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Sample records for eucalyptus camaldulensis cultivadas

  1. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (red river gum; Myrtaceae) is an invasive tree in riparian habitats of the Western Cape, South Africa, where it replaces indigenous vegetation and affects ecosystem functioning. These invasions lead to changes in river geomorphology and reduction in stream flow. The mechanisms that ...

  2. Amenização do calcário na toxidez de zinco e cádmio para mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis cultivadas em solo contaminado Lime amelioration of zinc and cadmium toxicities for Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings cultivated in contaminated soil

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    A. M. A. Accioly

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliaram-se os efeitos da aplicação de doses de calcário em misturas de solo com proporções crescentes de contaminação por Zn e Cd sobre o crescimento de Eucalyptus camaldulensis. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, e os níveis de contaminação foram obtidos pela mistura de 0, 25, 50 e 100 % de um solo contaminado a um outro não contaminado, usado como diluente. As doses de calcário foram correspondentes a 0, 10, 20, 40 e 80 t ha-1, e o experimento foi feito em vasos que continham 1,5 kg de solo, em esquema fatorial 4 x 5. A adição de calcário elevou o pH do solo próximo à neutralidade, reduziu os teores de Zn e Cd extraíveis no solo e beneficiou o crescimento das plantas. No solo de maior contaminação, as plantas morreram cinco dias após o transplantio no tratamento sem a adição de calcário. O calcário reduziu os teores de Zn na parte aérea a concentrações abaixo das consideradas tóxicas para as plantas, mas não apresentou o mesmo efeito sobre os teores de Cd. Os efeitos do calcário sobre a disponibilidade de Zn e Cd, teores na parte aérea e crescimento das plantas indicaram o potencial deste corretivo como agente amenizante da toxidez de Zn e Cd para mudas de E. camaldulensis em solos contaminados.The effects of lime rates on the growth of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in soil mixtures with increasing proportions of Zn and Cd contamination were evaluated. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions and the metal contamination levels were obtained by mixing 0, 25, 50, and 100% of a contaminated soil with a non-contaminated one used as diluter. Lime rates were 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 t ha-1 and the experiment was conducted in pots containing 1.5 kg of soil with treatments arranged in a 4 x 5 factorial scheme. Lime additions raised the soil pH up to neutrality, reduced concentration of extractable Zn and Cd in the soil, and increased plant growth. Plants in the highest

  3. assessment of acidity levels in eucalyptus camaldulensis barks from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    Bark samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis obtained from Bauchi and Gombe States were analysed spectrophotometrically for their sulphate-sulphur content. The aim was to assess the extent of sulphur pollution in the environment. The results showed that S concentration ranged from 0.79 to 1.70mg/g for samples from ...

  4. Assessment of acidity levels in Eucalyptus Camaldulensis barks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bark samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis obtained from Bauchi and Gombe States were analysed spectrophotometrically for their sulphate-sulphur content. The aim was to assess the extent of sulphur pollution in the environment. The results showed that S concentration ranged from 0.79 to 1.70mg/g for samples from ...

  5. Myrtus comunis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells

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    Hrubik Jelena D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cytotoxicity of methanol, ethyl acetate, n-buthanol, and water extracts of Myrtus communis L. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. was examined against two human breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231 using MTT and SRB assays. The results showed significant cytotoxic potential of examined extracts, with IC50 values ranging from 7 to 138 μg/ml for M. communis and 3-250 μg/ml for E. camaldulensis. The two plants generally expressed similar activity, and no significant difference in cell line’s sensitivity towards extracts was observed. The results indicate to M. communis and E. camaldulensis as candidates for thorough chemical analyses for identification of active compounds, and eventually for attention in the process of discovery of new natural products in the control of cancer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173037 i br. 172058

  6. Temporal dynamics of the response to Al stress in Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    Berenice K. de Alcântara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipid peroxidation and root elongation of Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis were studied under stress conditions in response to aluminum (Al, a metal known to limit agricultural productivity in acidic soils primarily due to reduced root elongation. In Brazil, the Grancam 1277 hybrid (E. grandis × E. camaldulensis has been planted in the "Cerrado", a region of the country with a wide occurrence of acidic soils. The present study demonstrated that the hybrid exhibited root growth reduction and increased levels of lipid peroxidation after 24h of treatment with 100 µM of Al, which was followed by a reduction in lipid peroxidation levels and the recovery of root elongation after 48h of Al exposure, suggesting a rapid response to the early stressful conditions induced by Al. The understanding of the temporal dynamics of Al tolerance may be useful for selecting more tolerant genotypes and for identifying genes of interest for applications in bioengineering.

  7. Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Regeneração de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir das explantes cotiledonares

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    Roberson Dibax

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding methods based on genetic transformation techniques need to be implemented for Eucalyptus camaldulensis to shorten the long breeding cycles and avoid manipulation of adult trees; that requires the development of plant regeneration protocols enabling development of plants from transformed tissues. The present work aimed to optimise the regeneration process already established for the species. Cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in MS medium supplemented with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP combinations. The most efficient treatment for bud indirect regeneration (2.7 µmol L-1 NAA and 4.44 µmol L-1 BAP was used for further experiments. When explants were kept in the dark during the first 30 days, the percentage of explants forming calluses increased and explant necrosis was reduced in comparison with light-cultured explants. Mineral medium modifications were compared and half-strength MS mineral medium turned out to be as efficient as full-strength medium, producing 54% and 47% of explants with buds, respectively. For shoot elongation, MS medium with half-strength nitrate and ammonium salts, and 0.2% activated charcoal yielded rooted shoots 1 to 8 cm high after one month. The procedure is an efficient protocol for E. camadulensis plant regeneration, reducing the stages necessary for the obtention of complete plants.A implementação, para espécies florestais, de técnicas de melhoramento baseadas em métodos de transformação genética, permitirá reduzir os longos ciclos de melhoramento e evitar a manipulação de árvores adultas. Isto implica dispor de um protocolo de regeneração que permita o desenvolvimento de plantas a partir de tecidos transformados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo otimizar este protocolo de regeneração para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Folhas cotiledonares foram cultivadas em meio de cultura MS suplementado com combinações de ácido naftalenoacético (ANA e 6

  8. Effect of eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis ) and maize (Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However eucalyptus plantations produce large amounts of litter, which impact on groundnut has not been clearly elucidated yet. In order to investigate litter accumulation effect on growth, development, and groundnut root infection by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia, a greenhouse experiment was performed ...

  9. Effects of Treatment Materials on the Physical Properties of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Wood

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    Selahattin Bardak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine effects on retention and shrink levels of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. which treated with some commercial preservative types, borates, polyethylene glycol, and water repellents. In this study, four type impregnation chemicals were chosen: 1. Commercial preservative types, [Ammonium sulphate, Vacsol-WR WR and Immersol-WR (WR], 2. Borates chemicals, [Boric acid, Borax, Boric acid+ Borax] 3. Polyethylene glycol such as Polyethylene glycol (PEG-400 4. Water repellents [Styrene, Methylmetacrylate.]. As a result, retention % and shrink levels of Eucalyptus wood was lower treated with commercial preservative types and borates preservatives compare to other treatment chemicals. However, retention % levels of Eucalyptus wood treated with WR chemicals were highly significant levels. According to their leachability period although PEG 400 showed antishrink effectiveness other treatments didnt showed antishrink efficiency.

  10. Development Potential, in a Greenhouse, of Cuttings of the Hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    M. N. Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study evaluated the potential for development in the greenhouse, cuttings of the hybrid of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Sinop - Mato Grosso and generated equations to estimate the percentage of rooting parameters. Were measured: the percentage of cuttings with some degree of modification, the percentage of cuttings in the percentage of cuttings with roots larger than 10 cm in length. Also measured was the neck diameter, height and leaf area index. The heights and leaf area showed lower development within the greenhouse. The rooting potential is based on curve speed of rooting and was found 12 days after staking. The identification of the optimal point of withdrawal of the shoots of the greenhouse through the intercept curves daily current increase curve (DCI e daily average increase (DAI, being 19 days after staking. The company derives the stakes with 24 days underdoing the potential of the species and structures used.Keywords: Eucalyptus, greenhouse management and rooting

  11. Plant regeneration from cotyledonary explants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis dehn and histological study of organogenesis in vitro

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    Roberson Dibax

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at regenerating plants of Eucalyptus camaldulensis from the cotyledonary explants and describing the anatomy of the tissues during callogenesis and organogenesis processes, in order to determine the origin of the buds. The cotyledonary leaves of E. camaldulensis were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS, WPM and JADS media supplemented with 2.7 µM NAA and 4.44 µM BAP. The best results for bud regeneration were obtained on MS and WPM media (57.5 and 55% of calluses formed buds, respectively. Shoot elongation and rooting (80% were obtained on MS/2 medium (with half-strength salt concentration with 0.2% activated charcoal. Acclimatization was performed in the growth chamber for 48 h and then the plants were transferred to a soil:vermiculite mixture and cultured in a greenhouse. Histological studies revealed that the callogenesis initiated in palisade parenchyma cells and that the adventitious buds were formed from the calluses, indicating indirect organogenesis.Este trabalho teve como objetivo a obtenção de plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis a partir de folhas cotiledonares e o estudo da anatomia dos tecidos durante a calogênese e organogênese para determinar a origem das gemas. Folhas cotiledonares foram cultivadas em meios de cultura MS, WPM e JADS suplementados com 2,7 µM de ANA e 4,44 µM de BAP. Os melhores resultados para a regeneração de gemas foram obtidos com os meios MS e WPM. Para o alongamento e enraizamento, o meio de cultura MS/2 contendo 0,2% de carvão ativado apresentou-se eficiente para ambas as etapas. A aclimatização foi realizada mediante a abertura dos frascos na sala de crescimento por 48 horas, seguido da transferência para casa-de-vegetação com nebulização intermitente. Estudos histológicos foram conduzidos e revelaram que a calogênese teve início nas células do parênquima paliçádico e que as gemas adventícias formaram-se a partir dos calos, indicando a organogênese indireta.

  12. Tolerance of Anadenanthera peregrina to Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus grandis essential oil as condition for mixed plantation

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    Neimar de Freitas Duarte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of selecting the species of woody Caatinga for mixed plantations with Eucalyptus spp., the allelophatic effects of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis essential oil were studied on the growth activities of Anadenanthera peregrina. The plants were closed in glass chambers in the presence of volatile oil of E. camaldulensis or E. grandis at the concentration of 13 nl.cm-3. The number of leaves, height and diameter at soil lever were compared before, immediately after and after 30 days. Chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and dry mass were evaluated after the treatment application. There was no inhibitory effect of E. camaldulensis and E. grandis oils on A. peregrina. E. camaldulensis, which was more adapted to semi-arid conditions, was planted in mixture stands with two native legume species, inoculated with Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. E. camaldulensis did not inhibit native species growth after two years of cultivation.

  13. Optimization of agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation in eucalyptus camaldulensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahad, A.; Maqbool, A.; Malik, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to optimize Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation for Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Transformation was done by using LBA4404 containing binary plasmid pGA482 with uidA (Gus) gene under CamV35S promoter and nptII gene under nos promoter. For optimization, different explants (Cotyledonary leaves, plantlet leaves and hypocotyls of young In vitro plants and calli) with and without preculture were infected with a range of optical densities (O.D.600nm=0.3-0.6). Effect of different concentrations of Acetosyringone, infection time and co-cultivation time on transformation efficiency was evaluated. Confirmation of transformation was done through GUS histochemical staining and through PCR. Callogenesis and regeneration was found fast on MS medium containing 0.5 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L BAP. Highest transformation efficiency was obtained with bacterial suspension of O.D.600nm = 0.5 for non-precultured explants and O.D.600nm=0.3 for precultured explants. (author)

  14. Species discrimination, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis using SSR markers.

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    Shanmugapriya Arumugasundaram

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis are closely related species commonly cultivated for pulp wood in many tropical countries including India. Understanding the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD existing in these species is essential for the improvement of industrially important traits. Our goal was to evaluate the use of simple sequence repeat (SSR loci for species discrimination, population structure and LD analysis in these species. Investigations were carried out with the most common alleles in 93 accessions belonging to these two species using 62 SSR markers through cross amplification. The polymorphic information content (PIC ranged from 0.44 to 0.93 and 0.36 to 0.93 in E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis respectively. A clear delineation between the two species was evident based on the analysis of population structure and species-specific alleles. Significant genotypic LD was found in E. camaldulensis, wherein out of 135 significant pairs, 17 pairs showed r(2≥0.1. Similarly, in E. tereticornis, out of 136 significant pairs, 18 pairs showed r(2≥0.1. The extent of LD decayed rapidly showing the significance of association analyses in eucalypts with higher resolution markers. The availability of whole genome sequence for E. grandis and the synteny and co-linearity in the genome of eucalypts, will allow genome-wide genotyping using microsatellites or single nucleotide polymorphims.

  15. Effect of Echinophora platyloba , Stachys lavandulifolia, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants on Trichomonas vaginalis growth in vitro

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    Hossein Ali Youse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite which causes vaginitis in women worldwide. Metronidazole with vast side effects is drug of choice for this infection. In search for an alternative drug, in this study the effect of three plants on Trichomonas vaginalis has been investigated in vitro. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic and watery extracts of Echinophora platyloba, Stachys lavandulifolia, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were prepared. In TYIS culture medium containing alive Trichomonas vaginalis different concentrations of extracts of three plants were added. Following, 24, 48, and 72 h incubation the number of parasite in each test tube was counted. Results: Eucalyptus camaldulensis showed a strong effect on Trichomonas vaginalis growth. However, no significant effect was observed with Echinophora platyloba or Stachys lavandulifolia extracts. Conclusion: Eucalyptus camaldulensis can be considered as an alternative drug for treatment of infective vaginitis which is caused by bacteria, fungi and parasites.

  16. Monoterpene engineering in a woody plant Eucalyptus camaldulensis using a limonene synthase cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Nanto, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kanako; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic engineering aimed at monoterpene production has become an intensive research topic in recent years, although most studies have been limited to herbal plants including model plants such as Arabidopsis. The genus Eucalyptus includes commercially important woody plants in terms of essential oil production and the pulp industry. This study attempted to modify the production of monoterpenes, which are major components of Eucalyptus essential oil, by introducing two expression constructs containing Perilla frutescens limonene synthase (PFLS) cDNA, whose gene products were designed to be localized in either the plastid or cytosol, into Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The expression of the plastid-type and cytosol-type PFLS cDNA in transgenic E. camaldulensis was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector analyses of leaf extracts revealed that the plastidic and cytosolic expression of PFLS yielded 2.6- and 4.5-times more limonene than that accumulated in wild-type E. camaldulensis, respectively, while the ectopic expression of PFLS had only a small effect on the emission of limonene from the leaves of E. camaldulensis. Surprisingly, the high level of PFLS in Eucalyptus was accompanied by a synergistic increase in the production of 1,8-cineole and alpha-pinene, two major components of Eucalyptus monoterpenes. This genetic engineering of monoterpenes demonstrated a new potential for molecular breeding in woody plants.

  17. Fertilization value of municipal sewage sludge for Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants

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    Soudani Leila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatment produces a large amount of sludge. The different uses of eliminations sludge such as landfills or incineration have consequences negative for the environment, the agricultural use has increased worldwide, especially in crops and few or no studies have been conducted with forest plantations in Algeria. The objective of this study is to assess fertilizing characteristics of the sludge from the wastewater treatment plant of Tiaret (Algeria. One-year-old saplings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were transplanted into pots with sludge/soil mixtures where sludge content was 20%, 40% and 60%. Biometric measurements (height, base diameter, diameter at mid-height and the number of leaves were performed during six months after planting. Results demonstrated the positive effect of sludge application. A significant difference in height increment and number of leaves was found between the control and sludge-treated plants. Biometric values for all sludge mixtures were higher than those for control plants (100% soil. The mixture, which contained 60% sludge, gives the best result, except for a diameter of stem. Plants grown on sludge/soil mixture had average height 49.4 ± 24.1 cm and average number of leaves 68.8 ± 6.2 while average height for plants grown on soil was 34.3 ± 12.8 cm and average number of leaves was 40 ± 3.8. Sludge application provides soil amendment and additional nutrient supply for planted trees.

  18. Landfill: Comparison of pedogenesis between sites of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh plantation and naturalized herbaceus vegetation

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfranco, J. W.; Marlats, R. M.; Baridon, E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was compared different levels of pedogenetics process between sites with Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation and naturalized grass. The trial was installed on landfill soil cover in Villa Domínico, Buenos Aires Province, Argentine, CEAMSE, 34°40’S,50’’; 58°18’45’’W; 4m osl. At five age of trees and forteen of the Landfill was realized the following determination: 1- Physical and Chemicals caracterization of own microsite tree and analogical microsite without trees inf...

  19. Effect of silicon application to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the population of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae

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    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of silicon in forestry has increased recently as it is directly related to improved resistance to insect pests. The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, occurs in all eucalypt producing regions in Brazil. Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of silicon applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the psyllid population. In the first experiment, the applications were made via soil (calcium silicate and leaves (potassium silicate in a nine months old E. camaldulensis plantation. In the second experiment, we evaluated silicon on seedlings, incorporating it into the substrate (soil or applying it on leaves (foliar. Monthly, for 24 months, the number of psyllid eggs and immatures were counted on leaf samples. The plant height was measured at 9, 12, 16 and 24 months (experiment 1 and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months (experiment 2 after application. The numbers of eggs and immatures were lower in periods of higher precipitation, indicating less psyllid attack during the rainy season. The psyllid population was lower in treatments with application of silicon both foliar and via soil compared to control. No significant differences were found in the height of E. camaldulensis plants.

  20. Genetic transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis by agrobalistic method

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    Evânia Galvão Mendonça

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus stands in the setting of worldwide forestry due to its adaptability, rapid growth, production of high-quality and low cost of wood pulp fibers. The eucalyptus convetional breeding is impaired mainlly by the long life cycle making the genetic transformation systems an important tool for this purpose. However, this system requires in vitro eficient protocols for plant induction, regeneration and seletion, that allow to obtain transgenic plants from the transformed cell groups. The aim of this work was to evaluate the callus formation and to optimize the leaves and callus genetic transformation protocol by using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system. Concerning callus formation, two different culture media were evaluated: MS medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin (M1 and the MS medium with reduced nitrogen concentration and supplemented with auxin, cytokinin coconut water (M2. To establish the leave genetic transformation, those were exposed to agrobiolistics technique (gene gun, to tissue injury, and A. tumesfasciens EHA 105 contening the vetor pCambia 3301 (35S::GUS::NOS, for gene transference and to establish the callus transformation thoses were exposed only to A. tumefasciens. For both experiments, the influence of different infection periods was evaluated. The M2 medium provided the best values for callus sizea and fresh and dry weight. The leaves genetic transformation using the agrobiolistics technique was effective, the gus gene transient expression could be observed. No significant differences were obtained in the infection periods (4, 6 and 8 minutes. The callus genetic transformation with A. tumefaciens also promotend the gus gene transient expression on the callus co-cultiveted for 15 e 30 minutes. The transformed callus was transfered to a regeneration and selection medium and transformed plants were obtained.

  1. Detection of dead standing Eucalyptus camaldulensis without tree delineation for managing biodiversity in native Australian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltiadou, Milto; Campbell, Neil D. F.; Gonzalez Aracil, Susana; Brown, Tony; Grant, Michael G.

    2018-05-01

    In Australia, many birds and arboreal animals use hollows for shelters, but studies predict shortage of hollows in near future. Aged dead trees are more likely to contain hollows and therefore automated detection of them plays a substantial role in preserving biodiversity and consequently maintaining a resilient ecosystem. For this purpose full-waveform LiDAR data were acquired from a native Eucalypt forest in Southern Australia. The structure of the forest significantly varies in terms of tree density, age and height. Additionally, Eucalyptus camaldulensis have multiple trunk splits making tree delineation very challenging. For that reason, this paper investigates automated detection of dead standing Eucalyptus camaldulensis without tree delineation. It also presents the new feature of the open source software DASOS, which extracts features for 3D object detection in voxelised FW LiDAR. A random forest classifier, a weighted-distance KNN algorithm and a seed growth algorithm are used to create a 2D probabilistic field and to then predict potential positions of dead trees. It is shown that tree health assessment is possible without tree delineation but since it is a new research directions there are many improvements to be made.

  2. Characterisation of adaptive genetic diversity in environmentally contrasted populations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (river red gum.

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    Shannon Dillon

    Full Text Available As an increasing number of ecosystems face departures from long standing environmental conditions under climate change, our understanding of the capacity of species to adapt will become important for directing conservation and management of biodiversity. Insights into the potential for genetic adaptation might be gained by assessing genomic signatures of adaptation to historic or prevailing environmental conditions. The river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. is a widespread Australian eucalypt inhabiting riverine and floodplain habitats which spans strong environmental gradients. We investigated the effects of adaptation to environment on population level genetic diversity of E. camaldulensis, examining SNP variation in candidate gene loci sampled across 20 climatically diverse populations approximating the species natural distribution. Genetic differentiation among populations was high (F(ST = 17%, exceeding previous estimates based on neutral markers. Complementary statistical approaches identified 6 SNP loci in four genes (COMT, Dehydrin, ERECTA and PIP2 which, after accounting for demographic effects, exhibited higher than expected levels of genetic differentiation among populations and whose allelic variation was associated with local environment. While this study employs but a small proportion of available diversity in the eucalyptus genome, it draws our attention to the potential for application of wide spread eucalypt species to test adaptive hypotheses.

  3. Green synthesis and antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles using Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    Samaneh Dolatabadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aims: Due to the developing bacterial drug resistance to classical antimicrobial agents, it seems necessary to produce an innovative therapeutic approach to eliminate resistant pathogens. This study aimed to biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using flowers extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and determined of antibacterial activity of produced AgNPs.  Materials and Methods: We used an environmentally friendly extracellular biosynthetic technique for the production of the AgNPs. The reducing agents used to produce the nanoparticles were from the aqueous flowers extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The AgNPs were characterized by color changes, the UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR analysis, XRD patterns and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs was investigated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria ,through broth micro dilution (MIC values and MBC (Minimum bactericidal concentration assays. Results: An absorption peak at 413 nm and the color change to dark brown were corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of AgNPs and then were performed by FTIR and XRD methods. The average size of nanoparticles was observed between 67 and 80 nm. Furthermore, the MIC value of extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 3.12, 6.25, and 50 mg/mL, respectively. The corresponding MBC values were 6.25, 6.25 and 100 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings confirmed that extracellular synthesis of AgNPs mediated by E. camaldulensis flowers extract indicated a good bactericidal activity against the tested bacteria and can be used in various fields as an antibacterial agent. Further studies are needed to characterize the toxicity effect of these particles.

  4. Azafenidin: novo herbicida para o controle de plantas daninhas em Eucalyptus camaldulensis Azafenidin: a new herbicide for weed control in Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    J. Constantin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi conduzido em Presidente Castelo Branco-PR, com o objetivo de avaliar a seletividade do herbicida azafenidin para a cultura de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, assim como sua eficácia no controle de algumas plantas daninhas infestantes nessa cultura. Azafenidin foi aplicado nas doses de 300, 400, 500 600 e 800 g i.a. ha-1, em pré-emergencia das plantas daninhas. Tratamentos adicionais, incluindo oxyfluorfen (720 g i.a. ha-1, uma testemunha capinada e outra testemunha sem capina, foram também incluídos. Tanto azafenidin quanto oxyfluorfen provocaram sintomas de toxicidade na cultura; no primeiro, as injúrias foram mais intensas em doses ³ 600 g i.a. ha-1. Em relação ao controle de plantas daninhas, doses de azafenidin a partir de 500 g i.a. ha-1 foram efetivas no controle de Brachiaria decumbens, Commelina benghalensis, Richardia brasiliensis e Sida santaremnensis, mesmo 180 dias após a aplicação. Doses menores de azafenidin resultaram em controle suficiente da maioria das plantas daninhas, mas com menor efeito residual.A field experiment was conducted at Presidente Castelo Branco, PR, Brazil, to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicide azafenidin to the crop Eucalyptus camaldulensis, as well as its efficacy to control some infesting weeds in this crop. Azafenidin was applied under pre-emergence conditions, at rates of 300, 400, 500, 600 and 800 g a.i. ha-1. Additional treatments, including oxyfluorfen (720 g a.i. ha-1, a weed free and a weeded check plots were also included. Both azafenidin and oxyflluorfen caused crop symptoms of phytotoxicity, with injuries being more intense for azafenidin at rates ³ 600 g a.i. ha-1. For weed control, rates of azafenidin at 500 g a.i. ha-1 or higher were effective in controlling Brachiaria decumbens, Commelina benghalensis, Richardia brasiliensis and Sida santaremnensis, even at 180 days after application. Lower rates of azafenidin provided enough control of most weeds, but

  5. Response of eucalyptus camaldulensis to exogenous application of cadmium and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.R.; Ahmad, N.; Masoor, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of synthetic wastewater containing various concentrations of cadmium and chromium on Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Six month-old seedlings of E. camaldulensis were treated with Cd (II) and Cr (VI) for 18 months. Treatments were; T0: (Tap water, control), T1: 0.05 +1.0 mg L/sup -1/, T/sub 2/: 0.10+2.0 mg L/sup -1/, T/sub 3/: 0.20+4.0 mg L/sup /sup -1// and T/sub 4/: 0.40+8.0 mg L/sup -1/ of Cd and Cr respectively. Maximum growth in terms of shoot length (248.33 cm), collar diameter (1.78 cm), number of branches (20), number of leaves (504), root diameter (1.3 cm), leaf fresh weight (166.33 g), stem fresh weight (353.33 g), root fresh weight (201.33 g), leaf oven dry weight (73.67 g), stem oven dry weight (166 g) root oven dry weight (100 g) and root/shoot ratio (0.3) was recorded at T1 treated plants beyond that a gradual decline in growth was observed with a maximum reduction of 10.5, 18.7, 31.7, 53.4, 21.8, 18, 57.6, 35.8, 20, 58, 34, 27 and 0.07% respectively in T4 treatment compared to control (T0). Cd and Cr accumulation in tissues increased (roots>shoot>leaves) as external metal concentration increased, while nutrients accumulation (K, P, Mg, Fe) and chlorophyll contents declined. The results indicated that Cd and Cr are toxic to E. camaldulensis.(author)

  6. Variation of essential oil composition of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (myrtaceae from the Montengero coastline

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    Grbović Slavenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants collected from five localities of the Montenegro coastline was analyzed. The oil yield varied from 0.63 % (Kotor up to 1.59% (Tivat. The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using GC-MS technique. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were a major class of compounds. Among them, dominant compounds were p-cymene (17.38-28.60%, ß-phellandrene (12.35-14.47% and ß-pinene (0.94-11.48%. The second largest group was oxygenated monoterpenes with cryptone (4.97-7.25 and terpinene-4-ol (2.75-4.21% as predominant. Besides high content of sesquiterpene alcohol spathulenol (7.83-14.15% was found. According to the results obtained E. camaldulensis from Montenegro can be classified in the chemotype with low 1,8-cineole and high p-cymene and cryptone ratio.

  7. Chemical composition and biological activities of leaf and fruit essential oils from Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Gulden; Kara, Nazan; Bagci, Eyup; Gur, Seher

    2017-10-26

    The chemical composition of the essential oils from the leaves and fruit of Eucalyptus camaldulensis grown in Mersin, Turkey was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. The biological activities (antibacterial and antifungal) were examined using the agar well diffusion method. The main leaf oil constituents were p-cymene (42.1%), eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) (14.1%), α-pinene (12.7%) and α-terpinol (10.7%). The main constituents of the fruit oil were eucalyptol (1,8-cineole) (34.5%), p-cymene (30.0%), α-terpinol (15.1%) and α-pinene (9.0%). Our results showed that both types of oils are rich in terms of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. The leaf and fruit essential oils of E. camaldulensis significantly inhibited the growth of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp.) bacteria (poils also showed fungicidal activity against Candida tropicalis and C. globrata. Leaf essential oils showed more activity than fruit essential oils, probably due to the higher p-cymene concentration in leaves.

  8. Genetic Divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Progenies in the Savanna Biome in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

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    Reginaldo Brito da Costa

    Full Text Available Assessing the parental genetic differences and their subsequent prediction of progeny performance is an important first step to assure the efficiency of any breeding program. In this study, we estimate the genetic divergence in Eucalyptus camaldulensis based on the morphological traits of 132 progenies grown in a savanna biome. Thus, a field experiment was performed using a randomized block design and five replications to compare divergences in total height, commercial height, diameter at breast height, stem form and survival rate at 48 months. Tocher's clustering method was performed using the Mahalanobis and Euclidian distances. The Mahalanobis distance seemed more reliable for the assessed parameters and clustered all of the progenies into fourteen major groups. The most similar progenies (86 accessions were clustered into Group I, while the most dissimilar (1 progeny represented Group XIV. The divergence analysis indicated that promising crosses could be made between progenies allocated in different groups for high genetic divergence and for favorable morphological traits.

  9. Crescimento de mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis em substratos à base de casca de arroz carbonizada

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    Dagma Kratz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com base na importância do substrato na produção de mudas florestais, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a viabilidade técnica de 13 substratos, preparados com misturas de substrato comercial à base de casca de pinus e vermiculita (SC, casca de arroz carbonizada com diferentes granulometrias [maior que 2 mm (CAC1, CAC com granulometria entre 1 - 2 mm (CAC2, CAC com granulometria entre 0,5 - 1 mm (CAC3, CAC com granulometria menor que 0,5 mm (CAC4], fibra de coco (FC e vermiculita média (VM, na produção de mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, e a correlação de suas propriedades físicas e químicas com seu crescimento. Foram utilizados tubetes de 55 cm³. As mudas permaneceram 60 dias em estufa de vidro e 30 dias a pleno sol. Foram avaliadas a altura, diâmetro de colo, fitomassas secas aérea e radicial, facilidade de retirada do tubete, agregação das raízes ao substrato e relação entre altura e diâmetro de colo. Concluiu-se que o substrato formado por CAC pura, em diferentes granulometrias e em mistura com os outros componentes, é viável tecnicamente para a produção de mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, embora aquele formado pela mistura de 50% de CAC e VM tenha resultado em maior crescimento das mudas. As propriedades dos substratos, densidade aparente, pH e capacidade de troca catiônica são importantes na produção de mudas, pois apresentaram correlações significativas com as variáveis biométricas.

  10. Effect of silicon application to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the population of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae

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    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of silicon in forestry has increased recently as it is directly related to improved resistance to insect pests. The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, occurs in all eucalypt producing regions in Brazil. Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of silicon applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the psyllid population. In the first experiment, the applications were made via soil (calcium silicate and leaves (potassium silicate in a nine months old E. camaldulensis plantation. In the second experiment, we evaluated silicon on seedlings, incorporating it into the substrate (soil or applying it on leaves (foliar. Monthly, for 24 months, the number of psyllid eggs and immatures were counted on leaf samples. The plant height was measured at 9, 12, 16 and 24 months (experiment 1 and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months (experiment 2 after application. The numbers of eggs and immatures were lower in periods of higher precipitation, indicating less psyllid attack during the rainy season. The psyllid population was lower in treatments with application of silicon both foliar and via soil compared to control. No significant differences were found in the height of E. camaldulensis plants. O uso do silício na área florestal tem aumentado recentemente, pois o elemento está relacionado a uma melhoria na resistência a insetos pragas. O psilídeo de concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei é encontrado em todas as regiões produtoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O efeito do silício aplicado em Eucalyptus camaldulensis, na população do psilídeo, foi estudado em dois ensaios. No primeiro experimento, as aplicações foram via solo (silicato de cálcio e foliar (silicato de potássio em uma plantação de nove meses. No segundo experimento, este mineral foi aplicado em mudas de eucalipto, no substrato ou sobre as folhas. Mensalmente, durante 24 meses, ovos e imaturos de G. brimblecombei foram amostrados nas folhas. A altura das plantas foi medida

  11. Genetic evaluation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Mato Grosso State, Brazil Avaliação genética de Eucalyptus camaldulensis no Estado de Mato Grosso

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    Reginaldo Brito da Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The study aimed to estimate parameters, values and genetic gain for growth traits in progenies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, in the State of Mato Grosso. The progenies test was conducted under a randomized block design with 132 progenies, five replications and three plants in single rows, spaced 3 m x 2 m in Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT. At 24 months of age, progenies were evaluated for the characters: a diameter at base height (DBH, in centimeters, b total height, in meters, c survival. The individual in the narrow sense heritability for the traits studied can be considered medium to high magnitude (0.13 and 0.21 for height and diameter, respectively. The heritability for survival were practically nil, due to low genetic variability among the progenies, as evidenced by high survival rate of the plants (96.8%. The phenotypic and genetic correlations were of high magnitude for DBH and height prediction. There is genetic variation among progenies for growth traits which will provide significant genetic gains with selection.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.49

    O estudo objetivou estimar parâmetros, valores e ganhos genéticos para caracteres de crescimento em progênies de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, no estado de Mato Grosso. O teste de progênies foi instalado sob delineamento de blocos ao acaso com 132 progênies, cinco repetições e três plantas por parcela em linhas simples, no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m no município de Santo Antonio do Leverger, MT. Aos 24 meses de idade, as progênies foram avaliadas quanto aos caracteres: a diâmetro à altura da base (DAB, em centímetros; b altura total, em metros; c sobrevivência. As herdabilidades individuais no sentido restrito para os caracteres estudados podem ser consideradas de média a alta magnitude (0,13 e 0,21 para altura e diâmetro, respectivamente. Para a sobrevivência, as herdabilidades foram praticamente nulas, devido à baixa variabilidade genética existente entre as prog

  12. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I.; González-Laredo, Rubén F.; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Pérez, MŞ del Mar Larrosa; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R.; Flores-Rueda, Ana G.; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis d...

  13. Effect of aluminum on metabolism of organic acids and chemical forms of aluminum in root tips of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikka, Takashi; Ogawa, Tsuyoshi; Li, Donghua; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Morita, Akio

    2013-10-01

    Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) has relatively high resistance to aluminum (Al) toxicity than the various herbaceous plants and model plant species. To investigate Al-tolerance mechanism, the metabolism of organic acids and the chemical forms of Al in the target site (root tips) in Eucalyptus was investigated. To do this, 2-year old rooted cuttings of E. camaldulensis were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland solution (pH 4.0) containing Al (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0mM) salts for 5weeks; growth was not affected at concentrations up to 2.5mM even with Al concentration reaching 6000μgg(-1) DW. In roots, the citrate content also increased with increasing Al application. Concurrently, the activities of aconitase and NADP(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase, which catalyze the decomposition of citrate, decreased. On the other hand, the activity of citrate synthase was not affected at concentrations up to 2.5mM Al. (27)Al-NMR spectroscopic analyses were carried out where it was found that Al-citrate complexes were a major chemical form present in cell sap of root tips. These findings suggested that E. camaldulensis detoxifies Al by forming Al-citrate complexes, and that this is achieved through Al-induced citrate accumulation in root tips via suppression of the citrate decomposition pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a Heat Wave on Nocturnal Stomatal Conductance in Eucalyptus camaldulensis

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    Víctor Resco de Dios

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal transpiration constitutes a significant yet poorly understood component of the global water cycle. Modeling nocturnal transpiration has been complicated by recent findings showing that stomata respond differently to environmental drivers over day- vs. night-time periods. Here, we propose that nocturnal stomatal conductance depends on antecedent daytime conditions. We tested this hypothesis across six genotypes of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. growing under different CO2 concentrations (ambient vs. elevated and exposed to contrasting temperatures (ambient vs. heat wave for four days prior to the night of measurements, when all plants experienced ambient temperature conditions. We observed significant effects after the heat wave that led to 36% reductions in nocturnal stomatal conductance. The response was partly driven by changes in daytime stomatal behavior but additional factors may have come into play. We also observed significant differences in response to the heat wave across genotypes, likely driven by local adaptation to their climate of origin, but CO2 played no effect. Stomatal models may need to incorporate the role of antecedent effects to improve projections particularly after drastic changes in the environment such as heat waves.

  15. OPTICAL PROPERTY ANALYSIS OF THERMALLY AND PHOTOLYTICALLY AGED EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS CHEMITHERMOMECHANICAL PULP (CTMP

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    Yao Chen,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the optical properties of chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP from Eucalyptus camaldulensis, one group of samples of CTMP was aged by heating, and another group was first subjected to bleaching with different bleaching agents, and then aging by exposure to sunlight. Chromophores were analyzed using diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DRUV, and the brightness and color parameters (L*, a*, b* were analyzed using colorimetry. Results showed that the color reactions of the pulp, upon heating, were enhanced in the presence of moisture. There was a linear relationship between the pulp initial moisture content (MC and the intensity of UV-Vis absorption. The contribution of different chromophores to pulp color was analyzed with the help of bleaching agents: hydrogen peroxide, sodium dithionite, and sodium borohydride. Sodium borohydride and hydrogen peroxide treatments resulted in a decrease in the absorption band at 280 nm along with the shoulder near 320 nm, which could be attributed to conjugated C=O and C=C systems. Similarly, sodium dithionite treatment also led to a decrease in absorption of the carbonyls and double bonds conjugated with aromatic double bonds. The chromaticity parameters of bleached pulp increased after exposure to sunlight. A correspondingly higher concentration of quinoid structures was found.

  16. COMPARACIÓN DEL EFECTO HIPOGLICEMIANTE DE LAS PLANTAS Azadirachta indica Y Eucalyptus camaldulensis EN CÉLULAS SANGUÍNEAS HUMANAS | COMPARISON OF THE HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT BETWEEN THE PLANTS Azadirachta indica AND Eucalyptus camaldulensis IN HUMAN BLOOD CELLS

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    Nubilde Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the most widely used medicinal plants by people are those that possess hypoglycemic effect, such as Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, which are widely distributed in Venezuela. The purpose of this research was to compare the hypoglycemic effect of A. indica and E. camaldulensis using aqueous solutions of each plant, in human blood cells in a normoglycemic medium. Aqueous solutions were used in concentrations of 6.4% m / v, in dosages of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.175, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 g/dL, for each plant, and the concentration of glucose was measured at 0, 90, 210, 300 and 600 sec. Insulin (Humulin® in concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 nM, was used as a control to compare its effect against aqueous solutions. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and comparison of means by the Tukey test. The results indicated that there was a greater hypoglycemic effect for the A. indica aqueous solution compared to the control (p = 0.0074, this effect was shown to be significant (p = 0.0349 in the higher doses 0.7 and 1.4 g/dL. Additionally, there was a notable increase hypoglycemic effect from 210 sec-600 sec (p < 0.0001. The aqueous solution of E. camaldulensis showed erratic behavior and lower effect than the control, without evidence of hypoglycemic effect. It is concluded that the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extracts of A. indica was evidenced while was not observed in those of E. camaldulensis.

  17. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I; González-Laredo, Rubén F; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Pérez, Mş Del Mar Larrosa; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R; Flores-Rueda, Ana G; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E

    2016-09-01

    Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profile measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50% of DPPH radical ( i . e . lower IC 50 ). Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14% of E. camaldulensis and 49% of L. glaucescens ); whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC 50 than positive control (captopril). The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  18. Antioxidant and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens Infusions Fermented with Kombucha Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia I. Gamboa-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties, consumer acceptance, antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of infusions and fermented beverages of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Litsea glaucescens were compared. Among physicochemical parameters, only the pH of fermented beverages decreased compared with the unfermented infusions. No relevant changes were reported in consumer preference between infusions and fermented beverages. Phenolic profi le measured by UPLC MS/MS analysis demonstrated significant concentration changes of these compounds in plant infusions and fermented beverages. Fermentation induced a decrease in the concentration required to stabilize 50 % of DPPH radical (i.e. lower IC50. Additionally, it enhanced the antioxidant activity measured by the nitric oxide scavenging assay (14 % of E. camaldulensis and 49 % of L. glaucescens; whereas relevant improvements in the fermented beverage were not observed in the lipid oxidation assay compared with unfermented infusions. The same behaviour was observed in the inhibitory activity of ACE; however, both infusions and fermented beverages had lower IC50 than positive control (captopril. The present study demonstrated that fermentation has an influence on the concentration of phenolics and their potential bioactivity. E. camaldulensis and L. glaucescens can be considered as natural sources of biocompounds with antihypertensive potential used either as infusions or fermented beverages.

  19. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldulensis aqueous leachate applied (4), 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. ctunaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  20. Allelopathic effects of eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf leachate on the growth of wheat and green gram and its control by farm yard manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Bibi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Farm Yard Manure (FYM) significantly reduced the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leachate. This influence was studied on morphological and physiological aspect of two taxonomically different plants (wheat and green gram). E. camaldtllensis aqueous leachate applied at the rate of 1% and 5% alone and together with FYM and the results showed that E. camaldulensis leaf leachate had inhibitory effects on wheat growth, while promoted shoot and root growth in green gram when supplied in low concentration. The combined effects of litter and FYM reduced the inhibitory effects of leachate and supported the growth of both plants. These results suggested that, if both studied crops have to be cultivated in an agricultural land surrounded by E. camaldulensis tree, the possible growth rate could be supported by the application Of FYM. But in the absence of this support, the plant growth was significantly arrested due to allelopathic effect of E. camaldulensis leaf leachate. (author)

  1. Water uptake by two river red gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis) clones in a discharge site plantation in the Western Australian wheatbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John K.; Morgan, Anne L.; Akilan, Kandia; Farrell, Richard C. C.; Bell, David T.

    1997-12-01

    The heat-pulse technique was used to estimate year-long water uptake in a discharge zone plantation of 9-year-old clonal Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. near Wubin, Western Australia. Water uptake matched rainfall closely during weter months but exceeded rainfall as the dry season progressed. Average annual water uptake (1148 mm) exceeded rainfall (432 mm) by about 2.7 fold and approached 56% of pan evaporation for the area. The data suggest that at least 37% (i.e. ( {1}/{2.7}) × 100 ) of the lower catchment discharge zone should be planted to prevent the rise of groundwater. Water uptake varied with soil environment, season and genotype. Upslope trees used more water than did downslope trees. Water uptake was higher in E. camaldulensis clone M80 than in clone M66 until late spring. The difference reversed as summer progressed. Both clones, however, have the potential to dry out the landscape when potential evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall. This variation in water uptake within the species indicates the potential for manipulating plantation uptake by matching tree characteristics to site characteristics. Controlled experiments on the heat-pulse technique indicated accuracy errors of approximately 10%. This, combined with the ability to obtain long-term, continuous data and the superior logistics of use of the heat-pulse technique, suggests that results obtained by it would be much more reliable than those achieved by the ventilated chamber technique.

  2. Fertilization during the establishment of a Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation in the northern Brazilian Amazon = Adubação no estabelecimento de um plantio de Eucalyptus camaldulensis na Amazônia setentrional brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de Freitas Iwata

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forestry plantations should be regarded as an alternative sustainable land-use system in degraded savannah areas. They contribute to the maintenance of productive processes in degraded soils that are of economic importance for local inhabitants; in addition, in the ecological sense, timber and non-timber products from planted forests reduce the exploitation pressure on native forests. Eucalyptus plantations on degraded savannahs in the northern Brazilian Amazon may help to reduce exploitation pressure on native forests. However, there is no information regarding the nutrients rates that would allow faster eucalyptus growth in that region. A trial was installed in an Yellow Latosol (Oxisol soil type adopting a one-half-type fractionalfactorial design with four rates of N, P, and K. Functions were adjusted for the dependent variables height, diameter at breastheight (DBH, leaf tissue nutrient content, and soil-chemical attributes. Interaction N versus K was observed on tree heightwith a maximum of 7.8 m recorded at 200 kg ha-1 of N and 50 kg ha-1 of K. Phosphorus fertilization promoted greater DBH growth with maximum value at 120 kg ha-1 of P; however, the highest gain was obtained at 30 kg ha-1 of P. The NPK rates that maximized Eucalyptus camaldulensis growth were 200, 30, and 50 kg ha-1, respectively. Plantações de eucalipto, em áreas de lavrado degradadas na Amazônia Setentrional brasileira, devem contribuir para diminuir a pressão de exploração em florestas nativas. Porém, não há informações sobre as doses de nutrientes que permitem o rápido crescimento do eucalipto nesta região. Um experimento para avaliar a resposta à adubação do Eucalyptus camaldulensis foi instalado em Latossolo Amarelo, adotando o delineamento fatorial fracionário com quatro doses de nitrogênio (N, fósforo (P e potássio (K. Funções foram ajustadas para as seguintes variáveis dependentes: altura, diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, conteúdo de

  3. An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae

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    Karla N. Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei is one the greatest threats to eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. The effects of rainfall to reduce the abundance of lerp of Glycaspis brimblecombei on experimentally infested seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were assessed. The number of lerps on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of every leaf of 60 seedlings was recorded, before and after submission to the following treatments: "artificial rain", "leaf wetting" and control. A drastic reduction in lerp abundance per plant was observed after the treatments "leaf wetting" and artificial rain (F = 53.630; p Teste experimental da chuva como agente de controle de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei é uma das maiores ameaças das plantações de eucalipto do Brasil. Foram avaliados os efeitos da água na redução da abundância de conchas desse inseto em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis infestadas experimentalmente. Foi quantificado o número de conchas nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de todas as folhas de 60 mudas, antes e após a aplicação dos seguintes tratamentos: "chuva artificial", "molhamento das folhas" e controle. Foi observada uma drástica redução na abundância de conchas nos tratamentos "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" (F = 53,630; p < 0,001, o que não ocorreu para o tratamento controle ao longo do experimento (F = 1,450; p = 0,232. Ao final do experimento, a abundância de conchas foi significativamente menor no tratamento "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" do que no tratamento controle. Dessa forma, dois dias de chuva mostraram ser eficientes para diminuir mais que 50% da população de conchas, com quase 100% de eficiência após 5 dias de experimento. Nossos resultados

  4. Avaliação da madeira de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh e Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake em ensaios de usinagem, visando à produção moveleira Evaluation of the woods of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake During machining tests for use by the furniture industry

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    Maria Odete Alves de Souza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a potencialidade de uso da madeira de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake, de 6 e 8 anos, e Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, de 10 anos, no que tange aos processos de usinagem, visando ao seu uso na indústria de móveis. A madeira utilizada originou-se de plantios comerciais cultivados em sistema de consórcio agrossilvipastoril, proveniente da Votorantim Metais Zinco S/A, situada no Município de Vazante, no Estado de Minas Gerais. Utilizaram-se seis árvores por clone, totalizando 18 exemplares. Foram realizados os seguintes ensaios de usinagem: corte paralelo às fibras, corte transversal às fibras, fresagem, aplainamento, furação, furação para espiga, furação para cavilha e moldura. Os resultados mostraram-se satisfatórios, com destaque para o clone de Eucalyptus urophylla com 8 anos, principalmente nos ensaios de corte paralelo e furação para espiga, apresentando grande potencial de uso da espécie para produção de móveis. A madeira dos clones testados apresentou bom desempenho na realização dos ensaios de usinagem, no que se refere à trabalhabilidade, não havendo entraves na sua utilização como fonte de matéria-prima na indústria moveleira.The objective of this research was to conduct machining tests in woods of 6 and 8-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla and of a ten-year old Eucalyptus camaldulensis and to evaluate their possible use by the furniture industry. The wood samples were obtained from six trees of each clone, planted in a consortium with cattle and grain, owned by Votorantim Metals and Zinc. The plantation is located in the neighborhood of the city of Vazante, in the State of Minas Gerais. The following essays were conducted: cut by a table saw either parallel or perpendicular to the grain; shaping; planing; drilling; routing; mortising and drilling for dowels. All the samples yielded satisfactory results, mainly the eight year old Eucalyptus urophylla, during

  5. Chemical and structural analysis of Eucalyptus globulus and E. camaldulensis leaf cuticles: a lipidized cell wall region

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    Paula eGuzmán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant cuticle has traditionally been conceived as an independent hydrophobic layer that covers the external epidermal cell wall. Due to its complexity, the existing relationship between cuticle chemical composition and ultra-structure remains unclear to date. This study aimed to examine the link between chemical composition and structure of isolated, adaxial leaf cuticles of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus by the gradual extraction and identification of lipid constituents (cutin and soluble lipids, coupled to spectroscopic and microscopic analyses. The soluble compounds and cutin monomers identified could not be assigned to a concrete internal cuticle ultra-structure. After cutin depolymerization, a cellulose network resembling the cell wall was observed, with different structural patterns in the regions ascribed to the cuticle proper and cuticular layer, respectively. Our results suggest that the current cuticle model should be revised, stressing the presence and major role of cell wall polysaccharides. It is concluded that the cuticle may be interpreted as a modified cell wall region which contains additional lipids. The major heterogeneity of the plant cuticle makes it difficult to establish a direct link between cuticle chemistry and structure with the existing methodologies.

  6. Identification of a hydrolyzable tannin, oenothein B, as an aluminum-detoxifying ligand in a highly aluminum-resistant tree, Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

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    Tahara, Ko; Hashida, Koh; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Ohara, Seiji; Kojima, Katsumi; Shinohara, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree species in the Myrtaceae that exhibits extremely high resistance to aluminum (Al). To explore a novel mechanism of Al resistance in plants, we examined the Al-binding ligands in roots and their role in Al resistance of E. camaldulensis. We identified a novel type of Al-binding ligand, oenothein B, which is a dimeric hydrolyzable tannin with many adjacent phenolic hydroxyl groups. Oenothein B was isolated from root extracts of E. camaldulensis by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry analyses. Oenothein B formed water-soluble or -insoluble complexes with Al depending on the ratio of oenothein B to Al and could bind at least four Al ions per molecule. In a bioassay using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), Al-induced inhibition of root elongation was completely alleviated by treatment with exogenous oenothein B, which indicated the capability of oenothein B to detoxify Al. In roots of E. camaldulensis, Al exposure enhanced the accumulation of oenothein B, especially in EDTA-extractable forms, which likely formed complexes with Al. Oenothein B was localized mostly in the root symplast, in which a considerable amount of Al accumulated. In contrast, oenothein B was not detected in three Al-sensitive species, comprising the Myrtaceae tree Melaleuca bracteata, Populus nigra, and Arabidopsis. Oenothein B content in roots of five tree species was correlated with their Al resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that internal detoxification of Al by the formation of complexes with oenothein B in roots likely contributes to the high Al resistance of E. camaldulensis.

  7. Produção de biomassa e remoção de nutrientes em povoamentos de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell, plantados em Anhembí, SP.

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste trabalho estudou-se a distribuição de biomassa e a quantidade de nutrientes estocados nos diferentes compartimentos (folhas, ramos, casca e lenho das árvores de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden e Eucalyptus torelliana F. Muell com 9, 9 e 12 anos de idade, respectivamente, plantados em solos de textura arenosa e baixa fertilidade, em Anhembi - SP. A espécie E. grandis foi a que apresentou a maior produção de biomassa para todos os compartimentos analisados, com exceção dos ramos grossos. Nas três espécies o tronco (casca + lenho representou em média 90% da biomassa acima do solo. Os nutrientes concentraram-se de forma decrescente nas folhas, ramos, casca e lenho. As copas das árvores foram responsáveis pelo acúmulo de, aproximadamente, 24% dos nutrientes contidos na biomassa total das árvores. Na casca encontram-se as maiores quantidades de cálcio, aproximadamente 60% do total. A espécie E. grandis removeu do solo a maior quantidade de nutrientes, desenvolvendo através da queda de folhedo menores quantidades que as outras espécies. Desta forma cuidados especiais deverão ser dispensados para garantir a produtividade das rotações futuras.

  8. Investigation of the Anti-Melanogenic and Antioxidant Characteristics of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Flower Essential Oil and Determination of Its Chemical Composition

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    Huang, Huey-Chun; Ho, Ya-Chi; Lim, Jia-Min; Chang, Tzu-Yun; Ho, Chen-Lung; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The effects of essential oil from Eucalyptus camaldulensis flowers oil on melanogenesis and the oil’s antioxidant characteristics were investigated. Assays of mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin content of mouse melanoma cells were performed spectrophotometrically, and the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins was determined by Western blotting. The possible signaling pathways involved in essential oil-mediated depigmentation were also investigated using specific protein kinase inhibitors. The results revealed that E. camaldulensis flower essential oil effectively suppresses intracellular tyrosinase activity and decreases melanin amount in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The essential oil also exhibits antioxidant properties and effectively decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The chemical constituents in the essential oil are predominately oxygenated monoterpenes (34.9%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (31.8%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (29.0%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (4.3%). Our results indicated that E. camaldulensis flower essential oil inhibits melanogenesis through its antioxidant properties and by down-regulating both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. The present study indicates that the essential oil has the potential to be developed into a skin care product. PMID:25961954

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils and their interactions with conventional antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

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    Knezevic, Petar; Aleksic, Verica; Simin, Natasa; Svircev, Emilija; Petrovic, Aleksandra; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-02-03

    Traditional herbal medicine has become an important issue on the global scale during the past decade. Among drugs of natural origin, special place belongs to essential oils, known as strong antimicrobial agents that can be used to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves are traditional herbal remedy used for various purposes, including treatment of infections. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial potential of two E. camaldulensis essential oils against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii wound isolates and to examine possible interactions of essential oils with conventional antimicrobial agents. Chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (GC-MS). MIC values of essential oils against A. baumannii strains were estimated by modified broth microdilution method. The components responsible for antimicrobial activity were detected by bioautographic analysis. The potential synergy between the essential oils and antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and polymyxin B) was examined by checkerboard method and time kill curve. The dominant components of both essential oils were spatulenol, cryptone, p-cimene, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol and β-pinene. The detected MICs for the E. camaldulensis essential oils were in range from 0.5 to 2 μl mL(-1). The bioautographic assay confirmed antibacterial activity of polar terpene compounds. In combination with conventional antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and polymyxin B), the examined essential oils showed synergistic antibacterial effect in most of the cases, while in some even re-sensitized MDR A. baumannii strains. The synergistic interaction was confirmed by time-kill curves for E. camaldulensis essential oil and polymyxin B combination which reduced bacterial count under detection limit very fast, i.e. after 6h of incubation. The detected anti-A. baumannii activity of E. camaldulensis essential oils

  10. Identification of UDP glucosyltransferases from the aluminum-resistant tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis forming β-glucogallin, the precursor of hydrolyzable tannins.

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    Tahara, Ko; Nishiguchi, Mitsuru; Frolov, Andrej; Mittasch, Juliane; Milkowski, Carsten

    2018-08-01

    In the highly aluminum-resistant tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis, hydrolyzable tannins are proposed to play a role in internal detoxification of aluminum, which is a major factor inhibiting plant growth on acid soils. To understand and modulate the molecular mechanisms of aluminum detoxification by hydrolyzable tannins, the biosynthetic genes need to be identified. In this study, we identified and characterized genes encoding UDP-glucose:gallate glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (β-glucogallin), the precursor of hydrolyzable tannins. By homology-based cloning, seven full-length candidate cDNAs were isolated from E. camaldulensis and expressed in Escherichia coli as recombinant N-terminal His-tagged proteins. Phylogenetic analysis classified four of these as UDP glycosyltransferase (UGT) 84A subfamily proteins (UGT84A25a, -b, UGT84A26a, -b) and the other three as UGT84J subfamily proteins (UGT84J3, -4, -5). In vitro enzyme assays showed that the UGT84A proteins catalyzed esterification of UDP-glucose and gallic acid to form 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, whereas the UGT84J proteins were inactive. Further analyses with UGT84A25a and -26a indicated that they also formed 1-O-glucose esters of other structurally related hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids with a preference for hydroxybenzoic acids. The UGT84A genes were expressed in leaves, stems, and roots of E. camaldulensis, regardless of aluminum stress. Taken together, our results suggest that the UGT84A subfamily enzymes of E. camaldulensis are responsible for constitutive production of 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, which is the first step of hydrolyzable tannin biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying water requirements of riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia: Implications for the management of environmental flows

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    Doody, Tanya M.; Colloff, Matthew J.; Davies, Micah; Koul, Vijay; Benyon, Richard G.; Nagler, Pamela L.

    2015-01-01

    Water resource development and drought have altered river flow regimes, increasing average flood return intervals across floodplains in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, causing health declines in riparian river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) forests and woodlands. Environmental flow allocations helped to alleviate water stress during the recent Millennium Drought (1997–2010), however, quantification of the flood frequency required to support healthy E. camaldulensis communities is still needed. We quantified water requirements of E. camaldulensis for two years across a flood gradient (trees inundated at frequencies of 1:2, 1:5 and 1:10 years) at Yanga National Park, New South Wales to help inform management decision-making and design of environmental flows. Sap flow, evaporative losses and soil moisture measurements were used to determine transpiration, evapotranspiration and plant-available soil water before and after flooding. A formula was developed using plant-available soil water post-flooding and average annual rainfall, to estimate maintenance time of soil water reserves in each flood frequency zone. Results indicated that soil water reserves could sustain 1:2 and 1:5 trees for 15 months and six years, respectively. Trees regulated their transpiration rates, allowing them to persist within their flood frequency zone, and showed reduction in active sapwood area and transpiration rates when flood frequencies exceeded 1:2 years. A leaf area index of 0.5 was identified as a potential threshold indicator of severe drought stress. Our results suggest environmental water managers may have greater flexibility to adaptively manage floodplains in order to sustain E. camaldulensis forests and woodlands than has been appreciated hitherto.

  12. Regeneração natural de cerrado sob plantio de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. no norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Michellia Pereira Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A formação de paisagens homogêneas tornou-se um problema na biologia da conservação, já que essas plantações interferem diretamente na dinâmica das comunidades. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição florística e a estrutura da regeneração natural de cerrado, no sub-bosque de um plantio de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, e verificar se essa regeneração se diferencia, dependendo da distância em relação às bordas do talhão. O estudo foi realizado no município de Montes Claros, MG. Para o levantamento, foram demarcados dois blocos, cada um subdividido em nove parcelas de 10 m x 10 m, utilizando-se, como critério de inclusão, a altura > 0,30 m. Foram registrados 2.413 indivíduos. No bloco 1, foram amostrados 914 indivíduos, pertencentes a 63 espécies e 26 famílias, sendo Eugenia dysenterica, Hymenaea stigonogocarpa, Calliandra sp. e Duguetia furfuracea as espécies mais importantes, segundo o Valor de Importância (VI. No bloco 2, foram registrados 1.499 indivíduos, distribuídos em 71 espécies e 30 famílias, sendo os maiores VIs alcançados por Cupania vernalis, Chamaecrista desvauxii, Pouteria ramiflora . Senna rugosa. A distribuição em classes de altura e de diâmetro mostrou a maioria dos indivíduos nas menores classes, demonstrando que a área ainda reflete um evento de regeneração recente. Entretanto, os resultados deste estudo indicam que existem comunidades distintas no local, estando o bloco 2 em estádio mais avançado de regeneração do que o primeiro. Esse fato foi confirmado pela análise de agrupamento entre as parcelas e as diferenças de diversidade e desenvolvimento estrutural da vegetação de cada bloco.

  13. Eucalyptus

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    Blue Gum, Blue Mallee, Blue Mallee Oil, Eucalipto, Eucalypti Folium, Eucalyptol, Eucalyptol Oil, Eucalyptus blatter, Eucalyptus bicostata, Eucalyptus Essential Oil, Eucalyptus Oil, Eucalyptus fructicetorum, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus Leaf, Eucalyptus odorata, Eucalyptus ...

  14. Early physiological flood tolerance is followed by slow post-flooding root recovery in the dryland riparian tree Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. refulgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, R E; Colmer, T D; Grierson, P F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated physiological and morphological responses to flooding and recovery in Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. refulgens, a riparian tree species from a dryland region prone to intense episodic floods. Seedlings in soil flooded for 88 d produced extensive adventitious roots, displayed stem hypertrophy (stem diameter increased by 93%) and increased root porosity owing to aerenchyma formation. Net photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gs) were maintained for at least 2 weeks of soil flooding, contrasting with previous studies of other subspecies of E. camaldulensis. Gradual declines followed in both gs (30% less than controls) and Pn (19% less). Total leaf soluble sugars did not differ between flooded and control plants. Root mass did not recover 32 d after flooding ceased, but gs was not lower than controls, suggesting the root system was able to functionally compensate. However, the limited root growth during recovery after flooding was surprising given the importance of extensive root systems in dryland environments. We conclude that early flood tolerance could be an adaptation to capitalize on scarce water resources in a water-limited environment. Overall, our findings highlight the need to assess flooding responses in relation to a species' fitness for particular flood regimes or ecological niches. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Semi-Biosynthesis of Magnetite-Gold Composite Nanoparticles Using an Ethanol Extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Study of the Surface Chemistry

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    Emad al din Haratifar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles, such as silver or gold nanoparticles, has been attracting increasing attention in recent years. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles have many uses in various applications, including nanoelectronic devices, molecular recognition, biomedical applications, drug delivery targeting, and optical devices. In this investigation, magnetic cores (Fe3O4 were synthesized using a fabrication method involving coprecipitation of Fe2+ and Fe3+. In the next step, magnetite-gold composite nanoparticles were synthesized with size ranging from 6–20 nm, using an ethanol extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis as a natural reducing agent. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and visible absorption spectroscopy confirmed the fabrication of magnetite-gold composite nanoparticles. In the UV spectra diagram, a red-shift of the surface plasmon of the Au was evidence that contact between gold and Fe3O4 had occurred. The surface chemistry of the as-prepared magnetite-gold nanoparticles was studied using infrared spectroscopy. The presence of organic compounds with a carboxyl moiety was confirmed on the surface of the magnetite-gold nanoparticles fabricated by this combined chemical and biological reducing process, which we have designated as a semi-biosynthesis method.

  16. Crescimento in vitro de progênies de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. sob condições de deficiência hídrica

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    Souza Gustavo Maia

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Três procedências de Eucalyptus camaldulensis foram submetidas a deficiência hídrica induzida in vitro através da adição de 100, 400 e 1000 mM de sorbitol ao meio de cultura. As gemas foram avaliadas de acordo com seu crescimento em altura, produção de matéria seca, porcentagem de umidade e proteínas totais em eletroforese de gel de poliacrilamida. Observou-se uma relação inversa entre o crescimento em altura, que sofreu redução com o aumento do deficit hídrico, e a produção de matéria seca. Houve um aumento geral do conteúdo de proteínas totais em relação a redução do potencial osmótico do meio de cultura e a expressão diferenciada de duas proteínas de 36 e 45 quilodaltons (kDa.

  17. Determination and statistical analysis of trace element and active constituent concentrations in the medicinal plant Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh (E. rostratus Schlecht)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.; Kilikoglou, V.; Tsitsa, E.; Loukis, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the leaves of the medicinal plant Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh (E. rostratus Schlecht) collected from different sampling areas of Greece the trace elements antimony, cesium, chromium, cobalt, iron, europium, rubidium scandium, strontium, thorium and zinc were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. In the same samples, the essential oil was determined by steam distillation and the percent relative composition of the essential oil in 1,8-cineole, p-cymene, α-pinene by gas liquid chromatography. Also the refractive index of the essential oil was determined by a refractometer. Statistical analysis included the calculation of the correlation coefficient. Multiple correlation and cluster analysis was applied to all analytical data. The results showed that the trace elements iron, chromium, cobalt and zinc are correlated with the variation of the concentration of essential oil in the examined plant. These four elements along with rubidium and essential oil content could be used for the separation of the samples into groups related to the sampling areas. Statistically significant correlation between active constituents and some trace elements and a linear negative correlation between 1,8-cineole and refractive index were found. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Biological response of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, towards combination of seed and leaf extracts from red gum Eucalyptus Camaldulensis and/or gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shall, S.S.A.; Alm El Din, M.M.S.; Hazaa, M.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The biological response of the F1 progeny of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Bosid.), (from males irradiated as parental pupae with 75 and 125 Gy gamma radiation) to seed or leaf extracts of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis plant were studied. The fecundity, fertility, and mating potency of F1 adults were employed as assess for response. Analysis of variance indicated that, different treatments with gamma irradiation and/or plant extracts, at most mating crosses and most interactions between all of them, showed significant role in decreasing the fecundity and fertility of F1 adults. In general, the combined treatments of seed or leaf extracts with gamma irradiation. as dependent factors regardless other factors, decreased the emergence of adults compared to the control or single treatments of either seed extract or gamma irradiation. As well, combination treatments of radiation and seed extract decreased significantly the fecundity of moths compared to control or irradiation treatment alone. On the other hand, the combination treatments of either seed or leaf extracts did not have any significant difference in the number of mating per female, as compared to control, while irradiation treatments decreased the number of mating compared to vontrol. The effects of most possible probabilities of interaction between doses, crosses and treatments on reproduction were estimated and discussed and also the effects on development of F1 progeny were included

  19. Wide-area estimates of evapotranspiration by red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and associated vegetation in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Doody, Tanya M.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jarchow, Christopher J.; Barreto-Munoz, Armando; Didan, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain red gum forests (Eucalyptus camaldulensis plus associated grasses, reeds and sedges) are sites of high biodiversity in otherwise arid regions of southeastern Australia. They depend on periodic floods from rivers, but dams and diversions have reduced flood frequencies and volumes, leading to deterioration of trees and associated biota. There is a need to determine their water requirements so environmental flows can be administered to maintain or restore the forests. Their water requirements include the frequency and extent of overbank flooding, which recharges the floodplain soils with water, as well as the actual amount of water consumed in evapotranspiration (ET). We estimated the flooding requirements and ET for a 38 134 ha area of red gum forest fed by the Murrumbidgee River in Yanga National Park, New South Wales. ET was estimated by three methods: sap flux sensors placed in individual trees; a remote sensing method based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS satellite imagery and a water balance method based on differences between river flows into and out of the forest. The methods gave comparable estimates yet covered different spatial and temporal scales. We estimated flood frequency and volume requirements by comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from Landsat images with flood history from 1995 to 2014, which included both wet periods and dry periods. ET during wet years is about 50% of potential ET but is much less in dry years because of the trees' ability to control stomatal conductance. Based on our analyses plus other studies, red gum trees at this location require environmental flows of 2000 GL yr−1 every other year, with peak flows of 20 000 ML d−1, to produce flooding sufficient to keep them in good condition. However, only about 120–200 GL yr−1 of river water is consumed in ET, with the remainder flowing out of the forest where it enters the Murray River system.

  20. Anatomía comparada del leño de Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae de dos orígenes, ensayados en Santiago del Estero Comparative wood anatomy of two select origins of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae, implanted in Santiago del Estero, Argentine Chaco Region

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    Juana Graciela Moglia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la variabilidad radial en el leño de ejemplares de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. provenientes de dos orígenes selectos implantados en un ensayo en Santiago del Estero. Se compararon materiales provenientes del Huerto Semillero de Zimbabwe y de Emu Creek Queensland. Se estudiaron las secciones transversales de fuste a 1,30 m de altura de 7 ejemplares de 5 años de edad, de cada uno de los orígenes. Se extrajeron dos probetas sobre el radio Norte, tomadas una a 25% y otra al 80% de distancia con respecto a la médula. Se analizaron: frecuencia y diámetro de vasos, longitud de vasos y fibras, porcentaje de tejidos, tipos de vasos y radios. El análisis de la varianza se ajustó al diseño de muestreo de efectos anidados para «orígenes» y «árboles», utilizando las «distancias radiales a la médula» como medidas repetidas y se evaluó con un modelo mixto. Los dos orígenes estudiados presentan porosidad difusa, vasos solitarios y radios homogéneos. Ninguna de las variables estudiadas mostró diferencias significativas entre orígenes. Las longitudes de vasos y fibras mostraron diferencias significativas entre distancias. La frecuencia y longitud de vasos, frecuencia de radios y los porcentajes de tejidos mostraron diferencias significativas entre árboles.The aim of the present research was to study radial wood variation of two different origins in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. proceeding from a seed allotment in Zimbabwe and Emu Creek Queensland. For this study seven trees of 5 years old, of each origin, were selected from an implanted trial in Santiago del Estero. Two samples were taken from transverse sections at 1.30 m height on the North radius, one located at 25% and the other at 80% of distance to the pith. Frequency, diameter, and length of vessels, fiber length, tissues percentages and ray types were analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed using a nested design, for

  1. Etiología y síndrome de los cancros Cryphonectria, Lasiodiplodia y Fusicoccum en eucalipto (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh

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    J. Cruz Avilés

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chapingo, México en los años 1999 y 2000, se hicieron pruebas de patogenicidad de los hongos Cryphonectria cubensis, Lasiodioplodia theobromae y Fusicoccum sp; con cepas de estos hongos se hicieron inoculaciones en plantas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis que tenían dos años de edad; las plantas se mantuvieron en condiciones de invernadero, bajo un rango de temperaturas de 25-29 °C y condiciones de alta humedad ambiental. La inoculación de las cepas de los hongos mencionados se hizo en la parte baja y alta del tronco y se utilizaron métodos de inserción y punción. Lasiodioplodia theobromae requirió de 7-12 días para manifestar la primera aparición de picnidios y de 12-15 días para la emisión inicial de conidios, el hongo causó la muerte de la planta en 2 meses, en ese mismo tiempo colonizó todo el tronco. Cryphonectria cubensis requirió de 57-63 días para causar la muerte del árbol, a los 33- 56 días de la inoculación se presentó la formación de picnidios y a los 56-60 días después, la liberación de conidios. Fusicoccum sp. causó la muerte de la planta inoculada en 63 días y requirió de 50-54 días para la formación de picnidios y de 60-63 días para la primera emisión de conidios. En cada uno de estos hongos se realizaron mediciones de picnidios y conidios, éstas se compararon con las mencionadas en la literatura y se concluyó con la corroboración de las especies y el género mencionados.

  2. Avaliação nutricional de mudas de Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata e Eucalyptus camaldulensis inoculadas com fungos micorrízicos, em casade- vegetação e em cava de extração de argila = Nutritional evaluation of Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi, grown under greenhouse conditions and in an area of clay extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs na nutrição de mudas de acácia (Acacia mangium Willd., sesbânia (Sesbania virgata (Cav.Pers. e eucalipto (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. em casa-de-vegetação, bem como a influência dos FMAs, do monocultivo e/ou consórcio sobre os teores dos nutrientes nas folhas das plantas em cava degradada pela extração de argila. Em casa-de-vegetação, mudas de acácia inoculadas com FMAs tiveram incrementos nos conteúdos de N, P e Zn de 22, 71 e 67%, respectivamente; as de sesbânia, de 39, 49, 56, 24, 105 e 54%, respectivamente para N, P, Ca, Mg, Mn e Zn. Na cava de extração de argila, plantas de acácia consorciadas com sesbânia apresentaram menor teor de Ca nas folhas. Ainda, no consórcio com eucalipto, plantas de acácia inoculadas com FMAs tiveram incrementos de 36% no teor de Mg, em relação às sem inoculação. Plantas de sesbâniaconsorciadas com acácia e/ou eucalipto apresentaram menor teor de Mg, em relação às do monocultivo. Por outro lado, plantas de eucalipto consorciadas com acácia e/ou sesbânia sem FMAs apresentaram menor teor de N, em relação às do monocultivo. Até o presente momento, não foram observadas melhorias nutricionais em plantas de eucalipto advindas do consórcio com acácia e/ou sesbânia.This work aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the nutrient uptake of Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, as well as, the influence of these fungi on the shoot nutrient content of these plant species, when cultivated in single and intercropping systems, under field conditions in an area of clay extraction. Under greenhouse conditions, AMF inoculation increased N, P and Zn content of A. mangium by 22, 71 and 67%, respectively, and in S. virgata the increase of N, P, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn was of 39, 49, 56, 24, 105 and 54%, respectively. Under

  3. Growth modulation effects of CBM2a under the control of AtEXP4 and CaMV35S promoters in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadtidumrongkul, Pornthep; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Pinmanee, Phitsanu; Pattana, Kanokwan; Kittiwongwattana, Chokchai; Apisitwanich, Somsak; Vuttipongchaikij, Supachai

    2017-08-01

    The expression of cell-wall-targeted Carbohydrate Binding Modules (CBMs) can alter cell wall properties and modulate growth and development in plants such as tobacco and potato. CBM2a identified in xylanase 10A from Cellulomonas fimi is of particular interest for its ability to bind crystalline cellulose. However, its potential for promoting plant growth has not been explored. In this work, we tested the ability of CBM2a to promote growth when expressed using both CaMV35S and a vascular tissue-specific promoter derived from Arabidopsis expansin4 (AtEXP4) in three plant species: Arabidopsis, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. In Arabidopsis, the expression of AtEXP4pro:CBM2a showed trends for growth promoting effects including the increase of root and hypocotyl lengths and the enlargements of the vascular xylem area, fiber cells and vessel cells. However, in N. tabacum, the expression of CBM2a under the control of either CaMV35S or AtEXP4 promoter resulted in subtle changes in the plant growth, and the thickness of secondary xylem and vessel and fiber cell sizes were generally reduced in the transgenic lines with AtEXP4pro:CBM2a. In Eucalyptus, while transgenics expressing CaMV35S:CBM2a showed very subtle changes compared to wild type, those transgenics with AtEXP4pro:CBM2a showed increases in plant height, enlargement of xylem areas and xylem fiber and vessel cells. These data provide comparative effects of expressing CBM2a protein in different plant species, and this finding can be applied for plant biomass improvement.

  4. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and of Casearia sylvestris Sw. on cropsEfeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e de Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

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    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is characterized by the harmful or benefic effects caused by secondary metabolites, that are produced by plants, microorganisms or fungi and are released in the environment, on the development of natural biological systems or implemented ones. This study aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and wild coffee (Casearia sylvestris Sw. on the germination and initial development of mustard (Brassica campestris L., cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. italica, kale (Brassica pekinensis L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. grand rapids, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, turnip (Brassica rapa L., rucola (Eruca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.. Six concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 100% and compared to control (distilled water, with five replicates of each concentration, being ten seeds of each crop distributed in each replicate. The aqueous extracts of E. globulus and C. sylvestris reduced significantly the percentage of seed germination, the index of germination speed and the initial growth of the above ground part and roots of all cultivated species, being the reduction of these parameters higher with the increment of the aqueous extracts concentration, which led to thicker and atrophied roots with a higher number of absorbent hairs. Therefore, the results indicate an existence of allelopathic potential of E. globulus and C. sylvestris.A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos que metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas, microrganismos ou fungos liberados no ambiente exercem sobre o desenvolvimento de sistemas biológicos naturais ou implantados. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Sw. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de

  5. Modelagem do balanço hídrico em microbacia cultivada com plantio comercial de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla no leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    André Quintão Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o número de plantios comerciais de espécies florestais de crescimento rápido vem aumentando consideravelmente nas últimas décadas. Contudo, os possíveis impactos desse aumento sobre os recursos hídricos ainda são desconhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a modelagem do balanço hídrico em uma microbacia cultivada com plantio comercial de híbridos de Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla no Leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O trabalho foi realizado em uma microbacia experimental com área total de 40 ha durante o ano hidrológico, compreendido entre outubro de 2009 e setembro de 2010. A principal entrada de água no sistema via precipitação pluvial e os dados meteorológicos foram coletados por uma estação automática instalada no interior da área de estudo. As principais saídas foram estimadas pela equação modificada de Penman-Monteith e pela mensuração do deflúvio gerado na saída da bacia. Do total precipitado (1.123 mm durante o ano, 9% (106 mm retornaram à atmosfera via interceptação, 66% (740 mm via transpiração da cultura e 11% (119 mm pela evaporação do solo, que somados corresponderam à aproximadamente 86% da entrada de água na microbacia. Do deflúvio total gerado (~147 mm, apenas 4,29 mm (0,4% foram convertidos em escoamento superficial. Pode-se concluir que durante o ano hidrológico monitorado o balanço entre as principais entradas e as saídas de água na microbacia foi equalizado, não comprometendo a disponibilidade hídrica natural no curso d'água.

  6. GROWTH AND ARCHITECTURE OF ROOT SYSTEMS OF PLANTS OF Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. GRANDIS AND E. PELLITA WERE EVALUATED AFTER THE PLANTING

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    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Leles

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings were produced according to two methodologies: pressed blocks and stiff plastic tubes. A mixture of decomposed sugar-cane bagasse (60% and industrial sugar-cane plant residues (40% were used as substrate. The blocks were made by pressing the humid substrate in metallic moulds with the dimensions of 60 x 40 x 20 cm (lenght, width and height and pressure of 10 kgf/cm2 for 15 minutes. Under this load the blocks height was reduced to 10 cm. They were placed in wooden boxes with screen bottom. The stiff plastic tubes had circular section 12 cm high, with volume capacity of 50 cm3. The seeds were sown in the blocks 5 cm apart, by means of a spatula. At the end of nursey phase, the seedlings were planted the field. After 2, 6 and 10 months of planting, the height and the diameter at the ground level were evaluated. At the age of 10 months it was also evaluated the number of laterals root and deformatiom cofficient the three plants for treatment. Two months after planting, the plants originated from the pressed blocks showed growth highly signifficant in relation to those of the stiff plastic tubes. At 10 months, of age only Eucalyptus grandis seedlings showed significant difference concerning to height and diameter at the ground level between plants produced by pressed blocks and stiff plastic tubes. For the three species, the pressed blocks seedling showed higher number of lateral roots and smaller number of root deformation coefficents in comparision to the plants from the stiff tubes.

  7. Proteômica quantitativa e metabolômica do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x E. camaldulensis, tolerante e susceptível ao déficit hídrico

    OpenAIRE

    Janaina de Santana Borges

    2016-01-01

    O E. grandis x E. camaldulensis possui características favoráveis de adaptação à seca, conferidas pelo E. camaldulensis e qualidade da madeira para papel e celulose, conferida pelo E. grandis. Esta adaptação à seca está relacionada a fatores fisiológicos e também moleculares, expressos em sua proteoma e metaboloma, que se alteram na presença do estresse. Objetiva-se neste trabalho estudar as respostas fisiológicas, proteômicas e metabolômicas (metabólitos primários) diferencialmente expressos...

  8. Effects of Allelochemicals of Some Eucalyptus Species on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to assess the effects of allelochemicals of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globules on germination and root elongation using leguminous crop ground nut (Arachis hypogea) as bioassay material. The experiments were conducted in sterilized ...

  9. Effet de l'hybridation interspecifique sur la teneur et la composition chimique des huiles essentielles d'eucalyptus cultivés au Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    Farah A.; Fechtal M.; Chaouch A.

    2002-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization effect on the content and the chemical composition of essential oils of eucalyptus grown in Morocco. In this work, the quality and quantity of the leave essential oils of five Eucalyptus hybrids were determined. The crosses of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. maideni, Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus diversicolor with Eucalyptus camaldulensis have been studied. The average yield of parental species samples varies a...

  10. Dry mass allocation, water use efficiency and delta C-13 in clones of Eucalyptus grandis, E-grandis x camaldulensis and E-grandis x nitens grown under two irrigation regimes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, D

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available - cial clones of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden. implying that less water-use-efficient trees were more productive (Bond and Stock 1990). Similarly, growing season WUE and delta13C were positively correlated in western larch and Eucalyptus globulus... regimes DEBBIE LE ROUX,1,2 WILLIAM D. STOCK,3 WILLIAM J. BOND3 and DAVID MAPHANGA4 1 Division of Forest Science and Technology, CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa 2 Present address: Department of Botany, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA 3 Department...

  11. Lack of association between allozyme heterozygosity and juvenile traits in Eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variability for juvenile waits, which included basal diameter, height, biomass accumulation, and growth increment, was studied in eight provenances involving four species, Eucalyptus grandis, E. saligna, E. camaldulensis and E. urophylla, under uniform greenhouse conditions. The species diff...

  12. Behavior of Eucalyptus grandis and E. cloeziana seedlings grown in arsenic-contaminated soil Comportamento de mudas de E. grandis E. eucalyptus cloeziana cultivadas em solo contaminado por arsênio

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    Roseli Freire Melo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been considered the most poisonous inorganic soil pollutant to living creatures. For this reason, the interest in phytoremediation species has been increasing in the last years. Particularly for the State of Minas Gerais, where areas of former mining activities are prone to the occurrence of acid drainage, the demand is great for suitable species to be used in the revegetation and "cleaning" of As-polluted areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis (Hill Maiden and E. cloeziana F. Muell, for phytoremediation of As-polluted soils. Soil samples were incubated for a period of 15 days with different As (Na2HAsO4 doses (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg dm-3. After 30 days of exposure the basal leaves of E. cloeziana plants exhibited purple spots with interveinal chlorosis, followed by necrosis and death of the apical bud at the 400 mg dm-3 dose. Increasing As doses in the soil reduced root and shoot dry matter, plant height and diameter in both species, although the reduction was more pronounced in E. cloeziana plants. In both species, As concentrations were highest in the root system; the highest root concentration was found in E. cloeziana plants (305.7 mg kg-1 resulting from a dose of 400 mg dm-3. The highest As accumulation was observed in E. grandis plants, which was confirmed as a species with potential for As phytoextraction, tending to accumulate As in the root system and stem.O arsênio (As tem sido considerado o poluente inorgânico de solo mais tóxico para os seres vivos, razão pela qual o interesse por espécies indicadoras e fitorremediadoras tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Particularmente para o Estado de Minas Gerais, que apresenta áreas remanescentes de atividade mineradora sujeitas à ocorrência de drenagem ácida, existe grande demanda por espécies com potencial para serem utilizadas na revegetação e "limpeza" de substratos contaminados por esse metaloide. Este

  13. Caracterização bromatológica de oito linhagens de Lentinula edodes (Shiitake cultivadas em toras de Eucalyptus grandis Bromatological characterization of Lentinula edodes strains (Shiitake grown on Eucalyptus grandis logs

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    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Lentinula edodes é um alimento de qualidade elevada, sendo rico em proteínas, vitaminas e sais minerais e pobre em calorias e gorduras. No entanto, seu valor nutricional varia em função da linhagem cultivada, do processamento após a colheita, do estágio de desenvolvimento do basidioma e do substrato utilizado. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar bromatologicamente os basidiomas de oito linhagens de L. edodes (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13, inteiros ou em partes (estípete e píleo, produzidos em toras de E. grandis. Verificou-se que tanto as linhagens de L. edodes como as partes dos basidiomas analisados influenciaram nas respostas nutricionais das amostras. O estípete apresentou as maiores médias de fibra bruta e as menores médias de proteína bruta. O píleo, por sua vez, apresentou as maiores médias de cinzas. Nas avaliações de basidiomas inteiros, as maiores médias, quanto ao teor de proteína bruta, foram obtidas nas linhagens LE-95/07, LE-96/17 e LE-96/18. Já a maior média de fibra bruta foi obtida pela linhagem LE-96/13 de L. edodes. O conteúdo de lipídios do píleo e do estípete não variaram entre as linhagens de L. edodes.Lentinula edodes is high quality food which is rich in proteins, vitamins, and minerals and poor in calories and fat. However, its nutritional value is variable according to the strain grown, processing after harvest, development stage of basidiomata, and substrate used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to carry out the bromatological characterization of basidiomatas from eight (LE-95/01, LE-95/02, LE-95/07, LE-96/17, LE-96/18, LE-98/47, LE-98/55 e LE-96/13 L. edodes strains, whole or in parts (stalk and pileus, produced in E. grandis logs. We verified that both the L. edodes strains and parts of basidiomatas analyzed influenced nutritional responses of the samples. The stalk presented the highest raw fiber averages and the

  14. Eucalyptus plantlet growth in relation to foliar application with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In one experiment at greenhouse, condition was established to determine the effects of complete fertilizers on growth of plantlet Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Southeast of Iran. This experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Center, University of Zabol, in autumn year of 2008. This study was designed as a ...

  15. Sub-Acute Hepatoxicity of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub–acute toxicity study of the aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was carried out on albino rats. Doses of 250mg, 500mg, 750mg and 1000mg per kilogram body weight of the extract were administered orally for 21 days. The activities of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), ...

  16. Growth models for six Eucalyptus species in Angola | Delgado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study developed growth models for Eucalyptus saligna Sm., E. camaldulensis Dehnh., E. macarthurii H.Deane & Maiden, E. resinifera Sm., E. siderophloia Benth. and E. grandis Hill ex. Maiden, for the central highlands of Angola, and used these models to simulate the development of stand characteristics.

  17. Chemotyping of diverse Eucalyptus species grown in Egypt and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of its respective essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed Z M; Ashmawy, Nader A; Elansary, Hosam O; El-Settawy, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa and Eucalyptus gomphocephala grown in northern Egypt was analysed by using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The antibacterial (agar disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods) and antioxidant activities (2,2'-diphenypicrylhydrazyl) were examined. The main oils constituents were 1,8-cineole (21.75%), β-pinene (20.51%) and methyleugenol (6.10%) in E. camaldulensis; spathulenol (37.46%), p-cymene (17.20%) and crypton (8.88%) in E. gomphocephala; spathulenol (18.37%), p-cymene (19.38%) and crypton (16.91%) in E. camaldulensis var. obtusa. The essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus spp. exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The values of total antioxidant activity were 70 ± 3.13%, 50 ± 3.34% and 84 ± 4.64% for E. camaldulensis, E. camaldulensis var. obtusa and E. gomphocephala, respectively. The highest antioxidant activity value of 84 ± 4.64% could be attributed to the high amount of spathulenol (37.46%).

  18. Eucalyptus Tree: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus neoformans in Egyptian Environment

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    Mahmoud Elhariri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, the River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a well-known tree and is highly appreciated by the rural and urban dwellers. The role of Eucalyptus trees in the ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans is documented worldwide. The aim of this survey was to show the prevalence of C. neoformans during the flowering season of E. camaldulensis at the Delta region in Egypt. Three hundred and eleven samples out of two hundred Eucalyptus trees, including leaves, flowers, and woody trunks, were collected from four governorates in the Delta region. Thirteen isolates of C. neoformans were recovered from Eucalyptus tree samples (4.2%. Molecular identification of C. neoformans was done by capsular gene specific primer CAP64 and serotype identification was done depending on LAC1 gene. This study represents an update on the ecology of C. neoformans associated with Eucalyptus tree in Egyptian environment.

  19. Effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis stand Conversion into Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    expansion of eucalypts on productive farmlands has raised great concern, particularly as ... Partial view of Koga irrigation and watershed management. ... of various crops) at planting time and 100 kg Urea (A white crystalline solid containing nitrogen, .... Farmers also witnessed increased crop productivity in the farmlands ...

  20. Influence du couvert de Eucalyptus camaldulensis (dehn) sur la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratoire d'Agroforesterie et d'Ecologie, Département d'Agroforesterie, Sénégal. 2 Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA/CRA de Djibélor), Sénégal. 3 Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies,. Département de Biologie Végétale, Sénégal. *Auteur correspondant ; E-mail ...

  1. Provenance variation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.M. Emery; F. Thomas Ledig

    1987-01-01

    In California, the Lake Albacutya provenance of river red gum was clearly superior in volume growth to 22 other provenances collected throughout the range of the species in Australia. It had at least 2.5 times the volume of the plantation mean at 5.5 years, consistent with its performance in other countries with Mediterranean climates like California's. Other...

  2. Characterization of abiotic stress genes from different species of eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Kausar, H.; Saleem, F.; Zafarullah, A.

    2015-01-01

    The stresses causing dehydration damage to the plant cell like cold, drought, and high salinity are the most frequent environmental stresses that influence plant growth, development and restraining productivity in cultivated areas world-wide. Many drought, salinity and cold inducible genes causing tolerance to environmental stresses in many plants include Dehydrin1 (DHN1), Dehydrin2 (DHN2), Dehydrin10 (DHN10), putative phosphate transporter (Ecpt2), choline monooxygenase (CMO) and DREB/CBF1c genes. Gene specific primer pairs were designed for each gene using DNAStar software. These genes were amplified from different species of eucalyptus such as Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. tereticornis and E. gunii through PCR. Dehydrin2 gene of E. camaldulensis and dehydrin10 gene of E. globulus were cloned using the TA Cloning Kit with pCR 2.1 vector and sequenced. The Dehydrin genes sequences were submitted to GeneBank: Eucalyptus globulus dehydrin10 gene (Accession No. HG915712) and E. camaldulensis dehydrin 2 gene (Accession No. HG813113). The amino acid sequence of Dehydrin10 from E. globulus showed 97% homology to E. globulus DHN10 (JN052210) and Dehydrin2 from E. camaldulensis presented 94% homology to E. globulus DHN2 (JN052209). These genes can be employed in generating drought resistant crop plants. (author)

  3. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghaffar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan. EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%, α-pinene (31.4%, citrinyl acetate (13.3%, eugenol (11.8% and terpenene-4-ol (10.2% were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani. Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively. The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  4. Chemical Composition and in-Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Seven Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Yameen, Muhammad; Kiran, Shumaila; Kamal, Shagufta; Jalal, Fatima; Munir, Bushra; Saleem, Sadaf; Rafiq, Naila; Ahmad, Aftab; Saba, Iram; Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-11-18

    Eucalyptus is well reputed for its use as medicinal plant around the globe. The present study was planned to evaluate chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) extracted from seven Eucalyptus species frequently found in South East Asia (Pakistan). EOs from Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus melanophloia, Eucalyptus crebra, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus microtheca were extracted from leaves through hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the EOs was determined through GC-MS-FID analysis. The study revealed presence of 31 compounds in E. citriodora and E. melanophloia, 27 compounds in E. crebra, 24 compounds in E. tereticornis, 10 compounds in E. globulus, 13 compounds in E. camaldulensis and 12 compounds in E. microtheca. 1,8-Cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (31.4%), citrinyl acetate (13.3%), eugenol (11.8%) and terpenene-4-ol (10.2%) were the highest principal components in these EOs. E. citriodora exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against the five microbial species tested (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus solani). Gram positive bacteria were found more sensitive than Gram negative bacteria to all EOs. The diphenyl-1-picrylhydazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation were highest in E. citriodora (82.1% and 83.8%, respectively) followed by E. camaldulensis (81.9% and 83.3%, respectively). The great variation in chemical composition of EOs from Eucalyptus, highlight its potential for medicinal and nutraceutical applications.

  5. EFFECTS OF SOME BORON COMPOUNDS ON THE LEACHABILITY OF EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Tan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood preservation effectiveness of boron compounds against biological damagers and fire is well known. But these compounds are not widely used in preservation of wood because of their leachability from wood by rain water and making wood more hyroscopic than untreated wood in damp environments. Main aim of this study is; therefore, to improve the undesired leachability properties of some boron compounds by various water repellents (WRs. Aqueous solutions with polyethyleneglycole (PEG-400 of boric acid and sodium perborate were chosen as boron compounds. WRs were used as secondary treatment chemicals which were considered as dimensional stabilizer of wood and phsical bariers of boron retained at innerparts of treated wood. Results indicated that WRs were reduced leachability of boron from wood significantly (P<0.05. Boron salts applied with. PEG were more leachable than were of equeous solutions. WRs were not found effective on reducing the leachability of boron solved in PEG. Longer leaching time caused more leachant and reduction the phsical alleviation of WRs on boron leaching.

  6. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and

  7. Allelopathy in agroforestry systems: the effects of leaf extracts ofCupressus lusitanica and threeEucalyptus spp. on four Ethiopian crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisanework N.; Michelsen, Anders

    1993-01-01

    The potential allelopathic effect ofCupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, E. camaldulensis andE. saligna on seed germination, radicle and seedling growth was investigated with four crops:Cicer arietinum (chickpea),Zea mays (maize),Pisum sativum (pea) andEragrostis tef (teff). Aqueous leaf ex...

  8. Occurrence of proscopiidae in Eucalyptus spp.: analysis of the infestations and spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to report the occurrence of proscopiidae and to quantify its infestation and spatial distribution in one experimental plantation of eucalypt clones. The study was conducted in an experimental field with eucalypt hybrids of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (clones GG100, Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (H13 and of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis (VM01. The plantation was established in three continuous blocks with 512 plants with 3 m x 2 m, in Cáceres municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Infestation of proscopiidae insects was detected two months after planting . The insects were collected for identification. The attacked trees were geo-referenced and the injuries were quantified. The spatial pattern of proscopiidae he attack was determinated using the location information of the damaged plants, which have been submitted to a quadrats analyses using Morisita and binomial dispersion indexes. All the collected insects have been identified as Tetanorhynchus smithi Rehn, 1904 (Orthoptera, Proscopiidae. The infestation differed significantly among the three eucalypts clones and aggregated spatial pattern of attack was observed. This is the first report of this species of proscopiidae in eucalyptus in Mato Grosso State.

  9. Development of Genetic Markers in Eucalyptus Species by Target Enrichment and Exome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Modhumita Ghosh; Dharanishanthi, Veeramuthu; Agarwal, Ishangi; Krutovsky, Konstantin V.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated large-scale discovery, validation and assessment of genetic markers for high density genotyping. The present study was undertaken to identify markers in genes supposedly related to wood property traits in three Eucalyptus species. Ninety four genes involved in xylogenesis were selected for hybridization probe based nuclear genomic DNA target enrichment and exome sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf tissues and used for on-array probe hybridization followed by Illumina sequencing. The raw sequence reads were trimmed and high-quality reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference sequence and the presence of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and insertions/ deletions (InDels) were identified across the three species. The average read coverage was 216X and a total of 2294 SNVs and 479 InDels were discovered in E. camaldulensis, 2383 SNVs and 518 InDels in E. tereticornis, and 1228 SNVs and 409 InDels in E. grandis. Additionally, SNV calling and InDel detection were conducted in pair-wise comparisons of E. tereticornis vs. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis vs. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis vs. E. grandis. This study presents an efficient and high throughput method on development of genetic markers for family– based QTL and association analysis in Eucalyptus. PMID:25602379

  10. Development of genetic markers in Eucalyptus species by target enrichment and exome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modhumita Ghosh Dasgupta

    Full Text Available The advent of next-generation sequencing has facilitated large-scale discovery, validation and assessment of genetic markers for high density genotyping. The present study was undertaken to identify markers in genes supposedly related to wood property traits in three Eucalyptus species. Ninety four genes involved in xylogenesis were selected for hybridization probe based nuclear genomic DNA target enrichment and exome sequencing. Genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf tissues and used for on-array probe hybridization followed by Illumina sequencing. The raw sequence reads were trimmed and high-quality reads were mapped to the E. grandis reference sequence and the presence of single nucleotide variants (SNVs and insertions/ deletions (InDels were identified across the three species. The average read coverage was 216X and a total of 2294 SNVs and 479 InDels were discovered in E. camaldulensis, 2383 SNVs and 518 InDels in E. tereticornis, and 1228 SNVs and 409 InDels in E. grandis. Additionally, SNV calling and InDel detection were conducted in pair-wise comparisons of E. tereticornis vs. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis vs. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis vs. E. grandis. This study presents an efficient and high throughput method on development of genetic markers for family- based QTL and association analysis in Eucalyptus.

  11. GENERAL EQUATIONS OF CARBONIZATION OF EUCALYPTUS SPP KINETIC MECHANISMS

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    Túlio Jardim Raad

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a set of general equations related to kinetic mechanism of wood compound carbonization: hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin was obtained by Avrami-Eroffev and Arrhenius equations and Thermogravimetry of Eucalyptus cloeziana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis samples, TG-Isothermal and TG-Dynamic. The different thermal stabilities and decomposition temperature bands of those species compounds were applied as strategy to obtain the kinetic parameters: activation energy, exponential factor and reaction order. The kinetic model developed was validated by thermogravimetric curves from carbonization of others biomass such as coconut. The kinetic parameters found were - Hemicelluloses: E=98,6 kJmol, A=3,5x106s-1 n=1,0; - Cellulose: E=182,2 kJmol, A=1,2x1013s-1 n=1,5; - Lignin: E=46,6 kJmol, A=2,01s-1 n=0,41. The set of equations can be implemented in a mathematical model of wood carbonization simulation (with heat and mass transfer equations with the aim of optimizing the control and charcoal process used to produce pig iron.

  12. Phytotoxic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus SPP. against parthenium hysterophorus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Shah, M.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the phytotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of two eucalyptus species viz. E citriodora Hook and E. camaldulensis Dehnh. Against the germination and seeding growth of alien aggressive weed parthenium hysterophorus L. The experiment was conducted in department of Mycology and plant Pathology in 2006. Aqueous leaf extracts of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% (w/v) of the two aforementioned Eucalyptus species were employed in the present study. Extracts of 2-8% concentration of both the Eucalyptus species significantly suppressed germination of the target weed species. A 10% extract of both the species completely arrested the germination. Aqueous extracts also reduced the root and shoot length of parthenium. Effect of extracts on seedling biomass was insignificant. (author)

  13. PREFERÊNCIA DE CORTE DE Eucalyptus spp. POR Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus FOREL, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

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    Alberto Luiz Marsaro Júnior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a preferência de corte das operárias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908, em três espécies e um clone de eucalipto. Plantas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, 1977, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell., 1878, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., 1832, e o Clone 129 foram oferecidas, simultaneamente, para três colônias de Acromyrmex laticeps nigrosetosus Forel, 1908. O bioensaio finalizou 6 horas após o seu início ou até que uma das colônias cortasse todas as folhas de um dos eucaliptos oferecidos. As colônias cortaram e carregaram, em média, 0,453g ± 0,064 de Eucalyptus camaldulensis; 0,384g ± 0,052 do Clone 129; 0,341g ± 0,054 de Eucalyptus urophylla e 0,102 ± 0,027 de Eucalyptus cloeziana, sendo essa última a espécie menos preferida para o corte. Por outro lado, não houve diferença significativa entre a quantidade de folhas cortadas nos outros eucaliptos.

  14. Eucalyptus oil poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, S; Wiggins, J

    1980-01-01

    Accidental ingestion of eucalyptus oil by a 3-year-old boy caused profound central nervous system depression within 30 minutes, but he recovered rapidly after gastric lavage. The extreme toxicity of eucalyptus oil is emphasised.

  15. History and Status of Eucalyptus Improvement in Florida

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    Donald L. Rockwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first organized Eucalyptus research in Florida was begun by the Florida Forests Foundation in 1959 in southern Florida. This research was absorbed by the USDA Forest Service and the Florida Division of Forestry in 1968. In the early 1970s, the Eucalyptus Research Cooperative formed to provide additional support emphasized E. grandis, E. robusta, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis and developed cultural practices for commercial plantations in southern Florida. In 1978, this cooperative united with the Hardwood Research Cooperative at North Carolina State University until 1985 when the 14-year effort ended after three severe freezes from 1983 to 1985. Eucalyptus planting and research were continued with a Florida-wide focus by the University of Florida and collaborators starting in 1980. The collective accomplishments in terms of genetic resources and commercial planting are summarized. For example, fast-growing, freeze-resilient E. grandis seedlings are produced by advanced generation seed orchards, five E. grandis cultivars are commercially available, as are E. amplifolia and Corymbia torelliana seeds. Genetic improvement of these and other species is ongoing due to beneficial collaborations. Short Rotation Woody Crop systems are promising for increasing productivity and extending uses beyond conventional pulpwood to applications such as windbreaks, dendroremediation, and energy wood.

  16. Consortium of eucalyptus with forage sorghum in semiarid of Minas Gerais State

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    Carlos Juliano Brant Albuquerque

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective was to estimate the wood yield and essential oil content in three clones of eucalyptus that were planted in four contrasting arrangements and intercropped with sorghum. Eucalyptus clones MA2001 (Eucalyptus camaldulensis x E. tereticornis, A144 (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, and GG100 (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, were planted in single rows (10x2m, double rows (2x3+15m and 2x3+20m; and, triple rows (2x3x2+10m in a randomized, complete block design experiment with four replicates. Our results demonstrated that planting spacing did not influence the essential oil yield or diameter at breast height in the clones. However, higher density plantings were shown to result in higher fresh weight of branches and leaves per plant. MA2001 grew taller, produced higher quantity of fresh biomass of branches and leaves per plant and volume of wood per hectare, and yielded more essential oil yield than the other clones. We concluded that MA2001 is the most suitable of the clones tested here for cultivation in water deficit conditions.

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MACROSSOPIC, MICROSCOPIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS SPEJES, SPEJES, CULTIVATED IN IRAN, WITH STANDARD SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samsam shariat sadeghi-aliabadi

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the volatile oil of staendard species of Eucalyptus with those species cultivated in Iran. The investigation was carried out as bellow:"nA The seeds of elven species were supplied from Germany and cultivated in Research Center of Agriculture of Isfahan and then extracted for volatile oil and cineole."nB Besides, we supplied 2 species from Isfahan, 7 species from Fars province, 9 from Khuzestan province, one from Tehran and one from Hormozgan, province."nC We extracted total volatile oil of 28 E. species, then injected to G. G. column and the results were as follow:"n1 - In the following species : E. saligna, E. loxophleba and E. Stratycalyx from Esfahan province. E."nloxophleba, E.camaldulensis, E.stratycalyx, intertexta and E. caleicultrix from Fars"nprovince. E. Stratycalyx, E. OCCidsntalis, E. gillii and E. sargentii from khozestan prcvince. E. globulus from Tehran and E. camaldulensis from Hormozgan province. The amount of essential oil extracted from the mentioned species was in accord with the standard of pharmacopial level. But the extracted oil from others was not as standard levl."n2 - E. gillii, E. camaldulensis, E. sargentii and OCCidentalis from khouzestan and the species of"nE.intertexta, E. camaldulensis, E. lansdownean from fars and the species of E. camaldulensis, E. saligna from Esfahan and the species of E. globulus from Tehran, the amount of measured cineol was in accordance the standard pharmacopeial level."n3 - Some of the species studied such as : were qualified for the amount of Alpha and Beta pinen.

  18. Las Plantas Cultivadas y Sus Plagas.

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    Universidad Nacional de Colombia Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias

    1942-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo contiene en orden alfabético las plantas cultivadas con las diferentes plagas por las cuales se ven afectadas y para las que se han venido buscando mecanismos de control y erradicación. Algunas de estas plantas son: Aguacate, Acacia, Almendro, Algodón, Banana, Cacahuate, Cacao, Cafeto, Caña de azúcar, Caoba, Carambola, Cedro, Granadilla, Limón, Maíz, Tabaco, entre otras.

  19. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  20. Asociacion de leveduras del genero Cryptococcus con especies de Eucalyptus en Santafe de Bogota Isolation of Cryptococcus sp. associated with Eucalyptus trees in Santafé de Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Duarte

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available El aislamiento de Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotipo B, a partir del medio ambiente se estableció inicialmente en Australia en 1989, en asocio con el Eucalyptus camaldulensis y posteriormente con E. tereticornis. Con estos hallazgos se postuló que desde allí, el hongo se ha podido exportar, por medio de las semillas contaminadas, a otras regiones geográficas, incluyendo Colombia. El objetivo de éste estudio fue identificar las levaduras del género Cryptococcus asociadas con especies de Eucalyptus sp., como primera evaluación en la ecología de C. neoformans var. gattii en nuestro país. Se realizó en Santafé de Bogotá, con una población de 100 árboles ubicados al centro, nororiente, oriente y occidente de la ciudad, recolectando de cada uno de ellos flores, frutos, hojas, cortezas y detritos; el procesamiento de las muestras incluyó extracción del material con una solución salina con antibióticos, siembra en medios selectivos e identificación de las especies con base en las características morfológicas, macro y microscópicas y bioquímicas. Se aislaron 27 cepas de Cryptococcus pertenecientes a 9 especies de Cryptococcus, a partir de 21 árboles ubicados en 5 zonas diferentes de la ciudad. Se aisló C. neoformans y se identificó como C. neoformans var. neoformans serotipo A. Estos datos iniciales son importantes como primera evaluación de la asociación de Cryptococcus sp. con los Eucalyptus en nuestro país.Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii was first made in Australia in 1989 by ELLIS. He established a specific association with the tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis. Based on his findings, ELLIS proposed that the fungus could be exported from Australia to others regions, including Colombia, by means of infected seeds. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify Cryptococcus sp., associated with Eucalyptus trees; this is the first ecological evaluation

  1. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults

    OpenAIRE

    Juan, Laura W.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N.; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martín; Masuh, Hector M.

    2011-01-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida...

  2. Genomic research in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poke, Fiona S; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Reid, James B

    2005-09-01

    Eucalyptus L'Hérit. is a genus comprised of more than 700 species that is of vital importance ecologically to Australia and to the forestry industry world-wide, being grown in plantations for the production of solid wood products as well as pulp for paper. With the sequencing of the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the recent completion of the first tree genome sequence, Populus trichocarpa, attention has turned to the current status of genomic research in Eucalyptus. For several eucalypt species, large segregating families have been established, high-resolution genetic maps constructed and large EST databases generated. Collaborative efforts have been initiated for the integration of diverse genomic projects and will provide the framework for future research including exploiting the sequence of the entire eucalypt genome which is currently being sequenced. This review summarises the current position of genomic research in Eucalyptus and discusses the direction of future research.

  3. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  4. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Apis meOifera) on black ironbark. (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before ...

  5. Vesicular-arbuscular-/ecto-mycorrhiza succession in seedlings of. Eucalyptus spp. Sucessão de micorrizas vesicular-arbuscular e ectomicorrizas em mudas de Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia dos Santos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM and ectomycorrhizae (ECM in the same root system was observed when species of Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, E. citriodora Hook f., E. grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, E. cloeziana F. Muell. and E. camaldulensis Dehnh were simultaneously inoculated with Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gederman and Pisolithus tinctorius (Per. Cocker & Couch, isolate Pt 90A. The succession between the two fungi was observed. In general ectomycorrhizal colonization increased followed by a decrease in AM. Pisolithus tinctorius was favored in simultaneous inoculation with G. etunicatum, and the positive effect of the simultaneous inoculation of both fungi in the percent colonization by the AM fungus occurred up to 60 days after inoculation. After 120 days, colonization of roots by G. etunicatum decreased in the presence of P. tinctorius. When inoculated simultaneously, the proportion of AM and ECM varied with evaluation time, while the combined percentage of mycorrhizal roots approached the maximum and remained more or less constant after 60 days, suggesting that there could be competition between the fungi for limiting substrate. The maximum percent mycorrhizal colonization varied with Eucalyptus species and the highest value was observed for E. camaldulensis, followed in order by E. citriodora, E. urophylla, E. grandis and E. cloeziana.A ocorrência de micorrizas arbusculares (AM e ectomicorrizas (ECM no mesmo sistema radicular foi observada quando Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, E. citriodora Hook F., E. grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, E. cloeziana F. Muell e E. camaldulensis Dehnh foram inoculadas simultaneamente com Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gederman and Pisolithus tinctorius (Per. Cocker & Couch. A sucessão entre os dois fungos foi observada. De modo geral, o aumento da colonização ECM foi acompanhado de um decréscimo em AM. A inoculação simultânea resultou em percentagens de colonização diferenciadas das

  6. Stomatal responses of Eucalyptus species to elevated CO2 concentration and drought stress Resposta estomática ao aumento da concentração do CO2 atmosférico e ao estresse hídrico de espécies de Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter de Paula Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of Eucalyptus (E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, and E. phaeotrica, among the ten species most commonly used in large scale plantations, were selected for studies on the effects of elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] and drought stress on stomatal responses of 2.5-month old seedlings. The first three species belong to the subgenus Smphyomyrtus, whereas the fourth species belongs to the subgenus Corymbia and E. phaeotrica is from the subgenus Monocalyptus. Seedlings were grown in four pairs of open-top chambers, arranged to have 2 plants of each species in each chamber, with four replications in each of two CO2 concentrations: 350 ± 30 mumol mol-1 and 700 ± 30 mumol mol-1. After 100 days in the chambers, a series of gas exchange measurements were made. Half the plants in each chamber, one plant per species per chamber, were drought-stressed by withholding irrigation, while the remaining plants continued to be watered daily. Drought stress decreased stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and transpiration rates in all the species. The effect of drought stress on stomatal closure was similar in both [CO2]. The positive effects of elevated [CO2] on photosynthesis and water use efficiency were maintained longer during the stress period than under well-watered conditions. The photosynthetic rate of E. phaeotrica was higher even in the fourth day of the drought stress. Drought stress increased photoinhibition of photosynthesis, as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, which varied among the species, as well as in relation to [CO2]. The results are in agreement with observed differences in stomatal responses between some eucalyptus species of the subgenera Symphyomyrtus and Monocalyptus.Cinco espécies de Eucalyptus (E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. Camaldulensis, E. torelliana e E. phaeotrica, dentre as dez espécies mais utilizadas em plantações florestais de larga escala, foram submetidas ao aumento do CO2 e à intera

  7. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  8. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  9. Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there interclonal variation in response to experimentally imposed water stress? ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... However, water stress reduced shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity with significant interclonal effects.

  10. Silicato de cálcio como amenizante da toxidez de metais pesados em mudas de eucalipto Calcium silicate to reduce heavy metal toxicity in eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria de Aguiar Accioly

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do silicato de cálcio na redução da toxidez de metais pesados no solo para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Foram utilizadas cinco doses de silicato de cálcio (0, 1,6, 3,2, 4,8 e 6,4 g kg-1, em solos com diferentes graus de contaminação. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos com 1,5 kg de solo, com uma muda por vaso, em esquema fatorial 4x5 (quatro graus de contaminação x cinco doses de silicato. O silicato de cálcio reduziu a toxidez de metais pesados em E.camaldulensis, retardou o aparecimento dos sintomas de toxidez e diminuiu os teores de zinco e cádmio na parte aérea das plantas. Entretanto, não evitou totalmente a depressão no crescimento, nos solos com contaminação elevada. O efeito amenizante do silicato foi crescente com o aumento das doses e mais evidente nos solos com contaminação elevada. O efeito benéfico do silicato de cálcio está relacionado à redução da transferência do zinco para a parte aérea do eucalipto.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium silicate to reduce heavy metal toxicity in Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings. Five doses of calcium silicate (0, 1.6, 3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 g kg-1 were used in soils with increasing levels of contamination. The experiment was carried out in pots with 1.5 kg of soil, with one plant each, in a 4x5 factorial array (four levels of contamination x five silicate doses. Calcium silicate minimized heavy metal toxicity to E.camaldulensis, delayed the onset of toxicity symptoms, and decreased zinc and cadmium shoot concentrations. However, calcium silicate did not completely overcome the depressive effect upon plant growth in soils with high metal concentrations. Calcium silicate effects increased with increasing doses and were more evident in highly contaminated soils. The beneficial effects of calcium silicate on metal toxicity were highly related to the decrease in zinc translocation to the eucalyptus shoots.

  11. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/087/01/0021-0025 ... Eucalyptus is an important short rotation pulpy woody plant, grown widely in the tropics. ... In this study, in silico analysis of 15,285 sequences representing partial and full-length mRNA from Eucalyptus species for their use in developing SSRs or microsatellites ...

  12. Monocultivo de eucalipto e consórcio com sesbânia: crescimento inicial em cavas de extração de argila Eucalyptus monocropping and intercropped with sesbania: initial growth in clay mining diggings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ribeiro Santiago

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O consórcio de eucalipto com sesbânia na reabilitação de cavas de extração de argila pode representar uma forma de uso com benefícios ecológicos e econômicos, tendo em vista a sub-utilização a que essas cavas estão sendo submetidas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a sobrevivência, o crescimento inicial e características fisiológicas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. robusta e E. pellita, em monocultivos e plantios consorciados com Sesbania virgata. Foram instalados dois experimentos (monocultivo e plantio consorciado, numa cava de extração de argila, segundo o delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os plantios consorciados favoreceram a sobrevivência das espécies. Os eucaliptos no monocultivo apresentaram maior crescimento inicial em diâmetro do colo e em área de copa. As espécies de eucalipto responderam aos efeitos do consórcio e das podas ao longo do tempo, exceto E. tereticornis.Intercropping of Eucalyptus and sesbania for the recovery of clay mining diggings can represent ecological and economic benefits. This work aimed to evaluate survival, initial growth and physiological characteristics of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. robusta and E. pellita, monocropped and intercropped with Sesbania virgata. Two experiments (monocropping and intercropped were set up in a clay mining digging, arranged in a randomized block design with 4 replicates. Intercropping favored the survival of the species. Eucalyptus monocropping presented a greater initial growth in soil level diameter and canopy area. The eucalyptus species responded to the effects of intercropping and pruning, along time, except for E. tereticornis.

  13. cultivadas bajo un gradiente de sombra

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    Marco V. Gutiérrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el crecimiento de 9 especies de palmas cultivadas bajo un gradiente de sombra producido por mallas de polipropileno negro de 40, 50, 60, 70 y 80% de sombra, más un tratamiento de malla aluminizada de 70%, y uno con plantas a pleno sol. Las especies evaluadas fueron Caryota mitis (cola de pez, Chamaedorea costaricana (pacaya, Chamaedorea tepejilote (tepejilote, Dypsis lutescens (areca, Licuala elegans (licuala, Phoenix roebelenii (fénix, Ptychosperma macarthurii (palma macarthur, Roystonea regia (palma real, y Veitchia merrillii (navideña. Se midió la altura de las plantas, la longitud de las hojas maduras, y el número de hojas cosechadas, durante 5 cosechas por 2 años. En general, la altura de las plantas y la longitud de las hojas fueron menores a 0-40% de sombra, se incrementaron a 50-70%, y decrecieron a 80%. C. mitis, C. tepejilote, L. elegans y P. macarthurii, se comportaron como especies obligadas de sombra y no sobrevivieron a pleno sol. C. costaricana y D. lutescens sobrevivieron a plena exposición solar, y su crecimiento alcanzó valores máximos a 50-60%. P. roebelenii, R. regia, y V. merrillii mostraron un crecimiento reducido a 0-40%, pero éste mejoró bajo los demás niveles de sombra a lo largo del gradiente. En general, 1-2 años es un periodo apropiado para el cultivo de palmas de crecimiento rápido (R. regia, Chamedorea spp., D. lutescens en casas de mallas. Palmas de lento crecimiento (L.elegans pueden permanecer 3-5 años en una casa de sombra. Se discute estrategias para el uso de gradientes de sombra en el tiempo y en el espacio, según la utilidad y los requerimientos de las especies, los requisitos establecidos por el mercado, y el ciclo de producción del material vegetal.

  14. Development and Testing of New Gene-Homologous EST-SSRs for Eucalyptus gomphocephala (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Bradbury

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: New microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR] primers were developed from Eucalyptus expressed sequence tags (ESTs and optimized for genetic studies of the southwestern Australian tree E. gomphocephala, which is severely impacted by tree health decline and habitat fragmentation. Methods and Results: A total of 133 gene-homologous EST-SSR primer pairs were designed for Eucalyptus, and 44 were screened in E. gomphocephala. Of these, 17 produced reliable amplification products and 11 were polymorphic. Between two and 13 alleles were observed per locus, and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.172 to 0.867. All 17 EST-SSRs that amplified E. gomphocephala cross-amplified to at least one of E. marginata, E. camaldulensis, and E. victrix. Conclusions: This set of EST-SSR primer pairs will be valuable tools for future population genetic studies of E. gomphocephala and other eucalypts, particularly for studying gene-linked variation and informing seed-sourcing strategies for ecological restoration.

  15. Removal of mercury(II) from aqueous media using eucalyptus bark: Kinetic and equilibrium studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodbane, Ilhem; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2008-01-01

    In this study, eucalyptus camaldulensis bark, a forest solid waste, is proposed as a novel material for the removal of mercury(II) from aqueous phase. The operating variables studied were sorbent dosage, ionic strength, stirring speed, temperature, solution pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration. Sorption experiments indicated that the sorption capacity was dependent on operating variables and the process was strongly pH-dependent. Kinetic measurements showed that the process was uniform and rapid. In order to investigate the mechanism of sorption, kinetic data were modeled using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations, and intraparticle diffusion model. Among the kinetic models studied, the pseudo-second-order equation was the best applicable model to describe the sorption process. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir model yields a much better fit than the Freundlich model. Isotherms have also been used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sorption. The maximum sorption capacity was 33.11 mg g -1 at 20 deg. C and the negative value of free energy change indicated the spontaneous nature of sorption. These results demonstrate that eucalyptus bark is very effective in the removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions

  16. Transferability of microsatellite markers located in candidate genes for wood properties between Eucalyptus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia V. Acuña

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study:  To analyze the feasibility of extrapolating conclusions on wood quality genetic control between different Eucalyptus species, particularly from species with better genomic information, to those less characterized. For this purpose, the first step is to analyze the conservation and cross-transferability of microsatellites markers (SSRs located in candidate genes.Area of study: Eucalyptus species implanted in Argentina coming from different Australian origins.Materials and methods: Twelve validated and polymorphic SSRs in candidate genes (SSR-CGs for wood quality in E. globulus were selected for cross species amplification in six species: E. grandis, E. saligna, E. dunnii, E. viminalis, E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis.Main results: High cross-species transferability (92% to 100% was found for the 12 polymorphic SSRs detected in E. globulus. These markers revealed allelic diversity in nine important candidate genes: cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR, cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3, the transcription factor LIM1, homocysteine S-methyltransferase (HMT, shikimate kinase (SK, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase 2 (XTH2, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD and peroxidase (PER.Research highlights: The markers described are potentially suitable for comparative QTL mapping, molecular marker assisted breeding (MAB and for population genetic studies across different species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus.Keywords: validation; cross-transferability; SSR; functional markers; eucalypts; Symphyomyrtus.

  17. COMBUSTION PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD

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    Yalçın ÖRS

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the combustion properties of some impregnation materials (abiotic and biotic factors used for eucalyptus wood in interior or exterior environments were investigated. The experimental samples were prepared from Eucalyptus wood based on ASTM-D-1413-76 Tanalith-CBC, boric acid, borax, vacsol-WR, immersol-WR, polyethylen glycole-400 and ammonium sulphate were used as an impregnation material. The results indicated that, vacuum treatment on Eucalyptus gave the lowest retention value of salts. Compounds containing boron+salt increased fire resistance however water repellents decreased the wood flammability.

  18. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    OpenAIRE

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant mate...

  19. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) stimulates different chemical and phytohormone responses in two Eucalyptus varieties that vary in susceptibility to galling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Q; Liu, Y Z; Guo, W F; Solanki, M K; Yang, Z D; Xiang, Y; Ma, Z C; Wen, Y G

    2017-09-01

    Gall-inducing insects produce various types of galls on plants, but little is known about the gall-induction mechanism of these galling insects. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) forms galls of different sizes on several Eucalyptus species. To clarify the physiological responses of Eucalyptus to L. invasa infestation, we measured the dynamics of nitrogen (N), carbon (C), total phenolics, total tannins and four types of phytohormones (zeatin [Z] + zeatin riboside [ZR], gibberellins [GA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and abscisic acid [ABA]) in galled and ungalled leaf tissues of two Eucalyptus horticultural varieties (DH201-2 [Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis] and EA [Eucalyptus exserta]) with different susceptibility to galling throughout the larval developmental stages. Nitrogen, total phenolics, tannins and four kinds of phytohormones strongly accumulated in tissues galled by L. invasa (especially during early larval feeding stages). While N, Z + ZR and GA levels were higher, tannins and ABA levels were lower in the galled tissues on the highly susceptible variety. Nitrogen, total phenolics, GA, Z + ZR and IAA levels in the galled tissues gradually decreased during gall development, but ABA and tannins conversely increased in the galled tissues of the less susceptible variety. Our results suggest that the effects of gall-inducing insects on plants depend not only on the susceptibility of the plant infested but also on the developmental stage of galled tissues. Gall formation process is thus synergistically influenced by both gall-inducing insect and plant genotypes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Quantification and economic valuation of the capture of CO2 for Eucalyptus plantations, established by the Preca in the carboniferous Basins of Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Highland Cundiboyacense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Fonseca, Sandra Ximena; Molano Morales, Miguel Angel

    2001-01-01

    This study, as first measure it looks for to quantify the tons of CO 2 captured by the increment in the biomass of forestall plantations of the Eucalyptus genus established by the PRECA of Ecocarbon in the carboniferous basins of the Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Highland Cundiboyacense and in second measure to determine the economic value that the sale of this environmental service can represent for a developing country as Colombia. The results obtained for each one of the plantations in each carboniferous basin are determined, and statistical models that will allow calculating the capture of CO 2 carried out by plantations of three different species of Eucalyptus (E. camaldulensis, e. grandis and E. globulus), starting from the volume in foot of the timber only barked

  1. Quantification and economic valuation of the capture of CO2 for plantations of the Eucalyptus, genus, settled down by the PRECA in the carboniferous basins of Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Cundiboyacense Highland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz F, Sandra Ximena; Molano M, Miguel Angel

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the first measure is to quantify the tons of CO 2 captured by the increment in the biomass of forest plantations of the Eucalyptus genus, settled down by the PRECA of Ecocarbon in the carboniferous basins of the Cesar, Cauca Valley, Cauca and Cundiboyacense highland and in second measure to determine the economic value that the sale of this environmental service can represent for a developing country as Colombia. The results obtained for each one of the plantations settled down in each carboniferous basin are determined and statistical models that will allow to calculate the capture of CO 2 carried out by plantations of three different species of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis, E. grandis and E. globulus)

  2. Eucalyptus as a landscape tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Douglas Hamilton

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-two species of Eucalyptus were evaluated at the University of California re- search station in San Jose. The purpose: to find acceptable new street and park trees. Growth rates and horticultural characteristics were noted. Forty-three species were studied in locations statewide to evaluate site adaptation and landscape usefulness; flooded, cold, dry, saline....

  3. Cambios anatómicos y morfológicos en plántulas de Eucalyptus sp. en respuesta a diferentes niveles de luz Anatomical and morphological changes in Eucalyptus sp. seedlings in response to different levels of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Guarnaschelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron respuestas en la anatomía y morfología de plántulas de Eucalyptus globulus subesp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis y Eucalyptus camaldulensis creciendo bajo diferentes niveles de luz. Las plantas fueron expuestas a tres regímenes de iluminación: pleno sol (C, 50 % (S50 y 75% de restricción lumínica (S75 y regadas diariamente. Se midieron características morfológicas y anatómicas del follaje, se calcularon coeficientes foliares e índices de plasticidad. Al disminuir la disponibilidad lumínica, las plantas mostraron cambios asociados a la aclimatación a la sombra. Se observaron aumentos en el área foliar y en los coeficientes foliares. Paralelamente se detectaron disminuciones en el espesor de las hojas, de la epidermis, del parénquima en empalizada y en la densidad de estomas. La biomasa foliar y la biomasa total diminuyeron significativamente bajo el nivel S75. El aumento en el nivel de restricción lumínica produjo cambios proporcionales en el espesor de hojas y en el coeficiente de área foliar. Independientemente del nivel de sombra, se detectaron diferencias entre especies, que podrían asociarse a las condiciones ambientales de sus áreas de origen. Si bien se observaron algunas diferencias en los índices de plasticidad, los valores promedio de las tres especies fueron similares. Esto sugiere que, para los caracteres considerados en este estudio, el grado de aclimatación a la sombra fue similar.Responses in the anatomy and morphology of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings, growing under different levels of light were evaluated. Seedlings were submitted to three levels of irradiance: full sun (C, 50% (S50 and 75% of light restriction (S75 and irrigated daily. Morphological and anatomical characteristics were measured; foliar coefficients and indexes of plasticity were calculated. As light availability diminished, plants showed changes associated with shade

  4. Wood Permeability in Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the flow of air and water in Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood. Wood was collected from four trees aged 37 years in an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Brazil. Planks were cut off the basal logs to produce specimens for air and water permeability testing. Results indicated that the longitudinal permeability to air and water of E. grandis wood were, on average, 5% and 10% higher, respectively, than that of E. dunnii wood. E. grandis and E. dunnii wood showed neither air nor water flow in the test for permeability transversal to the fibers, and longitudinal permeability to air exceeded that to water by approximately 50 fold in both species.

  5. In silico characterization of microsatellites in Eucalyptus spp.: abundance, length variation and transposon associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilson Rabello

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the abundance of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSR, in 19 Eucalyptus EST libraries from FORESTs, containing cDNA sequences from five species: E. grandis, E. globulus, E. saligna, E. urophylla and E. camaldulensis. Overall, a total of 11,534 SSRs and 8,447 SSR-containing sequences (25.5% of total ESTs were identified, with an average of 1 SSR/2.5 kb when considering all motifs and 1 SSR/3.1 kb when mononucleotides were not included. Dimeric repeats were the most abundant (41.03%, followed by trimerics (36.11% and monomerics (19.59%. The most frequent motifs were A/T (87.24% for monomerics, AG/CT (94.44% for dimerics, CCG/CGG (37.87% for trimerics, AAGG/CCTT (18.75% for tetramerics, AGAGG/CCTCT (14.04% for pentamerics and ACGGCG/CGCCGT (6.30% for hexamerics. According to sequence length, Class II or potentially variable markers were the most commonly found, followed by Class III. Two sequences presented high similarity to previously published Eucalyptus sequences from the NCBI database, EMBRA_72 and EMBRA_122. Local blastn search for transposons did not reveal the presence of any transposable elements with a cut-off value of 10-50. The large number of microsatellites identified will contribute to the refinement of marker-assisted mapping and to the discovery of novel markers for virtually all genes of economic interest.

  6. Breeding Eucalyptus for disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edival A.V. Zauza; Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lúcio Mauro da Silva Guimarães; João Flávio da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations cover about 1.5 percent of the agricultural area in Brazil, and contribute to 4 percent of GDP and 3 percent in exports of forest products. Technological and research advances in silviculture and genetic improvement have increased productivity up to 80 m³ of wood/ha/year, with an average of 35 to 45 m³/ha/year. The greatest...

  7. First insights into the functional role of vasicentric tracheids and parenchyma in eucalyptus species with solitary vessels: do they contribute to xylem efficiency or safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barotto, Antonio José; Fernandez, María Elena; Gyenge, Javier; Meyra, Ariel; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Monteoliva, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between hydraulic specific conductivity (k s ) and vulnerability to cavitation (VC) with size and number of vessels has been studied in many angiosperms. However, few of the studies link other cell types (vasicentric tracheids (VT), fibre-tracheids, parenchyma) with these hydraulic functions. Eucalyptus is one of the most important genera in forestry worldwide. It exhibits a complex wood anatomy, with solitary vessels surrounded by VT and parenchyma, which could serve as a good model to investigate the functional role of the different cell types in xylem functioning. Wood anatomy (several traits of vessels, VT, fibres and parenchyma) in conjunction with maximum k s and VC was studied in adult trees of commercial species with medium-to-high wood density (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.). Traits of cells accompanying vessels presented correlations with functional variables suggesting that they contribute to both increasing connectivity between adjacent vessels-and, therefore, to xylem conduction efficiency-and decreasing the probability of embolism propagation into the tissue, i.e., xylem safety. All three species presented moderate-to-high resistance to cavitation (mean P 50 values = -2.4 to -4.2 MPa) with no general trade-off between efficiency and safety at the interspecific level. The results in these species do not support some well-established hypotheses of the functional meaning of wood anatomy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii=Dinamica de enraizamento adventício em miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Natal Gonçalves

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to determine the optimum time for permanence of vegetative propagules (mini-cuttings inside a greenhouse for rooting, and this value can be used to optimize the structure of the nursery. The aim of this study was to determine the dynamics of adventitious rooting in mini-cuttings of three clones of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Sprouts of H12, H19 and H20 clones were collected from mini-stumps that were planted in gutters containing sand and grown in a semi-hydroponic system. The basal region of the mini-cuttings was immersed in 2,000 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution for 10 seconds. The rooting percentage of the mini-cuttings, the total length of the root system and the rooting rate per mini-cutting were also evaluated at 0 (time of planting, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56 days. We used logistic and exponential regression to mathematically model the speed of rhizogenesis. The rooting percentage was best represented as a logistic model, and the total length of the root system was best represented as an exponential model. The clones had different speeds of adventitious rooting. The optimum time for permanence of the mini-cuttings inside the greenhouse for rooting was between 35 and 42 days, and varied depending on the genetic material.O tempo ideal de permanência de propágulos vegetativos (miniestacas no interior da casa de vegetação para a rizogênese é possível de ser determinado matematicamente, o que pode otimizar as instalações do viveiro. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dinâmica de enraizamento de miniestacas de três clones de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Brotações dos clones H19, H12 e H20 foram coletadas de minicepas plantadas em canaletão com areia e cultivadas sob sistema semi-hidropônico. A região basal da miniestaca foi imersa em solução de 2.000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB por 10 segundos. A porcentagem de enraizamento de miniestacas, o comprimento

  9. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  10. Early selection of Eucalyptus clones in retrospective nursery test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the framework of the eucalyptus breeding programme in the Congo, two retrospective tests were conducted using mature clones in the field and young cuttings under nursery conditions with two hybrids: 13 clones of Eucalyptus tereticornis* Eucalyptus grandis for the test TC 82-1B and 17 clones of Eucalyptus ...

  11. Problemas de Clasificación en las Plantas Cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaberg Ewert

    1949-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años, se han recolectado numerosos tipos de plantas cultivadas en varias regiones del mundo. Entre éstos, hay colecciones de granos pequeños, de lino, de fríjoles y guisantes y de otras muchas plantas. En muchos países, las especies y variedades principales de estas colecciones se cultivan para investigaciones en grandes viveros. Los investigadores que se encargan de cultivar estas colecciones confrontan problemas de clasificación y descripción de las colecciones. Han encontrado una continua variación, tanto dentro como entre las especies y, por consecuencia, han hallado inadecuados muchos de 105 sistemas de clasificación. La continua variación en el material ha causado una nueva ola de discusión relativa al concepto de especie y a su definición.

  12. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Taher Maghsoodlou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil compositionfrom leaves and flowers of E. microthecaand E. viminalisleavesgrowing in the Southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013.After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. Results: In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%, aromadendrene (12.773%, α-pinene (6.752%, globulol (5.997%, ledene (5.665%, P-cymen (5.251%, and β-pinene (5.006% were the major constituents.  In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%, O-cymen (13.522%, β-pinene (11.082%, aromadendrene (7.444%, α-phellandrene (7.006%, globulol (5.419%, and 9-octadecenamide (5.414% were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%, α-pinene (13.379%, limonene (5.443%, and globulol (3.054%. Conclusion: The results showed the essential oils fromthe aerial parts of Eucalyptus speciesare a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  13. Essential oil composition of Eucalyptus microtheca and Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodlou, Malek Taher; Kazemipoor, Nasrin; Valizadeh, Jafar; Falak Nezhad Seifi, Mohsen; Rahneshan, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus (Fam. Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant and various Eucalyptus species possess potent pharmacological actions against diabetes, hepatotoxicity, and inflammation. This study aims to investigate essential oil composition from leaves and flowers of E. microtheca and E. viminalis leaves growing in the Southeast of Iran. The aerial parts of these plants were collected from Zahedan, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran in 2013. After drying the plant materials in the shade, the chemical composition of the essential oils was obtained by hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. In the essential oil of E. microtheca leaves, 101 compounds representing 100%, were identified. Among them, α-phellandrene (16.487%), aromadendrene (12.773%), α-pinene (6.752%), globulol (5.997%), ledene (5.665%), P-cymen (5.251%), and β-pinene (5.006%) were the major constituents. In the oil of E. microtheca flowers, 88 compounds representing 100%, were identified in which α-pinene (16.246%), O-cymen (13.522%), β-pinene (11.082%), aromadendrene (7.444%), α-phellandrene (7.006%), globulol (5.419%), and 9-octadecenamide (5.414%) were the major components. Sixty six compounds representing 100% were identified in the oil of E. viminalis leaves. The major compounds were 1, 8-cineole (57.757%), α-pinene (13.379%), limonene (5.443%), and globulol (3.054%). The results showed the essential oils from the aerial parts of Eucalyptus species are a cheap source for the commercial isolation of α-phellandrene, α-pinene, and 1, 8-cineole compounds to be used in medicinal and food products. Furthermore, these plants could be an alternative source of insecticide agents.

  14. Avaliação da atividade fungitóxica de óleos essenciais de folhas de Eucalyptus sobre Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea e Bipolaris sorokiniana Fungitoxic activity evaluation of essential leaf oils of Eucalyptus on Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea and Bipolaris sorokiniana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Soares P. Salgado

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das plantas são resistentes aos diferentes patógenos, e essa resistência pode estar relacionada à existência de compostos fungistáticos naturalmente produzidos. Com o presente trabalho, avaliou-se a atividade fungitóxica de óleos essenciais de eucaliptos. Os óleos foram obtidos de folhas dos eucaliptos mediante arraste a vapor de água, utilizando o aparelho de Clevenger modificado. Nos ensaios biológicos, foram empregados os fitopatógenos Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea e Bipolaris sorokiniana. O crescimento dos microorganismos na presença de diferentes concentrações de óleo (5, 50 e 500 mg/Kg, usando os meios de cultura BDA (Batata-Dextrose-Ágar e PCA (Batata-Cenoura-Ágar, foi avaliado. Nas concentrações de 500 mg/Kg dos óleos, foram observadas inibições significativas no crescimento micelial das espécies fúngicas, após período de 7 dias. No entanto, o óleo essencial de Eucalyptus urophylla foi o que apresentou maior ação fungitóxica, que foi atribuída à presença do composto denominado globulol, ausente no E.camaldulensis e no E. citriodora.Most plants are resistant to different pathogens and this resistance may be related to the existence of naturally produced fungistatic components. The present work evaluated the fungitoxic activity of essential oils from three eucalyptus species. The essential oils were obtained from eucalyptus leaves by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus. The phytopatogens Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea and Bipolaris sorokiniana were employed in the biological tests. The growth of fungi in the presence of different concentrations of oil (5, 50, and 500 mg/kg, using BDA (Potato-Dextrose-agar and PCA (Potato-Carrot-agar culture media were evaluated. Significant inhibition of the micelial growth of the fungal species was observed at the concentration of 500 mg/kg of oil after a period of seven days. The essential oil of Eucalyptus urophylla showed the

  15. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Calder

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to

  16. Eucalyptus water use greater than rainfall input - possible explanation from southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, I. R.; Rosier, P. T. W.; Prasanna, K. T.; Parameswarappa, S.

    Hydrological and silvicultural studies carried out in southern India on the effects of plantations of Eucalyptus and other fast growing exotic tree species have determined the impacts of these plantations on water resources, erosion, soil nutrient status and growth rates at sites of differing rainfall and soil depth in Karnataka. Whilst providing new information on these issues, the studies also raised two important questions: what was the explanation for the anomalous result that the water use of 3400 mm from Eucalyptus plantations at Hosakote over a three year period exceeded the rainfall of 2100 mm over the same period and why were growth rates of woodlots on most farmer's fields higher than those of plantations on land owned by the Karnataka Forest Department? The records of the soil moisture depletion patterns under these plantations from the day of planting provide the basis for the answers to both questions: i) whilst roots are penetrating into deeper soil layers, they are able to extract from a reservoir of water additional to that available from the rainfall each year, ii) farmer's land on which short rooted agricultural crops have been grown previously is likely to have a much higher soil water status than land previously under forest or scrub vegetation. These new studies have also established that the development of the drying front under the Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations is very rapid, indicating average root extension rates in excess of 2.5 m per year, whilst those under Tectona grandis and Artocarpus heterophyllus advanced at approximately half the rate. These results have obvious implications for the long term sustainability of growth rates from these plantations and the recharge of groundwater. The authors believe that this study may be the first to report neutron probe soil moisture depletion observations, from the date of planting, beneath tree plantations in a dry climate. The extent to which the roots were able to penetrate raises the

  17. Eucalyptus gunnii: A possible source of bioenergy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Mary; Moore, Tom [UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2008-10-15

    Eucalyptus are widely grown throughout the world for timber, essential oil, fuel, biomass and cut foliage. In experiments in University College Dublin (UCD), Eucalyptus gunnii yielded an average dry weight of 4.74 kg per plant per annum, equivalent to 12.59 t dm ha{sup -1}. The average calorific values of 17.60 MJ kg{sup -1} (leafy material) and 17.09 MJ kg{sup -1} (woody material) are less than the values reported for other species of Eucalyptus. (author)

  18. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen-Sarma, P K; Thakur, M L

    1983-12-01

    In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

  19. Quantifying potential water savings from clearing invasive alien Eucalyptus camaldulensis using in situ and high resolution remote sensing data in the Berg River Catchment, Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dzikiti, Sebinasi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available pulse velocity sap flow gauges while evapotranspiration (ET) at the cleared site was measured using an energy balance system comprising a boundary layer scintillometer, weather station and additional energy balance sensors. Daily peak transpiration by a...

  20. Marker-assisted selection in Eucalyptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattapaglia, D.

    2007-01-01

    Planted Eucalyptus occupies globally more than 18 million hectares and has become the most widely planted hardwood tree in the world, supplying high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications. In this chapter an overview is presented on the status and perspectives of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in species of Eucalyptus. After an introduction to the main features of modern eucalypt breeding and clonal forestry, some applications of molecular markers in support to operational breeding are presented. By reviewing the status of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Eucalyptus, the challenges and some realistic prospects for the application of MAS to improve relevant traits are outlined. With the expected availability of more powerful genomic tools, including a draft of the Eucalyptus genome, the main challenges in implementing MAS will be in phenotyping trees accurately, analysing the overwhelming amount of genomic data available and translating this into truly useful molecular tools for breeding. (author)

  1. The floral transcriptome of Eucalyptus grandis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vining, KJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As a step toward functional annotation of genes required for floral initiation and development within the Eucalyptus genome, we used short read sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of floral buds from early and late developmental stages...

  2. Regeneration and transformation of Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Esteki, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Biologia Molecular, Biotecnologia e Bioempreendedorismo em Plantas Eucalyptus grandis is the most widely used species in planted forests in tropical and subtropical areas. The traits of interest underlying Eucalyptus breeding programs concern productivity and wood quality for the pulp and paper industry, as well as biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. The development of an efficient transformation protocol is necessary to explore eucalypt resources th...

  3. The Eucalyptus terpene synthase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külheim, Carsten; Padovan, Amanda; Hefer, Charles; Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Myburg, Alexander A; Degenhardt, Jörg; Foley, William J

    2015-06-11

    Terpenoids are abundant in the foliage of Eucalyptus, providing the characteristic smell as well as being valuable economically and influencing ecological interactions. Quantitative and qualitative inter- and intra- specific variation of terpenes is common in eucalypts. The genome sequences of Eucalyptus grandis and E. globulus were mined for terpene synthase genes (TPS) and compared to other plant species. We investigated the relative expression of TPS in seven plant tissues and functionally characterized five TPS genes from E. grandis. Compared to other sequenced plant genomes, Eucalyptus grandis has the largest number of putative functional TPS genes of any sequenced plant. We discovered 113 and 106 putative functional TPS genes in E. grandis and E. globulus, respectively. All but one TPS from E. grandis were expressed in at least one of seven plant tissues examined. Genomic clusters of up to 20 genes were identified. Many TPS are expressed in tissues other than leaves which invites a re-evaluation of the function of terpenes in Eucalyptus. Our data indicate that terpenes in Eucalyptus may play a wider role in biotic and abiotic interactions than previously thought. Tissue specific expression is common and the possibility of stress induction needs further investigation. Phylogenetic comparison of the two investigated Eucalyptus species gives insight about recent evolution of different clades within the TPS gene family. While the majority of TPS genes occur in orthologous pairs some clades show evidence of recent gene duplication, as well as loss of function.

  4. Produtividade de madeira do eucalipto correlacionada com atributos do solo visando ao mapeamento de zonas específicas de manejo Eucalyptus wood productivity correlated with soil attributes aiming the mapping of management specifics regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel de Passos e Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A correta intervenção espacial na administração da lavoura, decorrente das zonas específicas de manejo do solo, aumenta a produtividade e a lucratividade agrícola. No ano de 2010, em Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (20° 20' S lat.; 51° 24' W long. foram empregadas correlações, espaciais e de Pearson, entre dados da planta de eucalipto e alguns atributos físico-químicos do solo, visando encontrar aquele que se correlacionasse bem com a produtividade de madeira. Para tanto, instalou-se uma rede geoestatística para a coleta de dados de solo e planta, com 120 pontos amostrais, num talhão de Eucalyptus camaldulensis de 2 anos. O solo foi um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (Haplic Acrustox com declive de 0,025m m-1. O diâmetro basal da copa e a densidade do solo, por resultarem estreitas correlações com o volume de madeira, evidenciaram zonas específicas de manejo do solo intimamente associadas à produção de madeira do eucalipto.The perfect spatial intervention to manage the cultivation of the land, deriving from specific regions of the soil mapping, increases the agricultural productivity, as well as its clear gain. The relationships, spatial and Pearson, between eucalyptus data plant with some physical and chemical attributes of soil, in the growing season of 2011, in Selviria County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil (20° 20' S lat.; 51° 24' W long., were studied in order to obtain the one that could have the best relationship in order to improve the wood productivity. Thus, a geostatistical grid was installed for the soil and plant data collection, it contained 120 sample points, in plantation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis of 2 years old. The soil was a Dystrophic Red Latosol (Haplic Acrustox whit slope of 0.025m m-1. Due to their excellent relationship with wood productivity, the basis diameter of the crown and the bulk density showed management specific regions of soil whit high relation to eucalyptus wood productivity.

  5. Profitability of Eucalyptus growing in Busiro, Mpigi District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supply of woody products from the existing forest resources is decreasing. ... Key words: Household level investments; Eucalyptus; financial profitability. ... eucalyptus (kalitunsi) tree species to other forest tree ... financial analyses is an assumption that market prices eucalyptus woodlot is situated in ... not be of good quality.

  6. Chelant-enhanced heavy metals uptake by Eucalyptus trees under controlled deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Pinchas; Rathod, Paresh; Beriozkin, Anna; Ein-Gal, Oz; Hass, Amir

    2014-05-01

    Enhancement of phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils employs organic ligands, aimed to solubilize, phytoextract and translocate metals into the canopy. The use of more persistent chelants (e.g. EDTA) is phasing out due to concerns over their role in the environment. We tested the hypothesis that controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) of the fast growing, salinity resistant Eucalyptus camaldulensis coupled with timely EDTA application enhances sediment phytoremediation while minimizing leaching of metal complexes below the root-zone. This was tested in 220-L lysimeters packed with sand mixed with metals polluted biosolids. One year old trees were brought under CDI with tap or RO water for two growing seasons. EDTA, EDDS and citric acid fertigation at 2 mM started in each May for 2.5-3.5 months, and prescribed soil leaching and sampling of tree leaves started thereafter. While all 3 chelants solubilized biosolids metal in batch extraction (EDDS often being the more efficient), EDTA was the only to increased metal concentrations both in the soil solution and in the Eucalyptus leaves. The average concentrations in the soil solution and in the leaves, in the EDTA vs. control (chelant-free) treatments, all respectively, were: Cd - 200 mg L-1 vs. 1.0, and 67 vs. 21 mg kg-1; Cu: 90 vs. 1.5 mg L-1, and 17 vs. 3.0 mg kg-1; Cr: 4.0 vs. 1.4 mg L-1, and 3.0 vs. 1.0 mg kg-1; Ni: 60 mg L-1 vs. 14, and 20 vs. 6.0 mg kg-1; Pb: >44 vs. 0.1 mg L-1, and 9.0 vs. 1.0 mg kg-1; and Zn: 650 vs. 4.0 mg L-1 and 200 vs. 70 mg kg-1. While EDDS was undetectable in all the leachates, EDTA concentrated to up to 100 mM. At 10 mM soil solution concentration, EDDS half-life in acclimated lysimeter media was 5-11 days and that of EDTA was ≥27-d. The study suggests that sustainable phytostabilization and phytoextraction of heavy metals are achievable under CDI with EDTA augmentation at low dose. This was yet futile with the biodegradable EDDS and citric acid. CDI with RO water further widened

  7. Growth potential limits drought morphological plasticity in seedlings from six Eucalyptus provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Pablo H; Fernández, Roberto J

    2016-02-01

    Water stress modifies plant above- vs belowground biomass allocation, i.e., morphological plasticity. It is known that all species and genotypes reduce their growth rate in response to stress, but in the case of water stress it is unclear whether the magnitude of such reduction is linked to the genotype's growth potential, and whether the reduction can be largely attributed to morphological adjustments such as plant allocation and leaf and root anatomy. We subjected seedlings of six seed sources, three from each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (potentially fast growing) and E. globulus (inherently slow growing), to three experimental water regimes. Biomass, leaf area and root length were measured in a 6-month glasshouse experiment. We then performed functional growth analysis of relative growth rate (RGR), and aboveground (leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass ratio (LMR)) and belowground (root length ratio (RLR), specific root length (SRL) and root mass ratio (RMR)) morphological components. Total biomass, root biomass and leaf area were reduced for all Eucalyptus provenances according to drought intensity. All populations exhibited drought plasticity, while those of greater growth potential (RGRmax) had a larger reduction in growth (discounting the effect of size). A positive correlation was observed between drought sensitivity and RGRmax. Aboveground, drought reduced LAR and LMR; under severe drought a negative correlation was found between LMR and RGRmax. Belowground, drought reduced SRL but increased RMR, resulting in no change in RLR. Under severe drought, a negative correlation was found between RLR, SRL and RGRmax. Our evidence strongly supports the classic ecophysiological trade-off between growth potential and drought tolerance for woody seedlings. It also suggests that slow growers would have a low capacity to adjust their morphology. For shoots, this constraint on plasticity was best observed in partition (i.e., LMR) whereas for

  8. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  9. Densidade básica da madeira de sete espécies e três clones de eucalipto antes e durante o cultivo de shiitake = Basic density of wood from seven species and three clones of eucalyptus before and during shiitake cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Nogueira de Andrade

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a densidade básica da madeira e casca de sete espécies (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E. paniculata e E. pellita e três clones de eucalipto (híbridos de E. grandis x E. urophylla antes e durante o cultivo das linhagens LE-95/01 e LE-96/18 de shiitake (Lentinula edodes em toras. Cada linhagem de shiitake foi inoculada em nove toras de cada tipo de eucalipto com 1 m de comprimento e 9 a 14 cm de diâmetro. Assim, o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 20tratamentos e 9 repetições, sendo cada repetição correspondente a uma tora. As toras foram mantidas em estufa climatizada, com temperatura de 25 ± 5ºC e umidade relativa do ar entre 60-80% durante 12 meses. Para a determinação da densidade básica, analisaram-secunhas de discos e cascas de eucalipto recém-cortadas (sem inoculação das linhagens de L. edodes e em cunhas de discos retirados de toras já inoculadas com as linhagens de L. edodes após 8 e 12 meses de incubação. Verificou-se que a densidade básica da madeira, aolongo do ciclo de cultivo, foi reduzida em todos os tipos de eucalipto.Basic density of the wood and bark of seven eucalyptus species (E. saligna, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora, E.paniculata and E. pellita and three eucalyptus clones (E. grandis x E. urophylla hybrids were evaluated before and during the cultivation of shiitake (Lentinula edodes strains LE-95/01and LE-96/18 in logs. Each shiitake strain was inoculated into 9 logs of each type of eucalyptus with length of 1 m and diameter of 9 to 14 cm. Thus, the experimental design was totally randomized, with 20 treatments and 9 repetitions, with each repetition corresponding to one log. The logs were kept in a greenhouse, under the temperature of25 ± 5ºC and relative air humidity between 60-80 %, during 12 months. To determine basic density, newly cut disks and barks wedges of eucalyptus (without the

  10. TANNIN CONTENT DETERMINATION IN THE BARK OF Eucalyptus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the tannin contents in the bark oftwenty-five species of Eucalyptus through two extraction methods, one using hot water andthe other a sequence of toluene and ethanol. The results showed that the extraction methodspresented significant differences in the tannin contents. The method using the sequencetoluene and ethanol, for most of the species, promoted a larger extraction of tannin. The hotwater method presented higher contents of tannin for Eucalyptus cloeziana (40,31%,Eucalyptus melanophoia (20,49% and Eucalyptus paniculata (16,03%. In the toluene andethanol method the species with higher tannin content was Eucalyptus cloeziana (31,00%,Eucalyptus tereticornis (22,83% and Eucalyptus paniculata (17,64%. The Eucalyptuscloeziana presented great potential as commercial source of tannin, independent of theextraction method considered.

  11. Botanical, Phytochemical, and Anticancer Properties of the Eucalyptus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; Jyoti Bhuyan, Deep; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    The genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) is mainly native to Australia; however, some species are now distributed globally. Eucalyptus has been used in indigenous Australian medicines for the treatment of a range of aliments including colds, flu, fever, muscular aches, sores, internal pains, and inflammation. Eucalyptus oils containing volatile compounds have been widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries for a multitude of purposes. In addition, Eucalyptus extracts containing nonvolatile compounds are also an important source of key bioactive compounds, and several studies have linked Eucalyptus extracts with anticancer properties. With the increasing research interest in Eucalyptus and its health properties, this review briefly outlines the botanical features of Eucalyptus, discusses its traditional use as medicine, and comprehensively reviews its phytochemical and anticancer properties and, finally, proposes trends for future studies. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Clonal propagation of eucalyptus by tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehra-Palta, A.

    1982-07-01

    Multiple adventitious buds were induced on cotyledons, shoot tips and nodal stem segments of Eucalyptus species cultured on a defined nutrient medium supplemented with the cytokinin zeatin and the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The adventitious buds could be recycled on cytokinin medium to produce more buds thus providing the possibility of producing large clones from selected genotypes. The adventitious shoots were rooted in auxin medium and some of the resulting propagules were outplanted in the field. These techniques have the potential for use in the genetic improvement of Eucalyptus. (Refs. 15).

  13. Actinomycetes from Eucalyptus and their biological activities for controlling Eucalyptus leaf and shoot blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himaman, Winanda; Thamchaipenet, Arinthip; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Duangmal, Kannika

    2016-01-01

    In Thailand, Eucalyptus plantations rapidly expand across the country. Leaf and shoot blight caused by Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans is a serious disease in Eucalyptus plantations. In this study, a total of 477 actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from roots and rhizosphere soil of Eucalyptus. Four hundred and thirty nine isolates were classified as streptomycetes and 38 isolates were non-streptomycetes. Among these isolates, 272 (57.0%), 118 (24.7%) and 241 (50.5%) isolates were antagonistic to Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium sp. and Teratosphaeria destructans, respectively. All isolates were tested for their abilities to produce siderophores, indole acetic acid (IAA) and solubilise phosphate. Most isolates (464, 97.3%) produced siderophores. The majority of isolates (345, 72.3%) solubilised phosphate. In addition, almost half of these isolates (237, 49.7%) produced indole acetic acid. Strain EUSKR2S82 which showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all tested fungi with plant growth promoting ability was selected to test with Eucalyptus. This strain could colonize plant roots and increase Eucalyptus roots length. In a detached leaves bioassay, the disease severity of EUSKR2S82-inoculated Eucalyptus leaves was only 30% compared to 95% in the control treatment. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain EUSKR2S82 was related to Streptomyces ramulosus NRRL-B 2714(T) (99.44% similarity). Identification of non-streptomycete isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequences classified them into 9 genera: Actinoallomurus, Actinomadura, Amycolatopsis, Cryptosporangium, Microbispora, Micromonospora, Nocardia, Nonomuraea and Pseudonocardia. It is evident that Eucalyptus tree harbored several genera of actinomycetes. The selected isolate, EUSKR2S82 showed potential as a candidate for biocontrol agent of leaf and shoot blight of Eucalyptus and to promote growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Gmb

  14. Managing a Coastal Bluegum (Eucalyptus globules) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Osterling

    1983-01-01

    Eucalyptus was thought to be a replacement to oak and other hardwoods for many products. Thousands of acres have been planted and now are in need of management. Management techniques are discussed in context with a coastal stand of approximately 300 acres of mixed aged bluegum. Potential markets are explored.

  15. Determination of pectin content of eucalyptus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coetzee, B.; Schols, H.A.; Wolfaardt, F.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known about the occurrence of pectin in wood and it is speculated that between 10 mg g-1 and 40 mg g-1 of wood consists of pectin. The present study aimed to quantify pectin in eucalyptus wood and to determine the influence of tree species, yield potential of the site, tree age class

  16. Supplementary data: Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation. R. Yasodha, R. Sumathi, P. Chezhian, S. Kavitha and M. Ghosh. J. Genet. 87, XX-XX. Tm. CT. 2222. NA. 60 125. 192. Table 1. List of EST-SSR primers developed for E. globulus. No. of. Tm Product. Acc. no. SSR repeats. Forward primer.

  17. Effects of autohydrolysis of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis on influence of chemical components and crystallinity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Morais, Alaine Patrícia; Sansígolo, Cláudio Angeli; de Oliveira Neto, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Samples of Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust were autohydrolyzed in aqueous conditions to reach temperatures in the range 110-190°C and reaction times of 0-150min in a minireactor. In each minireactor were used a liquor:wood ratio (10:1 L:kg dry wood), in order to assess the effects of the autohydrolysis severity and the crystalline properties of cellulose. The content of extractives, lignin, holocellulose, cellulose, hemicelluloses and crystallinity index obtained from the solid fraction after autohydrolysis of sawdust were determined. This study demonstrated that the hemicelluloses were extensively removed at 170 and 190°C, whereas cellulose was partly degraded to Eucalyptus urograndis and Eucalyptus grandis sawdust. The lignin content decreased, while the extractives content increased. It was defined that during autohydrolysis, had a slight decreased on crystalline structure of cellulose of Eucalyptus urogandis and Eucalyptus grandis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Five year growth and survival of Eucalyptus hybrid clones in coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -urophylla i.e. GU hybrids) and three local landraces (E. camaldulensis, E. tereticornis and E. urophylla) were established in Gede, Sokoke and Msambweni in the Coast province of Kenya in 2002, to compare growth, survival and adaptability ...

  19. Is Eucalyptus Cryptically Self-incompatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Tasmien N; Johnson, Steven D

    2007-12-01

    The probability that seeds will be fertilized from self- versus cross-pollen depends strongly on whether plants have self-incompatibility systems, and how these systems influence the fate of pollen tubes. In this study of breeding systems in Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis, epifluorescence microscopy was used to study pollen tube growth in styles following self- and cross-pollinations. Pollen tubes from self-pollen took significantly longer than those from cross-pollen to grow to the base of the style in both E. urophylla (120 h vs. 96 h) and E. grandis (96 h vs. 72 h). In addition, both species exhibited reduced seed yields following self-pollination compared with cross-pollination. The present observations suggest that, in addition to a late-acting self-incompatibility barrier, cryptic self-incompatibility could be a mechanism responsible for the preferential out-crossing system in these two eucalypt species.

  20. Teor de bixina em quatro variedades de Bixa orellana L. cultivadas na Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbosa-Filho

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi verificado o teor de Óleos, sólidos e bixina em sementes de quatro variedades de Bixa orellana L. cultivadas na Paraíba: "Casca verde", "Casca vermelha", Bico de calango" e "Grão preto". Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os tipos "Casca verde" e "Casca vermelha" que apresentaram um rendimento em bixina pura, cristalina, de 1,3 e 1,1%, respectivamente.

  1. Water erosion risk prediction in eucalyptus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayesse Aparecida da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus plantations are normally found in vulnerable ecosystems such as steep slope, soil with low natural fertility and lands that were degraded by agriculture. The objective of this study was to obtain Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE factors and use them to estimate water erosion risk in regions with eucalyptus planted. The USLE factors were obtained in field plots under natural rainfall in the Rio Doce Basin, MG, Brazil, and the model applied to assess erosion risk using USLE in a Geographic Information System. The study area showed rainfall-runoff erosivity values from 10,721 to 10,642 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1. Some soils (Latosols had very low erodibility values (2.0 x 10-4 and 1.0 x 10-4t h MJ-1 mm-1, the topographic factor ranged from 0.03 to 10.57 and crop and management factor values obtained for native forest, eucalyptus and planted pasture were 0.09, 0.12 and 0.22, respectively. Water erosion risk estimates for current land use indicated that the areas where should receive more attention were mainly areas with greater topographic factors and those with Cambisols. Planning of forestry activities in this region should consider implementation of other conservation practices beyond those already used, reducing areas with a greater risk of soil erosion and increasing areas with very low risk.

  2. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus ( Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis leaf meal (ELM supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05 while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05. Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05 with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05 while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency.

  3. allelopathic effects of eucalyptus tereticornis on phaseolus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS ON PHASEOLUS. VULGARIS SEEDLINGS. Sale, F.A.. Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Faculty of ..... Sale, F.A. (2009). Allelopathic influence of Acacia auriculiformis. Eucalyptus citriodora and Gliricidia sepium on germination, growth and yield of millet.

  4. Genetic basis of resistance in eucalyptus spp. pathosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acelino Couto Alfenas; Lucio Mauro da Silva Guimaraes; Marcos Deon Vilela Resende

    2012-01-01

    Eucalyptus is the most widely planted hardwood crop in world-wide tropical and subtropical regions because of its high growth rate, broad adaptability, and multipurpose wood properties. Until the 1970s, the Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil were practically disease free. However, plantations have continued to expand into warmer...

  5. Energy, chemicals and carbon: future options for the Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the current Eucalyptus value chain and the possible drivers that may impact upon it. The potential consequences of climate change on the growth and yield of Eucalyptus are discussed and the impact of the security of oil reserves and increased costs of fossil-fuel-derived energy and raw materials upon ...

  6. Diseases on Eucalyptus species in Zimbabwean plantations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zimbabwe embarked on planting Eucalyptus species in the early 1900s. Based on a robust breeding programme, it has become a major source of seed for other countries in and outside Africa. Tree health surveys conducted on Eucalyptus in some east and southern African countries over the past two decades have ...

  7. Clonal differences in log end splitting in Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the juvenile–mature correlation of log end splitting among Eucalyptus grandis clones from two trials and how differences in splitting relate to differences in wood density, pith-to-bark gradient and growth rate. Two approximately 20-year-old Eucalyptus grandis clonal trials at Bergvliet plantation were ...

  8. Eucalyptus Forest Information System for the Portuguese pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Fonseca; Rita Crespo; Henk Feith; Jose Luis Carvalho; Antonio Macedo; Joao Pedro Pina

    2000-01-01

    To support the management of the Portuguese eucalyptus forest, the Association of Portuguese Pulp and Paper Industries (CELPA) decided to develop a Eucalyptus Forest Information System (EFIS). The specific goals of the EFIS are: characterization and development of the eucalyptus forest over time; planning of successive national eucalyptus forest inventories; estimation...

  9. USE OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD FOR ORIENTED STRAND BOARD (OSB MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus species for OSB manufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 6% of the phenol-formaldheyde resin contents. The following Eucalyptus species were studied: E. grandis E. dunnii ,E. tereticornis E. saligna ,E. citriodora, and E. maculata. The results of the physical and mechanical property tests showed high potentiality of the uses of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna for OSB manufacturing, Boards manufactured with Eucalyptus grandis wood presented similar or higher average values for physical and mechanical properties, in comparison to Pinus taeda, which is the main species used for OSB production in Brazil.

  10. Performance of Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger G. Skolmen

    1986-01-01

    Australian provenances of Eucalyptus grandis and E. saligna were compared at four locations on the island of Hawaii to seek seed sources better than those in current use which were introduced earlier from unrecorded locations in Australia. A broad range of latitude and elevation was represented among the provenances. At all four...

  11. Variation in natural durability of seven Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla hybrid clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.J.N. Franca; T.S.F.A. Franca; R.A Arango; B.M. Woodward; G.B. Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    Programs aimed at developing clones of hybrid trees are commonly established in Brazil to meet the demands of various forest-based industries. These programs have continually improved the quality of eucalyptus wood, which has the potential to reduce deforestation by lowering demand for other high-value species. This is particularly true in the lumber market, but little...

  12. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3) and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  13. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Tan, Ling; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yihui; Cheng, Fei; Ye, Shaoming; Jiang, Weixin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU9’(G9), E. grandis × E. urophylla ‘GLGU12’ (G12), E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis ‘GLUC3’ (G3) and E. urophylla ‘GLU4’(G4), were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM) in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM), the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones. PMID

  14. Effect of Low pH and Aluminum Toxicity on the Photosynthetic Characteristics of Different Fast-Growing Eucalyptus Vegetatively Propagated Clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yang

    Full Text Available Knowing how acid soils and aluminum in soils may limit the growth of Eucalyptus trees in plantations is important because these plantations grow in many tropical and subtropical regions. Seedlings of four vegetatively propagated Eucalyptus clones, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU9'(G9, E. grandis × E. urophylla 'GLGU12' (G12, E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis 'GLUC3' (G3 and E. urophylla 'GLU4'(G4, were subjected to liquid culture with Hoagland nutrient solution for 40 days, then treated with four different treatments of acid and aluminum for 1 day. The four treatments used either pH 3.0 or 4.0 with or without added aluminum (4.4 mM in all possible combinations; a control used no added aluminum at pH 4.8. Subsequently, the photosynthetic parameters and morphology of leaves from eucalypt seedlings were determined and observed. The results showed that the tested chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were apparently inhibited by aluminum. Under uniform Al concentration (4.4 mM, the Al-induced limitation to photosynthetic parameters increased with pH, indicating acid stimulation to Al toxicity. Among all treatments, the most significant reduction was found in the combination of pH 3.0 and 4.4 mM Al. The photosynthetic and transpiration rates showed similar trends with G9 > G12 > G3 > G4, suggesting that G9 and G12 had higher Al-tolerance than other two clones. Microscopic observation revealed changes in leaf morphology when exposed to Al stress; for example, a reduced thickness of leaf epidermis and palisade tissue, the descendant palisade tissue/spongy tissue ratio and leaf tissue looseness. Overall, the acid and aluminum stress exerted negative effects on the photosynthetic activity of eucalypt seedlings, but the differences in tolerance to Al toxicity between the clones were favorable, offering potential to improve Eucalyptus plantation productivity by selecting Al tolerant clones.

  15. Nutritional disorders in Eucalyptus citriodora. [In Portugese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, H P; Simoes, J W; de Oliveira, G D; Sarruge, J R; Poggiani, F

    1977-01-01

    Eucalyptus spp., especially E. citriodora, when grown on the poor soils characteristic of cerrado areas in Brazil, sometimes show signs of an unusual disorder. The youngest leaves in the crown (and later most of the older leaves) wither but remain attached to the shoots, and the bark splits and exudes gum. Samples of leaves from a 4-year-old E. citriodora plantation in Sao Paulo that showed these symptoms were collected and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The disorder is attributed to general malnutrition, and especially to a lack of S, Ca and P.

  16. Origen y evolución de la papa cultivada. Una revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Molano Luis Ernesto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Las primeras papas cultivadas probablemente fueron seleccionadas entre 6.000 y 10.000 años atrás, al norte del lago Titicaca, en los Andes del sur de Perú. Allí, a partir de las especies silvestres Solanum bukasovii, S. canasense y S. multissectum, pertenecientes al complejo S. brevicaule, se cree que se originó S. stenotomum, que es considerada la primera papa domesticada. Esta, a su vez, habría dado origen a S. andigena a través de repetidos procesos de poliploidización sexual en diferentes zonas de cultivo, con la consiguiente hibridación interespecífica e intervarietal que permitió ampliar la diversidad y adaptabilidad genética de la papa de los Andes. Los cultivares chilenos se derivaron posteriormente por hibridación de poblaciones andinas cultivadas con la especie silvestre S. tarijense. En el siglo xvi la papa migró a Europa y se dispersó por todo el orbe. Actualmente las papas cultivadas que se siembran en el mundo son conocidas colectivamente bajo el nombre de S. tuberosum.

  17. Oldest Known Eucalyptus Macrofossils Are from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaloa, María C.; Nixon, Kevin C.; González, Cynthia C.; Wilf, Peter; Cúneo, N. Rubén; Johnson, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma) Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data indicate that the

  18. Oldest known Eucalyptus macrofossils are from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A Gandolfo

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history of Eucalyptus and the eucalypts, the larger clade of seven genera including Eucalyptus that today have a natural distribution almost exclusively in Australasia, is poorly documented from the fossil record. Little physical evidence exists bearing on the ancient geographical distributions or morphologies of plants within the clade. Herein, we introduce fossil material of Eucalyptus from the early Eocene (ca. 51.9 Ma Laguna del Hunco paleoflora of Chubut Province, Argentina; specimens include multiple leaves, infructescences, and dispersed capsules, several flower buds, and a single flower. Morphological similarities that relate the fossils to extant eucalypts include leaf shape, venation, and epidermal oil glands; infructescence structure; valvate capsulate fruits; and operculate flower buds. The presence of a staminophore scar on the fruits links them to Eucalyptus, and the presence of a transverse scar on the flower buds indicates a relationship to Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data alone and combined with aligned sequence data from a prior study including 16 extant eucalypts, one outgroup, and a terminal representing the fossils indicate that the fossils are nested within Eucalyptus. These are the only illustrated Eucalyptus fossils that are definitively Eocene in age, and the only conclusively identified extant or fossil eucalypts naturally occurring outside of Australasia and adjacent Mindanao. Thus, these fossils indicate that the evolution of the eucalypt group is not constrained to a single region. Moreover, they strengthen the taxonomic connections between the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora and extant subtropical and tropical Australasia, one of the three major ecologic-geographic elements of the Laguna del Hunco paleoflora. The age and affinities of the fossils also indicate that Eucalyptus subgenus Symphyomyrtus is older than previously supposed. Paleoecological data

  19. Armazenamento refrigerado da uva de mesa 'Romana' (A1105) cultivada sob cobertura plástica

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu, Jorge; Castro, Josalba V.; Pedro Júnior, Mário J.

    2005-01-01

    A videira é uma das principais fruteiras cultivadas em todo o mundo e atualmente a preferência por uvas do tipo "sem sementes" ou "apirênicas" vem aumentando gradativamente no mercado interno brasileiro. A cultivar 'Romana' (A1105) tem mostrado grande potencial como nova alternativa de uva de mesa apirênica na região de Jundiaí - SP. No entanto, a qualidade dos cachos tem sido afetada pela ocorrência de chuvas na época da colheita, propiciando a incidência de rachaduras nas bagas ("cracking")...

  20. In silico analysis of Eucalyptus thioredoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulus Estevão Barbosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus Genome Sequencing Project (FORESTs, an initiative from the Brazilian ONSA consortium (Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis, has achieved the sequencing of 123.889 EST clones from 18 different cDNA libraries. We have investigated the FORESTs data set to identify EST clusters potentially encoding thioredoxins (TRX. Two types of thioredoxin families described in plants, chloroplastic (TRXm/f/x/y and cytosolic (TRXh, have been found in the transcriptome. Putative typical TRXs have been identified in fifteen clusters, four m-type, seven h-type, two f-type, one cluster for each x/y-types and one putative homologue of the TDX gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. One cluster presents an atypical active site WCMPS, different from the conserved WCGPC present in the other 15 clusters, and corresponds to a subgroup of cytosolic thioredoxins. Except in specific libraries from callus, roots, seedlings and wood tissues, thioredoxin deduced ESTs are found in all remaining libraries. According to the calculated frequencies of ESTs, chloroplastic thioredoxins are preferentially present in green tissues such as leaves whilst cytoplasmic thioredoxins are more general but demonstrate elevated frequencies in seedlings and flower tissues. TRX frequency patterns in the Eucalyptus transcriptome seem to indicate a good coherence with data from Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression.

  1. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  2. Eucalyptus and Water Use in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine M. Albaugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus genus yields high rates of productivity and can be grown across a wide range of site types and climates for products such as pulp, fuelwood, or construction lumber. In addition, many eucalypts have the ability to coppice, making this genus an ideal candidate for use as a biofuel feedstock. However, the water use of Eucalyptus is a controversial issue, and the impacts of these fast-growing trees on water resources are well documented. Regardless, the demand for wood products and water continues to rise, providing a challenge to increase the productivity of forest plantations within water constraints. This is of particular relevance for water-limited countries such as South Africa which relies on exotic plantations to meet its timber needs. Research results from water use studies in South Africa are well documented and legislation restrictions limit further afforestation. This paper outlines techniques used to quantify the water use of eucalypt plantations and provides recommendations on where to focus future research efforts. Greater insights into the water use efficiency of clonal material are needed, as certain eucalypt clones show fast growth and low water use. To better understand water use efficiency, estimates should be combined with monitoring of stand canopy structure and measurements of physiological processes.

  3. Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) from eucalyptus sawdust as a dry strength agent of unrefined eucalyptus handsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, María Evangelina; Felissia, Fernando Esteban; Area, María Cristina; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Tarrés, Quim; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-03-30

    Nanofibrillated cellulose has been obtained from the cellulosic fraction of eucalyptus sawdust. The fractionation process involved the partial removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. CNF was obtained using TEMPO oxidation with NaOCl in basic medium followed by mechanical homogenization. The obtained CNF was subsequently used as a dry strength agent on unbleached unrefined eucalyptus pulp. The addition of 3, 6 and 9 wt.% of CNF increased lineally the tensile index of handsheets to about 55 N mg(-1) at 35°SR, compatible with papermachine runnability. The other mechanical properties also increased substantially, and porosity decreased moderately. The estimated specific surface and average diameter of these CNF were 60 m(2)g(-1), and of 41.0 nm, respectively. The addition of 9 wt.% of CNF produced an increase in mechanical strength, equivalent to that produced by PFI refining at 1600 revolutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus dunnii USE FOR WOOD-CEMENT PANELS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the potential use of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii wood for wood-cement panelsmanufacturing. The boards were manufactured at the density of 1,20 g/cm³, using portland cement as mineral bonding and woodfurnish without treatment, treated in cold water and hot water. The wood furnish of Pinus taeda was used as control. The resultsindicated that it is not necessary to treat E. grandis and E. dunni wood for wood-cement board manufacturing. In relation to woodspecies, the board manufactured with E. dunnii showed lower values of mechanical properties. However, boards manufactured of E.grandis wood showed satisfactory results in comparison to boards of P. taeda and the referenced values of BISON process and otherproducts cited in the pertnent literature, indicating the high potential for wood-cement board manufacture of this tree species.

  5. Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, parica (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8% amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002. It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

  6. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. © 2014 CIRAD. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Energy evaluation of the Eucalyptus globulus and the Eucalyptus nitens in the north of Spain (Cantabria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, S.; Renedo, C.J.; Ortiz, A.; Manana, M.; Silio, D.

    2006-01-01

    This work studied the potential use of the waste from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens as energy crops, evaluating young and adult stages of both in all four seasons of the year with different moisture contents. The study was carried out made in Cantabria (North coast of Spain), located at latitude 43 o 28'N, and longitude 3 o 48'W. In this region, 29,513ha are dedicated to the growth of Eucalyptus, with about 80% E. globulus, and 20% E. nitens. Six different plantations have been analyzed and their bioclimatic diagrams determined. After the collection of samples the potential energy of every sample was obtained, they were weighed, analyzed and burned, giving a mean net calorific value of 17,384 and 17,927kJ/kg in the adult stage of E. globulus and E. nitens, respectively. The results for the young stage of both species were 17,708 and 18,670kJ/kg. Moisture content in the samples has a great influence on power production. Finally, the economic and environmental consequences of these crop species for the region of Cantabria were analyzed. (author)

  8. Development during indirect organogenesis in Eucalyptus grandis x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BQWUPC1

    isolation or from a region of the stem immediately above the callus. Roots developed ... In this study, the same clone (Eucalyptus grandis urophylla hybrid) was used and .... strands and they linked these with shoot formation, whilst. Arvore et al.

  9. Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... Eucalyptus microsatellites mined in silico: survey and evaluation ... cific regions of the genome of different species (Marques et ..... Received 21 June 2007, in revised form 11 September 2007; accepted 12 September 2007.

  10. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  11. Discount Rate and Timber Rotation: the Case of Eucalyptus Saligna

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Restrepo; Mauricio Alviar

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling’s method. The methodology consists of calculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern region of the state of A...

  12. Streptomyces rhizobacteria modulate the secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salla, Tamiris Daros; da Silva, Ramos; Astarita, Leandro Vieira; Santarém, Eliane Romanato

    2014-12-01

    The genus Eucalyptus comprises economically important species, such as Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus, used especially as a raw material in many industrial sectors. Species of Eucalyptus are very susceptible to pathogens, mainly fungi, which leads to mortality of plant cuttings in rooting phase. One alternative to promote plant health and development is the potential use of microorganisms that act as agents for biological control, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobacteria Streptomyces spp have been considered as PGPR. This study aimed at selecting strains of Streptomyces with ability to promote plant growth and modulate secondary metabolism of E. grandis and E. globulus in vitro plants. The experiments assessed the development of plants (root number and length), changes in key enzymes in plant defense (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and induction of secondary compounds(total phenolic and quercetinic flavonoid fraction). The isolate Streptomyces PM9 showed highest production of indol-3-acetic acid and the best potential for root induction. Treatment of Eucalyptus roots with Streptomyces PM9 caused alterations in enzymes activities during the period of co-cultivation (1-15 days), as well as in the levels of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Shoots also showed alteration in the secondary metabolism, suggesting induced systemic response. The ability of Streptomyces sp. PM9 on promoting root growth, through production of IAA, and possible role on modulation of secondary metabolism of Eucalyptus plants characterizes this isolate as PGPR and indicates its potential use as a biological control in forestry.

  13. WEED CONTROL AND BORON NUTRITION ON Eucalyptus IN SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the control of weeds in the rows of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis with herbicides applied singly or combined with boron (B, as well as, the response of Eucalyptus plants to this micronutrient. The experiments were carried out in a split-plot with randomized complete block design, with three replicates. Six treatments were applied to the plots: (i weeded control, (ii control without weeding, (iii glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (10 g ai ha-1 + 0.05% v / v mineral oil, (iv glyphosate (1080 g ae  ha-1 + isoxaflutole (112.5 g ai ha-1,  (v glyphosate (1080 g ae ha-1 and  (vi oxyfluorfen (480 g ai ha-1. The sub-plots consisted of the absence or presence of 4 kg of boric acid (H3BO3 - 17% B in 100 L of water. The addition of boric acid in the solution containing the herbicides did not affect the weed control. There was an increase in boron content in the soil and consequently an increase in the boron levels in the eucalyptus leaves. The combined application of herbicides plus boric acid is perfectly suitable for preventing dry of the pointer on eucalyptus plants. Keywords: Eucalyptus urograndis; chemical control; herbicides; micronutrients; Urochloa decumbens.

  14. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  15. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva; Edvins Ratnieks; Teotônio Francisco de Assis; Celso Edmundo B. Foelkel; Jorge Vieira Gonzaga; Giovanni Willer Ferreira

    1997-01-01

    Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m), para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m). Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinon...

  16. Plants of an Eucalyptus clone damaged by Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera Plantas de Eucalyptus atacadas por Scolytidae e Platypodidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Species of Scolytidae and Platypodidae were evaluated in a plantation using a clone of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Wood disks with galleries were taken from 15 eucalyptus trees between 0.5 and 1.5 m height. After collection, all trees attacked were burned. Woodborers obtained from these disks were identified as Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus, Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. This is the first report of D. cristatus, a Brazilian native species, damaging eucalyptus, which shows its adaptation to this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ataque de Scolytidae e Platypodidae em talhão de clone Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla na região de Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Discos de madeira com galerias desses insetos foram retirados de 15 árvores de eucalipto entre 0,5 e 1,5 m de altura. Após a coleta deste material, as árvores atacadas foram queimadas. Os indivíduos da ordem Coleoptera obtidos desses discos foram identificados como Premnobius cavipennis, Premnobius ambitiosus e Dryocoetoides cristatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae e Euplatypus parallelus (Coleoptera: Platypodidae. O ataque de D. cristatus, espécie nativa do Brasil, ao eucalipto ainda não havia sido relatado, o que mostra sua adaptação a essa planta.

  17. Evaluation of the role of gamma irradiation and/or Red Gum plant extract, eucalyptus close-minded, on some physiological changes of the Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera Littorals (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm EL-Din, M.M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effects of two sub-sterilizing doses (75 and 125 Gy) of gamma irradiation to male full grown pupae of Spodoptera littoralis and / or red gum plant extract, Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Family: Myrtaceae) to the resulting larvae of F1 progeny on the consumption and utilization of food during the fifth and sixth in star larvae were studied. In general, plant extract and gamma irradiation each of them alone or in combination reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the F1 larvae as compared to the control. The red gum treatment combined with 125 Gy decreased significantly the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.) together with the efficiency of conversion of digested food (E.C.D.) to body substances at the tested treatments when compared with the untreated ones. Also, the food utilization efficiencies decrement led to a significant reduction in weight gain and growth rate. In addition, the deleterious effect of combined treatments on development and growth aspects was recorded

  18. 40 CFR 180.1241 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1241 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Time-limited exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance are established for residues of eucalyptus oil on...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1271 - Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1271 Eucalyptus oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of eucalyptus oil in or on honey...

  20. [Growth effect of eucalyptus-acacia mixed plantation in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeng-Jiang; Xu, Da-Ping; Chen, Wen-Ping; Huang, Lie-Jian; Li, Shang-Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree species. In the 2-3 years old mixed plantation, the wind-throw of A. crassicarpa decreased markedly with increasing ratio of Eucalyptus U6, the decrement being 26.14% when the Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa ratio was 3 : 1, but the survival rates of Eucalyptus U6 and A. crassicarpa had no significant difference under different planting modes. Mixed planting retarded the A. crassicarpa growth to some extent, with the DBH being 90% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A. crassicarpa. In the 6 years old 1 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa plantation, the Eucalyptus U6 individuals with DBH > 15 cm occupied 32.1%; while in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, they only accounted for 5.83%. Mixed planting with 2 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa could obtain a maximum total biomass of 198.8 m3 x hm(-2), which was 118.8% of the total biomass in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, or 169.9% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. Mixture of Eucalyptus with Acacia would be a good choice to produce Eucalyptus trees with larger DBH.

  1. Uso de antraquinona en cocción kraft de Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus nitens

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Jorge Felipe Quintana

    2011-01-01

    En la presente disertación se verificó de manera experimental el efecto de la adición de Antraquinona al proceso de cocción batch convencional para una mezcla industrial de Eucalyptus globulus E. nitens.; en lo que respecta a su capacidad de aumentar la velocidad de la reacción de deslignificación y proporcionar estabilidad a las hemicelulosas y celulosas de la fibra. Lo anterior se logró con experiencias de laboratorio fijando las condiciones de cocción de acuerdo a la operación de los dig...

  2. Desempenho de duas espécies de eucalipto em solo com elevados teores de Mn Performance of two eucalyptus species in soil with high levels of Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio O. L. Magalhães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, é considerável o interesse no desenvolvimento de estratégias que sejam eficientes e duráveis na remediação de solos contaminados com metais pesados. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o desenvolvimento de duas espécies Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus saligna, cultivadas em substrato contaminado com Mn coletado em área próxima ao Porto de Itaguaí e ao local de disposição de resíduo perigoso da Cia Mercantil e Industrial Ingá em Itaguaí, RJ. O substrato foi tratado com dois resíduos industriais, um com característica alcalina (escória de aciaria e outro com alto teor de óxido de ferro (carepa de laminação. Verificou se que o substrato não tratado apresentava alto teor de Mn nas frações fitodisponíveis, valores esses tóxicos para as espécies estudadas. Os tratamentos causaram redução nas concentrações de Mn em solução e trocável (frações fitodisponiveis e aumento nas fases mais estáveis. A menor dose de Escória de Aciaria foi suficiente para que ocorresse diminuição nas concentrações de Mn em solução, sendo este efeito evidenciado pelo desenvolvimento das plantas e na maior dose de Escória de Aciaria o crescimento das espécies estudadas foi maior. O Eucalyptus urophylla apresentou maior desenvolvimento e maior extração deste elemento.Currently, there is considerable interest in developing strategies that are efficient and durable in the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. This study aimed to evaluate the development of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus saligna grown in contaminated substrate with Mn collected in the area near the Port of Itaguaí and location of disposal of hazardous waste of Cia Mercantil and Industrial Inga in Itaguaí. The substrate was treated with two industrial waste, with a characteristic alkaline (slag of melt shop and another with high content of iron oxide (lamination of scale. It was found that the untreated substrate, had a high

  3. QUALIDADE DA CELULOSE KRAFT-ANTRAQUINONA DE Eucalyptus dunnii PLANTADO EM CINCO ESPAÇAMENTOS EM RELAÇÃO AO Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados obtidos, a celulose de Eucalyptus dunnii atende às exig

  4. Balanço de nutrientes em povoamento de Eucalyptus saligna implantado sobre Cambissolo Háplico no RS Nutrient balance in plantation of Eucalyptus saligna planted on Inceptisol in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mazurana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A fragilidade de um sistema florestal pode ser avaliada através do balanço de nutrientes, destacando a eficiência da ciclagem sendo que, em certos casos, a adubação deve ser utilizada para manter ou elevar a produtividade do sistema. Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o comportamento de diferentes sistemas de preparo de solo em Cambissolo Háplico e sua influência nas perdas de nutrientes transportados por erosão em área cultivada com Eucalyptus saligna. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por quatro métodos de preparo do solo: subsolagem interrompida com resíduo (SIR, subsolagem contínua com resíduo (SCR, subsolagem contínua sem resíduo (SSR e coveamento mecânico (CME, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições por tratamento. O sistema SSR apresentou as maiores perdas de nutrientes quando comparadas com as dos outros métodos de preparo de solo. As maiores perdas de nutrientes pela erosão hídrica foram, pela ordem, K > Ca > Mg > P > Cu > B. Os sistemas de preparo SIR e SSR apresentaram os maiores teores de nutrientes contidos na parte aérea e o menor balanço nutricional, respectivamente.The forest system fragility can be evaluated through nutrient balance, with an emphasis in the cycling efficiency to maintain or elevate of productivity of system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different soil tillage systems on nutrient losses transported by erosion on an Inceptisol with Eucalyptus saligna. Four tillage systems were tested: interrupted deep chiseling with residue (SIR, continuous deep chiseling with residue (SCR, continuous deep chiseling without residue (SSR and mechanical pitting (CME. The SIR system showed the greatest nutrient losses. The loss of nutrients was higher by water erosion, in the following order, K > Ca > Mg > P > Cu > B. SIR and SSR tillage systems had the highest levels of nutrients in shoots and lower nutritional balance, respectively.

  5. ANÁLISE DE CRESCIMENTO, INCIDÊNCIA DE Rhizoctonia sp. E EFEITO ANTIXENOSE PARA A FORMIGA-CORTADEIRA Atta sexdens rubropilosa F. EM CLONES DE Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla TRATADOS COM GIBERELINA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Santos Matos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A competitividade do setor florestal brasileiro, fruto das condições climáticas e tecnologia empregada, faz que o país ocupe posição de destaque no cenário mundial. Apesar do elevado crescimento brasileiro no setor florestal, é necessário o desenvolvimento de pesquisas que proporcionem aumento de produtividade. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito fisiológico da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de giberelina (GA3 no acúmulo de biomassa do híbrido de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla "E. urograndis GG 100" e, também, verificar o efeito da aplicação de hormônio sobre a incidência de Rhizoctonia sp. e sobre efeito antixenose (não preferência ao corte de folhas pela formiga-cortadeira Atta sexdens rubropilosa. O experimento foi conduzido em bancada a pleno sol, seguindo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Mudas clonadas de E. urograndis GG 100, com 120 dias de idade, cultivadas sob bancada a pleno sol em vasos de 12 L, com substrato à base de subsolo, areia e esterco foram tratados com 50 mL de GA3, nas seguintes concentrações: 0; 50; 100; 150; e 200 mg L-1. Aos 40 dias após a imposição dos tratamentos, as análises foram realizadas. A aplicação de giberelina intensificou o crescimento vegetativo das plantas de eucalipto e promoveu o maior acúmulo de biomassa no mesmo período de tempo de plantas não tratadas. As mudas tratadas com giberelina apresentaram vigoroso crescimento vegetativo, principalmente na concentração de 150 mg L-1. Adicionalmente, as mesmas plantas exibiram maior preferência por formigas-cortadeiras e menor área foliar lesionada pelo fungo Rhizoctonia sp.

  6. Characterization of diazotrophic bacteria non-symbiotic associated with eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.) in Codazzi, Cesar (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando Castellanos, Dolly Melissa; Burgos Zabala, Ludy Beatriz; Rivera Botia, Diego Mauricio; Rubiano Garrido, Maria Fernanda; Divan Baldini, Vera Lucia; Bonilla Buitrago, Ruth Rebeca

    2010-01-01

    The effect of climatic seasons (rainy and dry) and the stratum sample (rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves) the population of the genera Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, Derxia, Azospirillum, Herbaspirillum, Gluconacetobacter and Burkholderia in soil rhizosphere, roots and leaves of eucalyptus (eucalyptus sp.). It also assesses their ability to produce indoles compounds as plant growth promoters and their acetylene reduction activity as an indicator of biological fixation of nitrogen. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the Duncan test (p ≤ 0.05) in the population with respect to the climate epoch, suggesting that these bacteria are able to tolerate stress conditions by different physiological mechanisms. With respect to the stratum sample isolates attempts of Herbaspirillum sp. and Azospirillum sp. significant differences in rhizospheric soil and roots. we obtained 44 isolates of which were grouped by phenotypic characterization as 14 suspected of Beijerinckia sp., 12 Azotobacter sp., 8 Derxia sp., 4 Herbaspirillum sp., 5 Azospirillum sp., 1 Gluconacetobacter sp. and 1 Burkholderia sp. due to their high potential were selected isolates C27, C26 and C25. These four strains present the best values of efficiency in vitro, exceeding production values of the reference strains used (A. chroococcum (AC1) and a. brasilense (SP7)).

  7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ANATOMY AND DRYING IN Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus urophylla WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Vinha Zanuncio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying is an important step to using wood and anatomical characteristics influence this process. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between anatomy and wood drying. Samples with 2 x 2 x 4 cm were obtained from eight Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clones at 1.3 m height to evaluate the anatomy and drying in climate chamber during 15 days. Cell wall fraction was established as the parameter that best correlated with drying, the Pearson correlation coefficient between this parameter and moisture was -0.8986, -0.6580, 0.9216, 0.8743, 0.7131 and 0.8727 for saturated wood, and after 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 days of drying, respectively. The frequency and vessel size, as well as the height and width of the rays showed low relation with wood drying. Wood anatomy, mainly the cell wall fraction, influences moisture losses and should be considered in wood drying programs.

  8. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  9. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneto, Agustin G.; Vila, Carlos; Ariza, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. → ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. → The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  10. Secagem de madeira serrada de Eucalyptus viminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel C. E. Rozas M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste estudo foi avaliado um programa de secagem para madeira de Eucalyptus viminalis de 25,0 mm de espessura, de duas árvores previamente aneladas (antes da derrubada e na confecção dos torretes e posteriormente vaporizadas. O programa de secagem constou de três diferentes fases de vaporização, sendo uma inicial de duas horas, para acelerar o processo de secagem, uma vaporização intermediária de quatro horas, para recuperação do colapso e uma vaporização final de uma hora, para diminuir o gradiente de umidade e as tensões de secagem, todas realizadas a 100ºC. Os bons resultados obtidos com o programa de secagem aplicado permitiu um aproveitamento de 72% da madeira (livre de defeitos. Estes resultados positivos podem ser atribuídos à aplicação de um programa de secagem gradual, às diferentes vaporizações a que a madeira foi submetida, como também ao fato de ter-se aplicado a técnica de anelamento e vaporização.

  11. Estudo de algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis Study of some mechanical properties of wood in a clonal hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A procura por madeiras oriundas de reflorestamentos destinadas à serraria é uma realidade já há muitos anos, principalmente aquelas das espécies do gênero Eucalyptus. Visando buscar novas informações importantes para esse mercado, este trabalho objetivou determinar algumas propriedades mecânicas da madeira de um híbrido clonal de Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis de duas idades e provenientes de talhadia simples e de reforma. Os resultados indicaram que a madeira desse híbrido apresenta boas características tecnológicas, destacando-se a segunda tora (a partir de 3 m com as melhores propriedades de flexão estática (Módulo de Elasticidade - MOE e Módulo de Ruptura - MOR e Compressão Axial das fibras. As árvores de maior idade (166 meses e que sofreram dois desbastes apresentaram as melhores propriedades de flexão estática e compressão axial.The search for wood originated from reforestations destined to sawmill has been observed for many years, mainly for the Eucalyptus species. Searching for information to assist this market, the aim of this study was to determine some mechanical properties of the wood from a Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrid, at two different ages and coming from coppice and reform. The results show that the wood of this clonal hybrid presents good technological characteristics and is the second best log (starting from 3,0 m, as to static bending properties (Module of Elasticity - MOE and Module of Rupture - MOR. The oldest trees (166 months - E2 which suffered two thinning presented the best results for the property of static bending and axial crushing (CA.

  12. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Eucalyptus infected with Calonectria pseudoreteaudii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanzhu; Guo, Wenshuo; Feng, Lizhen; Ye, Xiaozhen; Xie, Wanfeng; Huang, Xiuping; Liu, Jinyan

    2015-02-06

    Cylindrocladium leaf blight is one of the most severe diseases in Eucalyptus plantations and nurseries. There are Eucalyptus cultivars with resistance to the disease. However, little is known about the defense mechanism of resistant cultivars. Here, we investigated the transcriptome and proteome of Eucalyptus leaves (E. urophylla×E. tereticornis M1), infected or not with Calonectria pseudoreteaudii. A total of 8585 differentially expressed genes (|log2 ratio| ≥1, FDR ≤0.001) at 12 and 24hours post-inoculation were detected using RNA-seq. Transcriptional changes for five genes were further confirmed by qRT-PCR. A total of 3680 proteins at the two time points were identified using iTRAQ technique.The combined transcriptome and proteome analysis revealed that the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway, terpenoid biosynthesis, signalling pathway (jasmonic acid and sugar) were activated. The data also showed that some proteins (WRKY33 and PR proteins) which have been reported to involve in plant defense response were up-regulated. However, photosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism and protein metabolism were impaired by the infection of C. pseudoreteaudii. This work will facilitate the identification of defense related genes and provide insights into Eucalyptus defense responses to Cylindrocladium leaf blight. In this study, a total of 130 proteins and genes involved in the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway, terpenoid biosynthesis, signalling pathway, cell transport, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and protein metabolism in Eucalyptus leaves after infected with C. pseudoreteaudii were identified. This is the first report of a comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of Eucalyptus in response to Calonectria sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial to machined (final condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content to machined condition. Eucalyptus grandis wood was the most dimensionally stable and presented the smallest volume loss due to shrinkage. Although they had different shrinkage behaviors, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods presented the same drying quality regarding machining and total volume losses. These species can be considered the same for kiln drying. Eucalyptus dunnii wood presented the worst quality in drying, and should not be kiln dried in the same batch with the other species.

  14. Eucalyptus sp. at the Intersection of Environment and Culture in Kenya

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    Brandy M Garrett Kluthe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Eucalyptus are popular on small farms throughout Kenya, and include species such as Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalpytus globulus, and Eucalyptus grandis. Although they are fast-growing and perform well on marginal land, these trees are associated with negative environmental effects in Africa and elsewhere they have been introduced. In-person surveys were conducted with small farmers in Kenya to determine patterns of Eucalyptus sp. stand use and cultural importance. It was found that despite acknowledged short and long term environmental consequences, Eucalyptus sp. remains popular for medium term economic investment. These findings are consistent with other reports of Eucalyptus sp. woodlots serving as funding sources for education, health emergencies, etc., in parts of the world where bank loans are unavailable. Further, it was found that some farmers are using modified silviculture practices to ameliorate the negative effects of Eucalyptus sp., and others are seeking indigenous alternatives.           

  15. Complex linkage between soil, soil water, atmosphere and Eucalyptus Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, C.; Tiwari, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    Eucalyptus is most widely planted genus grown in waste land of eastern region of India to meet the pulp industry requirements. Sustainability of these plantations is of concern because in spite of higher demand water and nutrients of plantations, they are mostly planted on low-fertility soils. This study has been conducted to quantify effect of 25 years old, a fully established eucalyptus plantations on i.) Alteration in physico-chemical and hydrological properties of soil of eucalyptus plantation in comparison to soil of natural grassland and ii.) Spatio-temporal variation in soil moisture under eucalyptus plantations. Soil physico-chemical properties of two adjacent plots covered with eucatuptus and natural grasses were analyzed for three consecutive depths (i.e. 0-30 cm, 30-60 cm and 60-90 cm) with five replications in each plot. Soil infiltration rate and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were measured in-situ to incorporate the influence of macro porosity caused due to roots of plantations. Daily soil moisture at an interval of 10 cm upto 160 cm depth with 3 replications and Leaf Area Index (LAI) at an interval of 15 days with 5 replications were recorded over the year. Significant variations found at level of 0.05 between soil properties of eucalyptus and natural grass land confirm the effect of plantations on soil properties. Comparative results of soil properties show significant alteration in soil texture such as percent of sand, organic matter and Ks found more by 20%, 9% and 22% respectively in eucalyptus plot as compare to natural grass land. Available soil moisture (ASM) was found constantly minimum in top soil excluding rainy season indicate upward movement of water and nutrients during dry season. Seasonal variation in temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and leaf area index (LAI) influenced the soil moisture extraction phenomenon. This study clearly stated the impact of long term establishment of eucalyptus plantations make considerable

  16. Revelando el origen de la variedad de vid ‘Bonarda’ cultivada en Argentina a través del empleo de marcadores moleculares microsatélites

    OpenAIRE

    De Rosas, María Inés; Martínez, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    ‘Bonarda’ es una variedad de vid que en Argentina se cultiva principalmente en las provincias de Mendoza y San Juan, representa el segundo cepaje tinto en superficie nacional cultivada y es considerada con gran potencial para la elaboración de vinos tintos de alta calidad. Existe incertidumbre respecto a su origen en el país. La descripción ampelográfica de la ‘Bonarda’ cultivada en Argentina remarca gra...

  17. VARIABILIDADE ESPACIAL DA SODICIDADE EM RAMPAS CULTIVADAS COM GRAMÍNEAS PARA TRATAMENTO DE ESGOTO SANITÁRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Nogueira Martins

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a variabilidade espacial da sodicidade do solo em rampas cultivadas com Brachiaria humidicula e Zoysia japonica para tratamento de esgoto sanitário. Na estação de tratamento de esgoto do município de Januária/MG foram coletadas amostras de solo em duas rampas de tratamento de esgoto, uma cultivada com Brachiaria humidicula (RCBH e outra cultivada com Zoysia japonica (RCZJ. Foram realizadas análises de químicas do solo e com isso determinou-se a Razão de Adsorção de Sódio (RAS e a Porcentagem de Sódio Trocável (PST. Os dados foram submetidos à geoestatística. As maiores variabilidades foram observadas para a RAS e PST da RCBH, sendo classificadas como elevadas. Na análise da dependência espacial foi possivel observar que as variáveis estudadas apresentam forte correlação espacial, com excessão da RAS obtida da RCZJ que é considerada de fraca. Apesar da alta variabilidade espacial, a amplitude dos valores de RAS e PST encontrados nas rampas são pequenas não apresentando grandes riscos a salinização do solo a curto prazo.

  18. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeancarlos Moreno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, the extraction with the lowest production costs (0.57 Nuevos Soles by mL of essential oil is reached when the leaves have moisture between 25 and 30% and are extracted with times between 98 and 126 min

  19. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora; Compostos polifenolicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

    2007-07-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6{sup -}trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ({sup 1}H,{sup 1}H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  20. Alelopatia de Joanesia princeps Vell. e Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aguiar Capobiango

    Full Text Available Metabólitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de folhas de Joanesia princeps e Casearia sylvestris na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Brassica oleracea cv. capitata, Lactuca sativa cv. grand rapids e Lycopersicum esculentum. Foram testadas seis concentrações de cada extrato (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 100% além do controle água destilada. Os extratos aquosos de J. princeps e C. sylvestris reduziram e, ou inibiram significativamente o percentual de geminação das sementes, o crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas as espécies cultivadas e causaram severas anormalidades nas plântulas. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de J. princeps e C. sylvestris.

  1. COMPORTAMIENTO DEL CRECIMIENTO EN ALTURA DE Hibiscus elatus Sw CULTIVADA EN CONTENEDORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cobas-López

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus elatus Sw. (majagua es una especie nativa de Cuba, incluida en los planes de reforestación del país por su importancia económica, ecológica y su condición de ser una madera preciosa. En el trabajo se describe el comportamiento en vivero del crecimiento en altura de la especie, cultivada en contenedores. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos de sustratos, que fueron los siguientes: S1- Turba (40 %, humus de lombriz (40 % y corteza de pino compostada (20 %; S2- Estiércol de caballo (45 %, composta (40 %, y humus de lombriz (15 %; S3- Humus de lombriz (30 %, composta (25 %, turba (25 %, y estiércol de caballo (20 %; S4- Testigo, consistente en suelo proveniente de una plantación de la especie. A través del análisis de regresión se probaron nueve modelos matemáticos del tipo y = f (x, polinómicos, exponenciales y logarítmicos. De acuerdo con el coeficiente de determinación obtenido, del análisis de residuos y la validación de los modelos, se comprobó que la función que mejor representa el crecimiento en altura de Hibiscus elatus Sw., para los sustratos estudiados fue b t y b e 1 = 0 + .

  2. Statistical sampling and modelling for cork oak and eucalyptus stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of modern statistical methods to solve problems on sampling, optimal cutting time and agricultural modelling in Portuguese cork oak and eucalyptus stands. The results are contained in five chapters that have been submitted for publication

  3. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii, E-mail: rich@cs.ucsb.ed [Computer Science Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States) and Eucalyptus Systems Inc., 130 Castilian Dr., Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  4. Eucalyptus: an open-source cloud computing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmi, Daniel; Wolski, Rich; Grzegorczyk, Chris; Obertelli, Graziano; Soman, Sunil; Youseff, Lamia; Zagorodnov, Dmitrii

    2009-01-01

    Utility computing, elastic computing, and cloud computing are all terms that refer to the concept of dynamically provisioning processing time and storage space from a ubiquitous 'cloud' of computational resources. Such systems allow users to acquire and release the resources on demand and provide ready access to data from processing elements, while relegating the physical location and exact parameters of the resources. Over the past few years, such systems have become increasingly popular, but nearly all current cloud computing offerings are either proprietary or depend upon software infrastructure that is invisible to the research community. In this work, we present Eucalyptus, an open-source software implementation of cloud computing that utilizes compute resources that are typically available to researchers, such as clusters and workstation farms. In order to foster community research exploration of cloud computing systems, the design of Eucalyptus emphasizes modularity, allowing researchers to experiment with their own security, scalability, scheduling, and interface implementations. In this paper, we outline the design of Eucalyptus, describe our own implementations of the modular system components, and provide results from experiments that measure performance and scalability of a Eucalyptus installation currently deployed for public use. The main contribution of our work is the presentation of the first research-oriented open-source cloud computing system focused on enabling methodical investigations into the programming, administration, and deployment of systems exploring this novel distributed computing model.

  5. Mixed plantations of Eucalyptus and leguminous trees enhance biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean S. DeBell; Craig D. Whitesell; Thomas H. Schubert

    1985-01-01

    Two Eucalyptus species-E. saligna Sm. and E. grandis Hill-are especially favored in Hawaii forwood, fiber, and fuel production because of their quick growth and high yields. Their growth is limited, however, on many sites by low levels of available nitrogen. Supplemental nitrogen can be provided by nitrogen-...

  6. Review Paper Les plantations d'Eucalyptus au Sahel : distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOUMARE

    la Francophonie pour avoir soutenu cette étude à travers une bourse de formation. RESUME ..... 1968-2000. Climat saharien. Climat sahélien. Climat soudano-sahélien. Frontières des .... universalis: Global cultivated Eucalyptus forests Map ...

  7. Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity gains by fertilisation in Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations across gradients in site and stand conditions. ... The control plot may typically be a permanent plot of an inventory network, providing representative information for a company's decisionmaking. The paired twin-plot receives intensive management ...

  8. Genetic diversity among four Eucalyptus species (myrtaceae) based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that 16 positive and 13 negative markers were detected. The marker fragments size ranged between 175 to 630 bp for the negative markers and 235 to 945 bp for the positive markers. Key words: Eucalyptus, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), genetic diversity, DNA fingerprinting PCR, ...

  9. Metabolic responses of Eucalyptus species to different temperature regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokochinski, Joao Benhur; Mazzafera, Paulo; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Mumm, Roland; Vos, de Ric Cornelis Hendricus; Hall, Robert David

    2018-01-01

    Species and hybrids of Eucalyptus are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. They are cultivated across a wide range of latitudes and therefore environmental conditions. In this context, comprehensive metabolomics approaches have been used to assess how different temperature regimes may

  10. Soil fertility and growth of Eucalyptus grandis in Brazil under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silvicultural operations such as soil preparation, logging residue management and application of fertilisers can influence soil fertility, and hence nutrient uptake and tree growth. This paper reports the effect of site management practices of minimum and intensive cultivation of the soil on the growth of a stand of Eucalyptus ...

  11. Ongoing molecular studies of Eucalyptus powdery mildew in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. R. Fonseca; L. M. S. Guimaraes; R. P. Pires; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; A. C. Alfenas

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew diseases are caused by biotrophic fungi in the Erysiphales. These fungal pathogens are easily observed by the whitish powdery appearance caused by their colonization of the aerial surfaces on living plants (Stadnik & Rivera, 2001) (Figure 1). In Brazil, powdery mildew of Eucalyptus spp is increasing under the current nursery production...

  12. Physiological responses to glyphosate are dependent on Eucalyptus urograndis genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of Eucalyptus urograndis genotypes (C219 and GG100) to glyphosate in growth chambers. As glyphosate dose increased (18 up to 720 g ae ha-1), CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance decreased fastest and strongest in ...

  13. A tool for identifying potential Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shy seed production in orchards of Eucalyptus nitens is a major barrier to the deployment of genetic gain in South African plantations. A machine learning method was used to identify optimal sites for the establishment of E. nitens seed orchards within the plantation forestry landscape of the summer rainfall region of South ...

  14. Using chlorophyll fluorescence to determine stress in Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using chlorophyll fluorescence to determine stress in Eucalyptus grandis seedlings: scientific paper. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... factors affect the functioning of the photosynthetic system, the status of the photosynthetic apparatus is a good indicator of the plant in terms of stress and stress adaptation.

  15. Stomatal characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrids in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the stomatal response occurring during water stress and subsequent recovery of three Eucalyptus grandis clonal hybrids. The aim was to investigate the degree to which stomatal conductance (gs) and stomatal density differ between the clonal hybrids across seasons and in response to water stress.

  16. Diagnosing foliar nutrient dynamics of Eucalyptus grandis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilisation is one of the most cost-effective methods of increasing and maintaining the productivity of Eucalyptus grandis plantations in South Africa. This silvicultural practice can be optimised by using the foliar nutrient ratios measured in plants at maximum growth as a guideline for fertiliser application. The foliar nutrient ...

  17. Shoot and root morphogenesis from Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...

  18. Impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the avian breeding community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nesting bird species in natural forests and Eucalyptus plantations on the Amani Plateau, East Usambara, were studied during the breeding season of September 2003 to March 2004. Some forest birds — like barbets, batis, broadbills, doves, flycatchers, greenbuls, hornbills, and tinkerbirds — utilised similar nest sites ...

  19. Responses of Eucalyptus species to fertilizer applications made at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early research trials in South Africa have shown that Eucalyptus species generally respond positively to the addition of nutrients at planting. However, as most of these research trials were located in KwaZulu-Natal, it was important to investigate the nature of the response in other afforested regions of the country where this ...

  20. Soil carbon estimation from eucalyptus grandis using canopy spectra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping soil fertility parameters, such as soil carbon (C), is fundamentally important for forest management and research related to forest growth and climate change. This study seeks to establish the link between Eucalyptus grandis canopy spectra and soil carbon using raw and continuum-removed spectra. Canopy-level ...

  1. Growth and yield models for Eucalyptus grandis grown in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to develop a stand-level growth and yield model for short-rotationEucalyptus grandis grown for pulp wood production at Piggs Peak in Swaziland. The data were derived from a Nelder 1a spacing trial established with E. grandis clonal cuttings in 1998 and terminated in 2005. Planting density ...

  2. The conservation and breeding of Eucalyptus urophylla : a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus urophylla is one of the most commercially important forest species in the world, primarily as a hybrid parent. However, the conservation status of the majority of the populations where it naturally occurs on seven islands in eastern Indonesia range from critically endangered to vulnerable. We examine the ...

  3. Coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens : results from a field survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine factors which could have a positive influence on the coppicing potential of Eucalyptus nitens , a field survey was carried out at Draycott, near Estcourt in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Five measures of the ability to coppice (stump survival, height of coppice, number of dominant shoots, coppicing ...

  4. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  5. Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...

  6. Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis using breeding seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis is commercially important in Zimbabwe and a breeding program has been in progress since 1962. A classical breeding strategy was used initially but, in 1981, the Multiple Population Breeding Strategy (MPBS) was implemented and the concept of the Breeding Seedling Orchard (BSO) became central to ...

  7. Assessment of wood density of seven clones of Eucalyptus grandis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the objective of evaluating the correlation of wood basic density with age in seven Eucalyptus grandis clones planted in Brazil, five trees in each clone were sampled at the ages of 0, 5, 1, 5, 2, 5, 3, 5, 4, 5 and 7, 5 years. The analysis of these samples showed that the intraclonal variation of the basic density (except for 0, ...

  8. Developing clones of Eucalyptus cloeziana resistant to rust (Puccinia psidii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael F. Alfenas; Marcelo M. Coutinho; Camila S. Freitas; Rodrigo G. Freitas; Acelino C. Alfenas

    2012-01-01

    Besides its high resistance to Chrysoporthe cubensis canker, Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell. is a highly valuable tree species for wood production. It can be used for furniture, electric poles, fence posts, and charcoal. Nevertheless, it is highly susceptible to the rust caused by Puccinia psidii, which...

  9. Nutritional sustainability of Eucalyptus plantations : a case study at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional sustainability of a short-rotation Eucalyptus grandis plantation system was evaluated in a trial located at Karkloof, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, by determining nutrient pools and fluxes. Nutrient pools in the forest floor and biomass (above- and below-ground) were assessed by destructive sampling. The size ...

  10. Growth response at age 10 years of five Eucalyptus genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, following the 1999 drought event a trial was established in a drought-prone area, planted to a number of genotypes that were deemed to be more tolerant to water stress than Eucalyptus grandis. Each species was planted at stand densities of 816, 1 600 and 2 066 stems ha-1, where 1 600 stems ha-1 represented the ...

  11. Estimating foliar nitrogen in Eucalyptus using vegetation indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Ramalho de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N has commonly been applied in Eucalyptus stands in Brazil and it has a direct relation with biomass production and chlorophyll content. Foliar N concentrations are used to diagnose soil and plant fertility levels and to develop N fertilizer application rates. Normally, foliar N is obtained using destructive methods, but indirect analyses using Vegetation Indexes (VIs may be possible. The aim of this work was to evaluate VIs to estimate foliar N concentration in three Eucalyptus clones. Lower crown leaves of three clonal Eucalyptus plantations (25 months old were classified into five color patterns using the Munsell Plant Tissue Color Chart. For each color, N concentration was determined by the Kjeldahl method and foliar reflectance was measured using a CI-710 Miniature Leaf Spectrometer. Foliar reflectance data were used to obtain the VIs and the VIs were used to estimate N concentrations. In the visible region, the relationship between N concentration and reflectance percentage was negative. The highest correlations between VIs and N concentrations were obtained by the Inflection Point Position (IPP, r = 0.97, Normalized Difference Red-Edge (reNDVI, r = 0.97 and Modified Red-Edge Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (mNDI, r = 0.97. Vegetation indexes on the red edge region provided the most accurate estimates of foliar N concentration. The reNDVI index provided the best N concentration estimates in leaves of different colors of Eucalyptus urophylla × grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla × urophylla (R2 = 0.97 and RMSE = 0.91 g kg−1.

  12. Thermal characterization of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Kuo, Po-Chih; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Thermal behavior of biomass in torrefaction plays an important role in the operation of pretreatment. To understand the endothermic and/or exothermic characteristics of biomass in the course of torrefaction, an experimental system is conducted and two kinds of biomass (oil palm fiber and eucalyptus) are investigated. The results indicate that the thermal behavior is significantly influenced by the lignocellulosic composition in biomass and the torrefaction temperature. The thermal decomposition of hemicellulose is the dominant mechanism for oil palm fiber torrefied at 200 and 250 °C, whereas the thermal degradation of cellulose is crucial when the biomass is torrefied at 300 °C. Therefore, the heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. The torrefaction of eucalyptus is always endothermic, as a consequence of high cellulose contained in the biomass. It is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases, presumably due to the char formation from cellulose thermal degradation and the exothermic lignin decomposition. As a whole, the values of the heat of reaction of the two samples are between −3.50 and 2.23 MJ/kg. The obtained results have provided a useful insight into the control of torrefaction operation and the design of torrefaction reactor. - Highlights: • Thermal behavior of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction is studied. • Thermal characteristic of biomass in torrefaction depends on lignocellulosic composition. • Heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. • Eucalyptus torrefaction is always endothermic because of high cellulose contained. • Torrefaction of eucalyptus is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases

  13. Eucalyptus gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an emerging pest of eucalyptus in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new emerging pest of eucalyptus, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle, was first found in Italy but mistakenly identified as Aprostocetus sp.. This was followed by another report of an infestation from Turkey in early 2000. It was first formally described in 2004 from Australia as Leptocybe invasa a...

  14. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  15. Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espaçamentos em relação ao Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Willer Ferreira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m, para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m. Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraquinona com álcali ativo variando de 18,5 a 21% para obter um número kappa 17± 1,5; sulfidez a 8%, antraquinona base madeira 0,05%, relação licor/madeira 4:1, tempo até temperatura máxima 60 minutos, tempo à temperatura máxima 45 minutos. A celulose marrom resultante do cozimento kraft-antraquinona foi caracterizada e analisada em seus aspectos físico-químicos (rendimentos, rejeitos, número kappa, viscosidade intrínseca, alvura e solubilidade em NaOH5%. Uma parte desta sofreu refinação em moinho Jökro ao nível de 35°SR e, juntamente com a polpa não-refinada, foram submetidas a testes físico-mecânicos e óticos (resistência à tração, alongamento, estouro, rasgo, volume específico, alvura, resistência ao ar Gurley e ascensão capilar Klemm. O maior consumo de álcali ativo (20,5% ocorreu em espaçamento 3 m x 4 m, proporcionando maior degradação da polpa. Todos os espaçamentos caracterizados apresentaram viabilidade para a produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, podendo proporcionar redução nos custos de produção de celulose, devido aos menores consumos apresentados de álcali ativo e madeira quando comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna. Os valores de extrativos e cinzas mostraram-se elevados para Eucalyptus dunnii, potencializando possíveis impactos em termos de incrustações e fechamento de circuito no processo fabril. Diante dos resultados

  16. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood

    OpenAIRE

    Batista,Djeison Cesar; Klitzke,Ricardo Jorge; Rocha,Márcio Pereira da; Muñiz,Graciela Inez Bolzon de; Batista,Tharcia Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial) to machined (final) condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content...

  17. Botrytis cinerea en plantas cultivadas para flor de corte en Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Wright

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Em levantamentos efetuados nos viveiros e centros de venda em Buenos Aires (Argentina e por consultas recebidas no laboratório de Sanidade Vegetal (LASAVE durante os últimos anos, observaram-se diversos sintomas em plantas ornamentais cultivadas para flor de corte. Sobre as flores eram observadas pequenas manchas, inicialmente translúcidas e depois castanhas, que confluíam e avançavam para o pedúnculo ocupando toda a flor, às vezes estendendo-se até o talo. Quando a infecção ocorria em estado de botão floral, este não se abria e ficava mumificado. Posteriormente à realização de tratos culturais que causavam feridas, era observado um escurecimento dos talos. Todos os órgãos afetados cobriam-se de um mofo cinzento, formado por micélio, conidióforos e conídios do fungo. Esta sintomatologia foi constatada nas seguintes espécies: Anemone coronaria L., Chrysanthemum sp., Dianthus caryophyllus L., Gerbera jamesonü Bolus ex J.D. Hook, Gladiolus sp., Limonium sp., Rosa sp., Strelitzia reginae Banks ex Aiton e Tagetes sp. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a etiologia da doença utilizando-se técnicas fitopatológicas de rotina. Os resultados dos testes de patogenicidade demonstraram que o agente causal da sintomatologia observada é Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Pers., sem registro na Argentina nas espécies estudadas exceto Dianthus caryophyllus e Rosa sp..

  18. Genome-wide variation in recombination rate in Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gion, Jean-Marc; Hudson, Corey J; Lesur, Isabelle; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M; Freeman, Jules S

    2016-08-09

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary process. It not only generates diversity, but influences the efficacy of natural selection and genome evolution. There can be significant heterogeneity in recombination rates within and between species, however this variation is not well understood outside of a few model taxa, particularly in forest trees. Eucalypts are forest trees of global economic importance, and dominate many Australian ecosystems. We studied recombination rate in Eucalyptus globulus using genetic linkage maps constructed in 10 unrelated individuals, and markers anchored to the Eucalyptus reference genome. This experimental design provided the replication to study whether recombination rate varied between individuals and chromosomes, and allowed us to study the genomic attributes and population genetic parameters correlated with this variation. Recombination rate varied significantly between individuals (range = 2.71 to 3.51 centimorgans/megabase [cM/Mb]), but was not significantly influenced by sex or cross type (F1 vs. F2). Significant differences in recombination rate between chromosomes were also evident (range = 1.98 to 3.81 cM/Mb), beyond those which were due to variation in chromosome size. Variation in chromosomal recombination rate was significantly correlated with gene density (r = 0.94), GC content (r = 0.90), and the number of tandem duplicated genes (r = -0.72) per chromosome. Notably, chromosome level recombination rate was also negatively correlated with the average genetic diversity across six species from an independent set of samples (r = -0.75). The correlations with genomic attributes are consistent with findings in other taxa, however, the direction of the correlation between diversity and recombination rate is opposite to that commonly observed. We argue this is likely to reflect the interaction of selection and specific genome architecture of Eucalyptus. Interestingly, the differences amongst

  19. Seed viability constants for Eucalyptus grandis Constantes de viabilidade para sementes de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Bertho Fantinatti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyse Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden seed behaviour, under controlled deterioration, and to estimate viability equation constants for the species. Seeds were harvested in the growing season of 1999, and the moisture contents were adjusted from 11.3% to a range between 1.2 and 18.1% at 25ºC. The subsamples were sealed into laminate aluminium-foil packets, for storage in incubators at 40, 50 and 65±0.5ºC. The seeds presented orthodox performance, in which the constants for predicting seed longevity of E. grandis were K E = 9.661, C W = 6.467, C H = 0.03498 and C Q = 0.0002330. The usual and inverse relationship between water content and seed longevity was also observed. The lowest moisture content limit for application of the viability equation at 65ºC was 4.9%, estimated under hygroscopic equilibrium with 23% of relative humidity in the storage environment.Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o desempenho de sementes de Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, após a deterioração em condições controladas, e obter as constantes da equação de viabilidade. As sementes foram colhidas na safra de 1999, e a umidade foi ajustada de 11,3% para valores entre 1,2 e 18,1% a 25ºC As subamostras foram acondicionadas em embalagens de alumínio termossoldadas, armazenadas a 40, 50 e 65±0,5ºC. As sementes apresentaram um desempenho ortodoxo em relação ao armazenamento. As constantes para a predição da longevidade foram K E = 9,661, C W = 6,467, C H = 0,03498 e C Q = 0,0002330. Foi observada a relação inversa entre teor de água e longevidade. O limite inferior de grau de umidade, calculado para aplicação da equação a 65ºC, foi de 4,9%, estimativa obtida sob equilíbrio higroscópico com umidade relativa de 23% no ambiente de armazenamento.

  20. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CALLISTO M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  1. The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the macrofauna associated with Salvinia auriculata in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CALLISTO

    Full Text Available The influence of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and composition of macroinvertebrate communities associated with the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata Aublet were investigated in a high altitude lake bordered by either secondary Atlantic forest or Eucalyptus plantations. Comparisons of the diversity of Chironomidae (Diptera, Insecta larvae in the littoral zone between these two vegetation types showed higher diversity of larvae in waters bordered by Eucalyptus. The results demonstrated that the predominance of carnivorous taxa among the macroinvertebrate fauna appears to be the major controlling factor for limiting diversity in lake areas bordered by Eucalyptus.

  2. Transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons in Eucalyptus genus are differentially expressed and insertionally polymorphic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Helena Sanches; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Silva, Juliana Costa; Borges, Rafael Junqueira; Matioli, Fábio Filippi; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Marino, Celso Luis

    2015-08-14

    In Eucalyptus genus, studies on genome composition and transposable elements (TEs) are particularly scarce. Nearly half of the recently released Eucalyptus grandis genome is composed by retrotransposons and this data provides an important opportunity to understand TE dynamics in Eucalyptus genome and transcriptome. We characterized nine families of transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons from Copia and Gypsy superfamilies in Eucalyptus grandis genome and we depicted genomic distribution and copy number in two Eucalyptus species. We also evaluated genomic polymorphism and transcriptional profile in three organs of five Eucalyptus species. We observed contrasting genomic and transcriptional behavior in the same family among different species. RLC_egMax_1 was the most prevalent family and RLC_egAngela_1 was the family with the lowest copy number. Most families of both superfamilies have their insertions occurring Eucalyptus species. Using EST analysis and qRT-PCRs, we observed transcriptional activity in several tissues and in all evaluated species. In some families, osmotic stress increases transcript values. Our strategy was successful in isolating transcriptionally active retrotransposons in Eucalyptus, and each family has a particular genomic and transcriptional pattern. Overall, our results show that retrotransposon activity have differentially affected genome and transcriptome among Eucalyptus species.

  3. Propriedades de chapas tipo OSB, fabricadas com partículas acetiladas de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana e Pinus elliottii Properties of OSB manufactured with wood strands of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de 0riented Strand Board (OSB, fabricadas com flocos de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus cloeziana e oriundas dos Municípios de Ponte Alta e Três Marias, no Estado de Minas Gerais. As massas específicas básicas das três espécies de eucaliptos das duas regiões foram, respectivamente: Ponte Alta (0,55; 0,61; e 0,70 g/cm³ e Três Márias (0,56; 0,58; e 0,69 g/cm³. Quando necessário, para manter as massas específicas das chapas próximas de 0,70 g/cm³ foram acrescentadas às partículas de madeira de eucalipto partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, oriundo da cidade de Viçosa, com massa específica de 0,45 g/cm³. Os flocos foram gerados nas dimensões médias de 90,00 x 20,00 x 0,46 mm. O adesivo utilizado foi o fenol-formaldeído, na proporção de 8% de sólidos, em relação à massa seca de partículas. Parte dos flocos de eucaliptos foram acetilados. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 °C e 32 kgf/cm² de pressão. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo as normas da ABNT NBR 14810-3 (2002 e ASTM-D 1037 (1991. Os resultados foram comparados utilizando-se as normas ANSI/A - 208.1 (1993 e CSA 0437-93 (1993. As chapas contendo partículas acetiladas foram mais estáveis e adsorveram menos umidade. Na tração perpendicular, observou-se que as chapas contendo 100% de flocos acetilados apresentaram resultados inferiores ao estipulado pela norma CSA O437-0/93 (1993. A resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso, módulo de ruptura (paralelo e perpendicular e compressão longitudinal (perpendicular, foi reduzida pela acetilação nas chapas contendo 100% dos flocos acetilados. As espécies que apresentaram, numericamente, as maiores médias para resistência mecânica foram: Eucalyptus grandis não acetilado (dureza Janka e Eucalyptus cloeziana misturado com Pinus sp (módulo de ruptura. Somente a resistência

  4. Litter production and decomposition in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus globulus maidenii stand

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    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available he sustainable wood production in commercial plantations requires knowledge of the nutrient cycling process, which also involves the production and decomposition of litter. This study verified the influence of climatic variables on litter production and t evaluated the rate of leaf litter decomposition in a stand of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. globulus maidenii. There were installed 4 plots of 20 m x 20 m, in each plot four litter traps to collect leaves were placed, thin branches and miscellaneous, beside this, each plot received 3 areas for coarse branches collection. The litter collected was used to calculate the deposition and the correlation between climate variables and deposition. The climatic variables used, on a monthly basis, were average temperature, average maximum temperature, average minimum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, average wind speed, average solar radiation and average evapotranspiration, both supplied by an experimental station. For evaluation of the litter decomposition rate, four square samples of 0.25 m side in each plot were randomly collected and used for determining the decay coefficient (K, half life (t0,5 and decomposition time of 95% of litter (t0,95 . The monthly litter production was weakly correlated with climatic variables and the annual production was 7.4 Mg ha-1, with leaves as the major fraction (60%. The litter decomposition rate was considered slow.

  5. Genes encoding enzymes of the lignin biosynthesis pathway in Eucalyptus

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    Ricardo Harakava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus ESTs libraries were screened for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. This search was performed under the perspective of recent revisions on the monolignols biosynthetic pathway. Eucalyptus orthologues of all genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to lignin biosynthesis reported in other plant species were identified. A library made with mRNAs extracted from wood was enriched for genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and allowed to infer the isoforms of each gene family that play a major role in wood lignin formation. Analysis of the wood library suggests that, besides the enzymes of the phenylpropanoids pathway, chitinases, laccases, and dirigent proteins are also important for lignification. Colocalization of several enzymes on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, as predicted by amino acid sequence analysis, supports the existence of metabolic channeling in the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study establishes a framework for future investigations on gene expression level, protein expression and enzymatic assays, sequence polymorphisms, and genetic engineering.

  6. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus...

  7. THE Eucalyptus sp. AGE PLANTATIONS INFLUENCING THE CARBON STOCKS

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    Charlote Wink

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989279The tree growth and biomass accumulation, as well as the maintenance of forest residue at the soil surface can act in the removal of carbon from the atmosphere through the cycling process of plant material. The objective was to study the influence of Eucalyptus sp. Plantations with 20, 44 and 240 months of age on the variation of carbon in soil and biomass. The carbon in the soil depth was determined by CHNS auto-analyzer and carbon in the vegetation was determined by the biomass in each forest, considering a factor of 0.45 of the dry mass. We determined the density and particle size distribution of soil. For the comparison between plantations, there was analysis of variance and comparison of means of carbon in vegetation and soil, considering the 5% level of probability. The carbon content and stock in the soil were low, indicating that a natural feature of the category of Paleuldt, or the growth of eucalyptus forests, replacing the field native vegetation did not aggregate a significant increase in the carbon. Although, there was a significant increase carbon in aboveground biomass. It includes forest biomass and litter. So, despite the values ​​of carbon stocks are low, it identified a greater average total in the soil compared to the stock aboveground. Furthermore, this increase aboveground (tree and litter compartments can be considered significant between the eucalyptus plantations of different ages.

  8. Unintentional exposure of young children to camphor and eucalyptus oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaman, Z; Pellechia-Clarke, S; Bailey, B; McGuigan, M

    2001-02-01

    Essential oils, such as camphorated and eucalyptus oils, are volatile oils that can be absorbed by mouth and through the skin; if ingested orally by children, they can be harmful, even life-threatening. To determine the frequency of essential oil ingestion among children in Toronto, Ontario. Charts from December 1995 through March 1997 at the Ontario Regional Poison Information Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were reviewed to collect information on calls about essential oil ingestion, and a search of MEDLINE articles from 1966 to 1998 was conducted using the key words: 'camphor', 'eucalyptus', 'paediatric', and 'poisoning'. Callers to the Poison Information Centre reported that 251 children had ingested an essential oil or product: eucalyptus oil 50 children; camphorated oil 18 children; VapAir (Drug Trading, Canada) vaporizing liquid 93 children; and Vicks VaporRub (Procter & Gamble, Canada) 90 children. The most common symptoms were cough, vomiting and cough associated with vomiting. Two children had seizures but recovered. The MEDLINE search found 18 reports of paediatric ingestion of the oils or oil products. The main symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, coma and seizures. One child died. Although widely used by health care consumers, essential oils and the products that contain them can be harmful when ingested by children. Further education for parents and other caregivers about the risks involved in exposure to these products is required.

  9. Selective Herbicides for Cultivation of Eucalyptus urograndis Clones

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    Patrick J. Minogue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Competition control is essential for successful eucalyptus plantation establishment, yet few selective herbicides have been identified. Five herbicides, flumioxazin, imazamox, imazapic, oxyfluorfen, and sulfometuron methyl, were evaluated for selective weed control in the establishment of genetically modified frost tolerant Eucalyptus urograndis clones. Herbicides were applied at two or three rates, either before or after weed emergence, and compared to a nontreated control and to near-complete weed control obtained with glyphosate directed sprays. Applications prior to weed emergence were most effective for weed control and, with the exception of imazapic, all resulted in enhanced eucalyptus growth relative to the nontreated control. Among postemergent treatments, only imazamox enhanced stem volume. Among selective herbicide treatments, preemergent 2240 g ha−1 oxyfluorfen produced the best growth response, resulting in stem volume index that was 860% greater than the nontreated control, although only 15% of the volume index obtained with near-complete weed control. Imazapic was the most phytotoxic of all herbicides, resulting in 40% mortality when applied preemergent. Survival was 100% for all other herbicide treatments. This research found the previously nontested herbicides imazamox and imazapic to be effective for selective weed control and refined application rate and timing of five herbicides for use in clonal plantations.

  10. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

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    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  11. Utilización de especies silvestres diploides cultivadas de papa a fin de transferir resistencia a las heladas a la papa común cultivada (Solanum tuberosum l.

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    Estrada Ramos Nelsón

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Las heladas constituyen un factor limitante importante para la producción de papa en las altiplanicies y cordilleras andinas de Suramérlca. Por su efecto, se pierde cerca de 20% de la
    producción. Se ha informado de unas 30 especies silvestres de papa que poseen alta resistencia a las heladas. La utilización de especies de papa silvestres muy valiosas y con
    resistencia a las heladas es más eficiente y factible, si se cruzan inicialmente con clones de la especie dlplolde cultivada Sol.num phureJ. Juz. et Buk. Los híbridos F1, pueden resultar dlploides, trlploides o tetraploides, los cuales en su mayoria
    se pueden cruzar nuevamente con clones o cultivares tetraploides de S. tuberoaum L. Mediante este método se pueden transferir rápida y fácilmente la mayoria de genes que controlan la resistencia a las heladas e incorporarlos en la papa comunmente cultivada S. tuberoaum L.

  12. CANONICAL CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis AND Eucalyptus saligna CLONES

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    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.

  13. Producción de pigmentos procedentes de Arthrospira maxima cultivada en fotobiorreactores

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    Lolymar de los Ángeles Romero Maza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de cianobacterias, como Arthrospira, puede realizarse en sistemas abiertos y sistemas cerrados o fotobiorreactores. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la producción de pigmentos de Arthrospira maxima cultivada en dos tipos de fotobiorreactores. El cultivo se realizó de forma discontinua (Batch bajo ambiente controlado, en fotobiorreactores helicoidales y cilíndricos, durante 30 días, en medio Zarrouk. La determinación de los pigmentos se realizó en las fases de crecimiento exponencial y estacionario. Para los pigmentos liposolubles, la biomasa se sometió a extracción con acetona 90%, y posterior determinación por Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia, y para la extracción de los pigmentos ficobiliproteínicos se ensayaron cuatro métodos: 1. regulador de fosfatos/enzimas; 2. solución alcalina, previo tratamiento con CaCl2; 3. buffer de fosfato, previo tratamiento con hielo seco y 4. agua (4ºC, y posterior determinación por Espectrofotometría UV-Visible. Los mayores valores de pigmentos liposolubles fueron obtenidos en los cultivos realizados en fotobiorreactor helicoidal durante la fase exponencial (clorofila a 11,08±0,006 µg mL-1; β-caroteno 1,82±0,003 µg mL-1; zeaxantina 0,72±0,002 µg mL-1; mientras que los mayores contenidos de los pigmentos ficobiliproteínicos se obtuvieron en fotobiorreactor cilíndrico, durante la fase estacionaria, utilizando el buffer de fosfato tratado con hielo seco para la extracción. Dentro de las ficobiliproteínas, fue la ficocianina la que se encontró en mayor proporción (FC = 77,74±0,767 mg L-1, seguido por la aloficocianina y ficoeritrina. Se concluye que la biomasa de Arthrospira maxima presenta potencial biotecnológico por sus altos contenidos de pigmentos.

  14. Estado nutricional, vigor e produção em videiras cultivadas com plantas de cobertura

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    Jovani Zalamena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécies perenes ou anuais de plantas de cobertura podem ser cultivadas em vinhedos para proteger a superfície do solo e também controlar a disponibilidade de água e nutrientes à videira. O trabalho objetivou avaliar o estado nutricional, o vigor e a produção de uva em videiras consorciadas com espécies anuais e perenes de plantas de cobertura submetidas a dois manejos. O experimento foi conduzido nas safras de 2009/2010 e 2010/2011, em vinhedo da cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon, em São Joaquim (SC, sobre um Cambissolo Húmico Distrófico. Os tratamentos foram: testemunha, caracterizado pela presença de plantas espontâneas controladas por dessecação na linha e por roçadas nas entrelinhas; a espécie perene de planta de cobertura, festuca (Festuca arundinacea; duas sucessões de espécies anuais, azevém-moha (Lolium multiflorum-Setaria italica e aveia-branca trigo-mourisco (Avena sativa-Fagopyrum esculentum; e dois tipos de manejo das plantas, com e sem transferência do resíduo produzido na linha para a entrelinha das videiras. Foram coletadas folhas completas no pleno florescimento e na mudança da cor das bagas para análise dos teores totais de N, P, K, Ca e Mg. Determinaram-se o comprimento dos ramos e de seus entrenós, a massa dos ramos podados e calculou-se o índice de Ravaz. Na colheita, foram determinados o comprimento, largura e massa de cachos, a produção de uva por planta e a massa de 100 bagas. As videiras consorciadas com espécies de plantas de cobertura anuais apresentaram maior teor de N total nas folhas na floração, maior vigor e produção de uva. O manejo das plantas de cobertura, mediante transferência dos resíduos culturais da linha de videiras para a entrelinha, não afetou o vigor da videira nem a produção de uva, mas diminuiu o teor total de N nas folhas, na fase da floração. O cultivo da festuca como cobertura do solo do vinhedo pode ser uma alternativa eficaz para se diminuir o vigor da videira.

  15. Speciation and distribution of Botryosphaeria spp. on native and introduced Eucalyptus trees in Australia and South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slippers, B.; Fourie, G.; Crous, P.W.; Coutinho, T.A.; Wingfield, B.D.; Carnegie, A.J.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Botryosphaeria spp. are important canker and die-back pathogens that affect Eucalyptus spp. They also occur endophytically in Eucalyptus leaves and stems. For the purpose of this study, Botryosphaeria strains were isolated from diseased and symptomless Eucalyptus material from Australia and South

  16. Did Eucalyptus contribute to environment degradation? Implications from a dispute on causes of severe drought in Yunnan and Guizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Various viewpoints were proposed to explain the causes of recent years' severe drought occurred in Yunnan and Guizhou, China. In general there are two parties of viewpoints, the Eucalyptus cause and climate change cause. I think Yunnan-Guizhou drought has been mainly caused by abnormal climate change. Eucalyptus was not significant in the formation of Yunnan-Guizhou drought. However, the forestation effect of Eucalyptus in China was not good. Environment quality and biodiversity in Eucalyptus plantation forests has been degrading in last decades. Enhancement of alleopathy of Eucalyptus trees under drought conditions would partly contribute to biodiversity reduction and environment degradation in Eucalyptus plantation forests. For existing Eucalyptus plantation forests of Yunnan, I suggest that some improvement measures should be adopted. Artificial weeding and cleaning in Eucalyptus plantation forests should be banned. Density of Eucalyptus trees needs to be reduced. Biodiversity should be artificially improved in Eucalyptus plantation forests. In the future, the mountains and lands with better vegetation cover must not be reclaimed for Eucalyptus planting. Eucalyptus plantation forests should be made in barren mountains and lands with poor biodiversity.

  17. In vitro anticancer properties of selected Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sakoff, Jennette; Bond, Danielle R; Predebon, Melanie; Vuong, Quan V; Chalmers, Anita C; van Altena, Ian A; Bowyer, Michael C; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    In spite of the recent advancements in oncology, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer has not improved over the last five decades. Eucalypts have been linked with cytotoxic and anticancer properties in various studies; however, there is very little scientific evidence that supports the direct role of eucalypts in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. This study assessed the anticancer properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of four Eucalyptus species using an MTT assay. The most promising extracts were further evaluated using a CCK-8 assay. Apoptotic studies were performed using a caspase 3/7 assay in MIA PaCa-2 cells. The aqueous extract of Eucalyptus microcorys leaf and the ethanolic extract of Eucalyptus microcorys fruit inhibited the growth of glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, lung and pancreatic cancer cells by more than 80% at 100 μg/mL. The E. microcorys and Eucalyptus saligna extracts showed lower GI 50 values than the ethanolic Eucalyptus robusta extract in MIA PaCa-2 cells. Aqueous E. microcorys leaf and fruit extracts at 100 μg/mL exerted significantly higher cell growth inhibition in MIA PaCa-2 cells than other extracts (p  0.05) were observed in aqueous E. microcorys leaf (86.05 ± 4.75 μg/mL) and fruit (64.66 ± 15.97 μg/mL) and ethanolic E. microcorys leaf (79.30 ± 29.45 μg/mL) extracts in MIA PaCa-2 cells using the CCK-8 assay. Caspase 3/7-mediated apoptosis and morphological changes of cells were also witnessed in MIA PaCa-2 cells after 24 h of treatment with the extracts. This study highlighted the significance of E. microcorys as an important source of phytochemicals with efficacy against pancreatic cancer cells. Further studies are warranted to purify and structurally identify individual compounds and elucidate their mechanisms of action for the development of more potent and specific chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer.

  18. Phylogenetic reassessment of Mycosphaerella spp. and their anamorphs occurring on Eucalyptus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Mansilla, J.P.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Eucalyptus, mostly native to Australia, are widely planted as exotics in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. These plantations represent an important source of fuel-wood, structural timber and pulp. Eucalyptus plantations are, however, vulnerable to infection by pathogens, including

  19. Management of Eucalyptus plantations influence small mammals’ density: evidences from Southern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, D; Carrilho, M; Mexia, T; Kobel, M; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Rosalino, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Forestry plantations, and particularly those of exotic Eucalyptus, are important man-made systems in Europe, and especially in Portugal, where these represent now the largest fraction of forested areas. Eucalyptus plantations may have impacts on vertebrate communities in Europe; however, these have

  20. Eucalyptus beyond its native range: Environmental issues in exotic bioenergy plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Eric D. Vance; Thomas R. Fox; Matias Kirst

    2013-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus is native to Australia and Indonesia but has been widely planted in many countries. Eucalyptus has proven to be particularly successful in tropical and subtropical regions. Several species are also successful in some temperate regions, but problems with sudden and severe frosts pose limitations. Current...

  1. Processed eucalyptus trees as a substrate component for greenhouse crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast growing eucalyptus species are selected for commercial plantings worldwide and are harvested for a variety of uses. Eucalyptus plantings in south Florida are harvested for landscape mulch production, yet this material may have potential as a container substrate for horticulture crop production....

  2. Effect of surfactant concentration on the spreading properties of pesticide droplets on Eucalyptus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The area wetted by 500-µm diameter droplets of pesticide and deionised water placed at different positions on Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis (E.u × E.g) and Eucalyptus tereticornis (E.t) leaves was determined at an air temperature of 30 °C and a relative humidity of 60%. Dimethyl dichlorovinyl ph...

  3. Herbicide site preparation and release options for eucalyptus plantation establishment in the western gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Blazier; John Johnson; Eric L. Taylor; Brad Osbon

    2012-01-01

    Cold-tolerant species of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) are increasingly grown in the Western Gulf region as short-rotation pulpwood feedstock. Operational chemical suppression of competing vegetation has been relatively costly and inefficient because it requires frequent applications of glyphosate applied via backpack sprayers. A series of studies...

  4. Effects of irrigation on water use and water use efficiency in two fast growing Eucalyptus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Jose Stape; Michael G. Ryan; Auro C. Almeida; Juan Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Eucalyptus plantations occupy almost 20 million ha worldwide and exceed 3.7 million ha in Brazil alone. Improved genetics and silviculture have led to as much as a three-fold increase in productivity in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil and the large land area occupied by these highly productive ecosystems raises concern over their...

  5. Projecting potential adoption of genetically engineered freeze-tolerant Eucalyptus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Ernest Dixon IV; Robert C. Abt; Navinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Development of commercial Eucalyptus plantations has been limited in the United States because of the species’ sensitivity to freezing temperatures. Recently developed genetically engineered clones of a Eucalyptus hybrid, which confer freeze tolerance, could expand the range of commercial plantations. This study explores how...

  6. Investigação da presença de óleo essencial em Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker por meio da anatomia de seu lenho e casca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Fabrowski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O material utilizado no presente estudo foi proveniente de 15 árvores de Eucalyptus smithii R.T. Baker cultivadas no município de Colombo - PR, em campo experimental da Embrapa Florestas, plantadas em 1988. Caracterizou-se anatomicamente o lenho e a casca por meio de lâminas preparadas no Laboratório de Anatomia e Identificação de Madeiras do IPT e Laboratório de Anatomia da Madeira, do Centro de Ciências Florestais e da Madeira, da Universidade Federal do Paraná. Para a extração do óleo essencial, a madeira foi transformada em serragem e a casca desfibrada manualmente. Para a determinação do rendimento e análise do óleo essencial, foram efetuadas destilações conforme ABNT no Laboratório de Fitoquímica do Departamento de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Paraná. Os rendimentos do óleo essencial foram dados em volume (ml de óleo essencial por massa (g de material. O Eucalyptus smithii apresenta estrutura anatômica homogênea do lenho e da casca. Na casca, observou-se a presença de cavidades secretoras; no entanto, no lenho, não foi encontrada nenhuma estrutura semelhante, apenas bolsas de quino, sendo desprezível a quantidade de óleo essencial presente na madeira. O óleo essencial da casca apresentou características físico-químicas fora das especificações para óleos essenciais de eucaliptos ricos em 1,8-cineol, não sendo economicamente viável para a exploração desse componente.

  7. Behavior of Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus citriodora Seedlings Grown in Soil Contaminated by Arsenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Freire Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Persistent areas of tailings and deposits from coal and gold mining may present high levels of arsenic (As, mainly in the arsenate form, endangering the environment and human health. The establishment of vegetation cover is a key step to reclaiming these environments. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of Eucalyptus urophylla and E. citriodora seedlings for use in phytoremediation programs of arsenate-contaminated areas. Soil samples were incubated at increasing rates (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg dm-3 of arsenic (arsenate form, using Na2HAsO4 for 15 days. The seedlings were produced in a substrate (vermiculite + sawdust and were transplanted to the pots with soil three months after seed germination. The values of plant height and diameter were taken during transplanting and 30, 60 and 90 days after transplanting. In the last evaluation, the total leaf area and biomass of shoots and roots were also determined. The values of available As in soil which caused a 50 % dry matter reduction (TS50%, the As translocation index (TI from the roots to the shoot of the plants, and its bioconcentration factor (BF were also calculated. Higher levels of arsenate in the soil significantly reduced the dry matter production of roots and shoots and the height of both species, most notably in E. urophylla plants. The highest levels of As were found in the root, with higher values for E. citriodora (ranging from 253.86 to 400 mg dm-3. The TI and BF were also reduced with As doses, but the values found in E. citriodora were significantly higher than in E. urophylla. E. citriodora plants presented a higher capacity to tolerate As and translocate it to the shoot than E. urophylla. Although these species cannot be considered as hyperaccumulators of As, E. citriodora presented the potential to be used in phytoremediation programs in arsenate-contaminated areas due to the long-term growth period of this species.

  8. A comparison of the effectiveness of chloroform and eucalyptus oil in dissolving root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Edgar; Zandbiglari, Tannaz

    2002-05-01

    The solubility of 8 different root canal sealers in chloroform and in eucalyptus oil was compared. For standardized samples (n=12), ring molds were filled with mixed sealers based on epoxy resin, silicone, calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide-eugenol, glass ionomer, and polyketone. These samples were immersed in chloroform or eucalyptus oil for 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 20 minutes. Then, the mean weight loss was determined and statistically analyzed. With the exception of the silicone, all the sealers showed significantly higher solubilities (P <.05) in chloroform than in eucalyptus oil. Epoxy resin was the most soluble sealer in chloroform. In eucalyptus oil, calcium hydroxide, and zinc oxide-eugenol showed the highest solubility. Under the conditions of this study, chloroform was a far more effective solvent of root canal sealers than eucalyptus oil. Because of the potential hazards of chloroform, further studies on the dissolution of root canal sealers in different solvents seem to be necessary.

  9. Pretreatment of Eucalyptus in biphasic system for furfural production and accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiudong; Bai, Yuanyuan; Cao, Xuefei; Sun, Runcang

    2017-08-01

    Herein, an efficient biphasic pretreatment process was developed to improve the production of furfural (FF) and glucose from Eucalyptus. The influence of formic acid and NaCl on FF production from xylose in water and various biphasic systems was investigated. Results showed that the addition of formic acid and NaCl significantly promoted the FF yield, and the biphasic system of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone)/water exhibited the best performance for FF production. Then the Eucalyptus was pretreated in the MIBK/water system, and a maximum FF yield of 82.0% was achieved at 180°C for 60min. Surface of the pretreated Eucalyptus became relatively rough and loose, and its crystallinity index increased obviously due to the removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. The pretreated Eucalyptus samples showed much higher enzymatic hydrolysis rates (26.2-70.7%) than the raw Eucalyptus (14.5%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atributos físico-químicos de um Latossolo do Cerrado brasileiro e sua relação com características dendrométricas do eucalipto Dendrometric parameters of eucalyptus and their relationship with physical-chemical characteristics of a Latosol in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gustavo da Rocha Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A resistência mecânica à penetração do solo exerce grande influência sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento vegetal, uma vez que o crescimento das raízes e o rendimento das culturas variam de forma inversamente proporcional ao seu valor. Por outro lado, a matéria orgânica e o pH do solo também são atributos relevantes ao crescimento das plantas, pois estão diretamente ligados à disponibilidade de nutrientes do solo. No ano agrícola 2005/2006, na Fazenda Experimental de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia/UNESP, município de Selvíria, MS (22 º 23 ' de latitude S; 51 º 27 ' de longitude W, em um cultivo de Eucalyptus camaldulensis, foram analisados: (a características dendrométricas da planta: volume de madeira (VOL, perímetro à altura do peito (PAP e altura (ALT; e (b atributos do solo em profundidade: resistência mecânica à penetração (RP, umidade gravimétrica (UG, matéria orgânica (MO e o pH, num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico do Cerrado brasileiro. O objetivo foi estudar as correlações lineares e espaciais entre essas variáveis, buscando determinar indicadores de qualidade do solo para o eucalipto. Dados do solo e da planta foram coletados em uma malha geoestatística com 122 pontos amostrais, numa área de 1,98 ha. Os atributos da planta apresentaram média e alta variabilidade dos dados, ao passo que os do solo mostraram variabilidade baixa, média e alta. Os atributos VOL, PAP, ALT, RP, UG, MO e o pH não variaram aleatoriamente, seguindo padrões espaciais bem definidos, com alcances entre 17 e 169 m. As correlações lineares simples entre as características da planta e os atributos do solo foram baixas, porém significativas entre os pares VOL vs RP1, VOL vs RP5, VOL vs MO2 e VOL vs pH1. Do ponto de vista espacial, ocorreu significativa variação inversa do VOL com a RP5 e o pH1. O pH do solo, amostrado de 0-0,15 m de profundidade, quando destinado à estimativa da produtividade de madeira do

  11. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waithaka, Paul Njenga; Gathuru, Eliud Mugu; Githaiga, Benson Muriuki; Kimani, Salome Nduta

    2017-01-01

    Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis ) and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus agglomerata ) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary ( r = 0.99) and eucalyptus ( r = 0.99). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus ( P = 0.08). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus ( P = 0.000438). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale.

  12. RESISTÊNCIA BIOLÓGICA DA MADEIRA TRATADA DE Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus cloeziana A FUNGOS APODRECEDORES EM ENSAIOS DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Alan Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the biological resistance of treated wood from Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana under the action of biodeteriorative organisms in laboratory testing. Thus, we used trees of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, both 16 years old, which was converted into planks and subjected to preservative treatment in an autoclave with chromate copper arsenate (CCA. Then, it was made the specimens for the conduct of accelerated decay test, as recommended by ASTM. From the results, it was observed for the fungus Trametes versicolor that the preservative treatment was effective in reducing the biological degradation of the wood of the two species, with reduced mass loss in 35.17 and 82.31% for wood Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus cloeziana, respectively, as for the fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum mass loss was reduced by 6.79 and 96.65%, compared to the control. Based on the conditions of realization of the present study, it was observed that preservative treatment with CCA is effective in the increasing the biological resistance of the wood under the action of fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

  13. ATRIBUTOS FÍSICO-QUÍMICOS E ACEITABILIDADE DOS FRUTOS DE FIGUEIRAS CULTIVADAS NA ESPANHA

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    Manoel Euzébio de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as características físico-químicas e sensoriais dos frutos de quatro variedades de figueira (Colar, San Antonio, Cuello de Dama Negro e Tiberio cultivadas no sudeste da Espanha. Para este estudo foram utilizados figos oriundos de uma área experimental da Escola Politécnica Superior de Orihuela da Universidade Miguel Hernández de Elche/Espanha. Os frutos foram avaliados no Laboratório de Pós-Colheita da Universidade Politécnica de Cartagena/Espanha. Foram mensuradas características como firmeza, pH, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, polifenóis totais, capacidade antioxidante e a análise sensorial dos frutos de quatro variedades de figueiras. Foram considerados 4 tratamentos (variedades e 3 repetições por tratamento, para cada repetição foram utilizados 5 frutos. Os frutos da variedade Tiberio mostraram menor firmeza e baixa qualidade sensorial, indicando menor aceitabilidade. As variedades Colar e Cuello de Dama Negro apresentaram frutos com maiores teores de polifenóis totais e capacidade antioxidante. Palavras-chave: Ficus carica L, qualidade, análise sensorial.   PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES AND ACCEPTABILITY OF FIG FRUITS CULTIVATED IN SPAIN ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of four fig fruits varieties grown in southeast Spain. For this study were used fig fruits coming from the experimental area of Orihuela Polytechnic School, University Miguel Hernández of Elche/Spain. After harvesting the fruits were brought to the Postharvest laboratory of Cartagena Polytechnic University/ Spain, where the weight characterization, longitudinal and equatorial diameter, ostiole diameter (morphological, consistency, pH,  soluble solids,  sugars, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity (physico-chemical , , was performed, and sensory analysis of four fig fruits varieties (Colar, San Antonio, Cuello de Dama Negro and Tiberio

  14. Potential use of eucalyptus biodiesel in compressed ignition engine

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    Puneet Verma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The increased population has resulted in extra use of conventional sources of fuels due to which there is risk of extinction of fossil fuels’ resources especially petroleum diesel. Biodiesel is emerging as an excellent alternative choice across the world as a direct replacement for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. Biodiesel offers a great choice. It is mainly derived from vegetable oils, animal fats and algae. Hence in this paper effort has been made to find out feasibility of biodiesel obtained from eucalyptus oil and its impact on diesel engine. Higher viscosity is a major issue while using vegetable oil directly in engine which can be removed by converting it into biodiesel by the process of transesterification. Various fuel properties like calorific value, flash point and cetane value of biodiesel and biodiesel–diesel blends of different proportions were evaluated and found to be comparable with petroleum diesel. The result of investigation shows that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC for two different samples of B10 blend of eucalyptus biodiesel is 2.34% and 2.93% lower than that for diesel. Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE for B10 blends was found to be 0.52% and 0.94% lower than that for diesel. Emission characteristics show that Smoke Opacity improves for both samples, smoke is found to be 64.5% and 62.5% cleaner than that of diesel. Out of all blends B10 was found to be a suitable alternative to conventional diesel fuel to control air pollution without much significant effect on engine performance. On comparing both samples, biodiesel prepared from sample A of eucalyptus oil was found to be superior in all aspects of performance and emission.

  15. Patterns of Reproductive Isolation in Eucalyptus-A Phylogenetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Matthew J; Holland, Barbara; Steane, Dorothy A; Jones, Rebecca C; Nicolle, Dean; Vaillancourt, René E; Potts, Brad M

    2015-07-01

    We assess phylogenetic patterns of hybridization in the speciose, ecologically and economically important genus Eucalyptus, in order to better understand the evolution of reproductive isolation. Eucalyptus globulus pollen was applied to 99 eucalypt species, mainly from the large commercially important subgenus, Symphyomyrtus. In the 64 species that produce seeds, hybrid compatibility was assessed at two stages, hybrid-production (at approximately 1 month) and hybrid-survival (at 9 months), and compared with phylogenies based on 8,350 genome-wide DArT (diversity arrays technology) markers. Model fitting was used to assess the relationship between compatibility and genetic distance, and whether or not the strength of incompatibility "snowballs" with divergence. There was a decline in compatibility with increasing genetic distance between species. Hybridization was common within two closely related clades (one including E. globulus), but rare between E. globulus and species in two phylogenetically distant clades. Of three alternative models tested (linear, slowdown, and snowball), we found consistent support for a snowball model, indicating that the strength of incompatibility accelerates relative to genetic distance. Although we can only speculate about the genetic basis of this pattern, it is consistent with a Dobzhansky-Muller-model prediction that incompatibilities should snowball with divergence due to negative epistasis. Different rates of compatibility decline in the hybrid-production and hybrid-survival measures suggest that early-acting postmating barriers developed first and are stronger than later-acting barriers. We estimated that complete reproductive isolation can take up to 21-31 My in Eucalyptus. Practical implications for hybrid eucalypt breeding and genetic risk assessment in Australia are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For

  16. ECONOMIC ROTATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATIONS FOR PULP PRODUCTION

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    Thais Cunha Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and 103 months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used. Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5; 2.8; 4.0 and 6.0 m of length for minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter. Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter.

  17. Propagation of jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) by organ and tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.J.; McComb, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Micropropagation methods are described for the production of clonal lines from Eucalyptus marginata (jarrah) seedlings. Nodal explants from mature trees can also yield shoot cultures, but a high frequency of contamination occurs among such explants. Uncontaminated callus cultures can be produced from mature trees by culturing stamen filaments and shoots can subsequently be regenerated from this callus. The rooting percentage of shoot cultures from either nodes or stamen callus of mature trees is low compared with that from seedling explants. Considerable variation was observed between trees in the ability of stamen callus to regenerate shoots and in the frequency of rooting. (Refs. 27)

  18. A new genomic resource dedicated to wood formation in Eucalyptus

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    Couloux Arnaud

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renowned for their fast growth, valuable wood properties and wide adaptability, Eucalyptus species are amongst the most planted hardwoods in the world, yet they are still at the early stages of domestication because conventional breeding is slow and costly. Thus, there is huge potential for marker-assisted breeding programs to improve traits such as wood properties. To this end, the sequencing, analysis and annotation of a large collection of expressed sequences tags (ESTs from genes involved in wood formation in Eucalyptus would provide a valuable resource. Results We report here the normalization and sequencing of a cDNA library from developing Eucalyptus secondary xylem, as well as the construction and sequencing of two subtractive libraries (juvenile versus mature wood and vice versa. A total of 9,222 high quality sequences were collected from about 10,000 cDNA clones. The EST assembly generated a set of 3,857 wood-related unigenes including 2,461 contigs (Cg and 1,396 singletons (Sg that we named 'EUCAWOOD'. About 65% of the EUCAWOOD sequences produced matches with poplar, grapevine, Arabidopsis and rice protein sequence databases. BlastX searches of the Uniref100 protein database allowed us to allocate gene ontology (GO and protein family terms to the EUCAWOOD unigenes. This annotation of the EUCAWOOD set revealed key functional categories involved in xylogenesis. For instance, 422 sequences matched various gene families involved in biosynthesis and assembly of primary and secondary cell walls. Interestingly, 141 sequences were annotated as transcription factors, some of them being orthologs of regulators known to be involved in xylogenesis. The EUCAWOOD dataset was also mined for genomic simple sequence repeat markers, yielding a total of 639 putative microsatellites. Finally, a publicly accessible database was created, supporting multiple queries on the EUCAWOOD dataset. Conclusion In this work, we have identified a

  19. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-01-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: ► The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. ► Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short

  20. Properties of Eucalyptus benthamii wood for energy production

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    Dimas Agostinho Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy potential of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden et Cambage wood. The samples were collected in the municipality of Cerro Negro, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Samples were collected from 5 trees at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of commercial height. It was determined basic density, high calorific value, elemental composition, immediate chemical analysis, lower calorific value, energy density, carbon storage and energy production. The physical and chemical variables studied and energy potential of wood did not present differences along the stem.

  1. Les plantations d' Eucalyptus au Sahel: distribution, importance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grâce à leur plasticité et leur rusticité, les espèces du genre Eucalyptus sont parmi les essences forestières les plus utilisées pour le reboisement en vue de lutter contre la désertification au Sahel. Toutefois, l'expansion rapide de ces espèces originaires d'Australie dans le Sahel, est surtout liée au succès économique de ...

  2. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HEARTWOOD AND SAPWOOD OF EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS

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    Bekir Cihad BAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some of the physical propertiesof heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus grandisgrown in Karabucak, Turkey were determined. Thephysical properties determined were air-drieddensity, oven-dried density, basic density, shrinkage,swelling, fiber saturation point, and maximummoisture content. According to the test results, thephysical properties of the heartwood samplesdiffered from those of the sapwood samples due tothe presence of high proportion of juvenile wood inthe heartwood. It can be said that the shrinkage andswelling percentages were better for heartwood thansapwood. Air-dried density, oven-dried density, andbasic density of sapwood were higher than those ofheartwood.

  3. Removal of chromium (vi) by using eucalyptus bark (biosorption)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatoon, S.; Anwar, J.; Fatima, H.B.

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption of Chromium (VI) on the Eucalyptus bark has been studied with variation in parameters. Different parameters like particle size of adsorbent, concentration of adsorbate, amount of adsorbent, stirring speed, time, temperature and pH were studied. The adsorption has been carried out in batch process. The adsorption capacity increases with decreasing the particle size of adsorbent. The optimum conditions for the maximum adsorption are attained with 2.0 g of adsorbent, 40 ppm metal ion concentration, at room temperature (10 degree C), with 90 min contact time, with 300 rpm agitation speed and at pH 2. (author)

  4. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Submédio São Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Adriana Mayumi Yano de; Maia,Leonor Costa; Morgado,Luiz Balbino

    1997-01-01

    Na região do Vale do São Francisco, onde a exploração da agricultura irrigada é a principal responsável pela alta produção de frutas para exportação, a banana é uma das culturas que mais tem se expandido em área cultivada. Com o objetivo de registrar os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares associados a essa cultura, foram coletadas, sob a parte aérea da bananeira, amostras de solo da rizosfera, em quatro áreas com diferentes características de solo, sendo identificadas as espécies: Acaulospora lo...

  5. UREDINALES DE PLANTAS CULTIVADAS DE INTERÉS FLORAL EN COLOMBIA UREDINALES OF CULTIVATED FLOWERS IN COLOMBIA

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    Víctor Manuel Pardo Cardona

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Treinta especies de Uredinales (royas se han registrado en Colombia parasitando a veintiseis especies de plantas cultivadas de interés floral comprendidas en 21 géneros y 15 familias botánicas. Se registra para Colombia y la zona andina de Sudamérica a Puccinia hemerocallidis Thuemen. Se confirma la presencia en Colombia de Puccinia antirrhini Dietel & Holway y Uromyces gladioli P. Hennings.Thirty species of Uredinales (rust fungi are registered in Colombia parasitizing 26 species of cultivated flowers belonging to 21 genera and 15 botanical families. Puccinia hemerocallidis Thuemen is a new record for Colombia and the Andean zone of South America. Puccinia antirrhini Dietel & Holway and Uromyces gladioli P. Hennings are first records for Colombia.

  6. Antimicrobial, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Tapioca Starch Films Incorporated with Eucalyptus Extract

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    M. Rojhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in abundance in nature and it is one of the raw materials used for food packagingbecause of the low price, biodegradability, good mechanical and barrier properties. The recycling ability ofcoating materials was significantly increased by using edible films and coating in comparison to traditionalpackaging and it could be an alternative for synthetic films. In this research, the effect of eucalyptus extract(Aqueous Extract was investigated on tapioca starch films. Tapioca starch films were prepared by castingmethod with addition of eucalyptus extract and a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1 asplasticizers. Eucalyptus extract incorporated to the tapioca starch films were dried at different concentrations(0, 15, 25, and 35 of total solid under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as waterabsorption capacity (WAC, water vapor permeability (WVP and mechanical properties of the films wereevaluated. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of eucalyptus extract, tensile strength wasincreased from 20.60 to 15.68 (MPa, also elongation was increased from 19.31 to 23.57 (% at break andYoung’s modulus was decreased from 800.31 to 500.32 (MPa. Also incorporation of eucalyptus extract in thestructure of biopolymer increased permeability of water vapor of starch films. Tapioca starch filmsincorporated with eucalyptus extract exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against E. Coli. In summary,eucalyptus extract improves functional properties of tapioca starch films and this types of films can be used infood packaging.

  7. Estimations of evapotranspiration in an age sequence of Eucalyptus plantations in subtropical China.

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    Wenfei Liu

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species are widely planted for reforestation in subtropical China. However, the effects of Eucalyptus plantations on the regional water use remain poorly understood. In an age sequence of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantations, the tree water use and soil evaporation were examined by linking model estimations and field observations. Results showed that annual evapotranspiration of each age sequence Eucalyptus plantations was 876.7, 944.1 and 1000.7 mm, respectively, accounting for 49.81%, 53.64% and 56.86% of the annual rainfall. In addition, annual soil evaporations of 2-, 4- and 6-year-old were 318.6, 336.1, and 248.7 mm of the respective Eucalyptus plantations. Our results demonstrated that Eucalyptus plantations would potentially reduce water availability due to high evapotranspiration in subtropical regions. Sustainable management strategies should be implemented to reduce water consumption in Eucalyptus plantations in the context of future climate change scenarios such as drought and warming.

  8. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

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    Moura Jullyana Cristina Magalhães Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase, SAND (SAND protein, ACT (actin, and A-Tub (α-tubulin genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin. It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified

  9. Grouping eucalyptus species in kraft pulp process for cost reduction

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    Apiwan Pichayadecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the level of the important factors that can decrease total cost of pulp production. First of all, experts and experienced users identify the factors that affect the total production cost by applying the principle of 4M 1E cause and effect diagram. Then the primary factors were chosen based on 80% of their significance and tested by hypothesis for two population means. It was found that at the 95% confidence level the significant factors that have effects on the total production cost are amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. However, the proportion of easy delignification according to Eucalyptus species is considered as a significant factor based on various studies. Box-Behnken experiment is designed with respect to 3 mentioned factors and 3 levels of each factor. The response surface method (RSM is employed to determine the non-linear relation between the total cost as the response and the proportion of easy delignification, amount of Effective alkali in white liquor and Kappa number. To minimize the total cost, the optimal values of each factor are 75% of easy delignification, 112 grams per liter of Effective alkali in white liquor and 13.5 of kappa number. Under this optimal condition, the average total cost per ton of Eucalyptus is 13,393.91 Baht which is significantly less than the total cost of 15,517.06 Baht per ton before improvement.

  10. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF Eucalyptus grandis PLANTATION FOR CELLULOSE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were: to analyze the economic feasibility of planting eucalyptus for producing wood pulp,considering various site index and two spacings; to analyze the economic effects regarding the profitability of the forest activity indifferent distances from the industry and changes on discount rate, wood price, transportation costs, minimum profitable diameter oflogs and the length of the logs. A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed, using data of a trial ofEucalyptus grandis stands 19 and 103 months old. The prognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2.5 and 6.0 m of lenghtand the minimum diameter varying from 4 to 10 cm, in intervals of 2 cm. Net Present Worth (NPW was used as the economic decisioncriterium, considering an infinite horizon. The main conclusions were: reducing the minimum profitable diameter and the length ofthe logs are good strategies to increase wood utilization and profit; plantations located in less productive lands are economicallyunfeasible; the cost of transportation has significant effect on the profitability of the forest activity and must be analyzed carefully atthe moment of defining the location of new plantations; small variations on wood sales price may cause big alterations on theprofitability of the forest activity, suggesting that the improvement of the wood quality together with other decisions that may increasewood price are alternatives that may render the plantations in less productive areas profitable.

  11. Thinning regimes and initial spacing for Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Filho, Antonio C; Mola-Yudego, Blas; González-Olabarria, José R; Scolforo, José Roberto S

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of different thinning regimes on clonal Eucalyptus plantations growth. Four different trials, planted in 1999 and located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, were used. Aside from thinning, initial planting density, and post thinning fertilization application were also evaluated. Before canopy closure, and therefore before excessive competition between trees took place, it was found that stands planted under low densities (667 trees per hectare) presented a lower mortality proportion when compared to stand planted under higher densities (1111 trees per hectare). However, diameter growth prior to thinning operations was not statistically different between these two densities, presenting an overall mean of 4.9 cm/year. After canopy closure and the application of the thinning treatments, it was found that thinning regimes beginning early in the life of the stand and leaving a low number of residual trees presented the highest diameter and height growth. Unthinned treatments and thinning regimes late in the life of the stand (after 5.5 years), leaving a large number of residual trees presented the highest values of basal area production. The choice of the best thinning regime for Eucalyptus clonal material will vary according to the plantation objective.

  12. Predicted stand volume for Eucalyptus plantations by spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Siti; Teodoro, RV; Myrna, GC; Nathaniel, CB; Leonardo, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    The main objective of the present study was to assess nonlinear models generated by integrating the stand volume growth rate to estimate the growth and yield of Eucalyptus. The primary data was done for point of interest (POI) of permanent sample plots (PSPs) and inventory sample plots, in Aek Nauli sector, Simalungun regency,North Sumatera Province,Indonesia. from December 2008- March 2009. Today,the demand for forestry information has continued to grow over recent years. Because many forest managers and decision makers face complex decisions, reliable information has become the necessity. In the assessment of natural resources including plantation forests have been widely used geospatial technology.The yield of Eucalyptus plantations represented by merchantable volume as dependent variable while factors affecting yield namely stands variables and the geographic variables as independent variables. The majority of the areas in the study site has stand volume class 0 - 50 m3/ha with 16.59 ha or 65.85 % of the total study site.

  13. ANALYSIS OF EUCALYPTUS GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER PORTICOS STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Ferreira Couri Petrauski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the structural behavior of porticos made from eucalyptus glued boards, using wood of Eucalyptus sp and resorcinol formaldehyde adhesive. Three units, in real scale, of tri-articulated straight porticos, with a 5 meter porthole and a 26º inclination, capable to support tiles covering placement were designed, constructed and subjected to load testing, until rupture. The amount of adhesive used in the construction of the porticos was 250 g/m2 and the bonding pressure of 1.3 MPa. The Hankinson model was employed as an estimator of the glued joints strength, under different angles between the fibers. The average value for the last resistance of the structures was 4.63 times the design load, according to the criteria established by the ABNT, 1997. The structures showed satisfactory mechanical performance and deformations lower than the ones allowed by the standard. It was concluded there is technical feasibility to manufacture porticos fully bonded with small thickness veneers.

  14. Hardening of eucalyptus seedlings via salicylic acid application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Henrique Lima Mazzuchelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural and forest productivity suffer restrictions imposed by water stress, high temperature and high solar radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of stress attenuation and growth promotion of salicylic acid (SA application in eucalyptus (E. urophylla x E. grandis hybrid seedlings under water stress. A completely randomized design, in a 3x4 factorial scheme (three water treatments: constant irrigation with daily replacement of 40% (CI40% or 100% (CI100% of evapotranspirated water, and temporary irrigation suspension with replacement of only 40% of evapotranspirated water (S40%; and four SA concentrations: 0 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1, 200 mg L-1 and 300 mg L-1, was used. Plant photosynthetic parameters and biometric features were evaluated. The stomatal limitation was higher in plants under S40% irrigation, however, the SA application reverted this result, allowing the maintenance of the photosynthetic potential. There was interaction between irrigation regimes and SA doses for number of leaves, leaf area/number of leaves ratio and shoot and root dry mass. It was concluded that the application of 200 mg L -1 of SA positively affected the growth of eucalyptus seedlings under water stress, being considered an auxiliary management technique to their hardening process.

  15. Uso de micorrizas e rizóbio em cultivo consorciado de eucalipto e sesbânia: II - Absorção e eficiência de utilização de fósforo e frações fosfatadas Use of mycorrhizas and rhizobium in intercropping system of eucalyptus and sesbania: II - Phosphorus uptake and efficiency of use and phosphate phosphate -fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Rodrigues

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e rizóbio na absorção e eficiência de utilização de P e nas frações fosfatadas em mudas de Eucalyptus grandis, cultivadas em consorciação com Sesbania virgata. Os tratamentos foram: inoculação ou não com FMAs em ambas as espécies de plantas e inoculação ou não com rizóbio na S. virgata, com quatro repetições. Ambas as plantas foram cultivadas em vasos de 6 L de capacidade, durante 100 dias, quando foram colhidas. A inoculação com FMAs ou FMAs + rizóbio aumentou o conteúdo de P no eucalipto, enquanto a inoculação com rizóbio, FMAs ou FMAs + rizóbio aumentou a eficiência de utilização de P. Nas frações de P, avaliadas nas folhas de eucalipto, observou-se aumento do fósforo total solúvel em ácido (PST nos tratamentos com inoculação de rizóbio ou FMAs + rizobio. Nos tratamentos com inoculação com rizóbio, FMAs, FMAs+rizóbio ou sem inoculação, observou-se que 81, 32, 91 e 68%, respectivamente, do PST foram encontrados como fósforo orgânico (Po. Em uma avaliação conjunta das frações fosfatadas e do conteúdo de P na parte aérea do eucalipto, o que aparentemente influenciou o aumento do PST e do Po não foi o conteúdo interno de P na planta, mas, sim, a inoculação do rizóbio na sesbânia.The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and Rhizobium on P uptake and efficiency of use, as well as on the P fractions of Eucalyptus grandis grown in an intercropping system with Sesbania virgata were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The treatments were: with or without inoculation with AMF of both plant species and with or without inoculation with Rhizobium of S. virgata plants only, in four replications. The two plant species were grown together in pots with a volume of 6 L for 100 days. Inoculations with AMF or with AMF + Rhizobium increased the P content in Eucalyptus

  16. Qualidade da celulose kraft-antraquinona de Eucalyptus dunnii plantado em cinco espaçamentos em relação ao Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna.

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Willer Ferreira; Jorge Vieira Gonzaga; Celso Edmundo B. Foelkel; Teotônio Francisco de Assis; Edvins Ratnieks; Maria Cladis Mezzomo da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho analisou o efeito de cinco espaçamentos de Eucalyptus dunnii (3 m x 1 m; 3 m x 1,5 m; 3 m x 2 m; 3 m x 3 m; 3 m x 4 m), para produção de celulose kraft-antraquinona, comparados com Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus saligna (ambos no espaçamento 3 m x 2 m). Avaliaram-se a densidade básica e composição química da madeira original, analisando-se extrativos em diclorometano, pentosanas, lignina, solubilidade em NaOH8% e cinzas. Os cavacos foram submetidos a cozimento kraft-antraqu...

  17. Isolation and molecular characterization of Cryptococcus species isolated from pigeon nests and Eucalyptus trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuzar Kamari

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The presence of pigeons and Eucalyptus trees in the vicinity of some particular places such as rest homes and hospitals should be considered as a risk factor for the immunocompromised population.  

  18. 27-36, 2014 27 Quality assessment of essential oils of Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the course of this study, essential oils of Eucalyptus globulus and three Boswellia rivae species were analyzed using ... parts of the plant, including leaves, flowers, seeds, rhizomes ..... oil and its major component 1,8-cineole against fungal.

  19. BASIC DENSITY AND RETRACTIBILITY OF WOOD CLONES OF THREE Eucalyptus SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it

  20. MODEL OF A PROCESS FOR DRYING Eucalyptus spp AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. C. PINHEIRO

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a process for drying of Eucalyptus spp is presented. This model was based on fundamental heat and mass transfer equations and it was numerically solved using a segregated finite volume method. Software in the FORTRAN language was developed to solve the mathematical model. The kinetic parameters of drying for Eucalyptus spp were experimentally obtained by isothermal thermogravimetry (TG. The theoretical results generated using the mathematical model were validated by experimental data.

  1. Wood density and anatomy of three Eucalyptus species: implications for hydraulic conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Barotto, Antonio J.; Monteoliva, Silvia; Gyenge, Javier; Martínez-Meier, Alejandro; Moreno, Karen; Tesón, Natalia; Fernández, María Elena

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To characterize wood anatomical traits of three Eucalyptus species that differ in wood density and ecological requirements, and to examine the relationships between some anatomical features, wood density, and theoretical xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks).Area of study: We analyzed 86 trees from three sites of Argentina (Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires Provinces).Methods: The sampled trees were Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis and E. viminalis ranging from 11 to 15 years old. One ...

  2. Wood density and anatomy of three Eucalyptus species: implications for hydraulic conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio J. Barotto; Silvia Monteoliva; Javier Gyenge; Alejandro Martínez-Meier; Karen Moreno; Natalia Tesón; María Elena Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: To characterize wood anatomical traits of three Eucalyptus species that differ in wood density and ecological requirements, and to examine the relationships between some anatomical features, wood density, and theoretical xylem hydraulic conductivity (Ks). Area of study: We analyzed 86 trees from three sites of Argentina (Entre Ríos and Buenos Aires Provinces). Methods: The sampled trees were Eucalyptus globulus, E. grandis and E. viminalis ranging from 11 to 15 years...

  3. Ansel Adams's Eucalyptus Tree, Fort Ross: Nature, Photography, and the Search for California

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Arenson

    2005-01-01

    This article considers the image of California evoked in the unusual Ansel Adams photograph Eucalyptus Tree, Fort Ross, California (1969), a Polaroid Land image of the garrison fence and an aged eucalyptus tree. Considering the participation of Russian occupation, Australian cross-pollination, Carleton Watkins's early photographs of redwoods, automotive and tourist images in the creation of this distinctive California place, the article argues that to understand Ansel Adams's work, we must no...

  4. EUCANEXT: an integrated database for the exploration of genomic and transcriptomic data from Eucalyptus species

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Leandro Costa; Salazar, Marcela Mendes; Lepikson-Neto, Jorge; Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Parreiras, Lucas Salera; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tree species of the genus Eucalyptus are the most valuable and widely planted hardwoods in the world. Given the economic importance of Eucalyptus trees, much effort has been made towards the generation of specimens with superior forestry properties that can deliver high-quality feedstocks, customized to the industrýs needs for both cellulosic (paper) and lignocellulosic biomass production. In line with these efforts, large sets of molecular data have been generated by several scienti...

  5. Wood CO2 efflux and foliar respiration for Eucalyptus in Hawaii and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Molly A. Cavaleri; Auro C. Almeida; Ricardo Penchel; Randy S. Senock; Jose Luiz Stape

    2009-01-01

    We measured CO2 efflux from wood for Eucalyptus in Hawaii for 7 years and compared these measurements with those on three- and four-and-a-halfyear- old Eucalyptus in Brazil. In Hawaii, CO2 efflux from wood per unit biomass declined ~10x from age two to age five, twice as much as the decline in tree growth. The CO2 efflux from wood in Brazil was 8-10· lower than that...

  6. Soil microbial community structure and function responses to successive planting of Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Falin; Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Kai; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Huailin; Wu, Bing; Shi, Qian

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have shown soil degradation after the conversion of native forests to exotic Eucalyptus plantations. However, few studies have investigated the long-term impacts of short-rotation forestry practices on soil microorganisms. The impacts of Eucalyptus successive rotations on soil microbial communities were evaluated by comparing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) abundances, compositions, and enzyme activities of native Pinus massoniana plantations and adjacent 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th generation Eucalyptus plantations. The conversion from P. massoniana to Eucalyptus plantations significantly decreased soil microbial community size and enzyme activities, and increased microbial physiological stress. However, the PLFA abundances formed "u" shaped quadratic functions with Eucalyptus plantation age. Alternatively, physiological stress biomarkers, the ratios of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid and Gram+ to Gram- bacteria, formed "n"' shaped quadratic functions, and the ratio of cy17:0 to 16:1omega7c decreased with plantation age. The activities of phenol oxidase, peroxidase, and acid phosphatase increased with Eucalyptus plantation age, while the cellobiohydrolase activity formed "u" shaped quadratic functions. Soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, soil organic carbon, and understory cover largely explained the variation in PLFA profiles while soil N:P, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, and understory cover explained most of the variability in enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil microbial structure and function under Eucalyptus plantations were strongly impacted by plantation age. Most of the changes could be explained by altered soil resource availability and understory cover associated with successive planting of Eucalyptus. Our results highlight the importance of plantation age for assessing the impacts of plantation conversion as well as the importance of reducing disturbance for plantation management.

  7. Study on the Modification of Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Using Birch Xylan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5 wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70 C for 15 min after which the pH was adjusted to 5–6. The xylan...

  8. Eucalyptus tolerance mechanisms to lanthanum and cerium: subcellular distribution, antioxidant system and thiol pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yichang; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Sen; Xu, Xiaoxun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

    2014-12-01

    Guanglin 9 (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophlla) and Eucalyptus grandis 5 are two eucalyptus species which have been found to grow normally in soils contaminated with lanthanum and cerium, but the tolerance mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of the eucalyptus to lanthanum and cerium. Cell walls stored 45.40-63.44% of the metals under lanthanum or cerium stress. Peroxidase and catalase activities enhanced with increasing soil La or Ce concentrations up to 200 mg kg(-1), while there were no obvious changes in glutathione and ascorbate concentrations. Non-protein thiols concentrations increased with increasing treatment levels up to 200 mg kg(-1), and then decreased. Phytochelatins concentrations continued to increase under La or Ce stress. Therefore, the two eucalyptus species are La and Ce tolerant plants, and the tolerance mechanisms include cell wall deposition, antioxidant system response, and thiol compound synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  10. USE OF TREND IMPACT ANALYSIS AFFECTS PROJECTIONS OF EUCALYPTUS CULTIVATION IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Lotfi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus forestry is an important source of competitive advantage for Brazil and, since eucalyptus is a basic raw material for industrial segments that are undergoing great expansion, monitoring the growth rate of cultivated area is increasingly relevant.This study resorted to Trend Impact Analysis (TIA to forecast the planting of eucalyptus in Brazil’s reforested areas, adjusting the linear regression of historical data in the light of three events that were under way or that will probably influence the trend: timber funds, the world financial crisis and Biomass to Liquid (BTL technology.The results allow one to infer that, in the short term, eucalyptus cultivation will expand at a rate similar to that of the linear curve, adversely affected by the world crisis and positively affected by timber funds.By 2016, however, the expansion of eucalyptus plantations is expected, largely because of the commercial scale of BTL technology.Key words: Trend Impact Analysis. Eucalyptus. Future Studies.

  11. Production cost of biomasses from eucalyptus and elefant grass for energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marie Roger Quéno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work established the unit energy cost generated from biomass of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp. and elephant grass (Pennisetum sp. and applied a sensitivity analysis to verify the influences of factors such as the silviculture of eucalyptus, production volume of each species, the cost of land and the interest rate. It was shown that the treatment of eucalyptus in very short rotation of 2 years with reform of stand every 6 years has a average cost of production higher than the traditional treatment of short rotation of 6 years with reform only at the age of 18. It was also observed that eucalyptus has a Production Cost on average of R$ 4,41 /Gj, lower than the elephant grass which is on average of R$ 5,44/Gj, which however has a higher annual capacity of dry matter production. The elephant grass has the possibility to compete with eucalyptus when a set of conditions is met: discount rate higher than or equal to 8%, High price of land, and elephant grass high volume production, greater than or equal to 35 tonnes of dry matter per hectare and year.

  12. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  13. MINERAL ELEMENTS IN WOODS OF EUCALYPTUS AND BLACK WATTLE AND ITS INFLUENCE IN A BLEACHED KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Fredo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Effluents are one of the most important problems in a pulp mill regarding to environmental subjects. With the purpose to reduce them, the mills are closing the internal cycles and reducing the water consumption. The wood, as the most significant source of non-process elements to the system, is responsible for some troubles to the industrial process. With the aim of evaluating their intake and to offer some informations for closing the loop, the contents of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, and Si were analysed in Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods. Wood samples were prepared by oven burning and acidic digestion methods, following analysis by ICP (inductively coupled plasm. Using also the results from silvicultural evaluation of trees and stands, they were calculated which elements were carried out from the site in larger amounts (K, Ca, Na, Al, Mn and Si and the species which exported largest amount of these elements (Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus. The species with lower growth were Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus dunnii, that leads to a bigger elements input and more potential industrial troubles. It was observed a range of 3.8 (Eucalyptus grandis up to 6 (Eucalyptus dunnii kg of analised mineral elements introduced to the process per ton of umbleached pulp produced. The Acacia mearnsii showed the lower level for Fe, Mn and Ni, being useful for oxygen, ozone and peroxide bleaching. The silicon observed in woods was in low concentration although the high values of this element in industrial liquor cycle. This leads to state that there is some contamination with soil when harvesting and handling the wood. Special care must be taken with both high ash and high mineral elements species, such as Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus globulus.

  14. Organogenesis and transient genetic transformation of the hybrid Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla Organogênese e transformação genética transiente do híbrido Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bomfim de Alcantara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presents high levels of productivity and potential for use in paper, cellulose and fiber industries. The bud organogenesis from leaf explants of two clones of E. grandis × E. urophylla was studied in order to verify the effect of several factors: subculture duration on multiplication medium, type of explants, entire and half leaves: basal and apical portions, and duration of the culture on a regeneration medium. Differences in organogenic capacity of the two clones tested were observed. The explant most recommended for organogenesis is the basal section of the leaf collected from shoot clusters subcultured every 17 days. Moreover, the leaf explants must be transferred to a fresh bud induction medium every five days. This study also aimed at evaluating factors affecting the genetic transformation of leaf explants with the uidA gene, via co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, such as the pre-culture of the explants on a specific medium, the duration of their co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone to the culture media. The best conditions for the expression of the uidA gene were two days of pre-culture of the leaf tissues, three days of co-culture with the bacteria and the addition of acetosyringone in pre- and co-culture media.O híbrido Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla apresenta alta produtividade e potencial para indústrias de papel, celulose e fibras. A organogênese de explantes foliares de dois clones de E. grandis × E. urophylla foi estudada para verificar fatores como tempo de repicagem das plântulas matrizes em meio de multiplicação; tipo de explantes, folhas inteiras e de meias-folhas (porções basais e apicais e dos dias que os explantes foliares permaneceram em meio de regeneração. Foram observadas diferenças na capacidade organogênica dos dois clones testados. A parte basal das folhas, coletadas de brotações repicadas a cada 17

  15. QUALITY OF SAWN TIMBER DRYING OF Eucalyptus dunnii

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    Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the behaviour of Eucalyptus dunnii wood drying in a conventional pilot kiln was evaluated, using three drying schedules. Each drying schedule had an initial vaporization (presteaming of 3 hours after one hour of initial warming and an intermediate vaporization of 5 hours for the collapse recovery when the wood was at 17% of humidity. The results show that among the used drying schedule only the schedule regarded as the mildest presented a good result in terms of dry wood quality. Among the discovered defects, there were 37,5% of collapse, 35% of cupping and 10% of split. Hoviever, though from this total only 15% of the collapse and cupping were regarded as strong defects.

  16. Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Marinalva Oliveira; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O-cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6 - trans-p-cumaroil-beta-Dglucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences ( 1 H, 1 H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC). (author)

  17. Qualidade da secagem de madeira serrada de eucalyptus dunnii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the behaviour of Eucalyptus dunnii wood drying in a conventional pilot kiln was evaluated, using three drying schedules. Each drying schedule had an initial vaporization (presteaming of 3 hours after one hour of initial warming and an intermediate vaporization of 5 hours for the collapse recovery when the wood was at 17% of humidity. The results show that among the used drying schedule only the schedule regarded as the mildest presented a good result in terms of dry wood quality. Among the discovered defects, there were 37,5% of collapse, 35% of cupping and 10% of split. Hoviever, though from this total only 15% of the collapse and cupping were regarded as strong defects.

  18. Furfural production from Eucalyptus wood using an Acidic Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleteiro, Susana; Santos, Valentín; Garrote, Gil; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were treated with hot, compressed water to separate hemicelluloses (as soluble saccharides) from a solid phase mainly made up of cellulose and lignin. The liquid phase was dehydrated, and the resulting solids (containing pentoses as well as poly- and oligo- saccharides made up of pentoses) were dissolved and reacted in media containing an Acidic Ionic Liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) and a co-solvent (dioxane). The effects of the reaction time on the product distribution were studied at temperatures in the range 120-170°C for reaction times up to 8h, and operational conditions leading to 59.1% conversion of the potential substrates (including pentoses and pentose structural units in oligo- and poly- saccharides) into furfural were identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Yield models for Eucalyptus globulus fuelwood plantations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukkala, T.; Pohjonen, V. (Joensuu Univ. (FI). Faculty of Forestry)

    1990-01-01

    Based on 53 tree analyses and 105 sample plots of Eucalyptus globulus, models for volume and biomass at single tree and stand levels were developed. The possible growing sites were divided into four site classes. In seedling stands, the site class I corresponds to yield class 44 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, in coppice stands to yield class 46 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. The site class IV corresponds in seedling stand to yield class 9 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, in coppice stands to yield class 13 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. The maximum mean annual increment was reached in seedling stands at the age of 18-19 years, in coppice stands at the age of 14 years. (author).

  20. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

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    Israel González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

  1. Estabelecimento, multiplicação e alongamento in vitro de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Establishment, multiplication and elongation in vitro of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden

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    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram testadas diferentes concentrações de cloro ativo (NaOCl na assepsia de explantes para o estabelecimento in vitro, bem como benzilaminopurina (BAP e ácido naftalenoacético (ANA para a multiplicação e alongamento de Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. As minicepas fornecedoras de propágulos para introdução in vitro foram conduzidas em minijardim clonal sob sistema semi-hidropônico. Segmentos nodais dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram desinfestados com 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; e 2,0% (v/v de cloro ativo durante 10 min e inoculados em meio de cultura MS. Na obtenção de brotações múltiplas, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS suplementado com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP. Na fase de alongamento, utilizou-se o meio de cultura ½MS com 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; e 1,0 mg L-1 de ANA. Não houve interação entre os fatores estudados, obtendo-se 45%, 46% e 66% de estabelecimento do clone H12, H19 e H20, respectivamente. A concentração de BAP que resultou na maior proliferação de gemas axilares para o clone H12 aos 60 dias foi estimada na faixa de 0,25 e 0,30 mg L-1. Aos 60 dias, a faixa entre 0,25 e 0,75 mg L-1 de ANA promoveu o maior número de brotações alongadas do clone H12.This work aimed to evaluate different concentrations of active chlorine (NaOCl in explant asepsis for the establishment in vitro as well as of benzylaminopurine (BAP and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA in the multiplication and elongation of Eucalyptus benthamii x Eucalyptus dunnii. Ministumps, which supply shoots for introduction in vitro, were cultivated in a clonal mini garden under semi-hydroponic system. Nodal segments of clones H12, H19 and H20 were disinfested with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v of active chlorine during 10 minutes and inoculated in MS medium. In the multiplication phase, culture ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of BAP was used. In the elongation phase, ½MS medium supplemented with 0, 0.25, 0

  2. Diversidad genética de poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Guatemala, definida por marcadores de ADN

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    Fredy Uber Rosales-Longo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversidad genética de las poblaciones de ajo (Allium sativum L. cultivadas en Gua temala, definida por mar cado res de ADN. En Guatemala es escasa la in for ma ción sobre la diversidad genética de ajo. Los objetivos del estudio fueron: incidir en el mejoramiento de Allium sativum, so bre la base del conocimiento de su variabilidad genética, así mismo, establecer una colección in vi tro de la co lec ción de las poblaciones cultivadas en Guatemala. Los experimentos fueron realizados entre octubre de 2005 y marzo de 2006. La determinación de las variaciones de ADN se realizaron me dian te la téc ni ca de AFLP™. La información se analiza por medio de análisis de componentes principales, análisis de coordenadas principales y análisis de conglomerados. Mediante la inspección de los pro duc tos de AFLP™ y análi sis estadísticos, se detectó una alta variabilidad genética entre los materiales vegetales colectados. Las muestras clasificadas co mo del ti po “Chi leno”, correspondieron a los tipos “Criollo”. Nueve bien diferenciados grupos genéticos se conformaron en un dendrograma y se con fir mó que la diversidad genética descubierta es una función del lugar don de se cul ti van las po bla cio nes de ajo. Se identificó una mayor diversidad genética entre las mues tras de ajo del ti po “Crio llo” que las que se tienen en tre los ma te ria les del ti po “Chileno”, como producto de la mayor dispersión espacial de los primeros. Los materiales genéticos de ajo se encuentran actualmente preservados en un Banco de Germoplasma in vi tro en la Uni dad de Bio tec no lo gía del IC TA.

  3. Análise parasitológica em alfaces cultivadas em diferentes sistemas de produção

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    Juliana Santiago Santos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisou a contaminação parasitológica em alfaces crespas (Lactuca sativa cultivadas em diferentes sistemas de produção (convencional, orgânico e hidropônico, fornecidas por uma cooperativa de produtores da agricultura familiar, no município de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo. As coletas foram repetidas em intervalos semanais, durante um período cinco meses, totalizando 180 amostras de hortaliças (60 amostras de alface por tipo de produção. As folhas das alfaces foram lavadas com Extran MA 02 a 0.5% e o fluído resultante submetido às técnicas de sedimentação e de centrífugo-flutuação, para recuperação das estruturas parasitárias. Observou-se que do total de 180 amostras, 71 (39,4% estavam contaminadas por pelo menos uma estrutura parasitária, sendo 34 (47,9% das alfaces cultivadas no sistema hidropônico, 20 (28,2% no orgânico e 17 (23,9% no sistema convencional. Cistos de Entamoeba spp. foram as estruturas parasitárias mais frequentes nas hortaliças, com maior contagem de cistos naquelas produzidas no sistema hidropônico (p=0,003. Conclui-se que independentemente do sistema de cultivo (convencional, orgânico e hidropônico, existe a possibilidade de contaminação de alfaces por enteroparasitos. Medidas que propiciem a melhoria na qualidade higiênico-sanitária na produção, assim como a adequada higienização das verduras antes do consumo “in natura” podem ser importantes para a redução da contaminação e consequente transmissão de doenças parasitárias pelo consumo “in natura” de hortaliças.

  4. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

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    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  5. Evaluation of the use potential of nine species of genus Eucalyptus for production of veneers and plywood panels

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudywas to evaluate the use potential of nine species of Eucalyptus for production of veneer sheets and multilaminated plywood panels. Veneers were cut using a pilot laminating lathe to a nominal thickness of 2.0 mm. Analysis included finding values of overall yield and yield according to three quality classes for the nine relevant species. Plywood panels were manufactured in a laboratory, consisting of five 2.0 mm veneer sheets which were bonded together with phenol-formaldehyde resin at a weight of 360 g/m2 (double line. The panels were compressed using a specific pressure of 10 kgf/cm2, a temperature of 140ºC and a pressing time of 10 minutes. Results indicated that, with the exception of E. phaeotricha and E. pellita, all other Eucalyptus species had above 50% average veneer yield after lamination. Results of glue line shear testing and static bending parallel and perpendicular demonstrated that species Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus dunnii, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus viminalis, Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus pellita have great potential within the parameters of this study for use in the production of veneer sheets and plywood panels intended for outdoor use.

  6. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  7. QUALIDADE DA SECAGEM CONVENCIONAL CONJUNTA DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE Eucalyptus sp.

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    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian industry commonly dries different species of eucalypt in a same load because of the difficulty of identifying the species, hybrids and clones, and also by optimizing the use of the kiln. However, this practice is not recommended in the literature. The aim of this work was to verify the quality of grouped conventional drying of Eucalyptus saligna , Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii from clonal plantations. To this end, three loads were dried with the three species together in a pilot conventional dry kiln. The criteria used to analyze the quality of dried wood were final moisture content, end checks, cupping, collapse, moisture gradient and drying stresses. Eucalyptus grandis showed the best quality of drying, followed by Eucalyptus saligna , and both species have potential to be kiln dried together. Eucalyptus dunnii had the worst quality of drying, and should not be kiln dried together with Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna. The basic density and shrinkage were good parameters for the expected quality of the drying of eucalyptus species, in which less dense and more dimensionally stable species had better quality of drying. The drying schedule used must be modified to further drying of these species, especially regarding to uniformity and conditioning periods, which were considered insufficient.

  8. Biomass of clone of Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla for producing briquettes; Biomassa de clone de Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla para producao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido; Oguri, Guilherme [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work was conducted to address forest biomass energy for briquette producing. In an area of dystrophic soil, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dosage of fertilizer was 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn. The spacing was 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, tree samples were collected to evaluate the basic density of wood (BDW), dry biomass of stem, branches and leaves. An assessment of the economic viability of each treatment was based on the sale of briquettes. BDW spacing of 2.8x1.0 m was 0.464 kg/m{sup 3}. The largest biomass of the stem occurred in 2.8x0.5 m spacing, with dosage 3, but economically unviable. The dry biomass of branches was only affected by dosage, reaching 17.68 t/ha in the third dose. Only fertilization was significant for leaf biomass. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8 x1.5 m with dosage 2. (author)

  9. Teor de nitrato em alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional Level of nitrate in lettuce cultivated in hydroponic and conventional systems

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    Elisabete R. Yonamini Beninni

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento do teor de nitrato nos alimentos é importante, uma vez que poderão ser formados compostos prejudiciais à saúde humana e animal após sua ingestão. Com o objetivo de avaliar o teor de nitrato presente em alface, foram coletadas e analisadas as folhas de alface crespa comercializada no Município de Londrina, cultivada em sistemas hidropônico e convencional. Os valores encontrados variaram entre 26 e 2.568 mg.kg-1 de peso fresco, sendo que as plantas cultivadas em sistema hidropônico apresentaram teores superiores em relação às cultivadas em sistema convencional, porém abaixo do limite máximo de nitrato permitido para alface, na Europa.The control of the nitrate level in foods is important because this substance may be harmful to human and animal health. The aim of this work was to evaluate nitrate levels in lettuce produced in hydroponic and conventional systems and commercialized in Londrina, Brazil. The nitrate concentration ranged from 26 to 2,568 mg.kg-1 fresh weight. Hydroponic lettuce showed higher levels of nitrate but in all cases the level of nitrate was lower than the maximum allowed by the Comission of the European Communities.

  10. Crescimento vegetativo e produção de óleo essencial de hortelã‑pimenta cultivada sob malhas

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    Andressa Giovannini Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento vegetativo e o teor, o rendimento e a composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã‑pimenta (Mentha piperita cultivada sob diferentes malhas, no Município de Lavras, MG. As mudas de hortelã‑pimenta foram cultivadas em cinco ambientes: pleno sol, malha preta, malha aluminizada, malha azul e malha vermelha, todas com 50% de irradiância. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: crescimento vegetativo, teor, rendimento e análise química do óleo essencial. Plantas de hortelã‑pimenta cultivadas em pleno sol e sob malhas preta e vermelha produziram maior biomassa seca de folhas e maiores teores e rendimentos do óleo essencial. Entretanto, a pleno sol, o óleo essencial das plantas apresentou maior teor de mentol e, sob as malhas preta e azul, de mentofurano. Portanto, é possível manipular o crescimento das plantas e a produção e a composição química do óleo essencial de hortelã‑pimenta mediante o cultivo sob malhas ou pleno sol.

  11. Compostos polifenólicos do kino de Eucalyptus citriodora Polyphenol compounds of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora

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    Marinalva Oliveira Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of the kino of Eucalyptus citriodora led to the isolation of 1-O,2-O-digaloil-6-O-trans -p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-trans-p-cumaroil-6-O -cinamoil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, alpha and beta 6-O-trans-p-cumaroil-D-glucopyranoside, 7-methylaromadendrin-4'-O-6''- trans-p-cumaroil-beta-D-glucopyranoside, aromadendrin, aromadendrin-7-methyl-ether, naringenin, sakuranetin, kaempferol-7-methyl-ether and galic acid. Structural elucidation of the isolated compounds was established on the basis of spectral data, particularly by the use of 1D NMR and several 2D shift correlated NMR pulse sequences (¹H,¹H-COSY, HMQC, HMBC.

  12. Climate Modelling Shows Increased Risk to Eucalyptus sideroxylon on the Eastern Coast of Australia Compared to Eucalyptus albens

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    Farzin Shabani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify the extent and direction of range shift of Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens in Australia by 2050 through an ensemble forecast of four species distribution models (SDMs. Each was generated using four global climate models (GCMs, under two representative concentration pathways (RCPs. Location: Australia. Methods: We used four SDMs of (i generalized linear model, (ii MaxEnt, (iii random forest, and (iv boosted regression tree to construct SDMs for species E. sideroxylon and E. albens under four GCMs including (a MRI-CGCM3, (b MIROC5, (c HadGEM2-AO and (d CCSM4, under two RCPs of 4.5 and 6.0. Here, the true skill statistic (TSS index was used to assess the accuracy of each SDM. Results: Results showed that E. albens and E. sideroxylon will lose large areas of their current suitable range by 2050 and E. sideroxylon is projected to gain in eastern and southeastern Australia. Some areas were also projected to remain suitable for each species between now and 2050. Our modelling showed that E. sideroxylon will lose suitable habitat on the western side and will not gain any on the eastern side because this region is one the most heavily populated areas in the country, and the populated areas are moving westward. The predicted decrease in E. sideroxylon’s distribution suggests that land managers should monitor its population closely, and evaluate whether it meets criteria for a protected legal status. Main conclusions: Both Eucalyptus sideroxylon and E. albens will be negatively affected by climate change and it is projected that E. sideroxylon will be at greater risk of losing habitat than E. albens.

  13. Crescimento inicial e composição química de Pereskia aculeata Miller cultivada em diferentes luminosidades

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    Carla Regina Amorim dos Anjos Queiroz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pereskia aculeata Miller é uma hortaliça não convencional cujo consumo pode fornecer à dieta substâncias nutritivas e antioxidantes, ambas com teores influenciados pelas condições de cultivo. Foram cultivadas, a partir de sementes, plantas em sombra artificial, em meia sombra e sem sombra. Avaliou-se o crescimento em termos de massa e unidades estruturais e quantificou-se o resíduo mineral, proteínas, lipídeos, fibra em detergente neutro, fenóis e atividade antioxidante. Há influência do sombreamento no crescimento, no teor de nutrientes e metabólitos secundários. As plantas sem sombra apresentaram maior altura, número de folhas, diâmetro do colo, massa seca de caules e folhas e atividade antioxidante. As plantas totalmente sombreadas apresentaram maiores teores de cinzas, lipídeos e proteínas. Para todos os parâmetros avaliados os teores quantificados em folhas foram maiores que em caules.

  14. Plantas forrageiras cultivadas em assentamentos da reforma agrária visando mapear para o melhoramento participativo

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    Maria Tereza Bolzon Soster

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou atender a demanda de levantamento sobre as plantas forrageiras cultivadas em assentamentos da Reforma Agrária no Rio Grande do Sul para que um projeto de Melhoramento Participativo possa ser implantado para esse fim. Os dados foram levantados através dos alunos do Instituto Educar e seus assentamentos, totalizando 8 assentamentos, abrangendo 1019 famílias. Em média têm-se 16 espécies forrageiras por assentamento, entre espécies de inverno e de verão, com maior destaque à espécies de verão e maior contribuição de gramíneas (Poaceae. Notou-se que quanto maior o assentamento, mais espécies estão à disposição dos mesmos, enfatizando a importância da fragmentação agrária para a biodiversidade, inclusive de cultivos de plantas forrageiras. Os agricultores se demonstraram receptivos a programas de melhoramento de suas pastagens sobretudo quanto a adaptação e rendimento de massa seca. 

  15. Compatibility of Different Eucalyptus Species and Provenances Under Sewage Irrigation Using Yazd City Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

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    Mohammadhadi Rad

    2014-04-01

    92.4% and 98.6%, 95.1%, 94.4%, respectively. The species E. camaldulensis (41-zh had the best performance after the first and the second years of planting, although there was not significant difference between some of the eucalypt characteristics. Overall, the species E. camaldulensis (41-zh can be recommended for forest plantation and wood production at sites similar to the trial condition, ecologically. The species E. rubida, E. saligna and E. viminalis are also recommended for plantation and wood production, using sewage irrigation, due to their fast growing performance, although they might have high mortality at their first stage of establishment. E. sargentii is a suitable species for desertification control due to its high resistance to soil and water salinity and somewhat coldness and its fast diameter and crown growth.

  16. Studies on the antidandruff activity of the essential oil of coleus amboinicus and eucalyptus globulus

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    P.Selvakumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of the essential oil of Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules as potential antidandruff agent. Methods: Fresh leaves of Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules were collected from the Horticultural Research Station, Yercaud, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. The collected leaves were washed thoroughly and shade dried for 7-10 days. The essential oils from both the dried plant leaves were obtained by hydro distillation procedure. The chemical compositions of hydro distilled essential oils were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The pure essential oils and the essential oils diluted with coconut oil of the two plants were used to check antidandruff activity against the dandruff causing fungus Malassezia furfur by agar well diffusion assay. Results: The average yield of essential oil from Coleus amboinicus (0.89% and Eucalyptus globules (0.77%. The results of GC-MS revealed that the presence of eight compounds from Coleus amboinicus essential oil and five constituents from Eucalyptus globules representing 90.45% and 96.32% of the total oil respectively. The major component was identified as Thymol (phenolic rich compocnd (41.3% in Coleus amboinicus and in Eucalyptus globules the major constituents was 1-8, Cineol (91.61%. In the antidandruff activity the broad range of inhibitory zone was observed in Eucalyptus globules (37mm oil compare to Coleus amboinicus (31mm. Ketaconazole based shampoo used as a standard. Conclusion: This study would direct to the establishment of a natural compound from Coleus amboinicus and Eucalyptus globules as an antidandruff agent which can be used for the production of potential antifungal drug and novel pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical leads.

  17. Estimativa do tempo de vaporização de toras de Eucalyptus grandis Steaming times estimates for Eucalyptus grandis logs

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    Fred Willians Calonego

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adequar o modelo geral de determinação do tempo de vaporização de toras, proposto por Steinhagen et al. (1980, para a madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para tanto, foram coletadas toras de 20 a The aim this study was to adjust the general model for determining log steaming time, proposed by Steinhagen et al. (1980, for Eucalyptus grandis wood. In order to do so, logs with diameter from 20 to <25, 25 to <30 and 30 to <35 cm were collected from 14 trees of Eucalyptus grandis derived from the `Horto Florestal' nursery, Manduri, São Paulo. A thermocouple was inserted into each log near its center. The logs were steamed during 20 hours at 90ºC and 100% relative humidity. A data logger recorded the temperatures during the thermal treatment. It was concluded that the Steinhagen et al. (1980 model cannot be directly used for this species in study and corrections factors are proposed for the utilization of the general model for log steaming time, developed by Steinhagen et al. (1980, for Eucalyptus grandis wood.

  18. Utilização de madeiras de Eucalyptus grandis E Eucalyptus dunnii para produção de painéis de partículas orientadas – OSB

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    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate the feasibility of OSB manufacturing using woods of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Boards with nominal density of 0,70 g/cm³ and 1,0 g/cm³ were manufactured in laboratory, using 100% of wood particles from Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii, and mixtures of 50% of Pinus taeda in the internal layer of the board, with 50% of Eucalyptus grandis and 50% of Eucalyptus dunnii. The boards of Eucalyptus grandis with density of 0,70 g/cm³, as standard board density, showed the values of properties compatible with the requirements of the Canadian and European Standards and also in relation of boards manufactured from Pinus taeda. The results of the mechanical properties showed an increase in the MOE and MOR in static bending with the increase in the board density, opening the possibility to use the high density OSB for applications requiring higher strength. The results of this research indicate that wood of Eucalyptus grandis can be used as alternative specie to OSB manufacturing in the Brazil.

  19. Propriedades de chapas de flocos fabricadas com adesivo de uréia-formaldeído e de taninos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden ou de Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. Properties of flakeboards made from urea-formaldehyde and bark tannins adhesives of Eucalyptus grandis or Eucalyptus pellita

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    Angélica de Cássia Oliveira Carneiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Os taninos foram extraídos da casca de Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, com água quente, à qual se adicionaram 4,5% de sulfito de sódio, durante três horas. As temperaturas da solução foram iguais a 70 e 100 ºC para Eucalyptus grandis e Eucalyptus pellita, respectivamente. Para a produção dos adesivos e com o intuito de reduzir a sua viscosidade, os taninos foram sulfitados com sulfito de sódio e ácido acético. Formulações adesivas foram preparadas adicionando-se 0, 25, 50, 75 ou 100% de adesivos tânicos ao adesivo comercial de uréia-formaldeído. Foram fabricadas chapas de flocos de Pinus elliottii Engelm. e Eucalyptus grandis, utilizando-se 8% da formulação adesiva. As propriedades das chapas foram determinadas segundo a norma ASTM D-1037, de 1993. Observou-se que as propriedades das chapas foram superiores ao mínimo estabelecido pela norma ANSI/A 280.1-93, exceto no caso da resistência à umidade. Verificou-se, ainda, que o emprego de uma formulação adesiva contendo resina à base de uréia-formaldeído e tanino-formaldeído pode melhorar algumas propriedades.Bark tannins of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita were extracted with 4,5% sodium sulfite in hot water solution for a period of three hours. Solution temperatures were 70 and 100ºC, for Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus pellita bark respectively. Tannins were reacted with acetic acid and sodium sulfite to reduce adhesive viscosity. Adhesive formulations were prepared adding 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100% of tannin adhesives to the commercial urea-formaldehyde adhesive. Flakeboards were fabricated with 8% resin content. Board properties were determined according to ASTM D-1037 standards. Except for humidity, all board properties were superior to the values established by ANSI.A 208.1-93 commercial standard. Addition of tannins to the urea-formaldehyde adhesive improved some properties.

  20. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

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    Jason Q D Goodger

    Full Text Available The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the

  1. Foliar Essential Oil Glands of Eucalyptus Subgenus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) Are a Rich Source of Flavonoids and Related Non-Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Seneratne, Samiddhi L; Nicolle, Dean; Woodrow, Ian E

    2016-01-01

    The sub-dermal secretory cavities (glands) embedded within the leaves of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) were once thought to be the exclusive repositories of monoterpene and sesquiterpene oils. Recent research has debunked this theory and shown that abundant non-volatile compounds also occur within foliar glands. In particular, glands of four species in subgenus Eucalyptus contain the biologically active flavanone pinocembrin. Pinocembrin shows great promise as a pharmaceutical and is predominantly plant-sourced, so Eucalyptus could be a potential commercial source of such compounds. To explore this we quantified and assessed the purity of pinocembrin in glands of 11 species of E. subg. Eucalyptus using Electro-Spray Ionisation Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry of acetonitrile extracts and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry analyses of hexane extracts of isolated glands which were free from other leaf tissues. Our results showed that the glands of subgenus Eucalyptus contain numerous flavanones that are structurally related to pinocembrin and often present in much greater abundance. The maximum concentration of pinocembrin was 2 mg g-1 dry leaf found in E. stellulata, whereas that of dimethylpinocembrin (5,7-dimethoxyflavanone) was 10 mg g-1 in E. oreades and that of pinostrobin (5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone) was 12 mg g-1 in E. nitida. We also found that the flavanones are exclusively located within the foliar glands rather than distributed throughout leaf tissues. The flavanones differ from the non-methylated pinocembrin in the degree and positions of methylation. This finding is particularly important given the attractiveness of methylated flavonoids as pharmaceuticals and therapeutics. Another important finding was that glands of some members of the subgenus also contain flavanone O-glucosides and flavanone-β-triketone conjugates. In addition, glands contain free β-triketones, β-triketone heterodimers and chromone C-glucosides. Therefore, the foliar glands

  2. Biomass in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus and black wattle and corn in an agroforestry system

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    Márcio Viera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at quantifying the production and distribution of aboveground biomass from the plants in monospecific and mixed stands of eucalyptus (hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii and, of corn (Zea mays in agrosilvicultural systems. The biomass evaluation (leaf, branch, bark and wood from the forest species at 6 and 18 months of age were performed at the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus + corn; - 100A (100% of black wattle + corn; - 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black wattle + corn. The corn biomass evaluation (stem, leaves, straw, cob and grains was performed at treatments 100E; 100A; 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75% of eucalyptus + 25% of black wattle + corn; and - 25E:75A (25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle + corn. The biomass production from eucalyptus and from the black wattle, in both monospecific and mixed planting, did not differ in any of the assessed ages but, when evaluated by plants compartments, it was verified an interspecific competitive interaction from the eucalyptus on the black wattle, reducing the formation of crown biomass. The total production of corn biomass in agrosilvicutural systems with eucalyptus and with black wattle in monospecific or mixed plantings did not differ in the studied treatments.

  3. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States

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    James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and...

  4. Antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus capitatus and Schinus molle

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    Ana Karenth LÓPEZ-MENESES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Essential oils (EO of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus L., thymus (Thymus capitatus L. pirul (Schinus molle L. were evaluated for their efficacy to control Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium moniliforme growth and their ability to produce mycotoxins. Data from kinetics radial growth was used to obtain the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. The IC50 was used to evaluate spore germination kinetic and mycotoxin production. Also, spore viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. All EO had an effect on the radial growth of both species. After 96 h of incubation, thymus EO at concentrations of 1000 and 2500 µL L–1 totally inhibited the growth of F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus, respectively. Eucalyptus and thymus EO significantly reduced spore germination of A. parasiticus. Inhibition of spore germination of F. moniliforme was 84.6, 34.0, and 30.6% when exposed to eucalyptus, pirul, and thymus EO, respectively. Thymus and eucalyptus EO reduced aflatoxin (4% and fumonisin (31% production, respectively. Spore viability was affected when oils concentration increased, being the thymus EO the one that reduced proliferation of both fungi. Our findings suggest that EO affect F. moniliforme and A. parasiticus development and mycotoxin production.

  5. Growth and nutrition of eucalyptus clones seedlings inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi

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    Francisco de Sousa Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is one of the most planted forest species, in Brazil, due to its rapid growth and high economic yield. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the seedlings nutritional and phytosanitary status, besides increasing their resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species on the growth and nutrition of different eucalyptus clones seedlings. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, in a randomized blocks design and a 5x5 factorial scheme (five fungal species and five eucalyptus clones, with five replications. In general, the mycorrhizal symbiosis significantly increased the growth and nutrition of eucalyptus seedlings, when compared to the non-inoculated seedlings. The most efficient interaction occured between the 2361 clone and the Entrophospora infrequens fungus, with increases of 107.3% and 120.6%, for the shoot and root dry biomass yield, and 107.7%, 94.1% and 103.3%, respectively for the accumulation of N, P and K in the seedlings shoots. All the fungal species studied showed a high absolute compatibility index with eucalyptus clones. The Glomus manihots and E. infrequens fungi presented a higher functional compatibility index with the clones tested. The 5204 clone showed 75% of compatibility with the fungi evaluated.

  6. Phytoremediation efficiency OF CD by Eucalyptus globulus transplanted from polluted and unpolluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Peng, Li; Wang, Jinji

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of plants to uptake heavy metals from contaminated soils has shown great phytoremediation potential. The development, resistibility and Cd extraction of Eucalyptus globulus individuals from metalliferous and clean sites in different years were analyzed under a specific environment. Eucalyptus globulus planted in Guiyu for phytoremediation or cultivated in an uncontaminated, natural environment for economic purposes were transplanted to Yuecheng town, which, in recent years, has been involved in the e-waste dismantling and recycling business, to compare the phytoremediation efficiency of Eucalyptus globulus trees grown in different environments. Trees cultivated in polluted areas can remove far more Cd and Hg from the contaminated soil than the individuals from clean soils because metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus can produce more biomass and uptake more heavy metals than nonmetalliferous plants per year. As polluted environments negatively affect the growth of plants, we speculated that the phytoremediation efficiency of metalliferous Eucalyptus globulus should decrease over time and that nonmetalliferous trees should adapt to the local environment.

  7. Isotopic abundance of 13 C and contribution of eucalyptus biomass to soil organic matter conversion

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    Fabiane Figueiredo Severo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: It has become possible to evaluate the conversion of soil organic matter (SOM in pastures and arboreal crops due to the difference between the photosynthetic cycles of Eucalyptus (C3 and most grasses (C4. The auto analyzer method coupled to the IRMS (Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer in the present study evaluated the 13C content in soil profiles of Eucalyptus plantations of different ages (2, 10 and 21 years, in natural regeneration areas and natural grazing fields, and estimated the SOM conversion of each crop type of. The initial management of all sampled areas was natural pasture. The following profile layers were evaluated: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50, 50-70 and 70-90cm, and the contribution of Eucalyptus biomass over the years of farming was estimated in the SOM conversion process. After 2 years of planting Eucalyptus, the beginning of pasture carbon conversion process occurred in the surface layer (0-5cm. Ten years after planting, the process of converting organic matter by arboreal crops reached the layers up to 20cm. After 21 years of planting and in natural regeneration areas, the entire profile has already been changed by planting Eucalyptus and native tree species.

  8. Encapsulated eucalyptus oil in ionically cross-linked alginate microcapsules and its controlled release.

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    Noppakundilograt, Supaporn; Piboon, Phianghathai; Graisuwan, Wilaiporn; Nuisin, Roongkan; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda

    2015-10-20

    Sodium alginate microcapsules containing eucalyptus oil were prepared by oil-in-water emulsification via Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane and cross-linked by calcium chloride (CaCl2). SPG membrane pore size of 5.2μm was used to control the size of eucalyptus oil microdroplets. Effects of sodium alginate, having a mannuronic acid/guluronic acid (M/G) ratio of 1.13, eucalyptus oil and CaCl2 amounts on microdroplet sizes and size distribution were elucidated. Increasing sodium alginate amounts from 0.1 to 0.5% (wv(-1)) sodium alginate, the average droplets size increased from 42.2±2.0 to 48.5±0.6μm, with CVs of 16.5±2.2 and 30.2±4.5%, respectively. CaCl2 successfully gave narrower size distribution of cross-linked eucalyptus oil microcapsules. The optimum conditions for preparing the microcapsules, oil loading efficiency, and controlled release of the encapsulated eucalyptus oil from the microcapsules as a function of time at 40°C were investigated. Release model for the oil from microcapsules fitted Ritger-Peppas model with non-Fickian transport mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Path analysis of the energy density of wood in eucalyptus clones.

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    Couto, A M; Teodoro, P E; Trugilho, P F

    2017-03-16

    Path analysis has been used for establishing selection criteria in genetic breeding programs for several crops. However, it has not been used in eucalyptus breeding programs yet. In the present study, we aimed to identify the wood technology traits that could be used as the criteria for direct and indirect selection of eucalyptus genotypes with high energy density of wood. Twenty-four eucalyptus clones were evaluated in a completely randomized design with five replications. The following traits were assessed: basic wood density, total extractives, lignin content, ash content, nitrogen content, carbon content, hydrogen content, sulfur content, oxygen content, higher calorific power, holocellulose, and energy density. After verifying the variability of all evaluated traits among the clones, a two-dimensional correlation network was used to determine the phenotypic patterns among them. The obtained coefficient of determination (0.94) presented a higher magnitude in relation to the effect of the residual variable, and it served as an excellent model for explaining the genetic effects related to the variations observed in the energy density of wood in all eucalyptus clones. However, for future studies, we recommend evaluating other traits, especially the morphological traits, because of the greater ease in their measurement. Selecting clones with high basic density is the most promising strategy for eucalyptus breeding programs that aim to increase the energy density of wood because of its high heritability and magnitude of the cause-and-effect relationship with this trait.

  10. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

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    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  11. Origin and evolution of cultivated cucurbits Origem e evolução de cucurbitáceas cultivadas

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    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits (Cucurbitaceae are among the most important plant families supplying humans with edible products and useful fibers. Plants of this family are very similar in above ground development, but they have high genetic diversity for fruit shape and other fruit characteristics, resulting in a variety of uses. The objective of this review was to discuss the origin and evolution of the most important cultivated cucurbits. Understanding the evolutionary history and domestication process increase the possibility for better exploiting the genetic diversity for cultivar development. The domestication selection in cucurbits was for shape, less bitter flesh, larger and fewer seeds, and larger fruit size, resulting in high genetic diversity within and among cultivated species. This variation can be associated with the wide range of uses that require different shape, size and a constant ratio between fruit length and fruit diameter. The discussion of the breeding history indicates how artificial selection could speed up changes in fruit characteristics to attend specific uses and increase adaptation to a variety of environmental conditions in which cucurbits are growing worldwide. Although interspecific hybridization has been employed in cucurbit breeding more than in any other family, there is still a high potential for increasing its application for germplasm and cultivar development.As cucurbitáceas (Cucurbitaceae são uma das mais importantes famílias de plantas utilizadas para produção de alimentos e fibras. Apesar de a parte aérea das plantas desta família ser muito similar em seu desenvolvimento, grande variabilidade genética tem sido mantida para formato e outras características de fruto, o que aumenta o seu potencial de uso. O objetivo desta revisão foi discutir a origem e a evolução das cucurbitáceas cultivadas. A história da evolução e o conhecimento das alterações ocorridas durante este processo podem facilitar a utiliza

  12. Controle genético das células-tronco humanas cultivadas Genetic control of cultivated human stem cells

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    Spencer L. M. Payão

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As células-tronco apresentam uma alta capacidade de autorregeneração, assim como, um potencial de diferenciação em uma variedade de tipos celulares. Estas células podem ser classificadas como embrionárias e adultas. Apesar de apresentar propriedades de células-tronco, as mesenquimais apresentam um certo grau de dificuldade no estabelecimento das culturas, podendo induzir a perda da expressão da enzima responsável pela imortalização ou enzima telomerase. A enzima telomerase é considerada um relógio biológico, um indicador que a senescência celular irá se instalar inevitavelmente. A questão mais atual e intrigante dos pesquisadores é se o suposto potencial de divisão, por um determinado período de tempo, das células-tronco cultivadas poderia levar ao acúmulo de alterações genéticas e epigenéticas, resultando em um processo neoplásico. Daí a importância do papel da citogenética humana no controle e monitoramento das células-tronco cultivadas que serão utilizadas na terapia em seres humanos. Alterações cromossômicas estruturais, tais como deleções, translocações e inversões, representam um mecanismo importante pelo qual as células cancerígenas desenvolvem-se gradualmente, uma vez que estas alterações cromossômicas podem levar a uma expressão anormal de muitos genes, podendo desencadear assim o processo neoplásico.Stem cells have a high capacity of self-regeneration, as well as a potential to differentiate into several cell types. These cells can be classified as embryonic or adult. In spite of having inherent properties of stem cells, mesenchymal cells show a certain degree of difficulty to establish cultures. This might induce a loss of the expression of the telomerase enzyme which is considered to be a biological clock or an indicator of the senescence of the cells. The most current and intriguing question for researchers is whether the presumed division potential of cultivated stem cells, over a

  13. Rhizobacterial characterization for quality control of eucalyptus biogrowth promoter products

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    Talyta Galafassi Zarpelon

    Full Text Available Abstract Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strains from special formulations have been used to optimize eucalyptus cutting production. To undertake quality control for the formulated products, the rhizobacterial strains should be characterized to assess their purity and authentication. In the present study, we characterized nine strains of rhizobacteria, including three Bacillus subtilis (S1, S2 and 3918, two Pseudomonas sp. (MF4 and FL2, P. putida (MF2, P. fulva (Ca, Frateuria aurantia (R1, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CIIb. The strains were differentiated by colony morphology after 24 h of incubation in three different solid state culture media (glucose-nutritive agar, 523 medium and yeast extract-mannitol agar, sensitivity to a panel of 28 antibiotics (expressed according to the formation of inhibition halos of bacterial growth in the presence of antibiotics, and PCR-RFLP profiles of the 16S rDNA gene produced using nine restriction enzymes. It was possible to differentiate all nine strains of rhizobacteria using their morphological characteristics and sensitivity to antibiotics. The molecular analysis allowed us to separate the strains CIIb, FL2 and R1 from the strains belonging to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas. By using these three methods concomitantly, we were able to determine strain purity and perform the authentication.

  14. Evaluation of bleachability on pine and eucalyptus kraft pulps

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    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the pulp industry has been changing and improving its manufacturing processes in order to enhance production capacity, product quality and environmental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleachability effect on the efficient washing and alkaline leaching in eucalyptus and pine Kraft pulps using three different bleaching sequences: AD(EPD, A/D(EPDP and DHT(EPDP. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first part, the optimum conditions for pulp bleaching in order to achieve a brightness of 90% ISO were established. The second step was a comparative study between the pulps that received alkaline leaching and efficient washing with reference pulp (without treatment. The brightness, viscosity, kappa number and HexA in pulp were analyzed. The three sequences studied reached the desired brightness, but the sequence AD(EPD produced a lower reagent consumption for the same brightness. In the three sequences studied, the efficient washing of the pulp after oxygen delignification has contributed significantly to the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic materials in the pulp and the alkaline leaching decreased significantly the pulp kappa number due to a higher pulp delignification and bleachability.

  15. ANTHRAQUINONE ADDITION IN THE ALKALINE PULPING OF Eucalyptus saligna

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    Lúcia Helena Jerônimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated different alkaline pulping conditions for Eucalyptus saligna wood. The objective was to evaluate the influence of the anthraquinone (AQ on the reduction of the total reduced sulfur (TRS in the aerial emissions, by reducing the sulfidity. The experiment consisted of 8 cooking with active alkali varying from  19 to 21%, sulfidity from  0 to 20% and anthraquinone from 0 to 0.1%, aiming to obtain  kappa numbers in the range 15.5±1.5. The H factor was used to control the relation time/temperature along cooking. The addition of anthraquinone increased the delignification rate allowing sulfidity reduction. The kraft/AQ pulping with sulfidities of 5 and 10% presented satisfactory results, making it possible the replacement of conventional kraft cooking, giving a reduction in process sulfidity without harms in pulping. In spite of a slightly lower performance, the soda/AQ cooking has potential to be used where the smell is a critical problem in the industrial operation.

  16. Activated carbon from flash pyrolysis of eucalyptus residue

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    Grima-Olmedo C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forestry waste (eucalyptus sp was converted into activated carbon by initial flash pyrolysis followed carbonization and CO2 activation. These residues were obtained from a pilot plant in Spain that produces biofuel, the biochar represented 10–15% in weight. It was observed that the highest activation was achieved at a temperature of 800 °C, the specific surface increased with time but, on the contrary, high loss of matter was observed. At 600 °C, although there was an important increase of the specific surface and the volume of micropores, at this temperature it was observed that the activation time was not an influential parameter. Finally, at 400 °C it was observed that the activation process was not very significant. Assessing the average pore diameter it was found that the lowest value corresponded to the activation temperature of 600 °C, which indicated the development of microporosity. When the activation temperature increases up to 800 °C the pore diameter increased developing mesoporosity.

  17. Influence of temperature on products yield of Eucalyptus microcorys carbonization

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    Renato da Silva Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During charcoal production different products are formed. These products are influenced primarily by the temperature of carbonization. Given that charcoal is the main input in the production of pig iron in Brazil, this study evaluated the influence of final temperature of carbonization of the products generated and also the influence of the radial and longitudinal sampling on the yield of each product. Samples were taken from internal and external position along the radius and also from three different heights from four Eucalyptus microcorys trees. The samples were carbonized in an electric furnace with an experimental water-cooled condenser and a collecting bottle of condensable volatile materials. The final temperatures of carbonization were 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900°C. The gravimetric yield, tar and non-condensable gases were calculated. The results showed no difference in the gravimetric yield in the longitudinal and radial positions studied, while the tar yield and non-condensable gases showed temperature variations of 700°C and 800°C and the variation of the gravimetric yield temperatures between 500°C to 900°C was 15%, the change of yield of tar from the radial direction of sampling was on average 8%, the variation of the yield of non-condensable gases in a radial sampling was on average 16%.

  18. Eucalyptus Cloud to Remotely Provision e-Governance Applications

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    Sreerama Prabhu Chivukula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote rural areas are constrained by lack of reliable power supply, essential for setting up advanced IT infrastructure as servers or storage; therefore, cloud computing comprising an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS is well suited to provide such IT infrastructure in remote rural areas. Additional cloud layers of Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS can be added above IaaS. Cluster-based IaaS cloud can be set up by using open-source middleware Eucalyptus in data centres of NIC. Data centres of the central and state governments can be integrated with State Wide Area Networks and NICNET together to form the e-governance grid of India. Web service repositories at centre, state, and district level can be built over the national e-governance grid of India. Using Globus Toolkit, we can achieve stateful web services with speed and security. Adding the cloud layer over the e-governance grid will make a grid-cloud environment possible through Globus Nimbus. Service delivery can be in terms of web services delivery through heterogeneous client devices. Data mining using Weka4WS and DataMiningGrid can produce meaningful knowledge discovery from data. In this paper, a plan of action is provided for the implementation of the above proposed architecture.

  19. Colorimetry as grouping tool of eucalyptus clones wood

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    Márcio da Fonseca Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneity of wood color in a batch to be marketed is of fundamental importance, as it will reflect in products quality resulting from its processing. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate, through colorimetric technique, the colorimetric parameters of Eucalyptus spp. wood from 25 clones and classify them into groups, according to color similarity degree. It was determined the lightness (L*, red-green color coordinate (a*, yellow-blue chromatic coordinate (b*, chromaticity (C* and ink angle (h. Radial and tangential faces and three positions in the radial direction were characterized using a colorimeter. Comparing to tangential planes, the results showed that radial plane presented larger values of L* and h in wood near the bark. Furthermore, it was observed higher values of L* in samples from intermediate radial positions. Finally, it was found that, as radial growth ocurred, developed timber showed less intense yellow shades. The definition of the wood color tones will be useful in timber market in the homogenization of their products, which will facilitate their marketing.

  20. Estimating chlorophyll content from Eucalyptus dunnii leaves by reflectance values

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    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate photosynthetic pigments contents from leaves of Eucalyptus dunni Maiden based on values of reflectance spectra of red, green and blue colors obtained with a digital color analyzer. We collected fifty leaves from the lower third of the crown of twenty trees including young as well as mature leaves. From each leaf an area of 14 cm2 of the leaf blade was cut in which we measured reflectance values on the red, green and blue spectra with a portable digital colorimeter, obtained relative index of chlorophyll with a SPAD – 502 and determined the content of the chlorophyll a, b, and a + b by classic method of solvent extraction. We submitted the data to multiple linear regression and nonlinear analysis at 5% of error probability. It was evaluated the occurrence of multicollinearity. The negative exponential model resulted in good fit when data from red spectrum was used for chlorophyll a, green spectrum for chlorophyll b and a + b, making possible correlation coefficients between the estimated values and the extracted above 0.85. Except for the chlorophyll a content, the accuracy in estimates of photosynthetic pigments were higher than estimated by the chlorophyll meter, even with linearity between methods. Therefore, it is possible to estimate photosynthetic pigments on E. dunni leaves through values of red and green wavelengths from a digital color analyser.

  1. Essential oil of Algerian Eucalyptus citriodora: Chemical composition, antifungal activity.

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    Tolba, H; Moghrani, H; Benelmouffok, A; Kellou, D; Maachi, R

    2015-12-01

    Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora is a natural product which has been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, E. citriodora essential oil was used to evaluate its antifungal effect against medically important dermatophytes. Essential oil from the Algerian E. citriodora leaves was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The antifungal effect of E. citriodora essential oil was evaluated against four dermatophytes: Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum using disc diffusion method, disc volatilization method, and agar dilution method. The chemical composition of the oil revealed the presence of 22 compounds accounting for 95.27% of the oil. The dominant compounds were citronellal (69.77%), citronellol (10.63%) and isopulegol (4.66%). The disc diffusion method, MIC and MFC determination, indicated that E. citriodora essential oil had a higher antifungal potential against the tested strains with inhibition zone diameter which varied from (12 to 90mm) and MIC and MFC values ranged from (0.6 to 5μL/mL and 1.25 to 5μL/mL) respectively. The M. gypseum was the most resistant to the oil. The results of the present study indicated that E. citriodora essential oil may be used as a new antifungal agent recommended by the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus Plantations

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    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover. PMID:25340502

  3. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

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    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  4. Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell.

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    Gilmara A. C. Fortes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new acylated glycoside, 4-O-( 4’,6’-di-O-galloyl- b - D -glucopyranosyl-trans-p-coumaric acid, named microcoryn ( 1 , together with sixteen known phenolic compounds, 5-O-(6'-O-galloyl- b - D -glucopyranosyl-gentisic acid (2, ellagic acid (3, gallic acid (4, kaempferol (5, quercetin (6, 3-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (7, 2,3,6-tri-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (8, 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (9, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl- b - D -glucose (10, 4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl- b - D -glucose (11, gemin D (12, tellimagrandin I (13, tellimagrandin II (14, isocoriariin F (15, oenothein C (16, and oenothein B (17 were isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus microcorys . The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data, especially by 2D NMR techniques. This is the first phytochemical investigation of this plant’s leaf extract.

  5. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marliane de Cássia Soares; Paula, Thiago de Almeida; Moreira, Bruno Coutinho; Carolino, Manuela; Cruz, Cristina; Bazzolli, Denise Mara Soares; Silva, Cynthia Canedo; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2014-01-01

    Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB) that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira). We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  6. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in Eucalyptus globulus plantations.

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    Marliane de Cássia Soares da Silva

    Full Text Available Eucalypt cultivation is an important economic activity worldwide. In Portugal, Eucalyptus globulus plantations account for one-third of the total forested area. The nutritional requirements of this crop have been well studied, and nitrogen (N is one of the most important elements required for vegetal growth. N dynamics in soils are influenced by microorganisms, such as diazotrophic bacteria (DB that are responsible for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, so the aim of this study was to evaluate and identity the main groups of DB in E. globulus plantations. Samples of soil and root systems were collected in winter and summer from three different Portuguese regions (Penafiel, Gavião and Odemira. We observed that DB communities were affected by season, N fertilization and moisture. Furthermore Bradyrhizobium and Burkholderia were the most prevalent genera in these three regions. This is the first study describing the dynamic of these bacteria in E. globulus plantations, and these data will likely contribute to a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of eucalypt cultivation and associated organic matter turnover.

  7. Consumo Foliar de Eucalyptus spp. por Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Wagner Calixto Morais

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. The productive potential of forest stands is reduced by pest occurrence among other factors. In Brazil, leaf-cutting ants are the most severe eucalypt pests. Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr is prevalent in the south east Brazil. However, scarce information about its potential damage for Eucalyptus forests is available. This work deals to quantifying the eucalypt leaf-consumption by such specie of leaf-cutting ant. Fresh leaves were taken from trees of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden, Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, and hybrid E. urophylla x E. grandis and served to different colonies of A. disciger, during 24 hours period, over eight different times. Leaf-consumption was calculated throughout fresh weights of leaves, before and after ants foraging. Each colony of A. disciger consumed 38.8 ± 3.2 g e 22.0 ± 2.3 g of eucalypt leaves, per day.

  8. Expansion of eucalyptus culture in the municipalities of Minas Gerais and territorial management

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    João Batista Rezende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development of monoculture index (MI of eucalyptus as a key element for the management of the territory, from the perspective of sustainable development. We analyzed the "geography" of the eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, to support the planning, organization, control and use of territory. The Monoculture index proposed, which is an important tool for land management, was developed and validate by its application to municipalities of Minas Gerais state. It was shown that the culture of Eucalyptus represents a low rate of monoculture in the state of Minas Gerais and that the geography of this culture is compatible with sustainable territorial expansion. Therefore, these results contribute to the definition of public land management in Minas Gerais and the methodology used can be applied to other states.

  9. Biological, medicinal and toxicological significance of Eucalyptus leaf essential oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakad, Ashok K; Pandey, Vijay V; Beg, Sobia; Rawat, Janhvi M; Singh, Avtar

    2018-02-01

    The genus Eucalyptus L'Heritier comprises about 900 species, of which more than 300 species contain volatile essential oil in their leaves. About 20 species, within these, have a high content of 1,8-cineole (more than 70%), commercially used for the production of essential oils in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. However, Eucalyptus is extensively planted for pulp, plywood and solid wood production, but its leaf aromatic oil has astounding widespread biological activities, including antimicrobial, antiseptic, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorder treatment, wound healing, and insecticidal/insect repellent, herbicidal, acaricidal, nematicidal, and perfumes, soap making and grease remover. In the present review, we have made an attempt to congregate the biological ingredients of leaf essential oil, leaf oil as a natural medicine, and pharmacological and toxicological values of the leaf oil of different Eucalyptus species worldwide. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Potential of Eucalyptus Oil as Repellent against House Rat, Rattus rattus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, Ramandeep Kaur; Mahal, Amrit Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Rodent repellents are chemicals which by taste or odour or possibly by both will prevent animal from feeding or gnawing. Such substances may be used in protecting an area from rodent infestation or in protecting packaged food, packing materials, electric cables, and other important vulnerable materials. Mature and healthy house rat, Rattus rattus of both sexes, was exposed to 5, 10, and 20% eucalyptus oil applied as spray in laboratory pens in bichoice tests. Each concentration was applied through three different modes of application, that is, daily, once, and alternatively in a week. Repellent effect of the oil was assessed based on food consumption from treated and untreated sides for four days. In overall, food consumption was significantly (P eucalyptus oil. Present studies reveal the potential of eucalyptus oil in repelling away R. rattus; however, further studies may be conducted to enhance the persistence of repellent effect for longer period of time. PMID:24523633

  11. BVOC emissions from 2 Asian Eucalyptus species,E.camadulensis and E.robusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Eucalyptus species dominate native forests in Australia and are planted over vast regions in Asia and other continents for afforestation and for pulp due to their fast growth rates. However, they have also been identified as high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). BVOCs, when emitted to the atmosphere, react to form air pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The large areas of Eucalyptus forests in Australia and Asia, and high BVOC emission rates of Eucalyptus species, imply a potential significant effect of BVOC emissions from Eucalyptus on the air quality of these regions. A better understanding of BVOC emissions from this genus is thus needed. Here we present data of BVOC measurements from E.camadulensis and E.robusta. BVOC emissions of the 2 Eucalyptus species were measured by a branch enclosure approach in an environmental chamber, in which light and temperature were carefully controlled to mimic their changes throughout the day under natural conditions. E. camadulensis was found to emit isoprene, α-pinene, camphene and limonene, while E. robusta was found to emit isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, 3-carene and ocimene. Diurnal variations in BVOC emissions from the 2 species were observed. The 2 Eucalyptus species were also treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a plant hormone which has found to induce elevated BVOC emissions similar to response to insect attacks in other plant species. The emission profiles of the 2 species before and after MeJA treatment were contrasted to examine the effects of the MeJA on their BVOC emissions. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the General Research Fund of the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 610909).

  12. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Deepa S; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter

  13. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast. PMID:25177704

  14. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of seven Eucalyptus species essential oils leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Khaled; Sakouhi, Fawzi; Herchi, Wahid; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2015-01-19

    In this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of the leaves of seven Eucalyptus species developed in Tunisia. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. Choucha and Mrifeg arboretums located in Sedjnene, region of Bizerte (Choucha: E. maideni, E. astrengens et E. cinerea; Mrifeg : E. leucoxylon), Korbous arboretums located in the region of Nabeul, North East Tunisia with sub-humid bioclimate, (E. lehmani), Souiniet-Ain Drahem arboretum located in region of Jendouba (E. sideroxylon, E. bicostata). Essential oils were individually tested against a large panel of microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6539), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212), Listeria ivanovii (RBL 30), Bacillus cereus (ATCC11778). The yield of essential oils ranged from 1.2% to 3% (w/w) for the different Eucalyptus species. All essential oils contain α-pinene, 1,8-cineol and pinocarveol-trans for all Eucalyptus species studied. The 1,8-cineol was the major compound in all species (49.07 to 83.59%). Diameter of inhibition zone of essential oils of Eucalyptus species varied from 10 to 29 mm. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained for Bacillus cereus (E. astrengens) and the lowest for Staphylococcus aureus (E. cinerea). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea (arboretum of Bizerte), E. bicostata (arboretum of Aindraham) showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus. The major constituents of Eucalyptus leaves essential oils are 1,8-cineol (49.07 to 83.59%) and α-pinene (1.27 to 26.35%). The essential oils from E. maideni, E. astrengens, E. cinerea, E. bicostata showed the highest antibacterial activity against Listeria ivanovii and Bacillus cereus, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.

  15. Eucalyptus Essential Oil as a Natural Food Preservative: In Vivo and In Vitro Antiyeast Potential

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    Amit Kumar Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%, limonene (6.5%, α-pinene (5%, and γ-terpinene (2.9% while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9% and an increase of limonene (13.8%, α-pinene (8.87%, and γ-terpinene (3.98%. Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  16. Evapotranspiração máxima e coeficiente de cultura da berinjela cultivada em estufa plástica

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    Luis H. Loose

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do cultivo da berinjela em estufa plástica ter aumentado no sul do Brasil, ainda é escasso o conhecimento sobre a evapotranspiração da cultura na condição de ambiente protegido para o manejo correto da irrigação. Objetivou-se determinar a evapotranspiração máxima e o coeficiente de cultura da berinjela cultivada em estufa plástica. Realizaram-se três experimentos em estufa plástica, dos quais dois na primavera dos anos de 2006 e 2007 e o outro no outono de 2007, na condição de clima subtropical úmido de Santa Maria, RS. As plantas foram cultivadas em camalhões de solo coberto por mulching plástico e irrigado por gotejamento. A evapotranspiração máxima da cultura foi medida em seis repetições de evapotranspirômetros de drenagem, contendo 20 L de substrato e uma planta. A evapotranspiração de referência foi estimada pelo método de Penman-Monteith. Verificou-se que a evapotranspiração máxima da cultura foi maior na primavera do que no outono enquanto o coeficiente de cultura foi maior no outono. Conclui-se que o coeficiente de cultura da berinjela cultivada em estufa plástica pode ser estimado com boa precisão em função dos dias após o transplante ou do índice de área foliar.

  17. Conhecimento ecológico tradicional sobre plantas cultivadas pelos pescadores da comunidade Estirão Comprido, Pantanal matogrossense, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira de Morais

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa situa-se no campo da etnoecologia e aborda o conhecimento ecológico tradicional (CET sobre plantas cultivadas na comunidade de Estirão Comprido, rio Cuiabá, Barão de Melgaço, Pantanal matogrossense. Foram entrevistados 22 pescadores para a elaboração da lista livre de plantas. Para a análise da lista, foram utilizados: índice de saliência de Smith, análise de consenso cultural, similaridade e dissimilaridade com escalonamento multidimensional e técnica de empilhamento. O programa ANTHROPAC 4.0 foi utilizado para o tratamento estatístico dos dados. Por meio do índice de saliência de Smith, foram identificadas seis rupturas no domínio cultural sobre plantas cultivadas, concentrando-se em 116 etnoespécies. Laranja e milho foram citados com maior frequência e em primeiro lugar na lista, portanto, encontram-se na primeira ruptura da lista livre com índices de Smith 0,728 e 0,711, respectivamente. A análise de consenso cultural mostrou que o CET sobre plantas cultivadas caracteriza um consenso, concentrando-se em 18 etnoespécies. A análise de empilhamento evidenciou que o conhecimento sobre plantas está relacionado aos diferentes tipos de uso. Neste contexto, as possibilidades de uso e manejo aqui evidenciadas podem contribuir para a elaboração de políticas públicas destinadas à conservação da biodiversidade ecológica e cultural.

  18. The annual pattern of sap flow in tow Eucalyptus species established in the vicinity of gold-mine tailings dams in central South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available contiguous sample trees (aged four years) of the clonal hybrid E. grandis × E. camaldulensis (E. G×C) at another trial near Orkney. Both species showed high sap flow rates close to reference evaporation rates in response to summer rains. Both showed greatly...

  19. Compaction and soil fertility after eucalyptus harvesting using Feller Buncher and Skidder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Piedade Sodero Martins Pincelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed, the impact of Feller Buncher and Skidder traffic in harvesting areas of eucalyptus in Mogi Guaçu, considering the compaction and fertilization effects in the range of soil next to the carrier during the cycle of forest growth. An increase in soil compaction, caused by machinery traffic in topsoil (0-10 cm, was observed in the area recently harvested. The soils of the study areas, with eucalyptus 1.4 and 6.0 years old, showed good fertility conditions, especially the older area, where decomposition of forest residues possibly contributed to such fertility.

  20. Qualidade de juntas coladas com lâminas de madeira oriundas de três regiões do tronco de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii Quality of wood joints glued with wood veneers from three trunk regions of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Rocha Vital

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de juntas coladas formadas pelas combinações de lâminas provenientes de três posições no tronco da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna e Pinus elliottii. Foram empregados adesivos à base de poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído nas gramaturas de 150 g/m², em face simples para o poliacetato de vinila de média e alta viscosidades e 300 g/m², em face dupla, para o adesivo resorcinólico. O teor médio de umidade das lâminas, no momento da colagem, foi igual a 14%. Os valores médios mais elevados de resistência ao cisalhamento foram obtidos nas juntas produzidas com madeira de Eucalyptus saligna, coladas com adesivos de poliacetato de média viscosidade e resorcinol-formaldeído. A maior porcentagem de falha profunda na madeira foi obtida em juntas de madeira de Pinus elliottii, unidas com adesivo de poliacetato de alta viscosidade, seguidas das juntas de Eucalyptus grandis e coladas com adesivo de poliacetato de média viscosidade. As combinações de lâminas oriundas das seguintes posições no tronco: medula e casca, intermediária e casca e casca e casca resultaram em linhas de cola com maiores resistências ao cisalhamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the shear strength of glued wood joints from pith, outer and intermediary wood of Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii. High and medium viscosity polyvinyl acetate and resorcinol-phenol adhesives were applied at spread rate of 150 g/m² in single line and at spread rate of 300 g/m² in double glue line for the resorcinolic adhesive. The mean wood moisture content was 14%. Higher shear strength was obtained with Eucalyptus saligna veneer glued with medium viscosity polyvinyl resorcinolic adhesive. The highest percentage of wood failure was found on Pinus elliottii veneer glued with high viscosity polyvinyl acetate adhesive followed by

  1. Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Essential Oil from Eucalyptus: Study of the Effects of Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Saoud

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical extraction of essential oil such as Soxhlet and steam distillation is still a formidable and time-solvent consuming. Microwave assisted process (MAP is used to accelerate the extraction process of target compounds. It can be used for the extraction of compounds from various plants and animal tissues, or the extraction of undesirable components from raw materials. The investigation of microwave extraction of eucalyptus (globules essential oil using ethanol as solvent was carried out. The influence of material (eucalyptus/solvent (ethanol ratio, required doses of microwave, and time of microwave exposure on extraction efficiency, was studied.

  2. Utilización de Eucalyptus spp. Alternativas de plantaciones uruguayas para pulpa Kraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Doldán

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las plantaciones de Eucalyptus globulus han mostrado desiguales tasas de crecimiento en diferentes regiones de Uruguay. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de otros orígenes de semilla y especies para la producción de pulpa de celulosa. Propiedades papeleras de las pulpas blanqueadas (ECF de especies alternativas llevan a intuir que podrían ser atractivas para mercados de pulpa de fibra corta. En este trabajo se realiza un comparativo del E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii y E. globulus (procedencia de semilla “Jeeralang” con el E. globulus predominante en Uruguay. Se discute el potencial de estas maderas como base para una mezcla en cocción, basándose en el análisis de propiedades físicas (densidad aparente básica, propiedades pulpables (rendimiento, carga de álcali activo en cocción Kraft y consumo de madera y propiedades papeleras. En trabajos previos se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre el comportamiento pulpable del Eucalyptus globulus y Eucalyptus maidenii, sugiriendo que nosería recomendable mezclar estas especies. La misma conclusión se podría extender a las especies de Eucalyptus estudiadas. Sin embargo, teniendo en cuenta los similares requerimientos en las cargas de álcali activo, la mezcla entre especies alternativas podría ser aplicada.AbstractEucalyptus globulus plantations have shown different growth rates in different sites in Uruguay. This fact has triggered the search for other pulp wood species and seed provenance. Paper making properties of ECF bleached pulps of alternative speciessuggest that these species could be perfectly used as hardwood bleached pulp raw materials. This study intends to compare alternativeUruguayan pulpwood species E. grandis, E. dunnii, E. maidenii and “Jeeralang” a seed provenance of E. globulus to the E. globulus most widely cultivated in the country. Physical properties of wood (Basic Density, Kraft pulping performance (pulp yield, active alkali and wood consumption

  3. Armazenamento refrigerado da uva de mesa 'Romana' (A1105) cultivada sob cobertura plástica Cold storage of 'Romana' (A1105) table grape cultivated under plastic cover

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Lulu; Josalba V. Castro; Mário J. Pedro Júnior

    2005-01-01

    A videira é uma das principais fruteiras cultivadas em todo o mundo e atualmente a preferência por uvas do tipo "sem sementes" ou "apirênicas" vem aumentando gradativamente no mercado interno brasileiro. A cultivar 'Romana' (A1105) tem mostrado grande potencial como nova alternativa de uva de mesa apirênica na região de Jundiaí - SP. No entanto, a qualidade dos cachos tem sido afetada pela ocorrência de chuvas na época da colheita, propiciando a incidência de rachaduras nas bagas ("cracking")...

  4. Determinações preliminares do teor de óleo essencial em camomila cultivada no Brasil Preliminary determination of essential oil content in camomile growing in Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Guilherme Roberto Donalisio

    1985-01-01

    Amostras de capítulos florais, pedúnculos florais e caules de camomila cultivada no Brasil foram destiladas em aparelho destilador de Clevenger para avaliação dos respectivos teores de óleo essencial, sendo encontrados os seguintes valores médios por material destilado: capítulos florais: 0,421%; pedúnculos florais: 0,132% e caules:0,0251 %. Os valores percentuais de óleo essencial relativos a capítulos florais são comparáveis aos encontrados em camomila produzida em diversos países produtore...

  5. Respuesta al estrés por limitación de nitrógeno de plántulas de castilleja tenuiflora benth. cultivadas in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes Morales, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Castilleja tenuiflora Benth. (Orobanchaceae), es una planta medicinal silvestre que sintetiza diversos compuestos químicos como feniletanoides e iridoides glicosilados y flavonoides. El perfil químico de los cultivos in vitro de C. tenuiflora varía dependiendo de factores bióticos y de factores abióticos como el nitrógeno. El objetivo general de este trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta al estrés por limitación de nitrógeno de plántulas de C. tenuiflora cultivadas in vitro. Se cult...

  6. Produção de néctar e visitas por abelhas em duas espécies cultivadas de Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Varassin,Isabela Galarda; Ximenes,Brunna Maria Setti; Moreira,Priscila Ambrósio; Zanon,Mireille Maria Franco; Elbl,Paula; Löwenberg-Neto,Peter; Melo,Gabriel Augusto Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    A atividade dos polinizadores é afetada pela disponibilidade de recursos. Flores que produzem mais néctar podem ser mais visitadas e assim apresentar maior produção de frutos. O efeito da produção de néctar na atividade dos polinizadores foi testado em duas espécies cultivadas de maracujá, Passiflora alata Curtis e Passiflora edulis Sims, em Morretes, Paraná. Botões foram ensacados e o néctar acumulado das flores foi coletado em intervalos de 1 h. Em P. alata o volume e a concentração de solu...

  7. Aplicação de IBA para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden & Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden = IBA application for rooting of Eucalyptus benthamii Maiden and Cambage x Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden minicuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O Eucalyptus apresenta grande importância no setor florestal e muitos avanços na área do melhoramento foram conquistados com o advento da biotecnologia. Contudo, alguns genótipos promissores ainda não possuem protocolos de multiplicação com técnicas de clonagem, como a miniestaquia. Objetivou-se avaliar concentrações de IBA na sobrevivência, enraizamento e vigor vegetativo de miniestacas de E. benthamii x E. dunnii, com a determinação da dose de máxima eficiência técnica. Minicepas dos clones H12, H19 e H20 foram manejadas em minijardim clonal em sistema semi-hidropônico. Para o enraizamento, mergulhou-se a porção basal da miniestaca em soluções hidroalcoólicas, cujas concentrações foram: 0, 2.000, 4.000, 6.000 e 8.000 mg L-1 de IBA. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído por três clones e cinco concentrações de IBA, com cinco repetições, contendo dez miniestacas por repetição. O IBA influenciou positivamente os processos rizogênicos das miniestacas com resposta diferenciada entre os clones, a qual variou de 30,32 a 55,45% de enraizamento. Para os clones H12 e H19, os incrementos positivos ocorreram até a maiorconcentração de IBA. Contudo, a faixa situada entre os tratamentos de 4.000 e 6.000 mg L-1 de IBA promoveu os melhores resultados de enraizamento para o clone H20. Eucalyptus has great importance in the forestry sector and many advances in the area of improvement have been achieved with the advent of biotechnological techniques. However, some promising genotypes still do not have multiplication protocols with cloning techniques, such as minicutting. The study aimed to evaluate IBA concentrations for survival, rooting and vegetative vigor of E. benthamii x E. dunnii minicuttings, and determine the maximum technical efficiency dose. Ministumps H12, H19 and H20 clones were cultivated in a clonal minigarden under a semi-hydroponic system. For rooting, the

  8. Effect of Eucalyptus Oil Inhalation on Pain and Inflammatory Responses after Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Suk Jun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus oil has been reported effective in reducing pain, swelling, and inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of eucalyptus oil inhalation on pain and inflammatory responses after total knee replacement (TKR surgery. Participants were randomized 1 : 1 to intervention group (eucalyptus inhalation group or control group (almond oil inhalation group. Patients inhaled eucalyptus or almond oil for 30 min of continuous passive motion (CPM on 3 consecutive days. Pain on a visual analog scale (VAS, blood pressure, heart rate, C-reactive protein (CRP concentration, and white blood cell (WBC count were measured before and after inhalation. Pain VAS on all three days (P<.001 and systolic (P<.05 and diastolic (P=.03 blood pressure on the second day were significantly lower in the group inhaling eucalyptus than that inhaling almond oil. Heart rate, CRP, and WBC, however, did not differ significantly in the two groups. In conclusion, inhalation of eucalyptus oil was effective in decreasing patient's pain and blood pressure following TKR, suggesting that eucalyptus oil inhalation may be a nursing intervention for the relief of pain after TKR.

  9. Eucalyptus-Palm Kernel Oil Blends: A Complete Elimination of Diesel in a 4-Stroke VCR Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kommana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuels derived from biomass are mostly preferred as alternative fuels for IC engines as they are abundantly available and renewable in nature. The objective of the study is to identify the parameters that influence gross indicated fuel conversion efficiency and how they are affected by the use of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel. Important physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus blend were experimentally evaluated and found within acceptable limits of relevant standards. As most of vegetable oils are edible, growing concern for trying nonedible and waste fats as alternative to petrodiesel has emerged. In present study diesel fuel is completely replaced by biofuels, namely, methyl ester of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil in various blends. Different blends of palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil are prepared on volume basis and used as operating fuel in single cylinder 4-stroke variable compression ratio diesel engine. Performance and emission characteristics of these blends are studied by varying the compression ratio. In the present experiment methyl ester extracted from palm kernel oil is considered as ignition improver and eucalyptus oil is considered as the fuel. The blends taken are PKE05 (palm kernel oil 95 + eucalyptus 05, PKE10 (palm kernel oil 90 + eucalyptus 10, and PKE15 (palm kernel 85 + eucalyptus 15. The results obtained by operating with these fuels are compared with results of pure diesel; finally the most preferable combination and the preferred compression ratio are identified.

  10. Tensão de crescimento em árvores vivas de clones de Eucalyptus spp. e de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden e propriedades da sua madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Trugilho, Paulo Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a funcionalidade do método CIRAD-Forêt para determinação das deformações residuais longitudinais (DRL) e determinar o nível de variação da DRL em árvores vivas de clones de Eucalyptus spp. e de árvores matrizes de Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden. Objetivou, ainda, determinar a variação da DRL inter e intra genótipos, avaliar a relação existente entre a DRL e algumas características da madeira, estimar a tensão de crescimento longitudinal usado à relação existent...

  11. Micropropagation of eucalyptus saligna sm. from cotyledonary nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.L.L.D.; Brondani, G.E.; Horbach, A.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus saligna is an important woody plant used to lumber and cellulose. The aim of this research was to establish a protocol for micropropagation of this species from cotyledonary nodes. Plantlets with 16 days old were used as a donor explants. The induction of cotyledonary nodes consisted of two parts: a dark culture followed by a light culture. Basal medium was MS added with 30g.L-1 sucrose, 10% coconut water and solidified with 7g.L-1 agar. For the dark culture the media were supplemented with 3.6 micro M NAA (Naftalenoacetic acid) and 4.4 micro M BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and for the light culture the media were supplemented with 2.7 micro M NAA and 1.1 micro M BAP. The period for dark and light culture was 20 days. Shoots were multiplied on MS medium, 30 g.L-1 sucrose supplemented with 1.1 micro M BAP. Shoots were elongated on MS medium free of plant growth regulators. Shoots were rooting on half-strength MS salts. Acclimatization was performed in a hydroponics floating system. Moreover, the shoot multiplication in liquid medium with different CaCl/sub 2/ levels was carried out under agitation. Organogenesis of cotyledonary nodes was characterized by simultaneous occurrence of shoot and callus. Shoots presented hyperhydricity under liquid medium, however, the CaCl/sub 2/ reduces the hyperhydricity in liquid medium; nevertheless, it had been not effective in eliminating hyperhydricity due to toxicity of chlorine. The hydroponics acclimatization results in 90% plant survival. An efficient protocol for micropropagation of E. saligna was suitable established and can be used for clonal propagation or genetic transformation. (author)

  12. BEHAVIOR OF GLUED JOINTS OF EUCALYPTUS sp. SAWN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Barbosa Plaster

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated eucalypt wood adhesion capacity. The material evaluated was a commercial sawn wood composed by a blend of species of the genus Eucalyptus. The adhesives used were resorcinol-formaldehyde and polyvinila acetate (PVAc. The wood was segregated in three density with 0% of moisture content: class 1; 2 and 3 that, when combined (class1 x class1; 2x2; 3x3; 1x2; 1x3; 2x3 resulted in six treatments. The performance of the adhesion was evaluated by the shear strength to parallel compression and by wood failure in the glue line. The obtained results allowed to conclude that the adhesion of the combinations of wood/adhesive presented satisfactory performance. The average shear strength of the joints were shown equivalent to the shear strength of the solid wood with similar performance of adhesion in the two adhesives. In general, resorcinol-formaldheyde adhesive presented higher values (74.41% for wood failure in the joints, but similar to all treatments. The adhesion of samples of higher density presented lower performance probably when only the values of wood failure are considered. The values for the strength of glued joints, in general, were similar when analyzed the results achieved with the resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesive- base 140,56 Kgf/cm2. To polyvinila acetate the values of wood failure decrease when the density increase (65.94%, but the resistance in the glue line was positively affected (140.25 Kgf/cm2. In general, the density influenced the adhesion of the joints for the employed adhesives.

  13. Durabilidad natural de madera de Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden de plantaciones de rápido crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Böthig

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Una de las especies forestales de rápido crecimiento cultivadas en Uruguay de mayor importancia económica es el Eucalyptus grandis. Trabajos anteriores reportan propiedades físicas y mecánicas de la madera juvenil y adulta proveniente de plantaciones de esta especie en diferentes regiones del país. Sin embargo, dado que no se dispone de datos científicos nacionales sobre su durabilidad natural, en este trabajo fue evaluada madera de E. grandis obtenida de dos plantaciones de 16 años de edad con semilla del mismo origen, de dos sitios, Rivera y Río Negro. Se estudió la durabilidad natural del duramen externo e interno siguiendo los métodos de la norma EN 350-1, tomando Populus deltoides x euroamericana cv I-214 como especie de referencia. Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio para determinar la resistencia a la descomposición fúngica (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor y Serpula lacrymans y a las termites (Reticulitermes spp. siguiendo las normas EN 113 y EN 118, respectivamente. Se realizaron ensayos de campo de estacas, de doble capa y cámara fúngica, los cuales aún están en curso, por lo que en el presente trabajo se presentan resultados parciales. Los perfiles radiales de densidad básica revelaron que la madera del duramen externo no era adulta, sino madera de transición. En general, el duramen de E. grandis mostró una mayor durabilidad que el híbrido Populus.El E. grandis se clasificó como moderadamente o seriamente atacado por Reticulitermes spp. Según EN 350-1, la madera juvenil de E. grandis puede considerarse como “moderadamente durable” ante la pudrición parda provocada por G. trabeum, mientras que la madera de transición puede describirse como “durable”. La madera de transición mostró en relación a la madera juvenil una mayor resistencia al G. trabeum, una susceptibilidad levemente menor a las termites y mejor desempeño en el campo luego de 17 meses de exposición. El sitio de la plantación no

  14. Germinação carpogênica de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sob diferentes resíduos e extratos de plantas cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimar Perez Matheus da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de resíduos de plantas cultivadas e seus extratos sobre Sclerotinia sclerotiorum são poucos conhecidos. Três experimentos foram conduzidos, com resíduos de plantas cultivadas e seus extratos etanólicos e suas partições. Resíduos e extratos de culturas de aveia, ervilhaca, feijão, milheto, milho e trigo foram avaliados em condições controladas. Escleródios cobertos com resíduos de aveia, ervilhaca, feijão e milheto não germinaram carpogenicamente. Extratos etanólicos de resíduos de aveia e ervilhaca mostraram-se eficientes na inibição da germinação carpogênica, enquanto que do milheto e do trigo não diferiram da testemunha. Todas as partições de extratos etanólicos avaliadas reduziram a germinação carpogênica. Resíduos vegetais afetaram negativamente o número de apotécios emitidos por escleródio.

  15. Metabolismo de plantas de cana-de-açúcar cultivadas in vitro sob diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Virgínia Maria Tenorio Sabino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Variedades de cana-de-açúcar (RB 732577, RB 83102, RB 75126, CB 45-3, Caiana e Co 997 foram cultivadas in vitro em meio nutritivo básico MS com diferentes concentrações de N (9,83 mM, 7,37 mM, 4,92 mM, 2,46 mM, 0,49 mM e 0,0 mM, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência no processo de assimilação desse elemento. Após 45 dias de cultivo, foram determinados os ganhos de biomassa e os teores de amônio, aminoácidos e açúcares solúveis. A variedade Co 997 apresentou maior ganho de biomassa e maior quantidade de N incorporado em aminoácidos livres em relação às demais variedades, sugerindo maior eficiência no processo de assimilação. Os teores mais elevados de amônio foram observados nas variedades RB 83102 e RB 75126, quando cultivadas em meio desprovido de N, mostrando-se menos eficientes no processo de assimilação uma vez que apresentaram os menores valores de aminoácidos livres nas mesmas condições de cultivo.

  16. Uso de micorrizas e rizóbio em cultivo consorciado de eucalipto e sesbânia: I - Crescimento, absorção e tranferência de nitrogênio entre plantas Use of mycorrhizas and rhizobium in intercropping system of eucalyptus and sesbania: I - Growth, uptake and transfer of nitrogen between plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Rodrigues

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação para avaliar os efeitos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e rizóbio na produção de matéria seca, na absorção e na eficiência de utilização de N por plantas de Eucalyptus grandis e Sesbania virgata, cultivadas em consorciação. Avaliou-se, também, a transferência de N da sesbânia para o eucalipto, utilizando-se o isótopo 15N. Os tratamentos constaram da inoculação, ou não, com FMAs em ambas as espécies de plantas e da inoculação, ou não, com rizóbio na sesbânia. Utilizaram-se vasos plásticos subdivididos em três compartimentos (A, B e C, cada um com 2 L de capacidade. Os compartimentos A e B foram separados por uma parede plástica e entre os compartimentos B e C foi colocada uma tela com poros de 40 mm que permitiu somente a passagem de hifas, mas não de raízes. A sesbânia foi cultivada com suas raízes subdivididas entre o compartimento A e B e o eucalipto foi cultivado no compartimento C. No compartimento A, foram adicionados 7 mg kg-1 de 15N-(NH42SO4 com 99 % de 15N. As plantas foram avaliadas aos 100 dias. Nos tratamentos com inoculação com o rizóbio, com FMAs ou com FMAs + rizóbio, foram observados, nas plantas de eucalipto, aumentos na produção de matéria seca total de 119, 223 e 209 %, respectivamente, e aumentos no conteúdo de N de 125, 247 e 310 %, respectivamente, quando comparados aos resultados do tratamento-controle. Nas plantas de sesbânia, foram observados aumentos no conteúdo de N e decréscimo na relação C/N em todos os tratamentos inoculados com os microrganismos. A eficiência de utilização de N foi maior nas plantas de eucalipto quando inoculadas com FMAs e não variou com os tratamentos nas plantas de sesbânia. Foi observada a transferência de 15N das plantas de sesbânia para o eucalipto em todos os tratamentos.This greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and

  17. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with leaf diseases on Eucalyptus globulus in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodoro, M.G.; Ferreira, M.A.; Guimarães, L.M.S.; Mafia, R.G.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.; Alfenas, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Leaf blight and defoliation caused by Teratosphaeria species is one of the most important leaf diseases of Eucalyptus globulus. Due to the importance of this tree species for the production of pulp and paper, and recent reports of severe leaf disease symptoms in Brazil, the present study was

  18. Identification of Mycosphaerella species associated with Eucalyptus nitens leaf defoliation in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, G.C.; Crous, P.W.; Roux, J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Eucalyptus nitens is an important plantation tree species in South Africa, where it is grown for paper and pulp production. The growth and performance of E. nitens in South Africa is, however, reduced substantially by Mycosphaerella leaf blotch (MLB) disease. The aim of this study was to determine

  19. Response of Eucalyptus occidentais to water stress induced by NaCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eucalyptus occidentalis plants were exposed to NaCl in their culture solution for various time. Determination of cytokinin, abscisic acid, /sup 14/C leucine incorporation of E. occidentalis, a xerophyte, does not differ from the response of mesophytes to such treatments. 13 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  20. Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and nutrient manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    We examined resource limitations on growth and carbon allocation in a fast-growing, clonal plantation of Eucalyptus grandis urophylla in Brazil by characterizing responses to annual rainfall, and response to irrigation and fertililization for 2 years. Productivity measures included gross primary production (GPP), total belowground carbon allocation (...

  1. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  2. Polyester composites reinforced with corona-treated fibers from pine, eucalyptus and sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims to evaluate plant fibers that were surface activated with NaOH and corona discharge before incorporating in ortho unsaturated polyester-based fiber composites. It demonstrates the potential use of lignocellulosic particles, especially eucalyptus that presented the higher values for a...

  3. DENDROMETRY CHARACTERISTICS OF EUCALYPTUS UROPHYLLA IN SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM UNDER DIFFERENT PLANTING SPACINGS WITH BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Pavesi Araujo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of spacing on eucalyptus dendrometric characteristics in silvopastoral system with Brachiaria decumbens. Three eucalyptus spacing were used (3x2, 6x4 and 10x4 m. The randomized block design was used with factorial scheme (3x4 with three densities of planting eucalyptus (3x2, 6x4 and 10x4 m and four times of evaluation (6, 12, 18 and 24 months after planting. The dendrometric characteristics were evaluated: 0,30 m diameter, diameter at breast height - 1.30 m (DBH, cup diameter, height, biomass per tree and plant survival. It was found positive effect of months of evaluation for the diameter to 0.30 m, cup diameter and height. There were no effects of spacing for the variables DBH, survival and biomass per tree when evaluated at 24 months. There was effect for biomass per hectare being 3x2 m the best treatament. It can be concluded that the planting spacing only affected the biomass per hectare, when evaluated up to 24 months of Eucalyptus urophylla grown in silvopastoral system.

  4. The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan; Sebastiao Fonseca; Rodolfo A. Loos; Ernesto N. Takahashi; Claudio R. Silva; Sergio R. Silva; Rodrigo E. Hakamada; Jose Mario de A. Ferreira; Augusto M. N. Lima; Jose Luiz Gava; Fernado P. Leite; Helder B. Andrade; Jacyr M. Alves; Gualter G. C. Silva; Moises R. Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    We examined the potential growth of clonal Eucalyptus plantations at eight locations across a 1000+ km gradient in Brazil by manipulating the supplies of nutrients and water, and altering the uniformity of tree sizes within plots. With no fertilization or irrigation, mean annual increments of stem wood were about 28% lower (16.2 Mg...

  5. Eucalyptus plantations and the steel industry in Amazonia - A contribution from the 3-PG model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, Maurel; Piketty, Marie Gabrielle; Morello, Thiago Fonseca; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Mesquita Neto, Franscisco

    2011-01-01

    The Carajas steel industry sector in the Brazilian Amazon has aroused protest on environmental grounds because of its heavy reliance on charcoal. The charcoal is mainly produced from natural forest biomass, with direct and indirect impacts on deforestation and forest ecosystem degradation. Establishing eucalyptus plantations for fuel on degraded pastures could be a workable alternative. Few such plantations exist as yet, and because there are no validated assessments of their production potential, a study was conducted to provide consolidated estimations of the growth and productivity of the Carajas eucalyptus plantations. The estimations were obtained with the 3-PG model (Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth). The model parameters are based on growth data for the eucalyptus plantations established by a company in Breu Branco municipality in Brazil's Para State. Calibrating the model with local data proved to be far more effective than using the parameters set for eucalyptus plantations in other areas in Brazil, South Africa or Australia. The simulations made show that the current annual average growth rate, over a six-year period, of about 20 m"3 per hectare could increase to 30 m"3 with appropriate fertilisation and effective underbrush control. They also suggest that production could be higher without water deficit. Plantation zones shall be selected as a priority in areas where the dry season is the least severe around Carajas. These 3-PG model settings have made it a more effective management tool for industrial plantations in Amazonian conditions. (authors)

  6. Endoglucanase post-milling treatment for producing cellulose nanofibers from bleached eucalyptus fibers by a supermasscolloider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangxia Wang; Michael D. Mozuch; Ronald C. Sabo; Philip Kersten; Junyong Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2016-01-01

    Three recombinant GH5 endoglucanases chosen for their contrasting hydrolytic activities, and a commercial endoglucanase were used to treat cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) after they were milled from bleached eucalyptus pulp with a supermasscolloider. This enzyme ‘‘post-treatment’’ resulted in different properties for the CNFs depending on enzyme treatment. The degree of...

  7. Cold alkaline extraction as a pretreatment for bioethanol production from eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Danila Morais de; Sevastyanova, Olena; Queiroz, José Humberto de; Colodette, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mathematical approach to optimize the process of cold alkaline extraction. • Hemicelluloses and lignin removal from biomasses by cold alkaline extraction. • Higher xylan and lignin removal for straw during pretreatment. • Formation of pseudo-extractives for eucalyptus during pretreatment. • Higher ethanol production for pretreated sugarcane straw. - Abstract: Optimal conditions for the cold alkaline extraction (CAE) pretreatment of eucalyptus, sugarcane bagasse and sugarcane straw are proposed in view of their subsequent bioconversion into ethanol through the semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) process (with presaccharification followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, or SSF). The optimum conditions, which are identified based on an experiment with a factorial central composite design, resulted in the removal of 46%, 52% and 61% of the xylan and 15%, 37% and 45% of the lignin for eucalyptus, bagasse and straw, respectively. The formation of pseudo-extractives was observed during the CAE of eucalyptus. Despite the similar glucose concentration and yield for all biomasses after 12 h of presaccharification, the highest yield (0.065 g_e_t_h_a_n_o_l/g_b_i_o_m_a_s_s), concentrations (5.74 g L"−"1) and volumetric productivity for ethanol (0.57 g L"−"1 h"−"1) were observed for the sugarcane straw. This finding was most likely related to the improved accessibility of cellulose that resulted from the removal of the largest amount of xylan and lignin.

  8. Reinforcing Natural Rubber with Cellulose Nanofibrils Extracted from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunmei Zhang; Tianliang Zhai; Ronald Sabo; Craig Clemons; Yi Dan; Lih-Sheng Turng

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were prepared by solution mixing, casting, and evaporation of pre-vulcanized natural rubber latex and an aqueous suspension of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) extracted from bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that there were no micro-scaled aggregates observed in the nanocomposites...

  9. Morphological development of cellulose fibrils of a bleached eucalyptus pulp by mechanical fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q.Q. Wang; J.Y. Zhu; R. Gleisner; T.A. Kuster; U. Baxa; S.E. McNeil

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the production of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) from a bleached eucalyptus pulp using a commercial stone grinder. Scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy imaging were used to reveal morphological development of CNF at micro and nano scales, respectively. Two major structures were identified (1) highly kinked, naturally...

  10. Utilization of eucalyptus for bioelectricity production in brazil via fast pyrolysis: a techno-economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a process model of a 2000 metric ton per day (MTPD) eucalyptus Tail Gas Reactive Pyrolysis (TGRP) and electricity generation plant was developed and simulated in SimSci Pro/II software for the purpose of evaluating its techno-economic viability in Brazil. Two scenarios were compared b...

  11. Survey to evaluate escape of Eucalyptus spp. seedlings from plantations in southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; John A. Stanturf; William J. Hammond; Donald L. Rockwood; Evelyn S. Wenk; Joseph J. O’Brien

    2013-01-01

    Interest in biomass-based energy in the southeastern Unites States has led to increased need for fast-growing tree species. Several Eucalyptus species exhibit characteristics that make them attractive in the bioenergy context. However, some of these also possess traits that suggest they could become invasive. To make a preliminary assessment of the...

  12. Protein domain evolution is associated with reproductive diversification and adaptive radiation in the genus Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Anna R; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Myburg, Alexander A

    2015-06-01

    Eucalyptus is a pivotal genus within the rosid order Myrtales with distinct geographic history and adaptations. Comparative analysis of protein domain evolution in the newly sequenced Eucalyptus grandis genome and other rosid lineages sheds light on the adaptive mechanisms integral to the success of this genus of woody perennials. We reconstructed the ancestral domain content to elucidate the gain, loss and expansion of protein domains and domain arrangements in Eucalyptus in the context of rosid phylogeny. We used functional gene ontology (GO) annotation of genes to investigate the possible biological and evolutionary consequences of protein domain expansion. We found that protein modulation within the angiosperms occurred primarily on the level of expansion of certain domains and arrangements. Using RNA-Seq data from E. grandis, we showed that domain expansions have contributed to tissue-specific expression of tandemly duplicated genes. Our results indicate that tandem duplication of genes, a key feature of the Eucalyptus genome, has played an important role in the expansion of domains, particularly in proteins related to the specialization of reproduction and biotic and abiotic interactions affecting root and floral biology, and that tissue-specific expression of proteins with expanded domains has facilitated subfunctionalization in domain families. © 2014 University of Pretoria New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Production of cellulose nanofibrils from bleached eucalyptus fibers by hyperthermostable endoglucanase treatment and subsequent microfluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangxia Wang; Michael D. Mozuch; Ronald C. Sabo; Phil Kersten; J.Y. Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2015-01-01

    A GH5 hyperthermostable endoglucanase from the archaeon Pyrococcus honkoshii (ph-GH5) and a commercial endoglucanase FR were used to treat bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) through subsequent microfluidization Enzymatic treatments facilitated CNF production due to the reduced degree of polymerization (DP)...

  14. Aggregate Stability of Tropical Soils Under Long-Term Eucalyptus Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in all Brazilian regions. Despite the large amount of cultivated area, little is known about how this kind of management system affects soil properties, mainly the aggregate stability. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a sensitive tool to measure soi...

  15. Pretreatment of eucalyptus with recycled ionic liquids for low-cost biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jikun; Liu, Bingchuan; Hou, Huijie; Hu, Jingping

    2017-06-01

    It is urgent to develop recycled ionic liquids (ILs) as green solvents for sustainable biomass pretreatment. The goal of this study is to explore the availability and performance of reusing 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([amim]Cl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim]OAc) for pretreatment, structural evolution, and enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus. Cellulose enzymatic digestibility slightly decreased with the increased number of pretreatment recycles. The hydrolysis efficiencies of eucalyptus pretreated via 4th recycled ILs were 54.3% for [amim]Cl and 72.8% for [bmim]OAc, which were 5.0 and 6.7-folds higher than that of untreated eucalyptus. Deteriorations of ILs were observed by the relatively lower sugar conversion and lignin removal from eucalyptus after 4th reuse. No appreciable changes in fundamental framework and thermal stability of [amim]Cl were observed even after successive pretreatments, whereas the anionic structure of [bmim]OAc was destroyed or replaced. This study suggested that the biomass pretreatment with recycled ILs was a potential alternative for low-cost biorefinery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating potential changes in fire risk from Eucalyptus plantings in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2012-01-01

    Renewed interest in short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and bioproducts has prompted a reevaluation of the Eucalyptus species for the southern United States. One question that arises about the potential effects of introducing a nonnative species is what effect will there be on fire behavior. Our approximate answer based on modeling fire behavior...

  17. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  18. Solution blow spun nanocomposites of poly(lactic acid)/cellulose nanocrystals from Eucalyptus kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were extracted from Eucalyptus kraft pulp by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and esterified with maleic anhydride (CNCMA). The incorporation of sulfate ester groups on the cellulose surface resulted in higher stability of the nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions and lower the...

  19. Heartwood and sapwood in eucalyptus trees: non-conventional approach to wood quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherelli, Sabrina G; Sartori, Maria Márcia P; Próspero, André G; Ballarin, Adriano W

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of heartwood and sapwood from mature trees of three species of Eucalyptus, by means of the qualification of their proportion, determination of basic and apparent density using non-destructive attenuation of gamma radiation technique and calculation of the density uniformity index. Six trees of each species (Eucalyptus grandis - 18 years old, Eucalyptus tereticornis - 35 years old and Corymbia citriodora - 28 years old) were used in the experimental program. The heartwood and sapwood were delimited by macroscopic analysis and the calculation of areas and percentage of heartwood and sapwood were performed using digital image. The uniformity index was calculated following methodology which numerically quantifies the dispersion of punctual density values of the wood around the mean density along the radius. The percentage of the heartwood was higher than the sapwood in all species studied. The density results showed no statistical difference between heartwood and sapwood. Differently from the density results, in all species studied there was statistical differences between uniformity indexes for heartwood and sapwood regions, making justifiable the inclusion of the density uniformity index as a quality parameter for Eucalyptus wood.

  20. Dissolution of South African Eucalyptus sawdust wood in [Emim][OAc]/Co-solvent mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tywabi, Zikhona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of obtaining wood cellulose by dissolution of eucalyptus sawdust in a mixture of ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] together with co-solvents; dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulphoxide...

  1. Production and development of eucalyptus seedlings in function of doses of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Tertulino Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of phosphorus (P on the survival in the nursery and early development in the field of clonal Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and five replicates of 30 plants per replicate. At the end of the cycle (90 days, 15 seedlings were used for determining the dry matter accumulation and nutrient concentration in the shoot. The rest was planted in the field to determine the percentage of survival and early development. The treatments consisted of four doses of P fertilization (0.0, 1.3, 2.6 and 5.2 mg plant-1. To obtain high quality seedlings in conditions similar to this experiment it is required doses of P in the range from 3.6 to 3.8 mg plant-1. Doses greater than 4 mg plant-1 affect the development and quality of eucalyptus seedlings. An adequate phosphorus fertilization of eucalyptus seedlings increase, by about 30%, the percentage of surviving seedlings in the field.

  2. MANEJO DO SOLO E CRESCIMENTO INICIAL DE Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden EM ARGISSOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Prevedello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forest species cultivation with rapid growth in Brazil has increased, mainly due to the diverse use of its wood and climate adaptation. The cultivation with minimum tillage in the forest sector stands out a way to increase productivity, combined with the maintenance of biodiversity and soil conservation. This study was conducted at the experimental area of State Foundation for Agricultural Research - Research Center for Forestry in Santa Maria - RS, with aimed to evaluate the effect of the soil tillage methods on soil physical properties and on initial development of Eucalyptus grandis, in a sandy loam Typic Hapludalf. Four soil management practices were compared: no-tillage; chisel tillage; chisel tillage plus harrowing and; rotary tillage (rotary tiller, installed in a randomized block design with three replications. The soil under no-tillage conditioned lower initial growth of eucalyptus due higher soil penetration resistance and bulk density, when compared with treatments with mobilization. The root distribution analysis in soil, despite being a qualitative method, was effective in demonstrating the effect of soil tillage for the Eucalyptus grandis plantation. The soil tillage with mobilization resulted in a higher initial growth of Eucalyptus grandis. The chisel tillage effects in the soil physical properties persisted after one year of soil tillage.

  3. Comparison of Fractionation Techniques of CO2 Extracts from Eucalyptus Globulus - Composition and Insecticidal Activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topiař, Martin; Sajfrtová, Marie; Pavela, R.; Machalová, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 97, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 202-210 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fractinacion * eucalyptus globulus * insecticidal activity Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry , Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2015

  4. A survey of cossid moth attack in Eucalyptus nitens on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During July 2004, an infestation of an unknown larval insect in ten- year and older Eucalyptus nitens was reported on the Mpumalanga highveld of South Africa. Samples of wood containing larvae were collected from the field and taken to the Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria. The adult ...

  5. Establishment of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden in vitro using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden in vitro using commercial products for seed treatment. Moacir Ribeiro Neto, Cíntia de Oliveira Martendal, Flávia Dionísio Pereira, Edson Luiz Souchie, Fabiano Guimarães Silva ...

  6. Managing for water-use efficient wood production in Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. White; John F. McGrath; Michael G. Ryan; Michael Battaglia; Daniel S. Mendham; Joe Kinal; Geoffrey M. Downes; D. Stuart Crombie; Mark E. Hunt

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that thinning and nitrogen fertiliser can increase the mass of wood produced per volume of water used (evapotranspiration) by plantations of Eucalyptus globulus. We have called this plantation water productivity (PWPWOOD) and argue that, for a given genotype, this term integrates the effects of management, site and climate on both...

  7. SHEAR STRENGTH IN THE GLUE LINE OF Eucalyptus sp. AND Pinus sp.WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate the adhesive efficiency on the union of glued joints in a particular temperature and humidity conditions for a specified time the adhesive must be submitted to specific load tests, such as shear in the glue line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shear strength in the glue line of Eucalyptus sp and Pinus sp.woods. Five adhesives (castor oil, sodium silicate, modified silicate, , PVA and resorcinol-formaldehyde, three weights (150 g/m2, 200 g/m2, and 250 g/m2 and two species (Eucalyptus sp. and Pinus sp. of wood were used. Twelve specimens were obtained from each repetition per treatment, corresponding to 108 specimens that were conditioned at a temperature of 23 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 50 ± 2%. The interaction between the weight and type of adhesive was significant for the shear strength in the glue line of eucalyptus wood. However, no interaction between the weight and the adhesive was found for pinus, only the isolated from the adhesive effect. Chemical bonds originated in the polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives and castor bi-component conferred upon these adhesives the greatest resistance in the glue line. Castor and resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives showed the highest shear strength values in the line of glue and wood failure. Castor adhesive presented satisfactory performance for bonding of eucalyptus and pine woods.

  8. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  9. Determination of chemical elements in Eucalyptus grandis, manured with Ballad's, by neutrons activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Natalina de Fatima; Madi Filho, Tufic

    2007-01-01

    The biosolid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown in to sanitary lands, in forest cultures like the Eucalyptus grandis. The objective of this work was to detect which chemical elements are present in Eucalyptus grandis samples, fertilized with different quantities of biosolid. The eucalyptuses of Estacao Experimental de Ciencias Florestais of Itatinga were planted in March of 1998 and collected with five years old. The used biosolid was produced by Station of Treatment of Sewer of Barueri - SP, classified as kind B. For the determination of the presence and quantity of chemical elements in the eucalyptus samples, an analysis technique by neutronic activation (NAA) was used followed by gamma rays spectroscopy. The samples were irradiated in the Nuclear Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-SP, followed by the measure of induced gamma rays activity, using a Detector HPGe. The presence, mainly of Br, Mn, Na and K, was detected in all analyzed samples. (author)

  10. Effects of an inducible aiiA gene on disease resistance in Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, L J; Li, L M

    2016-08-01

    N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are metabolites of mostly gram-negative bacteria and are critical signaling molecules in bacterial quorum-sensing systems. At threshold concentrations, AHLs can activate the expression of pathogenic genes and induce diseases. Therefore, reducing AHL concentrations is a key point of disease control in plants. AHL-lactonase, which is expressed by aiiA, is widespread in Bacillus sp and can hydrolyze AHLs. In the present study, we cloned aiiA from Bacillus subtilis by PCR. A plant expression vector of aiiA was constructed and name Pcam-PPP3-aiiA, in which expression of aiiA was controlled by the pathogen-inducible plant promoter PPP3. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into Eucalyptus × urophylla × E. grandis by an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PCR and Southern blotting showed that aiiA was successfully integrated into the E. urophylla × E. grandis genome and its expression was induced by Ralstonia solanacearum 12 h after inoculation, as shown by reverse transcription-PCR. The transcription efficacy of aiiA increased 43.88-, 30.65-, and 18.95-fold after inoculation with R. solanacearum, Erwinia carotovora ssp. zeae (Sabet) and Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum, respectively as shown by RT-real-time PCR. Transgenic E.urophylla × E.grandis expressing the AIIA protein exhibited significantly enhanced disease resistance compared to non-transgenic plants by delaying the onset of wilting and reducing the disease index.

  11. Torrefaction of wood and bark from Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus nitens: Focus on volatile evolution vs feasible temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga-Pérez, Luis E.; Segura, Cristina; Bustamante-García, Verónica; Gómez Cápiro, Oscar; Jiménez, Romel

    2015-01-01

    Torrefaction is a thermal pretreatment leading to the improvement of most of the fuel properties of biomass, namely energy density, HHV (higher heating value), grindability and hydrophobicity. The aim of this study is to identify the most feasible temperature to carry out torrefaction of Eucalyptus globulus and nitens, based on chemical evidences associated to the release of volatiles during thermal treatment of biomass. With that end: (i) Devolatilization kinetics, (ii) Effects of temperature and residence time and (iii) volatiles composition during torrefaction of both wood and bark were analyzed. In all cases DTG (derivative thermogravimetric curves) exhibited the typical shape of lignocellulosic materials, with three decomposition phases and two reaction zones. Values of activation energies for hemicellulose decomposition, were in agreement with those reported in the literature (121–170 kJ/mol). Carboxylic acids, water and phenolic compounds showed two peaks, which were associated to torrefaction (below 310 °C) and pyrolysis (310–410 °C) respectively. The most feasible temperatures for torrefaction were estimated as a function of these peaks, and it ranged between 295 °C and 310°C for all samples. Main volatile species at the torrefaction peaks were distributed as Water > Acetic Acid > CO_2 > Others, while Levoglucosan formation was marginal, due to the catalytic effect of inorganics. - Highlights: • Identification of torrefaction peaks for E. globulus and E. nitens using dynamic TGA-MS. • Devolatilization kinetics of E. globulus and E. nitens (wood and bark). • Effect of operation parameters on torrefaction of E. globulus and E. nitens. • Most feasible temperatures for torrefaction based on chemical and thermal evidences. • Definition of atomic indicator to estimate degradation degree based on TGA-MS.

  12. Phytotoxic activity and chemical composition of aqueous volatile fractions from Eucalyptus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.. The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species.

  13. Isolation and molecular characterization of Cryptococcus species isolated from pigeon nests and Eucalyptus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Sepahvand, A; Mohammadi, R

    2017-06-01

    Cryptococcus species are pathogenic and non-pathogenic basidiomycete yeasts that are found widely in the environment. Based on phenotypic methods, this genus has many species; however, its taxonomy is presently being re-evaluated by modern techniques. The Cryptococcus species complex includes two sibling taxa of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii . We aimed to investigate the possible distribution of Cryptococcus species in pigeon nests and Eucalyptus trees in Ilam, Iran, using molecular techniques. Two hundred and seventy-four specimens were collected from pigeon nests and Eucalyptus trees during 2016-2017. All the specimens were sub-cultured on Sabouraud Glucose Agar with chloramphenicol and bird seed agar. For molecular identification, the ITS15.8SITS2 rDNA region was amplified using the first and fourth internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and ITS4, respectively) primers. The purified products were applied for cycle sequencing reactions in forward direction with ITS1 primer. The obtained results were analyzed with Chromas 2.3. Thirty-three out of 186 cultures (17.7%) and 11 out of 88 cultures (12.5%) were positive among pigeon nest and Eucalyptus tree specimens, respectively. Cryptococcus albidus (17.2%), C. albidus var. kuetzingii (3.4%), C. adeliensis (3.4%), C. uzbekistanensis (3.4%), and C. neoformans var. grubii (3.4%) were isolated from pigeon nests, and Cryptococcus adeliensis (25%) was the only Cryptococcus species isolated from Eucalyptus trees. The presence of pigeons and Eucalyptus trees in the vicinity of some particular places such as rest homes and hospitals should be considered as a risk factor for the immunocompromised population.

  14. Phytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Aqueous Volatile Fractions from Eucalyptus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, De Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species. PMID:24681490

  15. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carolina G; Reigosa, Manuel J; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Pedrol, Nuria

    2018-01-01

    In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids) were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus aqueous extract

  16. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina G Puig

    Full Text Available In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus

  17. Unravelling the bioherbicide potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill: Biochemistry and effects of its aqueous extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigosa, Manuel J.; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.

    2018-01-01

    In the worldwide search for new strategies in sustainable weed management, the use of plant species able to produce and release phytotoxic compounds into the environment could be an effective alternative to synthetic herbicides. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. is known to be a source of biologically active compounds responsible for its phytotoxic and allelopathic properties. Our previous results demonstrated the bioherbicide potential of eucalyptus leaves incorporated into the soil as a green manure, probably through the release of phytotoxins into the soil solution. Thus, the aims of this study were to understand the phytotoxicity of the eucalyptus leaves aqueous extract applied in pre- and post-emergence, and to identify and quantify its potentially phytotoxic water-soluble compounds. The effects were tested on the germination and early growth of the model target species Lactuca sativa and Agrostis stolonifera, and on physiological parameters of L. sativa adult plants after watering or spraying application. Dose-response curves and ED50 and ED80 values for eucalyptus aqueous extracts revealed pre-emergence inhibitory effects on both target species, effects being comparable to the herbicide metolachlor. While spraying treatment reduced the aerial and root biomass and increased the dry weight/fresh weight ratio of lettuce adult plants, watering application reduced protein contents and chlorophyll concentrations with respect to control, reflecting different modes of action depending on the site of phytotoxin entry. Via HPLC analyses, a total of 8 phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, two ρ-coumaric derivatives, ellagic, hyperoside, rutin, quercitrin, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside) and other 5 low weight organic acids (citric, malic, shikimic, succinic and fumaric acids) were obtained from aqueous extract, the latter being identified for the first time in E. globulus. Despite some phytotoxic effects were found on lettuce adult plants, the use of eucalyptus aqueous extract

  18. Antibacterial activity and composition of the essential oils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Water-distilled essential oils from leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Myrtus communis L., collected ... volatile oils, tannins, sugars, flavonoids and organic acids such as .... in the chemical composition of myrtle oil.

  19. prerequisites for biocrops up-scaling ii: an assessment of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    potting media i.e. forest top soil, sandy, clay and loamy soil. ... chemical properties and thereby increasing the penetrating capacity of ... resulted in the luxurious growth of plants. (Neelam ..... Eucalyptus camaldulensis Seedlings to. Different ...

  20. Influence of Compression Stresses on Timber Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus camaldulensis Denhn in North-Western Nigeria. *1A. ... further research should be carried out on wood in service to study the peculiarities of timber behaviour under actual .... eastern Nigeria, Neem (Azadirachta indica) was found.

  1. Stimulatory effect of eucalyptus essential oil on the germination and early growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Efeito estimulante do óleo essencial de eucalipto na germinação e crescimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of essential oil and extracts from plants is becoming an efficient alternative in the biostimulation on growth and protection of plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of leaf essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis on the germination and the  development of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in nursery conditions. The eucalyptus seeds were exposed to the concentrations of 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 μL L-1 of the essential oil in controlled conditions. The eucalyptus seedlings were sprayed with 0, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 μL L-1 of the essential oil per plant, at intervals of seven days. The effect of this application on the seedling development were analyzed after 30 and 60 days. The results show that the germination was significantly higher when the seeds were exposed to 25 μL L-1 of the essential oil. The application of essential oil in the concentration of 30 and 40 μL L-1 provided higher growth of the aerial part and of the roots in greenhouse conditions, being an effective alternative to biostimulation the vegetative growth of eucalyptus seedlings.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.199

    A utilização de extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas vem sendo uma alternativa eficiente no bioestímulo do crescimento e proteção vegetal. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a utilização do óleo essencial extraído de folhas de Eucalyptus grandis sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de eucalipto em condições controladas, em casa de vegetação. Sementes de eucalipto foram incubadas em  concentrações de 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 e 100 μL L-1 do óleo essencial em ambiente controlado.  Posteriormente, pulverizou-se plântulas de eucalipto com 0, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 μL L-1 do óleo essencial por planta, em intervalos de sete dias. Avaliou-se o efeito do óleo sobre o desenvolvimento vegetal aos 30 e 60 dias após o transplante. Os resultados evidenciam que a germinação foi significativamente maior

  2. Investigation of ESEM/EDX to measure liquor penetration and diffusion in Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grzeskowiak, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (ESEM/EDX) was optimised to measure the penetration and diffusion of cooking liquor into Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping. The moisture content...

  3. DENSIDADE BÁSICA E RETRATIBILIDADE DA MADEIRA DE CLONES DE TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the planted forests that supply the national wood industry, the genus Eucalyptus has become the most important, due to its fast growth, ease of large scale planting and variability of wood use. The generation of new hybrids and clones is a reality in the national practice of silviculture, and there is great interest currently in finding genetic improvements, mainly for higher volumetric gains and resistance in rough conditions of planting, such as pest attacks, periods of drought, low soil fertility, etc. The basic density is one of the most important physical properties of wood because it relates directly to other properties, including the anisotropic shrinkage. Such properties indicate the rational use of a species in a certain wood product. The aim of this work was to determine the basic density and the anisotropic shrinkage of five wood clones for each one of the following species: Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii. Clone 5 of Eucalyptus saligna presented the highest basic density (0.56 g/cm³ and was the most dimensionally instable. Of all the species, there was only a direct relation among basic density, maximum volumetric shrinkage and maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient in this clone. Considering maximum volumetric shrinkage as the criterion, clone 3 was the most dimensionally stable. Clones 2 and 3 of Eucalyptus grandis presented the least and the highest basic density, respectively, with 0.40 and 0.49 g/cm³. It was not possible to distinguish among clones 1, 3 and 4 in terms of dimensional stability, and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, clone 5 was the most dimensionally instable. For Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii it was not possible to distinguish which clone presented the least basic density. Clone 3 of Eucalyptus dunnii presented the highest basic density (0.65 g/cm³ and considering maximum volumetric shrinkage coefficient as the criterion, it

  4. Zoneamento das forrageiras cultivadas nos estabelecimentos rurais do município de Catolé do Rocha, PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia da Silva Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar as espécies que compõem o suporte forrageiro nos estabelecimentos rurais do município de Catolé do Rocha-PB, e as técnicas de manejo adotadas para manutenção das pastagens. Foi aplicado um questionário composto de 25 perguntas, dividido em duas partes. As propriedades escolhidas para a amostragem foram o Sítio Catolé de Baixo, Mapirunga, Boa Água, Cajueiro, Bom Nome e Capim Açú. Os dados de cunho social dos entrevistados mostraram que 100% são do sexo masculino, com idade variando entre 24 a 70 anos, sendo que 82,35% dos entrevistados residem na zona rural. Foi observado que os mesmos trabalham com agropecuária e menos de 90% são casados com 3 a 4 filhos, onde 80% da mão de obra utilizada na propriedade são de base familiar.  Do total de produtores 94,11% são proprietários de terras e 5,88% posseiro, com área total dos estabelecimentos variando de 1,5 a 50ha, ou seja, 80% das propriedades tem área inferior a 10ha e 20% tem área maior que 10ha e menor que 100ha. Todos os entrevistados cultivam alguma espécie forrageira em áreas que variavam de 1,0 a 23,5 ha e preservam área com vegetação nativa. As principais forrageiras cultivadas nas propriedades são cactáceas, gramíneas e leguminosas. Os sistemas de criação que predominam são extensivo e semi-intensivo. Os animais que utilizam as pastagens são equinos, muares, bovinos e ovinos em sistema de pastejo. Dentre as espécies de maior produção e adaptada o sorgo e a palma são as mais produtivas e resistentes. é de grande importância incentivar a conservação de forragem, seja por meio da ensilagem ou fenação, com o objetivo de diminuir a utilização de alimentos concentrados. Os produtores têm conhecimento das espécies que são mais produtivas e adaptadas às condições de semiaridez da região. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Suficiência amostral para alface cultivada em diferentes ambientes Sample sufficiency for lettuce grown in different environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar o tamanho de amostra para alface cultivada em diferentes ambientes, foram conduzidos quatro cultivos com alface, dois deles foram realizados no ano de 2007, com a cultivar 'Vera', e dois foram realizados no ano de 2008, com a cultivar 'Amanda'. Os ambientes em 2007 foram estufa e a campo, e em 2008 foram estufa e túnel. Em ambos os anos de cultivo, foram avaliadas a fitomassa fresca e fitomassa seca. Para cada variável, em cada linha de cultivo, foram estimadas a média, a variância e o coeficiente de variação. Para testar a homogeneidade das variâncias entre as linhas, aplicou-se o teste de Bartlett, a 5% de significância. Nos casos em que as variâncias das linhas foram homogêneas, calculou-se um CV% médio para cada ambiente e este foi utilizado para o cálculo do tamanho de amostra. Nos casos em que as variâncias foram heterogêneas, utilizou-se o maior CV% do ambiente para o cálculo do tamanho da amostra. Os resultados mostraram que, em 40% dos experimentos, quando a variável foi a fitomassa fresca, e em 60%, quando foi a seca, os diferentes ambientes de produção proporcionaram variabilidades significativamente diferentes entre as linhas de cultivo. Foi possível determinar que, com a semiamplitude do intervalo de confiança de 10%, devem ser amostradas 30, 40 e 33 plantas na linha de cultivo, na estufa, no túnel e a campo respectivamente, para a fitomassa fresca das plantas. Já para a fitomassa seca das plantas devem ser amostradas 27, 29 e 32 plantas, respectivamente, para estufa, túnel e campo.The aim of this study was to estimate the sample size for lettuce cultivated in different environments, and for this four lettuce crops were cultivated. Two of them were conducted in 2007, with the cultivar Vera and two in 2008 with the cultivar 'Amanda'. The environments in 2007 were greenhouse and field and in 2008, greenhouse and tunnel. In both years of cultivation the fresh biomass and dry weight were

  6. Supply chain optimization of sugarcane first generation and eucalyptus second generation ethanol production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, J.G.G.; Junginger, H.M.; Verstegen, J.A.; Lin, T.; Rodríguez, L.F.; Ting, K.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hilst, F. van der

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal location & scale of ethanol plants for expansion in Goiás until 2030. • Ethanol costs from sugarcane vary between 710 and 752 US$/m"3 in 2030. • For eucalyptus-based ethanol production costs vary between 543 and 560 US$/m"3 in 2030. • System-wide optimization has a marginal impact on overall production costs. • The overall GHG emission intensity is mainly impacted by former land use. - Abstract: The expansion of the ethanol industry in Brazil faces two important challenges: to reduce total ethanol production costs and to limit the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity of the ethanol produced. The objective of this study is to economically optimize the scale and location of ethanol production plants given the expected expansion of biomass supply regions. A linear optimization model is utilized to determine the optimal location and scale of sugarcane and eucalyptus industrial processing plants given the projected spatial distribution of the expansion of biomass production in the state of Goiás between 2012 and 2030. Three expansion approaches evaluated the impact on ethanol production costs of expanding an existing industry in one time step (one-step), or multiple time steps (multi-step), or constructing a newly emerging ethanol industry in Goiás (greenfield). In addition, the GHG emission intensity of the optimized ethanol supply chains are calculated. Under the three expansion approaches, the total ethanol production costs of sugarcane ethanol decrease from 894 US$/m"3 ethanol in 2015 to 752, 715, and 710 US$/m"3 ethanol in 2030 for the multi-step, one step and greenfield expansion respectively. For eucalyptus, ethanol production costs decrease from 635 US$/m"3 in 2015 to 560 and 543 US$/m"3 in 2030 for the multi-step and one-step approach. A general trend is the use of large scale industrial processing plants, especially towards 2030 due to increased biomass supply. We conclude that a system-wide optimization as a marginal

  7. Main lepidopteran pest species from an eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha V Zanuncio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera species were monitored in a plantation of Eucalyptus grandis in the Municipality of Bom Despacho, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil from March 1987 to February 1992. A total of 547 species were collected and divided in: primary pests: 13; secondary pests: 20; species without defined importance to eucalyptus: 79; and non-identified species: 435. These four groups had a mean of 5231.29; 338.18; 438.16 and 2222.87 individuals with a total of 8229.87 individuals collected per trap. The number of species without defined importance to eucalyptus, and non-identified species, increased during the collecting period of five years while those of primary and secondary pests showed similar numbers in all years. The most collected primary pests Thyrinteina arnobia Stoll and Stenalcidia sp. (Geometridae showed higher frequencies during the driest and coldest periods of the year, whereas Psorocampa denticulata Schaus (Notodontidae was most frequent during periods of higher rainfall. Species of groups III and IV increased in diversity with eucalyptus age. This area has a high probability of outbreaks of eucalyptus defoliating caterpillars, especially T. arnobia. For this reason, lepidopteran pests should be monitored in this plantation during the driest and coldest periods of the year, when they can reach population peaks. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 553-560. Epub 2006 Jun 01.De marzo de 1987 a febrero de 1992 se realizó un monitoreo con trampas luminosas en plantaciones de Eucalyptus grandis en Bom Despacho, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Se recolectaron 547 especies del orden Lepidoptera: plagas primarias: 13; plagas secundarias: 20; especies sin importancia definida para el cultivo de eucalipto: 79; y especies no identificadas: 435. Estos cuatro grupos tuvieron medias de 5231.29; 338,18; 438.16 y 2222.87 individuos por trampa respectivamente, para un total de 8229.87 lepidopteros recolectados por trampa. Durante los cinco años hubo un aumento del número de

  8. Targeting oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase, proinflammatory cytokine, dopamine and GABA by eucalyptus oil (Eucalyptus globulus) to alleviate ketamine-induced psychosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monu; Jindal, Deepak Kumar; Parle, Milind; Kumar, Anil; Dhingra, Sameer

    2018-02-20

    Essential oil of eucalyptus species is among the most common traded essential oils in the world. There is an increasing interest in the application of eucalyptus oil as a natural additive in food and pharmaceutical industry. The present study was undertaken to identify the phytoconstituents present in the essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus leaves (EO) and ascertain their protective effect against ketamine-induced psychosis in rats. GC-MS technique was used for analysis of phytoconstituents present in EO. Ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce psychosis in rats. Photoactometer, forced swim test and pole climb avoidance test were used to evaluate the protective effects of the EO (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, p.o.) on acute and chronic administration. Bar test was used to test the side effect of EO. Biochemical and neurochemical estimations were carried out to explore the possible mechanism of action. GC-MS analysis of EO showed the presence of a number of biologically active compounds. EO at the dose of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, p.o. on acute and chronic administration, decreased locomotor activity, immobility duration and latency to climb the pole. EO was effective to facilitate the release of GABA, increase GSH levels, inhibit dopamine neurotransmission and decrease TNF-α levels as well as diminish AChE activity in different regions of the brain. EO at the dose of 500, 1000 mg/kg did not produce cataleptic behavior in rats. EO at the dose of 500, 1000 mg/kg produced protective effects against ketamine-induced psychosis and can be further explored clinically against neuropsychiatric disorders.

  9. Produtividade de vinagreira, pimenta rosa e carobinha cultivadas em sucessão a mucuna preta e feijão de porco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. MOREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O uso de adubos verdes e/ou de plantas de cobertura é uma técnica que vem sendo difundida para o cultivo de espécies medicinais, por garantir a sustentabilidade do solo agrícola, ser flexível em seu uso e por melhorar a atividade biológica do solo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o uso de culturas de cobertura para incrementar a produção de massa de plantas de vinagreira, pimenta rosa e carobinha. Foram avaliadas duas espécies de leguminosas tropicais (mucuna preta e feijão de porco como cobertura do solo e uma testemunha (sem cultura de cobertura e três espécies medicinais (vinagreira, pimenta rosa e carobinha. O experimento foi arranjado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas as coberturas vegetais e nas subparcelas, as plantas medicinais. As plantas para a cobertura vegetal foram propagadas por semeadura direta no local de cultivo, enquanto as medicinais foram transplantadas diretamente entre a palhada da cobertura vegetal. A produção da mucuna preta foi de 8,37 t ha-1 de massa seca e do feijão de porco, de 14,37 t ha-1 de massa seca. O uso das culturas de cobertura contribuiu para uma maior biomassa microbiana do solo. As produções de massas frescas de folhas, caules e frutos de vinagreira e de frutos da pimenta rosa foram maiores quando cultivadas em sucessão às coberturas vegetais do solo, independente da espécie. As produções da carobinha foram semelhantes quando cultivadas em áreas com ou sem a cobertura. Visando à maior produtividade da vinagreira e pimenta rosa, são indicadas as culturas antecessoras feijão de porco e mucuna preta.

  10. Modelos de predição para sobrevivência de plantas de Eucalyptus grandis Prediction models of Eucalyptus grandis plant survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telde Natel Custódio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho comparar modelos de predição de plantas sobreviventes de Eucalyptus grandis. Utilizaram-se os seguintes modelos: modelo linear misto com os dados transformados, utilizando-se as transformações angular e BOX-COX; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição binomial e funções de ligação logística, probit e complemento log-log; modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica. Os dados são provenientes de um experimento em blocos ao acaso, para avaliação de progênies maternas de Eucalyptus grandis, aos 5 anos de idade, em que a variável resposta são plantas sobreviventes. Para comparação dos efeitos entre os modelos foram estimadas as correlações de Spearman e aplicado o teste de permutação de Fisher. Foi possível concluir que, o modelo linear generalizado misto com distribuição Poisson e função de ligação logarítmica se ajustou mal aos dados e que as estimativas para os efeitos fixos e predição para os efeitos aleatórios, não se diferenciaram entre os demais modelos estudados.The objective of this work was to compare models for prediction of the survival of plants of Eucalyptus grandis. The following models were used: linear mixed model with the transformed data, by utilizing the angular transformations and BOX-COX; generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution and logistic functions, probit and complement log-log links; generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and logarithmic link function. The data came from a randomized block experiment for evaluation of Eucalyptus grandis maternal progenies at five years old, in which the variable response are surviving plants. For comparison of the effects among the models the correlations of Spearman were estimated and the test of permutation of Fisher was applied. It was possible to conclude that: the generalized linear mixed model with Poisson distribution and

  11. Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species associated with Mycosphaerella Leaf Disease on Eucalyptus globulus in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M. C.; Machado, H. N.; Neves, L.; Araujo, C.; Phillips, J. L.

    2012-11-01

    Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus represent the main source of wood for the pulp and paper industry in Portugal and are affected by the complex of Mycosphaerella and Teratosphaeria species (Mycosphaerella leaf disease), which is an important foliage disease worldwide. This disease affect mainly young trees with juvenile-phase foliage, causing premature defoliation, decreased growth and wood production. Species of Mycosphaerella sensu lato reported on eucalypts in Portugal are M. communis, M. heimii, M. lateralis, M. madeirae, M. marksii M. walkeri, T. africana, T. molleriana, T. nubilosa and T. parva. In order to complete the survey, symptomatic leaves were collected from Eucalyptus globulus plantations. Morphological and molecular characterization was used to give an indication of the species occurrence and most frequent species (T. nubilosa) and the composition of the MLD complex that did not change after the latest review. (Author) 28 refs.

  12. Production and characterization of MDF using eucalyptus fibers and castor oil-based polyurethane resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Cristiane Inácio de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of wooden panels renders this market segment increasingly competitive. MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, in particular, is widely employed for a variety of applications, including civil construction, furniture, and packaging. This paper discusses a study of MDF produced from alternative raw materials, i.e., Eucalyptus fibers and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin. Physical and mechanical tests were performed to determine the MDF's modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in static bending tests, its swelling, water absorption, moisture and density. The results of the physical and mechanical characterization of this laboratory-produced MDF are discussed and compared with the Euro MDF Board standard. MDF produced with eucalyptus fiber and castor-oil-based polyurethane resin presents results very satisfactory.

  13. Curaua and eucalyptus nanofibers films by continuous casting: Mechanical and thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Pedro Ivo Cunha; Corrêa, Ana Carolina; de Campos, Adriana; Rodrigues, Vanessa Bolzan; Luchesi, Bruno Ribeiro; Silva, Luiz Eduardo; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Marconcini, José Manoel

    2018-02-01

    A wide variety of new green materials such as curaua leaf fibers (CLFs) has potential applications in nanotechnology. This study aims to investigate the thermomechanical properties and morphological structure of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) films obtained by continuous casting. The CNCs were obtained by acid hydrolysis and CNFs by mechanical shearing from bleached CLFs and eucalyptus pulp. The morphology after continuous casting resulted in oriented nanofibers, and as a consequence there was mechanical anisotropy. CNCs films showed the greatest values of tensile strength (36±4MPa) and the more effective fibrillation provided better mechanical strength of eucalyptus CNFs films than curaua CNFs films. Sulfur groups and mechanical shear degradation affected the stability of CNCs and CNFs films, respectively. Thus, the type of nanostructure, the way they interact to each other, the cellulose source and the process interfere significantly on the properties of the films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heat capacity of a white-eucalyptus biocarbon template for SiC/Si ecoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnova, I. A.; Wlosewicz, D.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Mucha, J.; de Arellano-Lopez, A. R.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Varela-Feria, F. M.; Krivchikov, A. I.

    2006-11-01

    The heat capacity C p of a biocarbon template based on white eucalyptus wood is measured at a constant pressure in the temperature range T = 3.5 300 K. The phonon mean free path l for a white-eucalyptus biocarbon template is calculated from the measured dependence C p (T) and data available in the literature on the phonon thermal conductivity and velocity of sound. It is established that, in the range 100 300 K, the phonon mean free path l is nearly constant and equal to ˜13 Å. This value is close to the smallest size of graphite-like crystallites (˜12 Å), which was derived earlier from x-ray diffraction data for a quasi-amorphous biocarbon template.

  15. Application of Alkaline Ionic Liquids in the Pretreatment Process of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the potential application of green solvent ionic liquids (ILs in the kraft pulping process, eucalyptus wood was pretreated by [Mmim]DMP before normal pulping. The results showed that materials pretreated shortly by the ionic liquid had a higher yield and viscosity coupled with a lower potassium permanganate value and residual lignin content in the pulp, as a result of the cooking process. It was also inferred that alkaline [Mmim]DMP pretreatment could dissolve lignin effectively from fiber to result in a stronger binding force and more entangled properties. Paper tensile and burst strength were improved by about 40% and 60%, respectively. These results provide a new way for eucalyptus to be utilized in the kraft pulping process.

  16. Performance and Emission of VCR-CI Engine with palm kernel and eucalyptus blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas kommana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at complete replacement of conventional diesel fuel by biodiesel. In order to achieve that, palm kernel oil and eucalyptus oil blend has been chosen. Eucalyptus oil was blended with methyl ester of palm kernel oil in 5%, 10% and 15% by volume. Tests were conducted with diesel fuel and blends on a 4 stroke VCR diesel engine for comparative analysis with 220 bar injection pressure and 19:1 compression ratio. All the test fuels were used in computerized 4 stroke single cylinder variable compression ratio engine at five different loads (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 N m. Present investigation depicts the improved combustion and reduced emissions for the PKO85% + EuO15% blend when compared to diesel at full load conditions.

  17. Sorption of U(VI) and Am(III) on Eucalyptus Biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vijayakriti; Sureshkumar, M.K.; Kaushik, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is partially oxidized residues from substrates of biological origin. Due to their binding properties with various organic and inorganic pollutants, these materials are widely studied for pollutant abatement both in field studies and laboratory investigations. Though large quantity of information is available on the use of biochar of various origin for heavy metals, studies pertaining to their use in radionuclide sorption are scarce in literature. Here we are reporting the sorption characteristics of U(VI) and Am(III) on to eucalyptus biochar as a function of various operating parameters such as solution pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time and ionic strength of the medium. Overall the present studies shows that eucalyptus biochar is a suitable sorbent for the sorption of heavy radionuclides from aqueous solutions

  18. CERAMBYCIDAE BEETLES ASSOCIATED TO Eucalyptus spp. IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF PINHEIRO MACHADO, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderlei Bernardi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to collect, identify and carry out a faunistic characterization of Cerambycidae occurring in a forest of Eucalyptus spp., on São Manoel farm, in the municipality of Pinheiro Machado, RS. In the period from February 2006 to October 2007, collections of insects were performed every 15 days, with three ethanol traps. After selection procedures, the Cerambycidae were identified based on entomological collections and specialized literature. We collected 692 insects, distributed among 29 genera and 40 species. The most abundant species were Acanthoderes jaspidea, Chlorida costata, Compsocerus barbicornis, Eburodacrys sp., Eurysthea hirta, Neoclytus curvatus and Nyssodrysina lignaria, which represented 81.17% of the total individuals. Cerambycidae were collected during practically the entire sampling period, but the largest number at a single collection occurred in the month of December. Several species demonstrate potential for damaging Eucalyptus spp., of which Neoclytus curvatus deserves the most attention, because it represented almost half of the insects collected.

  19. A facile and green preparation of reduced graphene oxide using Eucalyptus leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyang; Zhuang, Zechao; Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zuliang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a green and facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (GO) by Eucalyptus leaf extract (EL-RGO) was investigated, which was characterized with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TG). Eucalyptus leaf extract also play both reducing and capping stabilizing agents prepared EL-RGO as shown a good stability and electrochemical properties. This approach could provide an alternative method to prepare EL-RGO in large-scale production. Moreover, the good electrochemical property and biocompatibility can be used in various applications. In addition, the merit of this study is that both the oxidized products and the reducing agents are environmental friendly by green reduction.

  20. Pectin Methylesterase Genes Influence Solid Wood Properties of Eucalyptus pilularis1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Timothy R.; Henry, Robert J.; Harwood, Chris E.; Thomas, Dane S.; McManus, Luke J.; Raymond, Carolyn; Henson, Michael; Shepherd, Mervyn

    2012-01-01

    This association study of Eucalyptus pilularis populations provides empirical evidence for the role of Pectin Methylesterase (PME) in influencing solid wood characteristics of Eucalyptus. PME6 was primarily associated with the shrinkage and collapse of drying timber, which are phenotypic traits consistent with the role of pectin as a hydrophilic polysaccharide. PME7 was primarily associated with cellulose and pulp yield traits and had an inverse correlation with lignin content. Selection of specific alleles in these genes may be important for improving trees as sources of high-quality wood products. A heterozygote advantage was postulated for the PME7 loci and, in combination with haplotype blocks, may explain the absence of a homozygous class at all single-nucleotide polymorphisms investigated in this gene. PMID:22052017

  1. Eucalyptus urophylla stands wood utilization at two different ages for production of particleboard panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the quality of wood particle panels manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12 years. To that end, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB and cement-bonded panels were produced in a laboratory and then analyzed for the following physical and mechanical properties: water absorption and thickness swell 2 and 24 hours after immersion, internal bond, compression parallel, as well as MOE and MOR from static bending. The obtained results demonstrate that tree age had little influence on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard, OSB and cement-bonded panels. After evaluating the physical and mechanical properties of these three panel types, all manufactured with wood from Eucalyptus urophylla stands at age 7 and at age 12, we can argue that our results are satisfactory in comparison to existing literature results.

  2. Tasa de descuento y rotación forestal: el caso del Eucalyptus Saligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ernesto Restrepo Estrada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus is one of the most important economical and environmental species in Colombia. The main goal of this article is to study the relationship between the discount rate and the year of Eucalyptus Saligna optimal harvest, through the Fisher and Hotelling’s method. The methodology consists of calculating the maximum Net Present Value and performing a sensitivity analysis between the year of harvest and the discount rate. The area of study is located in the eastern region of the state of Antioquia, where data was available. The results suggest that the optimal year of harvest has an inversely proportional relation with the discount rate, and it decreases for higher rates.

  3. Rearing of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae on guava and Eucalyptus in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyrinteina arnobia, is one of the most important defoliating caterpillars of Eucalyptus in Brazil The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and the reproduction of feeding on leaves of guava (Psidium guajava or Eucalyptus grandis in the 15th generation, after rearing this species for 14 genrations on guava leaves. T. arnobia showed shorter larval period, better viability of caterpillars and pupae, heavier pupae, higher number of eggs per female, better egg viability and shorter longevity of females in guava leaves than in Eucalyptus leaves. The better development and reproduction with P. guajava showed that this insect could be reared in laboratory with guava leaves.Thyrinteina arnobia, é umas das mais importantes lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento e a reprodução desse lepidóptero em folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava e Eucalyptus grandis, na 15º geração, após criar essa espécie por 14 gerações em folhas de goiabeira. T. arnobia apresentou menor período larval, maior viabilidade de lagartas e de pupas, maior peso pupal, maior número de ovos totais por fêmea e viabilidade de ovos e menor longevidade de fêmeas com folhas de goiabeira. Além disso, teve melhor desempenho e reprodução com P. guajava, do que com folhas de E. grandis, mostrando que esse inseto pode ser criado com folhas de goiabeira em laboratório.

  4. Cellulose fibril aggregation studies of eucalyptus dissolving pulps using atomic force microscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chunilall, Viren

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available STUDIES OF Eucalyptus DISSOLVING PULPS USING ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY V. Chunilall1, J.Wesley-Smith2, T. Bush1 1CSIR, Forestry and Forest Product Research Centre, P.O. Box 17001, Congella, 4013, South Africa. 2Electron Microscope Unit, University of Kwa... pulp using atomic force microscopy (AFM) have reported increased cellulose fibril aggregation during processing, and a concomitant decrease in surface area available for chemical reaction1,2. These findings were subsequently confirmed...

  5. Sanitary and nutritional characterization of honeybee colonies in Eucalyptus grandis plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Invernizzi, C.; Santos, E.; García, E.; Daners, G.; Di Landro, R.; Saadoun, A.; Cabrera, C.

    2011-01-01

    In Uruguay, many beekeepers transport their colonies to Eucalyptus grandis plantations at the end of the summer and autumn, obtaining important honey harvests. However, at the end of the flowering period the colonies become extremely weakened undergoing high levels of mortality. Nutritional and health problems could explain the weakening of colonies. In order to find out the causes for this weakening, colonies of the same size were taken to an E. grandis plantation, split up in three groups d...

  6. Organic matter production in an age series of Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Tamil Nadu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, J D.S.; Bora, N K.S.; Tandon, V N; Thapliyal, H D

    1984-08-01

    The distribution of organic matter in an age series of Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Tamil Nadu is discussed. The total biomass ranges from 38 tonnes (5 years) to 220 tonnes (16 years) per ha with 85 to 88 percent being contributed by the aboveground parts and 15 to 12 percent by the roots and the average annual production of non-photosynthetic components is at its peak (19 tonnes/ha) at the age of 7 years. 17 references, 4 tables.

  7. Dyeing Studies with Eucalyptus, Quercetin, Rutin, and Tannin: A Research on Effect of Ferrous Sulfate Mordant

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit; Charoon Klaichoi; Nattadon Rungruangkitkrai; Nattaya Punrattanasin; Kamolkan Sriharuksa; Monthon Nakpathom

    2013-01-01

    Natural dyes from Eucalyptus leaf extract, quercetin, rutin, and tannin were applied to silk fabric by pad-batch and pad-dry techniques under different conditions. Ferrous sulfate was used as a mordant. The dyeing properties were evaluated by measuring K/S and CIELAB values. In addition, the different fastness properties were evaluated. The effect of dyes at different concentration levels with respect to their colour strength was also studied.

  8. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  9. Xylitol Production from Eucalyptus Wood Hydrolysates in Low-Cost Fermentation Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Diz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects concerning the bioconversion of xylose-containing hydrolysates (obtained from Eucalyptus wood into xylitol were assessed. Debaryomyces hansenii yeast strains were adapted to fermentation media (obtained either by prehydrolysis or autohydrolysis- posthydrolysis of wood supplemented with low-cost nutrients. Media containing up to 80 g/L xylose were efficiently fermented when the hydrolysates were detoxified by charcoal adsorption and supplemented with corn steep liquor.

  10. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  11. Distribution of Blue Gum Chalcid, Leptocybe invasa and it's Damage on Eucalyptus in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutitu, K.E; Otieno, B.O; Oeba, V.O; Nyeko, P.; Day, R.K

    2007-01-01

    Blue Gum chalcid is a gall-forming wasp, which causes an extensive damage to Eucalyptus. It attacks mostly seedlings and field saplings. It causes damage on it's host by forming massive typical bump-shaped galls on trees canopy, specifically on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems of new growths. The pest was first reported in Kenya and Uganda in 2002 attacking the three major commercially grown Eucalyptus species; Eucalyptus grandis, E. camaldulennsis, E. saligna in East Africa. Eucalyptus is fast growing and widely planted in both plantations and farmers' woodlots. It is important for both industrial and domestic use. It is a major source of income generation for rural poor families. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, incidence and severity patterns of L. invasa and possible relationship to environment and biophysical factors in East Africa. Over 312 randomly selected stands were assessed for BGC incidence to it's distribution. In each identified stand 60 trees were selected from 3 randomly established plots of 20 trees each and BGC damage/incidence assessed on a 4-point scale. This was to determine the incidence and severity patterns. ANOVA using generalized linear procedures, regression analysis and correlation were done to determine the relationship between the percentage incidence of L. invasa infestation against altitude, age interval, agro-ecological zones and topography. There was widespread of pest in all the districts sampled. There was significant difference (p 0.05) on L. invasa incidence among the three species. The study recommends that. further studies on damage and L. invasa population dynamics relationship to environment and biophysical factors should be conducted

  12. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qingqing; Li, Zhenji; Yang, Limin; Lv, Jing; Jobe, Timothy O; Wang, Qiuquan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  13. Uncovering the defence responses of Eucalyptus to pests and pathogens in the genomics age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sanushka; Külheim, Carsten; Zwart, Lizahn; Mangwanda, Ronishree; Oates, Caryn N; Visser, Erik A; Wilken, Febé E; Mamni, Thandekile B; Myburg, Alexander A

    2014-09-01

    Long-lived tree species are subject to attack by various pests and pathogens during their lifetime. This problem is exacerbated by climate change, which may increase the host range for pathogens and extend the period of infestation by pests. Plant defences may involve preformed barriers or induced resistance mechanisms based on recognition of the invader, complex signalling cascades, hormone signalling, activation of transcription factors and production of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins with direct antimicrobial or anti-insect activity. Trees have evolved some unique defence mechanisms compared with well-studied model plants, which are mostly herbaceous annuals. The genome sequence of Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden has recently become available and provides a resource to extend our understanding of defence in large woody perennials. This review synthesizes existing knowledge of defence mechanisms in model plants and tree species and features mechanisms that may be important for defence in Eucalyptus, such as anatomical variants and the role of chemicals and proteins. Based on the E. grandis genome sequence, we have identified putative PR proteins based on sequence identity to the previously described plant PR proteins. Putative orthologues for PR-1, PR-2, PR-4, PR-5, PR-6, PR-7, PR-8, PR-9, PR-10, PR-12, PR-14, PR-15 and PR-17 have been identified and compared with their orthologues in Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray ex Hook and Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. The survey of PR genes in Eucalyptus provides a first step in identifying defence gene targets that may be employed for protection of the species in future. Genomic resources available for Eucalyptus are discussed and approaches for improving resistance in these hardwood trees, earmarked as a bioenergy source in future, are considered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The Effect of Method and Germination Paper Substrate on Viability of Eucalyptus Pellita F. Mull Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Yuniarti, Naning; Megawati, Megawati; Leksono, Budi

    2017-01-01

    Improper seed handling of Eucalyptus pellita will reduce seed quality, so as to improve the viability of the seed proper handling techniques are needed. To investigate the seed germination potency as a result of seed handling germination seed tests are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of germination method and paper substrate on the viability of E. pellita seeds. Seeds used in this study were from seedling seed orchard in South Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Riau. ...

  15. Life-cycle assessment of eucalyptus short-rotation coppices for bioenergy production in Southern France

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle , Benoit; Nguyen The , Nicolas; Maupu , Pauline; Vial , Estelle

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRCs) are considered prime candidates for biomass production, yielding good-quality feedstock that is easy to harvest. Besides technical, social and economical aspects, environmental issues are important to take into account when developing SRCs. Here, we evaluated the environmental impacts of delivering 1 GJ of heat from eucalyptus SRC using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on management scenarios involving different rotations lengths, fertilizer input rates, stem ...

  16. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Daniel; Santos, Cristiane Alcantara dos; Silva, Mylenne Calcciolari Pinheiro da; Bonfim, Joice Andrade; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness an...

  17. Effects of essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus leaves on soil organisms involved in leaf degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Martins

    Full Text Available The replacement of native Portuguese forests by Eucalyptus globulus is often associated with deleterious effects on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Several studies have suggested that such a phenomenon is linked with the leaf essential oils released into the environment during the Eucalyptus leaf degradation process. However, to date, the way these compounds affect leaf degradation in terrestrial systems i.e. by direct toxic effects to soil invertebrates or indirectly by affecting food of soil fauna, is still unknown. In order to explore this question, the effect of essential oils extracted from E. globulus leaves on terrestrial systems was investigated. Fungal growth tests with species known as leaf colonizers (Mucor hiemalis, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium sp., Penicillium glabrum and Fusarium roseum were performed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential oils. In addition, a reproduction test with the collembolans Folsomia candida was done using a gradient of eucalyptus essential oils in artificial soil. The influence of essential oils on feeding behaviour of F. candida and the isopods Porcellio dilatatus was also investigated through food avoidance and consumption tests. Eucalyptus essential oils were lethal at concentrations between 2.5-20 µL/mL and inhibited growth of all fungal species between 1.25-5 µL/mL. The collembolan reproduction EC50 value was 35.0 (28.6-41.2 mg/kg and both collembola and isopods preferred leaves without oils. Results suggested that the effect of essential oils in leaf processing is related to direct toxic effects on fungi and soil fauna and to indirect effects on the quality and availability of food to soil invertebrates.

  18. A Newly Identified Passive Hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla under Manganese Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Xie

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an essential micronutrient needed for plant growth and development, but can be toxic to plants in excess amounts. However, some plant species have detoxification mechanisms that allow them to accumulate Mn to levels that are normally toxic, a phenomenon known as hyperaccumulation. These species are excellent candidates for developing a cost-effective remediation strategy for Mn-polluted soils. In this study, we identified a new passive Mn-hyperaccumulator Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla during a field survey in southern China in July 2010. This hybrid can accumulate as much as 13,549 mg/kg DW Mn in its leaves. Our results from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM X-ray microanalysis indicate that Mn is distributed in the entire leaf and stem cross-section, especially in photosynthetic palisade, spongy mesophyll tissue, and stem xylem vessels. Results from size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry lead us to speculate that Mn associates with relatively high molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight organic acids, including tartaric acid, to avoid Mn toxicity. Our results provide experimental evidence that both proteins and organic acids play important roles in Mn detoxification in Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla. The key characteristics of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla are an increased Mn translocation facilitated by transpiration through the xylem to the leaves and further distribution throughout the leaf tissues. Moreover, the Mn-speciation profile obtained for the first time in different cellular organelles of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla suggested that different organelles have differential accumulating abilities and unique mechanisms for Mn-detoxification.

  19. Resistance to high level of Cu (Copper) by arbuscular mycorrhizal, saprobe Fungi and Eucalyptus globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriagada, C.; Pereira, G.; Machuca, A.; Alvear, M.; Martin, J.; Ocampo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of saprobe and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on growth, chorophyll, root length colonization and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was measured in Eucalyptus globulus Labill., plants growing in soil with high level of Cu were investigated. The application of Cu inhibited the development of mycelia of the saprobe fungi Fusarium concolor and Trichoderma koningii and the hyphal length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) Glomus mosseaae and G. deserticola in vitro. (Author)

  20. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco López; M. Trinidad García; Vicente Mena; J. Mauricio Loaiza; Minerva A. M. Zamudio; Juan C. García

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or be...