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Sample records for eu road map

  1. REFUEL: an EU road map for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londo, M.; Deurwarder, E.; Lensink, S. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    A successful mid-term development of biofuels calls for a robust road map. REFUEL assesses inter alia least-cost biofuel chain options, their benefits, outlines the technological, legislative and other developments that should take place, and evaluate different policy strategies for realisation. Some preliminary conclusions of the project are discussed here. There is a significant domestic land potential for energy crops in the EU, which could supply between one quarter and one third of gasoline and diesel demand by 2030 if converted into advanced biofuels. A biomass supply of 8 to 10 EJ of primary energy could be available at costs around or below 3 EURO/GJ. However, the introduction of advanced biofuel options may meet a considerable introductory cost barrier, which will not be overcome when EU policy is oriented to the introduction of biofuels at least cost. Therefore, conventional biodiesel and ethanol may dominate the market for decades to come, unless biofuels incentives are differentiated, e.g. on the basis of the differences in greenhouse gas performance among biofuels.The introduction of advanced biofuels may also be enhanced by creating stepping stones or searching introduction synergies. A stepping stone can be the short-term development of lignocellulosic biomass supply chains for power generation by co-firing; synergies can be found between advanced FT-diesel production and hydrogen production for the fuel cell. (au)

  2. Information technology road map 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.

  3. Study on serious road traffic injuries in the EU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. Commandeur, J.J.F. Welsh, R. Niesen, S. Lerner, M. Thomas, P. Bos, N. & Davidse, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    It is the ambition of the EU to reduce the number of killed and seriously injured on the roads over time. It has turned out that, especially in relation to serious injuries, there is still a significant knowledge gap on how to reduce these numbers in the EU. The Commission is therefore committed to

  4. The REFUEL EU road map for biofuels in transport: Application of the project's tools to some short-term policy issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londo, H.M.; Lensink, S.; Wakker, A.; Fischer, G.; Prieler, S.; van Velthuizen, H.; de Wit, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310873754; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Berndes, G.; Hansson, J.; Egeskog, A.; Duer, H.; Lundbaek, J.; Wisniewski, G.; Könighofer, K.

    2009-01-01

    The current hot debate on biofuels calls for a balanced and realistic long-term strategy for biofuels. The REFUEL project provides several ingredients for such a strategy. Analyses in this project indicate that domestically produced biofuels can cover a significant share of EU fuel demand in the

  5. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently.

  6. New Sino-EU Cooperation on the Maritime Silk Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiwei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (OBOR is a historic opportunity for further Sino-EU maritime cooperation, as both sides have much to share and more to build in terms of vision, policies, and security, making it possible for a new line in the already-thriving exchanges across the continent. The two sides will carry on the China-EU 2020 Strategic Agenda for Cooperation with fusion of maritime strategies and joint efforts for safer sea passage, and may proceed to a Maritime Cooperative Organization (MCO when needed to build not only a participative maritime order, but also next-gen cooperation between Asia, Africa, and Europe. Yet this still needs a well-assorted toolset of bi- and multilateral cooperation backed by strong policy and theory, to boost consensus and action by management of differences.

  7. An Evaluation of Forest Road Standards and Road Gradients in Turkey in View of FAO Criteria and Some EU Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Çağlar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are one of the inevitable infrastructures in conducting forestry operations. Around 1000 km under standardized forest roads have been largely repaired in addition to construction of 1000 km new forest roads in Turkey. Implementing uniform road gradient along the road sections is very important in terms of transportation techniques and safety, as well as the geometrical standardizations of the forest road. In this study, current road standards, longitudinal gradient values and their limitations in forest road constructions recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and some Europe Union (EU countries were examined. Firstly, the forest road standards and their gradient values have been defined in Turkish forest road construction practices. Afterwards, the forest road standards and the gradient values applied by FAO and some EU countries were presented, and finally, the specifications were examined by comparing them with the current practices in Turkish forestry.

  8. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

    2011-08-01

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  9. Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps…

  10. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  11. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Weapons Systems Engineering Center; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  12. Mapping smart cities in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manville, C.; Cochrane, G.; Cave, J.; Millard, J.; Pederson, J.K.; Thaarup, R.K.; Liebe, A.; Wissner, M.; Massink, R.A.; Kotterink, B.

    2014-01-01

    This report was commissioned to provide background information and advice on Smart Cities in the European Union (EU) and to explain how existing mechanisms perform. In exploring this, a working definition of a Smart City is established and the cities fitting this definition across the Member States

  13. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 10th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety;

  14. Mapping the carbon footprint of EU regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Diana; Vita, Gibran; Steen-Olsen, Kjartan; Stadler, Konstantin; Melo, Patricia C.; Wood, Richard; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2017-05-01

    While the EU Commission has encouraged Member States to combine national and international climate change mitigation measures with subnational environmental policies, there has been little harmonized effort towards the quantification of embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from household consumption across European regions. This study develops an inventory of carbon footprints associated with household consumption for 177 regions in 27 EU countries, thus, making a key contribution for the incorporation of consumption-based accounting into local decision-making. Footprint calculations are based on consumer expenditure surveys and environmental and trade detail from the EXIOBASE 2.3 multiregional input-output database describing the world economy in 2007 at the detail of 43 countries, 5 rest-of-the-world regions and 200 product sectors. Our analysis highlights the spatial heterogeneity of embodied GHG emissions within multiregional countries with subnational ranges varying widely between 0.6 and 6.5 tCO2e/cap. The significant differences in regional contribution in terms of total and per capita emissions suggest notable differences with regards to climate change responsibility. The study further provides a breakdown of regional emissions by consumption categories (e.g. housing, mobility, food). In addition, our region-level study evaluates driving forces of carbon footprints through a set of socio-economic, geographic and technical factors. Income is singled out as the most important driver for a region’s carbon footprint, although its explanatory power varies significantly across consumption domains. Additional factors that stand out as important on the regional level include household size, urban-rural typology, level of education, expenditure patterns, temperature, resource availability and carbon intensity of the electricity mix. The lack of cross-national region-level studies has so far prevented analysts from drawing broader policy conclusions that hold

  15. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 11th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. Since 2014, progress has virtually ground to a halt. 2016

  16. Designing a road map for geoscience workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Christopher; Gil, Yolanda; Deelman, Ewa; Marru, Suresh; Pierce, Marlon; Demir, Ibrahim; Wiener, Gerry

    2012-06-01

    Advances in geoscience research and discovery are fundamentally tied to data and computation, but formal strategies for managing the diversity of models and data resources in the Earth sciences have not yet been resolved or fully appreciated. The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) EarthCube initiative (http://earthcube.ning.com), which aims to support community-guided cyberinfrastructure to integrate data and information across the geosciences, recently funded four community development activities: Geoscience Workflows; Semantics and Ontologies; Data Discovery, Mining, and Integration; and Governance. The Geoscience Workflows working group, with broad participation from the geosciences, cyberinfrastructure, and other relevant communities, is formulating a workflows road map (http://sites.google.com/site/earthcubeworkflow/). The Geoscience Workflows team coordinates with each of the other community development groups given their direct relevance to workflows. Semantics and ontologies are mechanisms for describing workflows and the data they process.

  17. THE ROAD TO HIGER PERFORMANCE OF TWO EU MODEST INNOVATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDU Steliana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Once the economic upsurge ended and the crisis settled in, the decisional behaviour regarding research, development and innovation in the public as well as private sectors deflected the upward trend of innovation performance indicators for both Bulgaria and Romania. While the overall innovation index for EU27 kept a positive growth rate, the evolution of the input and output innovation indicators for both countries along 2009 have downgraded their relative position amongst the EU countries. Therefore, in 2010, Bulgaria and Romania were screened out from the “catching-up countries” and moved back in the “modest innovators” cluster, where they have hovered until now. The challenge for the decision makers in Bulgaria and Romania, as well as of the experts is to identify the strategic alternatives that would capitalize on their relative strengths and potential in order to outstrip their current position and to fully benefit from being integral part of the European Research Area. This would also require careful analyses over specific challenges, threats and weaknesses. Based on various methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis over a wide range of indicators describing aspects of the R&D and innovation performance, the aim of our study is to identify the opportunities for redressing the current trends for both countries with respect to their innovative performance.

  18. SHARE road map for HealthGrids: methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Mark; Rahmouni, Hanene; Solomonides, Tony; Breton, Vincent; Legré, Yannick; Blanquer, Ignacio; Hernandez, Vicente

    2009-04-01

    The SHARE(1) project (http://www.eu-share.org) was asked to identify the key developments needed to achieve wide adoption and deployment of HealthGrids throughout Europe. The project was asked to organise these as milestones on a road map, so that all technical advances, social actions, economic investments and ethical or legal initiatives necessary for HealthGrids would be seen together in a single coherent document. The full road map includes an extensive analysis of several case studies exploring their technical requirements, full discussion of the ethical, legal, social and economic issues which may impede early deployment, and concludes with an attempt to reconcile the tensions between technological developments and regulatory frameworks. This paper has been restricted to the technical aspects of the project. SHARE built on the work of the 'HealthGrid' initiative so we begin by, reviewing work carried out in various European HealthGrid projects and report on joint work with numerous European collaborators. Following many successful HealthGrid projects, HealthGrid published a 'White Paper' which establishes the foundations, potential scope and prospects of an approach to health informatics based on a grid infrastructure. The White Paper demonstrates the ways in which the HealthGrid approach supports many modern trends in medicine and healthcare, such as evidence-based practice, integration across levels, from molecules and cells, through tissues and organs to the whole person and community, and the promise of individualised healthcare. SHARE was funded by the European Commission to define a research roadmap for a 'HealthGrid for Europe', to be seen as the preferred infrastructure for biomedical and healthcare projects in the European Research Area.

  19. A Hybrid Vision-Map Method for Urban Road Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid vision-map system is presented to solve the road detection problem in urban scenarios. The standardized use of machine learning techniques in classification problems has been merged with digital navigation map information to increase system robustness. The objective of this paper is to create a new environment perception method to detect the road in urban environments, fusing stereo vision with digital maps by detecting road appearance and road limits such as lane markings or curbs. Deep learning approaches make the system hard-coupled to the training set. Even though our approach is based on machine learning techniques, the features are calculated from different sources (GPS, map, curbs, etc., making our system less dependent on the training set.

  20. Happiness in Romanian cities on the road from post-communism transition to EU accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Lenzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The literature on life satisfaction in transition countries, and in particular on Romania, demonstrated that life satisfaction significantly differs across rural communities and cities of different size. The question addressed in this paper is whether these imbalances are stable over time or, instead, they become manifest in the presence of strong divergences in the economic growth rates of different kinds of communities. Results point out that in the period of sharp economic growth led by large urban areas, as the one experienced by Romania on the road to EU accession, rural/urban disparities in life satisfaction widened, favoring cities of intermediate size.

  1. Astrobiology Road Mapping (AstRoMap) - A project within FP7 of the European Commission: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gomez, Felipe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Palomba, Ernesto; Walter, Nicolas; Rettberg, Petra; Muller, Christian; Horneck, Gerda

    AstRoMap (Astrobiology and Planetary Exploration Road Mapping) is a funded project formulated in the 5th Call of the European Commission FP7 framework. The main objectives of the AstRoMap are: 1. Identify the main astrobiology issues to be addressed by Europe in the next decades in relation with space exploration 2. Identify potential mission concepts that would allow addressing these issues 3. Identify the technology developments required to enable these missions 4. Provide a prioritized roadmap integrating science and technology activities as well as ground-based approach 5. Map scientific knowledge related to astrobiology in Europe To reach those objectives, AstRoMap is executed within the following steps: 1. Community consultation. In order to map the European astrobiology landscape and to provide a collaborative networking platform for this community, the AstRoMap project hosts a database of scientists (European and beyond) interested in astrobiology and planetary exploration (see: http://www.astromap.eu/database.html). It reflects the demography and the research and teaching activities of the astrobiology community, as well as their professional profiles and involvement in astrobiology projects. Considering future aspects of astrobiology in Europe, the need for more astrobiology-dedicated funding programmes at the EU level, especially for cross-disciplinary groups, was stressed. This might eventually lead to the creation of a European laboratory of Astrobiology, or even of a European Astrobiology Institute. 2. Workshops organisation. On the basis of the feedbacks from the community consultation, the potential participants and interesting topics are being identified to take part in the following workshops: 1-. Origin of organic compounds, steps to life; 2. Physico-chemical boundary conditions for habitability 3. Biosignatures as facilitating life detection 4. Origin of the Solar system 3. Astrobiology road-mapping. Based on the results and major conclusions

  2. Burden of injury of serious road injuries in six EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, Wendy; Bos, Niels; Filtness, Ashleigh; Brown, Laurie; Bauer, Robert; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martin, Jean Louis; Perez, Katherine; Thomas, Pete

    2017-12-06

    Information about the burden of (non-fatal) road traffic injury is very useful to further improve road safety policy. Previous studies calculated the burden of injury in individual countries. This paper estimates and compares the burden of non-fatal serious road traffic injuries in six EU countries/regions: Austria, Belgium, England, The Netherlands, the Rhône region in France and Spain. It is a cross-sectional study based on hospital discharge databases. of study are patients hospitalized with MAIS3+ due to road traffic injuries. The burden of injury (expressed in years lived with disability (YLD)) is calculated applying a method that is developed within the INTEGRIS study. The method assigns estimated disability information to the casualties using the EUROCOST injury classification. The average burden per MAIS3+ casualty varies between 2.4 YLD and 3.2 YLD per casualty. About 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 19% to 33% of the MAIS3+ casualties. Head injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of MAIS3+ road traffic injuries. Results per transport mode differ between the countries. Differences between countries are mainly due to differences in age distribution and in the distribution over EUROCOST injury groups of the casualties. The analyses presented in this paper can support further improvement of road safety policy. Countermeasures could for example be focused at reducing skull and brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities, as these injuries are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Progressive Buffering Method for Road Map Update Using OpenStreetMap Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Web 2.0 enables a two-way interaction between servers and clients. GPS receivers become available to more citizens and are commonly found in vehicles and smart phones, enabling individuals to record and share their trajectory data on the Internet and edit them online. OpenStreetMap (OSM makes it possible for citizens to contribute to the acquisition of geographic information. This paper studies the use of OSM data to find newly mapped or built roads that do not exist in a reference road map and create its updated version. For this purpose, we propose a progressive buffering method for determining an optimal buffer radius to detect the new roads in the OSM data. In the next step, the detected new roads are merged into the reference road maps geometrically, topologically, and semantically. Experiments with OSM data and reference road maps over an area of 8494 km2 in the city of Wuhan, China and five of its 5 km × 5 km areas are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method. It is shown that the OSM data can add 11.96% or a total of 2008.6 km of new roads to the reference road maps with an average precision of 96.49% and an average recall of 97.63%.

  4. International scale implementation of the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, D W; de Hoogh, K; Fecht, D; Fabbri, F; Bell, M; Goodman, P S; Elliott, P; Hodgson, S; Hansell, A L; Gulliver, J

    2015-11-01

    The EU-FP7-funded BioSHaRE project is using individual-level data pooled from several national cohort studies in Europe to investigate the relationship of road traffic noise and health. The detailed input data (land cover and traffic characteristics) required for noise exposure modelling are not always available over whole countries while data that are comparable in spatial resolution between different countries is needed for harmonised exposure assessment. Here, we assess the feasibility using the CNOSSOS-EU road traffic noise prediction model with coarser input data in terms of model performance. Starting with a model using the highest resolution datasets, we progressively introduced lower resolution data over five further model runs and compared noise level estimates to measurements. We conclude that a low resolution noise model should provide adequate performance for exposure ranking (Spearman's rank = 0.75; p < 0.001), but with relatively large errors in predicted noise levels (RMSE = 4.46 dB(A)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Road Map Inference: A Segmentation and Grouping Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Qiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new segmentation and grouping framework for road map inference from GPS traces. We first present a progressive Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Application with Noise (DBSCAN algorithm with an orientation constraint to partition the whole point set of the traces into clusters that represent road segments. A new point cluster grouping algorithm, according to the topological relationship and spatial proximity of the point clusters to recover the road network, is then developed. After generating the point clusters, the robust Locally-Weighted Scatterplot Smooth (Lowess method is used to extract their centerlines. We then propose to build the topological relationship of the centerlines by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM-based map matching algorithm; and to assess whether the spatial proximity between point clusters by assuming the distances from the points to the centerline comply with a Gaussian distribution. Finally, the point clusters are grouped according to their topological relationship and spatial proximity to form strokes for recovering the road map. Experimental results show that our algorithm is robust to noise and varied sampling rates. The generated road maps show high geometric accuracy.

  6. Advances in the development of common noise assessment methods in Europe: The CNOSSOS-EU framework for strategic environmental noise mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Paviotti, Marco; Anfosso-Lédée, Fabienne; Van Maercke, Dirk; Shilton, Simon; Jones, Nigel

    2014-06-01

    The Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49/EC) requires EU Member States to determine the exposure to environmental noise through strategic noise mapping and to elaborate action plans in order to reduce noise pollution, where necessary. A common framework for noise assessment methods (CNOSSOS-EU) has been developed by the European Commission in co-operation with the EU Member States to be applied for strategic noise mapping as required by the Environment Noise Directive (2002/49/EC). CNOSSOS-EU represents a harmonised and coherent approach to assess noise levels from the main sources of noise (road traffic, railway traffic, aircraft and industrial) across Europe. This paper outlines the process behind the development of CNOSSOS-EU and the parts of the CNOSSOS-EU core methodological framework which were developed during phase A of the CNOSSOS-EU process (2010-2012), whilst focusing on the main scientific and technical issues that were addressed, and the implementation challenges that are being faced before it can become fully operational in the EU MS. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Road MAPs to engineer host microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Ben O; Medema, Marnix H; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2017-12-02

    Microbiomes contribute directly or indirectly to host health and fitness. Thus far, investigations into these emergent traits, referred to here as microbiome-associated phenotypes (MAPs), have been primarily qualitative and taxonomy-driven rather than quantitative and trait-based. We present the MAPs-first approach, a theoretical and experimental roadmap that involves quantitative profiling of MAPs across genetically variable hosts and subsequent identification of the underlying mechanisms. We outline strategies for developing 'modular microbiomes'-synthetic microbial consortia that are engineered in concert with the host genotype to confer different but mutually compatible MAPs to a single host or host population. By integrating host and microbial traits, these strategies will facilitate targeted engineering of microbiomes to the benefit of agriculture, human/animal health and biotechnology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Maslow Revisited: Constructing a Road Map of Human Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Dennis; Yballe, Leodones

    2007-01-01

    Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build "the road map of human nature." This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit…

  9. Road map for selected key measurements from LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A.A., Jr; Amato, S.; Amhis, Y.; Amoraal, J.; Anderson, J.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Arrabito, L.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Bagaturia, Y.; Bailey, D.S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Pazos, MdC.Barandela; Barlow, R.J.; Barsuk, S.; Bates, A.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Bediaga, I.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.O.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blanks, C.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bobrov, A.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bos, E.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bozzi, C.; Bressieux, J.; Brisbane, S.; Britsch, M.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Buchler-Germann, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cachemiche, J.P.; Cadeddu, S.; Caicedo Carvajal, J.M.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Cameron, W.; Campana, P.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chlopik, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Cid Vidal, X.; Clark, P.J.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Collins, P.; Constantin, F.; Conti, G.; Contu, A.; Corti, G.; Cowan, G.A.; D'Almagne, B.; D'Ambrosio, C.; d'Enterria, D.G.; Da Silva, W.; David, P.; De Bonis, I.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; De Vries, H.; Decamp, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Deissenroth, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deplano, C.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dickens, J.; Dijkstra, H.; Dima, M.; Donleavy, S.; Reis, A.C.dos; Dovbnya, A.; Pree, T.Du; Duval, P.Y.; Dwyer, L.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Eames, C.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eklund, L.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Esteve, L.; Eydelman, S.; Fanchini, E.; Farber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fungueirino Pazos, J.L.; Furcas, S.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gao, Y.; Garnier, J-C.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauvin, N.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gilitsky, Yu.; Gligorov, V.V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Grabalosa Gandara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Guerrer, G.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Guzik, Z.; Gys, T.; Hachon, F.; Haefeli, G.; Haines, S.C.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harji, R.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, P.F.; He, J.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hofmann, W.; Holubyev, K.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Huston, R.S.; Hutchcroft, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Escudero, C.Iglesias; Imong, J.; Jacobsson, R.; Jahjah Hussein, M.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jaton, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; John, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jost, B.; Kapusta, F.; Karbach, T.M.; Keaveney, J.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khalil, S.; Khanji, B.; Kim, Y.M.; Knecht, M.; Knopf, J.; Koblitz, S.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolko, I.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Krasowski, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Krokovny, P.; Kruzelecki, K.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryashov, I.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lai, A.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Le Gac, R.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lessnoff, K.; Li, L.; Li, Y.Y.; Libby, J.; Lieng, M.; Lindner, R.; Lindsey, S.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Luisier, J.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Magnin, J.; Maier, A.; Mamunur, R.M.D.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mangiafave, N.; Marconi, U.; Marin, F.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin, L.; Martinez Santos, D.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazurov, A.; McGregor, G.; Mcharek, B.; Mclean, C.; McNulty, R.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Merkin, M.; Messi, R.; Metlica, F.C.D.; Michalowski, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Minard, M.N.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morris, J.V.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Muresan, R.; Murtas, F.; Muryn, B.; Musy, M.; Mylroie-Smith, J.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nardulli, J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nedos, M.; Needham, M.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolas, L.; Nies, S.; Niess, V.; Nikitin, N.; Noor, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Ostankov, A.; Palacios, J.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papadelis, A.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Paterson, S.K.; Patrick, G.N.; Pauna, E.; Pauna, C.; Pavel, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perego, D.L.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Pessina, G.; Petrella, A.; Petrolini, A.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Poss, S.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Pozzi, S.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reece, W.; Ricciardi, S.; Rinnert, K.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodrigues, F.; Rodriguez Cobo, C.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogers, G.J.; Romanovsky, V.; Rospabe, G.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salzmann, C.; Sambade Varela, A.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santinelli, R.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schleich, S.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Shao, B.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Simioni, E.; Skottowe, H.P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, A.C.; Sobczak, K.; Soler, F.J.P.; Solomin, A.; Somogy, P.; Soomro, F.; De Paula, B.Souza; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spiridenkov, E.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Steinkamp, O.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Straumann, U.; Styles, N.; Syryczynski, K.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Terrier, H.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; Tobin, M.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Tran, M.T.; Traynor, S.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ullaland, O.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J.; van Eijk, D.; van Herwijnen, E.; van Lysebetten, A.; van Tilburg, J.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Vervink, K.; Viaud, B.; Videau, I.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Voss, H.; Wacker, K.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Witek, M.; Witzeling, W.; Wotton, S.A.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, F.; Yang, Z.; Ybeles Smit, G.; Young, R.; Yushchenko, O.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zwahlen, N.

    2010-01-01

    Six of the key physics measurements that will be made by the LHCb experiment, concerning CP asymmetries and rare B decays, are discussed in detail. The "road map" towards the precision measurements is presented, including the use of control channels and other techniques to understand the performance of the detector with the first data from the LHC.

  10. Construct Maps for the Road Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of "Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives," Adam E. Wyse provides a thorough review of research to date on the use of construct maps in standard setting. He juxtaposes concepts and methods in ways that make their connections to one another clearer and more obvious than they might otherwise have been. In…

  11. MAP-MATCHING IN COMPLEX URBAN ROAD NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Noland

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS such as GPS and digital road maps can be used for land vehicle navigation systems. However, GPS requires a level of augmentation with other navigation sensors and systems such as Dead Reckoning (DR devices, in order to achieve the required navigation performance (RNP in some areas such as urban canyons, streets with dense tree cover, and tunnels. One of the common solutions is to integrate GPS with DR by employing a Kalman Filter (Zhao et al., 2003. The integrated navigation systems usually rely on various types of sensors. Even with very good sensor calibration and sensor fusion technologies, inaccuracies in the positioning sensors are often inevitable. There are also errors associated with spatial road network data. This paper develops an improved probabilistic Map Matching (MM algorithm to reconcile inaccurate locational data with inaccurate digital road network data. The basic characteristics of the algorithm take into account the error sources associated with the positioning sensors, the historical trajectory of the vehicle, topological information on the road network (e.g., connectivity and orientation of links, and the heading and speed information of the vehicle. This then enables a precise identification of the correct link on which the vehicle is travelling. An optimal estimation technique to determine the vehicle position on the link has also been developed and is described. Positioning data was obtained from a comprehensive field test carried out in Central London. The algorithm was tested on a complex urban road network with a high resolution digital road map. The performance of the algorithm was found to be very good for different traffic maneuvers and a significant improvement over using just an integrated GPS/DR solution.

  12. A road map for natural capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, A B; Lovins, L H; Hawken, P

    1999-01-01

    No one would run a business without accounting for its capital outlays. Yet most companies overlook one major capital component--the value of the earth's ecosystem services. It is a staggering omission; recent calculations place the value of the earth's total ecosystem services--water storage, atmosphere regulation, climate control, and so on--at $33 trillion a year. Not accounting for those costs has led to waste on a grand scale. But now a few farsighted companies are finding powerful business opportunities in conserving resources on a similarly grand scale. They are embarking on a journey toward "natural capitalism," a journey that comprises four major shifts in business practices. The first stage involves dramatically increasing the productivity of natural resources, stretching them as much as 100 times further than they do today. In the second stage, companies adopt closed-loop production systems that yield no waste or toxicity. The third stage requires a fundamental change of business model--from one of selling products to one of delivering services. For example, a manufacturer would sell lighting services rather than lightbulbs, thus benefitting the seller and customer for developing extremely efficient, durable lightbulbs. The last stage involves reinvesting in natural capital to restore, sustain, and expand the planet's ecosystem. Because natural capitalism is both necessary and profitable, it will sub-sume traditional industrialism, the authors argue, just as industrialism sub-sumed agrarianism. And the companies that are furthest down the road will have the competitive edge.

  13. AUTOMATIC ROAD SIGN INVENTORY USING MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soilán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The periodic inspection of certain infrastructure features plays a key role for road network safety and preservation, and for developing optimal maintenance planning that minimize the life-cycle cost of the inspected features. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS use laser scanner technology in order to collect dense and precise three-dimensional point clouds that gather both geometric and radiometric information of the road network. Furthermore, time-stamped RGB imagery that is synchronized with the MMS trajectory is also available. In this paper a methodology for the automatic detection and classification of road signs from point cloud and imagery data provided by a LYNX Mobile Mapper System is presented. First, road signs are detected in the point cloud. Subsequently, the inventory is enriched with geometrical and contextual data such as orientation or distance to the trajectory. Finally, semantic content is given to the detected road signs. As point cloud resolution is insufficient, RGB imagery is used projecting the 3D points in the corresponding images and analysing the RGB data within the bounding box defined by the projected points. The methodology was tested in urban and road environments in Spain, obtaining global recall results greater than 95%, and F-score greater than 90%. In this way, inventory data is obtained in a fast, reliable manner, and it can be applied to improve the maintenance planning of the road network, or to feed a Spatial Information System (SIS, thus, road sign information can be available to be used in a Smart City context.

  14. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-01-15

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mapping, Navigation, and Learning for Off-Road Traversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konolige, Kurt; Agrawal, Motilal; Blas, Morten Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The challenge in the DARPA Learning Applied to Ground Robots (LAGR) project is to autonomously navigate a small robot using stereo vision as the main sensor. During this project, we demonstrated a complete autonomous system for off-road navigation in unstructured environments, using stereo vision......, online terrain traversability learning, visual odometry, map registration, planning, and control. At the end of 3 years, the system we developed outperformed all nine other teams in final blind tests over previously unseen terrain....

  16. Key features of an EU health information system: a concept mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, Nicole; Achterberg, Peter W; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; Michelsen, Kai; van Oers, Hans A M; Brand, Helmut

    2016-02-01

    Despite the acknowledged value of an EU health information system (EU-HISys) and the many achievements in this field, the landscape is still heavily fragmented and incomplete. Through a systematic analysis of the opinions and valuations of public health stakeholders, this study aims to conceptualize key features of an EU-HISys. Public health professionals and policymakers were invited to participate in a concept mapping procedure. First, participants (N = 34) formulated statements that reflected their vision of an EU-HISys. Second, participants (N = 28) rated the relative importance of each statement and grouped conceptually similar ones. Principal Component and cluster analyses were used to condense these results to EU-HISys key features in a concept map. The number of key features and the labelling of the concept map were determined by expert consensus. The concept map contains 10 key features that summarize 93 statements. The map consists of a horizontal axis that represents the relevance of an 'organizational strategy', which deals with the 'efforts' to design and develop an EU-HISys and the 'achievements' gained by a functioning EU-HISys. The vertical axis represents the 'professional orientation' of the EU-HISys, ranging from the 'scientific' through to the 'policy' perspective. The top ranking statement expressed the need to establish a system that is permanent and sustainable. The top ranking key feature focuses on data and information quality. This study provides insights into key features of an EU-HISys. The results can be used to guide future planning and to support the development of a health information system for Europe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Water-energy-food security nexus: the road map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Atef

    2015-04-01

    The world's growing population and increased prosperity will increase global demand for energy, as well as food and water supplies in the coming decades. In the arid and semi arid regions as in most of the world water and energy have historically been managed separately, with little consideration of cross sectoral interactions, yet in reality, water and energy are closely interconnected. By addressing water and energy together planners can identify crucial interactions, conflicting demands and potential synergies. For many countries around the world it is needed to establish a road map on: (i) how to implement nexus policies to increase efficiency of natural resources management? (ii) how to bridge science with policy and business? (iii) how governments be inspired by business? (iv) how can be business be inspired by science? (v) how can we learn from each other and how collaborate to address the challenges ahead? Such road map should seek to bring together stakeholders involved in the nexus implementation approach over the coming years to develop nexus tools for decision making to quantify water energy food resources on both national and regional level. However, experiences gained and learned lessons indicate clearly that numerous countries are facing several barriers in putting in action their nexus road map due to the lack of integrated resource management, lack of capacity for research development, lack of knowledge sharing across sectors, and not enough interaction between policy makers and scientists. Those are major challenges to be faced to achieve the water, energy and food security nexus. Furthermore, such goal cannot be reached without building and strengthening the synergy between education, research and innovation for sustainable resource management. Those issues beside others will be fully discussed in this paper. Keywords: water-energy-food security; nexus

  18. TRANSIT TIME THROUGH THE BORDER-CROSSING POINTS: THE CASE STUDY OF THE EU'S ROAD BCP WITH MOLDAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela POPA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available . This paper provides an overview on the ACROSSEE project (funded by the ERDF under the SEE program, its objectives, general methodology, and the main results. Moreover, the main survey results are presented as they relate to the Romanian road and rail border-crossing points (BCPs with the Eastern neighbourly country, Moldavia. Results include the actual status of the road BCP, surveys on exiting and entering traffic flows, answers to specific questionnaires of the truck and car drivers in relation with origin-destination of the trips, average waiting time in queue and time required for procedures and controls. Discussion on the mathematical modelling is presented and a provisional simulation model is developed, using ARENA software. The early results are used in order to introduce the need for future assessment of the transit time in a road BCP, with the main purpose: the substantiation of the strategic and operational actions for improvements in trade and transport crossings of the EU borders, considering the need for more vigilant and less time-consuming checks at the outside borders of the EU.

  19. EU policies on car emissions and fuel quality. Reducing the climate impact from road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Anne Raaum; Gulbrandsen, Lars H.

    2012-07-01

    Transport is the second biggest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU, and contributes about one-quarter of the EU's total emissions of CO{sub 2}. Significant reductions in GHG emissions from transport are required if the EU is to achieve its long-term climate goals. This report examines the making and implementation of two of the regulations the EU has put in place to lower emissions from the transport sector: the EU's revised Fuel Quality Directive (Directive 2009/30/EC) and the cars/CO{sub 2} regulation (Regulation (EC) 443/2009). It was found that the relevance of various theories of policymaking in the EU varies with different policy phases. A policy-network understanding of EU policymaking is strengthened when assessing the policy-initiation phase. The Commission played a key role in this phase and drafted legislation in close collaboration with the car and oil refining industries. An intergovernmentalist understanding of EU policy-making is strengthened when assessing the decision-making phase. In this phase, member states defending the interests of their domestic industries had strong influence, but the European Parliament played an important role in this phase too, employing its power in the co-decision procedure. Finally, the implementation process is best understood as a multi-level governance process in which several actors and institutions - notably the Commission, member states, industries, and NGOs - influenced the process. (Author)

  20. Analysis of Road Traffic Network Cascade Failures with Coupled Map Lattice Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is growing literature concerning the cascading failure of network characteristics. The object of this paper is to investigate the cascade failures on road traffic network, considering the aeolotropism of road traffic network topology and road congestion dissipation in traffic flow. An improved coupled map lattice (CML model is proposed. Furthermore, in order to match the congestion dissipation, a recovery mechanism is put forward in this paper. With a real urban road traffic network in Beijing, the cascading failures are tested using different attack strategies, coupling strengths, external perturbations, and attacked road segment numbers. The impacts of different aspects on road traffic network are evaluated based on the simulation results. The findings confirmed the important roles that these characteristics played in the cascading failure propagation and dissipation on road traffic network. We hope these findings are helpful to find out the optimal road network topology and avoid cascading failure on road network.

  1. « Road Map ».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lévy

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available En anglais, « feuille de route » se dit «  road map  ». Ce qui, dans une langue, correspond à une liste de tâches séquencée, exprimée en une dimension, devient, dans une autre, un document autrement plus complexe, en deux dimensions, et sans assignation évidente de la conduite à tenir. On comprend pourquoi c'est plutôt l'expression anglaise qui fait sens. On a dit aux protagonistes du conflit israélo-palestinien, non pas « Allez à cet endroit, ou dans cette ...

  2. Logistics Road map for Smart SeaPorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Gaber EL Sakty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the digital world, a smart concept became an essential feature for port organizations to serve as intelligent hubs in the world transport networks.  Smart ports are the trend for the future long-term strategies. Henceforth, ports aims at contributing to sustainable growth by establishing the appropriate conditions for the adoption of new management energy models based on low environmental impact and triggering innovation of both technologies and processes. The scope of this paper is to examine three main issues of smart ports; smart port arctic logistics roadmap, smart port challenges and obstacles in arctic port areas, and the criteria and Key Performance Indicators guiding the assessment of ports against this concept. The main purpose is to develop a smart arctic logistics road map for the future.

  3. Road Map For Diffusion Of Innovation In Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, E Andrew; Chapman, Wendy W

    2018-02-01

    New scientific knowledge and innovation are often slow to disseminate. In other cases, providers rush into adopting what appears to be a clinically relevant innovation, based on a single clinical trial. In reality, adopting innovations without appropriate translation and repeated testing of practical application is problematic. In this article we provide examples of clinical innovations (for example, tight glucose control in critically ill patients) that were adopted inappropriately and that caused what we term a malfunction. To address the issue of malfunctions, we review various examples and suggest frameworks for the diffusion of knowledge leading to the adoption of useful innovations. The resulting model is termed an integrated road map for coordinating knowledge transformation and innovation adoption. We make recommendations for the targeted development of practice change procedures, practice change assessment, structured descriptions of tested interventions, intelligent knowledge management technologies, and policy support for knowledge transformation, including further standardization to facilitate sharing among institutions.

  4. Feasibility of Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning for Land Cover Classification, Road Mapping and Map Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, L.; Karila, K.; Hyyppä, J.; Puttonen, E.; Litkey, P.; Ahokas, E.

    2017-10-01

    This article summarises our first results and experiences on the use of multispectral airborne laser scanner (ALS) data. Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a large suburban area in Finland were acquired on three different dates in 2015-2016. We investigated the feasibility of the data from the first date for land cover classification and road mapping. Object-based analyses with segmentation and random forests classification were used. The potential of the data for change detection of buildings and roads was also demonstrated. The overall accuracy of land cover classification results with six classes was 96 % compared with validation points. The data also showed high potential for road detection, road surface classification and change detection. The multispectral intensity information appeared to be very important for automated classifications. Compared to passive aerial images, the intensity images have interesting advantages, such as the lack of shadows. Currently, we focus on analyses and applications with the multitemporal multispectral data. Important questions include, for example, the potential and challenges of the multitemporal data for change detection.

  5. A Road Map Refinement Method Using Delaunay Triangulation for Big Trace Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luliang Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban transportation, people urgently need high-precision and up-to-date road maps. At the same time, people themselves are an important source of road information for detailed map construction, as they can detect real-world road surfaces with GPS devices in the course of their everyday life. Big trace data makes it possible and provides a great opportunity to extract and refine road maps at relatively low cost. In this paper, a new refinement method is proposed for incremental road map construction using big trace data, employing Delaunay triangulation for higher accuracy during the GPS trace stream fusion process. An experiment and evaluation were carried out on the GPS traces collected by taxis in Wuhan, China. The results show that the proposed method is practical and improves upon existing incremental methods in terms of accuracy.

  6. Charging for Road Freight in the EU: Economic Implications of a Weigh-in-Motion Tax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terry Barker; Jonathan Köhler

    2000-01-01

    Using the E3ME economic model of Europe, the paper shows that a tax on road freight tonne-km can benefit the European economy, as part of a revenue-neutral fiscal package with reductions in employers' taxes...

  7. The EU's cybercrime and cyber-security rulemaking: mapping the internal and external dimensions of EU security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahey, E.

    2014-01-01

    By taking the EU Cyber Strategy as a case in point, this contribution examines how the distinction between external and internal security in contemporary EU law manifests itself in large-scale risk regulation and in particular, how the EU relies upon external norms to regulate risk. This article

  8. Manufacturing road map for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Joshua; Harrysson, Ola; Shirwaiker, Rohan; Starly, Binil; Wysk, Richard; Cohen, Paul; Allickson, Julie; Yoo, James; Atala, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    The Regenerative Medicine Foundation Annual Conference held on May 6 and 7, 2014, had a vision of assisting with translating tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM)-based technologies closer to the clinic. This vision was achieved by assembling leaders in the field to cover critical areas. Some of these critical areas included regulatory pathways for regenerative medicine therapies, strategic partnerships, coordination of resources, developing standards for the field, government support, priorities for industry, biobanking, and new technologies. The final day of this conference featured focused sessions on manufacturing, during which expert speakers were invited from industry, government, and academia. The speakers identified and accessed roadblocks plaguing the field where improvements in advanced manufacturing offered many solutions. The manufacturing sessions included (a) product development toward commercialization in regenerative medicine, (b) process challenges to scale up manufacturing in regenerative medicine, and (c) infrastructure needs for manufacturing in regenerative medicine. Subsequent to this, industry was invited to participate in a survey to further elucidate the challenges to translation and scale-up. This perspective article will cover the lessons learned from these manufacturing sessions and early results from the survey. We also outline a road map for developing the manufacturing infrastructure, resources, standards, capabilities, education, training, and workforce development to realize the promise of TERM. ©AlphaMed Press.

  9. Road map and principles for built environment sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Jorge A

    2003-12-01

    The built environment, defined by the facilities and civil infrastructure systems that people use, is the fundamental foundation upon which a society exists, develops, and survives. As the main provider and the life cycle custodian of the built environment, the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry plays a critical role in determining the quality, integrity, and longevity of this foundation. In the execution of these two roles, provider and custodian, the AEC industry has had a major direct and indirect impact on the natural environment, contributing both directly and indirectly to natural resource depletion and degradation, waste generation and accumulation, and environmental impact and degradation. These impacts are not unique to the AEC industry. Other industries face similar challenges, and for many years, a wide range of constituencies within them have been attempting the implementation of the concept of sustainability within what these industries do, how they do it, and with what as a possible mechanism to slow, reduce, eliminate these impacts, and even restore conditions to a better state. In the pursuit of sustainability, the AEC industry faces challenges posed by the unique attributes and characteristics nature of facilities and civil infrastructure systems, the complexities of the current processes for their delivery and use, and the diverse set of resources required for both their delivery and their use. This paper offers a road map and an initial set of principles to implement built environment sustainability as a starting point for an ongoing, industry-wide dialogue and debate.

  10. ROAD SIGNS DETECTION AND RECOGNITION UTILIZING IMAGES AND 3D POINT CLOUD ACQUIRED BY MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y H; Shinohara, T.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K

    2016-01-01

    High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS), it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position inform...

  11. Report mapping legal and policy instruments of the EU for human rights and democracy support, FRAME Deliverable 12.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Churruca Muguruza, C.; Isa, F. G.; San José, D. G.; Fernández Sánchez, P. A.; Márquez Carrasco, C.; Muñoz Nogal, E.; Nagore Casas, M.; Timmer, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This report is devoted to the mapping of legal and policy instruments of the EU for human rights and democracy support. In particular, it highlights the EU´s human rights priorities in terms of themes and vulnerable groups in its external action based on a review of EU policy documents and

  12. Accuracy assessment of GPS and surveying technique in forest road mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Abdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest road networks provide access to the forest as a source of timber production and tourism services. Moreover, it is considered the main tool to protect forests from fire and smuggling. The prerequisite of road management and maintenance planning is to have spatial distribution and map of the roads. But newly constructed or some other forest road segments are not available in national maps. Therefore, mapping these networks is raised as a priority for a forest manager. The aim of this study was to assess accuracy of routine methods in road mapping. For this purpose, Patom district forest road was selected and road network map was extracted from the National Cartographic Center maps as the ground truth or base map. The map of the network was acquired using two methods, a GPS receiver and survey technique. Selecting 70 sample points on the network and considering the National Cartographic Center map as base map, accuracy was determined for two methods. The results showed that while the survey method was more accurate at the beginning of the path (first 500 meters, accumulation of errors resulted in higher rates of error in this method (up to 263 meters compared to GPS. Mann-Whitney test revealed significant differences in accuracy of two methods and mean accuracies were 38.86 and 147.90 for GPS and surveying respectively. The results showed that for samples 1-15 there was no significant difference between the survey and GPS data but for samples 28-42 and 56-70 statistically significant difference were existed between the survey and GPS data. Regression analysis showed that the relation between GPS and surveying accuracies and distance were best defined by cubic (R2 adj = 0.65 and linear (R2 adj = 0.83 regression models respectively. Applying 10 and 5 meters buffers around base map, 68 and 41% of GPS and 44 and 21% of surveying derived road were overlapped with buffer zones. The time required to complete the survey was found to increase the

  13. Landslide Risk Mapping along Rantepao – Palopo Road Section, South Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Pratiwi Anggeraini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rantepao – Palopo Road Section is 61 km long, which provides a connection between Palopo City and North Toraja District. Geographically, the road is winding, located in a hilly area with steep canyon. This condition makes the road vulnerable to soil movement or landslide. On 8 November 2009, a landslide, which caused a huge material and immaterial loss, took place. The scale of the disaster was so large that it was classified as a national disaster. In the landslide disaster management, the mitigation and preparedness effort will be more focused if complemented with spatial data in the form of landslide hazard map in Rantepao – Palopo road section. This research uses Public Works Minister Regulation No.22/PRT/M/2007 concerning landslide hazard area spatial planning as the reference which is modified and assisted with the application of Geographical Information System (GIS. Based on the hydro-morphology condition, the research location can be classified into three, namely typology A (> 1000 mdpl, typology B (500 – 1000 mdpl, and typology C (<500 mdpl. Each typology consists of natural physical aspects with slope indicator, soil type, geology, rainfall, distance from the river/slope water system, distance from seismic fault and vegetation. Human activity aspects comprise planting pattern indicator, slope cutting, pond, population density, and mitigation effort. Based on the regulation, several indicators are difficult to apply in the road section study. Therefore, in this research, some modifications are made to several indicators. In the slope cutting indicator, to obtain slope cutting map, overlay process on topography map, slope variation map, and road section map was performed. The distance from the river/slope water system was obtained by calculating the distance from the river to the road, the closer the river to the road, the bigger the vulnerability. Meanwhile, the distance from the fault was evaluated based on the existence of

  14. An Assessment of the Accuracy of Volunteered Road Map Production in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Leeuw, Jan De; Said, Mohammed; Ortegah, Lapezoh; Nagda, Sonal; Georgiadou, Yola; DeBlois, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of web based mapping facilities that use satellite imagery, offers local people the possibility to map their environment. However, maps need to be accurate, which is the reason why map making is assigned to professionals. In this paper, we investigated the classification accuracy of road infrastructure from high resolution satellite imagery of an urban area in western Kenya achieved by surveyors and non-surveyors alike, with and without local knowledge. Those with local knowl...

  15. From the Road Sign to the Map: 3d Modeling in Support of the Urban and Rural Road Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palummo, A.

    2017-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), commonly known as a drone, and an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have been spreading on a massive scale during the last few years, especially for civilian use. And this situation can have significant repercussions on the ways and purposes with which we make photogrammetry nowadays. In this brief article we take into account the italian road signs as a case study on which to apply the new potential of photogrammetry realized with the aid of drones. Our main purpose is to achieve a specific method which allows the calculation of centimeter precision measurements of solids reconstructed for a mapping of (public and private) road signs which require verification or replacement in urban, peri-urban and rural areas. Our hope is that this new approach to photogrammetry may arise opportunities for dialogue with policy makers especially where the usefulness of mapping could also appear predictive with respect to recurrent issues before they become consolidated.

  16. FROM THE ROAD SIGN TO THE MAP: 3D MODELING IN SUPPORT OF THE URBAN AND RURAL ROAD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palummo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV, commonly known as a drone, and an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS have been spreading on a massive scale during the last few years, especially for civilian use. And this situation can have significant repercussions on the ways and purposes with which we make photogrammetry nowadays. In this brief article we take into account the italian road signs as a case study on which to apply the new potential of photogrammetry realized with the aid of drones. Our main purpose is to achieve a specific method which allows the calculation of centimeter precision measurements of solids reconstructed for a mapping of (public and private road signs which require verification or replacement in urban, peri-urban and rural areas. Our hope is that this new approach to photogrammetry may arise opportunities for dialogue with policy makers especially where the usefulness of mapping could also appear predictive with respect to recurrent issues before they become consolidated.

  17. THE JOURNEY TO COMPETITIVENESS: EU SPEEDING UP ON THE ROAD PAVED WITH KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprescu Raluca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the attempt to boost its international competitiveness, the European Union realized that it should enrich the ways to achieve it by using the intangible assets that it holds. Knowledge and intellectual capital, innovation, science and entrepreneurship are key drivers of economic development and renewal. The traditional resources on which economies rely on are scarce, while these ones are abundant and steady. Moreover, this type of assets can easily increase their value through sharing and they trigger multiplicative effects in the economy. The paper tackles these issues and makes an assessment of the degree of innovation in the EU. The study aims to provide an answer to the question of whether EU's overall performance proves that it is truly driven by knowledge and innovation or not. Using a qualitative method of research, this paper identifies innovation patterns of the member states from a geographical perspective. In order to provide a compelling analysis, the data ranges from indicators capturing science and technology activities, firm innovation to the internationalization of research activities and the tertiary-level graduates. The results show substantial discrepancies between the European countries and reveal that knowledge flows scaled by the level of innovation are a localized phenomenon, therefore some countries are more innovation-oriented and they reap the benefits better.

  18. Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  19. Density and diversity of OpenStreetMap road networks in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingjia; Li, Xueming; Wang, Aiming; Bao, Tongliga; Tian, Shenzhen

    2015-01-01

    OpenStreetMap is a geographic information platform designed to provide real-time updates and user-generated content related to its freely available global map, and it is one of the most widely used examples of volunteered geographic information, a technique associated with so-called neogeography. This paper, based on the data from China’s OpenStreetMap road network in May 2014, taking 340 prefecture-level cities in China as its study area, presents the geometric-related (road density) and att...

  20. Road map towards a common harmonised Nordic end-user market. NordREG report 5 - 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this road map is to describe the overall process to harmonise the Nordic electricity end-user markets. The main target groups for the road map are the Nordic governments, legislators and the electricity industry. The road map will continuously be updated as the project progresses, at least once a year. It describes the recommendations already made by NordREG, as well as indicates up-coming recommendations. One important part of the Nordic harmonisation process is the monitoring of the progress of the project. It will be communicated through national implementation monitoring overviews, which will describe the state of play for each recommendation made by NordREG. The road map highlights the importance of national commitment by different stakeholders, authorities and governments in order to successfully harmonise the Nordic end-user markets. This commitment is absolutely essential. The goal for 2015 is to harmonise some of the legislation, rules and processes that constitute barriers for suppliers to establish their business in other Nordic countries. In order to achieve this goal, NordREG is working towards defining responsibilities in the customer interface of the supplier centric model and the way of billing the customers. Another important task is related to development of an efficient way of communication among a large number of Nordic electricity companies. By 2015 the end-user markets should be harmonised to the extent that the most critical prerequisites have been achieved. But it is important to bear in mind that there are still many more steps to be taken also after 2015. The harmonisation process between the Nordic retail markets is a process that will continue for the foreseeable future. Since there is no supranational organisation or institution (like in the EU), it means that any future development of the Nordic retail market will have to be continuously coordinated between the Nordic countries to ensure that the markets maintain the

  1. An Assessment of the Accuracy of Volunteered Road Map Production in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark DeBlois

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of web based mapping facilities that use satellite imagery, offers local people the possibility to map their environment. However, maps need to be accurate, which is the reason why map making is assigned to professionals. In this paper, we investigated the classification accuracy of road infrastructure from high resolution satellite imagery of an urban area in western Kenya achieved by surveyors and non-surveyors alike, with and without local knowledge. Those with local knowledge classified roads with over 92% accuracy on average, irrespective of surveying background. Professional surveyors and laymen without local knowledge achieved lower accuracies of 67.7% and 42.9% respectively. We argue that local knowledge is also likely to improve the classification accuracy of many other attributes featured in topographic maps and thus conclude that there is reason to consider engaging local expertise in the production and updating of topographic maps.

  2. Organic–Inorganic Eu3+/Tb3+ codoped hybrid films for temperature mapping in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Carlos D. S.; Lima, Patrícia P.; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Millán, Angel; Amaral, Vitor S.; Palacio, Fernando; Carlos, Luís D.

    2013-01-01

    The continuous decrease on the geometric size of electronic devices and integrated circuits generates higher local power densities and localized heating problems that cannot be characterized by conventional thermographic techniques. Here, a self-referencing intensity-based molecular thermometer involving a di-ureasil organic-inorganic hybrid thin film co-doped with Eu3+ and Tb3+ tris (β-diketonate) chelates is used to obtain the temperature map of a FR4 printed wiring board with spatio-temporal resolutions of 0.42 μm/4.8 ms. PMID:24790938

  3. Recommendations for the development and application of Evaluation Tools for road infrastructure safety management in the EU. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G. Cardoso, J. Elvik, R. Weller, G. Dietze, M. Reurings, M. Azeredo, S. & Charman, S.

    2014-01-01

    “ERA-NET ROAD — Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe” was a Coordination Action funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the EC. The partners in the 2009 ERA-NET ROAD (ENR) Safety at the heart of road design initiative were the United Kingdom, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden,

  4. Detecting road maps for capacity utilization decisions by Clustering Analysis and CHAID Decision Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncugil, Ali Serhan; Ozgulbas, Nermin

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study are to provide a standard CUR value, to determine financial and organizational factors which affect the capacity utilization and develop road maps for increasing capacity utilization. To reach these aims by an objective method, we used data mining method that discovers hidden and useful pattern in a large amount of data. Two different method of data mining were used in two stages for this study. In first step, standard value of CUR was determined by K-means Clustering Analysis. CHAID Decision Tree Algorithm as a second method was implemented for determination of impact factors that provided steps for road maps. The study was concerned Turkish Ministry of Health public hospitals. 592 hospitals were covered and financial and operational data of the year 2004 were used in the study. Finally two different road maps were developed and suggestions were made according the results of the study.

  5. Satellites vs. fiber optics based networks and services - Road map to strategic planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, James H. R.

    An overview of a generic telecommunications network and its components is presented, and the current developments in satellite and fiber optics technologies are discussed with an eye on the trends in industry. A baseline model is proposed, and a cost comparison of fiber- vs satellite-based networks is made. A step-by-step 'road map' to the successful strategic planning of telecommunications services and facilities is presented. This road map provides for optimization of the current and future networks and services through effective utilization of both satellites and fiber optics. The road map is then applied to different segments of the telecommunications industry and market place, to show its effectiveness for the strategic planning of executives of three types: (1) those heading telecommunications manufacturing concerns, (2) those leading communication service companies, and (3) managers of telecommunication/MIS departments of major corporations. Future networking issues, such as developments in integrated-services digital network standards and technologies, are addressed.

  6. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  7. Long-term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology--The Concrete Pavement Road Map : Volume II, Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The Long-Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology (CP Road Map) is a holistic, strategic : plan for concrete pavement research and technology transfer. The CP Road Map is a 7- to 10-year plan that : includes 12 distinct but integrated ...

  8. Road Map for Gender Equality in the FCC Study

    CERN Document Server

    Genevieve Guinot

    2015-01-01

    Plan towards defining well scoped deliverables on gender specific communication for discussion, mapping of country context and organisational practices and the establishment of a focused task-force on gender equality in participating institutes.

  9. Recommendations for the development and application of Evaluation Tools for road infrastructure safety management in the EU. Road Infrastructure Safety Management Evaluation Tools (RISMET), Deliverable No. 7.

    OpenAIRE

    Schermers, G. Cardoso, J. Elvik, R. Weller, G. Dietze, M. Reurings, M. Azeredo, S. & Charman, S.

    2014-01-01

    “ERA-NET ROAD — Coordination and Implementation of Road Research in Europe” was a Coordination Action funded by the 6th Framework Programme of the EC. The partners in the 2009 ERA-NET ROAD (ENR) Safety at the heart of road design initiative were the United Kingdom, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Norway, Austria, Slovenia, Belgium, Hungary and Ireland (http://www.road-era.net). Within the framework of ENR this joint research project was initiated. The project aims at developing suitabl...

  10. A Road Map for the Generation of a Near-Infrared Guide Star ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Road Map for the Generation of a Near-Infrared Guide Star Catalog for Thirty Meter Telescope Observations. Smitha Subramanian Annapurni Subramaniam T Sivarani Luc Simard G. C. Anupama Kim Gillies A. N. Ramaprakash B. Eswar Reddy. Research Article Volume 37 Issue 3 September 2016 Article ID 24 ...

  11. Creating a Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education: Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Schell, Emily M.; Shavelson, Richard; Bednarz, Sarah; Heffron, Susan; Roth, Kathy; Dobson, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The National Geographic Society, the Association of American Geographers, the American Geographical Society, and the National Council for Geographic Education partnered to outline a "road map" for long-term strategies to improve K-12 geography education. The partner organizations assembled three committees to create synthesis reports, each of…

  12. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

  13. Automatic estimation of excavation volume from laser mobile mapping data for mountain road widening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; González-Jorge, H.; Lindenbergh, R.; Arias-Sánchez, P.; Menenti, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roads play an indispensable role as part of the infrastructure of society. In recent years, society has witnessed the rapid development of laser mobile mapping systems (LMMS) which, at high measurement rates, acquire dense and accurate point cloud data. This paper presents a way to automatically

  14. A Road Map for Empowering Undergraduates to Practice Service Leadership through Service-Learning in Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Robin Stanley; Chan, Maureen Yin Lee; Ma, Carol Hok Ka; Chan, Carman Ka Man

    2015-01-01

    We present a road map for providing course-embedded service-learning team projects as opportunities for undergraduates to practice as service leaders in Asia and beyond. Basic foundations are that projects address authentic problems or needs, partner organization representatives (PORs) indicate availability for ongoing consultation, students…

  15. How to prepare a road map for the management of plastic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorland, Jens; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Skovgaard, Mette

    This paper presents the results of Plastic Zero with the hope to inspire further action to enhance plastic resource-efficiency. It is meant as a source of inspiration on how to make a road map in a similar project. The process has given us various experiences and this guideline on how to make...

  16. Automatic Estimation of Excavation Volume from Laser Mobile Mapping Data for Mountain Road Widening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Menenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roads play an indispensable role as part of the infrastructure of society. In recent years, society has witnessed the rapid development of laser mobile mapping systems (LMMS which, at high measurement rates, acquire dense and accurate point cloud data. This paper presents a way to automatically estimate the required excavation volume when widening a road from point cloud data acquired by an LMMS. Firstly, the input point cloud is down-sampled to a uniform grid and outliers are removed. For each of the resulting grid points, both on and off the road, the local surface normal and 2D slope are estimated. Normals and slopes are consecutively used to separate road from off-road points which enables the estimation of the road centerline and road boundaries. In the final step, the left and right side of the road points are sliced in 1-m slices up to a distance of 4 m, perpendicular to the roadside. Determining and summing each sliced volume enables the estimation of the required excavation for a widening of the road on the left or on the right side. The procedure, including a quality analysis, is demonstrated on a stretch of a mountain road that is approximately 132 m long as sampled by a Lynx LMMS. The results in this particular case show that the required excavation volume on the left side is 8% more than that on the right side. In addition, the error in the results is assessed in two ways. First, by adding up estimated local errors, and second, by comparing results from two different datasets sampling the same piece of road both acquired by the Lynx LMMS. Results of both approaches indicate that the error in the estimated volume is below 4%. The proposed method is relatively easy to implement and runs smoothly on a desktop PC. The whole workflow of the LMMS data acquisition and subsequent volume computation can be completed in one or two days and provides road engineers with much more detail than traditional single-point surveying methods such as

  17. A Road Map for Learning Progressions Research in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Niem Tu; Solem, Michael; Bednarz, Sarah Witham

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of learning progressions (LP) and assesses the potential of this line of research to improve geography education. It presents the merits and limitations of three of the most common approaches used to conduct LP research and draws on one approach to propose a first draft of a LP on map reading and interpretation.…

  18. Climate impacts of short-lived climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S

    2014-12-16

    Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.

  19. Towards High-Definition 3D Urban Mapping: Road Feature-Based Registration of Mobile Mapping Systems and Aerial Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Javanmardi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Various applications have utilized a mobile mapping system (MMS as the main 3D urban remote sensing platform. However, the accuracy and precision of the three-dimensional data acquired by an MMS is highly dependent on the performance of the vehicle’s self-localization, which is generally performed by high-end global navigation satellite system (GNSS/inertial measurement unit (IMU integration. However, GNSS/IMU positioning quality degrades significantly in dense urban areas with high-rise buildings, which block and reflect the satellite signals. Traditional landmark updating methods, which improve MMS accuracy by measuring ground control points (GCPs and manually identifying those points in the data, are both labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a novel and comprehensive framework for automatically georeferencing MMS data by capitalizing on road features extracted from high-resolution aerial surveillance data. The proposed framework has three key steps: (1 extracting road features from the MMS and aerial data; (2 obtaining Gaussian mixture models from the extracted aerial road features; and (3 performing registration of the MMS data to the aerial map using a dynamic sliding window and the normal distribution transform (NDT. The accuracy of the proposed framework is verified using field data, demonstrating that it is a reliable solution for high-precision urban mapping.

  20. Road Signs Detection and Recognition Utilizing Images and 3d Point Cloud Acquired by Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. H.; Shinohara, T.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2016-06-01

    High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS), it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1) detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2) filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3) road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.

  1. ROAD SIGNS DETECTION AND RECOGNITION UTILIZING IMAGES AND 3D POINT CLOUD ACQUIRED BY MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS, it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1 detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2 filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3 road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.

  2. A Photogrammetric Approach for Assessing Positional Accuracy of OpenStreetMap© Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Doucette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As open source volunteered geographic information continues to gain popularity, the user community and data contributions are expected to grow, e.g., CloudMade, Apple, and Ushahidi now provide OpenStreetMap© (OSM as a base layer for some of their mapping applications. This, coupled with the lack of cartographic standards and the expectation to one day be able to use this vector data for more geopositionally sensitive applications, like GPS navigation, leaves potential users and researchers to question the accuracy of the database. This research takes a photogrammetric approach to determining the positional accuracy of OSM road features using stereo imagery and a vector adjustment model. The method applies rigorous analytical measurement principles to compute accurate real world geolocations of OSM road vectors. The proposed approach was tested on several urban gridded city streets from the OSM database with the results showing that the post adjusted shape points improved positionally by 86%. Furthermore, the vector adjustment was able to recover 95% of the actual positional displacement present in the database. To demonstrate a practical application, a head-to-head positional accuracy assessment between OSM, the USGS National Map (TNM, and United States Census Bureau’s Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding Referencing (TIGER 2007 roads was conducted.

  3. On the way to 2050 - Which ingredients for a de-carbonated future? An analysis of the 'Energy Road map 2050' of the European Commission; En route vers 2050 - Quels ingredients pour un avenir decarbone? Une analyse de la 'Feuille de route energie 2050' de la Commission europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    This document presents and discusses the climate objective of the Energy road map, some macro-economic hypotheses (oil price, economic growth), the different trajectories defined in the Energy Road map, the role of electricity in the de-carbonation of the energy system, energy savings (potential and under-exploited), the evolution of the installed electric capacity, the balancing of the electric system, the global costs of the energy system, the EU energy bill in 2050, the evolution of electricity price, and the European carbon trading scheme

  4. International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET): creating a developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing road map for regulatory purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M.; Leist, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    of regulatory needs on the one hand and the opportunities provided by new test systems and methods on the other hand. Alignment of academically and industrially driven assay development with regulatory needs in the field of DNT is a core mission of the International STakeholder NETwork (ISTNET) in DNT testing...... as an important guiding principle to assemble predictive integrated testing strategies (ITSs) for DNT. The recommendations on a road map towards AOP-based DNT testing is considered a stepwise approach, operating initially with incomplete AOPs for compound grouping, and focussing on key events of neurodevelopment...

  5. Road map for photovoltaic electricity; Feuille de route sur l'electricite photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    This road map aims at highlighting industrial, technological and social challenges, at elaborating comprehensive visions, at highlighting technological locks, and at outlining research needs for the photovoltaic sector. It considers the following sector components: preparation of photo-sensitive materials, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells, manufacturing of photovoltaic arrays, design and manufacturing of electric equipment to control photovoltaic arrays and to connect them to the grid. It highlights the demand for photovoltaic installations, analyzes the value chain, proposes a vision of the sector by 2050 and defines target for 2020, discusses needs for demonstration and experimentation

  6. Stereo-vision-based terrain mapping for off-road autonomous navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-05-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as nogo regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  7. Stereo Vision Based Terrain Mapping for Off-Road Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Huertas, Andres; Matthies, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Successful off-road autonomous navigation by an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) requires reliable perception and representation of natural terrain. While perception algorithms are used to detect driving hazards, terrain mapping algorithms are used to represent the detected hazards in a world model a UGV can use to plan safe paths. There are two primary ways to detect driving hazards with perception sensors mounted to a UGV: binary obstacle detection and traversability cost analysis. Binary obstacle detectors label terrain as either traversable or non-traversable, whereas, traversability cost analysis assigns a cost to driving over a discrete patch of terrain. In uncluttered environments where the non-obstacle terrain is equally traversable, binary obstacle detection is sufficient. However, in cluttered environments, some form of traversability cost analysis is necessary. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has explored both approaches using stereo vision systems. A set of binary detectors has been implemented that detect positive obstacles, negative obstacles, tree trunks, tree lines, excessive slope, low overhangs, and water bodies. A compact terrain map is built from each frame of stereo images. The mapping algorithm labels cells that contain obstacles as no-go regions, and encodes terrain elevation, terrain classification, terrain roughness, traversability cost, and a confidence value. The single frame maps are merged into a world map where temporal filtering is applied. In previous papers, we have described our perception algorithms that perform binary obstacle detection. In this paper, we summarize the terrain mapping capabilities that JPL has implemented during several UGV programs over the last decade and discuss some challenges to building terrain maps with stereo range data.

  8. Key features of an EU health information system : A concept mapping study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkötter, N.; Achterberg, P.W.; van Bon-Martens, M.J.H.; Michelsen, K.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Brand, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the acknowledged value of an EU health information system (EU–HISys) and the many achievements in this field, the landscape is still heavily fragmented and incomplete. Through a systematic analysis of the opinions and valuations of public health stakeholders, this study aims to

  9. Landslide susceptibility mapping along road corridors in the Indian Himalayas using Bayesian logistic regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Iswar; Stein, Alfred; Kerle, Norman; Dadhwal, Vinay K.

    2012-12-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) along road corridors in the Indian Himalayas is an essential exercise that helps planners and decision makers in determining the severity of probable slope failure areas. Logistic regression is commonly applied for this purpose, as it is a robust and straightforward technique that is relatively easy to handle. Ordinary logistic regression as a data-driven technique, however, does not allow inclusion of prior information. This study presents Bayesian logistic regression (BLR) for landslide susceptibility assessment along road corridors. The methodology is tested in a landslide-prone area in the Bhagirathi river valley in the Indian Himalayas. Parameter estimates from BLR are compared with those obtained from ordinary logistic regression. By means of iterative Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation, BLR provides a rich set of results on parameter estimation. We assessed model performance by the receiver operator characteristics curve analysis, and validated the model using 50% of the landslide cells kept apart for testing and validation. The study concludes that BLR performs better in posterior parameter estimation in general and the uncertainty estimation in particular.

  10. Flood-inundation maps for the Withlacoochee River From Skipper Bridge Road to St. Augustine Road, within the City of Valdosta, Georgia, and Lowndes County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2018-01-31

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 12.6-mile reach of the Withlacoochee River from Skipper Bridge Road to St. Augustine Road (Georgia State Route 133) were developed to depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage at Withlacoochee River at Skipper Bridge Road, near Bemiss, Ga. (023177483). Real-time stage information from this streamgage can be used with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Withlacoochee River at Skipper Bridge Road, near Bemiss, Ga. (023177483), can be used in conjunction with the maps developed for this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineer-ing Center’s River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) software for the Withlacoochee River and was used to compute flood profiles for a 12.6-mile reach of the Withlacoochee River. The hydraulic model was then used to simulate 23 water-surface profiles at 1.0-foot (ft) intervals at the Withlacoochee River near the Bemiss streamgage. The profiles ranged from the National Weather Service action stage of 10.7 ft, which is 131.0 ft above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), to a stage of 32.7 ft, which is 153.0 ft above NAVD 88. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model—derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data having a 4.0-ft horizontal resolution—to delineate the area flooded at each 1.0-ft interval of stream stage.

  11. Long-term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology--the Concrete Pavement Road Map (second generation) : Volume I, Background and Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The Long-Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology (CP Road Map) is a holistic strategic plan for concrete : pavement research and technology transfer. The CP Road Map is a living plan that includes 12 distinct but integrated research :...

  12. Long-term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology--the Concrete Pavement Road Map : Volume I, Background and summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    The Long-Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology (CP Road Map) is a holistic, strategic plan : for concrete pavement research and technology transfer. The CP Road Map is a 7- to 10-year plan that includes 12 : distinct but integrated ...

  13. Long-term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology--the Concrete Pavement Road Map (second generation) : Volume II, Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Long-Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology (CP Road Map) is a holistic strategic plan for : concrete pavement research and technology transfer. The CP Road Map is a living plan that includes 12 distinct but : integrated research...

  14. Strategy and design of Innovation Policy Road Mapping for a waste biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Looming energy crisis, climate change concerns coupled with decreasing fossil fuel resources has garnered significant global attention toward development of alternative, renewable, carbon-neutral and eco-friendly fuels to fulfil burgeoning energy demands. Waste utilization and its management are being pursued with renewed interest due to the gamut of biobased products it can offer apart from providing enough energy to meet a major fraction of the world's energy demand. Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. Integrating all components of waste treatment culminating into biobased products and energy recovery in a single integrated waste biorefinery is self sufficient, highly sustainable and is very beneficial. Designing systematic innovation policies are essential for development and commercialization of new technologies in this important futuristic research area. This communication explores Innovation Policy Road Mapping (IPRM) methodology available in the literature and applies it to design integrated waste biorefinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pursuing enterprise risk management: a local road map for Canadian healthcare leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, James R; Church, John; Cockerill, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of organizational risk management in healthcare, and in particular the concepts of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), has identified a 5-part model that can be used by Canadian healthcare leaders as an evidence-supported approach to successful organizational risk management. The Model for Organizational Risk Management, termed "the Model," has been developed as a basis for linking the components of an ERM Framework into a Canadian health organization to overcome the barriers that commonly disrupt strategic risk management. The Model addresses how an ERM Framework can fit within an existing health organization by building off and enhancing existing processes and resources to ensure familiarity, acceptance, and sustainability of the risk management program. By approaching the Model in a stepwise fashion (based on individual organizational context), healthcare leaders are provided with a road map from which to advance their own organizational risk management program.

  16. Development of a Change Detection Method with Low-Performance Point Cloud Data for Updating Three-Dimensional Road Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fuse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D road maps have garnered significant attention recently because of applications such as autonomous driving. For 3D road maps to remain accurate and up-to-date, an appropriate updating method is crucial. However, there are currently no updating methods with both satisfactorily high frequency and accuracy. An effective strategy would be to frequently acquire point clouds from regular vehicles, and then take detailed measurements only where necessary. However, there are three challenges when using data from regular vehicles. First, the accuracy and density of the points are comparatively low. Second, the measurement ranges vary for different measurements. Third, tentative changes such as pedestrians must be discriminated from real changes. The method proposed in this paper consists of registration and change detection methods. We first prepare the synthetic data obtained from regular vehicles using mobile mapping system data as a base reference. We then apply our proposed change detection method, in which the occupancy grid method is integrated with Dempster–Shafer theory to deal with occlusions and tentative changes. The results show that the proposed method can detect road environment changes, and it is easy to find changed parts through visualization. The work contributes towards sustainable updates and applications of 3D road maps.

  17. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-03-12

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed.

  18. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairam, Nivedita; Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Ornitz, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System) database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed. PMID:26985897

  19. Development of Mobile Mapping System for 3D Road Asset Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Sairam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Asset Management is an important component of an infrastructure project. A significant cost is involved in maintaining and updating the asset information. Data collection is the most time-consuming task in the development of an asset management system. In order to reduce the time and cost involved in data collection, this paper proposes a low cost Mobile Mapping System using an equipped laser scanner and cameras. First, the feasibility of low cost sensors for 3D asset inventory is discussed by deriving appropriate sensor models. Then, through calibration procedures, respective alignments of the laser scanner, cameras, Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS (Global Positioning System antenna are determined. The efficiency of this Mobile Mapping System is experimented by mounting it on a truck and golf cart. By using derived sensor models, geo-referenced images and 3D point clouds are derived. After validating the quality of the derived data, the paper provides a framework to extract road assets both automatically and manually using techniques implementing RANSAC plane fitting and edge extraction algorithms. Then the scope of such extraction techniques along with a sample GIS (Geographic Information System database structure for unified 3D asset inventory are discussed.

  20. FROM THE ROAD SIGN TO THE MAP: 3D MODELING IN SUPPORT OF THE URBAN AND RURAL ROAD CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Palummo

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), commonly known as a drone, and an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have been spreading on a massive scale during the last few years, especially for civilian use. And this situation can have significant repercussions on the ways and purposes with which we make photogrammetry nowadays. In this brief article we take into account the italian road signs as a case study on which to apply the new potential of photogrammetry realized with the aid of drones. Our...

  1. Fast and robust road segmentation and obstacle map generation for autonomous navigation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Senekal, FP

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to detect and navigate drivable road surfaces is an important research area in autonomous navigation for use in autonomous vehicles. In this paper, a probabilistic computer vision algorithm for segmentation of tarred road surfaces...

  2. A self-updating road map of The Cancer Genome Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, David E; Grüneberg, Alexander; Deus, Helena F; Tanik, Murat M; Almeida, Jonas S

    2013-05-15

    Since 2011, The Cancer Genome Atlas' (TCGA) files have been accessible through HTTP from a public site, creating entirely new possibilities for cancer informatics by enhancing data discovery and retrieval. Significantly, these enhancements enable the reporting of analysis results that can be fully traced to and reproduced using their source data. However, to realize this possibility, a continually updated road map of files in the TCGA is required. Creation of such a road map represents a significant data modeling challenge, due to the size and fluidity of this resource: each of the 33 cancer types is instantiated in only partially overlapping sets of analytical platforms, while the number of data files available doubles approximately every 7 months. We developed an engine to index and annotate the TCGA files, relying exclusively on third-generation web technologies (Web 3.0). Specifically, this engine uses JavaScript in conjunction with the World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) Resource Description Framework (RDF), and SPARQL, the query language for RDF, to capture metadata of files in the TCGA open-access HTTP directory. The resulting index may be queried using SPARQL, and enables file-level provenance annotations as well as discovery of arbitrary subsets of files, based on their metadata, using web standard languages. In turn, these abilities enhance the reproducibility and distribution of novel results delivered as elements of a web-based computational ecosystem. The development of the TCGA Roadmap engine was found to provide specific clues about how biomedical big data initiatives should be exposed as public resources for exploratory analysis, data mining and reproducible research. These specific design elements align with the concept of knowledge reengineering and represent a sharp departure from top-down approaches in grid initiatives such as CaBIG. They also present a much more interoperable and reproducible alternative to the still pervasive use of data portals

  3. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... creation and to some extent road transport buyers in terms of more informed market knowledge....

  4. ‘’Mapping Self- and Co-regulation Approaches in the EU Context’’ : Explorative Study for the European Commission, DG Connect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senden, L.A.J.; Kica, E.; Klinger, Kilian; Hiemstra, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a first mapping or inventory of the different approaches to self- and co- regulation (SCR) that can be found within the EU context, in a number of Member States (MS) and international organizations. The report consists of four sections. Whereas the first section provides an

  5. Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; hide

    2012-01-01

    The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

  6. Road-map for 2. generation biofuels; Feuille de route biocarburants de 2. generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document presents road-map issues concerning the requirements for biofuels of second generation, and defines the priorities addressed by a demonstrator program. It recalls the context created by the challenges of climate change and the excessive dependence on fossil fuels, and the objectives defined by the European Union in terms of biofuel share in the global consumption. Then, it describes the candidate technologies for the production of this second generation of biofuels, those based on thermo-chemical processes (mainly the pyrolysis-gasification of biomass), and those based on biochemical processes (enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of biomass). It highlights the technological challenges for these processes, and describes the various objectives of research projects supported by a 'demonstrator fund'. It discusses the necessity to develop demonstrators, and mentions some current projects of private companies, competitiveness clusters, and public research institutions. An agenda is defined from 2009 to 2020 which encompasses the research, demonstration and operation phases. An appendix provides brief presentations of thermo-chemical or biological demonstrators currently under operation or under construction in foreign countries (Germany, Finland, United States of America, Sweden, Spain, Canada, Japan, and Denmark)

  7. Mapping cumulative environmental risks: examples from the EU NoMiracle project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistocchi, A.; Groenwold, J.; Lahr, J.; Loos, M.; Mujica, M.; Ragas, A.M.J.; Rallo, R.; Sala, S.; Schlink, U.; Strebel, K.; Vighi, M.; Vizcaino, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present examples of cumulative chemical risk mapping methods developed within the NoMiracle project. The different examples illustrate the application of the concentration addition (CA) approach to pesticides at different scale, the integration in space of cumulative risks to individual organisms

  8. The evaluation of using road-map guided Excel VBA training to promote nursing informatics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, I-Ching; Liu, Che-Wei; Hsu, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Polun

    2009-01-01

    In Taiwan nursing informatics is taking off. It is therefore strategically important to educate our nurses what nursing informatics is in a short time. We used a method of road-map guided Excel VBA to educate our nurses how to cope with their informatics needs. An eight-day training program based on this concept was implemented in the one regional hospital and a survey was done at the end of the program to evaluate the participants' perception of the training program. The results show very high acceptance and positive outcomes. We suggest that the method of road-map guided Excel VBA might be a promising strategy to promote nursing informatics internationally Taiwan.

  9. Ancient Irrigation Canals Mapped from Corona Imageries and Their Implications in Juyan Oasis along the Silk Road

    OpenAIRE

    Ningke Hu; Xin Li; Lei Luo; Liwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Historical records and archaeological discoveries have shown that prosperous agricultural activities developed in the ancient Juyan Oasis of northwestern China, an important oasis that once flourished on the ancient Silk Road. However, how the irrigation canals were distributed in historical time was unknown. Here, we identified and mapped the spatial distribution of ancient abandoned irrigation canals that were built using CORONA photographs and field inspections. This work found that ancien...

  10. The smart grid research network: Road map for Smart Grid research, development and demonstration up to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troi, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Electrical Engineering, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Noerregaard Joergensen, B. [Syddansk Univ. (SDU), Odense (Denmark); Mahler Larsen, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Electrical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-01-15

    This road map is a result of part-recommendation no. 25 in 'MAIN REPORT - The Smart Grid Network's recommendations', written by the Smart Grid Network for the Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building in October 2011. This part-recommendation states: ''Part-recommendation 25 - A road map for Smart Grid research, development and demonstration It is recommended that the electricity sector invite the Ministry to participate in the creation of a road map to ensure that solutions are implemented and coordinated with related policy areas. The sector should also establish a fast-acting working group with representatives from universities, distribution companies and the electric industry, in order to produce a mutual, binding schedule for the RDD of the Smart Grid in Denmark. Time prioritisation of part-recommendation: 2011-2012 Responsibility for implementation of part-recommendation: Universities, along with relevant electric-industry actors, should establish a working group for the completion of a consolidated road map by the end of 2012.'' In its work on this report, the Smart Grid Research Network has focused particularly on part-recommendations 26, 27 and 28 in 'MAIN REPORT - The Smart Grid Network's recommendations', which relate to strengthening and marketing the research infrastructure that will position Denmark as the global hub for Smart Grid development; strengthening basic research into the complex relationships in electric systems with large quantities of independent parties; and improved understanding of consumer behaviour and social economics. Naturally the work has spread to related areas along the way. The work has been conducted by the Smart Grid Research Network. (Author)

  11. An Improved Hybrid Method for Enhanced Road Feature Selection in Map Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchen Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Road selection is a critical component of road network generalization that directly affects its accuracy. However, most conventional selection methods are based solely on either a linear or an areal representation mode, often resulting in low selection accuracy and biased structural selection. In this paper we propose an improved hybrid method combining the linear and areal representation modes to increase the accuracy of road selection. The proposed method offers two primary advantages. First, it improves the stroke generation algorithm in a linear representation mode by using an ordinary least square (OLS model to consider overall information for the roads to be connected. Second, by taking advantage of the areal representation mode, the proposed method partitions road networks and calculates road density based on weighted Voronoi diagrams. Roads were selected using stroke importance and a density threshold. Finally, experiments were conducted comparing the proposed technique with conventional single representation methods. Results demonstrate the increased stroke generation accuracy and improved road selection achieved by this method.

  12. Research across the disciplines: a road map for quality criteria in empirical ethics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Marcel; Inthorn, Julia; Renz, Günter; Rothenberger, Lillian Geza; Salloch, Sabine; Schildmann, Jan; Wöhlke, Sabine; Schicktanz, Silke

    2014-03-01

    Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE study results in misleading ethical analyses, evaluations or recommendations. This not only deprives the study of scientific and social value, but also risks ethical misjudgement. While empirical and normative-ethical research projects have quality criteria in their own right, we focus on the specific quality criteria for EE research. We develop a tentative list of quality criteria--a "road map"--tailored to interdisciplinary research in EE, to guide assessments of research quality. These quality criteria fall into the categories of primary research question, theoretical framework and methods, relevance, interdisciplinary research practice and research ethics and scientific ethos. EE research is an important and innovative development in bioethics. However, a lack of standards has led to concerns about and even rejection of EE by various scholars. Our suggested orientation list of criteria, presented in the form of reflective questions, cannot be considered definitive, but serves as a tool to provoke systematic reflection during the planning and composition of an EE research study. These criteria need to be tested in different EE research settings and further refined.

  13. Roads as Drivers of Change: Trajectories across the Tri‑National Frontier in MAP, the Southwestern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenville Barnes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Regional studies of land cover change are often limited by available data and in terms of comparability across regions, by the transferability of methods. This research addresses the role of roads and infrastructure improvements across a tri-national frontier region with similar climatic and biophysical conditions but very different trajectories of forest clearing. The standardization of methodologies and the extensive spatial and temporal framework of the analysis are exciting as they allow us to monitor a dynamic region with global significance as it enters an era of increased road connectivity and massive potential forest loss. Our study region is the “MAP” frontier, which covers Madre de Dios in Peru, Acre in Brazil, and Pando in Bolivia. This tri-national frontier is being integrated into the global economy via the paving of the Inter-Oceanic Highway which links the region to ports in the Atlantic and Pacific, constituting a major infrastructure change within just the last decade. Notably, there are differences in the extent of road paving among the three sides of the tri-national frontier, with paving complete in Acre, underway in Madre de Dios, and incipient in Pando. Through a multi-temporal analysis of land cover in the MAP region from 1986 to 2005, we found that rates of deforestation differ across the MAP frontier, with higher rates in Acre, followed by Madre de Dios and the lowest rates in Pando, although the dominant land cover across the region is still stable forest cover (89% overall. For all dates in the study period, deforestation rates drop with distance from major roads although the distance before this drop off appears to relate to development, with Acre influencing forests up to around 45 km out, Madre de Dios to about 18 km out and less of a discernable effect or distance value in Pando. As development occurs, the converted forest areas saturate close to roads, resulting in increasing rates of deforestation at further

  14. A Conceptual Framework of Mapping Access to Health Care across EU Countries: The Patient Access Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Hasardzhiev, Stanimir; Agapidaki, Eirini

    Research evidence suggests that access to health care is the key influential factor for improved population health outcomes and health care system sustainability. Although the importance of addressing barriers in access to health care across European countries is well documented, little has been done to improve the situation. This is due to different definitions, approaches and policies, and partly due to persisting disparities in access within and between European countries. To bridge this gap, the Patient Access Partnership (PACT) developed (a) the '5As' definition of access, which details the five critical elements (adequacy, accessibility, affordability, appropriateness, and availability) of access to health care, (b) a multi-stakeholders' approach for mapping access, and (c) a 13-item questionnaire based on the 5As definition in an effort to address these obstacles and to identify best practices. These tools are expected to contribute effectively to addressing access barriers in practice, by suggesting a common framework and facilitating the exchange of knowledge and expertise, in order to improve access to health care between and within European countries. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  16. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Global Map: 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of...

  17. Monitoring HIV and AIDS Related Policy Reforms: A Road Map to Strengthen Policy Monitoring and Implementation in PEPFAR Partner Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lane

    Full Text Available Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require the adoption and implementation of critical health policy reforms. However, countries with high HIV burden often have low policy development, advocacy, and monitoring capacity. This lack of capacity may be a significant barrier to achieving the AIDS-free generation goals. This manuscript describes the increased focus on policy development and implementation by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR. It evaluates the curriculum and learning modalities used for two regional policy capacity building workshops organized around the PEPFAR Partnership Framework agreements and the Road Map for Monitoring and Implementing Policy Reforms. A total of 64 participants representing the U.S. Government, partner country governments, and civil society organizations attended the workshops. On average, participants responded that their policy monitoring skills improved and that they felt they were better prepared to monitor policy reforms three months after the workshop. When followed-up regarding utilization of the Road Map action plan, responses were mixed. Reasons cited for not making progress included an inability to meet or a lack of time, personnel, or governmental support. This lack of progress may point to a need for building policy monitoring systems in high HIV burden countries. Because the success of policy reforms cannot be measured by the mere adoption of written policy documents, monitoring the implementation of policy reforms and evaluating their public health impact is essential. In many high HIV burden countries, policy development and monitoring capacity remains weak. This lack of capacity could hinder efforts to achieve the ambitious AIDS-free generation treatment, care and prevention goals. The Road Map appears to be a useful tool for strengthening these critical capacities.

  18. Removing non-urban roads from the National Land Cover Database to create improved urban maps for the United States, 1992-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying change in urban land provides important information to create empirical models examining the effects of human land use. Maps of developed land from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of the conterminous United States include rural roads in the developed land class and therefore overestimate the amount of urban land. To better map the urban class and understand how urban lands change over time, we removed rural roads and small patches of rural development from the NLCD developed class and created four wall-to-wall maps (1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011) of urban land. Removing rural roads from the NLCD developed class involved a multi-step filtering process, data fusion using geospatial road and developed land data, and manual editing. Reference data classified as urban or not urban from a stratified random sample was used to assess the accuracy of the 2001 and 2006 urban and NLCD maps. The newly created urban maps had higher overall accuracy (98.7 percent) than the NLCD maps (96.2 percent). More importantly, the urban maps resulted in lower commission error of the urban class (23 percent versus 57 percent for the NLCD in 2006) with the trade-off of slightly inflated omission error (20 percent for the urban map, 16 percent for NLCD in 2006). The removal of approximately 230,000 km2 of rural roads from the NLCD developed class resulted in maps that better characterize the urban footprint. These urban maps are more suited to modeling applications and policy decisions that rely on quantitative and spatially explicit information regarding urban lands.

  19. Mapping hyperfine fields with Hf in EuTiO3 by time differential perturbed angular correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Rano, Borak Ur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Using time differential perturbed angular correlation of γ rays, we investigated the electric field gradient for different annealing of defects and local oxygen configuration with Hf as a probe in EuTiO3. The measurements were performed at ISOLDE-CERN. The results, combined with ab-initio calculations, support the assumption that the electric field gradient for this system is determined by the trapping of defects for different charge states of Eu.

  20. The ethanol industry from the analysis technology road maps; A industria do etanol a partir da analise de roadmaps tecnologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calil Neto, Antonio; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira Cavalacanti; Freire, Estevao [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of the ethanol industry in the coming years should be buoyed by several factors, among which gain prominence: feedstock, conversion technologies and products. This article aims, from the analysis of technological road maps, is dealing with Brazil in the face of the global market, is primarily addressing the international context, to assess which technologies tend to predominate, with emphasis on the ethanol industry, addressing convergent and complementary the technology road maps, especially regarding the barriers and challenges, costs and logistics, and other broader issues that govern the production of sustainable feedstock, conversion technologies and biofuels industry, with emphasis on ethanol. Conventional biofuels today are generally not competitive with fossil fuels at market prices, except for the cane ethanol already has a good performance in economic terms. Moreover, strategies for first generation ethanol differ from those for the second generation, which is at an earlier stage of technology development and still subject to comparatively high production costs. The non-economic fundamental barrier to the development of biofuels, particularly ethanol, is the uncertainty as to its sustainability. The debate sometimes on competition with food production and the potential destruction of valuable ecosystems put biofuels in the center of the discussion about sustainability. The challenges facing the ethanol industry range from the need to implement on a large scale to reduce costs along the production chain, through the need for second-generation technologies to reach the level of market, with the behavior of these factors and others will depend on each setting route. (author)

  1. From Bench to Bountiful Harvests: A Road Map for the Next Decade of Arabidopsis Research[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagi, Irene; Estelle, Mark; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Beynon, Jim; Bastow, Ruth M.

    2012-01-01

    In the face of an increasing world population and climate instability, the demands for food and fuel will continue to rise. Plant science will be crucial to help meet these exponentially increasing requirements for food and fuel supplies. Fundamental plant research will play a major role in providing key advances in our understanding of basic plant processes that can then flow into practical advances through knowledge sharing and collaborations. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has played a major role in our understanding of plant biology, and the Arabidopsis community has developed many tools and resources to continue building on this knowledge. Drawing from previous experience of internationally coordinated projects, The international Arabidopsis community, represented by the Multinational Arabidopsis Steering Committee (MASC), has drawn up a road map for the next decade of Arabidopsis research to inform scientists and decision makers on the future foci of Arabidopsis research within the wider plant science landscape. This article provides a summary of the MASC road map. PMID:22751212

  2. Supply chains, mega-regionals and multilateralism : a road map for the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    HOEKMAN, Bernard M.

    2014-01-01

    With the WTO trade talks deadlocked since 2008, the US and EU are turning towards preferential trade agreements. But these leave out the planet’s more dynamic traders – including large emerging economies such as China, India and Brazil – so such agreements can only have a relatively small positive impact. From a world welfare perspective, deals to further integrate markets need to be multilateral. The challenge is how to get there. This study considers alternative ways forward and proposes sp...

  3. Improving urban change maps for the conterminous United States from 1992 to 2011 by disaggregating roads from the National Land Cover Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, C. E.; Acevedo, W.

    2016-12-01

    Urban lands represent a small part of the United States' landscape, but contribute to a range of environmental impacts linked with urban land use practices. A variety of tabular and spatially-explicit data products exist for monitoring developed lands in the conterminous United States, yet each dataset has limitations. One common problem with existing maps of built-up land is the misclassification of roads in non-urban areas. To improve our understanding of urban change rates and patterns in the conterminous United States, and assist the USGS National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) program in future mapping efforts, researchers with the USGS Western Geographic Science Center merged independent land use and road data in a spatial fusion process to disaggregate roads from NLCD developed classes. Results include four wall-to-wall maps of urban lands in the United States (1992, 2001, 2006, and 2011). A formal accuracy assessment was conducted for 2001 and 2006 maps to measure the relative improvement between NLCD and updated map products. Through this clean-up process, we have removed roads and other egregious errors from the urban footprint to more reliably map the extent of urban land and change in the conterminous United States over a 19-year period.

  4. Activities of the Middle East Quartet and Its Participants To Achieve Israeli-Palestinian Settlement Within The Road Map Project (2003 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Leshchenya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most active phase in the work of the Quartet of international intermediaries was connected with the attempts to implement the Road Map plan for the Israeli-Palestinian peace settlement. The significance of the Road Map lies in the fact that it is the plan on the Israeli-Palestinian peace settlement which was, for the first time ever, collectively drafted by the global actors and accepted by both conflicting parties To facilitate the implementation of the Road Map, a peculiar "division of labour" based on historical roles which each member of the Quartet had played in the Middle East settlement, emerged inside the Quartet. The work of the Quartet as a collective intermediary was complemented by individual actions of its members which influenced or were supposed to influence the Road Map implementation. The complex analysis of the examined problem conducted by the author in accordance with his own criteria revealed that all other activities of the international intermediaries were, in one way or another, connected to the Road Map. They were either implemented mainly within the framework of the aforementioned peace plan, or were connected with the efforts to create conditions to get the parties back to implementation of that plan, or were aimed at including alternative programmes into the framework of the Road Map. Quartet's activities to implement the settlement plan couldn't avoid the influence by the United States and a special character of the US-Israeli relations. The US leading role in the work of the Quartet led to a series of events which aggravated the Israeli-Palestinian peace process and became decisive for further development of the conflict which in the end led to the current stalemate. Nevertheless, the very fact of the Quartet creation, which evidenced that even the most influential global actor has no power to solve all aspects of the regional conflict on its own, became a sign of gradual transformation of a unipolar world

  5. Detection of Street Light Poles in Road Scenes from Mobile LIDAR Mapping Data for its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Nahr, S.; Saadatseresht, M.; Talebi, J.

    2017-09-01

    Identification of street light poles is very significant and crucial for intelligent transportation systems. Automatic detection and extraction of street light poles are a challenging task in road scenes. This is mainly because of complex road scenes. Nowadays mobile laser scanners have been used to acquire three-dimensional geospatial data of roadways over a large area at a normal driving speed. With respect to the high density of such data, new and beneficial algorithms are needed to extract objects from these data. In this article, our proposed algorithm for extraction of street light poles consists of five main steps: 1. Preprocessing, 2. Ground removal, 3. 3D connected components analysis, 4. Local geometric feature generation, 5. Extraction of street light poles using Bhattacharya distance metric. The proposed algorithm is tested on two rural roadways, called Area1 and Area2. Evaluation results for Area1 report 0.80, 0.72 and 0.62 for completeness, correctness and quality, respectively.

  6. A Road Map to Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for Inhabited Areas: Scoping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Road Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A 0H3 Project Number: CSSP -2012-CD-1019 Contract Scientific Authority: Norman Yanofsky, DRDC Centre for Security...May 2014 Project: CSSP -2012-CD-1019 1 IMPORTANT INFORMATIVE STATEMENTS CSSP -2012-CD-1019 A Canadian Chemical Recovery Handbook for...Inhabited Areas was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development Canada’s Centre for

  7. An Anomalous Noise Events Detector for Dynamic Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Real-Life Urban and Suburban Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Claudi Socoró

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aspects affecting the quality of life of people living in urban and suburban areas is their continued exposure to high Road Traffic Noise (RTN levels. Until now, noise measurements in cities have been performed by professionals, recording data in certain locations to build a noise map afterwards. However, the deployment of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN has enabled automatic noise mapping in smart cities. In order to obtain a reliable picture of the RTN levels affecting citizens, Anomalous Noise Events (ANE unrelated to road traffic should be removed from the noise map computation. To this aim, this paper introduces an Anomalous Noise Event Detector (ANED designed to differentiate between RTN and ANE in real time within a predefined interval running on the distributed low-cost acoustic sensors of a WASN. The proposed ANED follows a two-class audio event detection and classification approach, instead of multi-class or one-class classification schemes, taking advantage of the collection of representative acoustic data in real-life environments. The experiments conducted within the DYNAMAP project, implemented on ARM-based acoustic sensors, show the feasibility of the proposal both in terms of computational cost and classification performance using standard Mel cepstral coefficients and Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM. The two-class GMM core classifier relatively improves the baseline universal GMM one-class classifier F1 measure by 18.7% and 31.8% for suburban and urban environments, respectively, within the 1-s integration interval. Nevertheless, according to the results, the classification performance of the current ANED implementation still has room for improvement.

  8. Rockfall hazard mapping along a mountainous road in Switzerland using a GIS-based parameter rating approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baillifard

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A posteriori studies of rock slope instabilities generally show that rockfalls do not occur at random locations: the failure zone can be classified as sensitive from geomorphological evidence. Zones susceptible to failure can there-fore be detected. Effects resulting from degrading and triggering factors, such as groundwater circulation and freeze and thaw cycles, must then be assessed in order to evaluate the probability of failure. A simple method to detect rock slope instabilities was tested in a study involving a 2000 m3 rockfall that obstructed a mountainous road near Sion (Switzerland on 9 January 2001. In order to locate areas from which a rock-fall might originate, areas were assessed with respect to the presence or absence of five criteria: (1 a fault, (2 a scree slope within a short distance, (3 a rocky cliff, (4 a steep slope, and (5 a road. These criteria were integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS using existing topo-graphic, geomorphological, and geological vector and raster digital data. The proposed model yields a rating from 0 to 5, and gives a relative hazard map. Areas yielding a high relative hazard have to meet two additional criteria if they are to be considered as locations from which a rockfall might originate: (1 the local structural pattern has to be unfavourable, and (2 the morphology has to be susceptible to the effects of degrading and triggering factors. The rockfall of 9 January 2001, has a score of 5. Applied to the entire length of the road (4 km, the present method reveals two additional areas with a high relative hazard, and allows the detection of the main instabilities of the site.

  9. Landscape character assessment with GIS using map-based indicators and photographs in the relationship between landscape and roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Belén; Ortega, Emilio; Otero, Isabel; Arce, Rosa M

    2016-09-15

    Planning and monitoring of landscapes cannot be reduced to its outstanding features, but must take into account all its characteristics. In this context, the relationship of landscape with roads is of particular importance, because roads alter the territory's environmental resources but also constitute a resource through which the individual comes into contact with the landscape. The aim of this work is to design a methodology to evaluate both the character and the scenic quality of the landscape as viewed from motorways and to provide measures to assess whether the motorway conveys the character of the landscape of which it forms part. The main contribution of this research consists of assessing landscape character through a novel series of map-based indicators and combining the findings with a photo-based method of assessing visual landscape quality. The method has been applied to a case study around a motorway in Madrid Region (Spain). Landscape character values regarding coherence, complexity, naturalness, visual scale, disturbance, historicity, and ephemera are obtained using Geographic Information Systems. Additionally, the landscape quality results derived using photographs allow the incorporation of the user's perception at a local scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DETECTION OF STREET LIGHT POLES IN ROAD SCENES FROM MOBILE LIDAR MAPPING DATA FOR ITS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talebi Nahr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of street light poles is very significant and crucial for intelligent transportation systems. Automatic detection and extraction of street light poles are a challenging task in road scenes. This is mainly because of complex road scenes. Nowadays mobile laser scanners have been used to acquire three-dimensional geospatial data of roadways over a large area at a normal driving speed. With respect to the high density of such data, new and beneficial algorithms are needed to extract objects from these data. In this article, our proposed algorithm for extraction of street light poles consists of five main steps: 1. Preprocessing, 2. Ground removal, 3. 3D connected components analysis, 4. Local geometric feature generation, 5. Extraction of street light poles using Bhattacharya distance metric. The proposed algorithm is tested on two rural roadways, called Area1 and Area2. Evaluation results for Area1 report 0.80, 0.72 and 0.62 for completeness, correctness and quality, respectively.

  11. State-space models for bio-loggers: A methodological road map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsen, I.D.; Basson, M.; Bestley, S.

    2012-01-01

    development of state-space modelling approaches for animal movement data provides statistical rigor for inferring hidden behavioural states, relating these states to bio-physical data, and ultimately for predicting the potential impacts of climate change. Despite the widespread utility, and current popularity......, of state-space models for analysis of animal tracking data, these tools are not simple and require considerable care in their use. Here we develop a methodological “road map” for ecologists by reviewing currently available state-space implementations. We discuss appropriate use of state-space methods...... for location and/or behavioural state estimation from different tracking data types. Finally, we outline key areas where the methodology is advancing, and where it needs further development...

  12. Study on Mobile Object Positioning and Alarming System Based on the “Map World” in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Kai

    2017-02-01

    The established “Map World” on the National Geographic Information Public Service Platform offers free access to many geographic information in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt. Considering the special security situation and severe splittism and anti-splittism struggles in the Core Area of the Silk Road Economic Belt, a set of moving target positioning and alarming platform based on J2EE platform and B/S structure was designed and realized by combining the “Map World” data and global navigation satellite system. This platform solves various problems, such as effective combination of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and “Map World” resources, moving target alarming setting, inquiry of historical routes, system management, etc.

  13. A 'Road Map' for the Development of an Interdisiplinary GIScience Program at Highed Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. McAdams

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher education has been charged with the development of professionals to serve the rapidly developing spatial technology industry, but is just beginning to arrive at a consensus concerning the types of courses, sequence of courses and specialty areas. Geographic Information Science and Technology Body of Knowledge (DiBiase et al., 2006 developed under the auspices of the University Consortium for Geographic Information Science (UCGIS represents a major step in Geographic Information Science (GIScience education which may lead to more consistency among programs in Geographic Information Science (GIScience. Concurrently, there are movements for the accreditation of GIScience programs and formal GIS certificates. However, there is a significant gap from these promising but incipient efforts to the coherent development of GIScience programs at the university, college or technical school level. What should be the direction for those who are developing GIScience programs in institutions of higher education in the absence of more definitive direction? In this confusing transitory environment, the authors in this paper propose an outline or “road map” for the development of an interdisciplinary GIScience program.

  14. Historical maintenance relevant information road-map for a self-learning maintenance prediction procedural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Francisco J.; Reyes, Antonio; Cáceres, Noelia; Romero, Luis M.; Benitez, Francisco G.; Morgado, Joao; Duarte, Emanuel; Martins, Teresa

    2017-09-01

    A large percentage of transport infrastructures are composed of linear assets, such as roads and rail tracks. The large social and economic relevance of these constructions force the stakeholders to ensure a prolonged health/durability. Even though, inevitable malfunctioning, breaking down, and out-of-service periods arise randomly during the life cycle of the infrastructure. Predictive maintenance techniques tend to diminish the appearance of unpredicted failures and the execution of needed corrective interventions, envisaging the adequate interventions to be conducted before failures show up. This communication presents: i) A procedural approach, to be conducted, in order to collect the relevant information regarding the evolving state condition of the assets involved in all maintenance interventions; this reported and stored information constitutes a rich historical data base to train Machine Learning algorithms in order to generate reliable predictions of the interventions to be carried out in further time scenarios. ii) A schematic flow chart of the automatic learning procedure. iii) Self-learning rules from automatic learning from false positive/negatives. The description, testing, automatic learning approach and the outcomes of a pilot case are presented; finally some conclusions are outlined regarding the methodology proposed for improving the self-learning predictive capability.

  15. The EU’s Cybercrime and Cyber-Security Rule-Making: Mapping the Internal and External Dimensions of EU Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahey, E.

    2014-01-01

    EU Security impacts significantly upon individuals and generates many questions of the rule of law, legal certainty and fundamental rights. These are not always central concerns for EU risk regulation, especially given that EU risk regulation has sought to draw close correlations between EU risk and

  16. Research across the disciplines: a road map for quality criteria in empirical ethics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Research in the field of Empirical Ethics (EE) uses a broad variety of empirical methodologies, such as surveys, interviews and observation, developed in disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Whereas these empirical disciplines see themselves as purely descriptive, EE also aims at normative reflection. Currently there is literature about the quality of empirical research in ethics, but little or no reflection on specific methodological aspects that must be considered when conducting interdisciplinary empirical ethics. Furthermore, poor methodology in an EE study results in misleading ethical analyses, evaluations or recommendations. This not only deprives the study of scientific and social value, but also risks ethical misjudgement. Discussion While empirical and normative-ethical research projects have quality criteria in their own right, we focus on the specific quality criteria for EE research. We develop a tentative list of quality criteria – a “road map” – tailored to interdisciplinary research in EE, to guide assessments of research quality. These quality criteria fall into the categories of primary research question, theoretical framework and methods, relevance, interdisciplinary research practice and research ethics and scientific ethos. Summary EE research is an important and innovative development in bioethics. However, a lack of standards has led to concerns about and even rejection of EE by various scholars. Our suggested orientation list of criteria, presented in the form of reflective questions, cannot be considered definitive, but serves as a tool to provoke systematic reflection during the planning and composition of an EE research study. These criteria need to be tested in different EE research settings and further refined. PMID:24580847

  17. Detect, map, and preserve Bronze & Iron Age monuments along the pre-historic Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Timo; Caspari, Gino; Fu, Bihong

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia is rich in cultural heritage generated by thousands of years of human occupation. Aiming for a better understanding of Central Asia’s archaeology and how this unique heritage can be protected, the region should be studied as a whole with regard to its cultural ties with China and combined efforts should be undertaken in shielding the archaeological monuments from destruction. So far, international research campaigns have focused predominantly on single-sites or small-scale surveys, mainly due to the bureaucratic and security related issues involved in cross-border research. This is why we created the Dzungaria Landscape Project. Since 2013, we have worked on collecting remote sensing data of Xinjiang including IKONOS, WorldView-2, and TerraSAR-X data. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of larger grave mound structures in optical and SAR data. Gravemounds are typically spatially clustered and the detection of larger mound structures is a sufficient hint towards areas of high archaeological interest in a region. A meticulous remote sensing survey is the best planning tool for subsequent ground surveys and excavation. In summer 2015, we undertook a survey in the Chinese Altai in order to establish ground-truth in the Hailiutan valley. We categorized over 1000 monuments in just three weeks thanks to the previous detection and classification work using remote sensing data. Creating accurate maps of the cemeteries in northern Xinjiang is a crucial step to preserving the cultural heritage of the region since graves in remote areas are especially prone to looting. We will continue our efforts with the ultimate aim to map and monitor all large gravemounds in Dzungaria and potentially neighbouring eastern Kazakhstan.

  18. Ancient Irrigation Canals Mapped from Corona Imageries and Their Implications in Juyan Oasis along the Silk Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningke Hu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Historical records and archaeological discoveries have shown that prosperous agricultural activities developed in the ancient Juyan Oasis of northwestern China, an important oasis that once flourished on the ancient Silk Road. However, how the irrigation canals were distributed in historical time was unknown. Here, we identified and mapped the spatial distribution of ancient abandoned irrigation canals that were built using CORONA photographs and field inspections. This work found that ancient irrigation canals are large-scale and distributed throughout the desertified environment, with three hierarchical organization of first-, second-, and third-order irrigation canals (the total length of the first- and second-order-irrigation canals is dramatically more than 392 km. This study further indicates that ancient irrigation methods and modern irrigation systems in arid regions of China share the same basic irrigation design. New visual and fine-scale evidence and spatial distribution of irrigation canals are provided to illustrate the development of the ancient irrigated agriculture that occurred in the Juyan Oasis. This work is useful for readers who are interested in the construction and organization approaches of irrigation canals used in ancient irrigated agriculture in arid regions. It also has implications for how ancient people balance the relationships between human needs and the eco-environment using reasonable water management methods, especially for decision-making in the efficient usage of limited water resources in the arid inland river basin.

  19. Recanalization of symptomatic carotid artery dissections causing occlusion with multiple stents: the use of delayed double-contrast road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, José E; Gomori, John M; Leker, Ronen R; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Grigoriadis, Savvas; Rajz, Gustavo

    2010-04-01

    Internal carotid artery dissections (ICADs) with occlusion present with a high morbidity and mortality. No specific medical treatment has proven to be effective in this setting. In selected cases of ICAD with occlusion, stent-assisted angioplasty has been shown to be effective in restoring the perfusion. Spontaneous ICAD causing occlusion successfully recanalized with multiple telescoped stents extending intracranially has only been reported exceptionally. We report cases of symptomatic acute carotid occlusion after spontaneous dissection extending from the cervical to the petrocavernous ICA segments. Imaging studies revealed the presence of an extensive penumbra area in every case. Patients were treated by means of multiple stents deployed in a telescoped fashion with the aid of a delayed double-contrast road map. Post-procedural angiography demonstrated restitution of the carotid lumen with no signs of residual dissection or intracranial emboli. The patients improved rapidly, showing no residual neurological deficit after a week. At follow-up, patients are clinically asymptomatic and the vessel is patent with no radiological signs of myointimal hyperplasia. The successful angiographic and clinical results observed in our cases of extraintracranial stenting of a long carotid dissection causing occlusion contribute to the literature of carotid dissection treated with multiple stents.

  20. Mapping the optimal forest road network based on the multicriteria evaluation technique: the case study of Mediterranean Island of Thassos in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampekis, Stergios; Sakellariou, Stavros; Samara, Fani; Sfougaris, Athanassios; Jaeger, Dirk; Christopoulou, Olga

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network designed with the optimal spatial planning and the minimum environmental impacts. This paper describes the spatial layout mapping for the optimal forest road network and the environmental impacts evaluation that are caused to the natural environment based on the multicriteria evaluation (MCE) technique at the Mediterranean island of Thassos in Greece. Data analysis and its presentation are achieved through a spatial decision support system using the MCE method with the contribution of geographic information systems (GIS). With the use of the MCE technique, we evaluated the human impact intensity to the forest ecosystem as well as the ecosystem's absorption from the impacts that are caused from the forest roads' construction. For the human impact intensity evaluation, the criteria that were used are as follows: the forest's protection percentage, the forest road density, the applied skidding means (with either the use of tractors or the cable logging systems in timber skidding), the timber skidding direction, the visitors' number and truck load, the distance between forest roads and streams, the distance between forest roads and the forest boundaries, and the probability that the forest roads are located on sights with unstable soils. In addition, for the ecosystem's absorption evaluation, we used forestry, topographical, and social criteria. The recommended MCE technique which is described in this study provides a powerful, useful, and easy-to-use implement in order to combine the sustainable utilization of natural resources and the environmental protection in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  1. A Toxicology for the 21st Century—Mapping the Road Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The landmark publication by the National Research Council putting forward a vision of a toxicology for the 21st century in 2007 has created an atmosphere of departure in our field. The alliances formed, symposia and meetings held and the articles following are remarkable, indicating that this is an idea whose time has come. Most of the discussion centers on the technical opportunities to map pathways of toxicity and the financing of the program. Here, the other part of the work ahead shall be discussed, that is, the focus is on regulatory implementation once the technological challenges are managed, but we are well aware that the technical aspects of what the National Academy of Science report suggests still need to be addressed: A series of challenges are put forward which we will face in addition to finding a technical solution (and its funding) to set this vision into practice. This includes the standardization and quality assurance of novel methodologies, their formal validation, their integration into test strategies including threshold setting and finally a global acceptance and implementation. This will require intense conceptual steering to have all pieces of the puzzle come together. PMID:19357069

  2. Impact of femoral artery puncture using digital subtraction angiography and road mapping on vascular and bleeding complications after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mawardy, Mohamed; Schwarz, Bettina; Landt, Martin; Sulimov, Dmitriy; Kebernik, Julia; Allali, Abdelhakim; Becker, Bjoern; Toelg, Ralph; Richardt, Gert; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2017-01-20

    The use of large-diameter sheaths carries the risk of significant vascular and bleeding complications after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In this analysis, we sought to assess the impact of a modified femoral artery puncture technique using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and road mapping during transfemoral TAVI on periprocedural vascular and bleeding events. This is a retrospective analysis of transfemoral TAVI patients included in a prospective institutional database. The modified femoral artery puncture technique using DSA-derived road mapping guidance was introduced in October 2012. Before the introduction of this technique, vascular puncture was acquired based on an integration of angiographic data, the bony iliofemoral landmarks and a radiopaque object. Consecutive patients who underwent TAVI with the road mapping technique (RM group, n=160) were compared with consecutive patients who underwent TAVI without road mapping (control group, n=160) prior to its introduction. A standardised strategy of periprocedural anticoagulation was adopted in both groups as well as the use of a single suture-based closure device. All endpoints were defined according to the VARC-2 criteria for event definition. The mean age in the RM group was 80±7.7 years compared to 81±5.9 years in the control group (p=0.19), and females were equally distributed between both groups (63.1% vs. 58.1%, p=0.36). The baseline logistic EuroSCORE was 20.7±14.4% vs. 24.9±15.2% in the RM and control group, respectively (p=0.01). Notably, sheath size was significantly larger in the RM compared to the control group due to the more frequent use of the 20 Fr sheath (23.8% vs. 1.8%, pstrategy for potentially improving patient outcomes.

  3. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...

  4. An approach to locate and map swelling soils around Sohag – Safaga road, Eastern Desert, Egypt using remote sensing techniques for urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa F. Elbeih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental consequences of swelling soils are most apparent in arid and semi-arid regions. Sedimentary clays are mixtures of illite, kaolinite and some montmorillonite. There are various soil types liable to swell such as shale, mudstone, siltstone and marl due to the presence of Smectite group in these soils. Large volume changes of these types of soils can cause extensive damages to civil engineering infrastructures; roads, airport pavements, pipelines and shallow foundations. A number of localities in Egypt are well-known by the presence of swelling soils. Sohag – Safaga highway in the Eastern Desert of Egypt is considered to be an investable transportation road and one of the most important lateral connections between Upper Egypt and the Red Sea area. The study area is located in a buffer zone of 25 km from both sides of the highway. This area is believed to be more influenced by the road and could be fully utilized to share in developing areas in the road vicinity. The research objectives are to use recent ASTER satellite imageries with the aid of field samples to map different swelling clay minerals and compare between the different sensors accuracy in locating them within the buffer zone. Certain engineering measures should be considered to enable construction over these types of swelling soils. The results confirmed the presence of montmorillonite in this buffer zone and in the 5 km buffer around the road which represents a hazard especially for the future planned projects within this area.

  5. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  6. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  7. Flood-inundation maps for Big Creek from the McGinnis Ferry Road bridge to the confluence of Hog Wallow Creek, Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-08-20

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 12.4-mile reach of Big Creek that extends from 260 feet above the McGinnis Ferry Road bridge to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage at Big Creek below Hog Wallow Creek at Roswell, Georgia (02335757), were developed by the USGS in cooperation with the cities of Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Big Creek near Alpharetta, Georgia (02335700). Real-time stage information from this USGS streamgage may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs for many streams where the USGS operates streamgages and provides flow data. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Big Creek near Alpharetta (02335700), available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed for this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.

  8. Mapping the road to quality collaborative patient care in a behavioral health community treatment center. Avoiding the detours of managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, G H

    2000-06-01

    At this writing, the system and tools described have improved the author's organization's ability to meet managed care requirements better and support a collaborative care and case management model. Refer to the boxed information for the key functions and outcomes of the system. The Behavioral Health Multiaxial Protocol CareMapping System offers one approach to addressing the dilemma of health environmental change, managed care requirements, and financial constraints that have the potential to endanger the quality of clinical practice and to have a negative effect on patient and family outcomes. The tools illustrated in this article are in a constant cycle of revision and improvement and requires adequate clerical support to accommodate revision and tool improvement. Many more improvement initiatives are needed to improve the patient care process and organizational performance continuously. Because quality is a journey, the author hopes that her institution is on the right road and carries the correct map.

  9. Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  10. A new road map for the research in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan; Nouvelle feuille de route pour la recherche dans le domaine de la production d'electricite d'origine photovoltaique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destruel, P.; Chataing, H

    2009-07-01

    Dealing with the new road map published in 2009 by the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology development Organization) for the research activity in photovoltaic electricity production in Japan from now until 2030, this brief embassy report first outlines the need for such a new road map as Japan's international competitiveness is more and more challenged: it only possesses 10% of the installed power in the world (50% in 2003) and ranks now in sixth position in terms of annual installed power. Beside this trend, environmental challenges and CO{sub 2} emission reduction objectives, as well as oil price increase, have driven the NEDO to review its road map sooner as foreseen. The author describes the contents of the three main axis which have been defined for the photovoltaic development: photovoltaic profitability improvement (grid parity objective by 2030, production cost reduction), broadening of photovoltaic uses and applications, development and competitiveness of Japanese industries.

  11. Turkey-EU Migration: The Road Ahead

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip Martin

    2012-01-01

    .... Turkey is a net immigration country, and net migration between Turkey and Germany has been negative in recent years, meaning that more German residents move to Turkey than Turkish residents to Germany...

  12. Flood-inundation maps for South Fork Peachtree Creek from the Brockett Road bridge to the Willivee Drive bridge, DeKalb County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2015-10-14

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.3-mile reach of South Fork Peachtree Creek that extends from about 500 feet above the Brockett Road bridge to the Willivee Drive bridge were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with DeKalb County, Georgia. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at South Fork Peachtree at Casa Drive, near Clarkston, Georgia (02336152). Real-time stage information from this USGS streamgage may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/).

  13. Digital surveying and mapping of forest road network for development of a GIS tool for the effective protection and management of natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Liampas, Sarantis-Aggelos G.; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    In our time, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become important tools, not only in the geosciences and environmental sciences, as well as virtually for all researches that require monitoring, planning or land management. The purpose of this paper was to develop a planning tool and decision making tool using AutoCAD Map software, ArcGIS and Google Earth with emphasis on the investigation of the suitability of forest roads' mapping and the range of its implementation in Greece in prefecture level. Integrating spatial information into a database makes data available throughout the organization; improving quality, productivity, and data management. Also working in such an environment, you can: Access and edit information, integrate and analyze data and communicate effectively. To select desirable information such as forest road network in a very early stage in the planning of silviculture operations, for example before the planning of the harvest is carried out. The software programs that were used were AutoCAD Map for the export in shape files for the GPS data, and ArcGIS in shape files (ArcGlobe), while Google Earth with KML files (Keyhole Markup Language) in order to better visualize and evaluate existing conditions, design in a real-world context and exchange information with government agencies, utilities, and contractors in both CAD and GIS data formats. The automation of the updating procedure and transfer of any files between agencies-departments is one of the main tasks of the integrated GIS-tool among the others should be addressed.

  14. Flood-inundation maps for the Saluda River from Old Easley Bridge Road to Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.95-mile reach of the Saluda River from approximately 815 feet downstream from Old Easley Bridge Road to approximately 150 feet downstream from Saluda Lake Dam near Greenville, South Carolina, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina (station 02162500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained through the National Water Information System Web site at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/sc/nwis/uv/?site_no=02162500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060,00062. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. Forecasted peak-stage information is available on the Internet at the NWS Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system Web site (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) and may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-streamflow relations at USGS streamgage station 02162500, Saluda River near Greenville, South Carolina. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1.0-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull to 2 feet higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then exported to a geographic information system, ArcGIS, and combined with a digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] data with a 0

  15. MTU locomotive drive systems for EU emissions stage IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintruff, Ingo [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions limits for diesel locomotives within the European Union are regulated by EU Non-road Directive 97/68/EC which places restrictions on the pollutants NOx, particulate, CO and HC. MTU has developed suitable diesel engines for EU Emissions stage IIIB. (orig.)

  16. Single unprotected road user crashes : Europe we have a problem !

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R. Eenink, R.G. Cardoso, J. Machata, K. & Malasek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Unprotected Road Users (URU) are a subset of Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) who are not protected in their vehicles: pedestrians, cyclists and powered two-wheelers. EU statistics for 2014 show that their share in road traffic fatalities was 22% for pedestrians, 8% for cyclists and 18% for Powered

  17. Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water

  18. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  19. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general......To ancient geographers, roads were important not only as arteries of communication, but also as sources of information, since mileages measured along the Roman highways were among the very few precise distances available to the ancient geographer. This chapter explores the place of roads...... or the statesman, roads provide routes of communication; for the systematic geographer, they provide measured distances and directions. Through case studies of Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece and Anatolia, this chapter attempts to reach a better understanding of the place of roads in Strabo’s universe, especially two...

  20. The Long and Winding Road to a “Stake in the Internal Market” under the Association Agreement between the EU and Ukraine – with a Particular Focus on Telecommunication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of the granting a full internal market treatment to Ukraine arguably constitutes the core of the comprehensive Association Agreement (AA) between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine signed in June 2014. With regard to the internal market treatment the Association Agreement contains...

  1. BEDNARZ S., HEFFRON, S., HUYNH, N.T. (EDITORES (2013. A road map for 21st century geography education: Geography education research (A report from the Geography Education Research Committee of the Road Map for 21st Century Geography Education Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Miguel González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available   Tras la publicación del libro Geography for Life: National Geography Standards, (Heffron & Downs, 2012, segunda edición, las cuatro organizaciones geográficas más relevantes de Estados Unidos iniciaron un proyecto de colaboración para redactar un documento a modo de libro blanco de la educación geográfica americana. Las siguientes instituciones (National Geographic Society, Association of American Geographers, National Council for Geographic Education, American Geographical Society han impulsado dicho proyecto denominado “A road map for 21st century geography education”, dividido en tres comités, cada uno de los cuales ha redactado un documento propio sobre la temática trabajada: materiales didácticos y desarrollo profesional, evaluación en educación geográfica e investigación en educación geográfica. 

  2. The Political Economics of the New Silk Road

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balázs Sárvári; Anna Szeidovitz

    2016-01-01

    .... It reviews the initiation of the Silk Road Project and focuses on its political economic analysis through investigating the potential routes the Belt can take, the EU-Chinese trade and investment...

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants (SCVs: A Road Map for the Metabolic Pathways Involved in Persistent Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Allan Proctor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent and relapsing infections, despite apparently adequate antibiotic therapy, occur frequently with many pathogens, but it is an especially prominent problem with Staphylococcus aureus infections. For the purposes of this review, persistence will encompass both of the concepts of long term survival within the host, including colonization, and the concept of resisting antibiotic therapy even when susceptible in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Over the past two decades, the mechanisms whereby bacteria achieve persistence are slowly being unraveled. S. aureus small colony variants (SCVs are linked to chronic, recurrent, and antibiotic-resistant infections, and the study of SCVs has contributed significantly to understanding of persistence. In our earlier work, defects in electron transport and thymidylate biosynthesis were linked to the development of the SCV phenotype (reviewed in 2006, thus this work will be discussed only briefly. Since 2006, it has been found that persistent organisms including SCVs are part of the normal life cycle of bacteria, and often they arise in response to harsh conditions, e.g., antibiotics, starvation, host cationic peptides. Many of the changes found in these early SCVs have provided a map for the discovery mechanisms (pathways for the development of persistent organisms. For example, changes in RNA processing, stringent response, toxin-antitoxin, ribosome protein L6 (RplF, and cold shock protein B (CspB found in SCVs are also found in other persisters. In addition, many classic persister organisms also show slow growth, hence SCVs. Recent work on S. aureus USA300 has elucidated the impact of aerobic expression of arginine deiminase genes on its ability to chronically colonize the skin and survive in abscesses. S. aureus SCVs also express arginine deiminase genes aerobically as well. Thus, many pathways found activated in electron transport type of SCVs are also increased in persisters that have intact

  4. Road-Mapping the Way Forward for Sentinel-3 STM SAR-Mode Waveform Retracking over Water Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Cotton, David; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno Manuel; Martin-Puig, Cristina; Ray, Chris; Clarizia, Maria Paola; Gommenginger, Christine

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the preparation activities for the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission, ESA launched an R&D project on SAR Altimetry and Applications over Ocean, Coastal zones and Inland waters. The main objective was to design a novel processing algorithm over ocean surface that would run in the Sentinel-3 ground segment to provide unprecedented quality altimeter measurements over ocean surfaces when in SAR mode. Also coastal zones and inland waters were the targets of research to derive new models and re-trackers for these difficult measurements. Innovative physically based models have been developed for near-nadir ocean altimetric waveforms in SAR-Mode and subsequently implemented in prototype ocean SAR re-trackers to perform the validation. A Detailed Processing Model Document was delivered for implementation in the Sentinel-3 Topography Mission Ground Segment. In this paper, we present the approach used to date within SAMOSA and the heritage behind the latest SAMOSA2 model. The SAMOSA2 model offers a complete description of SAR altimeter echoes from ocean surfaces, expressed in the form of maps of reflected power in delay and Doppler space. SAMOSA2 is able to account for an elliptical antenna pattern, mispointing errors in roll and yaw, errors in range cell migration correction, surface scattering pattern, non-linear ocean wave statistics and spherical Earth surface effects. SAMOSA2 addresses some of the known limitations of the earlier SAMOSA1 model, in particular with regards to sensitivity to mispointing. Due to its truly comprehensive character, the full SAMOSA2 model is a complicated semi-analytical formulation that still relies on some numerical integrations. The need for numerical integrations significantly impacts the computation time and raises problems of numerical stability once implemented operationally in a re-tracker scheme. This has potentially serious implications that could prevent the implementation of SAMOSA2 in operational re-tracker schemes

  5. Soil Infrastructure, Interfaces & Translocation Processes in Inner Space ("Soil-it-is": towards a road map for the constraints and crossroads of soil architecture and biophysical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. de Jonge

    2009-08-01

    , we show the Dexter et al. (2008 threshold may also apply to hydrological and physical-chemical interface phenomena including soil-water repellency and sorption of volatile organic vapors (gas-water-solids interfaces as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (water-solids interfaces. However, data for differently-managed soils imply that energy input, soil-moisture status, and vegetation (quality of eluded organic matter may be equally important constraints together with the complexation and degradation of organic carbon in deciding functional soil architecture and interface processes. Finally, we envision a road map to soil inner space where we search for the main controls of particle and pore network changes and structure build-up and resilience at each crossroad of biophysical parameters, where, for example, complexation between organic matter and clay, and moisture-induced changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface conditions can play a role. We hypothesize that each crossroad (e.g. between organic carbon/clay ratio and matric potential may control how soil self-organization will manifest itself at a given time as affected by gradients in energy and moisture from soil use and climate. The road map may serve as inspiration for renewed and multi-disciplinary focus on functional soil architecture.

  6. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  7. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Johannes; Hofmann, Martin; Jung, Caroline; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Werner, Franziska; Them, Kolja; Reimer, Rudolph; Nielsen, Peter; Vom Scheidt, Annika; Adam, Gerhard; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4) was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography. Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide. 4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  8. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer.A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4 was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography.Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide.4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  9. Development of road safety performance indicators for the European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Weijermars, W. & Hakkert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Safety performance indicators (SPIs) are measures reflecting the operational conditions of the road traffic system that influence the system’s safety performance. Within the EU funded SafetyNet project, SPIs were developed for seven road safety-related areas: alcohol and drugs; speed; protective

  10. Road Damage Externalities and Road User Charges.

    OpenAIRE

    Newbery, David M

    1988-01-01

    Vehicles damage roads and, thus, increase road repair costs and create a road damage externality by raising the operating costs of subsequent vehicles. The main result is that if periodic road maintenance is condition responsive and if all road damage is attributable to traffic, then, in steady state with zero traffic growth, the average road damage externality is zero a nd the appropriate road damage charge is the average maintenance cost. Where weather accounts for some road damage, the roa...

  11. Driver fatigue and road safety on Poland's national roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, Kazimierz; Smolarek, Leszek

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of factors causing driver fatigue as described in the literature. Next, a traffic crash database for 2003-2007 is used to identify the causes, circumstances and consequences of accidents caused by driver fatigue on Poland's national roads. The results of the study were used to build a model showing the relationship between the concentration of road accidents and casualties, and the time of day. Finally, the level of relative accident risk at night-time versus daytime is defined. A map shows the risk of death and severe injury on the network of Poland's national roads. The paper suggests to road authorities steps to reduce fatigue-related road accidents in Poland.

  12. Trauma on rural roads: the role of a peripheral hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, J T

    2012-02-03

    Road accident trauma is a leading cause of death and serious morbidity among healthy young adults in the developed world. The Irish Republic has the third worst road safety record in the EU. In studying the unique demographics of rural road accidents, our aim was to provide information essential to the future development of trauma care in Ireland. Our figures highlight the inadequacies of data received by the National Roads Authority, illustrate the resource impact of road trauma on a peripheral hospital, and demonstrate the need for similar studies in the rationalisation of trauma care as we approach the next millennium.

  13. Critical dimension: MEMS road map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulingue, Marc; Knutrud, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology in mechanical, biotechnology, optical, communications, and ink jet is growing. Critical dimensions in MEMS devices are getting smaller and processes are constantly facing new metrology challenges. This paper will examine some critical dimension metrology needs and challenges for MEMS using resist-on-silicon structures. It is shown that the use of automated optical CD metrology can meet emerging measurement requirements while bringing the advantages of a non-destructive, high throughput and precise methodology.

  14. GPS Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a 1:100,000 scale vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads...

  15. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  16. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  17. Using concept mapping in the development of the EU-PAD framework (EUropean-Physical Activity Determinants across the life course): a DEDIPAC-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condello, Giancarlo; Ling, Fiona Chun Man; Bianco, Antonino; Chastin, Sebastien; Cardon, Greet; Ciarapica, Donatella; Conte, Daniele; Cortis, Cristina; De Craemer, Marieke; Di Blasio, Andrea; Gjaka, Masar; Hansen, Sylvia; Holdsworth, Michelle; Iacoviello, Licia; Izzicupo, Pascal; Jaeschke, Lina; Leone, Liliana; Manoni, Livia; Menescardi, Cristina; Migliaccio, Silvia; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Perchoux, Camille; Pesce, Caterina; Pierik, Frank; Pischon, Tobias; Polito, Angela; Puggina, Anna; Sannella, Alessandra; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Schulz, Holger; Simon, Chantal; Steinbrecher, Astrid; MacDonncha, Ciaran; Capranica, Laura

    2016-11-09

    A large proportion of European children, adults and older adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity (PA). Understanding individual and contextual factors associated with PA behaviours is essential for the identification and implementation of effective preventative environments, policies, and programmes that can promote an active lifestyle across life course and can potentially improve health. The current paper intends to provide 1) a multi-disciplinary, Pan-European and life course view of key determinants of PA behaviours and 2) a proposal of how these factors may cluster. After gathering a list of 183 potential PA behaviours-associated factors and a consensus meeting to unify/consolidate terminology, a concept mapping software was used to collate European experts' views of 106 identified factors for youth (concept mapping resulted in six distinct clusters, broadly merged in two themes: 1) the 'Person', which included clusters 'Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing' and 'Family and Social Economic Status' (42 % of all factors) and 2) the 'Society', which included the remaining four clusters 'Policy and Provision', 'Cultural Context and Media', 'Social Support and Modelling', and 'Supportive Environment' (58 % of all factors). Overall, 25 factors were rated as the most impactful on PA behaviours across the life course and being the most modifiable. They were mostly situated in the 'Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing' cluster. Furthermore, 16 of them were rated as top priority for research. The current framework provides a preliminary overview of factors which may account for PA behaviour across the life course and are most relevant to the European community. These insights could potentially be a foundation for future Pan-European research on how these factors might interact with each other, and assist policy makers to identify appropriate interventions to maximize PA behaviours and thus the health of European citizens.

  18. Introduction of ecologically based heavy vehicle charges for road haulage. Assessment from the angle of German constitutional law and EU law: models, constraints, design options. Study of the report 200 96 130 UBA-FB-000217; Umweltorientierte Schwerverkehrsabgaben aus der Sicht des Verfassungs- und Europarechts: Modelle, Restriktionen, Gestaltungsoptionen. Studie zum Forschungsbericht 200 96 130 UBA-FB-000217

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinski, S.

    2001-10-01

    The document contains a study commissioned by the German Federal Environment Office, (UBA), investigating the legal basis as well as constraints of new, ecologically based legislation envisaged by the German Federal Government for the transport sector. To put it in a nutshell: introduction of a kilometer-based road user charge for heavy goods vehicles, toll levels to be varied by vehicle weight and emission standards. Compliance with German constitutional law and the relevant law of the European Union is examined, and foreseeable non-compliance issues and conflicts in law are shown. Approaches will be outlined for solving legal obstacles by amending the German constitutional law and/or EU law and harmonizing the two legal systems. (orig./CB) [German] Aufgabe der Untersuchung ist es, im Einzelnen zu analysieren, welche Moeglichkeiten das uebergeordnete Verfasssungs- und Europarecht bereit haelt, um eine fuer das Territorium der Bundesrepublik geltende Schwerverkehrsabgabe zu erheben und diese moeglichst so auszugestalten, dass ein Maximum an umweltpolitisch motivierten Lenkungswirkungen und ein Minimum an umweltpolitisch bedenklichen Fehlsteuerungen erreicht werden kann. Soweit sich auf den beiden Ebenen des Verfassungs- und Euoparechts aus umweltpolitischer Sicht problematiche Restriktionen ergeben, werden Moeglichkeiten zur Aenderung des uebergeordneten Rechts erwogen. (orig./CB)

  19. Using concept mapping in the development of the EU-PAD framework (EUropean-Physical Activity Determinants across the life course: a DEDIPAC-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Condello

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of European children, adults and older adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity (PA. Understanding individual and contextual factors associated with PA behaviours is essential for the identification and implementation of effective preventative environments, policies, and programmes that can promote an active lifestyle across life course and can potentially improve health. The current paper intends to provide 1 a multi-disciplinary, Pan-European and life course view of key determinants of PA behaviours and 2 a proposal of how these factors may cluster. Methods After gathering a list of 183 potential PA behaviours-associated factors and a consensus meeting to unify/consolidate terminology, a concept mapping software was used to collate European experts’ views of 106 identified factors for youth (<19 years, adults (19–64 years, and older adults (≥65 years. The analysis evaluated common trends in the clustering of factors and the ratings of the distinct factors’ expected modifiability and population-level impact on PA behaviours across the life course. Priority for research was also assessed for each cluster. Results The concept mapping resulted in six distinct clusters, broadly merged in two themes: 1 the ‘Person’, which included clusters ‘Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing’ and ‘Family and Social Economic Status’ (42 % of all factors and 2 the ‘Society’, which included the remaining four clusters ‘Policy and Provision’, ‘Cultural Context and Media’, ‘Social Support and Modelling’, and ‘Supportive Environment’ (58 % of all factors. Overall, 25 factors were rated as the most impactful on PA behaviours across the life course and being the most modifiable. They were mostly situated in the ‘Intra-Personal Context and Wellbeing’ cluster. Furthermore, 16 of them were rated as top priority for research. Conclusions The current framework provides a

  20. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  1. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  2. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  3. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    In this article I study the long-term evolution of the main categories of expenditure of the European Union (EU) budget (1984-2011). The aim is to assess the extent to which the EU is affected by a structural form of policy inertia, and to investigate the general pattern of policy stability...

  4. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan...

  5. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  6. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  7. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...

  8. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  9. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  10. EU FP7/ ARENA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sella, G.; Senzier, C.; Andersson, M.; Taberski, G.; Schutte, K.; Lohrmann, P.; Murray, E.; Nguyen, E.

    2014-01-01

    The EU FP7 project ARENA addresses the design of a flexible surveillance system for detection and recognition of threats towards deployment on mobile critical assets such as trucks, trains, vessels and oil rigs..

  11. EU og Latinamerika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2008-01-01

    brev fra den bolivianske præsident, Evo Morales, stilet til EU. En måned før vedtagelsen af direktivet var de latinamerikanske lande blevet enige om at satse på en fælles politik med EU, der skulle bygge på et princip om fælles ansvar og en helhedstilgang til international migration med inddragelse af...

  12. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  13. Bicycles’ Role in Road Accidents a Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levulytė Loreta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 1.3 million people die in road crashes each year, on average 3,287 deaths a day. In 2013 in the European Union more than 6 % of all who died in road traffic crashes were cyclists. The number of cyclist killed on roads in the EU has decreased by only 9 %, compared to the total fatality decrease of 18 % from 2010 to 2013. The majority of cyclist fatalities are males (78 %. For the larger countries, Belgium and The Netherlands had the highest proportion of female cyclist fatalities (> 30 %. In general, 55 % of the bicycle fatalities in the EU countries were killed inside urban areas but there are large differences between the countries. In the last couple of years there has been an enormous effort on reduction in cycling fatality numbers across almost all ages in the EU. As a result of this effort, the number of accidents started to slightly decrease.

  14. Road safety performance indicators : country comparisons. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.7a.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auerbach-Hafen, K. Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Haddak, M. Holló, P. Arsenio, E. Cardoso, J. Vieira Gomes, S. Rapadimitriou, E. Amelink, M. Goldenbeld, C. Mathijssen, R. Louwerse, R. Morsink, P. Schoon, C. Gent, A. van Houwing, S. Vis, M. Gitelman, V. Hakkert, S. Assum, T. page, M. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report compares the safety performance of 27 European countries – the25 EU member states, Norway and Switzerland. The comparison is done for seven road safety related areas: alcohol and drugs, speeds, protective systems, daytime running lights, vehicles (passive safety), roads, and trauma

  15. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  16. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: ROAD_MRK (Road Number Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector points used in plotting the road numbers on the summary maps. It comprises a portion of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data...

  17. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  18. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    This paper discusses the changing relationship between the EU and Vietnam, and asks whether there is a shift from a “parental” to a “competitive” relationship. The focus of the paper is on the shift from aid to trade as the main interface between the EU and Vietnam. Aid relationships are often...... understood as hierarchical, linking a benevolent donor to a needy recipient, whereas commercial relationships are typically expected to involve a more competitive relationship. However, we argue that the bilateral relationship was never a “parental” one, even at the time when Vietnam’s relation to the EU...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  19. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  20. Eu submicrocrystalline rod

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2.1 Synthesis of Sr3Y(Px V1−x O4)3: Eu3+. The initial material, Y2O3, was firstly dissolved into concen- trated nitric acids. Then superfluous salicylic acid (6·0 mmol) was dissolved into 95% ethanol and its pH value was then adjusted to 7 ∼ 8 with ammonia solution. Then the 1 mmol. Y(NO3)3 and 0·05 mmol Eu(NO3)3 was ...

  1. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  2. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel ..... and extended family systems and profits from other enterprises but also loans from banks, ... Ilodibe, A.E. (2001). Road transport management in Nigeria.

  3. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  4. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  5. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  6. Competition in EU banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, Olivier; Diepstraten, Maaike; Schepens, Glenn; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent EU-wide movements in bank competition and concentration. We start with a concise overview of the most frequently used competition and concentration measures. Given that different measures may capture different aspects of bank competition, we focus on the differences and

  7. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  8. Economy and education of Ukraine: on the road to EU

    OpenAIRE

    Britchenko, I.G. (red.)

    2016-01-01

    European integration is a civilized choice of Ukraine and one of the key demands of the Revolution of dignity. It occupies a special place in the system of foreign policy priorities of Ukraine. European integration for Ukraine is the way of economic modernization, overcoming of technological backwardness, attraction of foreign investments and new technologies, new jobs creation, increasing the competitiveness of domestic producers, access to world markets and particularly...

  9. A review of road extraction from remote sensing images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a significant role for traffic management, city planning, road monitoring, GPS navigation and map updating, the technology of road extraction from a remote sensing (RS image has been a hot research topic in recent years. In this paper, after analyzing different road features and road models, the road extraction methods were classified into the classification-based methods, knowledge-based methods, mathematical morphology, active contour model, and dynamic programming. Firstly, the road features, road model, existing difficulties and interference factors for road extraction were analyzed. Secondly, the principle of road extraction, the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and research achievements were briefly highlighted. Then, the comparisons of the different road extraction algorithms were performed, including road features, test samples and shortcomings. Finally, the research results in recent years were summarized emphatically. It is obvious that only using one kind of road features is hard to get an excellent extraction effect. Hence, in order to get good results, the road extraction should combine multiple methods according to the real applications. In the future, how to realize the complete road extraction from a RS image is still an essential but challenging and important research topic.

  10. Method to calculate additional ramps explicity (CARE) in quantitative risk analysis for road tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelisse, R.M.L.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Article 13 of the EU Directive on minimum safety requirements for tunnels in the Trans-European Road Network states that a risk analysis, where necessary, shall be carried out. In the Netherlands, the risk of decease for road users in a tunnel (internal risk) is calculated with a model for

  11. Road design, human behaviour and road accidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    On this basis of recent decades' research this paper presents the problems a road designer meets when he, among other goals, tries to optimise safety. The author argues that road design is only one of the factors affecting accident risk and that road users' possibilities and limitations must play a

  12. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  13. Self-organizing feature map (neural networks) as a tool to select the best indicator of road traffic pollution (soil, leaves or bark of Robinia pseudoacacia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Stankiewicz, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A J

    2009-07-01

    Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the leaves and bark of Robinia pseudoacacia and the soil in which it grew, in the town of Oleśnica (SW Poland) and at a control site. We selected this town because emission from motor vehicles is practically the only source of air pollution, and it seemed interesting to evaluate its influence on soil and plants. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) yielded distinct groups of soils and R. pseudoacacia leaves and bark, depending on traffic intensity. Only the map classifying bark samples identified an additional group of highly polluted sites along the main highway from Wrocław to Warszawa. The bark of R. pseudoacacia seems to be a better bioindicator of long-term cumulative traffic pollution in the investigated area, while leaves are good indicators of short-term seasonal accumulation trends.

  14. Impact Assessment of Its Applications for Vulnerable Road Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J.; Noort, M. van; Johansson, C.; Mans, D.; Silla, A.; Bell, D.; Hancox, G.; Leden, L.; Giannelos, I.; Bax, B.; Malone, K.

    2016-01-01

    The EU-sponsored VRUITS project has prioritized ITS applications which have a potential to improve the safety, mobility and comfort of vulnerable road users (VRUs) and performed a quantitative safety, mobility and comfort assessment for the 10 most promising systems. The assessment methodology

  15. Impact assessment of ITS applications for vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholliers, J. Noort, M. van Johansson, C. Mans, D. Silla, A. Bell, D. Hancox, G. Leden, L. Giannelos, I. Bax, B. & Malone, K.

    2017-01-01

    The EU-sponsored VRUITS project has prioritized ITS applications which have a potential to improve the safety, mobility and comfort of vulnerable road users (VRUs) and performed a quantitative safety, mobility and comfort assessment for the 10 most promising systems. The assessment methodology

  16. Safe road shoulders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands, almost one fifth of all serious crashes that are registered are run-off-road crashes; on rural roads the proportion even is one third. In more than 70% of those crashes a passenger car is involved. By far most of the serious run-off-road crashes occur on 80 km/h roads. The causes

  17. Continuous Road Network Generalization throughout All Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radan Šuba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Until now, road network generalization has mainly been applied to the task of generalizing from one fixed source scale to another fixed target scale. These actions result in large differences in content and representation, e.g., a sudden change of the representation of road segments from areas to lines, which may confuse users. Therefore, we aim at the continuous generalization of a road network for the whole range, from the large scale, where roads are represented as areas, to mid- and small scales, where roads are represented progressively more frequently as lines. As a consequence of this process, there is an intermediate scale range where at the same time some roads will be represented as areas, while others will be represented as lines. We propose a new data model together with a specific data structure where for all map objects, a range of valid map scales is stored. This model is based on the integrated and explicit representation of: (1 a planar area partition; and (2 a linear road network. This enables the generalization process to include the knowledge and understanding of a linear network. This paper further discusses the actual generalization options and algorithms for populating this data structure with high quality vario-scale cartographic content.

  18. EU-Mashreq Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of key issues in the relations between the European Union (EU) and the countries in the Mashreq region since the launching of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in 2004. In this chapter, the Mashreq mainly refers to Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. 1...... Initially, it should be emphasized that the following analysis of EU-Mashreq relations is influenced by the very different political, social and economic realities in the four countries. As stated in a Strategy Paper from the European Commission in 2004, this was, from the beginning, reflected in ENP-related...... foreign policy considerations: the ENP Action Plans (APs) ‘will draw on a common set of principles but will be differentiated, reflecting the existing state of relations with each country, its needs and capacities, as well as common interests’ (Commission of the European Communities 2004). In the Mashreq...

  19. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  1. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  2. Self-organizing feature map (neural networks) as a tool to select the best indicator of road traffic pollution (soil, leaves or bark of Robinia pseudoacacia L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A., E-mail: sameckaa@biol.uni.wroc.p [Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wroclaw University, ul. Kanonia 6/8, 50-328 Wroclaw (Poland); Stankiewicz, A.; Kolon, K. [Department of Ecology, Biogeochemistry and Environmental Protection, Wroclaw University, ul. Kanonia 6/8, 50-328 Wroclaw (Poland); Kempers, A.J. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Radboud University of Nijmegen, Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Concentrations of the elements Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured in the leaves and bark of Robinia pseudoacacia and the soil in which it grew, in the town of Olesnica (SW Poland) and at a control site. We selected this town because emission from motor vehicles is practically the only source of air pollution, and it seemed interesting to evaluate its influence on soil and plants. The self-organizing feature map (SOFM) yielded distinct groups of soils and R. pseudoacacia leaves and bark, depending on traffic intensity. Only the map classifying bark samples identified an additional group of highly polluted sites along the main highway from Wroclaw to Warszawa. The bark of R. pseudoacacia seems to be a better bioindicator of long-term cumulative traffic pollution in the investigated area, while leaves are good indicators of short-term seasonal accumulation trends. - Once trained, SOFM could be used in the future to recognize types of pollution.

  3. Forest opening with a secondary road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the position and density of a secondary road network in the group-selection management system. The research was conducted in the economic unit Prosara in the north west of the Republic of Srpska. The network of skid roads in the analyzed sections was recorded using the GPS devices Garmin GPS 60 and Garmin Map 62st, and the analysis software package used was ESRI ArcInfo 10.1. Adhering to the general guidelines, the slope of skid roads was analyzed within six predefined intervals: 0-12 %, 12-16 %, 16-20 %, 20-30 %, 30-40 % and over 40%. Relative openness with a secondary road network was determined for a maximum distance between the skid roads of 130m and it ranged from 82.62 % to 96.37 %. Such openness was classified as very good and excellent. Together with all factors related to stand and terrain characteristics, it appears that in all the compartments, the density of the secondary network of skid roads is adequate for the application of a skidder with a winch, without extending above the maximum length of the winch rope. Out of the total length of analyzed skid roads, 24% is within an appropriate slope interval for a planned conversion to truck roads, whereas 37 % is the maximum slope from the ecological point of view. The average terrain slope for the whole analyzed area is 26.4%. Such moderately sloping terrain is suitable for the construction of skid roads with low investment and small environmental impact. Due to their specific configuration, the main skid roads were designed along the ridge, while the secondary and tertiary skid roads most often separated from them at the maximum slope, forming an irregular fish bone shape.

  4. A Representation Method for Complex Road Networks in Virtual Geographic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peibei Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Road networks are important for modelling the urban geographic environment. It is necessary to determine the spatial relationships of road intersections when using maps to help researchers conduct virtual urban geographic experiments (because a road intersection might occur as a connected cross or as an unconnected bridge overpass. Based on the concept of using different map layers to organize the render order of each road segment, three methods (manual, semi-automatic and mask-based automatic are available to help map designers arrange the rendering order. However, significant efforts are still needed, and rendering efficiency remains problematic with these methods. This paper considers the Discrete, Crossing, Overpass, Underpass, Conjunction, Up-overlap and Down-overlap spatial relationships of road intersections. An automatic method is proposed to represent these spatial relationships when drawing road networks on a map. The data-layer organization method (reflecting road grade and elevation-level information and the symbol-layer decomposition method (reflecting road covering order in the vertical direction are designed to determine the rendering order of each road element when rendering a map. In addition, an “auxiliary-drawing-action” (for drawing road segments belonging to different grades and elevations is proposed to adjust the rendering sequences automatically. Two experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the method, and the results demonstrate that it can effectively handle spatial relationships of road networks in map representations. Using the proposed method, the difficulty of rendering complex road networks can be reduced.

  5. SEMANTIC LABELLING OF ROAD FURNITURE IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road furniture semantic labelling is vital for large scale mapping and autonomous driving systems. Much research has been investigated on road furniture interpretation in both 2D images and 3D point clouds. Precise interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data still remains unexplored. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to interpret road furniture based on their logical relations and functionalities. Our work represents the most detailed interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data. 93.3 % of poles are correctly extracted and all of them are correctly recognised. 94.3 % of street light heads are detected and 76.9 % of them are correctly identified. Despite errors arising from the recognition of other components, our framework provides a promising solution to automatically map road furniture at a detailed level in urban environments.

  6. Semantic Labelling of Road Furniture in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2017-09-01

    Road furniture semantic labelling is vital for large scale mapping and autonomous driving systems. Much research has been investigated on road furniture interpretation in both 2D images and 3D point clouds. Precise interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data still remains unexplored. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to interpret road furniture based on their logical relations and functionalities. Our work represents the most detailed interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data. 93.3 % of poles are correctly extracted and all of them are correctly recognised. 94.3 % of street light heads are detected and 76.9 % of them are correctly identified. Despite errors arising from the recognition of other components, our framework provides a promising solution to automatically map road furniture at a detailed level in urban environments.

  7. New innovative educational method to prevent accidents involving young road users (aged 15-24 – European Road Safety Tunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska-Karpa Dagmara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new teaching method designed to improve road safety among young road users. Developed under “European Road Safety Tunes”, this international project was cofunded by EU DG MOVE. Its main aim is to improve road safety and minimize the number of road accidents, injuries and fatalities among road users who are 15-24 years old. The Safety Tunes method contains a series of workshops addressed to young vocational school students: cyclists, moped and motor riders and car drivers. The workshops incorporate peer and emotive education, and delivery of road safety related messages through different types of artistic forms. The topics tackled during class address awareness of possible risks and risk-behaviour, prevention of distraction and reduction in young fatalities and serious injuries on the road. All actions within the project are evaluated, both in terms of the impact of the workshops on students’ attitudes towards road safety problems and in terms of process assessment.

  8. Road Detection From Aerial Images Using Color Features

    OpenAIRE

    Sirmacek, Beril; Unsalan, Cem

    2011-01-01

    Urban regions are dynamic environments. Especially their road maps change by the expansion of the urban region. Therefore, automatic detection of roads from very high resolution aerial and satellite images is a very important research field. Unfortunately, the solution is not straightforward by using basic image processing and computer vision algorithms. Therefore, advanced methods are needed for road network detection from aerial and satellite images. In this study, we propose a nov...

  9. Development of EU Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    En tematiseret gennemgang af udviklingstrinene i EU's miljøpolitik fra de allerførste skirdt i 1970-72, der måtte basere sig på EU-traktatens generalklausul i Artikel 235, over declarationen på EU-topmødet i Paris i 1972, der kædede økonomisk udvikling sammen med et krav om hensyntagen til miljøe...

  10. The EU Methodology of Security and Defense Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Alexandrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines the methodology used within the European Union when planning the security and defence policy. The author analyses the key EU documents in this field, the structure of the respective EU bodies and the corresponding decision-making process. In particular, the article looks at the security and defence planning responsibilities of the European Council, the Military Committee and the Military Staff as well as the European Defence Agency. The author conducts a comparative analysis of the EU security and defence planning methodology with that of the US and NATO. He shows that the methodology is very similar. This concerns in particular the structural composition and the logics of the planning, its geographical scope and considerable propaganda component of respective public documents. Similarly to the US and NATO, the EU defence planning relies very little on the strategic forecasting. Instead the EU makes the principle of “strategic uncertainty” the corner stone of its policies. At the same time the EU widely uses elements of “dynamic forecasting” in its planning process, especially for short term forecasting periods. Moreover, the EU moved even further than the US and NATO along this road by applying the techniques that can be described as “dynamic planning”. At the same time the methodology of the EU security and defence planning has some significant specific features. This is explained by the fact, that the EU is mostly a civilian entity and military issues play only a small, though an important role in its work. Thus priority in its planning is given to civilian methods of promoting security, and the use of military force is regarded as the last resort. That is why the main accent in the EU security and defence policy is made on such instruments as crises management, political stabilization, peacekeeping operations and engagement of other states in all sorts of security and defence partnerships. This

  11. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Abstract. Between 1990 and 1924, the British colonial administration embarked upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion of road development was accompanied by the introduction of motor vehicles. Motor transport industry was dominated by expatriates in the 1920s. From the ...

  12. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  13. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  14. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  15. Roads (Johnson City)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the location of existing NPS roads including access roads for which the park has an easement at Lyndon B. Johnson National...

  16. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of algae energy production in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacevic, V.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2010-01-01

    Today’s society relies heavily on fossil fuels as a main energy source. Global energy demand increase, energy security and climate change are the main drivers of the transition towards alternative energy sources. This paper analyses algal biodiesel production for the EU road transportation and

  18. Road network: the silent treasures of Kano metropolis | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... connectivity index; accessibility index of the Kano urban terrain; and functional wellbeing. The methods used include analysis of secondary data generated from the 2011 satellite imageries (at 0.5m resolution) with the aid of Quantum GIS; road stock inventory; road classification and mapping; as well as field observation.

  19. Road safety rhetoric versus road safety politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køltzow, K

    1993-12-01

    In-depth interviews with top level decision makers in the road sector in Norway were conducted over a four-year period: Three principal impediments to safety interventions were identified: (i) Mobility is considered of primary importance; the "freedom of the car" is difficult to restrict, (ii) as a consequence there is much more lobbying for mobility than for safety, and (iii) road safety commitment and policies are weak, even among some of those responsible. For these reasons, efficient road safety work is often side-tracked at the top level, and substituted by nonbinding demands for road users' "change of attitude". In addition, road safety is often used as a proxy argument for measures that mainly promote mobility.

  20. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  1. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Method In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012–2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (−€9,367 million), France

  2. Carbon pricing in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, van der Edwin

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows

  3. Trade microenterprises in EU economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of the analysis of positions of microenterprises in trade and repair in European Union (EU economy. The results show that microenterprises make up the most numerous group of economic subjects in EU. In terms of income generation, value added, labour productivity and financial efficiency the position of microenterprises in enterprises sector is conclusively the weakest.

  4. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... food law does not address the grey area directly. Whereas the responsibility for the prevention or mitigation of food safety risks rests, in principle, with food operators, the main responsibility for the avoidance of non-safety health threats is placed with consumers, who are expected to make informed...... and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques...

  5. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... food law does not address the grey area directly. Whereas the responsibility for the prevention or mitigation of food safety risks rests, in principle, with food operators, the main responsibility for the avoidance of non-safety health threats is placed with consumers, who are expected to make informed...

  6. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This insightful and discerning book offers a fresh discourse on the functioning of national courts as decentralised EU courts and a new thematic for revising some older understandings of how national judges apply EU law. Organised into three key sections, the interdisciplinary chapters combine...... approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental...... rights in the area of freedom, security and justice. The analysis of each is enriched through diverse research methods such as case-law analysis, citation network analysis, interviews, surveys and statistics. With its new legal and empirical assessment covering the newest member states of the EU...

  7. Road extraction from SAR images by using a graphical sketch of road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherifi, Dalila; Tupin, Florence; Roux, Michel; Maitre, Henri

    2003-03-01

    The subject of this communication is the detection of roads on SAR images starting from a user-drawn graphical sketch. This sketch is considered as a road model, and the main contribution of this communication is to incorporate this model in a yet-existing blind road detection method to improve the quality and reliability of the detection. The method combines both local and global criteria for raod extraction. It consists of mainly two parts. First local information is extracted by applying a low-level operator, based on a line detector taking to account the statistical properties of speckle in SAR images. In the second step, road detection is performed by selecting the best road in a graph composed of all the detected segments and all possible connections between them. To demonstrate the contribution of the use of a model in the road detection, we first introduce an "exact" model of hte road (extracted for instance from a road map), in order to validate the method. Then the method is applied with an un-precise model (both in form and position). The obtained results from different SAR images are presented and evaluated with objective criteria.

  8. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States 201403 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  10. Road Network Assessment inTrans-Amadi, Port Harcourt in Nigeria Using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Adesola Obafemi; Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin; Dozie Richard Opara

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the road network system of Trans-Amadi industrial layout using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Topographical map of scale 1:100000 and Google Earth, 2010 version were the sources for the acquisition of the data. A reconnaissance survey of the area was also done to assess the present situation and state of the road network. Both the topographical map and the imagery were geo-rectified in ArcGIS 9.2 and geographic data on roads and road junction were captured. Road ju...

  11. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  12. Comparison of canny and V1 neural network based edge detectors applied to road extraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hauptfleisch, AC

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available of complex cells in a two dimensional feature map. Long-range connections were determined within the fea- ture maps through the Self-Organizing Map Extended (SOME) algorithm [7]. The process involved with integrating these characteristics are described....e. grayscale) imagery was used. 3.2. Self-Organizing Road Map The Self-Organizing Road Map (SORM) was developed by Doucette et al. [9, 3] as a topology verification and road net- work construction technique. SORM is a spatial clustering al- gorithm...

  13. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  14. Jean-Louis Borloo presents the road map issued by the 'Grenelle Environnement' forum on France's energy infrastructures; Jean-Louis Borloo presente la feuille de route issue du Grenelle Environnement pour les infrastructures energetiques de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The French Minister of Environment (J.L. Borloo) has presented the road map (issued from the 'Grenelle Environment' forum) concerning the energy infrastructures in France for the next ten years. The 'Grenelle Environnement' will place France on the road to 'Factor 4' (i.e. to divide by 4 France's greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2050); multi-annual programs for electricity and gas are focused on the reduction of energy consumption and give priority to non carbon energies. Development of renewable energies is one of the keys of the energy transition, and one of the responses to climatic change. Thermal power plants will be deeply modernized and less CO{sub 2} emitting; two third generation EPR-type nuclear reactors will be launched by 2020; gas infrastructures will be granted accelerated investments; renewable heat and district heating networks will be encouraged.

  15. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  16. The guaranteed failure of the road map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2003-01-01

    Every few months, a "peace plan" is pulled out of the drawers of the white house and keeps the public discourse busy for a few weeks. Although this ritual has a fixed pattern and predetermined end, it is curious that many in Israel are still tempted to believe that this time it is different. The

  17. Pain Management: Road Map to Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z

    2017-02-01

    Steven Z. George, PT, PhD, is a profound scholar whose contributions to the science of musculoskeletal pain rehabilitation have been both impactful and innovative to the area of clinical practice, as well as the profession at large. Highly regarded as an expert in pain-related psychosocial factors and their impact on rehabilitative outcomes, George is a clinical researcher decorated with accolades, ranging from substantial grant funding to high-impact publications. After 14 years at the University of Florida, George is currently Director of Musculoskeletal Research, Duke Clinical Research Institute, and Vice Chair of Clinical Research, Orthopaedic Surgery, at Duke University. He completed postdoctoral training in pain science and rehabilitation outcomes at the University of Florida and holds a PhD in rehabilitation science and MS in orthopedic physical therapy from the University of Pittsburgh and a BS in physical therapy from the West Virginia University School of Medicine. In his research, George has a primary theme focused on the use of biopsychosocial models to prevent and treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. Specific research areas include the effects of manual therapy on pain sensitivity, genetic and psychological risk factors associated with persistent pain and disability, and behavioral interventions for low back pain. Having authored over 185 peer-reviewed publications in physical therapy, orthopedic, rehabilitation, and pain research journals, George exemplifies a noteworthy level of compassion to improving the profession's, as well as society's, understanding of how to effectively provide pain relief. He is an editorial board member for Physical Therapy and Journal of Pain. He is also an International Editorial Review Board member for the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. George's dedication has been highlighted through various awards, including the John C. Liebeskind Early Career Scholar Award from the American Pain Society, the Ulf Lindblom Young Investigator Award for Clinical Sciences from the International Association for the Study of Pain, the Florida Physical Therapy Association's Award for Scholarly Impact on Practice, and APTA's Jules M. Rothstein Golden Pen Award and Eugene Michels New Investigator Award. In 2014, George's innovative knowledge contributed to being identified by Expertscape as the 10th-ranked world expert for scholarly contributions to the understanding and treatment of back pain. Expertscape's ranking, based on the quantity and quality of peer-reviewed clinical research publications in the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, highlights George's status as a visionary in the profession. For his advocacy toward conducting meaningful research, expertise on pain management, and profound impact beyond published works, APTA is pleased to honor Steven Z. George as the 2016 John H.P. Maley Lecturer.

  18. Mobile health a technology road map

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive report on the technological aspects of Mobile Health (mHealth) and discusses the main challenges and future directions in the field. It is divided into eight parts:  (1) preventive and curative medicine;  (2) remote health monitoring; (3) interoperability; (4) framework, architecture, and software/hardware systems;  (5) cloud applications; (6) radio technologies and applications; (7) communication networks and systems; and (8) security and privacy mechanisms. The first two parts cover sensor-based and bedside systems for remotely monitoring patients’ health condition, which aim at preventing the development of health problems and managing the prognosis of acute and chronic diseases. The related chapters discuss how new sensing and wireless technologies can offer accurate and cost-effective means for monitoring and evaluating behavior of individuals with dementia and psychiatric disorders, such as wandering behavior and sleep impairments. The following two parts focus on a...

  19. A road map for european facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "The youthfull field of astroparticle physics - thes tudy of the universe via the cosmic rays, gamma rays, gravity waves, and neutrinos that rain down on Earth - has a growing appetite for infrastructure funding."(2/3 page)

  20. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  1. Scan Line Based Road Marking Extraction from Mobile LiDAR Point Clouds†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Liu, Hua; Tan, Junxiang; Li, Zan; Xie, Hong; Chen, Changjun

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Mapping Technology (MMT) is one of the most important 3D spatial data acquisition technologies. The state-of-the-art mobile mapping systems, equipped with laser scanners and named Mobile LiDAR Scanning (MLS) systems, have been widely used in a variety of areas, especially in road mapping and road inventory. With the commercialization of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs) and self-driving technology, there will be a great demand for lane-level detailed 3D maps, and MLS is the most promising technology to generate such lane-level detailed 3D maps. Road markings and road edges are necessary information in creating such lane-level detailed 3D maps. This paper proposes a scan line based method to extract road markings from mobile LiDAR point clouds in three steps: (1) preprocessing; (2) road points extraction; (3) road markings extraction and refinement. In preprocessing step, the isolated LiDAR points in the air are removed from the LiDAR point clouds and the point clouds are organized into scan lines. In the road points extraction step, seed road points are first extracted by Height Difference (HD) between trajectory data and road surface, then full road points are extracted from the point clouds by moving least squares line fitting. In the road markings extraction and refinement step, the intensity values of road points in a scan line are first smoothed by a dynamic window median filter to suppress intensity noises, then road markings are extracted by Edge Detection and Edge Constraint (EDEC) method, and the Fake Road Marking Points (FRMPs) are eliminated from the detected road markings by segment and dimensionality feature-based refinement. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by three data samples and the experiment results indicate that road points are well extracted from MLS data and road markings are well extracted from road points by the applied method. A quantitative study shows that the proposed method achieves an average

  2. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  3. Updating Road Networks by Local Renewal from GPS Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The long production cycle and huge cost of collecting road network data often leave the data lagging behind the latest real conditions. However, this situation is rapidly changing as the positioning techniques ubiquitously used in mobile devices are gradually being implemented in road network research and applications. Currently, the predominant approaches infer road networks from mobile location information (e.g., GPS trajectory data directly using various extracting algorithms, which leads to expensive consumption of computational resources in the case of large-scale areas. For this reason, we propose an alternative that renews road networks with a novel spiral strategy, including a hidden Markov model (HMM for detecting potential problems in existing road network data and a method to update the data, on the local scale, by generating new road segments from trajectory data. The proposed approach reduces computation costs on roads with completed or updated information by updating problem road segments in the minimum range of the road network. We evaluated the performance of our proposals using GPS traces collected from taxies and OpenStreetMap (OSM road networks covering urban areas of Wuhan City.

  4. Extraction of basic roadway information for non-state roads in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has continued to maintain a linear-referenced All-Roads map : that includes both state and non-state local roads. The state portion of the map could be populated with select data : from FDOTs R...

  5. Monocular Road Detection Using Structured Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Road detection is a key task for autonomous land vehicles. Monocular vision-based road-detection algorithms are mostly based on machine learning approaches and are usually cast as classification problems. However, the pixel-wise classifiers are faced with the ambiguity caused by changes in road appearance, illumination and weather. An effective way to reduce the ambiguity is to model the contextual information with structured learning and prediction. Currently, the widely used structured prediction model in road detection is the Markov random field or conditional random field. However, the random field-based methods require additional complex optimization after pixel-wise classification, making them unsuitable for real-time applications. In this paper, we present a structured random forest-based road-detection algorithm which is capable of modelling the contextual information efficiently. By mapping the structured label space to a discrete label space, the test function of each split node can be trained in a similar way to that of the classical random forests. Structured random forests make use of the contextual information of image patches as well as the structural information of the labels to get more consistent results. Besides this benefit, by predicting a batch of pixels in a single classification, the structured random forest-based road detection can be much more efficient than the conventional pixel-wise random forest. Experimental results tested on the KITTI-ROAD dataset and data collected in typical unstructured environments show that structured random forest-based road detection outperforms the classical pixel-wise random forest both in accuracy and efficiency.

  6. Copenhagen Sonic Experience Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of present European interest for mapping urban noise, it seems increasingly relevant to investigate the multiple ways in which sound intersects with the everyday experiences of urban citizens. Focusing on the polluting effects of infrastructural noise, the EU-initiated project of asse...

  7. Roads In and Surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains those transportation routes from the Dixie's d2_travel_rte coverage that were calculated road = 'Road'. The Dixie National Forest Road...

  8. Pocket facts 2008 : Swedish Road Administration, roads and traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Pocket Facts offers an overall picture of the road : transport system. Here you will find a selection of : brief facts about roads, road transports, vehicles and : people in traffic. In addition, it presents the functions : and organisation at the SR...

  9. Green infrastructure development at European Union's eastern border: Effects of road infrastructure and forest habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Khaulyak, Olha; Yamelynets, Taras; Mozgeris, Gintautas; Naumov, Vladimir; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J; Elbakidze, Marine; Manton, Michael; Prots, Bohdan; Valasiuk, Sviataslau

    2017-05-15

    The functionality of forest patches and networks as green infrastructure may be affected negatively both by expanding road networks and forestry intensification. We assessed the effects of (1) the current and planned road infrastructure, and (2) forest loss and gain, on the remaining large forest landscape massifs as green infrastructure at the EU's eastern border region in post-socialistic transition. First, habitat patch and network functionality in 1996-98 was assessed using habitat suitability index modelling. Second, we made expert interviews about road development with planners in 10 administrative regions in Poland, Belarus and Ukraine. Third, forest loss and gain inside the forest massifs, and gain outside them during the period 2001-14 were measured. This EU cross-border region hosts four remaining forest massifs as regional green infrastructure hotspots. While Poland's road network is developing fast in terms of new freeways, city bypasses and upgrades of road quality, in Belarus and Ukraine the focus is on maintenance of existing roads, and no new corridors. We conclude that economic support from the EU, and thus rapid development of roads in Poland, is likely to reduce the permeability for wildlife of the urban and agricultural matrix around existing forest massifs. However, the four identified forest massifs themselves, forming the forest landscape green infrastructure at the EU's east border, were little affected by road development plans. In contrast, forest loss inside massifs was high, especially in Ukraine. Only in Poland forest loss was balanced by gain. Forest gain outside forest massifs was low. To conclude, pro-active and collaborative spatial planning across different sectors and countries is needed to secure functional forest green infrastructure as base for biodiversity conservation and human well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  11. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.4: Forecasting road traffic fatalities in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, C. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. Commandeur, J.J.F. Broughton, J Knowles, J. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Giustianni, G. Shingo, D. Hermans, E. Lassarre, S. Perez, C. & Santamariña, E.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic crashes have a major impact to European society, in 2008 over 38,000 road users died and over 1.2 million were injured. The economic cost is immense and has been estimated at over 160 billion for the EU 15 alone. The European Commission and National Governments place a high priority on

  12. Road safety performance indicators : updated country comparisons. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.11a.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Vis, M. Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent figures of chosen safety performance indicators of 29 European countries – the 27 EU member states, complemented with Norway and Switzerland. The comparison is done for five road safety performance indicators in the following areas: alcohol and drugs,

  13. Contact Pressure and Sliding Velocity Maps of the Friction, Wear and Emission from a Low-Metallic/Cast-Iron Disc Brake Contact Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wahlström

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 from car disc brakes contribute up to 50% of the total non-exhaust emissions from road transport in the EU. These emissions come from the wear of the pad and rotor contact surfaces. Yet few studies have reported contact pressures and offered sliding speed maps of the friction, wear, and particle emission performance of disc brake materials at a material level. Such maps are crucial to understanding material behaviour at different loads and can be used as input data to numerical simulations. A low-metallic pad and grey cast-iron rotor contact pair commonly used today in passenger car disc brakes was studied using a pin-on-disc tribometer at twelve contact pressure and sliding speed combinations. Maps of the coefficient of friction, specific wear rate, particle number, and mass rate are presented and discussed.

  14. Second-generation speed limit map updating applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Adaptation is an Intelligent Transport System developed to significantly improve road safety in helping car drivers maintain appropriate driving behaviour. The system works in connection with the speed limits on the road network. It is thus essential to keep the speed limit map...... developed to give road authorities the opportunity to keep the speed limit map updated. However, the feedback from road authorities was insufficient. Hence a new web application based on Google Maps was made to provide easier speed limit updates for road authorities. The lessons learnt were that tools...... for map updating should preferably be made on the basis of a commercial map provider, 2 such as Google Maps and that the real challenge is to oblige road authorities to carry out updates....

  15. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  16. Vehicular road influence areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  17. Road pricing and road safety : possible effects on road safety of 23 variants of road pricing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R.G. Dijkstra, A. Wijnen, W. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Nouwen Committee (National Platform Paying Differently for Mobility) advised the Cabinet in 2005 about the introduction of a system of road pricing. Part of this advice consisted of a calculation of the expected road safety effects of such a system. In a letter to the Minister of Transport, SWOV

  18. Vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A group of road users can be defined as ‘vulnerable’ in a number of ways, such as by the amount of protection in traffic (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists) or by the amount of task capability (e.g. the young and the elderly). Vulnerable road users do not usually have a protective 'shell', and also the

  19. Future Road Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  20. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  1. 2nd Road Vehicle Automation Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume covers all relevant aspects of road vehicle automation including societal impacts, legal matters, and technology innovation from the perspectives of a multitude of public and private actors. It is based on an expert workshop organized by the Transportation Research Board at Stanford University in July 2013. The target audience primarily comprises academic researchers, but the book may also be of interest to practitioners and professionals. Higher levels of road vehicle automation are considered beneficial for road safety, energy efficiency, productivity, convenience, and social inclusion. The necessary key technologies in the fields of object-recognition systems, data processing, and infrastructure communication have been consistently developed over the recent years and are mostly available on the market today. However, there is still a need for substantial research and development, e.g. with interactive maps, data processing, functional safety, and the fusion of different data sources...

  2. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    battery capacity required for electric vehicles if they are not installed. The electric road and battery electric vehicle scenarios are more efficient and produce less carbon dioxide emissions than their corresponding oil scenarios for two key reasons: 1) the vehicles are more efficient and 2) electric......This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys....... In this paper, an electric road scenario is compared to both an oil and battery electric vehicle scenario using the 2010 Danish energy system, but for two sets of costs: one set based on historical costs from the year 2010 and one based on projected costs for the year 2050. The results indicate that electric...

  3. Road Infrastructure Financing Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Horvat

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Already in its early phase, starting with initial general needsof people to survive and find food, traffic and traffic se1viceturned into a modern system which increased the complexityand interdependence within the traffic system, and then withthe environment as well. The financing problem is especially expressedduring the creation of new roads and road networksand achieving of better transport service. High investmentmeans required for the road construction require also systemicforecasting of financial sources. Financing of road infrastructureconstruction opens up the basic dilemma: whether totransfer the costs directly to the state budget and the cun·entgeneration or to transfer this burden to the future generations.These considerations require also a certain organizational approach.High investments in road infrastructure require a rationalselection before the decision itself on the selection of thetraffic system. Such selection has to be done based on adequatetraffic plans, which assumes classification of all the needs regardingtheir level so that every investment would be rationallyallocated.

  4. The EU system for emissions trading after year 2012; EU:s system foer handel med utslaeppsraetter efter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, Mathias; Mjureke, David (eds.)

    2007-01-15

    achieve emission reductions in line with Council Conclusions (7619/1/05) in the form of total emission reductions of the order of 15-30 % in the industrialised countries by 2020. Sweden should press for the Scheme to be linked with other trading schemes, subject to retention of climate integrity. Linking can strengthen global climate policy ties and influence countries not having internationally binding climate commitments towards participating in some climate policy agreement. Linking also helps to counter international distortion of competition. There should be considerable opportunities for the use of CDM (or equivalent) credits in the Scheme, given that the EU has strict commitments on emission reductions. In order to ensure the system's climate integrity and competition neutrality, efforts should be aimed at ensuring that the total quantity of allowances in the Trading Scheme is decided directly at EU level (i.e. top-down), instead of as today starting from national allocation plans (i.e. bottom-up). Sweden should promote continued expansion of the Scheme to other sectors and for other gases. In 2013, it should be expanded to include emissions of carbon dioxide and PFC from primary and secondary aluminium production, carbon dioxide from certain chemical industry sectors, nitrous oxide from certain chemical industry sectors and methane from active coal mines. The European road transport sector can be included in the Scheme. However, this will pose challenges in respect of the effects on industrial competitiveness and developments within the road transport sector. In order to be able to adopt a firm position in the matter of how the road transport sector should be treated in relation to the EU ETS, Sweden should initiate in-depth studies of consequences of different options, including a separate trading scheme for the European transport sector. Purely biofuelled combustion installations should be excluded from the Scheme, and the monitoring requirements for pure

  5. Road Interpretation for Driver Assistance Based on an Early Cognitive Vision System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baseski, Emre; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we address the problem of road interpretation for driver assistance based on an early cognitive vision system. The structure of a road and the relevant traffic are interpreted in terms of ego-motion estimation of the car, independently moving objects on the road, lane markers and large...... scale maps of the road. We make use of temporal and spatial disambiguation mechanisms to increase the reliability of visually extracted 2D and 3D information. This information is then used to interpret the layout of the road by using lane markers that are detected via Bayesian reasoning. We also...... estimate the ego-motion of the car which is used to create large scale maps of the road and also to detect independently moving objects. Sample results for the presented algorithms are shown on a stereo image sequence, that has been collected from a structured road....

  6. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than any other Igbo sub-group; the Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel economic enterprise with huge success. Some of these pioneer transport capitalists were J.C. Ulasi, L.P. Ojukwu, and A.E. Ilodibe. These indigenous entrepreneurs commercialized the revolution in ...

  7. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  8. The conference "Road Safety in Europe", held in Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998. Theme: Recommendations for speed management strategies and policies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draskóczy, M. Mocsári, T. Risser, R. Lehner, U. Várhelyi, A. Mäkinen, T. Oei, H.-l. & Comte, S.

    1999-01-01

    At the conference "Road Safety Europe" held in Bergisch Gladbach, Germany, September 21-23, 1998, one of the themes was "Speed management and road safety - EU-project MASTER". Five of the papers presented within this framework were: Present speeds and speed management methods in Europe (Draskóczy,

  9. Transport of dangerous goods by road from a European aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew ŁUKASIK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays an important role in national economies and impacts on economic development. The scale of the transportation of goods that may be dangerous to humans and the environment is expanding every year. Overall, transport is dangerous for the environment and road users, causing the increased emission of pollutants, accidents and traffic collisions. The rise in demand of basic materials, such as petrol and diesel, has led to a growth in the transport of dangerous goods, which in turn has increased the risk of road accidents. The research method used in this article involves an analysis of the inspection rates regarding the transport of dangerous goods by road in the EU and related legal documents.

  10. Deconstructing EU Federalism Though Competences

    OpenAIRE

    Azoulai, Loïc; Millet, François-Xavier; Boucon, Lena

    2012-01-01

    [This paper is a collective endeavour to depart from the traditional view that a clear-cut separation of powers between the European Union and its Member States is one of the main features and one of the main safeguards of the European quasi-federalism. On the one hand, it is an effort to show the deep intertwining of EU and national powers in the actual course of European integration. On the other hand, it is an attempt to discover new legal and political safeguards to the development of EU ...

  11. EU Space Awareness: Initial implemenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    EU Space Awareness uses the excitement of space to attract young people into science and technology and stimulate European and global citizenship. The project will show children and teenagers the opportunities offered by space science and engineering and inspire primary-school children when their curiosity is high and their value systems are being formed. EU Space Awareness, a 3-year project, has started in March 2015 with 10 partner organisations and 15 network nodes in 17 European countries and the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development. During this talk we will give a update about the intial implementation of the project and its relevant for astronomy for development.

  12. Predictability by recognizable road design. [previously called: Recognizable road design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    One of the Sustainable Safety principles is that a road should have a recognizable design and a predictable alignment. If this is the case, road users know how they are expected to behave and what they can expect from other road users, so that crashes may be prevented. For roads to be recognizable,

  13. The "Road to Safety" in Irish children over the past five years.

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, A; Trace, F.; Nicholson, A J

    2006-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for 1 in 5 of all childhood deaths across The EU. In the year 2000, the World Health Organization ranked road traffic accidents as the ninth leading cause of mortality, accounting for 2.3% of deaths worldwide. In 1997, the European Commission published the European Union RoadSafety Programme. This had been prepared against a background of 45,000 road- related fatalities and 1.6 million injuries occurring within the European Union each year. At that stage, Ireland...

  14. Freedom of religion as part of EU 'ideology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treneska-Deskoska Renata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been already written that Europe is not geographical entity but an 'imagined space', created out of our mental maps. That supports the idea that Europe is entity with fluid borders, which 'are matter of ideology and politics rather than cartography,,. When EU launched the Common Foreign and Security Policy, it placed human rights at the heart of this ideology and policy. Individual rights, the rule of law and constitutional democracy are condition for EU entry for all countries candidates for EU members. This paper will analyze the meaning and content of the freedom of religion according to the EU standards. The emphasis will be given to the Article 9 of the European Convention of Human Rights and its interpretation by the European Court of Human Rights. The most important cases, in which violation of Article 9 was established, will be analyzed. The importance of the issue of freedom of religion for EU can be seen in the adopted EU Guidelines on the promotion and protection of the freedom of religion or belief on which this paper will also point. Also, this paper will point to the constitutional and legal frame on freedom of religion in Macedonia, as well as to the interpretation of the Constitutional court of the Republic of Macedonia to the freedom of religion. Also, Macedonia was brought in front of the European Court of Human Rights with regard to the Article 9. Case Kosteski v Macedonia is one of the cases with broader meaning in which the issue of the need to prove the belongingness in certain religion, in order to enjoy the rights that belong to the members of that religion was raised. The judicial portfolio of Macedonia in front of the European Court of Human rights regarding freedom of religion will be also subject of analysis.

  15. Photogrammetry, Digital mapping and Land Informations Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia.......Monitoring activities on photogrammetry, digital mapping and land information systems in State Land Service in Latvia in relation to the EU Phare Project Phase II, Technical Assistance to land Privatisation and registration in Latvia....

  16. USGS Small-scale Dataset - 1:1,000,000-Scale Major Roads of the United States 201403 FileGDB 10.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  17. A Eu/Tb-mixed MOF for luminescent high-temperature sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huizhen; Zhao, Dian; Cui, Yuangjing, E-mail: cuiyj@zju.edu.cn; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong, E-mail: gdqian@zju.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Temperature measurements and thermal mapping using luminescent MOF operating in the high-temperature range are of great interest in the micro-electronic diagnosis. In this paper, we report a thermostable Eu/Tb-mixed MOF Eu{sub 0.37}Tb{sub 0.63}-BTC-a exhibiting strong luminescence at elevated temperature, which can serve as a ratiometric luminescent thermometer for high-temperature range. The high-temperature operating range (313–473 K), high relative sensitivity and accurate temperature resolution, make such a Eu/Tb-mixed MOF useful for micro-electronic diagnosis. - Graphical abstract: A thermostable Eu/Tb-mixed MOF Eu{sub 0.37}Tb{sub 0.63}-BTC-a was developed as a ratiometric luminescent thermometers in the high-temperature range of 313–473 K. - Highlights: • A thermostable Eu/Tb-codoped MOF exhibiting strong luminescent at elevated temperature is reported. • The high-temperature operating range of Eu{sub 0.37}Tb{sub 0.63}-BTC-a is 313–473 K. • The mechanism of Eu{sub 0.37}Tb{sub 0.63}-BTC-a used as thermometers are also discussed.

  18. Implementing the European Road Safety Observatory (ERSO) in the SafetyNet project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, P. Morris, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Lejeune, P. Duchamp, G. Vis, M. Vallet, G. Jahi, H. Dupont, E. & Martensen, H.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 there were over 43,000 people who were killed on the roads of the 25 member states of the European Union (EU), additionally around 3.3 million people were injured. The costs to society exceeded EUR 180 billion which is around twice the annual budget of the European Commission and 2 per cent

  19. EU-MOLDOVA TRADE RELATIONS: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF MOLDOVAN INDUSTRIES ON THE SINGLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana SANDU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Engaging on the long road of implementing the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the EU in 2010, Moldova is now closer than ever to being included in the most privileged category of the Eastern neighbouring countries - those who have chosen to deepen the European economic integration. The Vilnius Summit in November 2013 has reinforced the ‘more for more’ principle for both Moldova and Georgia by emphasizing, at the same time, the role of reactive measures and financial aid in counterbalancing aggressive trade barriers from non-EU states. Not only has Moldova proved to efficiently capitalize the provisions of the ATP agreement since 2008, but it has also consequently received more support from the EU in boosting exports to the single market. The wine industry was the first to benefit from the free-trade regime, as for the EU decision of eliminating quotas from the beginning of 2014. Nonetheless, the progressive liberalisation of trade flows between Moldova and the EU would finally oppose two asymmetric partners. Consequently, Moldova is facing the challenge of asserting its value on the EU market, by yet not undermining the relevance of other important trading partners nearby.

  20. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  1. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  2. State Forest Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  3. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  4. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...

  5. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  6. Road rage and collision involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert E; Zhao, Jinhui; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Smart, Reginald G; Donovan, John E

    2007-01-01

    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and 2004. Perpetrators and victims of both any road rage and serious road rage had a significantly higher risk of collision involvement than did those without road rage experience. This study provides epidemiological evidence that both victims and perpetrators of road rage experience increased collision risk. More detailed studies of the contribution of road rage to traffic crashes are needed.

  7. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  8. Innovative Data Capture and Presentation Techniques in Support of the EU Environmental Noise Directive

    OpenAIRE

    O'Riain, Gearoid; McCarthy, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency of Ireland (EPA) funded from 2006 to 2007 a research project to develop methodologies to meet data-related challenges arising under the European Union (EU) Environmental Noise Directive (END) (2002/49/EC) for Ireland. The research project sought to assess the role of advanced ground-based spatial video and also aerial digital photography in the creation of data required for suitably accurate noise modelling in road environments.

  9. Road infrastructure in the regions of the Slovak Republic and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masárová Jana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important assumptions and factors of social and economic development of countries and their regions is road infrastructure. This is particularly true in countries where road transport is the largest component of overall transportation, such as in Slovakia and Poland. Road infrastructure as part of the transport infrastructure is here regarded as one of the main pillars for achieving economic growth, to increase competitiveness and prosperity, contributing to the development of the Trans-European transport network and the improvement of transport infrastructure in support of a single European market in order to ensure the free flow of goods, people and overall competitiveness of the EU. This article offers a comparison of road infrastructure in Slovakia and Poland, highlighting regional disparities in road infrastructure in these countries.

  10. An automated algorithm for extracting road edges from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; McElhinney, Conor P.; Lewis, Paul; McCarthy, Timothy

    2013-11-01

    Terrestrial mobile laser scanning systems provide rapid and cost effective 3D point cloud data which can be used for extracting features such as the road edge along a route corridor. This information can assist road authorities in carrying out safety risk assessment studies along road networks. The knowledge of the road edge is also a prerequisite for the automatic estimation of most other road features. In this paper, we present an algorithm which has been developed for extracting left and right road edges from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a novel combination of two modified versions of the parametric active contour or snake model. The parameters involved in the algorithm are selected empirically and are fixed for all the road sections. We have developed a novel way of initialising the snake model based on the navigation information obtained from the mobile mapping vehicle. We tested our algorithm on different types of road sections representing rural, urban and national primary road sections. The successful extraction of road edges from these multiple road section environments validates our algorithm. These findings and knowledge provide valuable insights as well as a prototype road edge extraction tool-set, for both national road authorities and survey companies.

  11. EU-Latin America Science Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Selleslaghs, Joren

    2017-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has adopted a very generous region-to-region approach towards Latin America in recent decades. However, although the EU adopted the same interregional strategy across different policy areas, the quality of interregional interaction (and success) vary significantly. An interesting case of EU-driven interregionalism is the case of EU-Latin America science diplomacy. In this policy area, it seems that the EU’s interregional approach has been particularly successful, as bo...

  12. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  13. Harvesting geographic features from heterogeneous raster maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Raster maps offer a great deal of geospatial information and are easily accessible compared to other geospatial data. However, harvesting geographic features locked in heterogeneous raster maps to obtain the geospatial information is challenging. This is because of the varying image quality of raster maps (e.g., scanned maps with poor image quality and computer-generated maps with good image quality), the overlapping geographic features in maps, and the typical lack of metadata (e.g., map geocoordinates, map source, and original vector data). Previous work on map processing is typically limited to a specific type of map and often relies on intensive manual work. In contrast, this thesis investigates a general approach that does not rely on any prior knowledge and requires minimal user effort to process heterogeneous raster maps. This approach includes automatic and supervised techniques to process raster maps for separating individual layers of geographic features from the maps and recognizing geographic features in the separated layers (i.e., detecting road intersections, generating and vectorizing road geometry, and recognizing text labels). The automatic technique eliminates user intervention by exploiting common map properties of how road lines and text labels are drawn in raster maps. For example, the road lines are elongated linear objects and the characters are small connected-objects. The supervised technique utilizes labels of road and text areas to handle complex raster maps, or maps with poor image quality, and can process a variety of raster maps with minimal user input. The results show that the general approach can handle raster maps with varying map complexity, color usage, and image quality. By matching extracted road intersections to another geospatial dataset, we can identify the geocoordinates of a raster map and further align the raster map, separated feature layers from the map, and recognized features from the layers with the geospatial

  14. Complex Road Intersection Modelling Based on Low-Frequency GPS Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Deng, M.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    It is widely accepted that digital map becomes an indispensable guide for human daily traveling. Traditional road network maps are produced in the time-consuming and labour-intensive ways, such as digitizing printed maps and extraction from remote sensing images. At present, a large number of GPS trajectory data collected by floating vehicles makes it a reality to extract high-detailed and up-to-date road network information. Road intersections are often accident-prone areas and very critical to route planning and the connectivity of road networks is mainly determined by the topological geometry of road intersections. A few studies paid attention on detecting complex road intersections and mining the attached traffic information (e.g., connectivity, topology and turning restriction) from massive GPS traces. To the authors' knowledge, recent studies mainly used high frequency (1 s sampling rate) trajectory data to detect the crossroads regions or extract rough intersection models. It is still difficult to make use of low frequency (20-100 s) and easily available trajectory data to modelling complex road intersections geometrically and semantically. The paper thus attempts to construct precise models for complex road intersection by using low frequency GPS traces. We propose to firstly extract the complex road intersections by a LCSS-based (Longest Common Subsequence) trajectory clustering method, then delineate the geometry shapes of complex road intersections by a K-segment principle curve algorithm, and finally infer the traffic constraint rules inside the complex intersections.

  15. COMPLEX ROAD INTERSECTION MODELLING BASED ON LOW-FREQUENCY GPS TRACK DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that digital map becomes an indispensable guide for human daily traveling. Traditional road network maps are produced in the time-consuming and labour-intensive ways, such as digitizing printed maps and extraction from remote sensing images. At present, a large number of GPS trajectory data collected by floating vehicles makes it a reality to extract high-detailed and up-to-date road network information. Road intersections are often accident-prone areas and very critical to route planning and the connectivity of road networks is mainly determined by the topological geometry of road intersections. A few studies paid attention on detecting complex road intersections and mining the attached traffic information (e.g., connectivity, topology and turning restriction from massive GPS traces. To the authors’ knowledge, recent studies mainly used high frequency (1 s sampling rate trajectory data to detect the crossroads regions or extract rough intersection models. It is still difficult to make use of low frequency (20–100 s and easily available trajectory data to modelling complex road intersections geometrically and semantically. The paper thus attempts to construct precise models for complex road intersection by using low frequency GPS traces. We propose to firstly extract the complex road intersections by a LCSS-based (Longest Common Subsequence trajectory clustering method, then delineate the geometry shapes of complex road intersections by a K-segment principle curve algorithm, and finally infer the traffic constraint rules inside the complex intersections.

  16. Nuclear Data Sheets for 141Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, J. K.

    1998-06-01

    Nuclear structure data pertaining to 141Eu have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. This evaluation of 141Eu supersedes the previous publication by L. K. Peker Nuclear Data Sheets 63,573 (1991). Abs; 141Eu is updated. Mostly the new information is from ( 35Cl,2p2nγ) reaction.

  17. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  18. Brexit, the EU and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Following the Brexit referendum the UK is leaving the EU and this means that the UK no longer stands together with the EU on the international scene. The British Prime Minister Theresa May has recently invoked the EU Treaty Article 50 initiating the Brexit process and obviously the UK leaders know...

  19. The emerging EU quality of care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that Member States and many citizens of the EU like to keep healthcare a foremost national competence and the EU treaties state that Member States remain primarily responsible for the organization and delivery of health care services, the European Union (EU) has expanded its invo...

  20. On Line Segment Length and Mapping 4-regular Grid Structures in Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on mapping the road network into 4-regular grid structures. A mapping algorithm is proposed. To model the road network GIS data have been used. The Geographic Information System (GIS) data for the road network are composed with different size of line segment lengths...

  1. AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF ROAD MARKINGS FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  2. Automatic Extraction of Road Markings from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Pei, Z.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  3. A Tool for Modelling the Probability of Landslides Impacting Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith E.; Santangelo, Michele; Marchesini, Ivan; Malamud, Bruce D.; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2014-05-01

    Triggers such as earthquakes or heavy rainfall can result in hundreds to thousands of landslides occurring across a region within a short space of time. These landslides can in turn result in blockages across the road network, impacting how people move about a region. Here, we show the development and application of a semi-stochastic model to simulate how landslides intersect with road networks during a triggered landslide event. This was performed by creating 'synthetic' triggered landslide inventory maps and overlaying these with a road network map to identify where road blockages occur. Our landslide-road model has been applied to two regions: (i) the Collazzone basin (79 km2) in Central Italy where 422 landslides were triggered by rapid snowmelt in January 1997, (ii) the Oat Mountain quadrangle (155 km2) in California, USA, where 1,350 landslides were triggered by the Northridge Earthquake (M = 6.7) in January 1994. For both regions, detailed landslide inventory maps for the triggered events were available, in addition to maps of landslide susceptibility and road networks of primary, secondary and tertiary roads. To create 'synthetic' landslide inventory maps, landslide areas (AL) were randomly selected from a three-parameter inverse gamma probability density function, consisting of a power law decay of about -2.4 for medium and large values of AL and an exponential rollover for small values of AL. The number of landslide areas selected was based on the observed density of landslides (number of landslides km-2) in the triggered event inventories. Landslide shapes were approximated as ellipses, where the ratio of the major and minor axes varies with AL. Landslides were then dropped over the region semi-stochastically, conditioned by a landslide susceptibility map, resulting in a synthetic landslide inventory map. The originally available landslide susceptibility maps did not take into account susceptibility changes in the immediate vicinity of roads, therefore

  4. The "Road to Safety" in Irish children over the past five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, A; Trace, F; Nicholson, A J

    2006-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes account for 1 in 5 of all childhood deaths across The EU. In the year 2000, the World Health Organization ranked road traffic accidents as the ninth leading cause of mortality, accounting for 2.3% of deaths worldwide. In 1997, the European Commission published the European Union RoadSafety Programme. This had been prepared against a background of 45,000 road- related fatalities and 1.6 million injuries occurring within the European Union each year. At that stage, Ireland had not yet developed a formal national road safety strategy. By 1998 however, the "Road to Safety" government strategy was put in place with the aim of reducing deaths and serious injuries from road traffic accidents by at least 20% over the five year period beginning 1998 and ending 2002. Age-standardised mortality rates for road accidents in children (0-14 years old) in Ireland are 3.61 per 100,000 as compared to 2.31 per 100,000 in Sweden and thus much needs to be done to reduce this unacceptably high road toll in Ireland. To date there has been insufficient evidence available for childhood road-related accidents occurring within Ireland.

  5. EU-China security cooperation in context

    OpenAIRE

    Emil J. Kirchner; Christiansen, Thomas; Dorussen, Han

    2015-01-01

    The paper has two main aims. First it seeks to explore whether security cooperation between the EU and China is taking place, and if so, whether it is evenly spread across a number of security dimensions. Second it intends to investigate the underlying motives or drivers that either facilitate or inhibit EU-China security cooperation. Further, it will explain why the EU rather than EU member states is chosen as the unit of analysis, explore the development of EU-China security relations, and ...

  6. EU-India migration and trade linkages

    OpenAIRE

    TUMBE, Chinmay

    2013-01-01

    CARIM-India: Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration This paper reviews the relationship between migration and trade between India and the European Union (EU). It provides an overview of EU-India trade across various dimensions and links it with migration in three specific contexts: (a) The $ 14 billion EU-India diamond trade that represents nearly 15% of total EU-India merchandise trade, and that is attributed to the direct and active role played by Indian immig...

  7. Instrumentation and monitoring of the nextgen road infrastructure: Some results and perspectives from the R5G project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautière, Nicolas; Bourquin, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    Through the centuries, the roads - which today constitute in France a huge transport network of 1 millions kilometers length - have always been able to cope with society needs and challenges. As a consequence, the next generation road infrastructure will have to take into account at least three societal transitions: ecological, energetic and digital. The goal of the 5th generation road project (R5G©) [1], led by Ifsttar in France, aligned with the Forever Open program [2], is to design and build demonstrators of such future road infrastructures. The goal of this presentation is to present different results related to the greening of road materials [3], the design of energy-positive roads [4, 5], the test of roads that self-diagnose [6], the design of roads adapted for connected [7], autonomous [8] and electrified vehicles [9], etc. In terms of perspectives, we will demonstrate that the road infrastructures will soon become a complex system: On one side road users will benefit from new services, on the other side such massively connected and instrumented infrastructures will potentially become an opportune sensor for knowledge development in geoscience, such as air quality, visibility and fog monitoring. References: [1] R5G project. r5g.ifsttar.fr [2] Forever Open Road project. www.foreveropenroad.eu [3] Biorepavation project. www.infravation.net/projects/BIOREPAVATION [4] N. Le Touz, J. Dumoulin. Numerical study of the thermal behavior of a new deicing road structure design with energy harvesting capabilities. EGU General Assembly 2015, Apr 2015, Vienne, Austria. [5] S. Asfour, F. Bernardin, E. Toussaint, J.-M. Piau. Hydrothermal modeling of porous pavement for its surface de-freezing. Applied Thermal Engineering. Volume 107, 25 August 2016, Pages 493-500 [6] LGV BPL Instrumentation. http://railenium.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/INSTRUMENTATION-BPL-FR.pdf [7] SCOOP@F project. https://ec.europa.eu/inea/en/connecting

  8. Roads and cities of 18th century France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Julien; Gribaudi, Maurizio; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of infrastructure networks such as roads and streets are of utmost importance to understand the evolution of urban systems. However, datasets describing these spatial objects are rare and sparse. The database presented here represents the road network at the french national level described in the historical map of Cassini in the 18th century. The digitization of this historical map is based on a collaborative methodology that we describe in detail. This dataset can be used for a variety of interdisciplinary studies, covering multiple spatial resolutions and ranging from history, geography, urban economics to network science.

  9. Modelling the impact of roads on regional population of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt

    ecologically sustainable road planning conservation measures must be taken into consideration already in the earliest phases of road development. This requires adequate tools for assessment, prevention and mitigation of the impacts of infrastructure. For this reason the Danish Road Directorate decided...... to be constructed and analysed. The first scenario should be a map of the area as it is before the planned road construction (scenario 0). This analysis measures the ecological performance of the original landscape and is a reference against which other scenarios are to be compared. The second map (scenario 1......) should show the landscape as it is expected to be after the road constructions. In combination, the analyses of scenario 0 and scenario 1 make it possible to assess the effect of road construction on connectivity and population persistence. The analyses also constitute the basis for planning...

  10. Limits of Evidence within EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of admissibility of evidence has been regulated only very scarcely in the EU. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters has been embracing the increasing number of instruments, covering plethora of aspects, however, the field of admissibility of evidence remains almost untouched. Can the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice be called the Common Evidence Area? From the national perspective, the issue of admissibility of evidence is still subject to divergent solutions in the Member States, concerning the common law and continental law systems, i.e. the right of access to a lawyer. Thus, the paper aims to take into account the tendencies of legal rule in matter of admissibility of evidence, the dynamic of evidence movement within EU area.

  11. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  12. Gravel roads management : volume 1, gravel roads management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  13. Gravel roads management : volume 2, gravel roads management : implementation guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  14. Gravel roads management : volume 3, gravel roads management : programming guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  15. Road and Street Centerlines - MDC_MajorRoads

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — An arc Feature Class (FC) of Miami-Dade County Major Streets. It contains 4 classes of roads: limited access highways, divided highways/major roads, federal/state...

  16. A Linkage Matching Method for Road Networks Considering the Similarity of Upper and Lower Spatial Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing road network matching methods mostly use the characteristics of the road's own nodes and arcs to carry on the matching process, while less attention is focused on the importance of the road neighborhood elements in the road network matching, thus affecting further improvement of the matching efficiency and accuracy. In response to these problems, a linkage matching method for road network considering the similarity of upper and lower spatial relation is proposed. The linkage matching imitates the human thinking process of searching for target objects by the signal features and spatial correlation when reading maps, regarding matching as a reasoning process of goal feature searching and information association transmitting. Firstly, classify the complex road network by using Stroke technology. Secondly, establish the road network linkage matching model based on road skeleton relation tree. Finally, select the high-level road in the classifying results of the source data as the reference road to start matching, calculate the road between the upper and lower levels of the spatial relationship similarity, and through a step-by-step iteration, make the matching information transmit in the road network linkage matching model thus to obtain the final matching results. Experiment shows that the mentioned algorithm can narrow the search range of the data to be matched, effectively improving the match efficiency and accuracy, especially applicable to the data with large non systematic geometric location deviation.

  17. Paving the Way for Invasive Species: Road Type and the Spread of Common Ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Martin; Bertrand, Pascale; Gbangou, Roland Y.; White, Marie-Catherine; Dubé, Jean; Lavoie, Claude

    2011-09-01

    Roads function as prime habitats and corridors for invasive plant species. Yet despite the diversity of road types, there is little research on the influence of these types on the spread of invaders. Common ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia), a plant producing large amounts of allergenic pollen, was selected as a species model for examining the impact of road type on the spread of invasive plants. We examined this relationship in an agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. We mapped plant distribution along different road types, and constructed a model of species presence. Common ragweed was found in almost all sampling sites located along regional (97%) and local paved (81%) roads. However, verges of unpaved local roads were rarely (13%) colonized by the plant. A model (53% of variance explained), constructed with only four variables (paved regional roads, paved local roads, recently mown road verges, forest cover), correctly predicted (success rate: 89%) the spatial distribution of common ragweed. Results support the hypothesis that attributes associated with paved roads strongly favour the spread of an opportunistic invasive plant species. Specifically, larger verges and greater disturbance associated with higher traffic volume create propitious conditions for common ragweed. To date, emphasis has been placed on controlling the plant in agricultural fields, even though roadsides are probably a much larger seed source. Strategies for controlling the weed along roads have only focused on major highways, even though the considerable populations along local roads also contribute to the production of pollen. Management prioritizations developed to control common ragweed are thus questionable.

  18. Electrochemical study of the Eu(III)/Eu(II) system in molten fluoride media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massot, L. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: massot@chimie.ups-tlse.fr; Chamelot, P.; Cassayre, L.; Taxil, P. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France)

    2009-11-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of the Eu(III)/Eu(II) system was examined in the molten eutectic LiF-CaF{sub 2} on a molybdenum electrode, using cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. It was observed that EuF{sub 3} is partly reduced into EuF{sub 2} at the operating temperatures (1073-1143 K). The electrochemical study allowed to calculate both the equilibrium constant and the formal standard potential of the Eu(III)/Eu(II) system. The reaction is limited by the diffusion of the species in the solution; their diffusion coefficients were calculated at different temperatures and the values obey Arrhenius' law. The second system Eu(II)/Eu takes place out of the electrochemical window on an inert molybdenum electrode, which inhibits the extraction of Eu species from the salt on such a substrate.

  19. Achieving Economic Growth in the EU Through Lobbyism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2009-01-01

    At Lisbon in 2000, the European Union (EU) set itself a new strategic goal, namely to become the world's leading economy and to enhance social cohesion across the union, all within a decade. It is argued in this article that one fundamental barrier to the fulfilment of this dream is the fact that...... bureaucrats. Such constitutional change and decentralisation of power would increase the costs of lobbyism in particular and thereby reduce distortions of policy outcomes, clearing the road for free-trade policies and economic growth in the new millennium....... that power is centralised in the Commission rather than the Parliament. The basic idea upon which our theoretical model is predicated is that a political system that centralises power lowers the cost of rent-seeking and therefore leads to a more economically harmful redistribution, as reflected in the annual...

  20. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The

  1. The Role and Significance of EU Funds for the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tolušić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Croatia was granted the official candidate country status for the membership in the European Union on 18 June 2004. Thus it gained the opportunity to use pre-accession funds aimed at helping the candidates to bring their institutions and standards in line with the EU legislation. Nevertheless, full EU membership will bring further major changes. The paper presents a survey conducted on 106 respondents, which intended to establish how familiar people are with the topic of project management, EU funds and possibilities afforded by those funds. The problems currently noticeable in Croatia arise from high unemployment, lack of highly skilled personnel and their high turnover, low level of information and experience, coupled with risk aversion and fear of project failure. The consequence is less than full preparedness for taking advantage of all the available funding. Following full EU membership Croatia will gain access to the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund which provide numerous opportunities for financing of infrastructural projects such as roads, railways and waterways, social development, retraining for the unemployed and creating new jobs, youth mobility, promoting diversity, environment protection and alternative energy sources. This requires a fair number of well-informed and trained people, capable of writing a good project and of implementing it in line with EU procedures. It is therefore imperative for the government and public institutions to invest into training of both the general public and potential future experts.

  2. Valencia County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...

  3. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  4. Sierra County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some city streets in...

  5. VT E911 Road Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) EmergencyE911_RDS was originally derived from RDSnn (now called TransRoad_RDS). "Zero-length ranges" in the ROADS layer pertain to grand-fathered...

  6. Standard road plans [English version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Road Plans contained within this manual have been developed : to show standardized design features, construction methods and approved : materials to be used in design plans for Interstate, Primary, and Secondary : road construction in th...

  7. Stay Healthy on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and travel > Stay healthy on the road Stay healthy on the road ☷ ▾ Page contents Tips to keep ... use sunscreen Use repellent Tips to keep you healthy when traveling Whether at home or on the ...

  8. Extraction of basic roadway information for non-state roads in Florida : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) maintains a map of all the roads in Florida, : containing over one and a half million road links. For planning purposes, a wide variety : of information, such as stop lights, signage, lane number, and s...

  9. A QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR 3D ROAD POLYGON OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy, the fast and accurate extraction of the city road is significant for GIS data collection and update, remote sensing images interpretation, mapping and spatial database updating etc. 3D GIS has attracted more and more attentions from academics, industries and governments with the increase of requirements for interoperability and integration of different sources of data. The quality of 3D geographic objects is very important for spatial analysis and decision-making. This paper presents a method for the quality assessment of the 3D road polygon objects which is created by integrating 2D Road Polygon data with LiDAR point cloud and other height information such as Spot Height data in Hong Kong Island. The quality of the created 3D road polygon data set is evaluated by the vertical accuracy, geometric and attribute accuracy, connectivity error, undulation error and completeness error and the final results are presented.

  10. a Quality Assessment Method for 3d Road Polygon Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L.; Shi, W.; Wan, Y.

    2015-08-01

    With the development of the economy, the fast and accurate extraction of the city road is significant for GIS data collection and update, remote sensing images interpretation, mapping and spatial database updating etc. 3D GIS has attracted more and more attentions from academics, industries and governments with the increase of requirements for interoperability and integration of different sources of data. The quality of 3D geographic objects is very important for spatial analysis and decision-making. This paper presents a method for the quality assessment of the 3D road polygon objects which is created by integrating 2D Road Polygon data with LiDAR point cloud and other height information such as Spot Height data in Hong Kong Island. The quality of the created 3D road polygon data set is evaluated by the vertical accuracy, geometric and attribute accuracy, connectivity error, undulation error and completeness error and the final results are presented.

  11. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore...

  12. On the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  13. Road-rail vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A transport vehicle equipped with a number of first wheel sets, having wheels provided with tires, to which steering means and driving means, if any, are coupled to enable the transport vehicle to be moved over a road surface. The transport vehicle further comprises at least one second wheel set,

  14. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  15. The Road Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  16. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  17. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negative...

  18. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  19. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  20. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  1. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  2. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    between acting ethically and being competitive? I think not. It is not an either / or. When I started researching the area was my attitude: "I do not care. I think it is worth the cost." Now, my attitude changed. If you actually look at improvements in working conditions, whether it comes to agricultural......, freedom of the press, etc. When we reach the 90s then adopts EU attitudes as campaign groups such as Amnesty International and Helsinki Watch regarded as being most important. The starting point for the UN Declaration of Human Rights is that you cannot divide human rights up this way. Political and civil...

  3. Towards a more sustainable transport infrastructure: how spatial geological data can be utilized to improve early stage Life cycle assessment of road infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Miliutenko, Sofiia; Björklund, Anna; Mörtberg, Ulla; Olofsson, Bo; Toller, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    Environmental impacts during the life cycle stages of transport infrastructure are substantial, including among other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as resource and energy use. For transport infrastructure to be sustainable, such issues need to be integrated in the planning process. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is required by the European Union (EU) in order to ensure that all environmental aspects are considered during planning of road infrastructure projects. As a part of this process, the European Commission has suggested the use of the tool life cycle assessment (LCA) for assessing life cycle energy use and GHG emissions. When analyzing life cycle impacts of the road infrastructure itself, it was shown that earthworks and materials used for the road construction have a big share in the total energy use and GHG emissions. Those aspects are largely determined by the geological conditions at the site of construction: parameters such as soil thickness, slope, bedrock quality and soil type. The geological parameters determine the amounts of earthworks (i.e. volumes of soil and rock that will be excavated and blasted), transportation need for excavated materials as well as the availability of building materials. The study presents a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilizing spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) in order to improve estimates on earthworks during the early stages of road infrastructure planning. Three main methodological steps were undertaken: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The proposed GIS-based approach was later evaluated by comparing with the actual values of extracted material of a real road construction project. The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate, while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock had a wide variation from

  4. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  5. National Parliaments, Electorates and EU Affairs

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Table of contens: INTRODUCTION: NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS, ELECTORATES AND EU AFFAIRS / KATRIN AUEL AND TAPIO RAUNIO WHAT ROLE FOR NATIONAL PARLIAMENTS? EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AND THE PROSPECTS OF PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY / JÜRGEN NEYER I. COMPARING PLENARY DEBATES ON EU ISSUES DEBATING THE STATE OF THE UNION? COMPARING PARLIAMENTARY DEBATES ON EU ISSUES IN FINLAND, FRANCE, GERMANY AND THE UNITED KINGDOM / KATRIN AUEL AND TAPIO RAUNIO TALKING EUROPE, USING EUROPE - THE EU’S ROLE IN PAR...

  6. Den brede, folkelige debat om EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2005-01-01

    I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet.......I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet....

  7. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...... currently defined as General Services Support Estimate (GSSE) by the OECD). Finally, introducing this new accounting convention for the EU domestic support in the GTAP database would lead to data discrepancies with other non-EU countries and/or regions, jeopardising robust comparative analysis....

  8. The Social Dimension of EU Trade Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    ? And what are the consequences of its socialising impact in promoting the social dimension of globalisation through trade? These are all difficult questions to ask of any actor in global politics, let alone a hybrid polity such as the EU. The special issue also addressed two tensions at the heart of the EU...... as human rights in the EU's external action from a normative power perspective. Next, the article will use the tripartite analytical framework to examine the principles, actions, and impact of the social dimension in EU trade policies found in the contributions to this special issue. Then the article...... of globalisation....

  9. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  10. An assessment of the effects of navigation maps on drivers' mental workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chin-Jung; Lin, Chia-Hsyang; Hsu, Shang-Hwa

    2014-06-01

    This study compares the mental workloads and subjective feelings of drivers navigating different road patterns using different formats of electronic and paper maps. The results show drivers experience lower mental workloads when using 2D electronic maps compared to 3D electronic maps. Significant differences in galvanic skin responses were observed for navigation map formats with different road intersection patterns. The low- and high-frequency components of heart rate variability showed significant differences between map formats for regular road intersections, but no significant differences between map formats for irregular road intersections. Statistically significant effects on subjective feelings were found between different map formats and road intersection patterns. The wider implications of the study results for the design and use of navigation map interfaces are discussed.

  11. An EU law perspective on the role of legal authorities in the field of renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas; Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This chapter maps and analyses the specific position of regional authorities in view of EU climate and energy law. It specifically focuses on the role taken by such authorities in the light of the transition towards a society increasingly employing renewable energy. Section 2 discusses the potential

  12. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  13. Road safety development in Europe: a decade of changes (2001-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Bao, Qiong; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the road safety development of a country over time, the percentage change in the number of road fatalities is traditionally the main indicator. However, simply considering the reduction in the road fatalities may not correctly reflect the real improvement in road safety because the transport circumstances of a country underlying the road fatalities also change every year. In this study, we present a new way for measuring the road safety performance change over time, which is to use the technique of data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the Malmquist productivity index. In doing so, we can not only focus on the evolution of road safety final outcomes within a given period, but also take the changes of different measures of exposure in the same period into account. In the application, the DEA-based Malmquist productivity index (DEA-MI) is used to measure the extent to which the EU countries have improved their road safety performance over the period 2001-2010. More objective and insightful results are obtained compared to the ones based on the traditional indicator. The results show considerable road safety progress in most of the Member States during these ten years, and the fatality risk rather than the fatality number on Europe's roads has actually been reduced by approximately half. However, the situation differed considerably from country to country. The decomposition of the DEA-MI into 'efficiency change' and 'technical change' further reveals that the bulk of the improvement during the last decade was attained through the adoption of productivity-enhancing new technologies throughout the road transport sector in Europe, rather than through the relatively underperforming countries catching up with those best-performing ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Can we prevent road rage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  15. Education of EU Migrant Children in EU Member States. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Emma; Herrera, Facundo; Stepanek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief looks at the education of EU migrant children in the context of intra-EU mobility. It examines some of the literature and data on the topic in order to identify key differences between EU migrant children and non-migrant children. There are disparities in educational performance between migrants and non-migrants. The brief…

  16. EU and member state diplomacies in Moldova and Ukraine: Examining EU diplomatic performance post-Lisbon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dorina Baltag; Michael Smith

    2015-01-01

    ... and national diplomatic services in third countries has received less attention. This article assesses the nature of interaction between member state embassies and the EU delegations in Moldova and Ukraine, two Eastern European countries on the EU's immediate border, where EU ambitions are high. By deploying concepts of efficiency and e...

  17. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  18. Intergenerational Bargaining, EU Age Discrimination Law and EU Policies - an Integrated Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar, B.; Rönnmar, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report aims to provide a discussion and analysis of EU age discrimination law and EU policies for younger and older workers and persons, and the interaction of law and policies. Furthermore, the ways in which EU law and policies hinder or enable intergenerational bargaining and age-related

  19. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : seasonality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Kirk, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.

    2012-01-01

    This Basic Fact Sheet examines the extent to which the number of people killed in road accidents varies by month across the EU. Most other Basic Fact Sheets focus on particular groups of accidents or casualties; this one examines general patterns in the CARE data so its approach is slightly

  20. ASEM--The Modern Silk Road: Travelling Ideas for Education Reforms and Partnerships between Asia and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Que Anh

    2013-01-01

    Today the modern Silk Road between Asia and Europe is increasingly well-travelled in both directions by students, academics and policy makers. Over the last decade the European Union (EU) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have been making more attempts to shape this route by creating an educational partnership through an…

  1. Tweets on the road

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation b...

  2. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  3. Road pricing with complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Van Dender, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The rationale for congestion charges is that by internalising the marginal external congestion cost, they restore efficiency in the transport market. In the canonical model underlying this view, congestion is a static phenomenon, users are taken to be homogenous, there is no travel time risk...... charges for such interactions. Therefore the simple Pigouvian rule remains a good first approximation for the design of road charging systems....

  4. Operation Alaskan Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    highly susceptible to what became commonly referred to as “the Ketchikan crud ,” an affliction characterized by upper respiratory and/or gastrointestinal...dramatically improved worker morale in the cold and rain. Utilities. All electricity had to be generated on-site. Base Camp Wy Wuh consisted of...Alaskan natives for generations to come. When asked what they would do with the road, the tribal elders replied, “We don’t know yet, but our children

  5. Roads and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Ajay; Galasso, Alberto; Oettl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the interplay between transportation infrastructure, knowledge flows, and innovation. Exploiting historical data on planned portions of the interstate highway system, railroads, and exploration routes as sources of exogenous variation, we estimate the effect of U.S. interstate highways on regional innovation. We find that a 10% increase in a region's stock of highways causes a 1.7% increase in regional patenting over a five-year period. We show that roads facilitate the flow of local...

  6. Weather and road capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces s...

  7. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  8. EU attitudes in Catalonia and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Mark Friis

    2016-01-01

    of the Republican Left of Catalonia and the Scottish National Party respectively, I examine the nature of minority nationalist parties’ supposed Europhilia. I argue that there are two principal, ideal ways in which these two parties relate to the EU. 1) Instrumentally, where the focus is on how the EU benefits...

  9. Ambtshalve toepassing van EU-recht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ancery, Alain Gaston Francois

    2012-01-01

    Private law is increasingly influenced by international law, in particular by EU law. EU law prohibits, for example, the use of a cartel and awards consumers a special form of protection, for example against the use of unfair terms in consumer contracts or against door-to-door selling. It is in

  10. EU-udvidelse, fusioner og spil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten Petersen

    2004-01-01

    EU-udvidelsen, arbejdskraftens fri bevægelighed, overgangsordning, fusionskontrol, fri bevægelighed for tjenesteydelser, spil, tips, lotto......EU-udvidelsen, arbejdskraftens fri bevægelighed, overgangsordning, fusionskontrol, fri bevægelighed for tjenesteydelser, spil, tips, lotto...

  11. Through the EU's Back and Front Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen......Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen...

  12. The EU and its trickster practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    If one looks at the European Union (EU)’s southern neighbourhood and considers its response to the Israeli Palestinian conflict, one can only wonder how the EU can have any apologists left at all. While the tortured history of the conflict dates back more than a century, its roots lie in decades ...

  13. Liminality in EU-Hamas relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    does not ‘fit’ into pre-existing social categories of the social order in world politics. The EU does not fit into the system of states in international relations, although it attempts, in part, to behave like one at a supranational level. Empirically, both the EU and Hamas are able to exercise power...

  14. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in

  15. EU-Komissionens Rom II-udkast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Arnt

    2002-01-01

    Der redegøres for EU-Kommissionens udkast til forordning om, hvilket lands regler der skal gælde ved erstatning uden for kontrakt, hvor EU-Kommissionen har valgt en utraditionel fremgangsmåde. Udkastet fremtræder forholdsvist velstruktureret, selv om der kan rejses enkelte alvorlige indvendinger ...

  16. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis of le...

  17. Growth effects of EU and EZ memberships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schmid, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    a positive impact of EU membership on economic growth, but no impact of being part of the EZ, except during the financial crisis, when the EZ has a negative impact on growth amongst its members. Considering the heated political debate related to the Brexit referendum, our results favour a “yes” to the EU...

  18. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstå...

  19. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  20. Landslide susceptibility and risk assessment: specificities for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Parisi, Alessandro; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    A regional-scale assessment of landslide susceptibility and risk along the main road corridors crossing the provincial territory of Matera (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) was carried out. The entire provincial road network extends for about 1,320 km through a territory, of which represents the main connection infrastructure among thirty-one municipalities due to the lack of an efficient integrated transportation system through the whole regional territory. For this reason, the strategic importance of these roads consists in their uniqueness in connecting every urban center with the socio-economic surrounding context. These roads and their vehicular traffic are continuously exposed to instability processes (about the 40% of the total length is disrupted by landslides), characterized both by high intensity and low frequency and by low intensity and high frequency. This last typology, consisting in small shallow landslides, is particularly hazardous for the roads since it is widespread along the road network, its occurrence is connected to rainfalls and determines high vulnerability conditions for the road in terms of interruption of vehicular traffic. A GIS-based heuristic-bivariate statistical predictive model was performed to assess and map the landslide susceptibility in the study area, by using a polynomial function of eight predisposing factors, weighted according to their influence on the landslide phenomena, recognized and collected in an inventory. Susceptibility associated to small shallow phenomena was assessed by using a polynomial function of specific factors, such as slope angle and aspect, lithological outcrops, rainfalls, etc. In absence of detailed input data, the spatial distribution of landslide risk along the road corridors was assessed and mapped using a qualitative hazard-consequence matrix approach, by which risk is obtained by combining hazard categories with consequence classes pairwise in a two-dimensional table or matrix. Landslide

  1. Humanitarian Issues: the EU Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Navarro

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Community Humanitarian Office (ECHO and the 15 membercountries of the EU provide more than 50% of the humanitarian aid worldwide: ECHO assigns more than 90% of its budget (only 0.9% of the Community’s total to victims of man-made conflicts. For the author, the experience of ECHO shows the "limits of what is humanitarian": that is, the lack of security for humanitarian workers, the still-to-beoperational Permanent Tribunal for Crimes Against Humanity, the difficult access to refugees, and the fact that humanitarian efforts are not a substitute for policy and, therefore, that humanitarian efforts can not resolve a crisis that has a political origin and solution. The challenges to be faced in the coming years include denouncing the violations of humanitarian values, transferring these values into a future CFSP, organizing humanitarian aid efficiently, combating “donor fatigue” and supporting conflict prevention.

  2. The EU and the Syrian Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Syrian crisis has from May 2011 and onwards been met by the EU with rounds of tightening sanctions attempting to put pressure on the Syrian regime and the elites surrounding it. Based on a typology for the sanctions and a periodization showing how the measures have proceeded, the article...... discusses the EU sanctions and to what degree they have influenced the situation in Syria. Furthermore, the article sheds light on regional and international dimensions of EU policies towards Syria and demonstrates how the policies are met with the Syrian regime's ability to adapt to conditions related...... to changing internal and external challenges. The article concludes that what in the first phases of the EU sanctions against Syria represented a deviation from the traditional pragmatic EU policies vis-à-vis the Middle East, seems during the latest phase to be followed by a more cautious approach, which also...

  3. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation of converge......This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...

  4. An expert-based approach to forest road network planning by combining Delphi and spatial multi-criteria evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Elyas; Majnounian, Baris; Abdi, Ehsan; Sessions, John; Makhdoum, Majid

    2013-02-01

    Changes in forest landscapes resulting from road construction have increased remarkably in the last few years. On the other hand, the sustainable management of forest resources can only be achieved through a well-organized road network. In order to minimize the environmental impacts of forest roads, forest road managers must design the road network efficiently and environmentally as well. Efficient planning methodologies can assist forest road managers in considering the technical, economic, and environmental factors that affect forest road planning. This paper describes a three-stage methodology using the Delphi method for selecting the important criteria, the Analytic Hierarchy Process for obtaining the relative importance of the criteria, and finally, a spatial multi-criteria evaluation in a geographic information system (GIS) environment for identifying the lowest-impact road network alternative. Results of the Delphi method revealed that ground slope, lithology, distance from stream network, distance from faults, landslide susceptibility, erosion susceptibility, geology, and soil texture are the most important criteria for forest road planning in the study area. The suitability map for road planning was then obtained by combining the fuzzy map layers of these criteria with respect to their weights. Nine road network alternatives were designed using PEGGER, an ArcView GIS extension, and finally, their values were extracted from the suitability map. Results showed that the methodology was useful for identifying road that met environmental and cost considerations. Based on this work, we suggest future work in forest road planning using multi-criteria evaluation and decision making be considered in other regions and that the road planning criteria identified in this study may be useful.

  5. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  6. Geographic Data as Personal Data in Four EU Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A. J.; van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This research found a wide variety of interpretations of the application of data protection legislation to geographic data. The variety was found among the different EU Member States, the different stakeholders and the different types of geographic data. In the Netherlands, the Data Protection Authority (DPA) states that panoramic images of streets are considered personal data. While Dutch case law judges that the data protection legislation does not apply if certain features are blurred and no link to an address is provided. The topographic datasets studied in the case studies do not contain personal data, according to the Dutch DPA, while the German DPA and the Belgian DPA judge that topographic maps of a large scale can contain personal data, and impose conditions on the processing of topographic maps. The UK DPA does consider this data outside of the scope of legal definition of personal data. The patchwork of differences in data protection legislation can be harmonised by using a traffic light model. This model focuses on the context in which the processing of the data takes place and has four categories of data: (1) sensitive personal data, (2) personal data, (3), data that can possibly lead to identification, and (4) non-personal data. For some geographic data, for example factual data that does not reveal sensitive information about a person, can be categorised in the third category giving room to opening up data under the INSPIRE Directive.

  7. The quest for a European civic culture : The EU and EU Citizenship in policies and practices of citizenship education in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.E.; van der Kolk, M.; Berkeley, Dominic; Koska, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Since the Treaty of Maastricht (1992) all nationals of EU member states hold EU citizenship too. EU citizens hold EU citizenship rights in addition to their national rights. These rights include civil, social, economic and political rights. Holding these rights does not guarantee actual

  8. USGS Transportation Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Transportation service from The National Map (TNM) is based on TIGER/Line data provided through U.S. Census Bureau and road data from U.S. Forest Service....

  9. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessment Program (RAP have emerged. This research aim to compare two proactive methods that have been tested in Malaysian roads ; road assessment program and road environment risk index which was developed based on composite index theory in defining road’s safety level. Composite road environment risk index was combining several crucial environment indicators, assigning weight and aggregating the individual index together to form a single value representing the road’s safety level. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both road assessment program and composite road environment risk index are contradicted in six different ways such as type of speed used, type of analysis used and their final outcomes. However, with an aim to promote safer roads, these two methods can be used concurrently as the outcomes in both methods seems to fulfil each other’s gap very well.

  10. a Fast and Robust Algorithm for Road Edges Extraction from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kaijin; Sun, Kai; Ding, Kou; Shu, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Fast mapping of roads plays an important role in many geospatial applications, such as infrastructure planning, traffic monitoring, and driver assistance. How to extract various road edges fast and robustly is a challenging task. In this paper, we present a fast and robust algorithm for the automatic road edges extraction from terrestrial mobile LiDAR data. The algorithm is based on a key observation: most roads around edges have difference in elevation and road edges with pavement are seen in two different planes. In our algorithm, we firstly extract a rough plane based on RANSAC algorithm, and then multiple refined planes which only contains pavement are extracted from the rough plane. The road edges are extracted based on these refined planes. In practice, there is a serious problem that the rough and refined planes usually extracted badly due to rough roads and different density of point cloud. To eliminate the influence of rough roads, the technology which is similar with the difference of DSM (digital surface model) and DTM (digital terrain model) is used, and we also propose a method which adjust the point clouds to a similar density to eliminate the influence of different density. Experiments show the validities of the proposed method with multiple datasets (e.g. urban road, highway, and some rural road). We use the same parameters through the experiments and our algorithm can achieve real-time processing speeds.

  11. Effect of optical excitation energy on the red luminescence of Eu3+ in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H. Y.; Lee, C. W.; Everitt, H. O.; Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.; Zavada, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) excitation spectroscopy mapped the photoexcitation wavelength dependence of the red luminescence (D05→F27) from GaN:Eu. Time-resolved PL measurements revealed that for excitation at the GaN bound exciton energy, the decay transients are almost temperature insensitive between 86 K and 300 K, indicating an efficient energy transfer process. However, for excitation energies above or below the GaN bound exciton energy, the decaying luminescence indicates excitation wavelength- and temperature-dependent energy transfer influenced by intrinsic and Eu3+-related defects.

  12. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before.......Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  13. Airport environmental noise mapping and land use management as an environmental protection action policy tool. The case of the Larnaka International Airport (Cyprus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos

    2012-05-01

    The evidence from epidemiological studies on the association between exposure to traffic and aircraft noise and hypertension and ischemic heart disease has increased during the recent years. Both road traffic and aircraft noise increase the risk of high blood pressure. Environmental noise mapping, as per the 2002/49/EC Directive, is an obligation of all European Union (EU) member states. In the framework of the present article a complete Strategic Noise Mapping research and Action Noise Plans assessment and evaluation are presented and aim to access land use management as an effective tool for protection from aircraft noise. The case of the Larnaka International Airport in Cyprus, a typical Mediterranean airport, (considered as a "large airport" according to the above EU Directive and the recent Cyprus Legislation Law No. 224(Ι)/2004), is presented. In this paper a review of both assessment and action implementation procedures focusing on the dominant--in the area--aircraft traffic noise is presented, with emphasis to (a) a full calculation of Strategic Noise Map (SNM) scenarios of actual and future airport operation using the ECAC.CEAC Doc 29 methodology for both EU common indicators L(den) and L(night) in scales of 5 dB, (b) a full evaluation of results with emphasis to the Larnaka greater area land uses and the exposure of inhabitants in residences in various levels of environmental noise, and (c) a full evaluation of Noise Action Plans (NAP) introducing especially a new land use management scheme for the future Larnaka Town Land Use Plan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Normative power Europe? EU relations with Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa de Wekker

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the extent to which the European Union (EU constitutes a normative power in its relations with Moldova. ‘Normative power Europe’ is examined along three dimensions: (i normative intent; (ii normative process; and (iii normative impact. Our empirical analysis focuses on two norms: democracy and good governance. In addition, we ask how ‘normatively’ the EU has acted regarding a solution to the Transnistrian conflict. On the basis of our three-dimensional framework, we find that EU normative power can be judged as only moderate in EU-Moldovan relations. As for intent, while norms of democracy and good governance seem to play a central role in EU-Moldovan relations, the Union tends to apply double standards in terms of what it expects from (EU Member States and what it asks of Moldova, and also seems to be inconsistent in its policies towards Moldova and Ukraine. In terms of process, the degree of inclusiveness on the part of the Union has not been satisfactory. Neither has the extent of reflexivity, but more recently the Commission seems to have developed a more reflexive behaviour. In regards to impact, while norm changes in Moldova have been modest/moderate, it seems that the EU has substantially contributed to these changes.

  15. Emerging food safety issues: An EU perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, John D G

    2016-05-01

    Safe food is the right of every citizen of the European Union (EU). A comprehensive and dynamic framework of food and feed safety legislation has been put in place and the EU's executive arm - the European Commission - is responsible for ensuring that the EU member states apply food law consistently. Similarly, the Commission plays an important role in ensuring that imported food meets the EU's stringent food safety standards. Consumer perceptions of unsafe food tend to focus on acute outbreaks of bacterial or viral origin. In recent years there have been a number of diverse food crises associated with fraudulent activity which may (e.g. melamine in dairy products in China) or may not (e.g. the horse meat scandal in the EU) represent a genuine food safety risk. Well publicized incidents of chronic exposure to chemical contamination in the EU (e.g. dioxins in meat and mycotoxins in nuts) have required robust coordinated policy responses from the Commission. Despite the decreasing incidence of non-compliant residues of veterinary medicinal products and banned substances in animal products, EU consumers are increasingly concerned about the use of such products in food-producing animals, including in the context of the build-up of antimicrobial resistance in animals and transfer to humans. The Commission plays a key role in coordination of the EU member states' responses to such incidents, in risk management, and in preparation for emerging issues. This paper focuses on how the EU as a whole has dealt with a number of food crises, and what can be learned from past incidents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Various initiatives, strategies and programmes have been taken by the Government of Malaysia to resolve issues pertaining to road traffic deaths. Nevertheless, the implementation of the programmes outlined in Malaysian Road Safety Plan 2006 needs to be enhanced in order to achieve the set targets. In this regard, it is ...

  17. Roads at risk - the impact of debris flows on road network reliability and vulnerability in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nele Kristin; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Korup, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Norwegian's road network is frequently affected by debris flows. Both damage repair and traffic interruption generate high economic losses and necessitate a rigorous assessment of where losses are expected to be high and where preventive measures should be focused on. In recent studies, we have developed susceptibility and trigger probability maps that serve as input into a hazard calculation at the scale of first-order watersheds. Here we combine these results with graph theory to assess the impact of debris flows on the road network of southern Norway. Susceptibility and trigger probability are aggregated for individual road sections to form a reliability index that relates to the failure probability of a link that connects two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We define link vulnerability as a function of traffic volume and additional link failure distance. Additional link failure distance is the extra length of the alternative path connecting the two associated link vertices in case the network link fails and is calculated by a shortest-path algorithm. The product of network reliability and vulnerability indices represent the risk index. High risk indices identify critical links for the Norwegian road network and are investigated in more detail. Scenarios demonstrating the impact of single or multiple debris flow events are run for the most important routes between seven large cities in southern Norway. First results show that the reliability of the road network is lowest in the central and north-western part of the study area. Road network vulnerability is highest in the mountainous regions in central southern Norway where the road density is low and in the vicinity of cities where the traffic volume is large. The scenarios indicate that city connections that have their shortest path via routes crossing the central part of the study area have the highest risk of route failure.

  18. Safer Roads: Comparisons Between Road Assessment Program and Composite Road Safety Index Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Razelan Intan Suhana

    2017-01-01

    In most countries, crash statistics have becoming very crucial in evaluating road’s safety level. In Malaysia, these data are very important in deciding crash-prone areas known as black spot where specific road improvements plan will be proposed. However due to the unavailability of reliable crash data in many developing countries, appropriate road maintenance measures are facing great troubles. In light of that, several proactive methods in defining road’s safety level such as Road Assessmen...

  19. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  20. The EU as an international security provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wolff, Stefan; Whitman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    of analysis, which could serve as the foundation for a mid-range theory of the EU as an international security provider, will examine the relevance of, and apply, existing theories of international relations/international security and foreign policy analysis to the specific case of the EU. The framework...... that will emerge from this analysis will then be tested and applied empirically in the following contributions that focus on how particular policies are formulated and implemented, and that analyse, in single and comparative case studies, the impact and effectiveness of the EU as an international security provider....

  1. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...... position of countries in the special case of EU anti-dumping policy....

  2. Regulating investment funds: Serbia vs. EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montiljo-Mihajlović Dijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law on Investment Funds ('Official Gazette of the RS', no. 46/06, 51/09, and 31/11 regulates the field of investment funds operating in Serbia. Bearing in mind that Serbia has been in the process of joining the EU, and that it faces the pending obligation of gradual acquisition of the EU solutions and harmonization of local regulations with the relevant EU directives, in this paper we analyze the room for amendments to the concerned Law, with a view to further harmonization of domestic regulations related to investment funds, and facilitation of the local fund industry's development.

  3. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...... agreements. They gained strong influence over their surroundings, and ,albeit they had to give up substantil parts of de-facto sovereingty, they are much better off than before, in particular in terms of security. EU's "new politics" are a successful alternative model to the "old politics", represented e...

  4. Radiation-induced valence changes in Eu-doped phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Upadeo, S V

    1997-01-01

    Europium impurities can be incorporated in two forms: divalent and trivalent. Phosphors activated by Eu sup 2 sup + or Eu sup 3 sup + find important applications. Exposure to ionizing radiations is known to cause Eu sup 3 sup +->Eu sup 2 sup + conversion. This conversion is important in understanding thermoluminescence and radiophotoluminescence applications. However, there have been no systematic studies on Eu sup 3 sup +reversible Eu sup 2 sup + conversion. Data on Eu sup 3 sup +reversible Eu sup 2 sup + conversion in a large number of europium-doped phosphors are presented in this paper. It is concluded that efficient Eu sup 2 sup + phosphors are suitable hosts for studying Eu sup 3 sup +reversible Eu sup 2 sup + conversion. (author)

  5. Pivot Tables - Toolkit: the Constraints to the Business Development in the Former Socialist EU Countries from the Central and Eastern Europe between (2008-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela Zeca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When cooperation between countries is in harmony, trade and investment patterns are based on economic considerations. However, in times of geopolitical reconfiguration of ranking supremacy, economic events held on a stage that sums up all the world, with everything that means material resources, financial resources, polarized areas of intervention, causation so "equation", sometimes with many and unpredictable variables, may not be so easy to solve it. The measurements and econometric calculation are indisputable correct, analysis and the economic forecasts must be accompanied by correct investment strategies on international road map being important to not overlook tension that may weaken national strategy. Informational abundance is as dangerous, or more correctly ineffective, like is the shortage of information. I approached the topic " Pivot tables - toolkit: the constraints to the business development in the former EU socialist countries from the Central and Eastern Europe" in terms of the possibility of accessing easy, accurate and timely a lot of sources of information because, this aspect is desirable, that the result of research overcome the academic space and to become a useful and efficient tool both to researchers, the decision makers and for vectors of economic policy. How large were the constraints and limitations which occurred, which is architecture of their evolution curve for the horizon 2008, 2016, all of these are coagulated aspects in this paper and accessible with one click.

  6. Societal Economics of the European Union Liquid Fuel Consumption for Road Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Wong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order for the EU to achieve its goal of 10% biofuel for all EU motor vehicles by 2020, a substantial amount of biofuel as well as a biofuel feedstock would need to be imported largely from developing countries where the climate is warm and labor is inexpensive. But there may never be sufficient supply to fulfill the evergrowing demand for biofuel for road transportation in the EU, even as motor vehicles are increasingly becoming more fuel-efficient. The constraint to realizing an effective and equitable reduction in greenhousegas emission is the overbearing political economics of neoliberalism. A different remedial strategy is needed to address the dual problems of the excessive uses of motor fuels and greenhouse-gas emission.

  7. Facile Fabrication and Properties of Gd2O3:Eu3+, Y2O3:Eu3+ Nanophosphors and Gd2O3:Eu3+/Silica, Y2O3:Eu3+/Silica Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Tran Kim; Chau, Pham Thi Minh; Hai, Nguyen Thi Quy; Ha, Vu Thi Thai; Van Tuyen, Ho; Bounyavong, Sengthong; Thanh, Nguyen Trong; Minh, Le Quoc

    2017-10-01

    Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors have been successfully fabricated by a combustion method at low temperature (350°C) in a short time (5 min) using natriethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-Na2) as fuel. The structure, morphology and size of Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors have been determined by x-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Photoluminescence spectra indicated that the optimum Eu3+ ion concentrations with the strongest luminescence emission intensities are 5 mol.% for Y2O3:Eu3+ and 7 mol.% for Gd2O3:Eu3+. The nanocomposites of Gd2O3:Eu3+/silica and Y2O3:Eu3+/silica were fabricated by a sol-gel process with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as matrix material, and the nanocomposite compositions were analyzed by energy dispersion spectra. The strongest luminescence peaks from the 5D0-7F2 transition of the Eu3+ ion in Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors are between 613 nm and 615 nm. The Gd2O3:Eu3+ and Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors and their silica nanocomposites were studied to elucidate the influences of the Eu3+ concentration, host materials, annealing temperature, and weight ratio of TEOS and Gd2O3:Eu3+ or Y2O3:Eu3+.

  8. EU POLICY ON EDUCATION FUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina PANA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On average, EU countries allocate 6.4% of total public expenditure for the direct support of the public sector at all levels of education. In view of a more rational allocation of resources seriously diminished by the crisis there are made efforts to identify educational areas considered problematic in terms of accessing various education programs. This paper presents pre-school funding policies and policies to support families with preschool and school age children in the European Union through a comparative analysis of the focus group type. There are also presented concrete ways of achieving that family support such as tax cuts, family allowances or by taking into account certain factors in order to establish fees. In all countries where taxes are paid for pre-compulsory education (ISCED A there is a mechanism by which parental contributions can be adjusted according to the means available taking into account criteria such as family income, number of children, family status (children who live with one parent geographic area, etc.

  9. Improving road safety : Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  10. EDITORIAL ROAD SAFETY IN KENYA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, road safety trends in Kenya are worsening. The mean annual fatality rate from all road traffic accidents in Kenya is estimated at 50 deaths per 10 000 registered vehicles (1,2). The numbers of reported accidents have been showing an increasing trend from 10,300 in 1990 to 16,800 in 2000 and. 17,400 in ...

  11. All Road Density (18km)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Density (km / km^2) of all roads in the western United States. Dataset was developed to generalize the 2000 US Census TIGER/Line Roads layer to a density within 18km...

  12. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  13. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  14. EuCARD final project report

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2014-01-01

    After four years of activity, EuCARD has most of its objectives fulfilled, with some new objectives added and a few others on excellent tracks while requiring additional time. The management has been active in reinforcing the collaborative links between partners and projects, contributing to the preparation of FP7-EuCARD2, initiating FP7-HiLumi-LHC Design Study, to favour sustained collaborations beyond EuCARD. An out-of-contract network has been successfully launched on laser plasma acceleration, to combine forces between accelerator, laser and plasma communities. Communication and dissemination activities have led to two highlights: Accelerating News, an accelerator R&D newsletter initiated by EuCARD and now common to all FP7 accelerator projects (over 1000 subscribers) and a series of monographs on accelerator sciences that is progressively finding its public. The scientific networks have more than fulfilled their initial objectives: roadmaps are defined for neutrino facilities, submitted to the Europe...

  15. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  16. Scale invariance in road networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2< or = alpha < or =2.4, and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  17. Semi-automatic Road Extraction from SAR images using EKF and PF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. Q.; Yang, J.; Li, P. X.; Lu, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the use of linear features for processing remote sensing images has shown its importance in applications. As one of typical linear targets, road is a hot spot of remote sensing image interpretation. Since extracting road by manual processing is too expensive and time consuming, researches based on automatic and semi-automatic have become more and more popular. Such interest is motivated by the requirements for civilian and military applications, such as road maps, traffic monitoring, navigation applications, and topographic mapping. How to extract road accurately and efficiently from SAR images is a key problem. In this paper, through analyzing characteristics of road, semi-automatic road extraction based on Extend Kalman Filtering (EKF) and Particles Filtering (PF), is presented. These two methods have the same algorithm flow which is an iterative approach based on prediction and update. The specific procedure as follows: at prediction stage, we obtain prior probability density function by the prior stage and prediction model, and through prior probability density function and the new measurement, at update stage we obtain the posterior probability density function which is the optimal estimation of road system state. Both EKF and PF repeat the steps above until the extracting tasks are finished. We use these two methods to extract road respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through the experiments from Howland by UAVSAR in L-band. And through contrast experiments, we discover that extracting difference complexity of road based on different methods can improve accuracy and efficiency. The results show that EKF has better performance on road with middle noise and PF has better performance on road with high noise.

  18. The Regional Wine Road of Pannonian Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Drvenkar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly present global tourist trends represent a challenge for the national economies in generating competitiveness and tourist positioning in such conditions. With the objective of attaining global competitiveness of the country, it is necessary to develop regional competitiveness because of the significant role of the region as the basic unit of development. The distinct regional imbalance of Croatia creates the need to find some new generators of economic growth and prosperity. Pannonian Croatia (as one of the three NUTS2 regions has remarkable potential for the development of wine tourism which could positively influence the regional competitiveness in a number of its segments. Pannonian Croatia has at its disposal 87% of all agricultural land and 62% of all vineyards in Croatia. Such natural wealth (used in an efficient, effective and, above all, innovative way should be taken into account upon introducing the new tourist trends and the creation of the tourist product. Indigenous products, the uniqueness of the tourist destinations, and the desire for the complete tourism supply are the opportunities that this region should identify and include into a specific strategy and the guidelines for future activities. The project of development and implementation of the regional wine road itself would be based on connecting the micro-regions of the viticulture and wine supply of Pannonian Croatia and creating a unique tourist product with indigenous characteristics. In order to achieve competitive advantage for the region, it is necessary to identify and estimate the key factors of development. Porter’s diamond model of the regional Pannonian Croatia wine road would enable the recognition of all the relevant factors of development and the creation of a unique tourist product. The guidelines obtained by the analysis of the diamond factors will be used in making the triple helix model of the regional wine road. The triple helix model

  19. Bobcats ( Lynx rufus) as a Model Organism to Investigate the Effects of Roads on Wide-Ranging Carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvaitis, John A.; Reed, Gregory C.; Carroll, Rory P.; Litvaitis, Marian K.; Tash, Jeffrey; Mahard, Tyler; Broman, Derek J. A.; Callahan, Catherine; Ellingwood, Mark

    2015-06-01

    We are using bobcats ( Lynx rufus) as a model organism to examine how roads affect the abundance, distribution, and genetic structure of a wide-ranging carnivore. First, we compared the distribution of bobcat-vehicle collisions to road density and then estimated collision probabilities for specific landscapes using a moving window with road-specific traffic volume. Next, we obtained incidental observations of bobcats from the public, camera-trap detections, and locations of bobcats equipped with GPS collars to examine habitat selection. These data were used to generate a cost-surface map to investigate potential barrier effects of roads. Finally, we have begun an examination of genetic structure of bobcat populations in relation to major road networks. Distribution of vehicle-killed bobcats was correlated with road density, especially state and interstate highways. Collision models suggested that some regions may function as demographic sinks. Simulated movements in the context of the cost-surface map indicated that some major roads may be barriers. These patterns were supported by the genetic structure of bobcats. The sharpest divisions among genetically distinct demes occurred along natural barriers (mountains and large lakes) and in road-dense regions. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the utility of using bobcats as a model organism to understand the variety of threats that roads pose to a wide-ranging species. Bobcats may also be useful as one of a group of focal species while developing approaches to maintain existing connectivity or mitigate the negative effects of roads.

  20. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832

  1. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  2. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how practice theory can be recruited for the study of European integration. New generations of EU researchers are fascinated by the prospect of leaving the armchair and studying the people and artefacts that make the EU on an everyday level. This article surveys key practice...... and allow us to grasp otherwise uncharted performances and social activities that are crucial for European integration....

  3. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available EU accession has brought, as expected, many changes in economic, social and cultural domains. An important chapter is the trade dynamics and how this dynamic has been modified over time by changes in the legal status of Romania's relations with certain trading partners. In this paper we present data on trade with countries with which Romania has concluded trade agreements before accession. Data presentation and analysis continues in "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (II".

  4. MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND EU ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, HuiLan

    2017-01-01

    With the development of multinational corporations and the continuous improvement of their status, their influence on world economy and politics is more extensive and profound. In the process of the European Economic integration, investment, production and trade of multinational companies in Eu-rope deepened the international division of labor and economic contact among European countries. The purpose of this thesis is to research the influence of multinational corporations on EU economi...

  5. Mobile TV: An assessment of EU policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    The aim of the paper is to discuss EU policies in the area of mobile TV. The European Commission has strongly promoted an EU-wide common policy on mobile TV including the choice of DVB-H as the standard to be used. The paper aims at discussing this policy in view of the technological and market...... developments in the field of mobile media....

  6. The effects of Eu-concentrations on the luminescent properties of SrF{sub 2}:Eu nanophosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Noto, L.L. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa); O’Connel, J.H.; Lee, M.E. [Department of Physics and Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth ZA6031 (South Africa); Coetsee, E., E-mail: CoetseeE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2014-12-15

    SrF{sub 2}:Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure of the nanophosphors was investigated with x-ray diffraction. The average crystallite size calculated using the Scherrer equation was in the range of 7.0 nm. The photoluminescence of Eu doped as-prepared SrF{sub 2} nanophosphors were studied using different excitation sources. The samples showed emission from both the Eu oxidation states, Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+}. At low Eu concentrations the emission from Eu{sup 2+} centered at 416 nm was more dominant. While the narrow band of Eu{sup 3+} emission intensity increased with an increase in the Eu concentration. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Eu was indeed in both Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} valance states. The presence of Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} in the system largely enhanced the response of the Eu{sup 3+} under ultraviolet excitation. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry results suggested that the energy transfer between two ions was likely to occur. The relative photoluminescence intensity of the Eu{sup 2+} rapidly decreased with an increasing laser beam irradiating time. This result would make the current Eu{sup 2+} doped SrF{sub 2} samples unsuitable candidates for several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • SrF{sub 2}: Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesised (hydrothermal technique). • PL and XPS results showed enhanced absorption response of Eu{sup 3+} UV excitation. • Eu concentrations more than 5 mol% improved fluorescence emission. • TOF-SIMS results suggested that the energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} is dominant.

  7. The EU Commission initiative of nuclear liability; Die Initiative der EU-Kommission zur Nuklearhaftung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2013-11-15

    The EU Commission has recently tackled the difficult issue of nuclear liability in the EU. A public consultation on this topic, via an online questionnaire, has just been closed. The next step would normally be for the Commission to launch a draft piece of legislation. But the situation is complicated, and the Commission may have opened Pandora's box when they decided to deal with nuclear liability. The 'patchwork' of different international conventions and national legislations in force within the EU is on the one hand a very good reason to launch an EU initiative with the aim of harmonization. At the same time, the existing situation poses numerous obstacles to any attempt of finding viable solutions. What is more, the competence of the EU to issue legislation in the field of nuclear liability is doubtful. The article describes the current situation in the EU and explains some options which might be considered by the Commission. Scope and content of any future EU legislation on nuclear liability will be defined by the extent to which the Commission succeeds in obtaining a qualified majority in the Council. In the author's opinion, it is extremely important that any EU legislation does not collide with the existing system of international conventions. Within this framework, there is sufficient room for far-reaching solutions. Some of the more realistic options would be broadly compatible with German nuclear law and their introduction on EU level should be seriously considered. (orig.)

  8. Neutron Scattering from Heisenberg Ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetic ordering process in the isotropic exchange coupled ferromagnets EuO and EuS. Quantities investigated include the critical coefficients B and F+ and the critical exponents β, ν, and γ describing respectively the temperature dependence of the r......Neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetic ordering process in the isotropic exchange coupled ferromagnets EuO and EuS. Quantities investigated include the critical coefficients B and F+ and the critical exponents β, ν, and γ describing respectively the temperature dependence...

  9. The EU's roadmap to a low-carbon economy. Aspirations and realities for refiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtscheidl, Josef; Buchsbaum, Alexander; Maly, Markus [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-06-15

    We live in a fast moving world, and energy is of one the main agents of change. Prosperity is closely linked to the use of affordable energy for consumers and companies. Global energy demand has risen by almost 50% in the past 20 years and is forecast to continue to grow rapidly [1]. Experts warn of soaring CO2 emissions - a negative effect of fossil fuels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) publishes regular Assessment Reports on global warming which include policy recommendations. The political target is clear - to replace fossil fuels with renewables, and do it quick. The EU has decided to aim for world leadership, and has adopted a road map for moving to a low-carbon economy by 2050. However, it should be emphasised that international agreements hold the key both to successfully combating globalwarming and to maintaining the competitiveness of European industry. The refining industry must respond to this challenge. After the early years of expansion and prosperity (up to the mid-1980s), and a mid-life phase of fierce competition and continuous improvement, refiners now looking ahead to a period of painful consolidation. According to expert opinion European refining capacity needs to be pruned by about 20% in the near future and another 20% by 2030. About 35% of all European refineries have changed hands or shut down in the past four years. Bad news for European refiners also comes from the USA, which is transmuting from a large importer of oil products - especially gasoline - into a net exporter. Where can Europe find markets for its surplus gasoline? Converting European refineries to maximise diesel production will cost a lot of money - perhaps more than it will bring in, at today's depressed margins. (orig.)

  10. Roads Data Conflation Using Update High Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, A.; Riyahi Bakhtiari, H. R.

    2017-11-01

    Urbanization, industrialization and modernization are rapidly growing in developing countries. New industrial cities, with all the problems brought on by rapid population growth, need infrastructure to support the growth. This has led to the expansion and development of the road network. A great deal of road network data has made by using traditional methods in the past years. Over time, a large amount of descriptive information has assigned to these map data, but their geometric accuracy and precision is not appropriate to today's need. In this regard, the improvement of the geometric accuracy of road network data by preserving the descriptive data attributed to them and updating of the existing geo databases is necessary. Due to the size and extent of the country, updating the road network maps using traditional methods is time consuming and costly. Conversely, using remote sensing technology and geographic information systems can reduce costs, save time and increase accuracy and speed. With increasing the availability of high resolution satellite imagery and geospatial datasets there is an urgent need to combine geographic information from overlapping sources to retain accurate data, minimize redundancy, and reconcile data conflicts. In this research, an innovative method for a vector-to-imagery conflation by integrating several image-based and vector-based algorithms presented. The SVM method for image classification and Level Set method used to extract the road the different types of road intersections extracted from imagery using morphological operators. For matching the extracted points and to find the corresponding points, matching function which uses the nearest neighborhood method was applied. Finally, after identifying the matching points rubber-sheeting method used to align two datasets. Two residual and RMSE criteria used to evaluate accuracy. The results demonstrated excellent performance. The average root-mean-square error decreased from 11.8 to 4.1 m.

  11. Joint road safety operations in tunnels and open roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, Adewole; Avenoso, Antonio; Dionelis, Kallistratos; Cela, Liljana; Nicodème, Christophe; Goger, Thierry; Polidori, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the ECOROADS project is to overcome the barrier established by the formal interpretation of the two Directives 2008/96/EC and 2004/54/EC, which in practice do not allow the same Road Safety Audits/Inspections to be performed inside tunnels. The projects aims at the establishment of a common enhanced approach to road infrastructure and tunnel safety management by using the concepts and criteria of the Directive 2008/96/CE on road infrastructure safety management and the results of related European Commission (EC) funded projects. ECOROADS has already implemented an analysis of national practices regarding Road Safety Inspections (RSI), two Workshops with the stakeholders, and an exchange of best practices between European tunnel experts and road safety professionals, which led to the definition of common agreed safety procedures. In the second phase of the project, different groups of experts and observers applied the above common procedures by inspecting five European road sections featuring both open roads and tunnels in Belgium, Albania, Germany, Serbia and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper shows the feedback of the 5 joint safety operations and how they are being used for a set of - recommendations and guidelines for the application of the RSA and RSI concepts within the tunnel safety operations.

  12. Characterization of annealed Eu3+-doped ZnO flower-like morphology synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koao, L. F.; Dejene, B. F.; Swart, H. C.; Motloung, S. V.; Motaung, T. E.

    2016-10-01

    Undoped and europium ion (Eu3+) doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized via the chemical bath deposition method and annealed afterwards in air at 700 °C. The X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure for all samples. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the nanopowder samples were assembled in flower-like shapes for undoped and hexagonal-shaped for Eu3+-doped ZnO. Elemental energy dispersive (EDS) analysis mapping conducted on the samples revealed homogeneous distribution of Zn, O, and Eu ions. The Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffusion reflectance spectroscopy showed a decrease in the band gap with an increasing Eu3+ concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) results showed that by exciting Eu3+ (4 mol%) doped ZnO with different excitation wavelength the highest luminescence intensity was observed at an excitation wavelength of 395 nm but no emissions were observed from Eu3+. By exciting further with 465 nm the Eu3+ emissions were observed and emission from undoped ZnO was found for the first time.

  13. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead...... to a more just global order?...

  14. Om afstanden mellem EU-systemet og dets borgere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Heyn

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer EU's demokratiske opbygning i forlængelse af debatten om EU-skepsis, der senest opstod som følge af Brexit-afstemningen.......Artiklen diskuterer EU's demokratiske opbygning i forlængelse af debatten om EU-skepsis, der senest opstod som følge af Brexit-afstemningen....

  15. Intrinsic Ferromagnetism in Eu doped ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    Assadi, M. H. N.; Zhang, Y. B.; Ionescu, M.; Photongkam, P.; Li, S.

    2010-01-01

    We report room temperature ferromagnetism in as-implanted Eu doped ZnO (ZnO:Eu). To address the origin of ferromagnetism ab initio calculations of ZnO:Eu system are performed. Results show that the ferromagnetism is induced by ZnO point defects as Eu ions in perfect ZnO tend to align antiferromagnetically.

  16. Actually existing silk roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Marsden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relevance of the concept of Silk Road for understanding the patterns of trade and exchange between China, Eurasia and the Middle East. It is based on ethnographic fieldwork in the city of Yiwu, in China's Zhejiang Province. Yiwu is a node in the global distribution of Chinese ‘small commodities’ and home to merchants and traders from across Asia and beyond. The article explores the role played by traders from Afghanistan in connecting the city of Yiwu to markets and trading posts in the world beyond. It seeks to bring attention to the diverse types of networks involved in such forms of trade, as well as their emergence and development over the past thirty years.

  17. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  18. The impacts of road and walking trails upon adjacent vegetation: effects of road building materials on species composition in a nutrient poor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, Jana; Vítková, Michaela; Vítek, Ondřej

    2011-09-01

    Roads represent an important landscape element affecting both biotic and abiotic components. Alteration of soil properties along roads (addition of nutrients) is assumed to have a great impact on vegetation structure especially in nutrient poor ecosystems. Existing studies focus mainly on road dust. In our study we assessed the overall effects of roads upon adjacent alpine tundra vegetation and soils in Krkonoše Mts, Czech Republic. Our aims were to (1) reconstruct the road-related changes using aerial data and GPS mapping to study colonization of roadside plant species; (2) assess the road effects on physical-chemical soil properties and vegetation composition along transects; and (3) propose conservation measures to stop further damage. Changes were reconstructed from historical multispectral aerial photography (1986 to 1997), measured by GPS device (1997, 2004), and accompanied by detailed soil (1998, 2000 and 2001) and vegetation (2000 and 2004) surveys along transects. Along alkaline roads, fast and profound shifts in physical-chemical soil properties (pH increased from 3.9 up to 7.6, base saturation from 9-30% up to 100%), and species composition were recorded. The roadside vegetation doubled in area during the studied decade. Stress-tolerant tundra species were replaced by meso- to nitrophilous species and species preferring man-made habitats. The intensity of changes depended significantly on the type of road material and the position relative to the road (slope position, distance from the road). Our findings support the assumption that alkaline gravel is the main cause of changes along roads in the area, and indicate the leading role of water transport in the soil and consequent vegetation alteration. To prevent the further damage we recommended replacement of alkaline gravel by granite, even though expensive and technically complicated. Based on our recommendations, the National Park authorities started to reconstruct the trails, although recovery is

  19. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  20. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  1. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  2. The role of district heating in decarbonising the EU energy system and a comparison with existing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible. In these strate......Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible....... In these strategies, the role of district heating has never been fully explored system, nor have the benefits of district heating been quantified at the EU level. This study combines the mapping of local heat demands and local heat supplies across the EU27. Using this local knowledge, new district heating potentials...

  3. Heat Roadmap Europe 2050: Second pre-study for the EU27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, D.; Vad Mathiesen, B.; Alberg Oestergaard, P. [and others

    2013-05-15

    Many strategies have already been proposed for the decarbonisation of the EU energy system by the year 2050. These typically focus on the expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector and subsequently, electrifying both the heat and transport sectors as much as possible. In these strategies, the role of district heating has never been fully explored system, nor have the benefits of district heating been quantified at the EU level. This study combines the mapping of local heat demands and local heat supplies across the EU27. Using this local knowledge, new district heating potentials are identified and then, the EU27 energy system is modelled to investigate the impact of district heating. The results indicate that a combination of heat savings, district heating in urban areas, and individual heat pumps in rural areas will enable the EU27 to reach its greenhouse gas emission targets by 2050, but at a cheaper price than a scenario which focuses primarily on the implementation of heat savings. (Author)

  4. Nocturnal Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Children’s Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Evandt, Jorunn; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-01-01

    Almost half of the European Union (EU)’s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on children’s sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and children’s parental-reported sleep duration and sleep problems. The present cross-sectional study used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Parental report of children’s sleep duration and sleep problems at age 7 was linked to modelled levels of residential night-time road traffic noise. The study population included 2665 children from Oslo, Norway. No association was found between road traffic noise and sleep duration in the total study population (odds ratio (OR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.94, 1.17]), but a statistically significant association was observed in girls (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.41]). For sleep problems, the associations were similar (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: [0.85, 2.16]) in girls. The ORs are presented for an increase of 10 dB. The findings suggest there is an association between road traffic noise and sleep for girls, underlining the importance of protecting children against excessive noise levels. PMID:28481249

  5. Nocturnal Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Children's Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Evandt, Jorunn; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-05-06

    Almost half of the European Union (EU)'s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on children's sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and children's parental-reported sleep duration and sleep problems. The present cross-sectional study used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Parental report of children's sleep duration and sleep problems at age 7 was linked to modelled levels of residential night-time road traffic noise. The study population included 2665 children from Oslo, Norway. No association was found between road traffic noise and sleep duration in the total study population (odds ratio (OR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.94, 1.17]), but a statistically significant association was observed in girls (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.41]). For sleep problems, the associations were similar (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: [0.85, 2.16]) in girls. The ORs are presented for an increase of 10 dB. The findings suggest there is an association between road traffic noise and sleep for girls, underlining the importance of protecting children against excessive noise levels.

  6. In Brief: Online Arctic mapping feature unveiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-08-01

    The Arctic Research Mapping Application (ARMAP), a Web portal of interactive maps and services, can now be used in conjunction with Google Earth. The new feature allows users to readily interface between satellite images, road and political maps, and other baseline information. ARMAP (see http://armap.org) supports Arctic science with special emphasis on promoting the current International Polar Year and is funded by the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs.

  7. Quality evaluation of edge detection in a road image sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. de A. Gallis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial mobile mapping systems map interest features along roads such as poles, traffic signs, curb lines, garbage cans etc. The lab work, concerned to the object reconstruction, consists of transforming the video into still images on which homologous points and features of the road sequence are selected and measured. By means of photogrammetric intersection the object coordinates of these features and points are computed for 3D reconstruction. Using Canny algorithm for the automatic edge detection in a road image sequence the article initially focuses on the empiric determination of the required parameters (standard deviation s and high Ta and low Tb threshold. Then it presents the quality in terms of displacement of the automatically detected edges similar to those visually (manually selected straight features extracted by a human operator that takes them as correct, therefore, as reference for the automatic extraction comparison and the quality evaluation. The results of the tests are discussed and show that the quality of the automatic detection – measured by a quantity of rights and wrongs – vary accordingly to the empirically determined standard deviation and high and low thresholds and also to the image sequence environment (street or road.

  8. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing

  9. Sustainable Development in the EU: Redefining and Operationalizing the Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Sander R.W. van Hees

    2014-01-01

    Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good policy-making, for effectively holding the EU accountable, and for the design of CSR programmes. To that end, this article will first explain the guidance which EU law and policy already offer on ...

  10. Urban background noise mapping: The multiple-reflection correction term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornikx, M.; Forssén, J.; Botteldooren, D.; Renterghem, T. van; Wei, W.; Ögren, M.; Salomons, E.

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of road traffic noise in urban areas according to standardized engineering calculation methods systematically results in an underestimation of noise levels at areas shielded from direct exposure to noise, such as inner yards. In most engineering methods, road traffic lanes are represented by

  11. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw

    2017-10-01

    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  12. Succession of States in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini Mario

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of separatism. Scotland, Catalonia, Flanders, South Tyrol – all these regions have separatist movements pursuing independence from their current National State. The breakup of an EU Member State no longer seems impossible. To date, it is unclear what impact this would have on the EU membership of the new entities (with consequences for the character of citizenship, voting rights in the council, number of MEPs etc. that emerge from the old States. The common rules of Public International Law governing the succession of States are insufficient in the case of a succession of States in the EU. Although the Treaties do not provide for such a situation and the past 60 years of European history offer only a few and not really persuasive precedents, the nature of the EU as a joint association of sovereign States (“Staatenverbund” demands a special approach: A separated State will neither be automatically excluded from the EU nor will it automatically become a new Member State. Drawing on the ideas of Articles 49 and 50 TEU this essay develops a procedure for balancing the interests of the EU, its Member States, and the people living in the seceding State, who are likely to be pro-EU. If a Member State breaks up, both the remaining State and the new entity will continue to represent the former Member State in the European institutions. The former Member State will provisionally continue to exist for both the EU and its Member States with respect to European matters. A process of negotiation between the two “new” States themselves and with the other Member States will lead to a new balance within the EU and the adaption of the Treaties – the solution has to be a political one. If the negotiations are successful, the former Member State can finally be dissolved at the EU level. In this case either both new States will become new Members or the remaining State will continue the membership (with

  13. Road and Street Centerlines - Five Year Road Program (Arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Adopted 5-year road improvement program. An additional 5-years of planning information is also included; this information is not officially Adopted....

  14. Map Matching for Intelligent Speed Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens; Lahrmann, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems enables sophisticated vehicle guidance and advisory systems such as Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems. In ISA systems, it is essential to be able to position vehicles within a road network. Because digital road networks as well as GPS....... This paper presents an on-line map matching algorithm with an extensive number of weighting parameters that allow better determination of a vehicle's road network position. The algorithm uses certainty value to express its belief in the correctness of its results. The algorithm was designed and implemented...

  15. Pressure-induced phase transition and stability of EuO and EuS with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have predicted the phase transition pressures and corresponding relative volume changes of EuO and EuS having NaCl-type structure under high pressure using three-body interaction potential (TBIP) approach. In addition, the conditions for relative stability in terms of modified Born criterion has been checked ...

  16. Composition dependence of luminescence of Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses for LED applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C.F.; Chaussedent, S.; Liu, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses are good candidates for light emitting diode (LED) applications. But the optical performance of these glasses is sensitive to variations in chemical composition. In this paper we report our recent findings about the effect of addition of minor components su...... curves....

  17. The EU Blue Card Directive: A Low Level of Trust in EU Labour Migration Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, T.; Grütters, C.; Strik, T.

    2013-01-01

    In its 2020 strategy document, the European Commission writes that the EU needs migrant labour 'given both the seriousness of skills mismatch in European labour markets as well as irreversible demogrpahic developments' Symmetrie betreen the free movement of union nationals within the EU and the

  18. Critical neutron scattering from the Heisenberg ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.

    1972-01-01

    The magnetic neutron scattering from isotopically enriched powders of EuO and EuS near their Curie temperatures has been studied. Results of the critical exponents for the static properties in standard notation were * Thumbnail image of Spin wave scattering at T...

  19. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC Along Federal Road F0023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric designs consistency where the drivers make mistakes errors due to the road geometric features causes the accident kept rising in Malaysia. Hence, models are based on operating speed to calculate design consistency of road. The profiles were obtained by continuous speed profile using GPS data. The continuous operating speed profile models were plotted based on operating speed model (85th percentile. The study was conduct at F0023 from km 16 until km 20. The purpose of design consistency is to know the relationship between the operating speed and elements of geometric design on the road. As a result, the integrated design consistency motorcycle and cars along a segment at F0023, the threshold shows poor design quality for motorcycles and cars.

  20. The transformative power of EU: An Assessment of EU impact in the judicial system of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrie Besimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the process of EU integration, the aspiring and potential candidate countries have undergone a major process of reforms. The question that is aroused in this sense is to what extent the EU has had transformative power and impacted the internal judicial structures of Kosovo and under which conditions the EU is more effective. This article analyzes the findings of the Progress reports for a ten-year period (2005 – 2015 and the extent of the EU impact. It uses the conceptual and rational framework of external incentives model and argues that the EU impact in the judiciary system of Kosovo is crucial considering the starting low phase of reforms in Kosovo.

  1. Perceived Distributive Fairness of EU Transfer Payments, Outcome Favorability, Identity, and EU-Tax Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartner, Martina; Rechberger, Silvia; Kirchler, Erich; Wenzel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In a representative UK study (N = 1000) the link between distributive fairness perceptions, outcome favorability, identity, and tax compliance was researched in the context of European transfer payments. Results showed that both forms of tax compliance (i.e., individual and collective EU-tax compliance) were influenced by perceived distributive fairness judgments of EU transfer payments. Fairness itself was related to perceived outcome favorability (i.e., whether their own nation benefits from the EU in financial as well as socio-political terms). Additionally, national identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation, but not with Europe) perceived EU membership as unbeneficial in financial as well as in socio-political terms and thus considered the transfer payments as less fair. Dual identifiers (i.e., people identifying with their own nation and with Europe) perceived the socio-political outcomes from EU membership as more beneficial and thus evaluated the transfer payments as fairer.

  2. Quadrupole splitting and Eu partial lattice dynamics in europium orthophosphate EuPO {sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobes, B., E-mail: b.klobes@fz-juelich.de [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany); Arinicheva, Y., E-mail: y.arinicheva@fz-juelich.de; Neumeier, S., E-mail: s.neumeier@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6) Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (Germany); Simon, R. E., E-mail: r.simon@fz-juelich.de; Jafari, A., E-mail: a.jafari@fz-juelich.de [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany); Bosbach, D., E-mail: d.bosbach@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6) Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (Germany); Hermann, R. P., E-mail: hermannrp@ornl.gov [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Hyperfine interactions in europium orthophosphate EuPO{sub 4} were investigated using {sup 151}Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy from 6 to 300 K. The value of the quadrupole splitting and the asymmetry parameter were refined and further substantiated by nuclear forward scattering data obtained at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the relative absorption was modeled with an Eu specific Debye temperature of 221(1) K. Eu partial lattice dynamics were probed by means of nuclear inelastic scattering and the mean force constant, the Lamb-Mössbauer factor, the internal energy, the vibrational entropy, the average phonon group velocity were calculated using the extracted density of phonon states. In general, Eu specific vibrations are characterized by rather small phonon energies and contribute strongly to the total entropy of the system. Although there is no classical Debye like behavior at low vibrational energies, the average phonon group velocity can be reasonably approximated using a linear fit.

  3. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 3, Data Warehouse: Deliverable 3.5: Annual Statistical Report - 2011.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandstaetter, C. Evgenikos, P. Yannis, G. Papantoniou, P. Argyropoulou E. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Reurings, M. Vis, M. Pace, J F.F. López-de-Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster P. Sanmartín J. & Haddak, M.

    2015-01-01

    The CARE database brings together the disaggregate details of road accidents and casualties across Europe, by combining the national accident databases that are maintained by all EU member states. Access to the CARE database is restricted, however, so it is important that a comprehensive range of

  4. A quantitative approach to measure road network information based on edge diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xun; Zhang, Hong; Lan, Tian; Cao, Weiwei; He, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The measure of map information has been one of the key issues in assessing cartographic quality and map generalization algorithms. It is also important for developing efficient approaches to transfer geospatial information. Road network is the most common linear object in real world. Approximately describe road network information will benefit road map generalization, navigation map production and urban planning. Most of current approaches focused on node diversities and supposed that all the edges are the same, which is inconsistent to real-life condition, and thus show limitations in measuring network information. As real-life traffic flow are directed and of different quantities, the original undirected vector road map was first converted to a directed topographic connectivity map. Then in consideration of preferential attachment in complex network study and rich-club phenomenon in social network, the from and to weights of each edge are assigned. The from weight of a given edge is defined as the connectivity of its end node to the sum of the connectivities of all the neighbors of the from nodes of the edge. After getting the from and to weights of each edge, edge information, node information and the whole network structure information entropies could be obtained based on information theory. The approach has been applied to several 1 square mile road network samples. Results show that information entropies based on edge diversities could successfully describe the structural differences of road networks. This approach is a complementarity to current map information measurements, and can be extended to measure other kinds of geographical objects.

  5. Danish risk management plans of the EU floods directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Jebens, Martin; Piontkowitz, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    The paper evaluates the impact and effect of the EU Flood's Directive (2007/60/EC) in Denmark and the flood risk management plans that are the result of the national implementation in the first plan period (2010-2015). Twenty flood risk management plans have been elaborated and published by the 22...... Danish municipalities included in 10 risk areas appointed due to a risk of floods from rivers, the sea, or both. For the municipal work, the national government has provided hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessments and maps as well as guidelines to fulfil the legal binding of the Directive. The plans...... are reviewed and analysed regarding main objectives and structural and non-structural mitigation measures. Conclusions point to the need of introducing better decision support systems, a need to define acceptable risks, and a need to enhance coordination between municipal and cross-sectorial actors as well...

  6. Road, Paved, Unpaved, Socio-economic, Development.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    From this study, it was revealed that the study area has a total length of 6288km of roads. A total of 1272.6km (20%) constituted paved or tarred roads while about 5015.4km (80%) constituted unpaved or untarred roads. Information on road transport infrastructure variables was collected using field survey, questionnaire and ...

  7. Measuring (un)safety of roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the safety level of a road is difficult. First of all you have to know how many crashes have occurred on a road. Various units of measurement are used for this: the absolute number of crashes per road, the number of crashes per road length, and the number of crashes per distance travelled.

  8. Recognizablility of rural roads in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. & Davidse, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the Sustainable Safety vision is an important guide in improving road safety. It is considered that the road environment shouldconform to the expectations of road users in order to prevent errors thatcould lead to road crashes. These expectations are based on the characteristics

  9. The Rauischholzhausen agenda for road ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roedenbeck, I.A.; Fahrig, L.; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, J.E.; Jaeger, J.A.G.; Klar, N.; Kramer-Schadt, S.; Grift, van der E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the documented negative effects of roads on wildlife, ecological research on road effects has had comparatively little influence on road planning decisions. We argue that road research would have a larger impact if researchers carefully considered the relevance of the research questions

  10. The EU sustainable energy policy indicators framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Sivickas, Gintautas

    2008-11-01

    The article deals with indicators framework to monitor implementation of the main EU (European Union) directives and other policy documents targeting sustainable energy development. The main EU directives which have impact on sustainable energy development are directives promoting energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, directives implementing greenhouse gas mitigation and atmospheric pollution reduction policies and other policy documents and strategies targeting energy sector. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are among priorities of EU energy policy because the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements has positive impact on energy security and climate change mitigation. The framework of indicators can be developed to establish the main targets set by EU energy and environmental policies allowing to connect indicators via chain of mutual impacts and to define policies and measures necessary to achieve established targets based on assessment of their impact on the targeted indicators representing sustainable energy development aims. The article discusses the application of indicators framework for EU sustainable energy policy analysis and presents the case study of this policy tool application for Baltic States. The article also discusses the use of biomass in Baltic States and future considerations in this field.

  11. Succession of States in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of separatism. Scotland, Catalonia, Flanders, South Tyrol – all these regions have separatist movements pursuing independence from their current National State. The breakup of an EU Member State no longer seems impossible. To date, it is unclear what impact this would have on the EU membership of the new entities (with consequences for the character of citizenship, voting rights in the council, number of MEPs etc. that emerge from the old States. The common rules of Public International Law governing the succession of States are insufficient in the case of a succession of States in the EU. Although the Treaties do not provide for such a situation and the past 60 years of European history offer only a few and not really persuasive precedents, the nature of the EU as a joint association of sovereign States (“Staatenverbund” demands a special approach: A separated State will neither be automatically excluded from the EU nor will it automatically become a new Member State.

  12. INTEGRATION OF ROMANIAN INSURANCES MARKET IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MOROŞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phenomena of the last decade has been the convergence of the financial services industry, especially the capital and insurance markets. The convergence in the insurance industry was determined by the increased frequency and the severity of catastrophic risks, market inefficiency in the past, and the new technologies in IT and communications. These globally developments can be observed much better at EU level, one of the most integrated areas of the world, which aimed the convergence of financial market, including an important component such as insurance market. As part of the EU, Romania also aims to financial market convergence with the EU countries. The article offers an overview and an analysis of the insurance market in the EU and Romania. Through a wide series of indicators such as: the amount of insurance premiums, degree of penetration, number of employees or number of insurance companies, it will analyze the evolution of this market convergence, as per all EU countries and Romania. It will identify the stage in which the insurance market in Romania is, regarding the requirements of full integration. Finally, there will be identified factors encouraging and particularly those who are impediments to insurance market convergence in Romania.

  13. Cement stabilization of unpaved roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    In an effort to address the local citizens preference for preserving existing gravel roads, personnel of the Northern : Virginia District of the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) have been exploring various options for improving the : e...

  14. Torrance County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Torrance County digital road network wa created as part of the State of New Mexico Enhanced 911 Addressing Grant. The original primary function was to lay the...

  15. Appropriate roads for rural access

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available be reduced, the result remains environmentally unsustainable. Low cost but appropriate techniques for upgrading these roads cost-effectively to sealed standards have been implemented in many countries recently. These techniques optimize the use of local...

  16. Road weather management performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-29

    This report presents the results of a study to identify appropriate measures of performance that can be attributed to the Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) products and activities. Specifically, the stud...

  17. Electronic structure and magnetism of EuO films on the nanometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkhammer, Juergen

    2013-06-28

    This thesis deals with thin films of the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO. These are prepared by molecular beam epitaxy under ultra high vacuum conditions and their properties are investigated in-situ by means of low energy electron diffraction, magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The experiments are carried out in a low temperature STM apparatus with a base temperature of 5.3 K. The development of a highly sensitive MOKE instrument is in the technical focus of this work. EuO is grown in (100) orientation on a ferromagnetic Ni(100) single crystal as well as on single crystalline graphene on Ir(111). An antiferromagnetic coupling between the magnetic moments of the Ni(100) and the EuO(100) film turns out. The 3.3nm thin stoichiometric films of EuO on graphene show a Curie temperature T{sub c}=75 K, which is increased with respect to films of the same thickness grown on other substrates and even with respect to bulk EuO. Point defects in EuO films are analyzed with help of atomically resolved STM images. The defect concentration can be quantified using highly-resolved STM topography images. The mobility of the oxygen vacancies is shown by a series of topography STM images and a mobility of the vacancies along the EuO left angle 011 right angle directions is found. Investigations of the electronic structure of the EuO(100) surface are performed by STM and STS, which require a high sample quality, i.e, a topographically very well ordered and flat surface with a minimum of defects. The ultra thin films of EuO on graphene described in thesis are of such high quality. A local n-doping and an upward band bending is found at the oxygen vacancy sites. Tunneling spectroscopy maps of the ferromagnetic EuO(100) surface show standing wave patterns, which are the characteristic fingerprint of the surface state in EuO(100). The energy vs. momentum space of the surface state is explored by evaluating the

  18. Dynamics of traffic flows on crossing roads induced by real-time information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Minoru; Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2013-02-01

    Traffic flows on crossing roads with an information board installed at the intersection have been simulated by a cellular automaton model. In the model, drivers have to enter the road with a shorter trip-time indicated on the information board, by making a turn at the intersection if necessary. The movement of drivers induces various traffic states, which are classified into six phases as a function of the car density. The dynamics of the traffic is expressed as the return map in the density-flow space, and analyzed on the basis of the car configuration on the roads.

  19. When Dijkstra Meets Vanishing Point: A Stereo Vision Approach for Road Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yigong; Su, Yingna; Yang, Jian; Ponce, Jean; Kong, Hui

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a vanishing-point constrained Dijkstra road model for road detection in a stereo-vision paradigm. First, the stereo-camera is used to generate the u- and v-disparity maps of road image, from which the horizon can be extracted. With the horizon and ground region constraints, we can robustly locate the vanishing point of road region. Second, a weighted graph is constructed using all pixels of the image, and the detected vanishing point is treated as the source node of the graph. By computing a vanishing-point constrained Dijkstra minimum-cost map, where both disparity and gradient of gray image are used to calculate cost between two neighbor pixels, the problem of detecting road borders in image is transformed into that of finding two shortest paths that originate from the vanishing point to two pixels in the last row of image. The proposed approach has been implemented and tested over 2600 grayscale images of different road scenes in the KITTI data set. The experimental results demonstrate that this training-free approach can detect horizon, vanishing point, and road regions very accurately and robustly. It can achieve promising performance.

  20. e-Business a ICT - nástroje konkurenceschopnosti EU

    OpenAIRE

    Nechala, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The thesis identifies the role of e-business and ICT in the economy of the present European Union and their function in increasing EU's competitiveness in the world's economy. It maps and evaluates help of the public sector of the European Union for this important component of modern economy. The thesis also describes current state of e-business and ICT both in the European Union and the world and outlines their probable future development.