a novel deep learning-based framework that combines existing imperfect plantation products as training labels and models the spatio-temporal relationships of land covers. We also explores the post-processing steps based on Hidden Markov Model that further improve the detection accuracy. Then we conduct extensive evaluation of the generated plantation maps. Specifically, by randomly sampling and comparing with high-resolution Digital Globe imagery, we demonstrate that the generated plantation maps achieve both high precision and high recall. When compared with existing plantation mapping products, our detection can avoid both false positives and false negatives. Finally, we utilize the generated plantation maps in analyzing the relationship between forest fires and growth of plantations, which assists in better understanding the cause of deforestation in Indonesia.

  5. RNA-Seq using two populations reveals genes and alleles controlling wood traits and growth in Eucalyptus nitens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Thavamanikumar

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus nitens is a perennial forest tree species grown mainly for kraft pulp production in many parts of the world. Kraft pulp yield (KPY is a key determinant of plantation profitability and increasing the KPY of trees grown in plantations is a major breeding objective. To speed up the breeding process, molecular markers that can predict KPY are desirable. To achieve this goal, we carried out RNA-Seq studies on trees at extremes of KPY in two different trials to identify genes and alleles whose expression correlated with KPY. KPY is positively correlated with growth measured as diameter at breast height (DBH in both trials. In total, six RNA bulks from two treatments were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq platform. At 5% false discovery rate level, 3953 transcripts showed differential expression in the same direction in both trials; 2551 (65% were down-regulated and 1402 (35% were up-regulated in low KPY samples. The genes up-regulated in low KPY trees were largely involved in biotic and abiotic stress response reflecting the low growth among low KPY trees. Genes down-regulated in low KPY trees mainly belonged to gene categories involved in wood formation and growth. Differential allelic expression was observed in 2103 SNPs (in 1068 genes and of these 640 SNPs (30% occurred in 313 unique genes that were also differentially expressed. These SNPs may represent the cis-acting regulatory variants that influence total gene expression. In addition we also identified 196 genes which had Ka/Ks ratios greater than 1.5, suggesting that these genes are under positive selection. Candidate genes and alleles identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for future association studies aimed at identifying molecular markers for KPY and growth.

  6. The influence of micropropagation on growth and coppicing ability of Eucalyptus polybractea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Woodrow, Ian E

    2010-02-01

    A micropropagation protocol was recently developed for Eucalyptus polybractea R.T. Baker, a commercially important eucalypt grown in short-rotation coppice cultivation and harvested for its foliar 1,8-cineole oil. Micropropagation of elite E. polybractea trees has resulted in selection gains for foliar oil traits, but decreased above-ground biomass accumulation has been observed in clones compared to related half-sibling families. This study aims to use a greenhouse study to investigate if micropropagation induces somaclonal variation that can account for the reduction in above-ground biomass in E. polybractea clones. Secondly, the study aims to compare the coppicing ability of micropropagated clones with related half-sibling seedlings using de-topped plantation-grown saplings. The results of the greenhouse study suggest that micropropagation of E. polybractea induces somaclonal variation that manifests in more mature leaf morphologies such as increased foliar oil concentrations and lower specific leaf area (SLA), attributable to an isobilateral arrangement of increased palisade mesophyll layers. Lower SLA, rather than differences in root allocation, is likely to be a key contributor to the lower relative growth rates observed in early sapling growth of micropropagated clones. In the field study, all micropropagated and seedling-derived E. polybractea saplings coppiced vigorously in the 12 months after de-topping. The coppice growth was so vigorous in the 12 months after de-topping that total above-ground biomass equalled that of the 27-month-old saplings, irrespective of propagation source. The morphological distinction between leaves of micropropagated and seed-derived plants was no longer evident in the coppice regrowth. The results presented here suggest that the micropropagated leaf morphology and the resultant growth reduction is transient and micropropagated plants coppice just as vigorously as seed-derived plants. Therefore, micropropagation is unlikely to

  7. Statistical sampling and modelling for cork oak and eucalyptus stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of modern statistical methods to solve problems on sampling, optimal cutting time and agricultural modelling in Portuguese cork oak and eucalyptus stands. The results are contained in five chapters that have been submitted for publication

  8. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii, E-mail: rich@cs.ucsb.ed [Computer Science Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States) and Eucalyptus Systems Inc., 130 Castilian Dr., Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  9. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii

    2009-01-01

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud