WorldWideScience

Sample records for eu road map

  1. Road-map to successful implementation of geological disposal in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrakka, Eero

    2010-01-01

    In the conclusions from its first meeting in Bratislava (2007), the European Nuclear Energy Forum (ENEF) identified the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste as an important subject to be looked into with the objective 'to encourage Member States and industry to swiftly implement adequate nuclear waste disposal facilities, in particular deep geological repositories for high level waste'. To this end the Sub-Working Group 'Waste Management' (SWG-WM) was created in the context of the ENEF Working Group 'Risks'. As a first task, the SWG-WM was requested to compile a road-map that includes the essential elements of what is required at national level to foster the implementation of geological disposal for high level waste and spent fuel. In October 2009, a 'Road-map to Successful Implementation of Geological Disposal in the EU' was endorsed. The aim of this document is to provide guidance to EU Member States that are starting out or are at an early stage on the decades-long process leading towards the implementation of geological repositories for high level radioactive wastes or spent nuclear fuel, if this is deemed to be a waste. The guidance is based to a large extent on the positive progress that has been made in a number of Member States. Small and new nuclear states may take a long time to reach such a position - but a strong message of this Road-map is that the process should be initiated as soon as possible. The Road-map is intended to be generic enough to be applicable to all Member States, independently of their current position; the national Road-maps to be developed should be compatible with this, but will differ in the specifics of approach and of timing. (authors)

  2. Information technology road map 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.

  3. Material and component road map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Industrial Technology Foundation Editorial Department

    2007-09-01

    This book is comprised of two parts. One is divided into five chapters, which deals with summary of environment-friendly coloring technology, industry tendency of environment-friendly coloring technology, industry analysis and vision of environment-friendly coloring technology, analysis on core technology for environment-friendly coloring technology, with eco-friendly water paint and painting skill and eco-friendly surface treatment skill using electrochemical process. The other is divided into five chapters, which handles outline of display printing technology road map market trends of display painting, analysis and vision of display painting deduction of core-technology for display painting and analysis of core-technology for display painting. It has Diagrams for eco-friendly coloring technology road map and core-technology display painting road map.

  4. Study on serious road traffic injuries in the EU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. Commandeur, J.J.F. Welsh, R. Niesen, S. Lerner, M. Thomas, P. Bos, N. & Davidse, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    It is the ambition of the EU to reduce the number of killed and seriously injured on the roads over time. It has turned out that, especially in relation to serious injuries, there is still a significant knowledge gap on how to reduce these numbers in the EU. The Commission is therefore committed to

  5. Study on serious road traffic injuries in the EU.

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, L.T. Commandeur, J.J.F. Welsh, R. Niesen, S. Lerner, M. Thomas, P. Bos, N. & Davidse, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    It is the ambition of the EU to reduce the number of killed and seriously injured on the roads over time. It has turned out that, especially in relation to serious injuries, there is still a significant knowledge gap on how to reduce these numbers in the EU. The Commission is therefore committed to develop a particular focus on the serious road traffic injuries, to better understand their causes and effects. One of the first actions the Commission has undertaken is to develop a common definit...

  6. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently.

  7. Road map for photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This road map aims at highlighting industrial, technological and social challenges, at elaborating comprehensive visions, at highlighting technological locks, and at outlining research needs for the photovoltaic sector. It considers the following sector components: preparation of photo-sensitive materials, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells, manufacturing of photovoltaic arrays, design and manufacturing of electric equipment to control photovoltaic arrays and to connect them to the grid. It highlights the demand for photovoltaic installations, analyzes the value chain, proposes a vision of the sector by 2050 and defines target for 2020, discusses needs for demonstration and experimentation

  8. The REFUEL EU road map for biofuels in transport: Application of the project's tools to some short-term policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, Marc; Lensink, Sander; Wakker, Andre; Fischer, Guenther; Prieler, Sylvia; van Velthuizen, Harrij; de Wit, Marc; Faaij, Andre; Junginger, Martin; Berndes, Goeran; Hansson, Julia; Egeskog, Andrea; Duer, Henrik; Lundbaek, Jeppe; Wisniewski, Grzegorz; Kupczyk, Adam; Koenighofer, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The current hot debate on biofuels calls for a balanced and realistic long-term strategy for biofuels. The REFUEL project provides several ingredients for such a strategy. Analyses in this project indicate that domestically produced biofuels can cover a significant share of EU fuel demand in the coming decades, with the EU-12 new member states and Ukraine as most promising regions. This potential can be realised with residual streams and on existing agricultural land, without conversion of e.g. nature reserves. Second generation biofuels are essential for the long-term success of biofuels due to their superior performance in many ways. But generally, the key challenge for the near future would be how to enhance the development of biofuels in a responsible way, i.e. stimulating the production chains with the best performance, and preventing negative impacts e.g., by paying careful attention to possible system impacts of biofuel production such as indirect land use changes and rising food prices. Finally, 2nd generation biofuels require specific policy: the precursor role of 1st generation is overrated, both in technical terms as well as in their role as market precursors. When it comes to synergies, 2nd generation biofuels might benefit more from other developments in the energy sector, such as initiatives in co-firing of biomass for (heat and) power, than from 1st generation biofuels, also because of the public resistance that the latter induce. (author)

  9. An Evaluation of Forest Road Standards and Road Gradients in Turkey in View of FAO Criteria and Some EU Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Çağlar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are one of the inevitable infrastructures in conducting forestry operations. Around 1000 km under standardized forest roads have been largely repaired in addition to construction of 1000 km new forest roads in Turkey. Implementing uniform road gradient along the road sections is very important in terms of transportation techniques and safety, as well as the geometrical standardizations of the forest road. In this study, current road standards, longitudinal gradient values and their limitations in forest road constructions recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and some Europe Union (EU countries were examined. Firstly, the forest road standards and their gradient values have been defined in Turkish forest road construction practices. Afterwards, the forest road standards and the gradient values applied by FAO and some EU countries were presented, and finally, the specifications were examined by comparing them with the current practices in Turkish forestry.

  10. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

    2011-08-01

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  11. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  12. Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps…

  13. Solar Thermal energy strategic road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafner, Bernd; Godin, Olivier; Villier, Dominique; Petit, J.F.; Demangeon, Elsa; Laplagne, Valerie; Loyen, Richard; Mugnier, Daniel; Filloux, Alain; Frichet, Jean-Claude; Aubert, Elisabeth; Cherepanova, Margarita; Guilmin, Audrey; Dicostanzo, Catherine; Papillon, Philippe; Caccavelli, Dominique; Cholin, Xavier; Leger, Emmanuel; Gevaudan, Alain; Coulaud, Celine; Morlot, Rodolphe; Khebchache, Bouzid; Parrouffe, Jean-Michel; Clement, Daniel; Tonnet, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    The French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) manages a fund dedicated to new energy technologies. Since 2008 this fund has funded 'research demonstrators' to implement testing of technologies that are in an experimental stage, between research and industrial deployment. ADEME coordinates a group of experts who are charged with drawing up a strategic road-map prior to each Call for Expressions of Interest. The aims of the solar thermal road-map are: - to highlight the industrial, technological, environmental and societal issues at stake; - to elaborate coherent, consistent and shared visions of the technologies and/or socio-technical systems outlined in the road-map; - to underscore the technological, organisational and socioeconomic barriers and bottlenecks to be overcome in order to achieve these visions; - to link priority research topics to a timetable of goals for technology availability and deployment that is consistent with the stated objectives; - to give priority to research needs and research demonstrators that will serve as the basis for: 1 - calls for expression of interest issued by the Research Demonstrators Fund, 2 - the research programming process at ADEME and more broadly at the Agence nationale de la recherche (ANR) and the Comite strategique national sur la recherche sur l'energie. Research priorities and needs for demonstrators are determined by the intersection of visions and bottlenecks. They also take into account industrial and research capacity in France. The road-maps may also refer to exemplary research demonstrators abroad that are in the forefront of technological progress, and make recommendations regarding industrial policy. These road-maps are the result of collective work by a group of experts appointed by the Steering Committee (Comite de pilotage, COPIL) of the Research Demonstrators Fund for new energy technologies. The members of this group are actors in research, drawn from industry, research bodies and research

  14. Design of a noise action plan based on a road traffic noise map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausejo, M.; Tabacchi, M.; Recuero, M.; Asensio, C.; Pagan Munoz, R.; Pavón, I.

    2011-01-01

    According to European Directive 2002/49/CE, EU state members had to compile a strategic noise map no later than 30 June 2007 and a corresponding action plan no later than 18 July 2008 for all agglomerations with more than 250,000 inhabitants and for all major airports, roads and railways. A study on

  15. Energy Road-map 2050: Towards regional and local energy Road-maps. IMAGINE seminar 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillot, Herve; Pidoux, Blandine

    2011-11-01

    The 2011 IMAGINE Seminar held in Brussels on 9 November 2011 united around fifty representatives from Energy Cities network member cities as well as representatives from the European Parliament and the Commission, various industrial sectors and civil society organisations. Participants were invited to share their visions of their action by 2040-2050 in a sustainable and desirable city, having achieved its energy transition. The spontaneous and inspiring discussions that followed broached the following questions: - What is and should be the role of the local level in the EU Energy Road-map? - What if European local authorities were to develop their own 'Energy 2050' Road-maps? - What local and regional policies can social and economic players use for contributing to achieving European targets? - Under what conditions is the 'low energy cities with a high quality of life for all' concept relevant? The debate helped outline a shared, global vision as a step towards European collective dynamics giving territories a major role in energy transition. At the end of the day, participants from very different backgrounds converged on the following key points: - Like European institutions, territories must develop a long-term vision, failing which they will be unable to take meaningful action, mobilise players and make the right decisions in the short-term. - The energy-territory relationship, from efficient energy use to supply policies, is a major democratic challenge. - Although a number of technologies are already available, they still have to be integrated so that citizens can satisfy their needs and become fully accountable for their energy use. - Energy strategies must help meet a number of local challenges: social and territorial cohesion, employment and economic development, environmental protection and quality of life. To do so, they need to be designed taking those they are supposed to serve, i.e. citizens, into consideration. - The interaction between local

  16. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Weapons Systems Engineering Center; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  17. Technology road mapping to guide development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossen, J.E.; Congedo, T.V.

    2004-01-01

    For the past five years, Westinghouse Electric Company, has made ever increasing use of Technology Road Mapping, to direct company development efforts to achieve maximum benefits for our customers and ourselves. Comprised of business units in Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Services and Nuclear Power Plants, including domestic and international business segments, Westinghouse must pay particular attention to coordinating development to satisfy the diverse needs of our growing international customer base. We must develop products which both benefit the individual Business Unit customer base, and which create synergy to produce the best possible offerings to the broader marketplace. The knowledge we gain through customer contacts and direct customer participation provides the basis from which we develop the Technology Road Map. This Road Map development process can be compared to painting a picture, where the background colors and features correspond to drivers related to the Customer and the prevailing features of the market environment. The subsequent layers of detail include broad Technical Objectives and then specific Technical Goals which will support achieving those objectives. The process is described in detail, and examples are provided. (authors)

  18. Industrial wind. Strategic Road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therond, Pierre-Guy; Le Tirant, Alain; Vergnet, Marc; Hita-Perona, Sebastien; Bonnefond, Thierry; Guignard, Jean-Philippe; Roudil, Jean-Philippe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Meyronneinc, Jean-Paul; Hua, Xavier; Herlaut, Fabienne; Maurel, Olivier; Boulnois, Renald; Lapeyre, Dominique; Mairet, Franck; Bongrain, Marie-Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges; Rapin, Marc

    2012-06-01

    Since 2010, the ADEME has been managing four programmes within the scope of 'Future Investments'. Groups of research experts from various industrial fields, research bodies and research programming and financing agencies are responsible, within the scope of collective works, for producing strategic road-maps. These are used to launch Calls for Expressions of Interest (CEI). With regard to wind energy, the purpose of this road-map is to: - Highlight the industrial, technological, environmental and societal challenges encountered in the development of 'Industrial Wind'; - Draw up middle and long-term coherent, shared visions of the socio-technical systems or technologies in question; - Identify the technological, organisational, environmental and socio-economic obstacles, and therefore initiate (or pursue) the development of high-performance and economically viable technologies; - Promote the research, development and demonstration requirements ('technological demonstrators' to validate innovative technological solutions), experimentation requirements and technology platforms to be deployed ('pilot' projects to be tested under real circumstances: 'pre-commercial' unit prototypes then 'pre-commercial pilot farms') to improve the competitiveness of offers and companies within this sector, to reach the ambitious objectives set within the framework of the Grenelle Environnement and to promote and support the development of a French wind energy industry. These needs can then act as a basis for: - drawing up CEIs; - programming research within the ADEME and other institutions such as the Agence nationale de la recherche (ANR - French National Research Agency), the Comite strategique national sur la recherche energie (French national strategic committee for energy research) and the Alliance nationale de coordination de la recherche pour l'energie (ANCRE - French national alliance for the coordination of energy research). These research and experimentation priorities

  19. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  20. EU road freight transport sector : work and employment conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Berg, R. van der; Heuvel, F. van den

    2004-01-01

    International competition and technological developments have had both positive and negative effects on the road freight transport sector. These changes have significantly influenced work and employment conditions in the sector. As this report highlights, creating more and better jobs while

  1. Mapping the carbon footprint of EU regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Diana; Vita, Gibran; Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Stadler, Konstantin; Melo, Patricia C.; Wood, Richard; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2017-05-01

    While the EU Commission has encouraged Member States to combine national and international climate change mitigation measures with subnational environmental policies, there has been little harmonized effort towards the quantification of embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household consumption across European regions. This study develops an inventory of carbon footprints associated with household consumption for 177 regions in 27 EU countries, thus, making a key contribution for the incorporation of consumption-based accounting into local decision-making. Footprint calculations are based on consumer expenditure surveys and environmental and trade detail from the EXIOBASE 2.3 multiregional input-output database describing the world economy in 2007 at the detail of 43 countries, 5 rest-of-the-world regions and 200 product sectors. Our analysis highlights the spatial heterogeneity of embodied GHG emissions within multiregional countries with subnational ranges varying widely between 0.6 and 6.5 tCO2e/cap. The significant differences in regional contribution in terms of total and per capita emissions suggest notable differences with regards to climate change responsibility. The study further provides a breakdown of regional emissions by consumption categories (e.g. housing, mobility, food). In addition, our region-level study evaluates driving forces of carbon footprints through a set of socio-economic, geographic and technical factors. Income is singled out as the most important driver for a region’s carbon footprint, although its explanatory power varies significantly across consumption domains. Additional factors that stand out as important on the regional level include household size, urban-rural typology, level of education, expenditure patterns, temperature, resource availability and carbon intensity of the electricity mix. The lack of cross-national region-level studies has so far prevented analysts from drawing broader policy conclusions that hold

  2. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 11th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. Since 2014, progress has virtually ground to a halt. 2016

  3. Road-map for 2. generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents road-map issues concerning the requirements for biofuels of second generation, and defines the priorities addressed by a demonstrator program. It recalls the context created by the challenges of climate change and the excessive dependence on fossil fuels, and the objectives defined by the European Union in terms of biofuel share in the global consumption. Then, it describes the candidate technologies for the production of this second generation of biofuels, those based on thermo-chemical processes (mainly the pyrolysis-gasification of biomass), and those based on biochemical processes (enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of biomass). It highlights the technological challenges for these processes, and describes the various objectives of research projects supported by a 'demonstrator fund'. It discusses the necessity to develop demonstrators, and mentions some current projects of private companies, competitiveness clusters, and public research institutions. An agenda is defined from 2009 to 2020 which encompasses the research, demonstration and operation phases. An appendix provides brief presentations of thermo-chemical or biological demonstrators currently under operation or under construction in foreign countries (Germany, Finland, United States of America, Sweden, Spain, Canada, Japan, and Denmark)

  4. Energy Union: a global road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourneur, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    This article presents and comments the strategy defined by the European Commission in its document entitled 'Energy Union: secure, sustainable, competitive, affordable energy for every European' which defines a framework and a road-map for the emergence and progress of a Europe of energy. Such an Energy Union means solidarity between members, a free circulation of energy across borders, a priority for energy efficiency, a transition towards a low carbon society, and competitive and affordable prices for the European citizen. The author outlines the present weaknesses of the Europe of energy: first world energy importer, twelve countries being under the required interconnection level (10 per cent of the installed production should be able to cross the borders), some countries depending on a unique provider for their energy imports, low energy performance for buildings and high oil-dependence for transports. On the other hand, good results have already been reached regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. To be successful, this new strategy thus requires high investments and the development of new standards

  5. A Hybrid Vision-Map Method for Urban Road Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid vision-map system is presented to solve the road detection problem in urban scenarios. The standardized use of machine learning techniques in classification problems has been merged with digital navigation map information to increase system robustness. The objective of this paper is to create a new environment perception method to detect the road in urban environments, fusing stereo vision with digital maps by detecting road appearance and road limits such as lane markings or curbs. Deep learning approaches make the system hard-coupled to the training set. Even though our approach is based on machine learning techniques, the features are calculated from different sources (GPS, map, curbs, etc., making our system less dependent on the training set.

  6. Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) "Road Map": An Angiographic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turski, P. A.; Stieghorst, M. F.; Strother, C. M.; Crummy, A. B.; Lieberman, R. P.; Mistretta, C. A.

    1982-12-01

    Continuous Digital subtraction combined with intraarterial injections of contrast medium permits the display of arterial structures during real time fluoroscopy. This DSA "road map" facilitates selective catheterization and has proved useful in interventional procedures.

  7. International scale implementation of the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model for epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, D.W.; Hoogh, K. de; Fecht, D.; Fabbri, F.; Bell, M.; Goodman, P.S.; Elliott, P.; Hodgson, S.; Hansell, A.L.; Gulliver, J.

    2015-01-01

    The EU-FP7-funded BioSHaRE project is using individual-level data pooled from several national cohort studies in Europe to investigate the relationship of road traffic noise and health. The detailed input data (land cover and traffic characteristics) required for noise exposure modelling are not always available over whole countries while data that are comparable in spatial resolution between different countries is needed for harmonised exposure assessment. Here, we assess the feasibility using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with coarser input data in terms of model performance. Starting with a model using the highest resolution datasets, we progressively introduced lower resolution data over five further model runs and compared noise level estimates to measurements. We conclude that a low resolution noise model should provide adequate performance for exposure ranking (Spearman's rank = 0.75; p < 0.001), but with relatively large errors in predicted noise levels (RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)). - Highlights: • The first implementation of CNOSSOS-EU for national scale noise exposure assessment. • Road traffic noise model performance with varying resolution of inputs is assessed. • Model performance is good with low resolution inputs (r_s = 0.75). • This model will be applied in epidemiological studies of European cohorts. - The CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise model estimates can be used for international scale exposure assessment when parameterised with freely available low resolution covering a large geographic area.

  8. A Progressive Buffering Method for Road Map Update Using OpenStreetMap Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0 enables a two-way interaction between servers and clients. GPS receivers become available to more citizens and are commonly found in vehicles and smart phones, enabling individuals to record and share their trajectory data on the Internet and edit them online. OpenStreetMap (OSM makes it possible for citizens to contribute to the acquisition of geographic information. This paper studies the use of OSM data to find newly mapped or built roads that do not exist in a reference road map and create its updated version. For this purpose, we propose a progressive buffering method for determining an optimal buffer radius to detect the new roads in the OSM data. In the next step, the detected new roads are merged into the reference road maps geometrically, topologically, and semantically. Experiments with OSM data and reference road maps over an area of 8494 km2 in the city of Wuhan, China and five of its 5 km × 5 km areas are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method. It is shown that the OSM data can add 11.96% or a total of 2008.6 km of new roads to the reference road maps with an average precision of 96.49% and an average recall of 97.63%.

  9. Automatic Road Sign Inventory Using Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilán, M.; Riveiro, B.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2016-06-01

    The periodic inspection of certain infrastructure features plays a key role for road network safety and preservation, and for developing optimal maintenance planning that minimize the life-cycle cost of the inspected features. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) use laser scanner technology in order to collect dense and precise three-dimensional point clouds that gather both geometric and radiometric information of the road network. Furthermore, time-stamped RGB imagery that is synchronized with the MMS trajectory is also available. In this paper a methodology for the automatic detection and classification of road signs from point cloud and imagery data provided by a LYNX Mobile Mapper System is presented. First, road signs are detected in the point cloud. Subsequently, the inventory is enriched with geometrical and contextual data such as orientation or distance to the trajectory. Finally, semantic content is given to the detected road signs. As point cloud resolution is insufficient, RGB imagery is used projecting the 3D points in the corresponding images and analysing the RGB data within the bounding box defined by the projected points. The methodology was tested in urban and road environments in Spain, obtaining global recall results greater than 95%, and F-score greater than 90%. In this way, inventory data is obtained in a fast, reliable manner, and it can be applied to improve the maintenance planning of the road network, or to feed a Spatial Information System (SIS), thus, road sign information can be available to be used in a Smart City context.

  10. Road MAPs to engineer host microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Ben O; Medema, Marnix H; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2017-12-02

    Microbiomes contribute directly or indirectly to host health and fitness. Thus far, investigations into these emergent traits, referred to here as microbiome-associated phenotypes (MAPs), have been primarily qualitative and taxonomy-driven rather than quantitative and trait-based. We present the MAPs-first approach, a theoretical and experimental roadmap that involves quantitative profiling of MAPs across genetically variable hosts and subsequent identification of the underlying mechanisms. We outline strategies for developing 'modular microbiomes'-synthetic microbial consortia that are engineered in concert with the host genotype to confer different but mutually compatible MAPs to a single host or host population. By integrating host and microbial traits, these strategies will facilitate targeted engineering of microbiomes to the benefit of agriculture, human/animal health and biotechnology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Road map for selected key measurements from LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A.A., Jr; Amato, S.; Amhis, Y.; Amoraal, J.; Anderson, J.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Arrabito, L.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Bagaturia, Y.; Bailey, D.S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Pazos, MdC.Barandela; Barlow, R.J.; Barsuk, S.; Bates, A.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Bediaga, I.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.O.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blanks, C.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bobrov, A.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bos, E.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bozzi, C.; Bressieux, J.; Brisbane, S.; Britsch, M.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Buchler-Germann, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cachemiche, J.P.; Cadeddu, S.; Caicedo Carvajal, J.M.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Cameron, W.; Campana, P.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chlopik, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Clark, P.J.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Collins, P.; Constantin, F.; Conti, G.; Contu, A.; Corti, G.; Cowan, G.A.; D'Almagne, B.; D'Ambrosio, C.; d'Enterria, D.G.; Da Silva, W.; David, P.; De Bonis, I.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; De Vries, H.; Decamp, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Deissenroth, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deplano, C.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dickens, J.; Dijkstra, H.; Dima, M.; Donleavy, S.; Reis, A.C.dos; Dovbnya, A.; Pree, T.Du; Duval, P.Y.; Dwyer, L.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Eames, C.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eklund, L.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Esteve, L.; Eydelman, S.; Fanchini, E.; Farber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fungueirino Pazos, J.L.; Furcas, S.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gao, Y.; Garnier, J-C.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauvin, N.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gilitsky, Yu.; Gligorov, V.V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Grabalosa Gandara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Guerrer, G.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Guzik, Z.; Gys, T.; Hachon, F.; Haefeli, G.; Haines, S.C.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harji, R.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, P.F.; He, J.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hofmann, W.; Holubyev, K.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Huston, R.S.; Hutchcroft, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Escudero, C.Iglesias; Imong, J.; Jacobsson, R.; Jahjah Hussein, M.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jaton, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; John, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jost, B.; Kapusta, F.; Karbach, T.M.; Keaveney, J.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khalil, S.; Khanji, B.; Kim, Y.M.; Knecht, M.; Knopf, J.; Koblitz, S.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolko, I.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Krasowski, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Krokovny, P.; Kruzelecki, K.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryashov, I.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lai, A.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Le Gac, R.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lessnoff, K.; Li, L.; Li, Y.Y.; Libby, J.; Lieng, M.; Lindner, R.; Lindsey, S.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Luisier, J.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Magnin, J.; Maier, A.; Mamunur, R.M.D.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mangiafave, N.; Marconi, U.; Marin, F.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin, L.; Martinez Santos, D.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazurov, A.; McGregor, G.; Mcharek, B.; Mclean, C.; McNulty, R.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Merkin, M.; Messi, R.; Metlica, F.C.D.; Michalowski, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Minard, M.N.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morris, J.V.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Muresan, R.; Murtas, F.; Muryn, B.; Musy, M.; Mylroie-Smith, J.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nardulli, J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nedos, M.; Needham, M.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolas, L.; Nies, S.; Niess, V.; Nikitin, N.; Noor, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Ostankov, A.; Palacios, J.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papadelis, A.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Paterson, S.K.; Patrick, G.N.; Pauna, E.; Pauna, C.; Pavel, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perego, D.L.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Pessina, G.; Petrella, A.; Petrolini, A.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Poss, S.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Pozzi, S.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reece, W.; Ricciardi, S.; Rinnert, K.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodrigues, F.; Rodriguez Cobo, C.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogers, G.J.; Romanovsky, V.; Rospabe, G.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salzmann, C.; Sambade Varela, A.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santinelli, R.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schleich, S.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Shao, B.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Simioni, E.; Skottowe, H.P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, A.C.; Sobczak, K.; Soler, F.J.P.; Solomin, A.; Somogy, P.; Soomro, F.; De Paula, B.Souza; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spiridenkov, E.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Steinkamp, O.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Straumann, U.; Styles, N.; Syryczynski, K.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Terrier, H.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; Tobin, M.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tran, M.T.; Traynor, S.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ullaland, O.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J.; van Eijk, D.; van Herwijnen, E.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Tilburg, J.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Vervink, K.; Viaud, B.; Videau, I.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Voss, H.; Wacker, K.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Witek, M.; Witzeling, W.; Wotton, S.A.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, F.; Yang, Z.; Ybeles Smit, G.; Young, R.; Yushchenko, O.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zwahlen, N.

    2010-01-01

    Six of the key physics measurements that will be made by the LHCb experiment, concerning CP asymmetries and rare B decays, are discussed in detail. The "road map" towards the precision measurements is presented, including the use of control channels and other techniques to understand the performance of the detector with the first data from the LHC.

  12. Introduction to Retail Payments : Mapping Out the Road Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; Mester, Loretta J.

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces four papers that were presented at a payments conference “Retail Payments: Mapping Out the Road Ahead,” which was held at De Nederlandsche Bank in Amsterdam in April of 2016. These papers focus on various behavioral aspects of consumers and merchants in their choice and

  13. Road Map for Africa's Recovery: Challenges and Recommendations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A road map for the reversal of Africa's marginalisation and under-development, to put the continent on a sustainable growth and development path, should be guided by both framework conditions and factors that promote economic growth and structural change. This article investigates structural reform in developing ...

  14. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

  15. Burden of injury of serious road injuries in six EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, Wendy; Bos, Niels; Filtness, Ashleigh; Brown, Laurie; Bauer, Robert; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martin, Jean Louis; Perez, Katherine; Thomas, Pete

    2018-02-01

    Information about the burden of (non-fatal) road traffic injury is very useful to further improve road safety policy. Previous studies calculated the burden of injury in individual countries. This paper estimates and compares the burden of non-fatal serious road traffic injuries in six EU countries/regions: Austria, Belgium, England, The Netherlands, the Rhône region in France and Spain. It is a cross-sectional study based on hospital discharge databases. of study are patients hospitalized with MAIS3+ due to road traffic injuries. The burden of injury (expressed in years lived with disability (YLD)) is calculated applying a method that is developed within the INTEGRIS study. The method assigns estimated disability information to the casualties using the EUROCOST injury classification. The average burden per MAIS3+ casualty varies between 2.4 YLD and 3.2 YLD per casualty. About 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 19% to 33% of the MAIS3+ casualties. Head injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of MAIS3+ road traffic injuries. Results per transport mode differ between the countries. Differences between countries are mainly due to differences in age distribution and in the distribution over EUROCOST injury groups of the casualties. The analyses presented in this paper can support further improvement of road safety policy. Countermeasures could for example be focused at reducing skull and brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities, as these injuries are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Road MAPs to engineer host microbiomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyserman, B. O.; Medema, Marnix H; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Microbiomes contribute directly or indirectly to host health and fitness. Thus far, investigations into these emergent traits, referred to here as microbiome-associated phenotypes (MAPs), have been primarily qualitative and taxonomy-driven rather than quantitative and trait-based. We present the

  17. A road map for natural capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, A B; Lovins, L H; Hawken, P

    1999-01-01

    No one would run a business without accounting for its capital outlays. Yet most companies overlook one major capital component--the value of the earth's ecosystem services. It is a staggering omission; recent calculations place the value of the earth's total ecosystem services--water storage, atmosphere regulation, climate control, and so on--at $33 trillion a year. Not accounting for those costs has led to waste on a grand scale. But now a few farsighted companies are finding powerful business opportunities in conserving resources on a similarly grand scale. They are embarking on a journey toward "natural capitalism," a journey that comprises four major shifts in business practices. The first stage involves dramatically increasing the productivity of natural resources, stretching them as much as 100 times further than they do today. In the second stage, companies adopt closed-loop production systems that yield no waste or toxicity. The third stage requires a fundamental change of business model--from one of selling products to one of delivering services. For example, a manufacturer would sell lighting services rather than lightbulbs, thus benefitting the seller and customer for developing extremely efficient, durable lightbulbs. The last stage involves reinvesting in natural capital to restore, sustain, and expand the planet's ecosystem. Because natural capitalism is both necessary and profitable, it will sub-sume traditional industrialism, the authors argue, just as industrialism sub-sumed agrarianism. And the companies that are furthest down the road will have the competitive edge.

  18. AUTOMATIC ROAD SIGN INVENTORY USING MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soilán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The periodic inspection of certain infrastructure features plays a key role for road network safety and preservation, and for developing optimal maintenance planning that minimize the life-cycle cost of the inspected features. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS use laser scanner technology in order to collect dense and precise three-dimensional point clouds that gather both geometric and radiometric information of the road network. Furthermore, time-stamped RGB imagery that is synchronized with the MMS trajectory is also available. In this paper a methodology for the automatic detection and classification of road signs from point cloud and imagery data provided by a LYNX Mobile Mapper System is presented. First, road signs are detected in the point cloud. Subsequently, the inventory is enriched with geometrical and contextual data such as orientation or distance to the trajectory. Finally, semantic content is given to the detected road signs. As point cloud resolution is insufficient, RGB imagery is used projecting the 3D points in the corresponding images and analysing the RGB data within the bounding box defined by the projected points. The methodology was tested in urban and road environments in Spain, obtaining global recall results greater than 95%, and F-score greater than 90%. In this way, inventory data is obtained in a fast, reliable manner, and it can be applied to improve the maintenance planning of the road network, or to feed a Spatial Information System (SIS, thus, road sign information can be available to be used in a Smart City context.

  19. Road Map to Statewide Implementation of the Pyramid Model. Roadmap to Effective Intervention Practices #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Smith, Barbara J.; Fox, Lise; Blase, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This document is a guide--a "Road Map"--for implementing widespread use of the Pyramid Model for Promoting Social Emotional Competence in Infants and Young Children (http://www.challengingbehavior.org/do/pyramid_model. htm). It is a road map of systems change. The Road Map is written for statewide systems change, although it could be…

  20. Proceedings of the NEA International Workshop on the Nuclear Innovation road-map (NI2050)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jaejoo HA; Deffrennes, Marc; ); Tromm, Walter; Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto; Speranzini, Robert; Jeong, Ik; Lee, Gye Seok; Castelao Lopez, Carlos; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Puska, Eija Karita; Cordier, Pierre-Yves; Horvath, Akos; Agostini, Pietro; Kamide, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Toru; Roelofs, Ferry; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zezula, Lubor; Rayment, Fiona; Cizelj, Leon; Zimmermann, Martin A.; Schmitz, Bruno; Martin-Ramos, Manuel; Andreeva-Andrievskaya, Lyudmila N.; Monti, Stefano; ); Paillere, Henri; ); Caron-Charles, Marylise; Gulliford, Jim; ); Breest, Axel; ); McGrath, Margaret; Bignan, Gilles

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Energy Innovation Workshops (K. Pasamehmetoglu); Main National and Innovation Activities in Nuclear (E.K. Puska); CEA R and D Strategy - The Essential Tools to Support the Present and Prepare the Future of Nuclear Energy (P.Y. Cordier); National Research and Innovation Activities in Hungary in the field of Nuclear Fission (A. Horvath); Italian National R and D on Nuclear Fission (P. Agostini); Nuclear Fission Research and Innovation Activities in Japan (H. Kamide); Japan's road-map for Technology and Human Resources for LWR Safety, GEN II and III, METI (T. Nakatsuka); Research and Innovation Activities (F. Roelofs); Nuclear Research Infrastructure in Poland (G. Wrochna); Nuclear Fission Research and Innovation Activities in the Czech Republic (L. Zezula); UK Nuclear Energy R and D (F. Rayment); Nuclear Fission Research and Innovation Funding in Slovenia (L. Cizelj) Research in Switzerland at the Nuclear Energy and Safety division (NES) at PSI (M.A. Zimmermann); European Commission - Euratom - Horizon 2020 Framework Programme Fission Safety Research (B. Schmitz) Overview of JRC's Nuclear Safety, Safeguards and Security Activities (M. Martin-Ramos); Nuclear R and D Activities in Russia (L. Andreeva-Andrievskaya); Outlines of IAEA Activities in Support of Research and Innovation in the Field of Nuclear Energy (S. Monti); 3. Defining the way forward for NI2050: survey, road mapping and priorities, cooperation: GIF 2014 Update of the Technology road-map (H. Paillere); SNETP EU Technology Platforms road-maps - Deployment Strategy Status on 8 July 2015 (Marylise Caron-Charles); NEA Research Activities: Joint Safety Research Projects, Nuclear Science Programmes (J. Gulliford and A. Breest); OECD Halden Reactor Project (M. McGrath); An Overview of Research Reactors by IGORR forum International Group on Research Reactors (G. Bignan); IAEA designated ICERR International Centres based on Research Reactors (S. Monti); 4. Proposal and questions for the NI2050 process

  1. The LPG industry road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the challenges of LPG industry in contributing to the economic and social growth in Europe for the coming decades: due to its specific characteristics - both as a product and an industry - LPG can make a meaningful contribution to meeting the Europe's 3 objectives of sustainability, security of supply and competitiveness both now and in the future. LPG industry wants to reinforce its role in meeting some of the world's most pressing challenges: reducing human impact on the environment, protecting human health, and ensuring a secure energy supply. Doubling LPG's contribution to the energy mix in Europe will significantly boost the positive impact of LPG on its users and society as a whole. The LPG industry can play also an important role in the indoor applications sector. Industry estimates suggest that this sector could grow by 55% between 2001 and 2030. However, to transform this potential into a reality, a series of conditions, notably the improvement of existing applications, support in terms of R and D for the development of new applications and an enhanced degree of cooperation with innovative renewable energies, need to be met. As such, it is vital to put a structure in place to promote cooperation and exchanges between public authorities and relevant industrial actors. There are three key type of initiative to be taken: encouraging consumers to switch from conventional fuels to clean alternatives such as LPG, stimulating the modification (retrofitting) of existing vehicles from petrol-fuelled to LPG-fuelled, and encouraging car-makers to place new vehicles powered by LPG, mono-fuel, bi-fuel (LPG/petrol, LPG/biofuel) or hybrid (LPG/electric) on the market. Taken as a whole, the measures outlined above would yield numerous benefits, not only in terms of protecting the environment and human health, but also providing a valuable contribution to rural development in Europe. Expanding the role of LPG in industry throughout the EU yields the

  2. War Termination, Identity Conflict, and Genocide: A Road Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    of The Cambodian Genocide Project, and the Vice President of the International Association of Genocide Scholars. 10 Genocide Watch, “About Genocide ...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited War Termination, Identity Conflict, and Genocide : A Road Map A Monograph by MAJ Stephen...TYPE SAMS Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2011 – MAY 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE War Termination, Identity Conflict, and Genocide : A

  3. Mapping, Navigation, and Learning for Off-Road Traversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konolige, Kurt; Agrawal, Motilal; Blas, Morten Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The challenge in the DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) project is to autonomously navigate a small robot using stereo vision as the main sensor. During this project, we demonstrated a complete autonomous system for off-road navigation in unstructured environments, using stereo vision......, online terrain traversability learning, visual odometry, map registration, planning, and control. At the end of 3 years, the system we developed outperformed all nine other teams in final blind tests over previously unseen terrain.......The challenge in the DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) project is to autonomously navigate a small robot using stereo vision as the main sensor. During this project, we demonstrated a complete autonomous system for off-road navigation in unstructured environments, using stereo vision...

  4. On the way to 2050 - Which ingredients for a de-carbonated future? An analysis of the 'Energy Road map 2050' of the European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This document presents and discusses the climate objective of the Energy road map, some macro-economic hypotheses (oil price, economic growth), the different trajectories defined in the Energy Road map, the role of electricity in the de-carbonation of the energy system, energy savings (potential and under-exploited), the evolution of the installed electric capacity, the balancing of the electric system, the global costs of the energy system, the EU energy bill in 2050, the evolution of electricity price, and the European carbon trading scheme

  5. Density and diversity of OpenStreetMap road networks in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjia Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OpenStreetMap is a geographic information platform designed to provide real-time updates and user-generated content related to its freely available global map, and it is one of the most widely used examples of volunteered geographic information, a technique associated with so-called neogeography. This paper, based on the data from China’s OpenStreetMap road network in May 2014, taking 340 prefecture-level cities in China as its study area, presents the geometric-related (road density and attribute-related (type diversity spatial patterns of the OpenStreetMap road network, and explores their relationship. The results are as follows. (1 The distribution of OpenStreetMap road density in Shenzhen, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and Macao predominantly obeys a “positive skewness distribution”. OpenStreetMap data for eastern China shows a higher overall and circular structure. In central China, there are noticeable discrepancies in the road density, whereas in western China, the road density is low. (2 The OpenStreetMap road diversity shows a normal distribution. The spatial pattern for the so-called “Hu Huanyong line” was broken by the effect of diplomatic and strategic factors, showing a high diversity along the peripheral border, coastal cities, and core inland cites. (3 China’s OpenStreetMap is partitioned into four parts according to road density and diversity: high density and high diversity; low density and low diversity; high density and low diversity; and low density high diversity. (4 The OpenStreetMap geographical information-collection process and mechanism were analyzed, demonstrating that the road density reflects the preponderance of traffic in the real world. OpenStreetMap road diversity reflects the road-related geographic information demand and value, and it also reflects the interests of users toward to OpenStreetMap geographical information.

  6. New road map to hydrogen economy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.

    2004-01-01

    Reducing carbon dioxide emission and enhancing energy security are the most critical energy issues for construction of future energy systems. The hydrogen energy system is widely accepted as one of the most promising system options for solving such problems. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry(METI) of Japanese Government made public its revised introduction scenario of fuel cell vehicles(FCVs) and stationary fuel cells with a time frame of 2005 to 2030 in March, 2004. The original scenario was published in August, 2001 with the time frame of 2005 to 2020. The revised scenario could substantially be considered as New Road Map to Hydrogen Economy in Japan. In this paper the revised scenario will be introduced together with supporting data provided by the author. (author)

  7. Logistics Road map for Smart SeaPorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Gaber EL Sakty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the digital world, a smart concept became an essential feature for port organizations to serve as intelligent hubs in the world transport networks.  Smart ports are the trend for the future long-term strategies. Henceforth, ports aims at contributing to sustainable growth by establishing the appropriate conditions for the adoption of new management energy models based on low environmental impact and triggering innovation of both technologies and processes. The scope of this paper is to examine three main issues of smart ports; smart port arctic logistics roadmap, smart port challenges and obstacles in arctic port areas, and the criteria and Key Performance Indicators guiding the assessment of ports against this concept. The main purpose is to develop a smart arctic logistics road map for the future.

  8. Road Map For Diffusion Of Innovation In Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, E Andrew; Chapman, Wendy W

    2018-02-01

    New scientific knowledge and innovation are often slow to disseminate. In other cases, providers rush into adopting what appears to be a clinically relevant innovation, based on a single clinical trial. In reality, adopting innovations without appropriate translation and repeated testing of practical application is problematic. In this article we provide examples of clinical innovations (for example, tight glucose control in critically ill patients) that were adopted inappropriately and that caused what we term a malfunction. To address the issue of malfunctions, we review various examples and suggest frameworks for the diffusion of knowledge leading to the adoption of useful innovations. The resulting model is termed an integrated road map for coordinating knowledge transformation and innovation adoption. We make recommendations for the targeted development of practice change procedures, practice change assessment, structured descriptions of tested interventions, intelligent knowledge management technologies, and policy support for knowledge transformation, including further standardization to facilitate sharing among institutions.

  9. The very large research infrastructures: the French road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled that the notion of TGIR (Tres Grande Infrastructure de Recherche, Very large research infrastructure) has evolved in time and now encompasses many different realities in terms of domain or size, this document briefly presents the main challenging fields of research: the planet, the universe seen from the Earth, particles and nuclei, matter, information, communication, computing and data services, human and social sciences, life sciences and health. It indicates TGIRs which have been selected for the French road-map: some already exist and operational (46), some are not yet operational but have been decided in terms of financing (19) and some are still projected but with different levels of priority. Appendices give selection criteria, working group compositions for different domains, and description sheets for these TGIRs (nature, localisation, scientific tools, spin-offs and impacts, international value, concerned scientific community, budget)

  10. Technology Road-map - Nuclear Energy. 2015 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houssin, Didier; Dujardin, Thierry; Cameron, Ron; Tam, Cecilia; Paillere, Henri; Baroni, Marco; Bromhead, Amos; Baritaud, Manual; Cometto, Marco; Gaghen, Rebecca; Herzog, Antoine; Remme, Uwe; Urso, Maria-Elena; Vance, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Since the release in 2010 of Technology Road-map: Nuclear Energy (IEA/NEA, 2010), a number of events have had a significant impact on the global energy sector and on the outlook for nuclear energy. They include the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March 2011, the global financial and economic crises that hit many industrialised countries during the period 2008-10 and failings in both electricity and CO 2 markets. Despite these additional challenges, nuclear energy still remains a proven low-carbon source of base-load electricity, and many countries have reaffirmed the importance of nuclear energy within their countries' energy strategies. To achieve the goal of limiting global temperature increases to just 2 deg. C by the end of the century, a halving of global energy-related emissions by 2050 will be needed. A wide range of low-carbon energy technologies will be needed to support this transition, including nuclear energy. This edition of the nuclear road-map prepared jointly by the IEA and NEA take into account recent challenges facing the development of this technology. The 2015 edition of the Nuclear Energy Technology Road-map aims to: Outline the current status of nuclear technology development and the need for additional R and D to address increased safety requirements and improved economics. Provide an updated vision of the role that nuclear energy could play in a low-carbon energy system, taking into account changes in nuclear policy in various countries, as well as the current economics of nuclear and other low-carbon electricity technologies. Identify barriers and actions needed to accelerate the development of nuclear technologies to meet the Road-map vision. Share lessons learnt and good practices in nuclear safety and regulation, front- and back-end fuel cycle practices, construction, decommissioning, financing, training, capacity building and communication. Key findings: Nuclear power is the largest source of low

  11. Road mapping in industrial companies: Experience; El Roadmapping en la industria: Experiencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goenaga-Larranaga, J. M.; Phaal, R.

    2010-07-01

    From its origins in the US electronics sector in the 1970s, technology road mapping has been adapted (and adopted) widely, for many different innovation, strategy and policy applications. Communication is commonly cited as one of the key benefits of road mapping, particularly in terms of the process that brings different organizational perspectives together, with the road map providing a common visual language. There is significant demand for methods that are agile, in the sense of being rapid, flexible and effective to apply, focused on strategic decisions and actions. Fast-start road mapping workshop techniques enable key strakeholders to address strategic issues efficiently using the visual structure of road maps to capture, discuss, prioritize, explore and communicate. This paper presents the learning from a set of five diverse applications of the fast-start approach in the Basque country, which demonstrate the agility of the technique. (Author) 8 refs.

  12. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  13. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  14. TRANSIT TIME THROUGH THE BORDER-CROSSING POINTS: THE CASE STUDY OF THE EU'S ROAD BCP WITH MOLDAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available . This paper provides an overview on the ACROSSEE project (funded by the ERDF under the SEE program, its objectives, general methodology, and the main results. Moreover, the main survey results are presented as they relate to the Romanian road and rail border-crossing points (BCPs with the Eastern neighbourly country, Moldavia. Results include the actual status of the road BCP, surveys on exiting and entering traffic flows, answers to specific questionnaires of the truck and car drivers in relation with origin-destination of the trips, average waiting time in queue and time required for procedures and controls. Discussion on the mathematical modelling is presented and a provisional simulation model is developed, using ARENA software. The early results are used in order to introduce the need for future assessment of the transit time in a road BCP, with the main purpose: the substantiation of the strategic and operational actions for improvements in trade and transport crossings of the EU borders, considering the need for more vigilant and less time-consuming checks at the outside borders of the EU.

  15. ANCRE alliance: Road-map for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F.; Carre, F.

    2013-01-01

    Created in 2009 by the Higher Education and Research ministry and by the Ecology ministry, ANCRE, the National Alliance for Energy Research Coordination aims at enhancing the efficiency of French research in the field of energy by promoting partnerships and synergies between public and private sectors (research organizations, universities and companies). ANCRE aims to propose a coordinated strategy for research and innovation projects. Beyond its four founding members, CEA, CNRS, IFPEN and CPU, ANCRE brings together all the French public research organizations concerned with energy issues, and has strong links with the industrial sector. Among the 10 programmatic groups of ANCRE, one is specifically dedicated to Nuclear Energies (fission and fusion). This group has proposed road-maps in five scientific fields, considered as strategic for R and D, in relation to industrial objectives and scientific bottlenecks: nuclear materials, nuclear chemistry, reactor physics, instrumentation and fusion. For twenty to thirty years, R and D on nuclear materials has evolved from the heavy metallurgy of the first generation of power reactors to the nano-materials science under extreme conditions for present and future needs. Nuclear systems are characterized by extreme operating conditions: high temperatures, mechanical stresses, radiations, corrosive environment, and long durations. In order to deal with these extreme conditions, it is necessary to have a sound knowledge of the materials, to the finest scale. R and D development was made possible by advances in materials science, in relation to more efficient observation means (now reaching the atom scale) and deeper control of the microstructure. Development of simulation methods at the atomic level (ab initio, classical molecular dynamics, kinetic Monte Carlo, etc.) have also allowed a better understanding of phenomena at their most fundamental level. Material performance issues, however, remain significant, as the performance

  16. IRIS Responsiveness to Generation IV Road-map Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Paramonov, D.V.; Petrovic, B.

    2002-01-01

    The DOE Generation IV road-map process is in its second and final year. Almost one hundred concepts submitted from all over the world have been reviewed against the Generation IV goals of resources sustainability; safety and reliability; and, economics. Advanced LWRs are taken as the reference point. IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure), a 100-335 MWe integral light water reactor being developed by a vast international consortium led by Westinghouse, is one on the concepts being considered in the road-map and is perhaps the most visible representative of the concept set known as Integral Primary System Reactors (IPSR). This paper presents how IRIS satisfies the prescribed goals. The first goal of resource sustainability includes criteria like utilization of fuel resources, amount and toxicity of waste produced, environmental impact, proliferation and sabotage resistance. As a thermal reactor IRIS does not have the same fuel utilization as fast reactors. However, it has a significant flexibility in fuel cycles as it is designed to utilize either UO 2 or MOX with straight burn cycles of 4 to 10 years, depending on the fissile content. High discharge burnup and Pu recycling result in good fuel utilization and lower waste; IRIS has also attractive proliferation resistance characteristics, due to the reduced accessibility of the fuel. The safety and reliability goal include reliability, workers' exposure, robust safety features, models with well characterized uncertainty, source term and mechanisms of energy release, robust mitigation of accidents. IRIS is significantly better than advanced LWRs because of its safety by design which eliminates a variety of accidents such as LOCAs, its containment vessel coupled design which maintains the core safely covered during the accident sequences, its design simplification features such as no (or reduced) soluble boron, internal shielding and four-year refueling/maintenance interval which significantly reduce

  17. EU policies on car emissions and fuel quality. Reducing the climate impact from road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Anne Raaum; Gulbrandsen, Lars H.

    2012-07-01

    Transport is the second biggest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU, and contributes about one-quarter of the EU's total emissions of CO{sub 2}. Significant reductions in GHG emissions from transport are required if the EU is to achieve its long-term climate goals. This report examines the making and implementation of two of the regulations the EU has put in place to lower emissions from the transport sector: the EU's revised Fuel Quality Directive (Directive 2009/30/EC) and the cars/CO{sub 2} regulation (Regulation (EC) 443/2009). It was found that the relevance of various theories of policymaking in the EU varies with different policy phases. A policy-network understanding of EU policymaking is strengthened when assessing the policy-initiation phase. The Commission played a key role in this phase and drafted legislation in close collaboration with the car and oil refining industries. An intergovernmentalist understanding of EU policy-making is strengthened when assessing the decision-making phase. In this phase, member states defending the interests of their domestic industries had strong influence, but the European Parliament played an important role in this phase too, employing its power in the co-decision procedure. Finally, the implementation process is best understood as a multi-level governance process in which several actors and institutions - notably the Commission, member states, industries, and NGOs - influenced the process. (Author)

  18. Radiological emergency: road map for radiation accident victim transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, V.S.G.; Alcantara, Y.P.; Lima, C.M.A.; Silva, F. C. A. da

    2017-01-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, a number of necessary actions are taken, both within the radiation protection of individuals and the environment, involving many institutions and highly specialized personnel. Among them it is possible to emphasize the air transportation of radiation accident victims.The procedures and measures for the safe transport of these radiation accident victims are generally the responsibility of the armed forces, specifically the Aeronautics, with the action denominated 'Aeromedical Military Evacuation of Radiation Accident Victims'. The experience with the Radiological Accident of Goiânia demonstrated the importance of adequate preparation and response during a radiological emergency and the need for procedures and measures with regard to the transport of radiation victims are clearly defined and clearly presented for the effectiveness of the actions. This work presents the necessary actions for the transport of radiation accident victim during a radiological emergency, through the road map technique, which has been widely used in scientific technical area to facilitate understanding and show the way to be followed to reach the proposed objectives

  19. Renewal of Road Networks Using Map-matching Technique of Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Tao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The road network with complete and accurate information, as one of the key foundations of Smart City, bears significance in fields like urban planning, traffic managing and public traveling, et al. However, long manufacturing period of road network data, based on traditional surveying methods, often leaves it in an inconsistent state with the latest situation. Recently, positioning techniques ubiquitously used in mobile devices has been gradually coming into focus for domestic and overseas scholars. Currently, most of approaches, generating or updating road networks from mobile location information, are to compute with GPS trajectory data directly by various algorithms, which lead to expensive consumption of computational resources in case of mass GPS data covering large-scale areas. For this reason, we propose a spiral update strategy of road network data based on map-matching technology, which follows a “identify→analyze→extract→update” process. The main idea is to detect condemned road segments of existing road network data with the help of HMM for each trajectory input, as well as repair them, on the local scale, by extracting new road information from trajectory data.The proposed approach avoids computing on the entire dataset of trajectory data for road segments. Instead, it updates information of existing road network data by means of focalizing on the minimum range of potential condemned segments. We evaluated the performance of our proposals using GPS traces collected on taxies and OpenStreetMap(OSM road networks covering urban areas of Wuhan City.

  20. Development of a sensor platform for roadway mapping : part b - mapping the road fog lines : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Our objective is the development and evaluation of a low-cost, vehicle-mounted sensor suite capable of generating : map data with lane and road boundary information accurate to the 10 cm (4 in) level. Such a map could be used for : a number of differ...

  1. Sensors Fusion based Online Mapping and Features Extraction of Mobile Robot in the Road Following and Roundabout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Mohammed A H; Yussof, Wan Azhar B.; Hamedon, Zamzuri B; Yussof, Zulkifli B.; Majeed, Anwar P P; Mailah, Musa

    2016-01-01

    A road feature extraction based mapping system using a sensor fusion technique for mobile robot navigation in road environments is presented in this paper. The online mapping of mobile robot is performed continuously in the road environments to find the road properties that enable the robot to move from a certain start position to pre-determined goal while discovering and detecting the roundabout. The sensors fusion involving laser range finder, camera and odometry which are installed in a new platform, are used to find the path of the robot and localize it within its environments. The local maps are developed using camera and laser range finder to recognize the roads borders parameters such as road width, curbs and roundabout. Results show the capability of the robot with the proposed algorithms to effectively identify the road environments and build a local mapping for road following and roundabout. (paper)

  2. Building a road map for tailoring multilayer polyelectrolyte films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankner, John Francis; Bardoel, Agatha A.; Sukishvili, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Researchers are moving a step closer to a definite road map for building layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled polyelectrolyte films, with the assistance of the Liquids Reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Scientists using the liquids reflectometer have successfully taken snapshots in close to real time of these multilayered structures for different applications when they modify the structure and function parameters. Polyelecrolytes are polymers that carry charge in aqueous solutions. They contain chemical groups that dissociate in water, making such polymers charged. Most polyelectrolytes are water soluble. They are important components in foods, soaps, shampoos, and cosmetics products. They show promise for such environmental work as oil recovery and water treatment. Polyelectrolytes are compelling because researchers can chemically modify how they interact with water for multiple applications. When two types of polyelectrolytes of opposite charge are assembled at a surface in a sequential way using the LbL assembly technique, 'the result is the forming of surface films, useful for coatings, biomedical implants and devices, controlling adhesion of biological molecules, and controlling delivery of therapeutic molecules from surfaces,' said Svetlana Sukhishvili of the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey, the lead chemist on the collaboration. 'Medical doctors often prefer to deliver multiple therapeutic compounds from the coatings in a time-resolved manner,' Sukhishvili said. 'To assist them, material scientists need to learn how to build coatings in which polymer layering will not be compromised when exposed to normal physiological conditions.' 'Being able to control these properties, understanding how what you do to the materials affects their properties, this allows you to apply them to situations where interacting with an environment is very helpful, whether in a biological context or any other

  3. The EU's cybercrime and cyber-security rulemaking: mapping the internal and external dimensions of EU security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahey, E.

    2014-01-01

    By taking the EU Cyber Strategy as a case in point, this contribution examines how the distinction between external and internal security in contemporary EU law manifests itself in large-scale risk regulation and in particular, how the EU relies upon external norms to regulate risk. This article

  4. FROM THE ROAD SIGN TO THE MAP: 3D MODELING IN SUPPORT OF THE URBAN AND RURAL ROAD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palummo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV, commonly known as a drone, and an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS have been spreading on a massive scale during the last few years, especially for civilian use. And this situation can have significant repercussions on the ways and purposes with which we make photogrammetry nowadays. In this brief article we take into account the italian road signs as a case study on which to apply the new potential of photogrammetry realized with the aid of drones. Our main purpose is to achieve a specific method which allows the calculation of centimeter precision measurements of solids reconstructed for a mapping of (public and private road signs which require verification or replacement in urban, peri-urban and rural areas. Our hope is that this new approach to photogrammetry may arise opportunities for dialogue with policy makers especially where the usefulness of mapping could also appear predictive with respect to recurrent issues before they become consolidated.

  5. The place of digital technology on the IEA's energy road-maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naceur, Kamel

    2017-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) has drafted road-maps for the next four decades in collaboration with public and private producers and consumers of energy. For each type of energy, these road-maps indicate the key elements for compliance with the objectives of the Paris Climate Agreement. They emphasize the role of digital technology, in particular smart grids, in the transition toward a more digital and more intelligent energy system. The conditions necessary for successfully transforming this sector are mapped out, while attention is called to the risks inherent in this transition

  6. On the Impact of Anomalous Noise Events on Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Urban and Suburban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orga, Ferran; Alías, Francesc; Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma

    2017-12-23

    Noise pollution is a critical factor affecting public health, the relationship between road traffic noise (RTN) and several diseases in urban areas being especially disturbing. The Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC and the CNOSSOS-EU framework are the main instruments of the European Union to identify and combat noise pollution, requiring Member States to compose and publish noise maps and noise management action plans every five years. Nowadays, the noise maps are starting to be tailored by means of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN). In order to exclusively monitor the impact of RTN on the well-being of citizens through WASN-based approaches, those noise sources unrelated to RTN denoted as Anomalous Noise Events (ANEs) should be removed from the noise map generation. This paper introduces an analysis methodology considering both Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and duration of ANEs to evaluate their impact on the A-weighted equivalent RTN level calculation for different integration times. The experiments conducted on 9 h of real-life data from the WASN-based DYNAMAP project show that both individual high-impact events and aggregated medium-impact events bias significantly the equivalent noise levels of the RTN map, making any derived study about public health impact inaccurate.

  7. Soil geohazard mapping for improved asset management of UK local roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, O. G.; Hallett, S. H.; Farewell, T. S.

    2015-09-01

    Unclassified roads comprise 60 % of the road network in the United Kingdom (UK). The resilience of this locally important network is declining. It is considered by the Institution of Civil Engineers to be "at risk" and is ranked 26th in the world. Many factors contribute to the degradation and ultimate failure of particular road sections. However, several UK local authorities have identified that in drought conditions, road sections founded upon shrink-swell susceptible clay soils undergo significant deterioration compared with sections on non-susceptible soils. This arises from the local road network having little, if any, structural foundations. Consequently, droughts in East Anglia have resulted in millions of pounds of damage, leading authorities to seek emergency governmental funding. This paper assesses the use of soil-related geohazard assessments in providing soil-informed maintenance strategies for the asset management of the locally important road network of the UK. A case study draws upon the UK administrative county of Lincolnshire, where road assessment data have been analysed against mapped clay-subsidence risk. This reveals a statistically significant relationship between road condition and susceptible clay soils. Furthermore, incorporation of UKCP09 future climate projections within the geohazard models has highlighted roads likely to be at future risk of clay-related subsidence.

  8. Tire use and road safety : background to policy recommendations for new EU measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.; Schmeitz, A.J.C.; Akkermans, L.

    2015-01-01

    TNO and TML performed a study commissioned by the European Commission regarding what measures on a European level can be taken in relation to the use of tyres to improve road safety. The study considers the use of Winter tyres, tread depth requirements, tyre inflation pressure maintenance and tyre

  9. Drafting a monitoring plan for the ROAD project under the EU CCS directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegs, T.P.H.; Neelse, F.P.; Gittins, C.; Ros, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Rotterdam Capture and Storage Demonstration Project (ROAD) is an integrated CCS project in the Netherlands that has recently completed the storage permitting process. Development of the monitoring and contingency plans is a key component of this process. Our paper discusses the development of

  10. Road map towards a common harmonised Nordic end-user market. NordREG report 5 - 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this road map is to describe the overall process to harmonise the Nordic electricity end-user markets. The main target groups for the road map are the Nordic governments, legislators and the electricity industry. The road map will continuously be updated as the project progresses, at least once a year. It describes the recommendations already made by NordREG, as well as indicates up-coming recommendations. One important part of the Nordic harmonisation process is the monitoring of the progress of the project. It will be communicated through national implementation monitoring overviews, which will describe the state of play for each recommendation made by NordREG. The road map highlights the importance of national commitment by different stakeholders, authorities and governments in order to successfully harmonise the Nordic end-user markets. This commitment is absolutely essential. The goal for 2015 is to harmonise some of the legislation, rules and processes that constitute barriers for suppliers to establish their business in other Nordic countries. In order to achieve this goal, NordREG is working towards defining responsibilities in the customer interface of the supplier centric model and the way of billing the customers. Another important task is related to development of an efficient way of communication among a large number of Nordic electricity companies. By 2015 the end-user markets should be harmonised to the extent that the most critical prerequisites have been achieved. But it is important to bear in mind that there are still many more steps to be taken also after 2015. The harmonisation process between the Nordic retail markets is a process that will continue for the foreseeable future. Since there is no supranational organisation or institution (like in the EU), it means that any future development of the Nordic retail market will have to be continuously coordinated between the Nordic countries to ensure that the markets maintain the

  11. A new road map for the research in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destruel, P.; Chataing, H.

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with the new road map published in 2009 by the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology development Organization) for the research activity in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan from now until 2030, this brief embassy report first outlines the need for such a new road map as Japan's international competitiveness is more and more challenged: it only possesses 10% of the installed power in the world (50% in 2003) and ranks now in sixth position in terms of annual installed power. Beside this trend, environmental challenges and CO 2 emission reduction objectives, as well as oil price increase, have driven the NEDO to review its road map sooner as foreseen. The author describes the contents of the three main axis which have been defined for the photovoltaic development: photovoltaic profitability improvement (grid parity objective by 2030, production cost reduction), broadening of photovoltaic uses and applications, development and competitiveness of Japanese industries

  12. Satellites vs. fiber optics based networks and services - Road map to strategic planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, James H. R.

    An overview of a generic telecommunications network and its components is presented, and the current developments in satellite and fiber optics technologies are discussed with an eye on the trends in industry. A baseline model is proposed, and a cost comparison of fiber- vs satellite-based networks is made. A step-by-step 'road map' to the successful strategic planning of telecommunications services and facilities is presented. This road map provides for optimization of the current and future networks and services through effective utilization of both satellites and fiber optics. The road map is then applied to different segments of the telecommunications industry and market place, to show its effectiveness for the strategic planning of executives of three types: (1) those heading telecommunications manufacturing concerns, (2) those leading communication service companies, and (3) managers of telecommunication/MIS departments of major corporations. Future networking issues, such as developments in integrated-services digital network standards and technologies, are addressed.

  13. Technology Road-map Update for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Technology Road-map Update provides an assessment of progress made by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) in the development of the six systems selected when the original Technology Road-map was published in 2002. More importantly, it provides an overview of the major R and D objectives and milestones for the coming decade, aiming to achieve the Generation IV goals of sustainability, safety and reliability, economic competitiveness, proliferation resistance and physical protection. Lessons learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident are taken into account to ensure that Generation IV systems attain the highest levels of safety, with the development of specific safety design criteria that are applicable across the six systems. Accomplishing the ten-year R and D objectives set out in this new Road-map should allow the more advanced Generation IV systems to move towards the demonstration phase. (authors)

  14. THE JOURNEY TO COMPETITIVENESS: EU SPEEDING UP ON THE ROAD PAVED WITH KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprescu Raluca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the attempt to boost its international competitiveness, the European Union realized that it should enrich the ways to achieve it by using the intangible assets that it holds. Knowledge and intellectual capital, innovation, science and entrepreneurship are key drivers of economic development and renewal. The traditional resources on which economies rely on are scarce, while these ones are abundant and steady. Moreover, this type of assets can easily increase their value through sharing and they trigger multiplicative effects in the economy. The paper tackles these issues and makes an assessment of the degree of innovation in the EU. The study aims to provide an answer to the question of whether EU's overall performance proves that it is truly driven by knowledge and innovation or not. Using a qualitative method of research, this paper identifies innovation patterns of the member states from a geographical perspective. In order to provide a compelling analysis, the data ranges from indicators capturing science and technology activities, firm innovation to the internationalization of research activities and the tertiary-level graduates. The results show substantial discrepancies between the European countries and reveal that knowledge flows scaled by the level of innovation are a localized phenomenon, therefore some countries are more innovation-oriented and they reap the benefits better.

  15. Ombudsman institutions in the candidate countries on the road to EU membership: a comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahap Atilla OĞUŞGİL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has been attaching great importance to the values of democracy and human rights in its external policy, including to its relationship with candidate countries seeking membership in the Union. In accordance with the significance of the values stipulated by the Copenhagen political criteria, as well, it urges the countries in question, for example, to build or strengthen national oversight mechanisms that are tasked to promote the democratic governance of the state and protect human rights. This paper examines one of those oversight mechanisms – ombudsman institutions – in the candidate states conducting accession negotiations with the EU. It specifically scrutinises a fundamental characteristic for the effective functioning of these institutions – the jurisdiction and powers granted by their statutes. Relying on the findings to be noted, the paper also seeks an answer to the question of which ombudsman institution(s score(s better in terms of effectiveness and thus play(s a more significant role in the improvement and consolidation of democracy and protection of human rights in its or their countries, and as a result, contribute(s more to the fulfilment of Copenhagen political criteria during the EU accession processes.

  16. Road network selection for small-scale maps using an improved centrality-based algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Weiss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The road network is one of the key feature classes in topographic maps and databases. In the task of deriving road networks for products at smaller scales, road network selection forms a prerequisite for all other generalization operators, and is thus a fundamental operation in the overall process of topographic map and database production. The objective of this work was to develop an algorithm for automated road network selection from a large-scale (1:10,000 to a small-scale database (1:200,000. The project was pursued in collaboration with swisstopo, the national mapping agency of Switzerland, with generic mapping requirements in mind. Preliminary experiments suggested that a selection algorithm based on betweenness centrality performed best for this purpose, yet also exposed problems. The main contribution of this paper thus consists of four extensions that address deficiencies of the basic centrality-based algorithm and lead to a significant improvement of the results. The first two extensions improve the formation of strokes concatenating the road segments, which is crucial since strokes provide the foundation upon which the network centrality measure is computed. Thus, the first extension ensures that roundabouts are detected and collapsed, thus avoiding interruptions of strokes by roundabouts, while the second introduces additional semantics in the process of stroke formation, allowing longer and more plausible strokes to built. The third extension detects areas of high road density (i.e., urban areas using density-based clustering and then locally increases the threshold of the centrality measure used to select road segments, such that more thinning takes place in those areas. Finally, since the basic algorithm tends to create dead-ends—which however are not tolerated in small-scale maps—the fourth extension reconnects these dead-ends to the main network, searching for the best path in the main heading of the dead-end.

  17. Recommendations for the development and application of Evaluation Tools for road infrastructure safety management in the EU. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G. Cardoso, J. Elvik, R. Weller, G. Dietze, M. Reurings, M. Azeredo, S. & Charman, S.

    2014-01-01

    “ERA-NET ROAD — Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe” was a Coordination Action funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the EC. The partners in the 2009 ERA-NET ROAD (ENR) Safety at the heart of road design initiative were the United Kingdom, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden,

  18. Road Map for Gender Equality in the FCC Study

    CERN Document Server

    Genevieve Guinot

    2015-01-01

    Plan towards defining well scoped deliverables on gender specific communication for discussion, mapping of country context and organisational practices and the establishment of a focused task-force on gender equality in participating institutes.

  19. Retrieval Algorithms for Road Surface Modelling Using Laser-Based Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antero Kukko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Automated processing of the data provided by a laser-based mobile mapping system will be a necessity due to the huge amount of data produced. In the future, vehiclebased laser scanning, here called mobile mapping, should see considerable use for road environment modelling. Since the geometry of the scanning and point density is different from airborne laser scanning, new algorithms are needed for information extraction. In this paper, we propose automatic methods for classifying the road marking and kerbstone points and modelling the road surface as a triangulated irregular network. On the basis of experimental tests, the mean classification accuracies obtained using automatic method for lines, zebra crossings and kerbstones were 80.6%, 92.3% and 79.7%, respectively.

  20. Knowledge Construction in a Teachers' Community of Enquiry: A Possible Road Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellermayer, Michal; Tabak, Edith

    2006-01-01

    This action research is targeted at academic researchers who facilitate the construction of communities of enquiry in school-university partnerships and are interested in understanding the process of such an enterprise as well as the knowledge constructed within such communities. Our action research study provides a possible road map for such a…

  1. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students…

  2. NEA International Workshop on the Nuclear Innovation Road-map - NI2050. Workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Fernandez Fernandez, Alberto; Van Walle, Eric; Speranzini, Robert; Zezula, Lubor; Puska, Eija Karita; Tuomisto, Harri; Al Mazouzi, Abderrahim; Bazile, Fanny; Cordier, Pierre-Yves; Wahide, Carole; Tromm, Th. Walter; Horvath, Akos; Agostini, Pietro; Ambrosini, Walter; Kamide, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Toru; Sagayama, Yutaka; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Jeong, Ik; LEE, Gye Seok; Roelofs, Ferry; Van Der Lugt, Hermen; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Alekseev, Pavel; Andreeva-Andrievskaya, Lyudmila N.; Liska, Peter; Cizelj, Leon; Castelao Lopez, Carlos; Zimmermann, Martin; Rayment, Fiona; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Martin Ramos, Manuel; Schmitz, Bruno; Monti, Stefano; Bignan, Gilles; Mcgrath, Margaret; Caron-Charles, Marylise; Magwood, William IV; Ha, Jaejoo; Deffrennes, Marc; Paillere, Henri; Noh, Jae Man; Gulliford, Jim; Breest, Axel; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Lebedev, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    The two-day workshop held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris on 7-8 July 2015, brought together some of the leading experts in the field of nuclear fission research, development and demonstration. The purpose was to launch the NEA Nuclear Innovation 2050 Initiative, aiming, after a first survey phase, at producing a road-map of main priority research programs and infrastructures necessary to support the role nuclear energy may play in the low carbon power sector of the future. This might then further lead to some ad-hoc co-operation frameworks that help to effectively implement key priorities coming out of the road-mapping. The workshop was organised into the following five sessions: 1 - Opening session on NI2050: vision and main objectives; 2 - National presentations on nuclear fission research and innovation activities (programs, infrastructures, budgets); 3 - Presentations on some existing international nuclear fission road-maps and co-operation frameworks; 4 - Defining the way forward for NI2050: survey, road-mapping and priorities and co-operation; 5 - Open discussion. This document gathers the available presentations given at this workshop

  3. A Road Map to Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for Inhabited Areas: Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A Road Map to Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for I © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National...Australia (EMA) Office of Attorney General, Canberra. b) Australian Emergency Management Institute Mount Macedon, Victoria

  4. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

  5. How to prepare a road map for the management of plastic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorland, Jens; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Skovgaard, Mette

    This paper presents the results of Plastic Zero with the hope to inspire further action to enhance plastic resource-efficiency. It is meant as a source of inspiration on how to make a road map in a similar project. The process has given us various experiences and this guideline on how to make...

  6. Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

  7. Vision, trends, gaps and a broad road map for future engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossenaerts, J.B.M.; Possel-Dölken, F.; Popplewell, K.

    2007-01-01

    New challenges result from the virtualization and distribution of product development activities. This article analyzes problems of cooperative engineering as well as methods and tools for the virtual engineering of extended products. Based on these analyses, a broad road map is proposed that

  8. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

  9. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  10. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. WEC Europe - Road Map Towards a Competitive Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, G.

    2009-01-01

    G. Lundberg, the chair of regional task force presented the final draft report. The main conclusions and recommendations that the study has provided may be resumed as follows: 1) The creation of single European electricity market should be initiated with the formation of a core-European market by merging at first, two of the existing more advanced markets, in term of liberalization and effective operation, namely the Nordic and the Central Western European one. Thus, it will include 10 countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden) representing more than 50% of the EU-29 (plus Norway + Switzerland) electricity generation. Then, it would likely become attractive for joining by other currently fragmented European markets. The formation of the new core-European market should start immediately despite the current recession and it should be designed in a flexible frame, in order to ease the accommodation of the remaining markets; 2) The so-created core-European initial market will undoubtedly requires a set of common regional rules, to be elaborated in compliance with the third package provisions and the guidelines/market codes following the third package approval. Thus, it will provide a model for the remaining isolated markets, to be subsequently integrated. In this regulatory process, all the stake holders (power industry, TSO, regulators, consumers, related national and EU-bodies) must be involved, with a purpose to providing a practical input and thus, to minimize potential frictions, during the implementation phase; 3) The grid development in Europe is the key challenge to promote more competition and in particular, to accommodate the targeted 20% of electricity increases from renewable energy sources, by 2020. For this purpose, what ENTSO is preparing for the grid development and extension by 2020 is of primary importance. Crucial for the success of this plan will be how efficient would be the

  12. Towards High-Definition 3D Urban Mapping: Road Feature-Based Registration of Mobile Mapping Systems and Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Javanmardi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Various applications have utilized a mobile mapping system (MMS as the main 3D urban remote sensing platform. However, the accuracy and precision of the three-dimensional data acquired by an MMS is highly dependent on the performance of the vehicle’s self-localization, which is generally performed by high-end global navigation satellite system (GNSS/inertial measurement unit (IMU integration. However, GNSS/IMU positioning quality degrades significantly in dense urban areas with high-rise buildings, which block and reflect the satellite signals. Traditional landmark updating methods, which improve MMS accuracy by measuring ground control points (GCPs and manually identifying those points in the data, are both labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a novel and comprehensive framework for automatically georeferencing MMS data by capitalizing on road features extracted from high-resolution aerial surveillance data. The proposed framework has three key steps: (1 extracting road features from the MMS and aerial data; (2 obtaining Gaussian mixture models from the extracted aerial road features; and (3 performing registration of the MMS data to the aerial map using a dynamic sliding window and the normal distribution transform (NDT. The accuracy of the proposed framework is verified using field data, demonstrating that it is a reliable solution for high-precision urban mapping.

  13. Accurate lateral positioning from map data and road marking detection

    OpenAIRE

    GRUYER, Dominique; BELAROUSSI, Rachid; REVILLOUD, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We are witnessing the clash of two industries and the remaking of in-car market order, as the world of digital knowledge recently made a significant move toward the automotive industry. Mobile operating system providers are battling between each other to take over the in-vehicle entertainment and information systems, while car makers either line up behind their technology or try to keep control over the in-car experience. What is at stake is the map content and location-based services, two ke...

  14. Road-map design for thorium-uranium breeding recycle in PWR - 031

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shengyi, Si

    2010-01-01

    The paper was focused on designing a road-map to finally approach sustainable Thorium-Uranium ( 232 Th- 233 U) Breeding Recycle in current PWR, without any other change to the fuel lattice and the core internals, but substituting the UOX pellet with Thorium-based pellet. At first, the paper presented some insights to the inherence of Thorium-Uranium fuel conversion or breeding in PWR based on the neutronics theory and revealed the prerequisites for Thorium-Uranium fuel in PWR to achieve sustainable Breeding Recycle; And then, various Thorium-based fuels were designed and examined, and the calculation results further validated the above theoretical deductions; Based on the above theoretical analysis and calculation results, a road-map for sustainable Thorium-Uranium breeding recycle in PWR was outlined finally. (authors)

  15. Advanced Safeguards Technology Road-map for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.C.; Tobin, S.; Smith, L.E.; Ehinger, M.; Dougan, A.; Cipiti, B.; Bakel, A.; Bean, R.

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening the nonproliferation regime, including advanced safeguards, is a cornerstone of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). To meet these challenges, the Safeguards Campaign was formed, whose mission is to provide research and technology development for the foundation of next generation safeguards systems for implementation in U.S. GNEP facilities. The Safeguards Campaign works closely with the Nuclear Nonproliferation and International Security department (NA-24) of NNSA (National Nuclear Safety Administration) to ensure that technology developed for domestic safeguards applications are optimum with respect to international safeguards use. A major milestone of the program this year has been the development of the advanced safeguards technology road-map. This paper will broadly describe the road-map, which provides a path to next generation safeguards systems including advanced instrumentation; process monitoring; data integration, protection, and analysis; and system level evaluation and knowledge extraction for real time applications. (authors)

  16. A Photogrammetric Approach for Assessing Positional Accuracy of OpenStreetMap© Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Doucette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As open source volunteered geographic information continues to gain popularity, the user community and data contributions are expected to grow, e.g., CloudMade, Apple, and Ushahidi now provide OpenStreetMap© (OSM as a base layer for some of their mapping applications. This, coupled with the lack of cartographic standards and the expectation to one day be able to use this vector data for more geopositionally sensitive applications, like GPS navigation, leaves potential users and researchers to question the accuracy of the database. This research takes a photogrammetric approach to determining the positional accuracy of OSM road features using stereo imagery and a vector adjustment model. The method applies rigorous analytical measurement principles to compute accurate real world geolocations of OSM road vectors. The proposed approach was tested on several urban gridded city streets from the OSM database with the results showing that the post adjusted shape points improved positionally by 86%. Furthermore, the vector adjustment was able to recover 95% of the actual positional displacement present in the database. To demonstrate a practical application, a head-to-head positional accuracy assessment between OSM, the USGS National Map (TNM, and United States Census Bureau’s Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding Referencing (TIGER 2007 roads was conducted.

  17. R and D 2005-2015 - Seven road maps; F og U 2005 -2015. Syv roadmaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The strategy for energy efficient technologies has been prepared in collaboration between the Danish Energy Authorities and ELFOR among others. The strategy must form a framework for prioritization and development of Danish R and D efforts with a view to obtain the largest possible effect from public funds. The strategy is organized in: 1. A mapping of R and D efforts up till now within energy efficient technologies as regards players, research environments and market opportunities. 2. An analysis of the requirements of future efforts, including opportunities and barriers. 3. The actual strategy for energy efficient technologies with road maps. (BA)

  18. Climate impacts of short-lived climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2014-12-16

    Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.

  19. Draw-in Map - A Road Map for Simulation-Guided Die Tryout and Stamping Process Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuantao; Zhang, Jimmy J.; Goan, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Sheet metal forming is a displacement or draw-in controlled manufacturing process in which a flat blank is drawn into die cavity to form an automotive body panel. Draw-in amount is the single most important stamping manufacturing index that controls all forming characteristics (strains, stresses, thinning, etc.), stamping failures (splits, wrinkles, surface distortion, etc.) and line die operations and automations. Draw-in Map is engineered for math-based die developments via advanced stamping simulation technology. Then the Draw-in Map is provided to die makers in plants as a road map for math-guided die tryout in which the die tryout workers follow the engineered tryout conditions and matches the engineered draw-in amount so that the tryout time and cost are greatly reduced, and quality is ensured. The Map can also be used as a math-based trouble-shooting tool to identify the causes of formability problems in stamping production. The engineered Draw-in Map has been applied to all draw die tryout for all GM vehicle programs since 1998. A minimum 50% reduction in both lead-time and cost and significant improvement in panel quality in tryout have been reported. This paper presents the concept and process to apply the engineered Draw-in Map in die tryout

  20. IEA-NEA Nuclear Technology Road-map Update - Asia Stakeholder Engagement Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Cecilia; ); Paillere, Henri; ); Guoxing, Gu; Tianmin, Xin; Autebert, Remy; Murphy, Paul; Barkatullah, Nadira; Nkong-Njock, Vincent; Dubinsky, Melissa; Cordero, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) released a Nuclear Energy Technology Road-map which outlined the steps needed to accelerate the development of nuclear power and its role in achieve deep greenhouse-gas emissions reduction. Both the global energy sector and the outlook for nuclear have changed significantly since then and an update of this Road-map is currently underway. The IEA and NEA held a stakeholder dialogue meeting focused on nuclear develop in Asia on 25 February 2014 in Hong Kong. The meeting brought together key stakeholders from industry, government, finance and other relevant organisations from Asia and beyond to help define and prioritise key items to be discussed in the IEA/NEA's Nuclear Road-map Update. One of the expected outcomes of this intensive brainstorming and Road-map development session was to discus key targets, milestones, policy measures and other actions needed to support the development and deployment of nuclear power. The workshop was organized in 3 sessions dealing with: Session 1 - Technology development needs for nuclear (Reactor technology, Fuel cycle and decommissioning); Session 2 - Breakout Discussion: - Group I: Financing nuclear. This session focussed on today's reality for financing nuclear and the current economics of nuclear. Mechanisms such as government loan guarantees, vendor financing and role of export credit agencies were discussed. Participants were asked to share lessons learnt and current practices on financing nuclear as well as recommendations (if needed) for additional policy support or changes in technology development (e.g. SMR) which would facilitate greater deployment of nuclear technologies. - Group II: Nuclear regulation and safety. This session focussed on regulatory needs for enhanced security and regulation for new build programmes, institutional development requirements for new nuclear countries. Safety research following the Fukushima Daiichi accident

  1. A New Approach to High-accuracy Road Orthophoto Mapping Based on Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing orthophoto map based on satellite photography and aerial photography is not precise enough for road marking. This paper proposes a new approach to high-accuracy orthophoto mapping. The approach uses inverse perspective transformation to process the image information and generates the orthophoto fragment. The offline interpolation algorithm is used to process the location information. It processes the dead reckoning and the EKF location information, and uses the result to transform the fragments to the global coordinate system. At last it uses wavelet transform to divides the image to two frequency bands and uses weighted median algorithm to deal with them separately. The result of experiment shows that the map produced with this method has high accuracy.

  2. Tendances Carbone no. 110. Bringing road transport into the EU ETS: reasons of a false good idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afriat, Marion; Coussy, Paula

    2016-02-01

    Among the publications of I4CE, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. Beside some statistical figures about energy production/consumption and carbon markets, this issue specifically addresses the following points: - COP 21: EU leaders agreed on the necessity to ratify the Paris Agreement as soon as possible. - COP21 and European targets: Member States are divided over the possibility of raising the ambition of European targets. - EU ETS: ENVI and ITRE Committees need to reach an agreement on the post-2020 reform of the EU ETS by the end of 2016

  3. Road map for photovoltaic electricity; Feuille de route sur l'electricite photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    This road map aims at highlighting industrial, technological and social challenges, at elaborating comprehensive visions, at highlighting technological locks, and at outlining research needs for the photovoltaic sector. It considers the following sector components: preparation of photo-sensitive materials, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells, manufacturing of photovoltaic arrays, design and manufacturing of electric equipment to control photovoltaic arrays and to connect them to the grid. It highlights the demand for photovoltaic installations, analyzes the value chain, proposes a vision of the sector by 2050 and defines target for 2020, discusses needs for demonstration and experimentation

  4. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M.; Leist, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    . The first meeting of ISTNET was held in Zurich on 23-24 January 2014 in order to explore the concept of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) to practical DNT testing. AOPs were considered promising tools to promote test systems development according to regulatory needs. Moreover, the AOP concept was identified...... as an important guiding principle to assemble predictive integrated testing strategies (ITSs) for DNT. The recommendations on a road map towards AOP-based DNT testing is considered a stepwise approach, operating initially with incomplete AOPs for compound grouping, and focussing on key events of neurodevelopment...

  5. Road Closures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This is an up to date map of current road closures in Montgomery County.This dataset is updated every few minutes from the Department of Transportation road closure...

  6. Google Maps State of the Art of the Online Road Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Tutić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary use of Google Maps is navigation on land and finding a route for travelling by car, public transport, bike, airplane or on foot. It is hard to find a tool better suited for these tasks than Google Maps. When travelling by car is considered, the application provides one or more routes, each with corresponding length in km or miles and time needed to reach the destination. The recommended route is given coloured blue, while others are grey. For public transport routes, e.g. in Zagreb, it lists numbers of tram and bus lines and travelling time.

  7. EU GHG Emission Targets: 'Mind the gap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojodice, Ilaria

    2012-06-01

    In Durban, the European Union has been able to overcome the traditional dividing lines between developed and developing countries, setting a 'road-map' for a post-Kyoto framework. This would see countries conclude an 'agreed outcome with legal force' on emissions targets by 2015. Was this a key goal or a partial success for EU climate diplomacy? The main concerns are that the second commitment period would only come into force by 2021, and that necessary carbon cuts are not be increased before 2020. The direct by-product for the EU victory has been the awakening of the debate about raising emissions reductions to 30%. In fact, as stated in the Low Carbon Road-map, the EU has adopted a target of cutting emissions by 20% to by 2020, and of moving to a 30% reduction target if the conditions are right. Is this finally the time for Europe to improve its performance, even if it means going it alone? The EU has always been a strong defender of the Kyoto Protocol under certain constraints, such as developing and emerging countries entering into the deal. But does the EU have all the right assets to fight for this? Where is Europe in achieving its 2020 goal? In essence, this paper provides an estimate of what EU emissions could be in 2020, and how they stand compared to Kyoto and 20% objective of the 2020 strategy. (author)

  8. road-map for smart grids and electricity systems integrating renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebec, Gaelle; Moisan, Francois; Gioria, Michel

    2009-12-01

    The vision of smart grids and electricity systems elaborated in this road-map was drawn up on the basis of consultation and talks with a group of experts from industry (EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez), public research bodies (SUPELEC, Ecole des Mines, INES, universities), grid operators (ERDF, RTE), local authorities' groups (FNCCR) and ADEME. In the course of these working sessions the experts expressed their opinions intuitu personae. The views outlined in this road-map are not to be assimilated with the official positions of the corporations or research organisations to which the members of the group belong. The visions of smart electricity grids and systems integrating renewable energies in 2020 and in 2050 are in sharp contrast. This contrast was deliberately sought out, for two reasons: - to offer the most exhaustive panorama possible of imaginable futures; - to avoid neglecting a critical technological, organisational or socioeconomic bottleneck that might be associated with a possible scenario left out of the discussion. Accordingly, in seeking contrasting visions the group arrived at extreme representations and even caricatures of the future, which nonetheless help define the outer limit of possibilities, and the scope within which the actual situation will most likely be situated in 2020 and in 2050

  9. Navigating Without Road Maps: The Early Business of Automobile Route Guide Publishing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, John T.

    2018-05-01

    In the United States, automobile route guides were important precursors to the road maps that Americans are familiar with today. Listing turn-by-turn directions between cities, they helped drivers navigate unmarked, local roads. This paper examines the early business of route guide publishing through the Official Automobile Blue Book series of guides. It focuses specifically on the expansion, contraction, and eventual decline of the Blue Book publishing empire and also the work of professional "pathfinders" that formed the company's data-gathering infrastructure. Be- ginning in 1901 with only one volume, the series steadily grew until 1920, when thirteen volumes were required to record thousands of routes throughout the country. Bankruptcy and corporate restructuring in 1921 forced the publishers to condense the guide into a four-volume set in 1922. Competition from emerging sheet maps, along with the nationwide standardization of highway numbers, pushed a switch to an atlas format in 1926. Blue Books, however, could not remain competitive and disappeared after 1937. "Pathfinders" were employed by the publishers and equipped with reliable automobiles. Soon they developed a shorthand notation system for recording field notes and efficiently incorporating them into the development workflow. Although pathfinders did not call themselves cartographers, they were geographical data field collectors and considered their work to be an "art and a science," much the same as modern-day cartographers. The paper concludes with some comments about the place of route guides in the history of American commercial cartography and draws some parallels between "pathfinders" and the digital road mappers of today.

  10. Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-05-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as nogo regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  11. European Hydrogen Energy Road-map (HyWays) - First Results from Simulation, Stakeholder Discussion and Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhold Wurster; Ulrich Bunger; Jean-Marc Agator; Martin Wietschel; Harm Jeeninga

    2006-01-01

    HyWays is an integrated project, co-funded by research institutes, industry, national agencies and by the European Commission under the 6. Framework Programme. HyWays aims to develop a validated and well accepted Road-map for the introduction of hydrogen in the European energy system. The main characteristic of this Road-map is that it reflects real life conditions by taking into account not only technological but also country specific institutional, geographic and socio/economic barriers and opportunities. Both stationary and mobile applications are addressed, including possible synergies ('spill over effects') between these applications. HyWays will systematically describe the future steps to be taken for large-scale introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the power market and transport sector and as a storage medium for renewable energy. An Action Plan for the support of the introduction of hydrogen technologies will be derived from this Road-map. (authors)

  12. Mapping the course of the EU "Power Target Model"... on its own terms

    OpenAIRE

    GLACHANT, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    The European Union took more than 20 years to start defining a common market design for its internal electricity market: a European Power Target Model. And, a further 10 years to fully implement it. Meanwhile, the reference generation set of that model has shifted from CCGT burning gas to RES units transforming intermittent natural resources. Could the existing EU target model continue to work well for the short- term operation and long-term investment? If not, can the existing EU institution...

  13. Technology leadership : a road map to commercially viable PEMFC stack technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This abstract discussed recent advances in stack technology by Ballard Power Systems. The technology department of this Canadian-owned company exhibited the capability of a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack design to demonstrate that cost reduction, freeze start capability from -20 degrees C and durability under an automotive dynamic operating cycle are comparable to that experienced by a fuel cell stack in an actual vehicle. A technology road map has been developed by the company to define a path to the commercial viability of the PEMFC stack by 2010. Key target parameters for cost reduction, durability, freeze start and stack power density were described in detail along with demonstrated historical capability and details of how the company will achieve its required targets. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Strategy and design of Innovation Policy Road Mapping for a waste biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Looming energy crisis, climate change concerns coupled with decreasing fossil fuel resources has garnered significant global attention toward development of alternative, renewable, carbon-neutral and eco-friendly fuels to fulfil burgeoning energy demands. Waste utilization and its management are being pursued with renewed interest due to the gamut of biobased products it can offer apart from providing enough energy to meet a major fraction of the world's energy demand. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. Integrating all components of waste treatment culminating into biobased products and energy recovery in a single integrated waste biorefinery is self sufficient, highly sustainable and is very beneficial. Designing systematic innovation policies are essential for development and commercialization of new technologies in this important futuristic research area. This communication explores Innovation Policy Road Mapping (IPRM) methodology available in the literature and applies it to design integrated waste biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Road maps on research and development plans for water chemistry of nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Katsumura, Yosuke; Fuse, Motomasa; Takamori, Kenro; Tsuchiuchi, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Noriyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Water chemistry of nuclear power plants has played an important role in reduction of personnel doses, structural materials and fuel integrity assurance, and reduction of radioactive wastes production. Further contributions are requested for advanced utilization of the LWR, advanced fuels and aging management of plants. Since water chemistry has an effect on all structure and materials immersed and at the same time affected by them, the optimum control not sticking to specific issues and covering the whole plant is required for these requests. Taking account of roles and activities of the industry, governmental institutes and academia, road maps on research and development plans for water chemistry were compiled into identified eleven items with targets and counter measures taken, such as common basic technologies, dose reduction, SCC mitigation, fuel cans corrosion/hydrogen absorption mitigation, condition based maintenance and flow accelerated corrosion mitigation. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Flood-inundation maps for the Withlacoochee River From Skipper Bridge Road to St. Augustine Road, within the City of Valdosta, Georgia, and Lowndes County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2018-01-31

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 12.6-mile reach of the Withlacoochee River from Skipper Bridge Road to St. Augustine Road (Georgia State Route 133) were developed to depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage at Withlacoochee River at Skipper Bridge Road, near Bemiss, Ga. (023177483). Real-time stage information from this streamgage can be used with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Withlacoochee River at Skipper Bridge Road, near Bemiss, Ga. (023177483), can be used in conjunction with the maps developed for this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineer-ing Center’s River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) software for the Withlacoochee River and was used to compute flood profiles for a 12.6-mile reach of the Withlacoochee River. The hydraulic model was then used to simulate 23 water-surface profiles at 1.0-foot (ft) intervals at the Withlacoochee River near the Bemiss streamgage. The profiles ranged from the National Weather Service action stage of 10.7 ft, which is 131.0 ft above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), to a stage of 32.7 ft, which is 153.0 ft above NAVD 88. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model—derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data having a 4.0-ft horizontal resolution—to delineate the area flooded at each 1.0-ft interval of stream stage.

  17. The Road to Basel III – Quantitative Impact Study, the Basel III Framework and Implementation in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Gromova-Schneider; Caroline Niziolek

    2011-01-01

    In response to the financial crisis, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) in December 2009 published its first consultative proposals to review the Basel II regulatory framework. Following a consultation process and a quantitative impact study (QIS), on December 16, 2010, the BCBS published the final Basel III framework for tightening the globally applicable capital adequacy and liquidity rules. The implementation of the new provisions in the EU is currently under way. The Europe...

  18. Nuclear energy in a low carbon future: updating the IEA/NEA nuclear technology road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, H.; Cameron, R.; ); Tam, C.; )

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology road-map is one of 20 technology road-maps which the International Energy Agency (IEA) has published. The 2010 road-map, produced jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), came out in a year which saw 16 new construction starts, a number that had not been reached since 1985. The IEA's Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) 'Blue Map' scenario, also published in 2010, projected at that time that the installed world nuclear capacity would need to reach 1200 GW (gross) by 2050 as part of a global effort to de-carbonise the electricity sector assuming least cost optimisation. The 'nuclear renaissance' then stalled for a number of reasons which include the consequences of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 on public acceptance and energy policies. The economic crisis that was already looming in 2010, as well as delays and cost overruns in the first Generation III new build projects in Europe also played a role in the significant drop in new projects. Finally, the US shale gas revolution and the potential role that unconventional oil and gas could play have also changed the prospects for nuclear development in many countries. Four years after the publication of the first road-map, the IEA and the NEA are updating the nuclear energy road-map, taking into account the recent challenges facing the development of this technology. The presentation of this paper will explain the process followed to update the road-map, through stakeholder engagement workshops that took place between January and April 2014. It will most importantly provide some insight into its contents and preliminary milestones and recommendations. The draft of the road-map will be peer-reviewed over the summer and will be published at the end of 2014. The vision developed in the road-map still relates to the contribution that nuclear energy can make to the de-carbonisation of the power system, described in

  19. GENERATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION AND HIGH PRECISION ORTHORECTIFIED ROAD IMAGERY FROM MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sakamoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel technique to generate a high resolution and high precision Orthorectified Road Imagery (ORI by using spatial information acquired from a Mobile Mapping System (MMS is introduced. The MMS was equipped with multiple sensors such as GPS, IMU, odometer, 2-6 digital cameras and 2-4 laser scanners. In this study, a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN based approach, similar to general aerial photogrammetry, was adopted to build a terrain model in order to generate ORI with high resolution and high geometric precision. Compared to aerial photogrammetry, there are several issues that are needed to be addressed. ORI is generated by merging multiple time sequence images of a short section. Hence, the influence of occlusion due to stationary objects, such as telephone poles, trees, footbridges, or moving objects, such as vehicles, pedestrians are very significant. Moreover, influences of light falloff at the edges of cameras, tone adjustment among images captured from different cameras or a round trip data acquisition of the same path, and time lag between image exposure and laser point acquisition also need to be addressed properly. The proposed method was applied to generate ORI with 1 cm resolution, from the actual MMS data sets. The ORI generated by the proposed technique was more clear, occlusion free and with higher resolution compared to the conventional orthorectified coloured point cloud imagery. Moreover, the visual interpretation of road features from the ORI was much easier. In addition, the experimental results also validated the effectiveness of proposed radiometric corrections. In occluded regions, the ORI was compensated by using other images captured from different angles. The validity of the image masking process, in the occluded regions, was also ascertained.

  20. Road Map for Crisis Communication of Nuclear Regulatory Organisations - National Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Marina; Oestreng, Anne-Marit; Watanabe, Makoto; Otake, Fumie; Hallgren, Anneli; Hayden, Beth; Spiegelberg, Rejane; Martell, Meritxell; Menendez, Susan

    2011-06-01

    This report was based on a survey on national crises to which 17 countries responded, drawing on their own communication expertise and know-how in emergency response. Considering a previous analysis of communication during abnormal situations, this guidance seeks to help nuclear regulatory organisations (NROs) widen their common knowledge of communication requirements and practices amongst different countries, as well as existing informative tools to use before, during and after crises. The purpose of this document is to report on the survey's key findings and to draw a road map to improve the effectiveness of crisis communication management under all types of critical situations (from anomalies to major accidents). Among other topics, this report includes practical information on reaction time, elaboration and delivery of coordinated and accurate messages, new channels to be explored, and priority challenges to ensure transparency under close public scrutiny. It should be kept in mind that the present document was mostly completed before the nuclear crisis in Fukushima (Japan) that followed the catastrophic natural disasters that affected the region in March 2011. Therefore, this report does not take into account the necessary analysis of national practices derived from international crisis communication management. NROs commonly agree that crisis communication is linked to media pressure and reputation risk, and all realize that their credibility could be jeopardised. Because crises demand a quick response, an established communication plan by the NRO to deliver accurate information in the initial stage is critical. Providing early information, expected of nuclear safety authorities by the public, helps ensure transparency under high pressure and public scrutiny. Regular public communication about the NRO and planned emergency actions in advance of a crisis helps to build the NRO's reputation as a reliable, independent and trustworthy source of information

  1. Road safety policy of the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is important for national road safety policies. The EU has several policymaking instruments, such as binding regulations and directives, and non-binding recommendations. An important element in the EU policy plans on road safety are the non-binding European road safety

  2. A road map for leptospirosis research and health policies based on country needs in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Martha Maria; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Munoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Costa, Federico; Benschop, Jackie; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Martinez, Julio; Jancloes, Michel; Bertherat, Eric

    2018-02-19

    This report summarizes the presentations, discussions and the recommendations coming from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ International Workshop for Leptospirosis Research Based on Country Needs and the 5th Global Leptospirosis Environmental Action Network meeting, which was held in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 10-12 November 2015. The event focused on health policy and worked to develop a road map as a consensus document to help guide decision-making by policymakers, funding bodies, and health care professionals. The direction that leptospirosis research should take in the coming years was emphasized, taking into account the needs of countries of Latin America, as well as experiences from other world regions, as provided by international experts. The operational concepts of "One Health" and translational research underlaid the discussions and the resulting recommendations. Despite the wide geographic distribution of leptospirosis and its impact in terms of incidence, morbidity, and mortality, leptospirosis is not yet considered a "tool-ready" disease for global initiatives. Surveillance programs need new tools and strategies for early detection, prevention, and follow-up. The major recommendations developed at the Rio meeting cover both health policy and research. The health policy recommendations should be taken into account by decisionmakers, government officials, and the Pan American Health Organization. The priorities for research, technological development, and innovation should be considered by research institutions, universities, and stakeholders.

  3. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M; Leist, Marcel; Allen, Sandra; Arand, Michael; Buetler, Timo; Delrue, Nathalie; FitzGerald, Rex E; Hartung, Thomas; Heinonen, Tuula; Hogberg, Helena; Bennekou, Susanne Hougaard; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Oggier, Daniela; Paparella, Martin; Axelstad, Marta; Piersma, Aldert; Rached, Eva; Schilter, Benoît; Schmuck, Gabriele; Stoppini, Luc; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Tiramani, Manuela; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Wilks, Martin F; Ylikomi, Timo; Fritsche, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    A major problem in developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) risk assessment is the lack of toxicological hazard information for most compounds. Therefore, new approaches are being considered to provide adequate experimental data that allow regulatory decisions. This process requires a matching of regulatory needs on the one hand and the opportunities provided by new test systems and methods on the other hand. Alignment of academically and industrially driven assay development with regulatory needs in the field of DNT is a core mission of the International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET) in DNT testing. The first meeting of ISTNET was held in Zurich on 23-24 January 2014 in order to explore the concept of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) to practical DNT testing. AOPs were considered promising tools to promote test systems development according to regulatory needs. Moreover, the AOP concept was identified as an important guiding principle to assemble predictive integrated testing strategies (ITSs) for DNT. The recommendations on a road map towards AOP-based DNT testing is considered a stepwise approach, operating initially with incomplete AOPs for compound grouping, and focussing on key events of neurodevelopment. Next steps to be considered in follow-up activities are the use of case studies to further apply the AOP concept in regulatory DNT testing, making use of AOP intersections (common key events) for economic development of screening assays, and addressing the transition from qualitative descriptions to quantitative network modelling.

  4. Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; hide

    2012-01-01

    The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

  5. Venom evolution widespread in fishes: a phylogenetic road map for the bioprospecting of piscine venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William Leo; Wheeler, Ward C

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of evolutionary relationships or phylogeny allows for effective predictions about the unstudied characteristics of species. These include the presence and biological activity of an organism's venoms. To date, most venom bioprospecting has focused on snakes, resulting in six stroke and cancer treatment drugs that are nearing U.S. Food and Drug Administration review. Fishes, however, with thousands of venoms, represent an untapped resource of natural products. The first step involved in the efficient bioprospecting of these compounds is a phylogeny of venomous fishes. Here, we show the results of such an analysis and provide the first explicit suborder-level phylogeny for spiny-rayed fishes. The results, based on approximately 1.1 million aligned base pairs, suggest that, in contrast to previous estimates of 200 venomous fishes, >1,200 fishes in 12 clades should be presumed venomous. This assertion was corroborated by a detailed anatomical study examining potentially venomous structures in >100 species. The results of these studies not only alter our view of the diversity of venomous fishes, now representing >50% of venomous vertebrates, but also provide the predictive phylogeny or "road map" for the efficient search for potential pharmacological agents or physiological tools from the unexplored fish venoms.

  6. Exploring a road map to counter misconceptions about the cervicovaginal microbiome and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklaim, Jean M; Cohen, Craig R; Donders, Gilbert; Gloor, Gregory B; Hill, Janet E; Parham, Groesbeck P; Ravel, Jacques; Spear, Gregory; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Reid, Gregor

    2012-11-01

    Urogenital diseases, especially infection and cancer, are major causes of death and morbidity in females. Yet, millions of women in the developing world have no access to basic urogynecological care, and the diagnosis and treatment of widespread aberrant bacterial conditions (bacterial vaginosis [BV] and aerobic vaginitis [AV]) remain suboptimal the world over. Samples from women living in resource-disadvantaged and developed countries have been analyzed by high-throughput sequencing to reveal the diversity of bacteria in the vagina, how rapidly the bacterial population fluctuates over time, and how rapidly the switch occurs between healthy and aberrant conditions. Unfortunately, clinical diagnostic methods are inefficient and too often outdated therapies are administered. The net result is suboptimal care and recurrent disease that adversely affects the quality of life. This viewpoint outlines a scientific and translational road map designed to improve the cervicovaginal health and treatment of disease. This comprises (1) improving education of women and physicians on the vaginal microbiota; (2) having agencies target funding for research to improve diagnosis and test new therapies; and (3) making sure that new approaches are accessible in developing countries, empowering to women, and are acceptable and appropriate for different populations.

  7. The smart grid research network: Road map for Smart Grid research, development and demonstration up to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troi, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Electrical Engineering, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Noerregaard Joergensen, B. [Syddansk Univ. (SDU), Odense (Denmark); Mahler Larsen, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Electrical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-01-15

    This road map is a result of part-recommendation no. 25 in 'MAIN REPORT - The Smart Grid Network's recommendations', written by the Smart Grid Network for the Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building in October 2011. This part-recommendation states: ''Part-recommendation 25 - A road map for Smart Grid research, development and demonstration It is recommended that the electricity sector invite the Ministry to participate in the creation of a road map to ensure that solutions are implemented and coordinated with related policy areas. The sector should also establish a fast-acting working group with representatives from universities, distribution companies and the electric industry, in order to produce a mutual, binding schedule for the RDD of the Smart Grid in Denmark. Time prioritisation of part-recommendation: 2011-2012 Responsibility for implementation of part-recommendation: Universities, along with relevant electric-industry actors, should establish a working group for the completion of a consolidated road map by the end of 2012.'' In its work on this report, the Smart Grid Research Network has focused particularly on part-recommendations 26, 27 and 28 in 'MAIN REPORT - The Smart Grid Network's recommendations', which relate to strengthening and marketing the research infrastructure that will position Denmark as the global hub for Smart Grid development; strengthening basic research into the complex relationships in electric systems with large quantities of independent parties; and improved understanding of consumer behaviour and social economics. Naturally the work has spread to related areas along the way. The work has been conducted by the Smart Grid Research Network. (Author)

  8. Mapping cultural ecosystem services: A framework to assess the potential for outdoor recreation across the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paracchini, M.L.; Zulian, G.; Kopperoinen, L.; Maes, J.; Schagner, J.P.; Termansen, M.; Zandersen, M.; Perez-Soba, M.; Scholefield, P.A.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity is

  9. ‘’Mapping Self- and Co-regulation Approaches in the EU Context’’ : Explorative Study for the European Commission, DG Connect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senden, L.A.J.; Kica, E.; Klinger, Kilian; Hiemstra, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a first mapping or inventory of the different approaches to self- and co- regulation (SCR) that can be found within the EU context, in a number of Member States (MS) and international organizations. The report consists of four sections. Whereas the first section provides an

  10. Research across the disciplines: a road map for quality criteria in empirical ethics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Marcel; Inthorn, Julia; Renz, Günter; Rothenberger, Lillian Geza; Salloch, Sabine; Schildmann, Jan; Wöhlke, Sabine; Schicktanz, Silke

    2014-03-01

    Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE study results in misleading ethical analyses, evaluations or recommendations. This not only deprives the study of scientific and social value, but also risks ethical misjudgement. While empirical and normative-ethical research projects have quality criteria in their own right, we focus on the specific quality criteria for EE research. We develop a tentative list of quality criteria--a "road map"--tailored to interdisciplinary research in EE, to guide assessments of research quality. These quality criteria fall into the categories of primary research question, theoretical framework and methods, relevance, interdisciplinary research practice and research ethics and scientific ethos. EE research is an important and innovative development in bioethics. However, a lack of standards has led to concerns about and even rejection of EE by various scholars. Our suggested orientation list of criteria, presented in the form of reflective questions, cannot be considered definitive, but serves as a tool to provoke systematic reflection during the planning and composition of an EE research study. These criteria need to be tested in different EE research settings and further refined.

  11. Interfascial technique for vertebral artery exposure in the suboccipital triangle: the road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A Samy; Uribe, Juan S; Ramos, Edwin; Janjua, Rashid; Thomas, L Brannon; van Loveren, Harry

    2010-12-01

    The extradural portion of the vertebral artery (VA-V3) has a unique anatomy at the craniovertebral junction. The exposure of V3 can be accompanied by profuse bleeding from the venous plexus in addition to the potential risk of inadvertent injury of the VA during surgery at the craniovertebral junction. The natural tissue planes represent a road map to the safe exposure of the VA in the suboccipital triangle. To describe the microsurgical anatomy of the tissue planes in the suboccipital region. The suboccipital region was bilaterally dissected in 6 fresh silicone-injected cadaver heads. An interfascial technique was used to expose the VA-V3 following a tissue plane between the deep suboccipital muscular fascia dorsally and posterior atlantooccipital membrane, the C1 periosteal membrane, and the membrane covering the VA and venous plexus ventrally. The craniovertebral junction was harvested from 2 heads and prepared for histological sections. The same technique was applied in 25 operative cases. The anatomic dissections confirmed the existence of an interfascial plane that can be dissected in a blunt fashion to reach as far lateral as the transverse processes of C1 and C2. Application of the dissection technique did not require diathermy coagulation in the operating room. In 25 cases, there was no injury of the VA or bleeding from the venous plexus. Vertebral artery exposure in the suboccipital triangle (V3) can be achieved safely with minimal blood loss using a technique that follows the natural tissue plane between the deep suboccipital muscle fascia, the posterior atlantooccipital membrane, the membrane covering VA/venous plexus, and the periosteum of the C1 and C2 laminae.

  12. Mapping cumulative environmental risks: examples from the EU NoMiracle project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistocchi, A.; Groenwold, J.; Lahr, J.; Loos, M.; Mujica, M.; Ragas, A.M.J.; Rallo, R.; Sala, S.; Schlink, U.; Strebel, K.; Vighi, M.; Vizcaino, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present examples of cumulative chemical risk mapping methods developed within the NoMiracle project. The different examples illustrate the application of the concentration addition (CA) approach to pesticides at different scale, the integration in space of cumulative risks to individual organisms

  13. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  14. Jean-Louis Borloo presents the road map issued by the 'Grenelle Environnement' forum on France's energy infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The French Minister of Environment (J.L. Borloo) has presented the road map (issued from the 'Grenelle Environment' forum) concerning the energy infrastructures in France for the next ten years. The 'Grenelle Environnement' will place France on the road to 'Factor 4' (i.e. to divide by 4 France's greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2050); multi-annual programs for electricity and gas are focused on the reduction of energy consumption and give priority to non carbon energies. Development of renewable energies is one of the keys of the energy transition, and one of the responses to climatic change. Thermal power plants will be deeply modernized and less CO 2 emitting; two third generation EPR-type nuclear reactors will be launched by 2020; gas infrastructures will be granted accelerated investments; renewable heat and district heating networks will be encouraged

  15. Architecture design study and technology road map for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, John D.; Ireland, Michael J.; Kraus, Stefan; Baron, Fabien; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Dong, Ruobing; Isella, Andrea; Merand, Antoine; Michael, Ernest; Minardi, Stefano; Mozurkewich, David; Petrov, Romain; Rinehart, Stephen; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Vasisht, Gautam; Wishnow, Ed; Young, John; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-08-01

    of PFI, including the potential to resolve protoplanetary disks in emission lines to measure planet masses using position-velocity diagrams. We advocate for a specific technology road map in order to reduce the current cost driver (telescopes) and to validate high accuracy fringe tracking and high dynamic range imaging at L, M band. In conclusion, no technology show-stoppers have been identified for PFI to date, however there is high potential for breakthroughs in medium-aperture (4-m class) telescopes architecture that could reduce the cost of PFI by a factor of 2 or more.

  16. Top-down workforce demand extrapolation based on an EC energy road-map scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Von Estorff, U.

    2014-01-01

    The EHRO-N team of JRC-IET provides the EC with essential data related to supply and demand for nuclear experts based on bottom-up information from the nuclear industry. The current paper deals with an alternative approach to derive figures for the demand side information of the nuclear workforce. Complementary to the bottom-up approach, a top-down modelling approach extrapolation of an EC Energy road-map nuclear energy demand scenario is followed here in addition to the survey information. In this top-down modelling approach, the number of nuclear power plants that are in operation and under construction is derived as a function of time from 2010 up to 2050 assuming that the current reactor park will be replaced by generic third generation reactors of 1400 MWe or 1000 MWe. Depending on the size of new build reactors, the analysis shows the number of new reactors required to fulfil the demand for nuclear energy. Based on workforce models for operation and construction of nuclear power plants, the model allows an extrapolation of these respective work-forces. Using the nuclear skills pyramid, the total workforce employed at a plant is broken down in a nuclear (experts), nuclearized, and nuclear aware workforce. With retirement profiles for nuclear power plants derived from the bottom-up EHRO-N survey, the replacement of the current workforce is taken into account. The peak of the new workforce (partly replacing the retiring workforce and additionally keeping up with the growing total workforce demand) for nuclear experts and nuclearized employees is to be expected at the end of the considered period (2050). However, the peak workforce for nuclear aware employees is to be expected around 2020. When comparing to historical data for the nuclear capacity being installed at the same time in Europe, it is clear that the expected future capacity to be installed at the same time in Europe is significantly lower (factor of 2) than in the early 1980's. However, it should

  17. Road Map for Education and Training in Land Use and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, M.M.B.; Oonk, C.; Palang, H.; Pedroli, G.B.M.; Stastná, M.

    2007-01-01

    The new EU countries, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia are still struggling with the different assessment tools and basic issues related to sustainable development. This brochure summarises the results of the ATLAS project. Land use change: a

  18. A Conceptual Framework of Mapping Access to Health Care across EU Countries: The Patient Access Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Hasardzhiev, Stanimir; Agapidaki, Eirini

    Research evidence suggests that access to health care is the key influential factor for improved population health outcomes and health care system sustainability. Although the importance of addressing barriers in access to health care across European countries is well documented, little has been done to improve the situation. This is due to different definitions, approaches and policies, and partly due to persisting disparities in access within and between European countries. To bridge this gap, the Patient Access Partnership (PACT) developed (a) the '5As' definition of access, which details the five critical elements (adequacy, accessibility, affordability, appropriateness, and availability) of access to health care, (b) a multi-stakeholders' approach for mapping access, and (c) a 13-item questionnaire based on the 5As definition in an effort to address these obstacles and to identify best practices. These tools are expected to contribute effectively to addressing access barriers in practice, by suggesting a common framework and facilitating the exchange of knowledge and expertise, in order to improve access to health care between and within European countries. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Removing non-urban roads from the National Land Cover Database to create improved urban maps for the United States, 1992-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying change in urban land provides important information to create empirical models examining the effects of human land use. Maps of developed land from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of the conterminous United States include rural roads in the developed land class and therefore overestimate the amount of urban land. To better map the urban class and understand how urban lands change over time, we removed rural roads and small patches of rural development from the NLCD developed class and created four wall-to-wall maps (1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011) of urban land. Removing rural roads from the NLCD developed class involved a multi-step filtering process, data fusion using geospatial road and developed land data, and manual editing. Reference data classified as urban or not urban from a stratified random sample was used to assess the accuracy of the 2001 and 2006 urban and NLCD maps. The newly created urban maps had higher overall accuracy (98.7 percent) than the NLCD maps (96.2 percent). More importantly, the urban maps resulted in lower commission error of the urban class (23 percent versus 57 percent for the NLCD in 2006) with the trade-off of slightly inflated omission error (20 percent for the urban map, 16 percent for NLCD in 2006). The removal of approximately 230,000 km2 of rural roads from the NLCD developed class resulted in maps that better characterize the urban footprint. These urban maps are more suited to modeling applications and policy decisions that rely on quantitative and spatially explicit information regarding urban lands.

  20. Genetic mapping of 14 avirulence genes in an EU-B04 × 1639 progeny of Venturia inaequalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Bus, Vincent G M; Parravicini, Gabriella; Kumar, Satish; Groenwold, Remmelt; Gessler, Cesare

    2011-02-01

    Durable resistance to apple scab (Venturia inaequalis (Cke) Wint; anamorph Spilocaea pomi Fries) is one of the major goals of apple (Malus) breeding programs. Since current scab resistance breeding is heavily reliant on genes with gene-for-gene relationships, a good understanding of the genetic basis of host-pathogen interactions needs to be developed for this strategy to be successful. While the genomic organization of apple scab resistance genes has been studied extensively, little is known about the avirulence genes in the pathogen. The progeny of a cross of European V. inaequalis race (1) isolate EU-B04 and race (1,2,8,9) isolate 1639 was used to generate a genetic map based on microsatellite and AFLP markers, and investigated for inheritance of avirulence traits on 20 Malus accessions representing 17 scab resistance genes. The accessions comprised scab differential hosts (0), (1), (2), (8), and (9), and hosts carrying known as well as not previously reported secondary resistance genes, including some identified in crosses that have resistant accessions 'Geneva', 'Dolgo', Malus baccata jackii, M. micromalus, or 'Antonovka' in their pedigree. The latter genes appear to be narrow spectrum genes that showed gene-for-gene relationships as a segregation ratio of Avr:avr=1:1 was observed on 12 accessions, while a ratio of 3:1 was observed on five accessions and a ratio of 7:1 on one host. All progenies were shown to be pathogenic, as all of them were able to infect hosts (0) and (1). A genetic map consisting of 15 major linkage groups (LGs) and spanning 972cM was generated with the aid of 156 markers. The map position of 12 avirulence traits was determined: eight avirulence genes mapped into two separate clusters (1: AvrVdg2, AvrVv1, AvrVu1, AvrVrjrd; and 2: AvrVu2, AvrVh3.2, AvrVs1, AvrVu4), while four avirulence genes (AvrRvi8, AvrVv2, AvrVt57 and AvrVsv) mapped to different LGs. AvrRvi2 and AvrRvi9 also are genetically linked, but showed an interaction with Avr

  1. From Bench to Bountiful Harvests: A Road Map for the Next Decade of Arabidopsis Research[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagi, Irene; Estelle, Mark; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Beynon, Jim; Bastow, Ruth M.

    2012-01-01

    In the face of an increasing world population and climate instability, the demands for food and fuel will continue to rise. Plant science will be crucial to help meet these exponentially increasing requirements for food and fuel supplies. Fundamental plant research will play a major role in providing key advances in our understanding of basic plant processes that can then flow into practical advances through knowledge sharing and collaborations. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has played a major role in our understanding of plant biology, and the Arabidopsis community has developed many tools and resources to continue building on this knowledge. Drawing from previous experience of internationally coordinated projects, The international Arabidopsis community, represented by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC), has drawn up a road map for the next decade of Arabidopsis research to inform scientists and decision makers on the future foci of Arabidopsis research within the wider plant science landscape. This article provides a summary of the MASC road map. PMID:22751212

  2. Regulatory road maps for the integration of intermittent electricity generation: Methodology development and the case of The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welle, Adriaan J. van der; Joode, Jeroen de

    2011-01-01

    The envisaged increase in the share of electricity generation from intermittent renewable energy sources (RES-E) like wind and photovoltaics will pose challenges to the existing electricity system. A successful integration of these sources requires a cost-efficient use of system flexibility. The literature on the options to improve system flexibility, and thus the costs of successfully integrating intermittent electricity generating units, is still growing but what is lacking is an overarching systematic view on when to adopt which option in particular energy systems. This paper aims to bridge this gap in literature. We use existing insights on market and network integration of intermittent electricity sources within a regulatory road map framework. The framework allows policy makers and other electricity system stakeholders to arrive at a consistent strategy in dealing with integration issues over a longer period of time. In this contribution we present and explain the framework and apply it for the case of The Netherlands. - Highlights: → Successful integration of intermittent electricity generation requires a cost-efficient use of system flexibility. → An overarching systematic view on when to adopt which flexibility option in particular energy systems was lacking. → We identify a consistent strategy in dealing with integration issues over a longer period of time. → We present this regulatory road map framework and apply it for the case of The Netherlands.

  3. The ethanol industry from the analysis technology road maps; A industria do etanol a partir da analise de roadmaps tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calil Neto, Antonio; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira Cavalacanti; Freire, Estevao [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of the ethanol industry in the coming years should be buoyed by several factors, among which gain prominence: feedstock, conversion technologies and products. This article aims, from the analysis of technological road maps, is dealing with Brazil in the face of the global market, is primarily addressing the international context, to assess which technologies tend to predominate, with emphasis on the ethanol industry, addressing convergent and complementary the technology road maps, especially regarding the barriers and challenges, costs and logistics, and other broader issues that govern the production of sustainable feedstock, conversion technologies and biofuels industry, with emphasis on ethanol. Conventional biofuels today are generally not competitive with fossil fuels at market prices, except for the cane ethanol already has a good performance in economic terms. Moreover, strategies for first generation ethanol differ from those for the second generation, which is at an earlier stage of technology development and still subject to comparatively high production costs. The non-economic fundamental barrier to the development of biofuels, particularly ethanol, is the uncertainty as to its sustainability. The debate sometimes on competition with food production and the potential destruction of valuable ecosystems put biofuels in the center of the discussion about sustainability. The challenges facing the ethanol industry range from the need to implement on a large scale to reduce costs along the production chain, through the need for second-generation technologies to reach the level of market, with the behavior of these factors and others will depend on each setting route. (author)

  4. Presenting a practical model for governmental political mapping on road traffic injuries in Iran in 2008: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainy, E; Soori, Hamid; Mahfozphoor, S; Movahedinejad, Aa

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess political mapping in relation to road traffic injuries (RTIs) management and prevention to present a practical model for RTIs. A phenomenological qualitative study was developed to identify stakeholders on RTI in Iran in 2008. The designed questions were discussed by systematic discussion with the relevant specialists. After receiving written consent from the main responsible stakeholders, the questionnaire was filled in by trained experts. Themes were determined and content was analysed in each part. Main responsible stakeholders. By comparing other countries' political mappings which were found in the library and by Internet searching, political mapping of RTI in Iran was suggested. Subjects were 26 experts from governmental and non-governmental organizations. The main proposed leading agencies were traffic police and presidency (13% each). Findings showed that only 31% of our political mapping was formed according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In 94% of cases, the involved organizations had unspecified roles; the reason was poor monitoring for RTI in 39% of organizations. Lack of adequate authority and suitable legislation, appropriate laws and tasks definition were 94% and 18%, respectively. The most essential policy to overcome problems was defined as appropriate legislation (21%), and the most frequent type of support needed was mentioned as adequate budgeting (25%). Traffic police can play the leading agency role by government support, with strong leadership, appropriate legislation, defined tasks and adequate budget.

  5. An Anomalous Noise Events Detector for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Real-Life Urban and Suburban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Claudi Socoró

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is their continued exposure to high Road Traffic Noise (RTN levels. Until now, noise measurements in cities have been performed by professionals, recording data in certain locations to build a noise map afterwards. However, the deployment of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN has enabled automatic noise mapping in smart cities. In order to obtain a reliable picture of the RTN levels affecting citizens, Anomalous Noise Events (ANE unrelated to road traffic should be removed from the noise map computation. To this aim, this paper introduces an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED designed to differentiate between RTN and ANE in real time within a predefined interval running on the distributed low-cost acoustic sensors of a WASN. The proposed ANED follows a two-class audio event detection and classification approach, instead of multi-class or one-class classification schemes, taking advantage of the collection of representative acoustic data in real-life environments. The experiments conducted within the DYNAMAP project, implemented on ARM-based acoustic sensors, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational cost and classification performance using standard Mel cepstral coefficients and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM. The two-class GMM core classifier relatively improves the baseline universal GMM one-class classifier F1 measure by 18.7% and 31.8% for suburban and urban environments, respectively, within the 1-s integration interval. Nevertheless, according to the results, the classification performance of the current ANED implementation still has room for improvement.

  6. Mapping hyperfine fields with Hf in EuTiO3 by time differential perturbed angular correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Rano, Borak Ur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Using time differential perturbed angular correlation of γ rays, we investigated the electric field gradient for different annealing of defects and local oxygen configuration with Hf as a probe in EuTiO3. The measurements were performed at ISOLDE-CERN. The results, combined with ab-initio calculations, support the assumption that the electric field gradient for this system is determined by the trapping of defects for different charge states of Eu.

  7. The Evolving Landscape of Healthcare-Associated Infections: Recent Advances in Prevention and a Road Map for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nasia; Anderson, Deverick J.; Braun, Barbara I.; Carling, Philip; Cohen, Stuart; Donskey, Curtis; Drees, Marci; Harris, Anthony; Henderson, David K.; Huang, Susan S.; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Linkin, Darren R.; Meddings, Jennifer; Miller, Loren G.; Milstone, Aaron; Morgan, Daniel; Sengupta, Sharmila; Varman, Meera; Yokoe, Deborah; Zerr, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    This white paper identifies knowledge gaps and new challenges in healthcare epidemiology research, assesses the progress made toward addressing research priorities, provides the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Committee’s recommendations for high-priority research topics, and proposes a road map for making progress toward these goals. It updates the 2010 SHEA Research Committee document, “Charting the Course for the Future of Science in Healthcare Epidemiology: Results of a Survey of the Membership of SHEA,” which called for a national approach to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and a prioritized research agenda. This paper highlights recent studies that have advanced our understanding of HAIs, the establishment of the SHEA Research Network as a collaborative infrastructure to address research questions, prevention initiatives at state and national levels, changes in reporting and payment requirements, and new patterns in antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24709716

  8. Fast and robust road segmentation and obstacle map generation for autonomous navigation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senekal, FP

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available is developed. Using a calibrated camera, a projection of a local obstacle map is then laid over the segmented image and an estimate is made of the likelihood of drivable region in each occupancy cell. The algorithm is both fast, can be implemented in real...

  9. Historical maintenance relevant information road-map for a self-learning maintenance prediction procedural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Francisco J.; Reyes, Antonio; Cáceres, Noelia; Romero, Luis M.; Benitez, Francisco G.; Morgado, Joao; Duarte, Emanuel; Martins, Teresa

    2017-09-01

    A large percentage of transport infrastructures are composed of linear assets, such as roads and rail tracks. The large social and economic relevance of these constructions force the stakeholders to ensure a prolonged health/durability. Even though, inevitable malfunctioning, breaking down, and out-of-service periods arise randomly during the life cycle of the infrastructure. Predictive maintenance techniques tend to diminish the appearance of unpredicted failures and the execution of needed corrective interventions, envisaging the adequate interventions to be conducted before failures show up. This communication presents: i) A procedural approach, to be conducted, in order to collect the relevant information regarding the evolving state condition of the assets involved in all maintenance interventions; this reported and stored information constitutes a rich historical data base to train Machine Learning algorithms in order to generate reliable predictions of the interventions to be carried out in further time scenarios. ii) A schematic flow chart of the automatic learning procedure. iii) Self-learning rules from automatic learning from false positive/negatives. The description, testing, automatic learning approach and the outcomes of a pilot case are presented; finally some conclusions are outlined regarding the methodology proposed for improving the self-learning predictive capability.

  10. A Map of Things Known and Lost in Anne Enright’s The Green Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Estévez-Saá

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution interprets Anne Enright’s most recent novel, The Green Road (2015, as the story of two decades of an Irish family that is used by the writer to offer an alternative fictional rendering of the history of Ireland and the Irish from the 1980s till the early twenty-first century, as well as, formally speaking, a further contribution to the Irish writers’ penchant for destabilizing the conventions of a literary genre too frequently associated with British settlement and stability (Eagleton 1995 and with nineteenth-century realism (Hand 2011; and, therefore, recurrently considered as unable to apprehend the disruptive and multifaceted condition of Ireland and the Irish. Enright goes from the particular to the universal: the story of the Madigans serves to cover the recent history of Ireland as well as to deal with concerns such as motherhood, religion, sex, aging depression, illness, materialism and migrations, among others. Formally speaking, Enright’s latest novel is undoubtedly the most daring and innovative text in her already vast literary output and can and should be interpreted as the author’s most remarkable contribution to a literary genre with which Irish writers have not ceased to experiment.

  11. Research across the disciplines: a road map for quality criteria in empirical ethics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE study results in misleading ethical analyses, evaluations or recommendations. This not only deprives the study of scientific and social value, but also risks ethical misjudgement. Discussion While empirical and normative-ethical research projects have quality criteria in their own right, we focus on the specific quality criteria for EE research. We develop a tentative list of quality criteria – a “road map” – tailored to interdisciplinary research in EE, to guide assessments of research quality. These quality criteria fall into the categories of primary research question, theoretical framework and methods, relevance, interdisciplinary research practice and research ethics and scientific ethos. Summary EE research is an important and innovative development in bioethics. However, a lack of standards has led to concerns about and even rejection of EE by various scholars. Our suggested orientation list of criteria, presented in the form of reflective questions, cannot be considered definitive, but serves as a tool to provoke systematic reflection during the planning and composition of an EE research study. These criteria need to be tested in different EE research settings and further refined. PMID:24580847

  12. Visual modification of the road environment. EU-project Guarding Automobile Drivers through Guidance Education and Technology GADGET, Deliverable D2, Contract No. RO-97-SC.2235.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagberg, F. Hakkert, A.S. Larsen, L. Leden, L. Schmotzer, C. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    2003-01-01

    The report is a review and discussion of research regarding effects of the road environment on driver behaviour. The discussion relates to theories and facts regarding driver information needs, limitations of the human visual system, information processing, driver expectations, mental load, and risk

  13. Detect, map, and preserve Bronze & Iron Age monuments along the pre-historic Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Timo; Caspari, Gino; Fu, Bihong

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia is rich in cultural heritage generated by thousands of years of human occupation. Aiming for a better understanding of Central Asia’s archaeology and how this unique heritage can be protected, the region should be studied as a whole with regard to its cultural ties with China and combined efforts should be undertaken in shielding the archaeological monuments from destruction. So far, international research campaigns have focused predominantly on single-sites or small-scale surveys, mainly due to the bureaucratic and security related issues involved in cross-border research. This is why we created the Dzungaria Landscape Project. Since 2013, we have worked on collecting remote sensing data of Xinjiang including IKONOS, WorldView-2, and TerraSAR-X data. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of larger grave mound structures in optical and SAR data. Gravemounds are typically spatially clustered and the detection of larger mound structures is a sufficient hint towards areas of high archaeological interest in a region. A meticulous remote sensing survey is the best planning tool for subsequent ground surveys and excavation. In summer 2015, we undertook a survey in the Chinese Altai in order to establish ground-truth in the Hailiutan valley. We categorized over 1000 monuments in just three weeks thanks to the previous detection and classification work using remote sensing data. Creating accurate maps of the cemeteries in northern Xinjiang is a crucial step to preserving the cultural heritage of the region since graves in remote areas are especially prone to looting. We will continue our efforts with the ultimate aim to map and monitor all large gravemounds in Dzungaria and potentially neighbouring eastern Kazakhstan.

  14. Overview of superconductivity in Japan - Strategy road map and R and D status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting technology benefits society in broad fields; environment/energy, life science, manufacturing industry and information and communication. Superconducting equipments and devices used in various fields are divided into two categories, electric and electronic applications. Technologies in those applications are progressing remarkably owing to firm and consistent supports by various national projects. The final target of the NEDO R and D project of fundamental technology for superconductivity applications to develop 500 m long coated conductors (CCs) of the critical current 300 A/cm (at 77 K, 0 T) will be fulfilled by the end of JFY 2007 and manufacturing process to produce extremely low-cost CCs is to be developed to make the applications realistic. Preliminary works to develop power apparatuses using CCs have started in the frame of the R and D project for the fundamental technology and have produced significant results. Performance of BSCCO/Ag-sheathed wires has been improved greatly and various applications using those wires are being developed. R and D projects for SMES, power cable, flywheel energy storage and rotating machines are going to introduce those equipments to the real world. Technologies of SQUID and SFQ, basic devices of the electronic applications, are progressing dramatically also owing to various national projects. In this back ground the technology strategy map in the field of superconducting technology was formulated to prioritize investments in R and D by clearly defining the objectives and inspire autonomous R and D actives in various fields of industries. R and D activities in the superconducting technologies are to be scheduled following this strategy map

  15. Overview of superconductivity in Japan Strategy road map and R&D status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, O.

    2008-09-01

    Superconducting technology benefits society in broad fields; environment/energy, life science, manufacturing industry and information and communication. Superconducting equipments and devices used in various fields are divided into two categories, electric and electronic applications. Technologies in those applications are progressing remarkably owing to firm and consistent supports by various national projects. The final target of the NEDO R&D project of fundamental technology for superconductivity applications to develop 500 m long coated conductors (CCs) of the critical current 300 A/cm (at 77 K, 0 T) will be fulfilled by the end of JFY 2007 and manufacturing process to produce extremely low-cost CCs is to be developed to make the applications realistic. Preliminary works to develop power apparatuses using CCs have started in the frame of the R&D project for the fundamental technology and have produced significant results. Performance of BSCCO/Ag-sheathed wires has been improved greatly and various applications using those wires are being developed. R&D projects for SMES, power cable, flywheel energy storage and rotating machines are going to introduce those equipments to the real world. Technologies of SQUID and SFQ, basic devices of the electronic applications, are progressing dramatically also owing to various national projects. In this back ground the technology strategy map in the field of superconducting technology was formulated to prioritize investments in R&D by clearly defining the objectives and inspire autonomous R&D actives in various fields of industries. R&D activities in the superconducting technologies are to be scheduled following this strategy map.

  16. EU Udbudsretten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sune Troels; Jakobsen, Peter Stig; Kalsmose-Hjelmborg, Simon Evers

    I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk.......I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk....

  17. A Toxicology for the 21st Century—Mapping the Road Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The landmark publication by the National Research Council putting forward a vision of a toxicology for the 21st century in 2007 has created an atmosphere of departure in our field. The alliances formed, symposia and meetings held and the articles following are remarkable, indicating that this is an idea whose time has come. Most of the discussion centers on the technical opportunities to map pathways of toxicity and the financing of the program. Here, the other part of the work ahead shall be discussed, that is, the focus is on regulatory implementation once the technological challenges are managed, but we are well aware that the technical aspects of what the National Academy of Science report suggests still need to be addressed: A series of challenges are put forward which we will face in addition to finding a technical solution (and its funding) to set this vision into practice. This includes the standardization and quality assurance of novel methodologies, their formal validation, their integration into test strategies including threshold setting and finally a global acceptance and implementation. This will require intense conceptual steering to have all pieces of the puzzle come together. PMID:19357069

  18. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...

  19. Impact of femoral artery puncture using digital subtraction angiography and road mapping on vascular and bleeding complications after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mawardy, Mohamed; Schwarz, Bettina; Landt, Martin; Sulimov, Dmitriy; Kebernik, Julia; Allali, Abdelhakim; Becker, Bjoern; Toelg, Ralph; Richardt, Gert; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2017-01-20

    The use of large-diameter sheaths carries the risk of significant vascular and bleeding complications after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In this analysis, we sought to assess the impact of a modified femoral artery puncture technique using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and road mapping during transfemoral TAVI on periprocedural vascular and bleeding events. This is a retrospective analysis of transfemoral TAVI patients included in a prospective institutional database. The modified femoral artery puncture technique using DSA-derived road mapping guidance was introduced in October 2012. Before the introduction of this technique, vascular puncture was acquired based on an integration of angiographic data, the bony iliofemoral landmarks and a radiopaque object. Consecutive patients who underwent TAVI with the road mapping technique (RM group, n=160) were compared with consecutive patients who underwent TAVI without road mapping (control group, n=160) prior to its introduction. A standardised strategy of periprocedural anticoagulation was adopted in both groups as well as the use of a single suture-based closure device. All endpoints were defined according to the VARC-2 criteria for event definition. The mean age in the RM group was 80±7.7 years compared to 81±5.9 years in the control group (p=0.19), and females were equally distributed between both groups (63.1% vs. 58.1%, p=0.36). The baseline logistic EuroSCORE was 20.7±14.4% vs. 24.9±15.2% in the RM and control group, respectively (p=0.01). Notably, sheath size was significantly larger in the RM compared to the control group due to the more frequent use of the 20 Fr sheath (23.8% vs. 1.8%, proad map group but did not reach statistical significance (8.1% vs. 13.8%, p=0.1). Other forms of vascular and bleeding complications as well as all-cause mortality were comparable in both groups. A modified femoral artery puncture technique using DSA and road mapping was associated

  20. The EU’s Cybercrime and Cyber-Security Rule-Making: Mapping the Internal and External Dimensions of EU Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahey, E.

    2014-01-01

    EU Security impacts significantly upon individuals and generates many questions of the rule of law, legal certainty and fundamental rights. These are not always central concerns for EU risk regulation, especially given that EU risk regulation has sought to draw close correlations between EU risk and

  1. Mapping the EU–Republic of Moldova Trajectory: Roadblocks on the Way to Economic Integration with the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle G. Bulgari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on EU–Republic of Moldova relations by taking an in-depth look at the Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement’s provisions. Specific attention is given to both the political and economic integration aspects, benefits for the agriculture sector and an assessment of risk factors. Within the European Neighbourhood Policy instrument and the policy of Eastern Partnership, the Republic of Moldova has gained a crucial importance over the past 10 years. Having been positioned between two political and economic strong poles, many times it had to decide on which side to be. Moreover, the Association Agreement signed in June 2014 has updated the EU-Moldova relations and gave it a boost towards European integration, economic and commercial development, encouraging the Republic of Moldova to finally break from its Soviet past and move forward.

  2. Assessing and Mapping of Road Surface Roughness based on GPS and Accelerometer Sensors on Bicycle-Mounted Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Wan, Mi; Shi, Jiafeng

    2018-01-01

    The surface roughness of roads is an essential road characteristic. Due to the employed carrying platforms (which are often cars), existing measuring methods can only be used for motorable roads. Until now, there has been no effective method for measuring the surface roughness of un-motorable roads, such as pedestrian and bicycle lanes. This hinders many applications related to pedestrians, cyclists and wheelchair users. In recognizing these research gaps, this paper proposes a method for measuring the surface roughness of pedestrian and bicycle lanes based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer sensors on bicycle-mounted smartphones. We focus on the International Roughness Index (IRI), as it is the most widely used index for measuring road surface roughness. Specifically, we analyzed a computing model of road surface roughness, derived its parameters with GPS and accelerometers on bicycle-mounted smartphones, and proposed an algorithm to recognize potholes/humps on roads. As a proof of concept, we implemented the proposed method in a mobile application. Three experiments were designed to evaluate the proposed method. The results of the experiments show that the IRI values measured by the proposed method were strongly and positively correlated with those measured by professional instruments. Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm was able to recognize the potholes/humps that the bicycle passed. The proposed method is useful for measuring the surface roughness of roads that are not accessible for professional instruments, such as pedestrian and cycle lanes. This work enables us to further study the feasibility of crowdsourcing road surface roughness with bicycle-mounted smartphones. PMID:29562731

  3. An approach to locate and map swelling soils around Sohag – Safaga road, Eastern Desert, Egypt using remote sensing techniques for urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa F. Elbeih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental consequences of swelling soils are most apparent in arid and semi-arid regions. Sedimentary clays are mixtures of illite, kaolinite and some montmorillonite. There are various soil types liable to swell such as shale, mudstone, siltstone and marl due to the presence of Smectite group in these soils. Large volume changes of these types of soils can cause extensive damages to civil engineering infrastructures; roads, airport pavements, pipelines and shallow foundations. A number of localities in Egypt are well-known by the presence of swelling soils. Sohag – Safaga highway in the Eastern Desert of Egypt is considered to be an investable transportation road and one of the most important lateral connections between Upper Egypt and the Red Sea area. The study area is located in a buffer zone of 25 km from both sides of the highway. This area is believed to be more influenced by the road and could be fully utilized to share in developing areas in the road vicinity. The research objectives are to use recent ASTER satellite imageries with the aid of field samples to map different swelling clay minerals and compare between the different sensors accuracy in locating them within the buffer zone. Certain engineering measures should be considered to enable construction over these types of swelling soils. The results confirmed the presence of montmorillonite in this buffer zone and in the 5 km buffer around the road which represents a hazard especially for the future planned projects within this area.

  4. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  5. Flood-inundation maps for Big Creek from the McGinnis Ferry Road bridge to the confluence of Hog Wallow Creek, Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-08-20

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 12.4-mile reach of Big Creek that extends from 260 feet above the McGinnis Ferry Road bridge to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage at Big Creek below Hog Wallow Creek at Roswell, Georgia (02335757), were developed by the USGS in cooperation with the cities of Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Big Creek near Alpharetta, Georgia (02335700). Real-time stage information from this USGS streamgage may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs for many streams where the USGS operates streamgages and provides flow data. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Big Creek near Alpharetta (02335700), available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed for this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.

  6. Instrumentation and control and human machine interface science and technology road-map in support of advanced reactors and fuel programs in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D. W.; Arndt, S. A.; Bond, L. J.; Dudenhoeffer, D.; Hallbert, B.; Holcomb, D. E.; Wood, R. T.; Naser, J. A.; O'Hara, J.; Quinn, E. L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the Instrumentation, Control and Human Machine Interface (ICHMI) Science and Technology road-map being developed to address the major challenges in this technical area for the Gen IV and other U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) initiatives that support future deployments of nuclear energy systems. Reliable, capable ICHMI systems will be necessary for the advanced nuclear plants to be economically competitive. ICHMI enables measurement, control, protection, monitoring, and maintenance for processes and components. Through improvements in the technologies and demonstration of their use to facilitate licensing, ICHMI can contribute to the reduction of plant operations and maintenance costs while helping to ensure high plant availability. The impact of ICHMI can be achieved through effective use of the technologies to improve operational efficiency and optimize use of human resources. However, current licensing experience with digital I and C systems has provided lessons learned concerning the difficulties that can be encountered when introducing advanced technologies with expanded capabilities. Thus, in the development of advanced nuclear power designs, it will be important to address both the technical foundations of ICHMI systems as well as their licensing considerations. The ICHMI road-map will identify the necessary research, development and demonstration activities that are essential to facilitate necessary technology advancement and resolve outstanding issues. (authors)

  7. Instrumentation and control and human machine interface science and technology Road-map in support of advanced reactors and fuel programs in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D. W.; Arndt, S. A.; Dudenhoeffer, D.; Hallbert, B.; Bond, L. J.; Holcomb, D. E.; Wood, R. T.; Naser, J. A.; O'Hara, J.; Quinn, E. L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of the Instrumentation, Control and Human Machine Interface (ICHMI) Science and Technology Road-map (Reference xi) that was developed to address the major challenges in this technical area for the Gen IV and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiatives that support future deployments of nuclear energy systems. Reliable, capable ICHMI systems will be necessary for the advanced nuclear plants to be economically competitive. ICHMI enables measurement, control, protection, monitoring, and maintenance for processes and components. Through improvements in the technologies and demonstration of their use to facilitate licensing, ICHMI can contribute to the reduction of plant operations and maintenance costs while helping to ensure high plant availability. The impact of ICHMI can be achieved through effective use of the technologies to improve operational efficiency and optimize use of human resources. However, current licensing experience with digital I and C systems has provided lessons learned concerning the difficulties that can be encountered when introducing advanced technologies with expanded capabilities. Thus, in the development of advanced nuclear power designs, it will be important to address both the technical foundations of ICHMI systems and their licensing considerations. The ICHMI Road-map will identify the necessary research, development and demonstration activities that are essential to facilitate necessary technology advancement and resolve outstanding issues. (authors)

  8. Ontario's road map to prosperity : developing renewable energy to its full potential : final report submitted to the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etcheverry, J.; O'Malley, L.; Taylor, J.

    2009-01-01

    This renewable energy road map was prepared in order to help Ontario create new jobs while ensuring that its commitments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are met. The report was intended as a background document to a workshop held in Toronto in March 2009. The strategy for developing renewable energy sources include the establishment of a robust domestic market that prioritizes sustained renewable energy development; the development of a strong financial infrastructure that ensures that Ontario's residents can invest in renewable energy development; and the creation of educational networks to develop a skilled workforce able to manufacture, design, install, and maintain renewable energy systems. The road map was modelled after the strong domestic renewable energy markets that have been successfully developed in Denmark, Germany, and Spain. Policy frameworks and legislation for ensuring a sustainable domestic market were reviewed, and collaborative ideas for a variety of different agencies within the province were discussed. Recommendations included the implementation of a Green Energy Act, and a revision of the province's grid integration and renewable energy standard offer program (RESOP). 45 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Detection of Anomalous Noise Events on Low-Capacity Acoustic Nodes for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping within an Hybrid WASN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is the continuous exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN levels. Nowadays, thanks to Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN noise in Smart Cities has started to be automatically mapped. To obtain a reliable picture of the RTN, those anomalous noise events (ANE unrelated to road traffic (sirens, horns, people, etc. should be removed from the noise map computation by means of an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED. In Hybrid WASNs, with master-slave architecture, ANED should be implemented in both high-capacity (Hi-Cap and low-capacity (Lo-Cap sensors, following the same principle to obtain consistent results. This work presents an ANED version to run in real-time on μ Controller-based Lo-Cap sensors of a hybrid WASN, discriminating RTN from ANE through their Mel-based spectral energy differences. The experiments, considering 9 h and 8 min of real-life acoustic data from both urban and suburban environments, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational load and in classification accuracy. Specifically, the ANED Lo-Cap requires around 1 6 of the computational load of the ANED Hi-Cap, while classification accuracies are slightly lower (around 10%. However, preliminary analyses show that these results could be improved in around 4% in the future by means of considering optimal frequency selection.

  10. Detection of Anomalous Noise Events on Low-Capacity Acoustic Nodes for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping within an Hybrid WASN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Alías, Francesc; Socoró, Joan Claudi; Orga, Ferran

    2018-04-20

    One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is the continuous exposure to high road traffic noise (RTN) levels. Nowadays, thanks to Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) noise in Smart Cities has started to be automatically mapped. To obtain a reliable picture of the RTN, those anomalous noise events (ANE) unrelated to road traffic (sirens, horns, people, etc.) should be removed from the noise map computation by means of an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED). In Hybrid WASNs, with master-slave architecture, ANED should be implemented in both high-capacity (Hi-Cap) and low-capacity (Lo-Cap) sensors, following the same principle to obtain consistent results. This work presents an ANED version to run in real-time on μ Controller-based Lo-Cap sensors of a hybrid WASN, discriminating RTN from ANE through their Mel-based spectral energy differences. The experiments, considering 9 h and 8 min of real-life acoustic data from both urban and suburban environments, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational load and in classification accuracy. Specifically, the ANED Lo-Cap requires around 1 6 of the computational load of the ANED Hi-Cap, while classification accuracies are slightly lower (around 10%). However, preliminary analyses show that these results could be improved in around 4% in the future by means of considering optimal frequency selection.

  11. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  12. A new road map for the research in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan; Nouvelle feuille de route pour la recherche dans le domaine de la production d'electricite d'origine photovoltaique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destruel, P.; Chataing, H

    2009-07-01

    Dealing with the new road map published in 2009 by the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology development Organization) for the research activity in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan from now until 2030, this brief embassy report first outlines the need for such a new road map as Japan's international competitiveness is more and more challenged: it only possesses 10% of the installed power in the world (50% in 2003) and ranks now in sixth position in terms of annual installed power. Beside this trend, environmental challenges and CO{sub 2} emission reduction objectives, as well as oil price increase, have driven the NEDO to review its road map sooner as foreseen. The author describes the contents of the three main axis which have been defined for the photovoltaic development: photovoltaic profitability improvement (grid parity objective by 2030, production cost reduction), broadening of photovoltaic uses and applications, development and competitiveness of Japanese industries.

  13. Flood-inundation maps for South Fork Peachtree Creek from the Brockett Road bridge to the Willivee Drive bridge, DeKalb County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-10-14

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.3-mile reach of South Fork Peachtree Creek that extends from about 500 feet above the Brockett Road bridge to the Willivee Drive bridge were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with DeKalb County, Georgia. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at South Fork Peachtree at Casa Drive, near Clarkston, Georgia (02336152). Real-time stage information from this USGS streamgage may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/).

  14. Digital surveying and mapping of forest road network for development of a GIS tool for the effective protection and management of natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Liampas, Sarantis-Aggelos G.; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    In our time, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become important tools, not only in the geosciences and environmental sciences, as well as virtually for all researches that require monitoring, planning or land management. The purpose of this paper was to develop a planning tool and decision making tool using AutoCAD Map software, ArcGIS and Google Earth with emphasis on the investigation of the suitability of forest roads' mapping and the range of its implementation in Greece in prefecture level. Integrating spatial information into a database makes data available throughout the organization; improving quality, productivity, and data management. Also working in such an environment, you can: Access and edit information, integrate and analyze data and communicate effectively. To select desirable information such as forest road network in a very early stage in the planning of silviculture operations, for example before the planning of the harvest is carried out. The software programs that were used were AutoCAD Map for the export in shape files for the GPS data, and ArcGIS in shape files (ArcGlobe), while Google Earth with KML files (Keyhole Markup Language) in order to better visualize and evaluate existing conditions, design in a real-world context and exchange information with government agencies, utilities, and contractors in both CAD and GIS data formats. The automation of the updating procedure and transfer of any files between agencies-departments is one of the main tasks of the integrated GIS-tool among the others should be addressed.

  15. Flood-inundation maps for the Saluda River from Old Easley Bridge Road to Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.95-mile reach of the Saluda River from approximately 815 feet downstream from Old Easley Bridge Road to approximately 150 feet downstream from Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina (station 02162500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained through the National Water Information System Web site at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/sc/nwis/uv/?site_no=02162500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,00062. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. Forecasted peak-stage information is available on the Internet at the NWS Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system Web site (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) and may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-streamflow relations at USGS streamgage station 02162500, Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1.0-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull to 2 feet higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then exported to a geographic information system, ArcGIS, and combined with a digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] data with a 0

  16. Miscellaneous Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for miscellanous roads, a catch-all category for all road types not present in the other DNR derived products. These road...

  17. Satellite line mapping in Eu3+–Ce3+ and Pr3+–Ce3+ codoped Y2SiO5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, D.; Karlsson, J.; Zheng, L.; Dong, Y.; Ferrier, A.; Goldner, P.; Walther, A.; Rippe, L.; Kröll, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we perform a high-resolution spectroscopic investigation of Eu 3+ –Ce 3+ and Pr 3+ –Ce 3+ codoped Y 2 SiO 5 crystals. Satellite line spectra were recorded at low temperatures around the Eu 3+ : 7 F 0 → 5 D 0 and the Pr 3+ : 3 H 4 → 1 D 2 transitions. It is observed that the incorporation of Ce 3+ as a codopant notably changes the Eu 3+ and Pr 3+ satellite line patterns. Satellite lines measured in singly doped Eu 3+ :Y 2 SiO 5 were found at the same spectral positions in Eu 3+ –Ce 3+ codoped crystals. These coincident lines were concluded to be due to pairs of Eu 3+ ions. Extra satellite lines appeared in the codoped crystals, which were assigned to Ce 3+ related structures such as Ce 3+ –Eu 3+ pairs. The analysis of the Pr 3+ satellite line spectra presents further challenges. Satellite lines associated to Pr 3+ pairs show weaker intensity, presumably due to the efficient quenching of the Pr 3+1 D 2 emission through cross-relaxation paths ( 1 D 2 → 1 G 4 ; 3 H 4 → 3 F 4 ). The investigation of the Eu 3+ and Pr 3+ satellite line patterns in Y 2 SiO 5 is particularly interesting for their exploitation in rare-earth based quantum computation schemes. - Highlights: • We recorded Eu and Pr satellite lines in Y 2 SiO 5 with and without Ce as a codopant. • The presence of Ce leads to the appearance of extra satellite lines in the spectra. • The satellite lines are associated to minor crystal sites such as ion pairs. • Less than 100 ion pairs were detected per satellite line. • The exploitation of the satellite line structure is proposed for quantum computing.

  18. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  19. Biofuels cost developments in the EU27+ until 2030. Full-chain cost assessment and implications of policy options. REFUEL WP4 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, H.M.; Lensink, S.M.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Wakker, A.; De Wit, M.; Junginger, M.; Koenighofer, K; Jungmeier, G.

    2008-02-01

    With the rapid developments in the biofuels domain comes the need for biofuel policies that spur their introduction in a responsible way. The REFUEL project, supported by the EU Intelligent Energy Europe programme, develops a road map for biofuels in the EU27+ up to 2030. This WP4 report shows the results of a full-chain analysis of the costs of different biofuels. Effects of different levels of biofuel target setting were analysed, and also the impact of different additional policy measures, such as the introduction of a CO2 pricing mechanism and specific subsidies

  20. Collaboration on HiPER EU FP7 Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Yong Joo; Han, Jae Min; Nam, Sung Mo; Chung, Chin Man; Lim, Chang Hwan; Cha, Yong Ho; Kwon, Duck Hee

    2011-06-01

    European Union started the HiPER project to establish a laser fusion research facility for energy production in Europe. Feasibility study and conceptual design has been performed for 2 years from 2005 and based on this study HiPER preparatory phase project has been proposed in 2007 as a EU FP7 project by 10 European countries and approved by EC. The project started in April of 2008 officially for 36 months until April of 2011. HiPER is a unique pure civilian laser fusion research facility and supported by ESFRI road map. KAERI has been participating HiPER from the feasibility study phase and still collaborating with HiPER EU FP7 project officially with the funding from the Korean government. Through this technical collaboration, participation in the joint experiments at large laser facilities has been possible and infrastructure of scientists exchange has been established Although the EU FP7 HiPER preparatory phase project ends at April of 2011 (actually it is extended until 2013 without further budget allocation fm EC) the total HiPER programme is planned to continue for more than 10 more years until the construction and commission of the fusion reactor. And KAERI also continue to participate in the HiPER programme in the future until the end of the programme

  1. Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water

  2. MTU locomotive drive systems for EU emissions stage IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintruff, Ingo [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions limits for diesel locomotives within the European Union are regulated by EU Non-road Directive 97/68/EC which places restrictions on the pollutants NOx, particulate, CO and HC. MTU has developed suitable diesel engines for EU Emissions stage IIIB. (orig.)

  3. Source of errors and accuracy of a two-dimensional/three-dimensional fusion road map for endovascular aneurysm repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Claude; Douane, Frédéric; Therasse, Eric; Lessard, Simon; Elkouri, Stephane; Gilbert, Patrick; Beaudoin, Nathalie; Pfister, Marcus; Blair, Jean François; Soulez, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and source of errors using a two-dimensional (2D)/three-dimensional (3D) fusion road map for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm. A rigid 2D/3D road map was tested in 16 patients undergoing EVAR. After 3D/3D manual registration of preoperative multidetector computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT, abdominal aortic aneurysm outlines were overlaid on live fluoroscopy/digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Patient motion was evaluated using bone landmarks. The misregistration of renal and internal iliac arteries were estimated by 3 readers along head-feet and right-left coordinates (z-axis and x-axis, respectively) before and after bone and DSA corrections centered on the lowest renal artery. Iliac deformation was evaluated by comparing centerlines before and during intervention. A score of clinical added value was estimated as high (z-axis 5 mm). Interobserver reproducibility was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient. The lowest renal artery misregistration was estimated at x-axis = 10.6 mm ± 11.1 and z-axis = 7.4 mm ± 5.3 before correction and at x-axis = 3.5 mm ± 2.5 and z-axis = 4.6 mm ± 3.7 after bone correction (P = .08), and at 0 after DSA correction (P artery was estimated at x-axis = 2.4 mm ± 2.0 and z-axis = 2.2 mm ± 2.0. Score of clinical added value was low (n = 11), good (n= 0), and high (n= 5) before correction and low (n = 5), good (n = 4), and high (n = 7) after bone correction. Interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient for misregistration measurements was estimated at 0.99. Patient motion before stent graft delivery was estimated at x-axis = 8 mm ± 5.8 and z-axis = 3.0 mm ± 2.7. The internal iliac artery misregistration measurements were estimated at x-axis = 6.1 mm ± 3.5 and z-axis = 5.6 mm ± 4.0, and iliac centerline deformation was estimated at 38.3 mm ± 15.6. Rigid registration is feasible and fairly accurate. Only a partial reduction of vascular

  4. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  5. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general......To ancient geographers, roads were important not only as arteries of communication, but also as sources of information, since mileages measured along the Roman highways were among the very few precise distances available to the ancient geographer. This chapter explores the place of roads...... or the statesman, roads provide routes of communication; for the systematic geographer, they provide measured distances and directions. Through case studies of Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece and Anatolia, this chapter attempts to reach a better understanding of the place of roads in Strabo’s universe, especially two...

  6. Technology leadership: a road map to commercially viable PEMFC stack technology. Paper no. IGEC-1-008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    'Full text:' In February 2005, Ballard announced its most recent advances in PEMFC stack technology. This technology development exhibited, we believe, for the first time the capability of a single PEMFC stack design to demonstrate combined excellence in cost reduction, freeze start capability from -20 C and durability under an automotive OEM defined dynamic operating cycle, comparable to that experienced by a fuel cell stack in an actual vehicle. One month later, building on the above technology leadership demonstration, Ballard announced a technology {sup '}oad map' that defined a path to commercially viability for a PEMFC stack by 2010. The key target parameters for cost reduction, durability, freeze start and stack power density are described in detail along with demonstrated historical capability and a clear path as to how Ballard will achieve the required targets. (author)

  7. Technology leadership: a road map to commercially viable PEMFC stack technology. Paper no. IGEC-1-008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' In February 2005, Ballard announced its most recent advances in PEMFC stack technology. This technology development exhibited, we believe, for the first time the capability of a single PEMFC stack design to demonstrate combined excellence in cost reduction, freeze start capability from -20 C and durability under an automotive OEM defined dynamic operating cycle, comparable to that experienced by a fuel cell stack in an actual vehicle. One month later, building on the above technology leadership demonstration, Ballard announced a technology ' oad map' that defined a path to commercially viability for a PEMFC stack by 2010. The key target parameters for cost reduction, durability, freeze start and stack power density are described in detail along with demonstrated historical capability and a clear path as to how Ballard will achieve the required targets. (author)

  8. DOT Basemap Roads - All Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. Those roadways that are Interstate, Trunk Highway, or CSAH (county...

  9. Radiological emergency: road map for radiation accident victim transport; Emergência radiológica: roadmap para o transporte de radioacidentado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, V.S.G.; Alcantara, Y.P. [Faculdade Casa Branca, SP (Brazil); Lima, C.M.A. [MAXIM Cursos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, F. C. A. da, E-mail: franciscodasilva13uk@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    During a radiological or nuclear emergency, a number of necessary actions are taken, both within the radiation protection of individuals and the environment, involving many institutions and highly specialized personnel. Among them it is possible to emphasize the air transportation of radiation accident victims.The procedures and measures for the safe transport of these radiation accident victims are generally the responsibility of the armed forces, specifically the Aeronautics, with the action denominated 'Aeromedical Military Evacuation of Radiation Accident Victims'. The experience with the Radiological Accident of Goiânia demonstrated the importance of adequate preparation and response during a radiological emergency and the need for procedures and measures with regard to the transport of radiation victims are clearly defined and clearly presented for the effectiveness of the actions. This work presents the necessary actions for the transport of radiation accident victim during a radiological emergency, through the road map technique, which has been widely used in scientific technical area to facilitate understanding and show the way to be followed to reach the proposed objectives.

  10. Using CART to segment road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  11. Verification of road databases using multiple road models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new approach for automatic road database verification based on remote sensing images is presented. In contrast to existing methods, the applicability of the new approach is not restricted to specific road types, context areas or geographic regions. This is achieved by combining several state-of-the-art road detection and road verification approaches that work well under different circumstances. Each one serves as an independent module representing a unique road model and a specific processing strategy. All modules provide independent solutions for the verification problem of each road object stored in the database in form of two probability distributions, the first one for the state of a database object (correct or incorrect), and a second one for the state of the underlying road model (applicable or not applicable). In accordance with the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a new state space comprising the classes correct, incorrect and unknown. Statistical reasoning is applied to obtain the optimal state of a road object. A comparison with state-of-the-art road detection approaches using benchmark datasets shows that in general the proposed approach provides results with larger completeness. Additional experiments reveal that based on the proposed method a highly reliable semi-automatic approach for road data base verification can be designed.

  12. Road-Mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode Waveform Retracking over Water Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Cotton, David; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Ray, Chris; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Gommenginger, Christine

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the preparation activities for the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission, ESA launched an R&D project on SAR Altimetry and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters. The main objective was to design a novel processing algorithm over ocean surface that would run in the Sentinel-3 ground segment to provide unprecedented quality altimeter measurements over ocean surfaces when in SAR mode. Also coastal zones and inland waters were the targets of research to derive new models and re-trackers for these difficult measurements. Innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR re-trackers to perform the validation. A Detailed Processing Model Document was delivered for implementation in the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission Ground Segment. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations significantly impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent the implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes

  13. The Long and Winding Road to a “Stake in the Internal Market” under the Association Agreement between the EU and Ukraine – with a Particular Focus on Telecommunication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of the granting a full internal market treatment to Ukraine arguably constitutes the core of the comprehensive Association Agreement (AA) between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine signed in June 2014. With regard to the internal market treatment the Association Agreement contain...

  14. Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces & Translocation Processes in Inner Space ("Soil-it-is": towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. de Jonge

    2009-08-01

    , we show the Dexter et al. (2008 threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces. However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between organic carbon/clay ratio and matric potential may control how soil self-organization will manifest itself at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

  15. Mapping of road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge and estimation of chloride load to a small stream in southern New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, P.T.; Trowbridge, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of chloride in excess of State of New Hampshire water-quality standards (230 mg/l) have been measured in watersheds adjacent to an interstate highway (I-93) in southern New Hampshire. A proposed widening plan for I-93 has raised concerns over further increases in chloride. As part of this effort, road-salt-contaminated groundwater discharge was mapped with terrain electrical conductivity (EC) electromagnetic (EM) methods in the fall of 2006 to identify potential sources of chloride during base-flow conditions to a small stream, Policy Brook. Three different EM meters were used to measure different depths below the streambed (ranging from 0 to 3 m). Results from the three meters showed similar patterns and identified several reaches where high EC groundwater may have been discharging. Based on the delineation of high (up to 350 mmhos/m) apparent terrain EC, seven-streambed piezometers were installed to sample shallow groundwater. Locations with high specific conductance in shallow groundwater (up to 2630 mmhos/m) generally matched locations with high streambed (shallow subsurface) terrain EC. A regression equation was used to convert the terrain EC of the streambed to an equivalent chloride concentration in shallow groundwater unique for this site. Utilizing the regression equation and estimates of onedimensional Darcian flow through the streambed, a maximum potential groundwater chloride load was estimated at 188 Mg of chloride per year. Changes in chloride concentration in stream water during streamflow recessions showed a linear response that indicates the dominant process affecting chloride is advective flow of chloride-enriched groundwater discharge. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer.A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4 was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography.Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide.4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  17. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Johannes; Hofmann, Martin; Jung, Caroline; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Werner, Franziska; Them, Kolja; Reimer, Rudolph; Nielsen, Peter; Vom Scheidt, Annika; Adam, Gerhard; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4) was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography. Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide. 4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  18. Transportforskning i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter.......Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter....

  19. A systematic approach to find the best road map for enhancement of a power plant with dew point inlet air pre-cooling of the air compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohani, Ali; Farasati, Yashar; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Dew-point cooler was proposed in order to enhance a power plant. • A systematic method to find the best road map was offered. • Investigation was done considering four optimization scenarios and different investment plans. • Payback period of the final plan was 2.67 years. • Annual net power and steam generation’s capability were improved 6.02% and 8.92%. - Abstract: Dimensional characteristics and operating parameters of the optimized Maisotsenko indirect evaporative cooler for pre-cooling of the compressor’s inlet air and consequently enhancement of the gas-turbine power generation system as well as the best investment strategy for it were found for an in-operation combined cycle power plant through a systematic approach. Four optimization scenarios were proposed considering different combinations of annual average of net power of the gas-turbine power generation system, payback period time and enthalpy difference of exhaust gases compared to the reference state of each gas-turbine power generation system as objective functions. In each scenario, optimization was conducted for different possible percentages of investment allocated to the research and development of the project. After that, analytical hierarchy process was used to find the best percentage of investment allocated to the research and development of the project of each scenario and the final selected one. Having introduced the approach, it was implemented for Montazer-Ghaem combined cycle power plant in Iran. The results showed for that case study, the analytical hierarchy process selected an optimization scenario in which the annual average of the net power and the enthalpy difference of the exhaust gases compared to the reference state were the objective functions and 15% of the total profit of the gas-turbine power generation system sold electricity was dedicated to the improvement project. This optimization had the payback period time of 2.67 years and it also improved

  20. Trauma on rural roads: the role of a peripheral hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, J T

    2012-02-03

    Road accident trauma is a leading cause of death and serious morbidity among healthy young adults in the developed world. The Irish Republic has the third worst road safety record in the EU. In studying the unique demographics of rural road accidents, our aim was to provide information essential to the future development of trauma care in Ireland. Our figures highlight the inadequacies of data received by the National Roads Authority, illustrate the resource impact of road trauma on a peripheral hospital, and demonstrate the need for similar studies in the rationalisation of trauma care as we approach the next millennium.

  1. GPS Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a 1:100,000 scale vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads...

  2. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  3. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  4. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  5. AREVA presents its 2016-2020 road-map and announces the group's restructuring through the creation of a new entity refocused on the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In line with the announcements made in February 2016, for the publication of its 2015 annual results, AREVA confirms its plan to restructure the group and to create a separate entity refocused on the nuclear fuel cycle, currently named 'NEW CO'. In this press release, the group presents its 2016-2020 road-map, centered on the stages foreseen for its strategic and operational refocusing plan, and its financial objectives for 2020. Pursuant to strategic choices concerning the nuclear industry, the road-map specifies the conditions for the transfer of AREVA's reactor-related operations to EDF and the refocusing of the group on fuel cycle management. Thus dissociated and simplified in their organizations, AREVA and NEW CO will each benefit from a capital increase in the combined amount of 5 billion euros (subject to the approval of the European Commission) and will have resources suited to their mission and their strategy. By means of the solutions it can provide for uranium supply, for its conversion into fuel, and for nuclear fuel recycling, waste management and dismantling, NEW CO will be in a good position to grow in global nuclear markets. The strengthened capital structure, the new industrial plants, and the reinforcement of NEW CO's technology and innovation base will underpin this strategy

  6. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    In this article I study the long-term evolution of the main categories of expenditure of the European Union (EU) budget (1984-2011). The aim is to assess the extent to which the EU is affected by a structural form of policy inertia, and to investigate the general pattern of policy stability...... and change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...

  7. Using concept mapping in the development of the EU-PAD framework (EUropean-Physical Activity Determinants across the life course): a DEDIPAC-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Ling, Fiona Chun Man; Bianco, Antonino; Chastin, Sebastien; Cardon, Greet; Ciarapica, Donatella; Conte, Daniele; Cortis, Cristina; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Gjaka, Masar; Hansen, Sylvia; Holdsworth, Michelle; Iacoviello, Licia; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Leone, Liliana; Manoni, Livia; Menescardi, Cristina; Migliaccio, Silvia; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Perchoux, Camille; Pesce, Caterina; Pierik, Frank; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Puggina, Anna; Sannella, Alessandra; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Schulz, Holger; Simon, Chantal; Steinbrecher, Astrid; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura

    2016-11-09

    A large proportion of European children, adults and older adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity (PA). Understanding individual and contextual factors associated with PA behaviours is essential for the identification and implementation of effective preventative environments, policies, and programmes that can promote an active lifestyle across life course and can potentially improve health. The current paper intends to provide 1) a multi-disciplinary, Pan-European and life course view of key determinants of PA behaviours and 2) a proposal of how these factors may cluster. After gathering a list of 183 potential PA behaviours-associated factors and a consensus meeting to unify/consolidate terminology, a concept mapping software was used to collate European experts' views of 106 identified factors for youth (impact on PA behaviours across the life course. Priority for research was also assessed for each cluster. The concept mapping resulted in six distinct clusters, broadly merged in two themes: 1) the 'Person', which included clusters 'Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing' and 'Family and Social Economic Status' (42 % of all factors) and 2) the 'Society', which included the remaining four clusters 'Policy and Provision', 'Cultural Context and Media', 'Social Support and Modelling', and 'Supportive Environment' (58 % of all factors). Overall, 25 factors were rated as the most impactful on PA behaviours across the life course and being the most modifiable. They were mostly situated in the 'Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing' cluster. Furthermore, 16 of them were rated as top priority for research. The current framework provides a preliminary overview of factors which may account for PA behaviour across the life course and are most relevant to the European community. These insights could potentially be a foundation for future Pan-European research on how these factors might interact with each other, and assist policy makers to identify appropriate

  8. Using concept mapping in the development of the EU-PAD framework (EUropean-Physical Activity Determinants across the life course: a DEDIPAC-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Condello

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of European children, adults and older adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity (PA. Understanding individual and contextual factors associated with PA behaviours is essential for the identification and implementation of effective preventative environments, policies, and programmes that can promote an active lifestyle across life course and can potentially improve health. The current paper intends to provide 1 a multi-disciplinary, Pan-European and life course view of key determinants of PA behaviours and 2 a proposal of how these factors may cluster. Methods After gathering a list of 183 potential PA behaviours-associated factors and a consensus meeting to unify/consolidate terminology, a concept mapping software was used to collate European experts’ views of 106 identified factors for youth (<19 years, adults (19–64 years, and older adults (≥65 years. The analysis evaluated common trends in the clustering of factors and the ratings of the distinct factors’ expected modifiability and population-level impact on PA behaviours across the life course. Priority for research was also assessed for each cluster. Results The concept mapping resulted in six distinct clusters, broadly merged in two themes: 1 the ‘Person’, which included clusters ‘Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing’ and ‘Family and Social Economic Status’ (42 % of all factors and 2 the ‘Society’, which included the remaining four clusters ‘Policy and Provision’, ‘Cultural Context and Media’, ‘Social Support and Modelling’, and ‘Supportive Environment’ (58 % of all factors. Overall, 25 factors were rated as the most impactful on PA behaviours across the life course and being the most modifiable. They were mostly situated in the ‘Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing’ cluster. Furthermore, 16 of them were rated as top priority for research. Conclusions The current framework provides a

  9. On-road and laboratory emissions of NO, NO2, NH3, N2O and CH4 from late-model EU light utility vehicles: Comparison of diesel and CNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtíšek-Lom, Michal; Beránek, Vít; Klír, Vojtěch; Jindra, Petr; Pechout, Martin; Voříšek, Tomáš

    2018-03-01

    Exhaust emissions of eight Euro 6 light duty vehicles - two station wagons and six vans - half powered by diesel fuel and half by compressed natural gas (CNG) were examined using both chassis dynamometer and on-road testing. A portable on-board FTIR analyzer was used to measure concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds - NO, NO 2 and ammonia, of CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and greenhouse gases CO 2 , methane and N 2 O. Exhaust flow was inferred from engine control unit data. Total emissions per cycle were compared and found to be in good agreement with laboratory measurements of NO X , CO and CO 2 during dynamometer tests. On diesel engines, mean NO X emissions were 136-1070mg/km in the laboratory and 537-615mg/km on the road, in many cases nearly an order of magnitude higher compared to the numerical value of the Euro 6 limit. Mean N 2 O emissions were 3-19mg/km and were equivalent to several g/km CO 2 . The measurements suggest that NO X and N 2 O emissions from late-model European light utility vehicles with diesel engines are non-negligible and should be continuously assessed and scrutinized. High variances in NO X emissions among the tested diesel vehicles suggest that large number of vehicles should be tested to offer at least some insights about distribution of fleet emissions among vehicles. CNG engines exhibited relatively low emissions of NO X (12-186mg/km) and NH 3 (10-24mg/km), while mean emissions of methane were 18-45mg/km, under 1g/km CO 2 equivalent, and N 2 O, CO, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were negligible. The combination of a relatively clean-burning fuel, modern engine technology and a three-way catalyst has resulted in relatively low emissions under the wide variety of operating conditions encountered during the tests. The on-board FTIR has proven to be a useful instrument capable of covering, with the exception of total hydrocarbons, essentially all gaseous pollutants of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  11. Private Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Erik T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the efficiency impacts of private toll roads in initially untolled networks. The analysis allows for capacity and toll choice by private operators, and endogenizes entry and therewith the degree of competition, distinguishing and allowing for both parallel and serial competition.

  12. Introduction of ecologically based heavy vehicle charges for road haulage. Assessment from the angle of German constitutional law and EU law: models, constraints, design options. Study of the report 200 96 130 UBA-FB-000217; Umweltorientierte Schwerverkehrsabgaben aus der Sicht des Verfassungs- und Europarechts: Modelle, Restriktionen, Gestaltungsoptionen. Studie zum Forschungsbericht 200 96 130 UBA-FB-000217

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, S.

    2001-10-01

    The document contains a study commissioned by the German Federal Environment Office, (UBA), investigating the legal basis as well as constraints of new, ecologically based legislation envisaged by the German Federal Government for the transport sector. To put it in a nutshell: introduction of a kilometer-based road user charge for heavy goods vehicles, toll levels to be varied by vehicle weight and emission standards. Compliance with German constitutional law and the relevant law of the European Union is examined, and foreseeable non-compliance issues and conflicts in law are shown. Approaches will be outlined for solving legal obstacles by amending the German constitutional law and/or EU law and harmonizing the two legal systems. (orig./CB) [German] Aufgabe der Untersuchung ist es, im Einzelnen zu analysieren, welche Moeglichkeiten das uebergeordnete Verfasssungs- und Europarecht bereit haelt, um eine fuer das Territorium der Bundesrepublik geltende Schwerverkehrsabgabe zu erheben und diese moeglichst so auszugestalten, dass ein Maximum an umweltpolitisch motivierten Lenkungswirkungen und ein Minimum an umweltpolitisch bedenklichen Fehlsteuerungen erreicht werden kann. Soweit sich auf den beiden Ebenen des Verfassungs- und Euoparechts aus umweltpolitischer Sicht problematiche Restriktionen ergeben, werden Moeglichkeiten zur Aenderung des uebergeordneten Rechts erwogen. (orig./CB)

  13. Road network: the silent treasures of Kano metropolis | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methods used include analysis of secondary data generated from the 2011 satellite imageries (at 0.5m resolution) with the aid of Quantum GIS; road stock inventory; road classification and mapping; as well as field observation. The result shows that, Kano metropolis is well stocked with all sorts of road networks and ...

  14. Byg EU om

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Der argumenteres for en række påstande vedrørende en mulig ombygning af EU med henblik på at håndtere den krise, som unionen står i. Grundlæggende for dem alle er, at enten ombygges EU på disse områder, eller også smuldrer samarbejdet. Et internationalt samarbejde som EU kollapser ikke; det mister...

  15. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...... of harmonising measures that could facilitate a better consumer protection from non-safety health risks at the EU level. The EU legislature should use this legislative competence to fill in the regulatory grey area. Two possible ways forward to better integrate food health into the EU food law framework...

  16. Drawing road networks with focus regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Sering, Leon

    2011-12-01

    Mobile users of maps typically need detailed information about their surroundings plus some context information about remote places. In order to avoid that the map partly gets too dense, cartographers have designed mapping functions that enlarge a user-defined focus region--such functions are sometimes called fish-eye projections. The extra map space occupied by the enlarged focus region is compensated by distorting other parts of the map. We argue that, in a map showing a network of roads relevant to the user, distortion should preferably take place in those areas where the network is sparse. Therefore, we do not apply a predefined mapping function. Instead, we consider the road network as a graph whose edges are the road segments. We compute a new spatial mapping with a graph-based optimization approach, minimizing the square sum of distortions at edges. Our optimization method is based on a convex quadratic program (CQP); CQPs can be solved in polynomial time. Important requirements on the output map are expressed as linear inequalities. In particular, we show how to forbid edge crossings. We have implemented our method in a prototype tool. For instances of different sizes, our method generated output maps that were far less distorted than those generated with a predefined fish-eye projection. Future work is needed to automate the selection of roads relevant to the user. Furthermore, we aim at fast heuristics for application in real-time systems. © 2011 IEEE

  17. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  18. OpenLaws.eu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wass, C.; Dini, P.; Eiser, T.; Heistracher, T.J.; Lampoltshammer, T.J.; Marcon, G.; Sageder, C.; Tsiavos, P.; Winkels, R.; Schweighofer, E.; Kummer, F.; Hötzendorfer, W.

    2013-01-01

    The OPENLAWS.eu project aims to linking existing laws, cases and legal literature throughout the EU and member states and potentially worldwide and at adding new user-friendly functionality for a higher productivity. Furthermore, the project should make it possible to easily publish new legal

  19. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  20. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  1. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  2. EU ligger i Danmark!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    EU må ikke reduceres til et spørgsmål om folkeafstemninger. Den virkelige udfordring handler om, hvordan EU-beslutninger om alt fra dyretransporter til terrorbekæmpelse kan kontrolleres på en demokratisk måde. De beslutninger, der bliver truffet i Bruxelles er i højeste grad en del af den nationa...

  3. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  4. Assessment of possible usages of fuels alternatives to diesel by maritime, road and river freight transport professionals. Gas-based motorizations, strategic investments for the energy transition of road and maritime freight transport companies within the frame of the 2014/94/EU directive of 22 October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhardt, Jean-Bernard; Maler, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    As the 2014/94/EU directive defines alternative fuels (electric power, natural gas under its gaseous and liquefied form, biofuels, liquefied petrol gas or LPG, hydrogen, synthetic fuels, and paraffinic fuels), and states the obligation for member states to develop distribution infrastructures for these fuels, this report addresses fuels which cannot be mixed with diesel fuel and thus require the modification of transport equipment and the development of a new distribution infrastructure, technically different from that for oil-derived fuels. It describes technical and economic characteristics of French freight transport companies, public policies aimed at an energy transition of these companies, and alternate fuels defined by the European directive. Then, it proposes an overview of the status of perspectives of development of alternative motorizations for four types of equipment used in freight transport: freight transport ships, industrial vehicles, light commercial vehicles, and inland vessels

  5. Bicycles’ Role in Road Accidents a Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levulytė Loreta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 1.3 million people die in road crashes each year, on average 3,287 deaths a day. In 2013 in the European Union more than 6 % of all who died in road traffic crashes were cyclists. The number of cyclist killed on roads in the EU has decreased by only 9 %, compared to the total fatality decrease of 18 % from 2010 to 2013. The majority of cyclist fatalities are males (78 %. For the larger countries, Belgium and The Netherlands had the highest proportion of female cyclist fatalities (> 30 %. In general, 55 % of the bicycle fatalities in the EU countries were killed inside urban areas but there are large differences between the countries. In the last couple of years there has been an enormous effort on reduction in cycling fatality numbers across almost all ages in the EU. As a result of this effort, the number of accidents started to slightly decrease.

  6. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  7. THE CRUCIAL THEMES OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of the “terms” of the ongoing EU enlargement, in the light of the European public interest. The European public interest ought to include the prospective (Central European members, within a perspective of an enlarged Union in 2010, or so. The following forms a personalised summary of a major report published (in Dutch in September 2001 by the WRR in The Hague (a think-tank, formally under the Dutch Prime Minister, but by statute fully independent. The author was one of the lead-writers of this report. The present article merely focuses on the policy recommendations of the report. It is hoped that these kinds of critical analyses will help to stimulate solid policy debate on the EU in Romania, on the road to EU membership. The article discusses why the notion of a “core-acquis” would improve the enlargement strategy; the application of the core acquis to the internal market, environment and justice and home affairs; judicial and administrative capacity; accession to “euro-land”; the rapid reform of the CAP; a reform of “cohesion” approaches; and a note on the EU budgetary implications.

  8. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  9. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ROAD_MRK (Road Number Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points used in plotting the road numbers on the summary maps. It comprises a portion of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data...

  10. 30 CFR 784.18 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 784.18... PLAN § 784.18 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps...-of-way line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or (b...

  11. 30 CFR 780.33 - Relocation or use of public roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relocation or use of public roads. 780.33... PLAN § 780.33 Relocation or use of public roads. Each application shall describe, with appropriate maps... line of any public road, except where mine access or haul roads join that right-of-way; or (b...

  12. Consequences of EU air quality directives for spatial development plans in various EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelemeijer, R.B.A.; Blom, W.F.; Bouwman, A.A.; Hammingh, P.; Backes, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, the highest Dutch court of justice has rejected many building plans for new homes, roads and businesses because of reasons related to EU air quality limit values. This has made it clear that detailed impact assessments are necessary to having plans approved for permits, and that failure to achieve limit values can be a reason to reject a plan. An investigation to see whether such issues have also played a role in other EU countries has proven the contrary. Only a few similar court cases have taken place in other countries, while air quality limit values are breached in other EU countries as well. The reason is that the Netherlands has implemented the first EU Daughter Directive in a relatively strict manner in comparison to other countries, in particular: Adopting a strict legal coupling of air quality and spatial planning policies, with many types of plans being subject to an air quality impact assessment; Perceiving limit values as absolute limit values, whereas in many other countries a need to meet a limit value is weighted with other interests in granting permits; Applying limit values to the whole country. Although this application is, in principle, valid for all EU member states, some member states apply limit values only to locations where people can be exposed; Since air quality assessment is detailed in the Netherlands, many locations are appointed where air quality limit values are breached. Clearly, the role of limit values in granting permits for plans differs considerably among the EU countries, while the underlying EU legislation is the same, and while limit values are breached in other countries as well [nl

  13. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan...... nødvendigøre statslige midler. Hertil er fonden trods alt for begrænset. ... Proceduren er, at ECB indstiller til SRM's bestyrelse, at en bank skal afvikles, hvorefter EU-kommissionen og nationale tilsynsmyndigheder involveres....

  14. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  15. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  16. Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

    2000-04-01

    Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1

  17. Self-organizing feature map (neural networks) as a tool to select the best indicator of road traffic pollution (soil, leaves or bark of Robinia pseudoacacia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Stankiewicz, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A J

    2009-07-01

    Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the leaves and bark of Robinia pseudoacacia and the soil in which it grew, in the town of Oleśnica (SW Poland) and at a control site. We selected this town because emission from motor vehicles is practically the only source of air pollution, and it seemed interesting to evaluate its influence on soil and plants. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) yielded distinct groups of soils and R. pseudoacacia leaves and bark, depending on traffic intensity. Only the map classifying bark samples identified an additional group of highly polluted sites along the main highway from Wrocław to Warszawa. The bark of R. pseudoacacia seems to be a better bioindicator of long-term cumulative traffic pollution in the investigated area, while leaves are good indicators of short-term seasonal accumulation trends.

  18. Climate policies for road transport revisited (II): Closing the policy gap with cap-and-trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachsland, Christian; Brunner, Steffen; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Creutzig, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Current policies in the road transport sector fail to deliver consistent and efficient incentives for greenhouse gas abatement (see companion article by ). Market-based instruments such as cap-and-trade systems close this policy gap and complement traditional policies that are required where specific market failures arise. Even in presence of strong existing non-market policies, cap-and-trade delivers additional abatement and efficiency by incentivizing demand side abatement options. This paper analyzes generic design options and economic impacts of including the European road transport sector into the EU ETS. Suitable points of regulation are up- and midstream in the fuel chain to ensure effectiveness (cover all emissions and avoid double-counting), efficiency (incentivize all abatement options) and low transaction costs. Based on year 2020 marginal abatement cost curves from different models and current EU climate policy objectives we show that in contrast to conventional wisdom, road transport inclusion would not change the EU ETS allowance price. Hence, industrial carbon leakage induced by adding road transport to the EU ETS may be less important than previously estimated. - Research highlights: → We analyze the rationale, design and economic impacts of including road transportation into GHG cap-and-trade systems. → Suitable points of regulation are up- and mid-stream. → Including European road transport into the EU ETS by 2020 would not change the EU allowance price.

  19. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  20. 2002 electricity statistics: EU and EU+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Electricity generation in the European Union (EU) decreased by 0,7% in the period of 2001 to 2002, reaching 2521,3 billion kWh. Developments varied in different countries. Conventional thermal power plants generated 1340,1 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 53.0% share in the total generation and an increase by 2.7% over the level in the previous year. Generation in nuclear power plants increased by 2.7% to 855.5 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 33,8% share in EU-wide generation. Hydroelectric plants and other plants supplied 15.2% less electricity. Eurostat statistics do not differentiate these data any further. The volume of 332.2 kWh is tantamount to a 13.1% share. In the new EU member countries and the candidate countries, electricity generation showed a moderate increase by 0.4% and 2.1%, respectively. While generation both in conventional power plants and in other plants decreased, a considerable increase is shown for nuclear power generation of +13.5% and +10.6%, respectively [de

  1. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  2. EU Agro Biogas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and universities are cooperating with key industry partners in order to work towards sustainable biogas production in Europe. Fourteen partners from eight European countries are involved in the EU-AGR...

  3. EU Nuclear vs. Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, Jean-Pol

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: • The Fukushima-Daiichi accident represents an opportunity for the nuclear industry to demonstrate its ability to learn from experience through “a continuous improvement strategy”; • Inside the EU: which legal framework for nuclear safety - harmonisation of licensing procedures - EU-level reactor design clearance?; • No way forward without public support: how to address, explain, convince?; • Greater cooperation between industry and international organizations: FORATOM available to contribute

  4. Impact Assessment Road Safety Action Programme : assessment for mid term review : final report. Report on behalf of the European Commission, Directorate-General Energy and Transport.

    OpenAIRE

    ECORYS Transport & SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 the Commission published Saving 20000 lives on our roads, a shared responsibility, also known as the third European Road Safety Action Programme (RSAP). The RSAP describes concrete actions and proposals for actions by the Commission aimed at realising the target for improving road safety as set in the White Paper (European Transport Policy for 2010: time to decide, 2001), namely halving the number of road deaths by 2010. Improving road safety in the EU is clearly a joint responsibilit...

  5. MTU engines for locomotives satisfying the EU stage IIIB emission standard; MTU-Lokomotivantriebe fuer die Emissionsstufe EU IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintruff, Ingo; Reich, Christian; Geiselmann, Wolfgang; Gottschalch, Harald; Jansen, Eddy [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The emission limits for diesel locomotives inside the European Union are included within the scope of Directive 97/68/EC, which is sometimes referred to as the ''non-road directive''. The pollutants limited by it are NO{sub x}, particulates, CO and HCs. The aim, through the directive, is to reduce railway emissions by a factor of ten by the year 2020. The EU stage IIIB standard is due to take effect on 1 January 2012. This envisages a further drastic reduction in limit values compared with EU stage IIIA, which is applicable today. For diesel locomotives, EU stage IIIA only came into force as recently as 2009. The manufacturers of engines and locomotives are thus having to face up to the huge challenge of getting the technologies needed for EU stage IIIB ready for the production line within a period of only three years. MTU has succeeded in developing engines for diesel locomotives that comply with the EU stage IIIB emission standard, which appreciably lower emissions compared with engines satisfying EU stage IIIA, thanks to the incorporation of the most modern technologies available, and has even gone as far as preparing them for the EU stage IV, the next one to come into force. (orig.)

  6. Census taking in the Western Balkans : a challenging and often controversial task on the way to EU membership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoh, Anna-Lena

    2016-01-01

    On the road towards EU enlargement, potential member states need to comply with the EU acquis communautaire. Chapter 18 of the acquis foresees the conduct of a population census by enlargement countries. This has proven to be more challenging in the post-war environment of the former Yugoslavia than

  7. Using Drone Imagery and Photogrammetry to Map Basin Stratigraphy and Structures Exposed in Mine, Road, and Arroyo Outcrops, Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banes, A.; Alvarez Ortega, K. G.; Henry, M.; Niemi, T.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2017 Baja Basins Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU), a DJI Phantom 3 Advanced Quadcopter drone equipped with a GPS-enabled, 12 Megapixel camera was manually flown to collect aerial photographs of several geologic outcrops on the Minera Boléo and Lucifer mines in central Baja California Sur. The strip mine faces, roadcuts, and arroyos exposed Neogene to Quaternary sediments of the Santa Rosalía basin including the basal Cu-Zn-Mn-Co-bearing Miocene Boléo Formation that is actively being mined. It is overlain by Plio-Quaternary marine and non-marine deposits. Photographs were collected with a 70% overlap and processed into geographically-referenced, orthophotomosaics using Agisoft Photoscan. The output models have an adequate resolution for viewing bedding and fault characteristics. Measurements can be made inside the 3D models, making drones a useful tool for studying the geometry of stratigraphic, structural, and geomorphologic features. The studied sites included: 1) roadcuts on Mesa Soledad that exposed oblique-slip faults and syntectonically deposited non-marine and marine conglomerates and sandy, fossil-rich Pliocene beach sediment; 2) outcrops of the Boléo Fm in the Texcoco mine area that showed the detailed stratigraphic relationship between ore seams (mantos) and faults; 3) outcrops where sandstone samples were collected for detrital zircon geochronology; 4) strip mine 3120 that exposed faults and folds in the Boléo Formation; and 5) faults in Miocene volcanic rocks in the Arroyo Infierno near the Lucifer mine. This study shows that photogrammetry and modeling of geologic structures exposed in mine and road outcrops can provide useful information for reconstructing basin architecture and clarifying structural evolution of the Santa Rosalia Basin.

  8. Self-organizing feature map (neural networks) as a tool to select the best indicator of road traffic pollution (soil, leaves or bark of Robinia pseudoacacia L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A., E-mail: sameckaa@biol.uni.wroc.p [Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wroclaw University, ul. Kanonia 6/8, 50-328 Wroclaw (Poland); Stankiewicz, A.; Kolon, K. [Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wroclaw University, ul. Kanonia 6/8, 50-328 Wroclaw (Poland); Kempers, A.J. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Radboud University of Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the leaves and bark of Robinia pseudoacacia and the soil in which it grew, in the town of Olesnica (SW Poland) and at a control site. We selected this town because emission from motor vehicles is practically the only source of air pollution, and it seemed interesting to evaluate its influence on soil and plants. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) yielded distinct groups of soils and R. pseudoacacia leaves and bark, depending on traffic intensity. Only the map classifying bark samples identified an additional group of highly polluted sites along the main highway from Wroclaw to Warszawa. The bark of R. pseudoacacia seems to be a better bioindicator of long-term cumulative traffic pollution in the investigated area, while leaves are good indicators of short-term seasonal accumulation trends. - Once trained, SOFM could be used in the future to recognize types of pollution.

  9. Two Belts, One Road? - The role of Africa in Chinas's Belt & Road initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In the light of the EU-Africa Summit 2017 and of the G20 Summit 2017 with Africa being one of the focus areas, China’s engagement in Africa seems more relevant than ever. China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative (OBOR) or silk road initiative is often referred to as a Eurasian infrastructure network initiative, but it is in fact much more than that. The maritime silk road is supposed to go past the coast of East Africa, where several ports are being built and will be built. Furthermore, ports ...

  10. 152Eu decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonova, K.P.; Vinogradov, V.M.; Grigor'ev, E.P.; Zolotavin, A.V.; Makarov, V.M.; Sergeev, V.O.; Usynko, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the measurement of the relative intensities of the most intensive conversion lines of 152 Eu, the determination of as reliable as possible magnitudes of the intensities of γ-quanta using all the available data on γ-radiation of 152 Eu, the measurement of the interval conversion coefficients (ICC) for the most intensive γ-transitions, the determination of the probabilities of the 152 Eu β-decays to the 152 Sm and 152 Gd levels. The conversion lines of the most intensive γ-transitions in the 152 Eu decay are studied and the corresponding ICC are measured on the beta-spectrometers of π√2 and UMB type. The balance for the γ-transitions in the 152 Sm and 152 Gd daughter nuclei are presented. This balance is used to determine the absolute intensities of γ-rays (in terms of the percentage of the 152 Eu decays) and the probabilities of β-transitions to the levels of daughter nuclei. More accurate data on γ-rays and conversion electrons obtained can be used for the calibration of gamma and beta spectrometers

  11. The EU agencies’ role in policy diffusion beyond the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    and health quality within the risk assessment. This paper shows that the EU agencies develop various entrepreneurial methods and that they actively promote policy diffusion beyond the EU through socialisation and learning within international arrangements and collaborations. However, variations......The extensive literature on the EU agencies has mainly focused on their role in the harmonisation and expansion of regulatory standards within the EU. This paper joins this literature and investigates the role of EU agencies in policy diffusion beyond the EU borders. To operationalise this...

  12. Global patterns of current and future road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Johan R.; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Schotten, Kees C. G. J.; Schipper, Aafke M.

    2018-06-01

    Georeferenced information on road infrastructure is essential for spatial planning, socio-economic assessments and environmental impact analyses. Yet current global road maps are typically outdated or characterized by spatial bias in coverage. In the Global Roads Inventory Project we gathered, harmonized and integrated nearly 60 geospatial datasets on road infrastructure into a global roads dataset. The resulting dataset covers 222 countries and includes over 21 million km of roads, which is two to three times the total length in the currently best available country-based global roads datasets. We then related total road length per country to country area, population density, GDP and OECD membership, resulting in a regression model with adjusted R 2 of 0.90, and found that that the highest road densities are associated with densely populated and wealthier countries. Applying our regression model to future population densities and GDP estimates from the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) scenarios, we obtained a tentative estimate of 3.0–4.7 million km additional road length for the year 2050. Large increases in road length were projected for developing nations in some of the world’s last remaining wilderness areas, such as the Amazon, the Congo basin and New Guinea. This highlights the need for accurate spatial road datasets to underpin strategic spatial planning in order to reduce the impacts of roads in remaining pristine ecosystems.

  13. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  14. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In this paper I try to explore whether the EU can go on expanding and thereby become culturally ever more diversified, and at the same retain its stability. The answer is, in principle, affirmative. Europe has always been much diversified, and therefore it is not possible to define a European...... identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that they would apply for it. An essential part is the willingness of member states to accept a reduction of national sovereignty on some important policy fields. The EU project is basically about lifting the principles of democracy and rule by law on the international level, most and foremost among the member...

  15. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  16. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  17. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Impact Assessment of Its Applications for Vulnerable Road Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J.; Noort, M. van; Johansson, C.; Mans, D.; Silla, A.; Bell, D.; Hancox, G.; Leden, L.; Giannelos, I.; Bax, B.; Malone, K.

    2016-01-01

    The EU-sponsored VRUITS project has prioritized ITS applications which have a potential to improve the safety, mobility and comfort of vulnerable road users (VRUs) and performed a quantitative safety, mobility and comfort assessment for the 10 most promising systems. The assessment methodology

  19. Impact assessment of ITS applications for vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J. Noort, M. van Johansson, C. Mans, D. Silla, A. Bell, D. Hancox, G. Leden, L. Giannelos, I. Bax, B. & Malone, K.

    2017-01-01

    The EU-sponsored VRUITS project has prioritized ITS applications which have a potential to improve the safety, mobility and comfort of vulnerable road users (VRUs) and performed a quantitative safety, mobility and comfort assessment for the 10 most promising systems. The assessment methodology

  20. Performing the EU Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only in politi......This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only...

  1. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  2. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  3. Essential EU Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook takes a broad approach to EU climate law and presents all available legal instruments to combat climate change, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions trading to the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mechanisms. After providing a definition of climate law,

  4. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  5. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  6. The EU's Biofuel Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EU is supporting biofuels, with the aim of reducing greenhouse-gas emission, encouraging the decarbonisation of fuels used in transportation, diversifying energy procurement, offering new earning opportunities in rural areas, and developing long-term replacements for oil. We publish lengthy excerpts from the recent Communication, COM(2006) 34def. which describes the strategy adopted by the Commission [it

  7. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  8. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  9. Integrated use of spatial and semantic relationships for extracting road networks from floating car data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Qin, Qiming; Xie, Chao; Zhao, Yue

    2012-10-01

    The update frequency of digital road maps influences the quality of road-dependent services. However, digital road maps surveyed by probe vehicles or extracted from remotely sensed images still have a long updating circle and their cost remain high. With GPS technology and wireless communication technology maturing and their cost decreasing, floating car technology has been used in traffic monitoring and management, and the dynamic positioning data from floating cars become a new data source for updating road maps. In this paper, we aim to update digital road maps using the floating car data from China's National Commercial Vehicle Monitoring Platform, and present an incremental road network extraction method suitable for the platform's GPS data whose sampling frequency is low and which cover a large area. Based on both spatial and semantic relationships between a trajectory point and its associated road segment, the method classifies each trajectory point, and then merges every trajectory point into the candidate road network through the adding or modifying process according to its type. The road network is gradually updated until all trajectories have been processed. Finally, this method is applied in the updating process of major roads in North China and the experimental results reveal that it can accurately derive geometric information of roads under various scenes. This paper provides a highly-efficient, low-cost approach to update digital road maps.

  10. RoadPlan Manual version 3.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoute, Albert L.

    RoadPlan is an interactive planning and preprocessing tool to analyse and optimize multi-agv traffic. Currently it provides facilities for: * Traffic road map configuration and visualization; * Interactive drawing and modification of traffic layouts; * Collision and deadlock analysis of multiple

  11. Properties of road unevenness inducing the kinematical excitation of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kúdelčíková Mária

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The submitted paper is devoted to the mapping of the surface road profile and to the mathematical description of unevenness in one vehicle track. Its statistical parameters are analyzed and the classification of the road into a category based on power spectral density of unevenness is made.

  12. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  13. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  14. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  15. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  16. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  17. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  18. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  19. 'EU divertor celebration day'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.

    2002-01-01

    The meeting 'EU divertor celebration day' organized on 16 January 2002 at Plansee AG, Reutte, Austria was held on the occasion of the completion of manufacturing activities of a complete set of near full-scale prototypes of divertor components including the vertical target, the dome liner and the cassette body. About 30 participants attended the meeting including Dr. Robert Aymar, ITER Director, representatives from EFDA, CEA, ENEA, IPP and others

  20. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ ph...

  1. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  2. Biomass supply in EU27 from 2010 to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoutsou, Calliope; Eleftheriadis, John; Nikolaou, Anastasia

    2009-01-01

    With biomass staying high in the EU political agenda and most of the recent documents acknowledging that it has the potential to make a very significant contribution to reaching the 20% target [], the issue of supply in terms of feedstock types, availability constraints and costs in different Member States is set to determine the future technology uptake and market deployment prospects. This paper is based on one of the initial studies, 'Bioenergy's role in the EU market. A view of developments until 2020', and presents a structured review for EU biomass resources, aiming to map technical potentials and provide detailed information on availability, costs and future trends for biomass potentials of different residual feedstocks in EU27. (author)

  3. Luminescence properties of different Eu sites in LiMgPO4:Eu2+, Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, A; Mahlik, S; Grinberg, M; Cai, P; Kim, S I; Seo, H J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the luminescence properties of LiMgPO 4 doped with Eu 3+ and Eu 2+ are presented. Depending on the excitation wavelength, luminescence spectra consist of two distinct broad emission bands peaking at 380 nm and 490 nm related to 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 ( 8 S 7/2 ) luminescence of Eu 2+ and to europium-trapped exciton, respectively, and/or several sharp lines between the 580 nm and 710 nm region, ascribed to the 5 D 0  →  7 F J (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions in Eu 3+ . To explain all the features of the Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ luminescence we discussed the existence of two different Eu sites substituting for Li + , with short and long distance compensation. The evident effect of increasing the intensity of the Eu 2+ luminescence with increasing temperature was observed. It was considered that the charge compensation mechanism for Eu 3+ and Li + as well as Eu 2+ replacing Li + in the LiMgPO 4 is a long distance compensation that allows for the existence of some of the europium ions either as Eu 3+ at low temperature or as Eu 2+ at high temperature. We concluded that Eu 2+ in the Li + site with long distance compensation yields only 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence, whereas Eu 2+ in the Li + site with short distance compensation yields 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence and europium-trapped exciton emission. (paper)

  4. USGS US Topo Map Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Layered GeoPDF 7.5 Minute Quadrangle Map. Layers of geospatial data include orthoimagery, roads, grids, geographic names, elevation contours, hydrography, and other...

  5. International partnerships : a road map to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B.

    2006-01-01

    Green Breeze was founded in 2003, and was initially a small wind farm development company with 5 employees before creating partnerships with both local and North American companies in order to expand. The company now has 50 employees that work within 3 separate divisions, namely Green Breeze Energy Systems (GBES); Green Breeze Wind Park Development (GBWPD); and Compsotech. This presentation described the company's business strategy. GBES was created to meet market demand for small wind turbines. Barriers to success included the fact that market demand outweighed Canadian supply, and that Canadian suppliers were still challenged by technical issues. In order to maintain Canadian content and meet the needs of their clients, GBES formed a partnership with the Danish company WES to bring 80 kW and 250 kW turbines into Ontario. By partnering with WES, the company has been able to create a stable supply chain for customers while maintaining ties to Canadian turbine suppliers. GBWPD was created to develop utility-scale wind generation. The company did not win a contract in any recent requests for proposals (RFPs), which led them to conclude that smaller developers seemed to be excluded from the electricity market. As the aim of the organization was to develop projects and not simply model them, they have chosen to focus on smaller wind projects outside the RFP process. However, smaller projects have had limited access to financing and turbine suppliers. In order to address these issues GBWPD formed a partnership with ENERCON which provided financial support as well as access to German foundation specialists and the E48 turbine. Seven of the turbines are now planned for installation in 2007. The partnership has allowed GBWPD to bring over 150 MW of projects into their portfolio. In early 2006, Green Breeze bought controlling interest in Composotech Structures, a company specializing in structural composites manufacturing as well as turbine blade manufacturing and repair. Composotech has now been partnered with Windguard, a German wind turbine service company specializing in assessing turbine faults. It was concluded that the partnership has been awarded a $2 million contract for blade repair which will expand to a $6 million and $13 million contract in 2007. refs., tabs., figs

  6. GEOS Code Development Road Map - May, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Settgast, Randolph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fu, Pengcheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Antoun, Tarabay [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryerson, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-05-03

    GEOS is a massively parallel computational framework designed to enable HPC-based simulations of subsurface reservoir stimulation activities with the goal of optimizing current operations and evaluating innovative stimulation methods. GEOS will enable coupling of different solvers associated with the various physical processes occurring during reservoir stimulation in unique and sophisticated ways, adapted to various geologic settings, materials and stimulation methods. The overall architecture of the framework includes consistent data structures and will allow incorporation of additional physical and materials models as demanded by future applications. Along with predicting the initiation, propagation and reactivation of fractures, GEOS will also generate a seismic source term that can be linked with seismic wave propagation codes to generate synthetic microseismicity at surface and downhole arrays. Similarly, the output from GEOS can be linked with existing fluid/thermal transport codes. GEOS can also be linked with existing, non-intrusive uncertainty quantification schemes to constrain uncertainty in its predictions and sensitivity to the various parameters describing the reservoir and stimulation operations. We anticipate that an implicit-explicit 3D version of GEOS, including a preliminary seismic source model, will be available for parametric testing and validation against experimental and field data by Oct. 1, 2013.

  7. Mobile health a technology road map

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive report on the technological aspects of Mobile Health (mHealth) and discusses the main challenges and future directions in the field. It is divided into eight parts:  (1) preventive and curative medicine;  (2) remote health monitoring; (3) interoperability; (4) framework, architecture, and software/hardware systems;  (5) cloud applications; (6) radio technologies and applications; (7) communication networks and systems; and (8) security and privacy mechanisms. The first two parts cover sensor-based and bedside systems for remotely monitoring patients’ health condition, which aim at preventing the development of health problems and managing the prognosis of acute and chronic diseases. The related chapters discuss how new sensing and wireless technologies can offer accurate and cost-effective means for monitoring and evaluating behavior of individuals with dementia and psychiatric disorders, such as wandering behavior and sleep impairments. The following two parts focus on a...

  8. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  9. A road map for compliance training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.

    1995-01-01

    On April 6, 1990, the American Petroleum Institute (API) amended its bylaws to incorporate an environmental mission statement and 11 guiding environmental principles. The action renewed and reemphasized the industry's commitment to safe and environmentally sound operations. One of these principles deals specifically with safe plant operations: To operate their plants and facilities, and to handle their raw materials and products in a manner that protects the environment, and the safety and health of their employees and the public. This principle has particular relevance in the area of employee training and information transfer, where assurance of safe and environmentally sound operations start with a properly trained and informed workforce. Similarly, in 1988, the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) adopted an initiative called Responsible Care reg-sign: A Public Commitment. The initiative commits member companies to improve performance in response to public concerns about the impact of chemicals on health, safety and environmental quality. The implementation of sound training programs will help achieve compliance with both API's and CMAs initiatives. Besides operations and maintenance skills training, however, Federally Mandated Training is an important issue facing the petroleum and chemical industry

  10. Base Closure: A Road Map for Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-22

    leadership . At the same time, he should issue written press releases. Selected senior leaders from the base should be briefed separately from key community...they will hold with other agencies on base. These matters should be the commander’s call; they will reflect his style of leadership and preference for...base closure. He alone must foresee what can most likely go wrong as well as what should go right in this arduous process. DCNSIZING AN ORGANIZATIN The

  11. Pain Management: Road Map to Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z

    2017-02-01

    Steven Z. George, PT, PhD, is a profound scholar whose contributions to the science of musculoskeletal pain rehabilitation have been both impactful and innovative to the area of clinical practice, as well as the profession at large. Highly regarded as an expert in pain-related psychosocial factors and their impact on rehabilitative outcomes, George is a clinical researcher decorated with accolades, ranging from substantial grant funding to high-impact publications. After 14 years at the University of Florida, George is currently Director of Musculoskeletal Research, Duke Clinical Research Institute, and Vice Chair of Clinical Research, Orthopaedic Surgery, at Duke University. He completed postdoctoral training in pain science and rehabilitation outcomes at the University of Florida and holds a PhD in rehabilitation science and MS in orthopedic physical therapy from the University of Pittsburgh and a BS in physical therapy from the West Virginia University School of Medicine. In his research, George has a primary theme focused on the use of biopsychosocial models to prevent and treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. Specific research areas include the effects of manual therapy on pain sensitivity, genetic and psychological risk factors associated with persistent pain and disability, and behavioral interventions for low back pain. Having authored over 185 peer-reviewed publications in physical therapy, orthopedic, rehabilitation, and pain research journals, George exemplifies a noteworthy level of compassion to improving the profession's, as well as society's, understanding of how to effectively provide pain relief. He is an editorial board member for Physical Therapy and Journal of Pain. He is also an International Editorial Review Board member for the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. George's dedication has been highlighted through various awards, including the John C. Liebeskind Early Career Scholar Award from the American Pain Society, the Ulf Lindblom Young Investigator Award for Clinical Sciences from the International Association for the Study of Pain, the Florida Physical Therapy Association's Award for Scholarly Impact on Practice, and APTA's Jules M. Rothstein Golden Pen Award and Eugene Michels New Investigator Award. In 2014, George's innovative knowledge contributed to being identified by Expertscape as the 10th-ranked world expert for scholarly contributions to the understanding and treatment of back pain. Expertscape's ranking, based on the quantity and quality of peer-reviewed clinical research publications in the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, highlights George's status as a visionary in the profession. For his advocacy toward conducting meaningful research, expertise on pain management, and profound impact beyond published works, APTA is pleased to honor Steven Z. George as the 2016 John H.P. Maley Lecturer. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association

  12. A road map for european facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "The youthfull field of astroparticle physics - thes tudy of the universe via the cosmic rays, gamma rays, gravity waves, and neutrinos that rain down on Earth - has a growing appetite for infrastructure funding."(2/3 page)

  13. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  14. Accurate Fuel Estimates using CAN Bus Data and 3D Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    The focus on reducing CO 2 emissions from the transport sector is larger than ever. Increasingly stricter reductions on fuel consumption and emissions are being introduced by the EU, e.g., to reduce the air pollution in many larger cities. Large sets of high-frequent GPS data from vehicles already...... the accuracy of fuel consumption estimates with up to 40% on hilly roads. There is only very little improvement of the high-precision (H3D) map over the simple 3D map. The fuel consumption estimates are most accurate on flat terrain with average fuel estimates of up to 99% accuracy. The fuel estimates are most...... exist. However, fuel consumption data is still rarely collected even though it is possible to measure the fuel consumption with high accuracy, e.g., using an OBD-II device and a smartphone. This paper, presents a method for comparing fuel-consumption estimates using the SIDRA TRIP model with real fuel...

  15. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    during most of the period since the early 1990s, when aid flows from the EU started growing. Regarding trade relations, we note that the EU’s increasing use of antidumping tariffs against Vietnamese exporters during the past years could be an indication of a less friendly and more competitive attitude...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of algae energy production in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacevic, V.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Today’s society relies heavily on fossil fuels as a main energy source. Global energy demand increase, energy security and climate change are the main drivers of the transition towards alternative energy sources. This paper analyses algal biodiesel production for the EU road transportation and

  17. Development of EU Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    En tematiseret gennemgang af udviklingstrinene i EU's miljøpolitik fra de allerførste skirdt i 1970-72, der måtte basere sig på EU-traktatens generalklausul i Artikel 235, over declarationen på EU-topmødet i Paris i 1972, der kædede økonomisk udvikling sammen med et krav om hensyntagen til miljøet...

  18. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  19. A Review of Roads Data Development Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ubukawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear need for a public domain data set of road networks with high special accuracy and global coverage for a range of applications. The Global Roads Open Access Data Set (gROADS, version 1, is a first step in that direction. gROADS relies on data from a wide range of sources and was developed using a range of methods. Traditionally, map development was highly centralized and controlled by government agencies due to the high cost or required expertise and technology. In the past decade, however, high resolution satellite imagery and global positioning system (GPS technologies have come into wide use, and there has been significant innovation in web services, such that a number of new methods to develop geospatial information have emerged, including automated and semi-automated road extraction from satellite/aerial imagery and crowdsourcing. In this paper we review the data sources, methods, and pros and cons of a range of road data development methods: heads-up digitizing, automated/semi-automated extraction from remote sensing imagery, GPS technology, crowdsourcing, and compiling existing data sets. We also consider the implications for each method in the production of open data.

  20. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  1. Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlholm, Per

    2011-07-01

    An increasing need for goods and passenger transportation drives continued worldwide growth in traffic. As traffic increases environmental concerns, traffic safety, and cost efficiency become ever more important. Advancements in microelectronics open the possibility to address these issues through new advanced driver assistance systems. Applications such as predictive cruise control, automated gearbox control, predictive front lighting control, and hybrid vehicle state-of-charge control decrease the energy consumption of vehicles and increase the safety. These control systems can benefit significantly from preview road grade information. This information is currently obtained using specialized survey vehicles, and is not widely available. This thesis proposes new methods to obtain road grade information using on-board sensors. The task of creating road grade maps is addressed by the proposal of a framework where vehicles using a road network collect the necessary data for estimating the road grade. The estimation can then be carried out locally in the vehicle, or in the presence of a communication link to the infrastructure, centrally. In either case the accuracy of the map increases over time, and costly road surveys can be avoided. This thesis presents a new distributed method for creating accurate road grade maps for vehicle control applications. Standard heavy duty vehicles in normal operation are used to collect measurements. Estimates from multiple passes along a road segment are merged to form a road grade map, which improves each time a vehicle retraces a route. The design and implementation of the road grade estimator are described, and the performance is experimentally evaluated using real vehicles. Three different grade estimation methods, based on different assumption on the road grade signal, are proposed and compared. They all use data from sensors that are standard equipment in heavy duty vehicles. Measurements of the vehicle speed and the engine

  2. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  3. Copenhagen Sonic Experience Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of present European interest for mapping urban noise, it seems increasingly relevant to investigate the multiple ways in which sound intersects with the everyday experiences of urban citizens. Focusing on the polluting effects of infrastructural noise, the EU-initiated project of asse...

  4. Updating Road Networks by Local Renewal from GPS Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The long production cycle and huge cost of collecting road network data often leave the data lagging behind the latest real conditions. However, this situation is rapidly changing as the positioning techniques ubiquitously used in mobile devices are gradually being implemented in road network research and applications. Currently, the predominant approaches infer road networks from mobile location information (e.g., GPS trajectory data directly using various extracting algorithms, which leads to expensive consumption of computational resources in the case of large-scale areas. For this reason, we propose an alternative that renews road networks with a novel spiral strategy, including a hidden Markov model (HMM for detecting potential problems in existing road network data and a method to update the data, on the local scale, by generating new road segments from trajectory data. The proposed approach reduces computation costs on roads with completed or updated information by updating problem road segments in the minimum range of the road network. We evaluated the performance of our proposals using GPS traces collected from taxies and OpenStreetMap (OSM road networks covering urban areas of Wuhan City.

  5. Strategic neighbourhood: EU-Europe versus EU-East

    OpenAIRE

    Rahr, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    "Russia and the EU are the strongest actors on the European continent of the 21st century. Will the strategic partnership between the EU and Russia unite the entire continent under a 'common European home' or will the continent be split in two? Russia joining the rest of Europe is set to proceed initially through the Energy Alliance." (author's abstract)

  6. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States' pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012-2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (-€9,367 million), France (-€5,589 million), and, far behind them

  7. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  8. North America pipeline map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

  9. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  10. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  11. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  12. Norway and the EU may trade emission quotas from 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The EU commission wants to implement quota trade with climate gases from 2005. The proposal, which came in October 2001, describes a quota system limited to the emission of CO 2 in certain industrial sectors. Sources like road traffic and heating of buildings are not comprised by the proposal. It is intended that the agreement will later include more climate gases and more types of activities. This expansion of the implementation becomes most important from 2008-2012, for then the Kyoto Protocol sets the limits for six types of climate gases and lays down rules for international trade with emission quotas. Norway is likely to go in for a limited quota system for 2005 to 2007 and apply for an agreement with the quota market of the EU. It is not certain, however, that the Norwegian authorities will limit the national quota system the same way

  13. 2nd Road Vehicle Automation Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume covers all relevant aspects of road vehicle automation including societal impacts, legal matters, and technology innovation from the perspectives of a multitude of public and private actors. It is based on an expert workshop organized by the Transportation Research Board at Stanford University in July 2013. The target audience primarily comprises academic researchers, but the book may also be of interest to practitioners and professionals. Higher levels of road vehicle automation are considered beneficial for road safety, energy efficiency, productivity, convenience, and social inclusion. The necessary key technologies in the fields of object-recognition systems, data processing, and infrastructure communication have been consistently developed over the recent years and are mostly available on the market today. However, there is still a need for substantial research and development, e.g. with interactive maps, data processing, functional safety, and the fusion of different data sources...

  14. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  15. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negativ...... of continued conservation rather than road development....

  16. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  17. ERGONOMICS AND ROAD SAFETY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, K; BROWN, [No Value

    1992-01-01

    Modifications to the design of vehicles and road infrastructures have improved road safety significantly over the past decades, but all such developments depend upon user acceptance and institutional backing for their success. New R&D programmes combining ergonomic and engineering approaches are

  18. Road pricing and road safety : possible effects on road safety of 23 variants of road pricing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R.G. Dijkstra, A. Wijnen, W. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Nouwen Committee (National Platform Paying Differently for Mobility) advised the Cabinet in 2005 about the introduction of a system of road pricing. Part of this advice consisted of a calculation of the expected road safety effects of such a system. In a letter to the Minister of Transport, SWOV

  19. Building Road-Sign Classifiers Using a Trainable Similarity Measure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paclík, P.; Novovičová, Jana; Duin, R.P.W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2006), s. 309-321 ISSN 1524-9050 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075302 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 507752 - MUSCLE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : classifier system design * road-sign classification * similarity data representation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.434, year: 2006 http://www.ewh.ieee.org/tc/its/trans.html

  20. The importance of accurate road data for spatial applications in public health: customizing a road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laraia Barbara A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health researchers have increasingly adopted the use of geographic information systems (GIS for analyzing environments in which people live and how those environments affect health. One aspect of this research that is often overlooked is the quality and detail of the road data and whether or not it is appropriate for the scale of analysis. Many readily available road datasets, both public domain and commercial, contain positional errors or generalizations that may not be compatible with highly accurate geospatial locations. This study examined the accuracy, completeness, and currency of four readily available public and commercial sources for road data (North Carolina Department of Transportation, StreetMap Pro, TIGER/Line 2000, TIGER/Line 2007 relative to a custom road dataset which we developed and used for comparison. Methods and Results A custom road network dataset was developed to examine associations between health behaviors and the environment among pregnant and postpartum women living in central North Carolina in the United States. Three analytical measures were developed to assess the comparative accuracy and utility of four publicly and commercially available road datasets and the custom dataset in relation to participants' residential locations over three time periods. The exclusion of road segments and positional errors in the four comparison road datasets resulted in between 5.9% and 64.4% of respondents lying farther than 15.24 meters from their nearest road, the distance of the threshold set by the project to facilitate spatial analysis. Agreement, using a Pearson's correlation coefficient, between the customized road dataset and the four comparison road datasets ranged from 0.01 to 0.82. Conclusion This study demonstrates the importance of examining available road datasets and assessing their completeness, accuracy, and currency for their particular study area. This paper serves as an example for assessing

  1. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    vehicles enable more renewable electricity to be integrated onto the electricity grid. This is particularly evident in 2050, since the price of fossil fuels increases while the price of renewable electricity and batteries decreases. Finally, the electric road scenarios can facilitate more reductions......This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys....... In this paper, an electric road scenario is compared to both an oil and battery electric vehicle scenario using the 2010 Danish energy system, but for two sets of costs: one set based on historical costs from the year 2010 and one based on projected costs for the year 2050. The results indicate that electric...

  2. Access road reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, T.; Blok, M.

    1997-01-01

    A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. St. Ursula's Nursing Home, Golf Links Road, Bettystown, Meath.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  5. Road Interpretation for Driver Assistance Based on an Early Cognitive Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baseski, Emre; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we address the problem of road interpretation for driver assistance based on an early cognitive vision system. The structure of a road and the relevant traffic are interpreted in terms of ego-motion estimation of the car, independently moving objects on the road, lane markers and large...... scale maps of the road. We make use of temporal and spatial disambiguation mechanisms to increase the reliability of visually extracted 2D and 3D information. This information is then used to interpret the layout of the road by using lane markers that are detected via Bayesian reasoning. We also...... estimate the ego-motion of the car which is used to create large scale maps of the road and also to detect independently moving objects. Sample results for the presented algorithms are shown on a stereo image sequence, that has been collected from a structured road....

  6. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.4: Forecasting road traffic fatalities in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, C. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. Commandeur, J.J.F. Broughton, J Knowles, J. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Giustianni, G. Shingo, D. Hermans, E. Lassarre, S. Perez, C. & Santamariña, E.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic crashes have a major impact to European society, in 2008 over 38,000 road users died and over 1.2 million were injured. The economic cost is immense and has been estimated at over 160 billion for the EU 15 alone. The European Commission and National Governments place a high priority on

  7. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  8. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  9. Predictability by recognizable road design. [previously called: Recognizable road design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    One of the Sustainable Safety principles is that a road should have a recognizable design and a predictable alignment. If this is the case, road users know how they are expected to behave and what they can expect from other road users, so that crashes may be prevented. For roads to be recognizable,

  10. Photogrammetry, Digital mapping and Land Informations Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia.......Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia....

  11. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  12. The conference "Road Safety in Europe", held in Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998. Theme: Recommendations for speed management strategies and policies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draskóczy, M. Mocsári, T. Risser, R. Lehner, U. Várhelyi, A. Mäkinen, T. Oei, H.-l. & Comte, S.

    1999-01-01

    At the conference "Road Safety Europe" held in Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998, one of the themes was "Speed management and road safety - EU-project MASTER". Five of the papers presented within this framework were: Present speeds and speed management methods in Europe (Draskóczy,

  13. Characteristics of public roads operation

    OpenAIRE

    Pryimak, V.; Kyiashko, I.

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of public roads operation have been considered and factors influencing TEC of public roads that go via urban areas have been determined. There have been revealed contradictions in the normative-legal base concerning maintenance of public roads and municipal roads that merge into them.

  14. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  15. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  16. Unsurfaced Road Maintenance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This draft manual describes an unsurfaced road maintenance management system for use on military installations. This system is available in either a manual or computerized mode (Micro PAVER). The maintenance standards prescribed should protect Govern...

  17. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  18. State Forest Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  19. Australian road rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    *These are national-level rules. Australian Road Rules - 2009 Version, Part 18, Division 1, Rule 300 "Use of Mobile Phones" describes restrictions of mobile phone use while driving. The rule basically states that drivers cannot make or receive calls ...

  20. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  1. On Line Segment Length and Mapping 4-regular Grid Structures in Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on mapping the road network into 4-regular grid structures. A mapping algorithm is proposed. To model the road network GIS data have been used. The Geographic Information System (GIS) data for the road network are composed with different size of line segment lengths...

  2. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  3. Road grip test in Arjeplog

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Niclas; Andrén, Henrik; Nybacka, Mikael; Fransson, Lennart; Larsson, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish road administration sees a need to improve the road grip estimation capacity for the Swedish road system. The challenge is to find methods to measure road grip fast and reliable. There where six different system types at the tests in Arjeplog, three continuous, two system measuring road grip through deceleration and one system based on GPS and accelerometers. Two system types used air craft runway tires. The other systems used either studded winter tires or friction winter tires. ...

  4. Complex Road Intersection Modelling Based on Low-Frequency GPS Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Deng, M.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    It is widely accepted that digital map becomes an indispensable guide for human daily traveling. Traditional road network maps are produced in the time-consuming and labour-intensive ways, such as digitizing printed maps and extraction from remote sensing images. At present, a large number of GPS trajectory data collected by floating vehicles makes it a reality to extract high-detailed and up-to-date road network information. Road intersections are often accident-prone areas and very critical to route planning and the connectivity of road networks is mainly determined by the topological geometry of road intersections. A few studies paid attention on detecting complex road intersections and mining the attached traffic information (e.g., connectivity, topology and turning restriction) from massive GPS traces. To the authors' knowledge, recent studies mainly used high frequency (1 s sampling rate) trajectory data to detect the crossroads regions or extract rough intersection models. It is still difficult to make use of low frequency (20-100 s) and easily available trajectory data to modelling complex road intersections geometrically and semantically. The paper thus attempts to construct precise models for complex road intersection by using low frequency GPS traces. We propose to firstly extract the complex road intersections by a LCSS-based (Longest Common Subsequence) trajectory clustering method, then delineate the geometry shapes of complex road intersections by a K-segment principle curve algorithm, and finally infer the traffic constraint rules inside the complex intersections.

  5. Implementing the European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO) in the SafetyNet project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P. Morris, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Lejeune, P. Duchamp, G. Vis, M. Vallet, G. Jahi, H. Dupont, E. & Martensen, H.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 there were over 43,000 people who were killed on the roads of the 25 member states of the European Union (EU), additionally around 3.3 million people were injured. The costs to society exceeded EUR 180 billion which is around twice the annual budget of the European Commission and 2 per cent

  6. AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF ROAD MARKINGS FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  7. Automatic Extraction of Road Markings from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Pei, Z.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  8. Overview of externality study in EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Jacqueline

    1998-01-01

    Thi presentation describes the main features of the 'Externe-Core Project (JOS3-CT95-0002) from 1. January 1996 to 31. October 1997. The methodology applied in EU takes is based on a marginal cost basis, for a specific site, technology, fuel input using impact pathway approach. The economic evaluation is based on willingness to pay. 'All fuel cycle' takes into account fossil fuels - coal, oil, gas, lignite; Nuclear power; Renewables - wind, hydro, biomass, waste, PV, solar; Energy saving - industry and domestic; Transport - road vehicles. The following impacts are included: Environmental and health impacts both in physical and monetary terms. The priority impacts on a full fuel cycle basis are discussed during routine operation and accidents; as well as emissions from material use (wind, energy conservation). The non-environmental impacts are related to energy security and employment. Pollutants taken into account are SO 2 ; NO x ; N 2 O; CO 2 ; CH 4 ; particulates (PM 10 and acid aerosols); ozone; VOCs; radionuclides. Damages include: Public health; Materials; Crops, Forests, Freshwater fisheries; Unmanaged ecosystems; Occupational accidents; public accidents; global warming potential; Noise; Land use; Visual impact. Differences between Nuclear, Fossil fuels and renewables are shown in terms of major impact categories

  9. The EU system for emissions trading after year 2012; EU:s system foer handel med utslaeppsraetter efter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, Mathias; Mjureke, David (eds.)

    2007-01-15

    achieve emission reductions in line with Council Conclusions (7619/1/05) in the form of total emission reductions of the order of 15-30 % in the industrialised countries by 2020. Sweden should press for the Scheme to be linked with other trading schemes, subject to retention of climate integrity. Linking can strengthen global climate policy ties and influence countries not having internationally binding climate commitments towards participating in some climate policy agreement. Linking also helps to counter international distortion of competition. There should be considerable opportunities for the use of CDM (or equivalent) credits in the Scheme, given that the EU has strict commitments on emission reductions. In order to ensure the system's climate integrity and competition neutrality, efforts should be aimed at ensuring that the total quantity of allowances in the Trading Scheme is decided directly at EU level (i.e. top-down), instead of as today starting from national allocation plans (i.e. bottom-up). Sweden should promote continued expansion of the Scheme to other sectors and for other gases. In 2013, it should be expanded to include emissions of carbon dioxide and PFC from primary and secondary aluminium production, carbon dioxide from certain chemical industry sectors, nitrous oxide from certain chemical industry sectors and methane from active coal mines. The European road transport sector can be included in the Scheme. However, this will pose challenges in respect of the effects on industrial competitiveness and developments within the road transport sector. In order to be able to adopt a firm position in the matter of how the road transport sector should be treated in relation to the EU ETS, Sweden should initiate in-depth studies of consequences of different options, including a separate trading scheme for the European transport sector. Purely biofuelled combustion installations should be excluded from the Scheme, and the monitoring requirements for pure

  10. Overview of EU research activities in transmutation and innovative reactor systems within the Euratom framework programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, V.

    2009-01-01

    European Community (EC) (currently 27 Member States) shared-cost research has been organised in Framework Programmes (FP) of durations of 4 - 5 years since 1984. The 6th European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) Framework Programme (2002 - 06) and the current 7th FP (2007 - 11) have been allocated a fission research budget respectively of 209 and 287 Million Euro from the EC. There are 10 projects (total budget 70 M Euro, EC contribution 38 M Euro) in all aspects of transmutation ranging from road-mapping exercise to large integrated projects on accelerator driven systems, lead-cooled fast critical systems for waste transmutation, technology, fuel, accelerator facilities for nuclear data etc. In Innovative Reactor concepts, there are about half-a-dozen projects (total budget 30 M Euro, EC contribution 16 M Euro) including High Temperature Reactors, Gas-cooled Fast reactors, road-mapping exercise on sodium fast reactors etc. The main research and training activities in FP7 are: management of radioactive waste, reactor systems, radiation protection, infrastructures, human resources and mobility and training. In the two call for proposals (2007 and 2008) in FP7, 8 projects have been accepted in transmutation and innovative reactor concepts (total budget 53 M Euro, EC contribution 32 M Euro). These research projects cover activities ranging from materials, fuels, treatment of irradiated graphite waste, European sodium fast reactor to the establishment of a Central Design Team of a fast-spectrum transmutation device in Europe. The third call for proposals is underway requesting proposals on nuclear data, thermal hydraulics, gas and lead-cooled fast reactor systems with a total EC budget of 20 M Euro. International collaboration is an important element of the EU research policy. This overview paper will present elements of the strategy of EURATOM research and training in waste management including accelerator driven transmutation systems and Innovative reactor concepts

  11. Parameterizing road construction in route-based road weather models: can ground-penetrating radar provide any answers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D S; Chapman, L; Thornes, J E

    2011-01-01

    A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey of a 32 km mixed urban and rural study route is undertaken to assess the usefulness of GPR as a tool for parameterizing road construction in a route-based road weather forecast model. It is shown that GPR can easily identify even the smallest of bridges along the route, which previous thermal mapping surveys have identified as thermal singularities with implications for winter road maintenance. Using individual GPR traces measured at each forecast point along the route, an inflexion point detection algorithm attempts to identify the depth of the uppermost subsurface layers at each forecast point for use in a road weather model instead of existing ordinal road-type classifications. This approach has the potential to allow high resolution modelling of road construction and bridge decks on a scale previously not possible within a road weather model, but initial results reveal that significant future research will be required to unlock the full potential that this technology can bring to the road weather industry. (technical design note)

  12. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  13. Defining a common set of indicators to monitor road accidents in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchi, Sara; Molino, Nunzio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Borgia, Piero; Krzyzanowski, Michael; Dalbokova, Dafina; Kim, Rokho

    2006-01-01

    Background currently road accidents are mostly monitored through mortality and injury rates. This paper reports the methodology and the results of a project set forth by the European Union (EU) and coordinated by the WHO aimed at identifying and evaluating a core set of indicators to monitor the causal chain of road accident health effects. The project is part of the ECOEHIS (Development of Environment and Health Indicators for European Union Countries). Methods a group of experts (WG), identified 14 indicators after a review of the information collected at the EU level, each of them representing a specific aspect of the DPSEEA (Driving, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action) model applied and adapted to the road accidents. Each indicator was scored according to a list of 16 criteria chosen by the WG. Those found to have a high score were analysed to determine if they were compatible with EU legislation and then tested in the feasibility study. Results 11 of the 14 indicators found to be relevant and compatible with the criteria of selection were proposed for the feasibility study. Mortality, injury, road accident rate, age of vehicle fleet, and distance travelled are the indicators recommended for immediate implementation. Conclusion after overcoming the limitations that emerged (absence of a common definition of death by road accident and injury severity, underestimation of injuries, differences in information quality) this core set of indicators will allow Member States to carry out effective internal/external comparisons over time. PMID:16834780

  14. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Biomass. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, H.; Tuerk, A.; Arasto, A.; Vehlow, J.; Kautto, N.; Sijm, J.; Hunder, M.; Brammer, J.

    2009-02-01

    Within its Energy and Climate Package, adopted by the European Parliament in December 2008, the European commission set a 10% minimum for the market share of renewables in the transport sector in 2020. To find the appropriate instruments to reach this target and the instrument mix with which biomass use in general could be best stimulated are the main questions of this project. An important instrument of the European Climate Policy is the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), which started operation in 2005. Previous work done within Bioenergy NoE showed that only a high share of auctioning of allowances and a high CO2 price provide necessary incentives for a higher biomass use. According to the Energy and Climate Package, all allowances will be auctioned in the energy sector from 2013 on, with exceptions for a few CEE countries. Based on work done within the project, a model has been developed to analyse at which CO2 price biomass becomes competitive in case of 100 per cent auctioning or at a lower level. The European Commission furthermore decided not to include the road transport sector into the EU-ETS until 2020. Whether the inclusion of the road transport sector in the EU-ETS, could help introducing biofuels, a separate trading scheme for biofuels should be set up, or biofuels should be addressed with other policy instruments, was another main question of this project. The first result shows that an integrated scheme would hardly have any effects on the use of liquid biofuels in the transportation sector, but might cause higher CO2 prices for the energy and industry sector. A separate trading scheme has been implemented in the UK in 2008, California is planning such as scheme in addition to include the road transport sector into the future ETS. Within this project the design of such as system has been elaborated based on the comparison of several policy instruments to increase the use of liquid biofuels in the transportation sector. Policy interaction

  15. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process.......A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...

  16. Procedural modeling of urban layout: population, land use, and road network

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, X.; Han, Q.; de Vries, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an urban simulation system generating urban layouts with population, road network and land use layers. The desired urban spatial structure is obtained by generating a population map based on population density models. The road network is generated at two spatial levels corresponding to the road hierarchy. The land use allocation is based on the What If? allocation model. The expected results are urban layouts suitable for academic scenario analysis.

  17. Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  18. Gravel roads management : volume 1, gravel roads management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  19. Gravel roads management : volume 2, gravel roads management : implementation guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  20. Gravel roads management : volume 3, gravel roads management : programming guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  1. EU Policy. A Debate on EU Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.; Kjoelbye, L.; Aaslund, A.; Zwitserloot, R.

    2008-01-01

    Views from four experts in the field of energy on the EU's energy policy, as laid down in the Third Package, are presented. Kjoelbye and Cohen argue about the pros and cons of unbundling, Aaslund defends the policy of reciprocity towards Gazprom, and Zwitserloot warns that Europe's anti-Gazprom policy endangers security of supply

  2. Instrumentation and monitoring of the nextgen road infrastructure: Some results and perspectives from the R5G project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautière, Nicolas; Bourquin, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    Through the centuries, the roads - which today constitute in France a huge transport network of 1 millions kilometers length - have always been able to cope with society needs and challenges. As a consequence, the next generation road infrastructure will have to take into account at least three societal transitions: ecological, energetic and digital. The goal of the 5th generation road project (R5G©) [1], led by Ifsttar in France, aligned with the Forever Open program [2], is to design and build demonstrators of such future road infrastructures. The goal of this presentation is to present different results related to the greening of road materials [3], the design of energy-positive roads [4, 5], the test of roads that self-diagnose [6], the design of roads adapted for connected [7], autonomous [8] and electrified vehicles [9], etc. In terms of perspectives, we will demonstrate that the road infrastructures will soon become a complex system: On one side road users will benefit from new services, on the other side such massively connected and instrumented infrastructures will potentially become an opportune sensor for knowledge development in geoscience, such as air quality, visibility and fog monitoring. References: [1] R5G project. r5g.ifsttar.fr [2] Forever Open Road project. www.foreveropenroad.eu [3] Biorepavation project. www.infravation.net/projects/BIOREPAVATION [4] N. Le Touz, J. Dumoulin. Numerical study of the thermal behavior of a new deicing road structure design with energy harvesting capabilities. EGU General Assembly 2015, Apr 2015, Vienne, Austria. [5] S. Asfour, F. Bernardin, E. Toussaint, J.-M. Piau. Hydrothermal modeling of porous pavement for its surface de-freezing. Applied Thermal Engineering. Volume 107, 25 August 2016, Pages 493-500 [6] LGV BPL Instrumentation. http://railenium.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/INSTRUMENTATION-BPL-FR.pdf [7] SCOOP@F project. https://ec.europa.eu/inea/en/connecting

  3. An assessment of the regional potential for solar power generation in EU-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perpiña Castillo, Carolina; Batista e Silva, Filipe; Lavalle, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aim at assessing the potential of European regions to solar power generation and its comparison with recent European Union (EU) incentives for the development of this renewable energy source. In this study we use a multi-criteria assessment (MCA) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS) to combine already existing information on solar radiation with other geographical factors such as slope, land use, urban extent and population distribution, as well as proximity to the power grid to generate a suitability map for photovoltaic (PV) power plants across the EU at high spatial resolution. A validation exercise showed that the resulting suitability map is a good predictor of appropriate locations for the deployment of PV power plants. The suitability map was in addition compared to the regional distribution of European funds for development of solar energy from the EU Cohesion policy (2007–2013 programme). Regions were classified according their overall suitability for solar energy power systems and the allocated solar investments by the EU Cohesion policy. This analysis allowed to identify potential mismatches between fund allocations and actual regional suitability for solar energy. It is recommended that future fund allocations take into account suitability criteria for solar energy for optimised results of public policies. - Highlights: • A European suitability map for the solar energy (PV) systems deployment is created. • PV systems can contribute in a sustainable energy production in many regions in EU. • There is no correlation among the EU investment and the suitability in solar energy. • Using marginal lands to place PV systems might avoid the uptake of agricultural land. • Validation of the EU suitability map demonstrated a satisfactory degree of accuracy.

  4. EU-MOLDOVA TRADE RELATIONS: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF MOLDOVAN INDUSTRIES ON THE SINGLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana SANDU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Engaging on the long road of implementing the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the EU in 2010, Moldova is now closer than ever to being included in the most privileged category of the Eastern neighbouring countries - those who have chosen to deepen the European economic integration. The Vilnius Summit in November 2013 has reinforced the ‘more for more’ principle for both Moldova and Georgia by emphasizing, at the same time, the role of reactive measures and financial aid in counterbalancing aggressive trade barriers from non-EU states. Not only has Moldova proved to efficiently capitalize the provisions of the ATP agreement since 2008, but it has also consequently received more support from the EU in boosting exports to the single market. The wine industry was the first to benefit from the free-trade regime, as for the EU decision of eliminating quotas from the beginning of 2014. Nonetheless, the progressive liberalisation of trade flows between Moldova and the EU would finally oppose two asymmetric partners. Consequently, Moldova is facing the challenge of asserting its value on the EU market, by yet not undermining the relevance of other important trading partners nearby.

  5. European financial support and succesful road PPP Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido Maza, G.

    2016-07-01

    The EU has been promoting the use of PPPs in order to accelerate the development of the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) for ensuring economic, social and territorial cohesion and increasing accessibility throughout the Union. To encourage the use of PPPs, the European Commission has put several financing mechanisms at the disposal of the Member States, including a series of innovative financial instruments developed along with the European Investment Bank. The Bank has in turn played a major role in the promotion and financing of PPPs across the EU. The paper undertakes a review of the main financial instruments developed by the EU that are available to PPPs so as to determinate to what extent the European financial support has been channelled to road projects under that scheme in Spain. On the basis of the results obtained, a multiple regression model has been developed to analyse whether the PPP projects which enjoyed the financial support of the European Union tend to be significantly more successful from an economic point of view. The paper concludes that there is a positive correlation between receiving European financial support and the success of the PPP road projects. (Author)

  6. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The

  7. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE FOREST ROAD PLANNING AND ROAD GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafız Hulusi ACAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is required that the capital used for construction of road must be technical, economical and used in its location. For this reason, the projects must be prepared for forest roads and all operations belong to roads must be guided according to these projects. In this investigation, available forest road network plan and constructed forest roads were investigated at the point of view technical and forest transportation. After this, it were studied to reach the highest exploitation rate as can as possible. Available forest road density were found as 11.9 m/ha in forest areas for Yesiltepe District. In this condition, exploitation rate was 78 %. After that, optimum forest road network were planned and road density were reached to 22 m/ha and exploitation rate to 86 %. Directed sample method were used from taking soil sample methods and samples were took in mixed system. According to results of the experiments, available forest roads were found in a good degree at the point of view endurance, pressing and transportation capacity. With these results, it is aimed to reach higher exploitation rate with given attention to landslide areas during planning of forest roads on the mountain areas such as Black Sea Region. For this reason, required importance must be given to planning of truck and logging roads. Ground analysis must be done and took care before during planning process of forest road network.

  8. Procedural modeling of urban layout: population, land use, and road network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyu, X.; Han, Q.; de Vries, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an urban simulation system generating urban layouts with population, road network and land use layers. The desired urban spatial structure is obtained by generating a population map based on population density models. The road network is generated at two spatial levels

  9. Extraction of basic roadway information for non-state roads in Florida : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) maintains a map of all the roads in Florida, : containing over one and a half million road links. For planning purposes, a wide variety : of information, such as stop lights, signage, lane number, and s...

  10. Computer training program improves teen drivers' attention to the road : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Research indicates that when completing in-vehicle tasks : such as looking at a road map, teen drivers are much more : likely than are experienced drivers to look away from the : road for long periods. Other studies indicate that glances : away from ...

  11. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  12. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  13. EU citizenship and direct taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Ros (Erik)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main question addressed in this study is: _How has the concept of EU citizenship influenced the legal autonomy of Member States; most notably in the field of direct taxation and are the implications of that influence on the tax autonomy of Member States acceptable?_

  14. EU ENLARGEMENT AT A CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cătălina Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to explore the general theme of the EU enlargement strategy in the new 2012 European context. Until now, the EU’s enlargement strategy has yielded impressive results. It succeeded in transforming ten central and eastern European countries from post-communism confusion into open-market, mature and effective systems of democratic governments, and even on the economic front, they have also made astonishing progress. It is no doubt that people in the new EU countries live better then before. In this context, the EU must continue the enlargement process to help stabilize the Balkan region that lie beyond its expanded eastern border. No one can deny that major issues concerning western Balkan countries’ accession are still on the table, and they even exert a geopolitical influence of sorts. This makes it all the more important to see stability and regional co-operation there are strategically vital. An all-out effort must now be made to complete the enlargement process and ensure there is no strategic vacuum. This article provides the framework of analyses for the EU problems and the challenges for the Balkans governments as for Brussels.

  15. Implementatie van EU-handhavingsvoorschriften

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, P.C.; Barkhuysen, T.; Boswijk, P.; Habib, K.; Kruif, C. de; Luchtman, M.J.J.P.; Ouden, W. den; Prechal, A.; Steunenberg, B.; Vervaele, J.A.E.; Voermans, W.J.M.; Vries, S.A. de; Widdershoven, R.J.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Na een verkennend onderzoek op twaalf beleidsterreinen naar aard, wijze en variatie van de EU/EG-beïnvloeding van nationale handhaving, zijn aan de hand van ‘beïnvloedingsscores’ acht beleidsterreinen geselecteerd voor nadere analyse. In het onderzoek staan de volgende vragen centraal:Hoe is de

  16. Absolute measurement of 152Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Baba, Sumiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Sekine, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Isamu

    1981-08-01

    A new method of the absolute measurement for 152 Eu was established based on the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4πβ-counter and a Ge(Li) γ-ray detector, in which the effective counting efficiencies of the 4πβ-counter for β-rays, conversion electrons, and Auger electrons were obtained by taking the intensity ratios for certain γ-rays between the single spectrum and the spectrum coincident with the pulses from the 4πβ-counter. First, in order to verify the method, three different methods of the absolute measurement were performed with a prepared 60 Co source to find excellent agreement among the results deduced by them. Next, the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic coincidence measurement was applied to 152 Eu sources prepared by irradiating an enriched 151 Eu target in a reactor. The result was compared with that obtained by the γ-ray spectrometry using a 152 Eu standard source supplied by LMRI. They agreed with each other within the error of 2%. (author)

  17. A QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR 3D ROAD POLYGON OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy, the fast and accurate extraction of the city road is significant for GIS data collection and update, remote sensing images interpretation, mapping and spatial database updating etc. 3D GIS has attracted more and more attentions from academics, industries and governments with the increase of requirements for interoperability and integration of different sources of data. The quality of 3D geographic objects is very important for spatial analysis and decision-making. This paper presents a method for the quality assessment of the 3D road polygon objects which is created by integrating 2D Road Polygon data with LiDAR point cloud and other height information such as Spot Height data in Hong Kong Island. The quality of the created 3D road polygon data set is evaluated by the vertical accuracy, geometric and attribute accuracy, connectivity error, undulation error and completeness error and the final results are presented.

  18. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  19. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  20. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore...

  1. The Road Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  2. Eyes on the Road

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    One of the first lessons new drivers learn is to keep their eyes on the road. Unfortunately, cell phones and other electronic devices are causing many drivers to lose their focus, and sometimes their lives. In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann discusses the dangers of distracted driving.

  3. Self-explaining roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Kaptein, N.

    1999-01-01

    As a means to a sustainable safe traffic environment the concept of Self-Explaining Roads (SER) has been developed. The SER concept advocates a traffic environment that elicits safe driving behaviour simply by its design. In order to support safe driving behaviour and appropriate speed choice,

  4. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  5. EDITORIAL ROAD SAFETY IN KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    data for the purpose of legal prosecution and insurance claims. The accident data P41 form filled at the Police Stations are collated and forwarded to the Roads Department, Ministry of Roads and Public. Works for further processing and analysis (1, 12). The. Roads Department analyses the information in order to determine:.

  6. Exploring the EU ETS beyond 2020. A first assessment of the EU Commission's proposal for Phase IV of the EU ETS (2021-2030). COPEC Research Program: the Coordination of EU Policies on Energy and CO2 with the EU ETS by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalard, Matthieu; Alberola, Emilie; Afriat, Marion; Vaidyula, Manasvini; Dahan, Lara; Cail, Sylvain; Cassisa, Cyril; Keramidas, Kimon; Coussy, Paula; Portenart, Philomene

    2015-11-01

    This report, written in partnership with I4CE and IFPen, provides the first complete and comprehensive assessment of the EU Commission's proposal and its coherence with the 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy policies, demonstrating that: 1 - Re-calibrating the EU ETS requires considering its interactions with complementary climate and energy policies by 2030. Interactions between different policies may induce additional costs vis-a-vis an optimal transition to a low-carbon economy. 2 - Introducing the Market Stability Reserve is necessary to support the ambition of the EU ETS. Guaranteeing MSR effectiveness calls for a governing framework to be established before 2030. 3 - The free allocation mechanism for Phase IV requires more flexible and targeted allocation to sectors most exposed to carbon leakage risk. 4 - Expanding the EU ETS scope with the inclusion of the road transport sector may not necessarily be the most cost-effective way to achieve the GHG 2030 target. 5 - Considering the large scale of ETS auction revenues by 2030, the use of ETS proceeds by the European Commission and by Member States constitutes an increasingly relevant funding source to support decarbonization efforts in non-ETS sectors and to finance R and D in low carbon technologies

  7. Rebalancing EU Interest Representation? Assocative Democracy and EU funding of Civil Society Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Salgado, R.

    2014-01-01

    European Union (EU) funding of civil society organizations (CSOs) is a substantial and important part of EU governance, but study of such funding is scarce and theoretically underdeveloped. To fill this gap, this article analyzes the main features of EU funding of CSOs and its effects on the EU

  8. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  9. EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pe'er, G.; Dicks, L.V.; Visconti, A.; Arlettaz, R.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.; Scott, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2013, the European Union (EU) enacted the reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, allocating almost 40% of the EU's budget and influencing management of half of its terrestrial area. Many EU politicians are announcing the new CAP as “greener,” but the new environmental

  10. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  11. Mapping Unknown Knowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diogo de Andrade Silva, Elisa; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    representative dimensions of travellers’ embodied ‘dwelling-in-motion’ (Urry, 2007) and experiences. The paper foregrounds a ‘Mapping-in-Motion’ graphic example, an experimental urban design student assignment aiming to map some of the less representative dimensions of journeys between A and B in Berlin...... in relation to analysis, representation, exploration and design of everyday travelling in the city. Such ‘mobilities design’ (Jensen and Lanng 2017) concerns routes, sites and artefacts of mobilities, e.g., road networks, train stations, and bike parking facilities. Some dimensions of these structures...

  12. Towards a more sustainable transport infrastructure: how spatial geological data can be utilized to improve early stage Life cycle assessment of road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Miliutenko, Sofiia; Björklund, Anna; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Toller, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impacts during the life cycle stages of transport infrastructure are substantial, including among other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as resource and energy use. For transport infrastructure to be sustainable, such issues need to be integrated in the planning process. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the European Union (EU) in order to ensure that all environmental aspects are considered during planning of road infrastructure projects. As a part of this process, the European Commission has suggested the use of the tool life cycle assessment (LCA) for assessing life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. When analyzing life cycle impacts of the road infrastructure itself, it was shown that earthworks and materials used for the road construction have a big share in the total energy use and GHG emissions. Those aspects are largely determined by the geological conditions at the site of construction: parameters such as soil thickness, slope, bedrock quality and soil type. The geological parameters determine the amounts of earthworks (i.e. volumes of soil and rock that will be excavated and blasted), transportation need for excavated materials as well as the availability of building materials. The study presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilizing spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) in order to improve estimates on earthworks during the early stages of road infrastructure planning. Three main methodological steps were undertaken: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The proposed GIS-based approach was later evaluated by comparing with the actual values of extracted material of a real road construction project. The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate, while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock had a wide variation from

  13. Determining quantitative road safety targets by applying statistical prediction techniques and a multi-stage adjustment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, P; Sever, K; Knoth, S; Sahin, N; Bondarenko, J

    2013-01-01

    Due to substantial progress made in road safety in the last ten years, the European Union (EU) renewed the ambitious agreement of halving the number of persons killed on the roads within the next decade. In this paper we develop a method that aims at finding an optimal target for each nation, in terms of being as achievable as possible, and with the cumulative EU target being reached. Targets as an important component in road safety policy are given as reduction rate or as absolute number of road traffic deaths. Determination of these quantitative road safety targets (QRST) is done by a top-down approach, formalized in a multi-stage adjustment procedure. Different QRST are derived under consideration of recent research. The paper presents a method to break the national target further down to regional targets in case of the German Federal States. Generalized linear models are fitted to data in the period 1991-2010. Our model selection procedure chooses various models for the EU and solely log-linear models for the German Federal States. If the proposed targets for the EU Member States are attained, the sum of fatalities should not exceed the total value of 15,465 per year by 2020. Both, the mean level and the range of mortality rates within the EU could be lowered from 28-113 in 2010 to 17-41 per million inhabitants in 2020. This study provides an alternative to the determination of safety targets by political commitments only, taking the history of road fatalities trends and population into consideration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrochemical reduction of Eu (III) in propionic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotto, M.E.; Rabockai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some chronopotentiometric studies of Eu (III) electro-reducion in propionic media that suggests the presence of two parallel rections: Eu (III) → Eu (II) and Eu (III) → Eu (II) → Y are presented. Some experimental data, such Eu (III) reducion, electrolysis of solutions and ionic power of the system are discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  15. EU focus on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Faced with the mounting evidence of the harmful effects of climate change, the European Union is convinced that the world must take urgent action to tackle the problem. That is why the EU has been at the forefront of international efforts to deal with climate change for well over a decade. The EU is convinced that the status quo is simply not an option. Without urgent, concerted action, the problem will continue to get worse with potentially disastrous consequences. That is why the European Union has consistently taken the lead in international moves to tackle climate change and why it will continue to develop this strategy for as long as it takes to guarantee a world for ourselves and our children where everyone can grow, breathe and live in safety

  16. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    to food, the right heat, the right to have a job"; we still live with this division today. There have been a number of attempts over the last 10-15 years, who have tried to work around these problems. One of them is a movement within the UN are trying to reinterpret what it means to have 'development...... point for reaction against the liberalization of the global economy. It is extremely interesting. Again this demonstrates the complexity of EU policy. Some Member States were quite supportive of the WTO, while others expected the ILO to take the lead. See, for example, the declaration on "Core Labour...... is this contradiction "free and fair trade" in the same sentence becomes, in an attempt both economically and politically to get it to make sense within the EU. Ian Manners is a professor and works at Roskilde University, the Institute for society and globalization. His research is globalization and Europeanisation...

  17. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  18. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  19. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  20. USGS Transportation Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Transportation service from The National Map (TNM) is based on TIGER/Line data provided through U.S. Census Bureau and road data from U.S. Forest Service....

  1. An Analysis of Stand-alone GPS Quality and Simulated GNSS Quality for Road Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabic, Martina; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    Use of GPS for road pricing has often been suggested as the way of creating more efficient charging strategies than existing systems based on cordon lines or time use. In Denmark, Copenhagen participated with the AKTA project in the PRoGRESS programme, sponsored by the EU. The major part...... of the AKTA project was to equip 500 cars with GPS receivers. The paper presents the methods and results from a study of GPS quality in relation to road pricing in a dense urban area. The collected data from 500 cars over a two-year period in the Copenhagen region was analyzed in order to determine whether...... the stand alone GPS quality and reliability is adequate for implementation of an operational road pricing system in Copenhagen. The results from the analysis show that the satellite availability in Copenhagen is not sufficient to form the basis for a reliable operational road pricing system. The narrow...

  2. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  3. Road safety development in Europe: a decade of changes (2001-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Bao, Qiong; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the road safety development of a country over time, the percentage change in the number of road fatalities is traditionally the main indicator. However, simply considering the reduction in the road fatalities may not correctly reflect the real improvement in road safety because the transport circumstances of a country underlying the road fatalities also change every year. In this study, we present a new way for measuring the road safety performance change over time, which is to use the technique of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the Malmquist productivity index. In doing so, we can not only focus on the evolution of road safety final outcomes within a given period, but also take the changes of different measures of exposure in the same period into account. In the application, the DEA-based Malmquist productivity index (DEA-MI) is used to measure the extent to which the EU countries have improved their road safety performance over the period 2001-2010. More objective and insightful results are obtained compared to the ones based on the traditional indicator. The results show considerable road safety progress in most of the Member States during these ten years, and the fatality risk rather than the fatality number on Europe's roads has actually been reduced by approximately half. However, the situation differed considerably from country to country. The decomposition of the DEA-MI into 'efficiency change' and 'technical change' further reveals that the bulk of the improvement during the last decade was attained through the adoption of productivity-enhancing new technologies throughout the road transport sector in Europe, rather than through the relatively underperforming countries catching up with those best-performing ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2008-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  5. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2009-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  6. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  7. Modelling the impact of roads on regional population of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt

    for decisions concerning road lay-out and mitigation measures. As model species was chosen the Moor frog (Rana arvalis). Populations of Moor frogs are assumed to follow a pattern of metapopulation dynamics, with colonisation, extinction and recolonisation of suitable habitat patches. Thus, road constructions...... to be constructed and analysed. The first scenario should be a map of the area as it is before the planned road construction (scenario 0). This analysis measures the ecological performance of the original landscape and is a reference against which other scenarios are to be compared. The second map (scenario 1......) should show the landscape as it is expected to be after the road constructions. In combination, the analyses of scenario 0 and scenario 1 make it possible to assess the effect of road construction on connectivity and population persistence. The analyses also constitute the basis for planning...

  8. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  9. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Deliverable 1.1/4.1: Consultation of a panel of experts on the needs for data and technical tools in road safety policy-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupont, H. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Muhlrad, N. Jähi, H. Vallet, G. Giustiniani, G. Tripodi, A. Usami, D. Bax, C. Wijnen, W. Schöne, M.-L. Machata, K. Buttler, I. Zysinska, M. Talbot, R. Gitelman, V. & Hakkert, S. & Muhlrad, N. & Dupont, E. (Eds.)

    2012-01-01

    Traffic crashes have a major impact to European society, in 2008 over 38,000 road users died and over 1.2 million were injured. The economic cost is immense and has been estimated at over 160 billion for the EU 15 alone. The European Commission and National Governments place a high priority on

  10. Landslide susceptibility and risk assessment: specificities for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Parisi, Alessandro; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    A regional-scale assessment of landslide susceptibility and risk along the main road corridors crossing the provincial territory of Matera (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) was carried out. The entire provincial road network extends for about 1,320 km through a territory, of which represents the main connection infrastructure among thirty-one municipalities due to the lack of an efficient integrated transportation system through the whole regional territory. For this reason, the strategic importance of these roads consists in their uniqueness in connecting every urban center with the socio-economic surrounding context. These roads and their vehicular traffic are continuously exposed to instability processes (about the 40% of the total length is disrupted by landslides), characterized both by high intensity and low frequency and by low intensity and high frequency. This last typology, consisting in small shallow landslides, is particularly hazardous for the roads since it is widespread along the road network, its occurrence is connected to rainfalls and determines high vulnerability conditions for the road in terms of interruption of vehicular traffic. A GIS-based heuristic-bivariate statistical predictive model was performed to assess and map the landslide susceptibility in the study area, by using a polynomial function of eight predisposing factors, weighted according to their influence on the landslide phenomena, recognized and collected in an inventory. Susceptibility associated to small shallow phenomena was assessed by using a polynomial function of specific factors, such as slope angle and aspect, lithological outcrops, rainfalls, etc. In absence of detailed input data, the spatial distribution of landslide risk along the road corridors was assessed and mapped using a qualitative hazard-consequence matrix approach, by which risk is obtained by combining hazard categories with consequence classes pairwise in a two-dimensional table or matrix. Landslide

  11. Road networks as collections of minimum cost paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Jan Dirk; Montoya-Zegarra, Javier Alexander; Schindler, Konrad

    2015-10-01

    We present a probabilistic representation of network structures in images. Our target application is the extraction of urban roads from aerial images. Roads appear as thin, elongated, partially curved structures forming a loopy graph, and this complex layout requires a prior that goes beyond standard smoothness and co-occurrence assumptions. In the proposed model the network is represented as a union of 1D paths connecting distant (super-)pixels. A large set of putative candidate paths is constructed in such a way that they include the true network as much as possible, by searching for minimum cost paths in the foreground (road) likelihood. Selecting the optimal subset of candidate paths is posed as MAP inference in a higher-order conditional random field. Each path forms a higher-order clique with a type of clique potential, which attracts the member nodes of cliques with high cumulative road evidence to the foreground label. That formulation induces a robust PN -Potts model, for which a global MAP solution can be found efficiently with graph cuts. Experiments with two road data sets show that the proposed model significantly improves per-pixel accuracies as well as the overall topological network quality with respect to several baselines.

  12. Mapping the institutional consolidation of EU human health expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruijter, A.

    The EU’s role in the field of human health is solidifying in terms of law and policy, but also with respect to the institutional organisation of human health expertise. In light of the emerging health-care union and questions regarding the nature and scope of a European health law, the institutional

  13. Mapping the institutional consolidation of EU human health expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruijter, Anniek

    2016-01-01

    The EU’s role in the field of human health is solidifying in terms of law and policy, but also with respect to the institutional organisation of human health expertise. In light of the emerging health-care union and questions regarding the nature and scope of a European health law, the institutional

  14. On-road driving impairments and associated cognitive deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Hannes; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the critical on-road driving skills that get affected after a stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the key on-road driving impairments and their associated cognitive deficits after a stroke. A second aim was to investigate if lateralization of stroke impacts results of the cognitive and on-road driving tests. In this cross-sectional study, 99 participants with a first-ever stroke who were actively driving prior to stroke underwent a cognitive battery and a standardized road test that evaluated 13 specific on-road driving skills. These on-road driving skills were mapped onto an existing, theoretical framework that categorized the on-road items into hierarchic clusters of operational, tactical, visuo-integrative, and mixed driving skills. The total score on the road test and the on-road decision, made by a certified fitness-to-drive expert, decided the main outcome. The critical on-road driving skills predicting the on-road decision were identified using logistic regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was employed to determine the cognitive impairments leading to poor total on-road scores. Analyses were repeated for right- and left-sided strokes. In all, 37 persons scored poorly on the road test. These participants performed worse in all hierarchic clusters of on-road driving. Performances on the operational cluster and the visuo-integrative cluster best predicted on-road decisions (R(2) = 0.60). 'Lane changing' and 'understanding, insight, and quality of traffic participation' were the critical skill deficits leading to poor performance on the road test (R(2) = 0.65). Divided attention was the main determinant of on-road scores in the total group (R(2) = 0.06). Participants with right-sided stroke performed worse on visual field, visual neglect, visual scanning, visuo-constructive skills, and divided attention compared with those with left-sided stroke. Divided attention was the main determinant of total on-road scores

  15. An expert-based approach to forest road network planning by combining Delphi and spatial multi-criteria evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Elyas; Majnounian, Baris; Abdi, Ehsan; Sessions, John; Makhdoum, Majid

    2013-02-01

    Changes in forest landscapes resulting from road construction have increased remarkably in the last few years. On the other hand, the sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network. In order to minimize the environmental impacts of forest roads, forest road managers must design the road network efficiently and environmentally as well. Efficient planning methodologies can assist forest road managers in considering the technical, economic, and environmental factors that affect forest road planning. This paper describes a three-stage methodology using the Delphi method for selecting the important criteria, the Analytic Hierarchy Process for obtaining the relative importance of the criteria, and finally, a spatial multi-criteria evaluation in a geographic information system (GIS) environment for identifying the lowest-impact road network alternative. Results of the Delphi method revealed that ground slope, lithology, distance from stream network, distance from faults, landslide susceptibility, erosion susceptibility, geology, and soil texture are the most important criteria for forest road planning in the study area. The suitability map for road planning was then obtained by combining the fuzzy map layers of these criteria with respect to their weights. Nine road network alternatives were designed using PEGGER, an ArcView GIS extension, and finally, their values were extracted from the suitability map. Results showed that the methodology was useful for identifying road that met environmental and cost considerations. Based on this work, we suggest future work in forest road planning using multi-criteria evaluation and decision making be considered in other regions and that the road planning criteria identified in this study may be useful.

  16. Very fast road database verification using textured 3D city models obtained from airborne imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, Dimitri; Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Pohl, Melanie

    2014-10-01

    Road databases are known to be an important part of any geodata infrastructure, e.g. as the basis for urban planning or emergency services. Updating road databases for crisis events must be performed quickly and with the highest possible degree of automation. We present a semi-automatic algorithm for road verification using textured 3D city models, starting from aerial or even UAV-images. This algorithm contains two processes, which exchange input and output, but basically run independently from each other. These processes are textured urban terrain reconstruction and road verification. The first process contains a dense photogrammetric reconstruction of 3D geometry of the scene using depth maps. The second process is our core procedure, since it contains various methods for road verification. Each method represents a unique road model and a specific strategy, and thus is able to deal with a specific type of roads. Each method is designed to provide two probability distributions, where the first describes the state of a road object (correct, incorrect), and the second describes the state of its underlying road model (applicable, not applicable). Based on the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a single distribution that refers to three states: correct, incorrect, and unknown. With respect to the interaction of both processes, the normalized elevation map and the digital orthophoto generated during 3D reconstruction are the necessary input - together with initial road database entries - for the road verification process. If the entries of the database are too obsolete or not available at all, sensor data evaluation enables classification of the road pixels of the elevation map followed by road map extraction by means of vectorization and filtering of the geometrically and topologically inconsistent objects. Depending on the time issue and availability of a geo-database for buildings, the urban terrain reconstruction procedure has semantic models

  17. Detection and recognition of road markings in panoramic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Creusen, Ivo; Hazelhoff, Lykele; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    Detection of road lane markings is attractive for practical applications such as advanced driver assistance systems and road maintenance. This paper proposes a system to detect and recognize road lane markings in panoramic images. The system can be divided into four stages. First, an inverse perspective mapping is applied to the original panoramic image to generate a top-view road view, in which the potential road markings are segmented based on their intensity difference compared to the surrounding pixels. Second, a feature vector of each potential road marking segment is extracted by calculating the Euclidean distance between the center and the boundary at regular angular steps. Third, the shape of each segment is classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). Finally, by modeling the lane markings, previous falsely detected segments can be rejected based on their orientation and position relative to the lane markings. Our experiments show that the system is promising and is capable of recognizing 93%, 95% and 91% of striped line segments, blocks and arrows respectively, as well as 94% of the lane markings.

  18. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessment Program (RAP have emerged. This research aim to compare two proactive methods that have been tested in Malaysian roads ; road assessment program and road environment risk index which was developed based on composite index theory in defining road’s safety level. Composite road environment risk index was combining several crucial environment indicators, assigning weight and aggregating the individual index together to form a single value representing the road’s safety level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both road assessment program and composite road environment risk index are contradicted in six different ways such as type of speed used, type of analysis used and their final outcomes. However, with an aim to promote safer roads, these two methods can be used concurrently as the outcomes in both methods seems to fulfil each other’s gap very well.

  19. A FAST AND ROBUST ALGORITHM FOR ROAD EDGES EXTRACTION FROM LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast mapping of roads plays an important role in many geospatial applications, such as infrastructure planning, traffic monitoring, and driver assistance. How to extract various road edges fast and robustly is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a fast and robust algorithm for the automatic road edges extraction from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a key observation: most roads around edges have difference in elevation and road edges with pavement are seen in two different planes. In our algorithm, we firstly extract a rough plane based on RANSAC algorithm, and then multiple refined planes which only contains pavement are extracted from the rough plane. The road edges are extracted based on these refined planes. In practice, there is a serious problem that the rough and refined planes usually extracted badly due to rough roads and different density of point cloud. To eliminate the influence of rough roads, the technology which is similar with the difference of DSM (digital surface model and DTM (digital terrain model is used, and we also propose a method which adjust the point clouds to a similar density to eliminate the influence of different density. Experiments show the validities of the proposed method with multiple datasets (e.g. urban road, highway, and some rural road. We use the same parameters through the experiments and our algorithm can achieve real-time processing speeds.

  20. Statistical classification of road pavements using near field vehicle rolling noise measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joel Preto; Coelho, J L Bento; Figueiredo, Mário A T

    2010-10-01

    Low noise surfaces have been increasingly considered as a viable and cost-effective alternative to acoustical barriers. However, road planners and administrators frequently lack information on the correlation between the type of road surface and the resulting noise emission profile. To address this problem, a method to identify and classify different types of road pavements was developed, whereby near field road noise is analyzed using statistical learning methods. The vehicle rolling sound signal near the tires and close to the road surface was acquired by two microphones in a special arrangement which implements the Close-Proximity method. A set of features, characterizing the properties of the road pavement, was extracted from the corresponding sound profiles. A feature selection method was used to automatically select those that are most relevant in predicting the type of pavement, while reducing the computational cost. A set of different types of road pavement segments were tested and the performance of the classifier was evaluated. Results of pavement classification performed during a road journey are presented on a map, together with geographical data. This procedure leads to a considerable improvement in the quality of road pavement noise data, thereby increasing the accuracy of road traffic noise prediction models.

  1. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    OpenAIRE

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female dr...

  2. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  3. The total neutron cross-sections of 151Eu, 153Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1980-12-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV-1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(α)( 151 Eu) = 9180+-150 b at 0.0253 eV; sigmasub(α)( 153 Eu) = 375+-20 b at 0.0253 eV; sigmasub(α)(Eu) = 4600+-120 b at 0.0253 eV

  4. The Multiplex Network of EU Lobby Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, An; Battiston, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The practice of lobbying in the interest of economic or social groups plays an important role in the policy making process of most economies. While no data is available at this stage to examine the success of lobbies in exerting influence on specific policy issues, we perform a first systematic multi-layer network analysis of a large lobby registry. Here we focus on the domains of finance and climate and we combine information on affiliation and client relations from the EU transparency register with information about shareholding and interlocking directorates of firms. We find that the network centrality of lobby organizations has no simple relation with their lobbying budget. Moreover, different layers of the multiplex network provide complementary information to characterize organizations' potential influence. At the aggregate level, it appears that while the domains of finance and climate are separated on the layer of affiliation relations, they become intertwined when economic relations are considered. Because groups of interest differ not only in their budget and network centrality but also in terms of their internal cohesiveness, drawing a map of both connections across and within groups is a precondition to better understand the dynamics of influence on policy making and the forces at play.

  5. 151Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu3Pd20Ge6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, S.; Yoda, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Higashitaniguchi, S.; Seto, M.; Kitagawa, J.; Takabatake, T.

    2010-01-01

    151 Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 . The Eu partial phonon density of states (DOS) in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 are investigated using 151 Eu nuclear resonance inelastic scattering (NRIS). 151 Eu NRIS was carried out at BL09XU of SPring-8. Significant temperature dependence was found in the partial phonon DOS. Judging from the valence change at the Eu 4a site and the comparison with the ab initio calculation of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 , the change of the Eu DOS is caused by the electronic states. On the other hand, significant acoustic contribution was found even at the guest site of the Eu ones. In addition, slower average velocity than transverse sound velocity was obtained by Eu partial phonon DOS. Considering that heat is carried by the acoustic phonon in materials, the present results demonstrate that the moderate thermal insulation in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 is connected with the observation of slow average sound velocity at the Eu sites. (K.F.)

  6. Mapping of transport sensitive areas - Task 3.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münier, Bernd

    and retrieval of data available for pan European mapping exercises revealed a considerable number of high resolution maps suitable for production of map examples. The results have been documented as a spreadsheet, containing essential sets of metadata. Furthermore, it could be realised that the number...... and related sensitive areas in the EU deals with the operationalisation of the criteria for transport sensitivity and impacts, as defined in D2. This paper reports the findings of task 3.1, a Review on spatial approaches, mapping examples and available data sets at EU level. The outcomes of this task...... and quality of map data available is constantly increasing, both with regard to coverage of existing maps and the release of new maps or maps harmonised from national mapping tasks. Main data gaps seem to be within data on meteorology and air quality, as they only exist in rather coarse spatial resolution...

  7. Governing towards renewable energy in the EU: competences, instruments and procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.G.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Th is contribution maps new questions and explores potential problems in EU renewable energy law, focusing on competences, regulatory instruments and administrative procedures. The transition towards renewable energy concerns a major transformation of society, which cannot be done on a

  8. An EU law perspective on the role of legal authorities in the field of renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas; Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This chapter maps and analyses the specific position of regional authorities in view of EU climate and energy law. It specifically focuses on the role taken by such authorities in the light of the transition towards a society increasingly employing renewable energy. Section 2 discusses the potential

  9. Family ties : The intersection of data protection and competition law in EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa-Cabral, Francisco; Lynskey, Orla

    2017-01-01

    companies compete to acquire and process this data. This rivalry is subject to the application of competition law. However, personal data also has a dignitary dimension which is protected through data protection law and EU Charter rights to data protection and privacy.This paper maps the

  10. Renewable energy research 1995–2009: a case study of wind power research in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Garcia- Zorita, J. Carlos; Serrano-López, Antonio Eleazar

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports the developments and citation patterns over three time periods of research on Renewable Energy generation and Wind Power 1995–2011 in EU, Spain, Germany and Denmark. Analyses are based on Web of Science and incorporate journal articles as well as conference proceeding papers...... terms to map knowledge export areas. Findings show an increase in citation impact for Renewable Energy and Wind Power research albeit hampered by scarcely cited conference papers. Although EU maintains its global top position in producing Renewable Energy and Wind Power research the developments of EU...... Wind Power research are EU-self citations. An expected intensified EU collaboration in the Wind Energy field does not come about. The most productive research institutions in Denmark and Spain are also the most cited ones....

  11. Identifying unstable sites on logging roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Rice; J. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    Logging roads are an important source of forestry-related erosion. The amount of erosion on a forest road is determined by the interaction between how the road is constructed and maintained and the environment in which it is built. The roads in this study were constructed with large bulldozers, and most excavated material was sidecast. The roads studied were...

  12. Climate Change and Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinowsky, P.; Arndt, Channing

    2012-01-01

    to estimate the impact of individual climate stressors on road infrastructure in Mozambique. Through these models, stressor–response functions are introduced that quantify the cost impact of a specific stressor based on the intensity of the stressor and the type of infrastructure it is affecting. Utilizing...... four climate projection scenarios, the paper details how climate change response decisions may cost the Mozambican government in terms of maintenance costs and long-term roadstock inventory reduction. Through this approach the paper details how a 14% reduction in inventory loss can be achieved through...

  13. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  14. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  15. Electronic Structure of Eu6C60

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Xiong; LI Hong-Nian; XU Ya-Bo; WANG Peng; ZHANG Wen-Hua; XU Fa-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We study the valence band of Eu-intercalated C60 by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy to un-derstand the ferromagnetism (FM) and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of Eu6C60. The results reveal the semiconducting property and the remarkable 5d6s-π hybridization. Eu-C60 bonding has both ionic and covalent contributions. No more than half the 5d6s electrons transfer from Eu to the LUMO derived band of C60, and the LUMO+1 derived band is not filled. The remaining valence electrons of Eu, together with some π (LUMO, HOMO and HOMO-1) electrons, constitute the covalent bond. The electronic structure implies that the magnetic coupling in Eu6C60 should be through the intra-atomic f-sd exchange and the medium of the π electrons. The possibility of the GMR being tunnelling magnetoresistance is ruled out.

  16. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  17. The new MTU series 4000 rail engines certified for EU IIIB; Die neuen Bahnmotoren der MTU-Baureihe 4000 fuer die Emissionsstufe EU IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintruff, Ingo; Buecheler, Otto; Rall, Helmut; Zitzler, Guenter [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    As of 2012, diesel locomotives in Europe must comply with the emission requirements laid down in EU Non-Road Mobile Machinery Directive 97 / 68 / EC Stage IIIB. Compared to the Stage IIIA in effect today, this will require a significant reduction of air pollutants. MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH has developed new engines for rail applications based on the 4000 series which will comply with future emissions standards due to optimisation inside the engine and the use of a diesel particulate filter. (orig.)

  18. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  19. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  20. Understanding the DNA of EU's GDPR

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Team, IndraStra Global

    2018-01-01

    On May 25, 2018, a new data protection regulation touted as General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Regulation (European Union - EU) 2016/689, will come into force in the European Union (EU) and its 28 Member States. It will replace the 1995 EU Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. The GDPR will have a significant impact in protecting the data and digital footprint of users of apps and another digital platform. It will provide significant new data privacy protections for individuals res...

  1. Road profile estimation of city roads using DTPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Sun, Nian X.; Wang, Ming L.

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a non-destructive and non-contact acoustic sensing approach for measuring road profile of road and bridge deck with vehicles running at normal speed without stopping traffic. This approach uses an instantaneous and real-time dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) that can measure dynamic response of the tire-road interaction and increases the efficiency of currently used road profile measuring systems with vehicle body-mounted profilers and axle-mounted accelerometers. In this work, a prototype of real-time DTPS system has been developed and demonstrated on a testing van at speeds from 5 to 80 miles per hour (mph). A data analysis algorithm has been developed to remove axle dynamic motions from the measured DTPS data and to find the transfer function between dynamic tire pressure change and the road profile. Field test has been performed to estimate road profiles. The road profile resolution is approximately 5 to 10 cm in width and sensitivity is 0. 3 cm for the height road surface features at driving speeds of 5 to 80 mph.

  2. Roads at risk - the impact of debris flows on road network reliability and vulnerability in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nele Kristin; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Norwegian's road network is frequently affected by debris flows. Both damage repair and traffic interruption generate high economic losses and necessitate a rigorous assessment of where losses are expected to be high and where preventive measures should be focused on. In recent studies, we have developed susceptibility and trigger probability maps that serve as input into a hazard calculation at the scale of first-order watersheds. Here we combine these results with graph theory to assess the impact of debris flows on the road network of southern Norway. Susceptibility and trigger probability are aggregated for individual road sections to form a reliability index that relates to the failure probability of a link that connects two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We define link vulnerability as a function of traffic volume and additional link failure distance. Additional link failure distance is the extra length of the alternative path connecting the two associated link vertices in case the network link fails and is calculated by a shortest-path algorithm. The product of network reliability and vulnerability indices represent the risk index. High risk indices identify critical links for the Norwegian road network and are investigated in more detail. Scenarios demonstrating the impact of single or multiple debris flow events are run for the most important routes between seven large cities in southern Norway. First results show that the reliability of the road network is lowest in the central and north-western part of the study area. Road network vulnerability is highest in the mountainous regions in central southern Norway where the road density is low and in the vicinity of cities where the traffic volume is large. The scenarios indicate that city connections that have their shortest path via routes crossing the central part of the study area have the highest risk of route failure.

  3. EU Energy Law. Volume 4. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbeke, J.; Hartridge, O.; Lefevere, J.; Meadows, D.; Runge-Metzger, A.; Slingenberg, Y.; Vainio, M.; Vis, P.; Zapfel, P.

    2006-06-01

    Gives valuable insights in the why's, how's, trade-offs, and critical design choices of the Emission Trading System of the European Union (EU ETS). The chapters deal with (1) The EU ETS: the result of a decade of policy action on the economic dimension of EU environmental policy; (2) The international climate policy developments of the 1990s: UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, the Marrakech Agreements and the EU's Kyoto ratification decision; (3) Emissions trading: What is it? Design options and misconceptions; (4) The EU ETS Directive 2003/87/EEC explained; (5) The EU ETS Linking Directive explained; (6) The economic efficiency benefits of the EU ETS; (7) The NAP I experience; (8) The key importance of the Registry Regulation and of solid monitoring and verification; and (9) The potential role of the EU ETS for the elaboration of the post-2012 international climate regime. Conclusions are in chapter 10

  4. Den brede, folkelige debat om EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2005-01-01

    I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet.......I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet....

  5. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The engagement of JRC IPTS in the GTAP contributing team to the EU domestic support has opened up the opportunity to use the CATS database when compiling EU domestic support payments by member state, which are subsequently calibrated into the GTAP database. To maintain consistency, the GTAP version...... 9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...

  6. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  7. Transport roads on peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, G

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory tests have given good experiences to develop the technology of building transport roads for truck on peat bogs. The experiences can be summarized in the following points: The bearing capacity can be increased 15-20 times by mixing down, to the depth of 0,5 m, a mixture of gypsum and T-lime. high bearing surface capacity has been achieved at laboratory tests by mixing sulfonated lignin/sodiumbichromate or cement into peat. These mixtures can take a load of 610 kPa will be tested in the field. An ordinary base machine can be used with some modifications for the new technique. Costs for building roads and stores with the new technique can save 6 MSEK/year in Sweden. Remainig problems at full scale tests are: Testroads should be built to get knowledge of settlement, bearing capacity cost of maintenance etc. Heavy metals pollution. Machinery for transportation and admixture of the stabilizing agents must be deloped. By experience a good mixture between firm soil and peat is difficult to achieve. Technique and dimensioning to make a soft mixture ought to be studied.

  8. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  9. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC) Along Federal Road F0023

    OpenAIRE

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana; Prasetijo Joewono; Musa Wan Zahidah

    2017-01-01

    Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric design...

  10. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  11. Renewable energies in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    On January 23, 2008, the European Commission presented proposals in the form of a directive in an effort to give more specific shape to the objective adopted in the spring, i.e. to increase to 20% by 2020 the share of renewable energies in energy consumption in the Community. The proposal was to include legally binding goals for the overall share of renewable energy sources and the share of biofuels in the transport sector. The proposed directive on 'promoting the use of energy from renewable sources' calls upon each member state to ensure that its share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption in 2020 at least corresponds to the target mentioned in Annex I Part A. In addition to the targets, the EU Commission charted a tentative course towards a minimum increase in the share of renewable energies in the period between 2011 and 2020. Finally, the member states are obliged to adopt national action plans. Unfortunately, the EU is missing an important target in its proposed directive: It should establish a framework for harmonized conditions promoting the use of renewable energies. One aspect to be welcomed is the introduction of a system of certificates of origin. It represents the entry, in principle, into a trading system with certificates of origin. The Green Package incorporates a wealth of new approaches. They will have to be tested and, if necessary, supplemented. Something else is evident, however: The directive established the foundations of a vast number of new regulations and red tape. (orig.)

  12. EU energy and climate change strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graça Carvalho, Maria da

    2012-01-01

    This paper will summarise the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. In current international negotiations Europe has proposed a 20% reduction in GHG (greenhouse gases) in the developed countries by 2020 or 30% should there be an international agreement in the domain. However it is important to define measures to achieve the targets. One of the principal tools is to improve energy efficiency under the energy efficiency action plan, which will help to achieve a 20% energy saving by 2020. On the other hand, the amount of energy from renewable sources consumed in Europe will have to rise from its current level of 8.5%–20% by 2020. These are ambitious but achievable targets. Nonetheless, these can only be achieved through strong investment in areas of the knowledge triangle which strengthens research and innovation in the energy sector in Europe. The paper covers European Energy and Climate Change Policy, the European Strategic Energy Technology plan, the consequences of the Lisbon Treaty, European and national Road maps to a low carbon economy, the Energy Efficiency Plan for 2011 and finishes with a brief consideration of the EU’s energy infrastructure priorities. -- Highlights: ► This paper summarises the European Strategy for Energy and Climate Change. ► Reduction of GHG emissions by 30%-international agreement or −20% without agreement. ► Use of 20% of renewable energies by 2020. ► Increase of energy efficiency of 20% by 2020. ► Consolidating of the internal energy market.

  13. Improving road safety: Experiences from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  14. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  15. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  16. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  17. Energy transfer between the Eu2+ dipole and aggregate centers in CsBr:Eu crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Turchak, R.; Voznjak, T.

    2007-01-01

    The energy transfer between the Eu 2+ -V Cs dipole centers and presumable CsEuBr 3 aggregate centers has been studied in CsBr:Eu crystals by means of investigation of their time-resolved emission spectra and luminescence decay kinetics at 300 K

  18. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the

  19. The 'primacy' and 'direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    The rules on invoking EU norms before the Court of Justice and Member State courts are at the core of EU constitutional law. International agreements binding on the EU form an integral part of EU law and have primacy over inconsistent secondary EU legislation. Moreover, they also have primacy over...

  20. Poznan or the road to Copenhagen - Review of the Ifri Energy Roundtable, 21 January 2009 in Brussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulke, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    A year after the historic Bali Climate Change Conference, the Poznan Conference, which took place from 1-12 December 2008, represents an important milestone in the negotiation of a new post-Kyoto international climate regime. Negotiators are now at the halfway point on the Bali Road-map, which set up a two-year process to strengthen cooperation and secure a final agreement at the Copenhagen Conference next December. Three eminent experts, deeply involved in the international negotiation process, give their insights on the key results of Poznan, present the key remaining issues for the critical year ahead to Copenhagen and outline their aspirations and expectations for the Copenhagen Conference. A former US climate change negotiator and current manager of IEA's climate change activities then offers insights on the evolution of by-then President Obama's climate change and energy team. The EU package is also presented, together with the need for a new model of governance for financing climate change adaptation and mitigation measures

  1. Free allocation in the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS): identifying efficient mechanisms through to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalard, Matthieu; Alberola, Emilie

    2015-11-01

    . Besides, it enables to avoid over-allocations and perverse threshold effects observed in Phase III, but it further mutes the carbon price signal to consumers, and should be complemented by additional mechanisms to exploit demand -side abatement potentials. This mechanism would lead to a less impacting CSCF of 71% in 2030 with a 1.4% annual growth assumption that would however depend on the aggregate output level. Based on our estimates, this factor would be comprised between 62% and 82% in 2030, entailing an uncertainty about the net carbon cost borne by installations amounting to 10% of added value for the cement sector and 6% for the steel sector, with a 30 euro/tCO 2 price assumption. - In Scenario 3, a more targeted and focused allocation is presented, which better reflects the exposure to carbon leakage risks. It is proposed to use differentiated allocation rates either based on carbon cost and trade intensity thresholds like implemented in California for example, or based on targeted maximum carbon costs for each sectors depending on trade intensity. This would enable to reduce the allocation volume and overcome the ex post correction and the uncertainty coming with it, and to mitigate carbon costs more efficiently for exposed sectors. - The Scenario 4 assesses the European Commission's proposal, which could be leading to a 20% ex post reduction of allocation volume to all installations by 2030, on top of the 20% uniform reduction of benchmarks. Focusing allocation to exposed sectors, and enhancing flexibility in the supply of free allowances through a dynamic New Entrant Reserve could be levers to help combat carbon leakages more efficiently and maintain incentives to reduce emissions. In the end, it appears that a combination of instruments is needed to forge a credible road-map for decarbonization of industry sectors: a predictable carbon price signal, flexible and targeted free allocation, as well as additional instruments to steer demand for low

  2. Noise Costs from Road Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margorínová, Martina; Trojanová, Mária; Decký, Martin; Remišová, Eva

    2018-06-01

    Building and improving road infrastructure in Slovakia is currently influenced by the amount of state funding. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the effectiveness of each proposed solution of road project, which is based on life-cycle costs. Besides capital costs, social costs are also important, which valued the negative impacts due to road construction and operation on road users, the environment, and the population living in the affected area. Some components of social costs have shortcomings in quantifying and valuating, which need to be resolved. The one of important components which affects human health and the value of an area, and have some shortcomings are noise costs. Improvement of this component will lead to more accurate valuation of economic efficiency of roads.

  3. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  4. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832

  5. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  6. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1 using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2 using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  7. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvaitis, John A; Reed, Gregory C; Carroll, Rory P; Litvaitis, Marian K; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J A; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats (Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads.

  8. Roads Data Conflation Using Update High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, A.; Riyahi Bakhtiari, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    Urbanization, industrialization and modernization are rapidly growing in developing countries. New industrial cities, with all the problems brought on by rapid population growth, need infrastructure to support the growth. This has led to the expansion and development of the road network. A great deal of road network data has made by using traditional methods in the past years. Over time, a large amount of descriptive information has assigned to these map data, but their geometric accuracy and precision is not appropriate to today's need. In this regard, the improvement of the geometric accuracy of road network data by preserving the descriptive data attributed to them and updating of the existing geo databases is necessary. Due to the size and extent of the country, updating the road network maps using traditional methods is time consuming and costly. Conversely, using remote sensing technology and geographic information systems can reduce costs, save time and increase accuracy and speed. With increasing the availability of high resolution satellite imagery and geospatial datasets there is an urgent need to combine geographic information from overlapping sources to retain accurate data, minimize redundancy, and reconcile data conflicts. In this research, an innovative method for a vector-to-imagery conflation by integrating several image-based and vector-based algorithms presented. The SVM method for image classification and Level Set method used to extract the road the different types of road intersections extracted from imagery using morphological operators. For matching the extracted points and to find the corresponding points, matching function which uses the nearest neighborhood method was applied. Finally, after identifying the matching points rubber-sheeting method used to align two datasets. Two residual and RMSE criteria used to evaluate accuracy. The results demonstrated excellent performance. The average root-mean-square error decreased from 11.8 to 4.1 m.

  9. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Joint road safety operations in tunnels and open roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Adewole; Avenoso, Antonio; Dionelis, Kallistratos; Cela, Liljana; Nicodème, Christophe; Goger, Thierry; Polidori, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the ECOROADS project is to overcome the barrier established by the formal interpretation of the two Directives 2008/96/EC and 2004/54/EC, which in practice do not allow the same Road Safety Audits/Inspections to be performed inside tunnels. The projects aims at the establishment of a common enhanced approach to road infrastructure and tunnel safety management by using the concepts and criteria of the Directive 2008/96/CE on road infrastructure safety management and the results of related European Commission (EC) funded projects. ECOROADS has already implemented an analysis of national practices regarding Road Safety Inspections (RSI), two Workshops with the stakeholders, and an exchange of best practices between European tunnel experts and road safety professionals, which led to the definition of common agreed safety procedures. In the second phase of the project, different groups of experts and observers applied the above common procedures by inspecting five European road sections featuring both open roads and tunnels in Belgium, Albania, Germany, Serbia and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper shows the feedback of the 5 joint safety operations and how they are being used for a set of - recommendations and guidelines for the application of the RSA and RSI concepts within the tunnel safety operations.

  11. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  12. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  13. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) o...

  14. Principles and Practices of EU External Representation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    With this working paper, CLEER aims to offer a better insight into selected legal aspects concerning the European Union’s redefined diplomatic persona. In particular, the working paper will address issues pertaining to the Lisbon Treaty’s organising principles of EU external action, both under EU

  15. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...

  16. EU criminal law and fundamental rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul; Mitsilegas, V.; Bergström, M.; Konstadinides, Th.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter first offers a background analysis to EU fundamental rights law, recalling the historical affirmation of the protection of fundamental rights as a EU concern, and the important innovation brought about by the Lisbon Treaty (section 2) and the multiplicity of actors involved in the system

  17. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstås...

  18. News and campaign dynamics in EU 27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.; Schuck, A.; Maier, M.; Stengel, K.; Haubold, V.; Süß, K.; Tenscher, J.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation provides an introduction to the media content analysis of the European election campaign conducted in the 27 EU member states in the 3 weeks leading up to the June 2009 elections. The analysis is an integral part of the PIREDEU project (www.piredeu.eu): Providing an Infrastructure

  19. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis...

  20. Separated and unaccompanied children in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O’Donnell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of EU law, policy and practical measures address the situation of separated and unaccompanied children who arrive in the EU. However, in the current sensitive political climate, there is a risk of attention and resources being diverted from building on progress.

  1. Optimal Rather than Mandatory EU Company Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertig, G.; McCahery, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant debate rages within the EU about whether to give firms the choice to opt in or out of corporate law provisions. Both sides agree that more flexibility and adaptability of legal rules to business needs is crucial. Nevertheless, and not surprisingly, many still view EU mandatory

  2. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  3. Through the EU's Back and Front Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen......Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen...

  4. Intra-EU Direct Investment and Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festa Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of the intra-EU direct investment (IDI into the New Member States (NMS using a panel dataset of bilateral capital flows for the period 1993-2013. It is found out by using a simple gravity model that EU membership is the most important determinant. Unlike previous studies including non-EU countries, the distance is insignificant, which is caused by proximity of these countries to one another. A separate analysis focused on subgroups of accession countries gives some evidence that even when size of their economy, distance, institutional quality and EU accession are taken into account, Central European countries receive more IDI than the Baltic and the Balkan states. On the contrary to that, the analysis restricted to the Balkan countries which have joined the EU shows the inexistence of a negative Balkans effect in attracting foreign investment. This finding is relevant because previous studies demonstrate a persistent negative Balkans effect for non-EU Balkan countries and suggests a crucial impact of the EU accession in determining the intra-EU capital flows.

  5. Geographic Data as Personal Data in Four EU Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A. J.; van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This research found a wide variety of interpretations of the application of data protection legislation to geographic data. The variety was found among the different EU Member States, the different stakeholders and the different types of geographic data. In the Netherlands, the Data Protection Authority (DPA) states that panoramic images of streets are considered personal data. While Dutch case law judges that the data protection legislation does not apply if certain features are blurred and no link to an address is provided. The topographic datasets studied in the case studies do not contain personal data, according to the Dutch DPA, while the German DPA and the Belgian DPA judge that topographic maps of a large scale can contain personal data, and impose conditions on the processing of topographic maps. The UK DPA does consider this data outside of the scope of legal definition of personal data. The patchwork of differences in data protection legislation can be harmonised by using a traffic light model. This model focuses on the context in which the processing of the data takes place and has four categories of data: (1) sensitive personal data, (2) personal data, (3), data that can possibly lead to identification, and (4) non-personal data. For some geographic data, for example factual data that does not reveal sensitive information about a person, can be categorised in the third category giving room to opening up data under the INSPIRE Directive.

  6. Societal Economics of the European Union Liquid Fuel Consumption for Road Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Wong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order for the EU to achieve its goal of 10% biofuel for all EU motor vehicles by 2020, a substantial amount of biofuel as well as a biofuel feedstock would need to be imported largely from developing countries where the climate is warm and labor is inexpensive. But there may never be sufficient supply to fulfill the evergrowing demand for biofuel for road transportation in the EU, even as motor vehicles are increasingly becoming more fuel-efficient. The constraint to realizing an effective and equitable reduction in greenhousegas emission is the overbearing political economics of neoliberalism. A different remedial strategy is needed to address the dual problems of the excessive uses of motor fuels and greenhouse-gas emission.

  7. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how practice theory can be recruited for the study of European integration. New generations of EU researchers are fascinated by the prospect of leaving the armchair and studying the people and artefacts that make the EU on an everyday level. This article surveys key practice......-oriented, anthropological and micro-sociological studies of the EU and European integration and shows how their findings challenge more traditional understandings of the dynamics of European integration. Moving beyond a stock-taking, the article distinguishes between ‘order- ing’ and ‘disordering’ practices and explores...... the potential of a practice turn in EU studies for both theory (overcoming dualism, replacing substantialism with processualism and rethinking power) and methods (including unstructured interviews, fieldwork and participant observation). A practice turn will force us to rethink core assumptions about the EU...

  8. Why use experiments in EU Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    two things. First, by summarising the use of experiments in EU research, it provides an overview of the evolution of the use of experiments within EU studies. This includes a content exploration of the pioneering sub-areas within EU studies where experimentation is frequently used. Particular focus......The past decades have witnessed an explosion in the use of experiments. Though experiments have been increasingly applied, their recognition as useful methodological tools to investigate EU-related research questions has lagged behind the rest of the political science community. This article does...... is paid on election, framing and deliberation studies. Second, the article argues for the promising potentials experimentation provides for EU studies, overcoming problems of causal estimation as well as endogeneity concerns. The article concludes by addressing some of the critiques often made against...

  9. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  10. The quest for a European civic culture : The EU and EU Citizenship in policies and practices of citizenship education in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.E.; van der Kolk, M.; Berkeley, Dominic; Koska, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Since the Treaty of Maastricht (1992) all nationals of EU member states hold EU citizenship too. EU citizens hold EU citizenship rights in addition to their national rights. These rights include civil, social, economic and political rights. Holding these rights does not guarantee actual

  11. Road Anomalies Detection System Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nuno; Shah, Vaibhav; Soares, João; Rodrigues, Helena

    2018-06-21

    Anomalies on road pavement cause discomfort to drivers and passengers, and may cause mechanical failure or even accidents. Governments spend millions of Euros every year on road maintenance, often causing traffic jams and congestion on urban roads on a daily basis. This paper analyses the difference between the deployment of a road anomalies detection and identification system in a “conditioned” and a real world setup, where the system performed worse compared to the “conditioned” setup. It also presents a system performance analysis based on the analysis of the training data sets; on the analysis of the attributes complexity, through the application of PCA techniques; and on the analysis of the attributes in the context of each anomaly type, using acceleration standard deviation attributes to observe how different anomalies classes are distributed in the Cartesian coordinates system. Overall, in this paper, we describe the main insights on road anomalies detection challenges to support the design and deployment of a new iteration of our system towards the deployment of a road anomaly detection service to provide information about roads condition to drivers and government entities.

  12. Pivot Tables - Toolkit: the Constraints to the Business Development in the Former Socialist EU Countries from the Central and Eastern Europe between (2008-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela Zeca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When cooperation between countries is in harmony, trade and investment patterns are based on economic considerations. However, in times of geopolitical reconfiguration of ranking supremacy, economic events held on a stage that sums up all the world, with everything that means material resources, financial resources, polarized areas of intervention, causation so "equation", sometimes with many and unpredictable variables, may not be so easy to solve it. The measurements and econometric calculation are indisputable correct, analysis and the economic forecasts must be accompanied by correct investment strategies on international road map being important to not overlook tension that may weaken national strategy. Informational abundance is as dangerous, or more correctly ineffective, like is the shortage of information. I approached the topic " Pivot tables - toolkit: the constraints to the business development in the former EU socialist countries from the Central and Eastern Europe" in terms of the possibility of accessing easy, accurate and timely a lot of sources of information because, this aspect is desirable, that the result of research overcome the academic space and to become a useful and efficient tool both to researchers, the decision makers and for vectors of economic policy. How large were the constraints and limitations which occurred, which is architecture of their evolution curve for the horizon 2008, 2016, all of these are coagulated aspects in this paper and accessible with one click.

  13. The New European and/or EU Studies Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea; Dolghi, Dorin; Pantea, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In this part we will present turn by turn the evolution of the curriculum in four domains which are developing in the area of European and/or EU Studies: EU Intercultural Dialogue Studies, EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies, EU Communication and Information Studies, EU and Comparative Regionalism, from several points of view. First, we will take into consideration the perspective that each curriculum from the four domains has in the ensemble of European and/or EU Studies, t...

  14. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  15. Assessment of the radiological risks of road transport accidents involving type A package shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Fett, H.J.; Schwarz, G.; Raffestin, D.; Schneider, T.; Gelder, R.; Hughes, J.S.; Shaw, K.B.; Hedberg, B.; Simenstad, P.; Svahn, B.; Hienen, J.F.A.; Jansma, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is an account of work performed within a multi-lateral research project on the radiological risks associated with the transportation of Type A packaged radioactive material. The research project has been performed on behalf of the European Commission and various national agencies of the participating countries and involved organizations and institutes of five EU Member States, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK. The main objectives of the research project were the assessment and appraisal of the potential radiological risks of road transport accidents involving Type A package shipments in participating EU Member States. Data were collected and include harmonized sets information related to the type, quantity and characteristics of Type A package shipments by road. Such databases were basically non-existent until recently. The results are expected to be valuable to both national agencies and international organizations, with responsibilities for the safe transport of radioactive materials by providing some insight in the carriage of radioactive materials by road making up a major fraction of radioactive material transports. Similarly, a wide body of information has been collected and compiled on road transport accidents in terms of the frequency of occurrence and the severity of accidental impact loads potentially experienced by a Type A package.In addition, the results will facilitate judgement of the adequacy of the IAEA Transport Regulations as far as Type A packages are concerned. (O.M.)

  16. Improving road transport operations through lean thinking: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal, B.; Garza-Reyes, J. A.; Kumar, V.; Lim, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, logistics and transportation problems have been addressed through mathematical modelling, operations research, and simulation methods. This paper documents a case study where the road transport operations of a leading Mexican brewery organisation have been improved through lean thinking and waste reduction. Two lean-based principles and tools were combined; the Seven Transportation Extended Wastes (STEWs) and Transportation Value Stream Mapping (TVSM), and three systematic step...

  17. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Med...

  18. Concentration depolarization of luminescence of Eu3+-doped glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodunov, E.N.; Lebedev, V.P.; Malyshev, V.A.; Przheuskij, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of concentrational depolarization luminescence (CDL) of phosphate and germanate glasses, containing Eu 3+ ions, has been carried out. On the basis of three-body self-consistent approximation the theory of CDL is conceived, which takes into account Eu-Eu interaction of higher multipolarities. By comparing the theory with the experiment energy transfer radii for Eu-Eu dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are determined. The attempt to discriminate Eu-Eu interaction types in the studied range of Eu 3+ ion concentration change has failed owing to law accuracy of luminescence emittance anisotropy measurement

  19. CO-2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 4: Cargo transport - road pricing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    In this paper other financial control measures than fuel prices are considered for the transportation sector. The main effect discussed is that of the road pricing system. From the point of view of the CO 2 emission there could be introduced a registration tax for trucks over 4 tons as the higher transport expenditure would tend to reduce road transport demand. EU infrastructure tax directive however recommends taxes for trucks exceeding 12 tons. Road pricing will grow within the categories of lighter trucks but it is only a minor fraction of the total truck expenditure, taking into account fuel tax, weight tax and registration tax. Insurance cost is not included in these consideration. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 22 refs

  20. [Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, G L; Zanelli, R; Corino, P; Bruno, S

    2007-01-01

    Every year many traffic accidents with fatal outcomes occur in our Country. According to the recent indications of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, the Piedmont region has financed the plan: Prevention of road accidents in the road haulage field. The aims of the plan are to stimulate transport companies to the target of road safety and to improve and enforce sanitary surveillance, in order to improve the safety on road haulage and to prevent traffic injuries. the plan foresees, over a period of two years, a few encounters with all the interested parties (companies, police forces, labour unions etc). During those encounters we have to give a questionnaire for evaluating the companies' knowledge about the problem and we have to choose a common plan with the aim of improving road safety. The Piedmont regional plan recalls the need to increase the attention to numerous and diversified hazards for safety on road haulage. It also imposes the choice of measures that include: risk assessment, health education, technical and environmental prevention, sanitary surveillance and clinical interventions (diagnosis and rehabilitation of occupational accidents).