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Sample records for eu hcpb tbm

  1. Design update, thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the EU-HCPB TBM in vertical arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cismondi, F.; Kecskes, S.; Ilic, M.; Legradi, G.; Kiss, B.; Bitz, O.; Dolensky, B.; Neuberger, H.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Ihli, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the EU Breeder Blanket Programme and of the Test Blanket Working Group of ITER, the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB TBM) is developed in Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) to investigate DEMO relevant concepts for blanket modules. The three main functions of a blanket module (removing heat, breeding tritium and shielding sensitive components from radiation) will be tested in ITER using a series of four TBMs, which are irradiated successively during different test campaigns. Each HCPB TBM will be installed, with a vertical orientation, into the vacuum vessel connected to one equatorial port. As the studies performed up to 2006 in FZK concerned a horizontal orientation of the HCPB TBM, a global review of the design is necessary to match with the new ITER specifications. A preliminary version of the new vertical design is proposed extrapolating the neutronic analysis performed for the horizontal HCPB TBM. An overview of the new HCPB TBM vertical designs, as well as the preliminary thermal and fluid dynamic analyses performed for the validation of the design, are presented in this paper. A critical review of the results obtained allows us, in the conclusion, to prepare a plan for the future detailed analyses of the vertical HCPB TBM.

  2. Design of the integration interface between the EU HCPB TBM and the ITER TBM port plug including hot cell operations for connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, H.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Roccella, R.

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the EU Breeder Blanket Programme and of the Test Blanket Working Group, the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module- (HCPB-TBM) System is developed. The TBM test schedule foresees four different campaigns for simulation of DEMO relevant conditions, campaign requires a dedicate TBM. Therefore a concept for TBM integration into ITER is designed with attention to simplify the mounting/dismounting operations. This paper presents the status of this concept with regard to the operations in hot cell required to install a new TBM into an equatorial TBM Port Plug (PP). This includes the establishment of the connection for the attachment, supply- and diagnostic lines in the environment of the interface (IF 1) between the TBM rear part and the PP backside shield. The connection of IF 1 has to be designed to cope with a temperature difference between TBM and PP (∝200 K) and the EM-loads during normal operation and disruption scenarios. The reference attachment concept based on shear keys and flexible cartridges is revised to cope with new conditions on the load and at the interface to the PP. According to the latest results of EM analysis, a radial component of the Maxwell forces (due to the ferromagnetic structural material) has been identified as an additional challenging load for the attachment. Furthermore, the replacing operations at IF 1 are influenced by the design of the PP; the recent ITER proposal based on a removable back side shield allows access to the IF 1 from the periphery after the frame of the PP surrounding the TBM is removed. As for the mechanical attachment, the tools and operations for connection of the TBM supply lines (Helium-, Purge- and measurement lines for different purpose depending on the test schedule) are strongly influenced by the restrictions to access IF 1, too. Dismantling of the frame would allow direct access to the interface by e.g. orbital welding tools. The concept for connection of the TBM

  3. Benchmarking of MCNPX Results with Measured Tritium Production Rate and Neutron Flux at the Mock-up of EU TBM (HCPB concept)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tore, C.; Ortego, P.

    2013-07-01

    In order to reassesses the available design results of Test Breeder Modules (TBMs) a framework contract agreement between F4E and IDOM-Spain has been signed. SEA SL-Spain and UNED-Spain participate as sub-contractors of IDOM. In this study, a qualification of MCNPX code and nuclear data libraries are performed with benchmarking of measured tritium production and neutron flux at the mock-up of the EU TBM, HCPB concept. The irradiation and measurements had been performed in the frame of European Fusion Technology Program by ENEA-Italy, TUD-Germany and JAERI -Japan.

  4. A revised design approach of the attachment system for the ITER EU-HCPB-TBM based on a central cylindrical connection element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, Christian; Neuberger, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Design of an attachment system based on a cylinder to connect TBM and shield. ► Attachment system has to cope with high EM loads and different thermal expansions. ► Stiff design and central position fulfill these requirements. ► Transient thermal-structural analyses confirm compliance of design with design codes. - Abstract: The EU-Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM), which is located inside an equatorial port plug, is attached to the shield by an attachment system. The design of the attachment system has to fulfill two conflicting requirements. On the one hand, it has to transfer the high electromagnetic forces acting on the TBM to the shield and on the other hand, it has to compensate the different thermal expansions between the shield and the back plate of the TBM. The recent design approach of the attachment system consists of a hollow cylinder located at the center of the back plate. This design combines two advantages: a simple geometry and correspondingly low fabrication effort and the central location where the differential strain between back plate and shield is minimal. Static and transient thermal-structural analyses of the most demanding load cases, a fast vertical displacement event type II and the operation state tritium outgassing, have been performed to evaluate the design and confirm the compliance with the relevant design codes. A welded connection of the attachment system to the TBM back plate and a bolted connection in combination with a splined shaft is proposed for the shield side because of the dissimilar materials.

  5. HCPB TBM thermo mechanical design: Assessment with respect codes and standards and DEMO relevancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cismondi, F.; Kecskes, S.; Aiello, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the European TBM Consortium of Associates the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) is developed in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). After performing detailed thermal and fluid dynamic analyses of the preliminary HCPB TBM design, the thermo mechanical behaviour of the TBM under typical ITER loads has to be assessed. A synthesis of the different design options proposed has been realized building two different assemblies of the HCPB-TBM: these two assemblies and the analyses performed on them are presented in this paper. Finite Element thermo-mechanical analyses of two detailed 1/4 scaled models of the HCPB-TBM assemblies proposed have been performed, with the aim of verifying the accordance of the mechanical behaviour with the criteria of the design codes and standards. The structural design limits specified in the codes and standard are discussed in relation with the EUROFER available data and possible damage modes. Solutions to improve the weak structural points of the present design are identified and the DEMO relevancy of the present thermal and structural design parameters is discussed.

  6. Adaptation of the HCPB DEMO TBM as breeding blanket for ITER : Neutronic and thermal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, D.; Morellini, D.; Cerullo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Two breeding blanket are presently developed in Europe for the DEMO reactor: the first one, the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) uses a liquid breeder while the other , the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB), uses a solid breeder in form of pebble bed. The modules of these blankets, called Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be located in correspondence of the equatorial ports of ITER in order to be tested. ITER FEAT was designed with shielding blankets, therefore in the final stage of the experiment, in the foreseen tritium -deuterium operation phase, the tritium will be supplied to the reactor and not produced inside it. Since the production of tritium is of main importance for the feasibility of a nuclear fusion reactor, perhaps in the ITER final stage, the shielding blanket could be substituted by means of a breeding blanket. The geometry and composition of this breeding blanket would be, of course, similar to that of TBM which demonstrated to have the best performances. This paper illustrates a neutronic and thermal analysis of an hypothetical triziogen blanket for ITER FEAT made similar to a HCPB test module. The main aims of the performed analyses are to determine the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) considering different solid breeders (Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 TiO 3 ) with different enrichment in 6 Li and different structural materials (a 9%CRWVTa reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (EUROFER) or ceramic matrix composites like SiCf/SiC). The breeding blanket design is compared considering the highest value of TBR and the verification of the temperature constraints ( 550 o C for the steel, 950 o C for the breeder and 650 o C for the Beryllium). The neutronic analyses have been performed by means of MCNP-4C code and the thermal analyses using the MSC-MARC code. A TBR about equal 1 was obtained with a SiCf/SiC structural material and a Li 4 SiO 4 breeder. The performed analyses have to be considered preliminary and an academic exercise, nevertheless they could give

  7. Nuclear maintenance strategy and first steps for preliminary maintenance plan of the EU HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galabert, Jose, E-mail: jose.galabert@f4e.europa.eu [F4E Fusion for Energy, EU Domestic Agency, c/Josep Pla, 2. B3, 08019, Barcelona (Spain); Hopper, Dave [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom); Neviere, Jean-Cristophe [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Nodwell, David [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Pascal, Romain [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046, 13067, St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo [F4E Fusion for Energy, EU Domestic Agency, c/Josep Pla, 2. B3, 08019, Barcelona (Spain); White, Gareth [AMEC Foster Wheeler, Faraday Street, Birchwood Park, WA3 6GN (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear maintenance strategy for the two European (EU) Test Blanket Systems (TBS): i/. Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) and ii/. Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB). • Preliminary identification of maintenance tasks for most relevant components of the EU HCLL & HCPB TBS. • Preliminary feasibility analysis for hands-on maintenance tasks of some relevant components of the European Test Blanket Systems. • Design recommendations for enhancement of the European Test Blanket Systems maintainability. - Abstract: This paper gives an overview of nuclear maintenance strategy to be followed for the European HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems (TBS) to be installed in ITER. One of the several core documents to prepare in view of their licensing is their respective ‘Maintenance Plan’. This document is fundamental for ensuring sound performance and safety of the TBS during ITER’s operational phase and shall include, amongst others, relevant information on: maintenance organization, preventive and corrective maintenance task procedures, condition monitoring for key components, maintenance work planning, and a spare parts plan, just to mention some of the key topics. In compliance with the ITER Plant Maintenance policy, first steps have been taken aimed at defining nuclear maintenance strategy for some of the most relevant HCLL & HCPB TBS components, conducted by F4E in collaboration with industry. After a brief recall of maintenance strategy of the TBM Program (PBS-56), this paper analyses main features of EU HCLL & HCPB TBS maintainability and identifies, at their conceptual design phase, a preliminary list of maintenance tasks to be developed for their most representative components. In addition, the paper also presents the first nuclear maintenance studies conducted for replacement of the Q{sub 2} Getter Beds, identifying some design recommendations for their sound maintainability.

  8. Nuclear maintenance strategy and first steps for preliminary maintenance plan of the EU HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galabert, Jose; Hopper, Dave; Neviere, Jean-Cristophe; Nodwell, David; Pascal, Romain; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; White, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear maintenance strategy for the two European (EU) Test Blanket Systems (TBS): i/. Helium Cooled Lead Lithium (HCLL) and ii/. Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB). • Preliminary identification of maintenance tasks for most relevant components of the EU HCLL & HCPB TBS. • Preliminary feasibility analysis for hands-on maintenance tasks of some relevant components of the European Test Blanket Systems. • Design recommendations for enhancement of the European Test Blanket Systems maintainability. - Abstract: This paper gives an overview of nuclear maintenance strategy to be followed for the European HCLL & HCPB Test Blanket Systems (TBS) to be installed in ITER. One of the several core documents to prepare in view of their licensing is their respective ‘Maintenance Plan’. This document is fundamental for ensuring sound performance and safety of the TBS during ITER’s operational phase and shall include, amongst others, relevant information on: maintenance organization, preventive and corrective maintenance task procedures, condition monitoring for key components, maintenance work planning, and a spare parts plan, just to mention some of the key topics. In compliance with the ITER Plant Maintenance policy, first steps have been taken aimed at defining nuclear maintenance strategy for some of the most relevant HCLL & HCPB TBS components, conducted by F4E in collaboration with industry. After a brief recall of maintenance strategy of the TBM Program (PBS-56), this paper analyses main features of EU HCLL & HCPB TBS maintainability and identifies, at their conceptual design phase, a preliminary list of maintenance tasks to be developed for their most representative components. In addition, the paper also presents the first nuclear maintenance studies conducted for replacement of the Q_2 Getter Beds, identifying some design recommendations for their sound maintainability.

  9. Development of self-powered neutron detectors for neutron flux monitoring in HCLL and HCPB ITER-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelone, M.; Klix, A.; Pillon, M.; Batistoni, P.; Fischer, U.; Santagata, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Self powered neutron detector (SPND) is attractive neutron monitor for TBM in ITER. •In hard neutron spectra (e.g. TBM) there is the need to optimize their response. •Three state-of-the-art SPNDs were tested using fast and 14 MeV neutrons. •The response of SPNDs is much lower than in thermal neutron flux. •FISPACT calculations performed to find out candidate materials in hard spectra. -- Abstract: Self powered neutron detectors (SPND) have a number of interesting properties (e.g. small dimensions, capability to operate in harsh environments, absence of external bias), so they are attractive neutron monitors for TBM in ITER. However, commercially available SPNDs are optimized for operation in a thermal nuclear reactor where the neutron spectrum is much softer than that expected in a TBM. This fact can limit the use of SPND in a TBM since the effective cross sections for the production of beta emitters are much lower in a fast neutron spectrum. This work represents the first attempt to study SPNDs as neutron flux monitors for TBM. Three state-of-the-art SPND available on the market were bought and tested using fast neutrons at TAPIRO fast neutron source of ENEA Casaccia and with 14 MeV neutrons at the Frascati neutron generator (FNG). The results clearly indicate that in fast neutron spectra, the response of SPNDs is much lower than in thermal neutron flux. Activation calculations were performed using the FISPACT code to find out possible material candidates for SPND suitable for operation in TBM neutron spectra

  10. Development of self-powered neutron detectors for neutron flux monitoring in HCLL and HCPB ITER-TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelone, M., E-mail: maurizio.angelone@enea.it [Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla FusioneENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Klix, A. [Association KIT-EURATOM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pillon, M.; Batistoni, P. [Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla FusioneENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Fischer, U. [Association KIT-EURATOM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Santagata, A. [ENEA C.R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese Km. 1,300, 00100 Roma (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Self powered neutron detector (SPND) is attractive neutron monitor for TBM in ITER. •In hard neutron spectra (e.g. TBM) there is the need to optimize their response. •Three state-of-the-art SPNDs were tested using fast and 14 MeV neutrons. •The response of SPNDs is much lower than in thermal neutron flux. •FISPACT calculations performed to find out candidate materials in hard spectra. -- Abstract: Self powered neutron detectors (SPND) have a number of interesting properties (e.g. small dimensions, capability to operate in harsh environments, absence of external bias), so they are attractive neutron monitors for TBM in ITER. However, commercially available SPNDs are optimized for operation in a thermal nuclear reactor where the neutron spectrum is much softer than that expected in a TBM. This fact can limit the use of SPND in a TBM since the effective cross sections for the production of beta emitters are much lower in a fast neutron spectrum. This work represents the first attempt to study SPNDs as neutron flux monitors for TBM. Three state-of-the-art SPND available on the market were bought and tested using fast neutrons at TAPIRO fast neutron source of ENEA Casaccia and with 14 MeV neutrons at the Frascati neutron generator (FNG). The results clearly indicate that in fast neutron spectra, the response of SPNDs is much lower than in thermal neutron flux. Activation calculations were performed using the FISPACT code to find out possible material candidates for SPND suitable for operation in TBM neutron spectra.

  11. Conceptual design of Tritium Extraction System for the European HCPB Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciampichetti, A.; Nitti, F.S.; Aiello, A.; Ricapito, I.; Liger, K.; Demange, D.; Sedano, L.; Moreno, C.; Succi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested in ITER. ► Tritium extraction by gas purging, removal and transfer to the Tritium Plant. ► Conceptual design of TES and revision of the previous configuration. ► Main components: adsorption column, ZrCo getter beds and PERMCAT reactor. - Abstract: The HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) Test Blanket Module (TBM), developed in EU to be tested in ITER, adopts a ceramic containing lithium as breeder material, beryllium as neutron multiplier and helium at 80 bar as primary coolant. In HCPB-TBM the main function of Tritium Extraction System (TES) is to extract tritium from the breeder by gas purging, to remove it from the purge gas and to route it to the ITER Tritium Plant for the final tritium processing. In this paper, starting from a revision of the so far reference process considered for HCPB-TES and considering a new modeling activity aimed to evaluate tritium concentration in purge gas, an updated conceptual design of TES is reported.

  12. Design activities toward the achievement of the conceptual phase of the EU-TBM sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallory, J., E-mail: Joelle.vallory@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy—F4E, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Panayotov, D.; Zmitko, M.; Poitevin, Y. [Fusion for Energy—F4E, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Plaza, F.J. Calvo; Sadaba, S.; Gil, A. [Idom, Avda. Monasterio de El Escorial, 4, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Europe is developing two reference tritium breeder blanket concepts that will be tested in ITER under the form of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs): the helium–cooled lithium–lead (HCLL) which uses the liquid Pb–16Li as both breeder and neutron multiplier and the helium–cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) with lithiated ceramic pebbles as breeder and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier. Both concepts are using the EUROFER reduced activation ferritic–martensitic steel as structural material and pressurized helium technology for heat extraction. In view of the conceptual design review, design activities of the TBM sets have been focused on specific areas. The convergence of TBMs design, developed in their pre-conceptual phase by different European Fusion laboratories, has been sought in order to optimize fabrication and maintenance in ITER port #16. The structural strength of the helium back manifold of both TBMs is now based on the HCLL stiffening rod concept proposed in 2010. Through iterations between the nuclear analyses and design, the radiation shield design reaches a good compromise between its shielding performances versus manufacturing. A shield-to-TBM attachment has been implemented which complies with constraints related to thermal expansion under operating conditions and mechanical strength to handle dynamic loads such as major disruptions and seismic event. A full set of thermomechanical, hydraulic and structural analysis of the TBM sets has been carried out. They cover the loads selected as design drivers in the conceptual phase along with exploration of operational domain in terms of helium cooling conditions versus RCC-MRx code criteria compliance. The analysis results show that thermal loads are the main design driver for most of TBM sub-components. Pressure loads are also a design driver for the TBM stiffening grids under in-TBM loss of coolant accident. From the analyses carried out for the shields, the most demanding scenario has been demonstrated to

  13. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of nuclear responses in the EU HCLL TBM of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leichtle, Dieter; Fischer, Ulrich; Perel, Reuven L.; Serikov, Arkady

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Fusion Technology Programme dedicated theoretical and experimental efforts are conducted to provide reliable nuclear data and computational tools for design analyses for fusion devices like ITER including qualified uncertainty estimates. In this respect, the present paper reports on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for the EU HCLL Test Blanket Module (TBM) of ITER. Neutron flux spectra and tritium production rates have been calculated using MCNP with a modified version of the ITER Alite torus sector model with integrated TBMs. Sensitivities of such parameters to nuclear cross sections of isotopes contained in the TBM as well as in the ITER device have been calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCSEN. Uncertainties could be obtained by using existing covariance data of the important nuclear cross section files, mainly from ENDF/B-VI, SCALE6.0, but also from recent JEFF/EFF evaluations. Like in the HCLL mock-up experiment two positions at front and back of the TBM have been selected. In both cases the calculated uncertainties of the responses (tritium production rate, neutron flux) are in the range of 2-4%.

  14. Helium Loop for the HCPB Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, H.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Ghidersa, B. E.; Jin, X.; Meyder, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of the activities of the EU Breeder Blanket Programme and of the Test Blanket Working Group, the Helium loop for the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) in ITER has been investigated with regard to the layout definition, selection of components, control, dimensioning and integration. This paper presents the status of development. The loop design for the HCPB-TBM in ITER will mainly base on the experience gained from Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) which is currently developed at the FZK for experiments under ITER relevant conditions. The ITER loop will be equipped with similar components like HELOKA and will mainly consist of a circulator with variable speed drive, a recuperator, an electric heater, a cooler, a dust filter and auxilary components e.g. pipework and valves. A Coolant Purification System (CPS) and a Pressure Control System (PCS) are foreseen to meet the requirements on coolant conditioning. To prepare a TBM for a new experimental campaign, a succession of operational states like '' cold maintenance '', '' baking '' and '' cold standby '' is required. Before a pulse operation, a '' hot stand-by '' state should be achieved providing the TBM with inlet coolant at nominal conditions. This operation modus is continued in the dwell time waiting for the successive pulse. A '' tritium out-gassing '' will be also required after several TBM-campaigns to remove the inventory rest of T in the beds for measurement purpose. The dynamic circuit behaviour during pulses, transition between different operational states as well as the behaviour in accident situations are investigated with RELAP. The main components of the loop will be accommodated inside the Tokamak Cooling Water System(TCWS)- vault from where the pipes require connection to the TBM which is attached to port 16 of the vacuum vessel. Therefore pipes across the ITER- building of about 110 m in length (each) are required. Additional equipment is also located in the port cell

  15. Neutronics Experiment on A HCPB Breeder Blanket Mock-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paola Batistoni, P.; Angelone, M.; Bettinali, L.

    2006-01-01

    A neutronics experiment has been performed in the frame of European Fusion Technology Program on a mock-up of the EU Test Blanket Module (TBM), Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) concept, with the objective to validate the capability of nuclear data to predict nuclear responses, such as the tritium production rate (TPR), with qualified uncertainties. The experiment has been carried out at the FNG 14-MeV neutron source in collaboration between ENEA, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, J. Stefan Institute Ljubljana and with the participation of JAEA. The mock-up, designed in such a way to replicate all relevant nuclear features of the TBM-HCPB, consisted of a steel box containing beryllium block and two intermediate steel cassettes, filled with of Li 2 CO 3 powder, replicating the breeder insert main characteristics: radial thickness, distance between ceramic layers, thickness of ceramic layers and of steel walls. In the experiment, the TPR has been measured using Li 2 CO 3 pellets at various depths at two symmetrical positions at each depth, one in the upper and one in the lower cassette. Twelve pellets were used at each position to determine the TPR profile through the cassette. Three independent measurements were performed by ENEA, TUD/VKTA and JAEA. The neutron flux in the beryllium layer was measured as well using activation foils. The measured tritium production in the TBM (E) was compared with the same quantity (C) calculated by the MCNP.4c using a very detailed model of the experimental set up, and using neutron cross sections from the European Fusion File (EFF ver.3.1) and from the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL ver. 2.1, ITER reference neutron library). C/E ratios were obtained with a total uncertainty on the C/E comparison less than 9% (2 s). A sensitivity and uncertainty analysis has also been performed to evaluate the calculation uncertainty due to the uncertainty on neutron cross sections. The results of such

  16. Neutronics experiments, radiation detectors and nuclear techniques development in the EU in support of the TBM design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelone, M., E-mail: maurizio.angelone@enea.it [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45-00044 Frascati (Italy); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Flammini, D. [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45-00044 Frascati (Italy); Jodlowski, P. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Klix, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kodeli, I. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kuc, T. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Leichtle, D. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Lilley, S. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Majerle, M.; Novák, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Ostachowicz, B. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Packer, L.W. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pillon, M. [ENEA UT-FUS C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45-00044 Frascati (Italy); Pohorecki, W. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Radulović, V. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Šimečková, E. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Řež 130, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A number of experiments and tests are ongoing to develop detectors and methods for HCLL and HCPM ITER-TBM. • Experiments for measuring gas production relevant to IFMIF are also performed using a cyclotron. • A benchmark experiment with a Cu block is performed to validate copper cross sections. • Experimental techniques to measure tritium in TBM are presented. • Experimental verification of activation cross sections for a Neutron Activation System for TBM is addressed. - Abstract: The development of high quality nuclear data, radiation detectors and instrumentation techniques for fusion technology applications in Europe is supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E) and conducted in a joint and collaborative effort by several European research associations (ENEA, KIT, JSI, NPI, AGH, and CCFE) joined to form the “Consortium on Nuclear Data Studies/Experiments in Support of TBM Activities”. This paper presents the neutronics activities carried out by the Consortium. A selection of available results are presented. Among then a benchmark experiment on a pure copper block to study the Cu cross sections at neutron energies relevant to fusion, the fabrication of prototype neutron detectors able to withstand harsh environment and temperature >200 °C (artificial diamond and self-powered detectors) developed for operating in ITER-TBM as well as measurement of relevant activation and integral gas production cross-sections. The latter measured at neutron energies relevant to IFMIF (>14 MeV) and the development of innovative experimental techniques for tritium measurement in TBM.

  17. Activation and afterheat analyses for the HCPB test blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.

    2007-01-01

    The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of two breeder blanket concepts developed in the framework of the European Fusion Technology Programme for performance tests in ITER. The recent development programme focussed on the detailed engineering design of the Test Blanket Module (TBM) and associated systems including the assessment of safety and licensing related issues with the objective to prepare for a preliminary Safety Report. To provide a sound data basis for the safety analyses of the HCPB TBM system in ITER, the afterheat and activity inventories were assessed making use of a code system that allows performing 3D activation calculations by linking the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP and the fusion inventory code FISPACT through an appropriate interface. A suitable MCNP model of a 20 degree ITER torus sector with an integrated TBM of the HCPB PI (Plant Integration) type in the horizontal test blanket port was developed and adapted to the requirements for coupled 3D neutron transport and activation calculations. Two different irradiation scenarios were considered in the coupled 3D neutron transport and activation calculations. The first one is representative for the TBM irradiation in ITER with a total of 9000 neutron pulses over a three (calendar) years period. It was simulated by a continuous irradiation for 3 years minus the last month and a discontinuous irradiation with 250 pulses (420 s pulse length, 1200 s power-off in between) over the last month. The second (conservative) irradiation scenario assumes an extended irradiation time over the full anticipated lifetime of ITER according to the M-DRG-1 irradiation scenario with a total first wall fluence of 0.3 MWa/m 2 . For both irradiation scenarios the radioactivity inventories, the afterheat and the contact gamma dose were calculated as function of the decay time. Data were processed for the total activity and afterheat of the TBM, its constituting components and materials including their

  18. Neutronics experiments, radiation detectors and nuclear techniques development in the EU in support of the TBM design for ITER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelone, M.; Fischer, U.; Flammini, D.; Jodlowski, P.; Klix, A.; Klodeli, I.; Kuc, T.; Leichtle, D.; Lilley, S.; Majerle, Mitja; Novák, Jan; Ostachowicz, B.; Packer, L.; Pillon, M.; Pohorecki, W.; Radulovic, V.; Šimečková, Eva; Štefánik, Milan; Villari, R.

    96-97, OCT (2015), s. 2-7 ISSN 0920-3796. [28th Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT). San Sebastian, 29.09.2014-03.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ITER-TBM * nuclear measurements * nuclear detectors Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.301, year: 2015

  19. Activation and afterheat analyses for the HCPB test blanket module in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.

    2008-01-01

    To provide a sound data basis for the safety analyses of the HCPB TBM system in ITER, the afterheat and activity inventories were assessed making use of a code system that allows performing 3D activation calculations by linking the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP and the fusion inventory code FISPACT through an appropriate interface. A suitable MCNP model of a 20 deg. ITER torus sector with an integrated TBM of the HCPB PI (plant integration) type in the horizontal test blanket port was developed and adapted to the requirements for coupled 3D neutron transport and activation calculations. Two different irradiation scenarios were considered in the coupled 3D neutron transport and activation calculations. The first one is representative for the TBM irradiation in ITER with a total of 9000 neutron pulses over a 3 (calendar) years period. The second (conservative) irradiation scenario assumes an extended irradiation time over the full anticipated lifetime of ITER. The radioactivity inventories, the afterheat and the contact gamma dose were calculated as function of the decay time. Data were processed for the total activity, afterheat and contact dose rates of the TBM, its constituting components and materials

  20. Non-linear failure analysis of HCPB blanket for DEMO taking into account high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktaa, J., E-mail: jarir.aktaa@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kecskés, S.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.; Boccaccini, L.V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • First non-linear structural analysis for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Module taking into account high dose irradiation. • Most critical areas were identified and analyzed with regard to the effect of irradiation on predicted damage at these areas. • Despite the extensive computing time 100 cycles were simulated by using the sub-modelling technique investigating damage at most critical area. • The results show a positive effect of irradiation on calculated damage which is mainly attributed to the irradiation induced hardening. - Abstract: For the European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket of DEMO the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER has been selected as structural material. During operation the HCPB blanket will be subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings and high irradiation doses. Taking into account the material and structural behaviour under these conditions is a precondition for a reliable blanket design. For considering high dose irradiation in structural analysis of the DEMO blanket, the coupled deformation damage model, extended recently taking into account the influence of high dose irradiation on the material behaviour of EUROFER and implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, has been used. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations of the DEMO HCPB blanket have been performed considering the design of the HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) as reference and the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions of previous analyses. The irradiation dose rate required at each position in the structure as an additional loading parameter is estimated by extrapolating the results available for the TBM in ITER scaling the value calculated in neutronics and activation analysis for ITER boundary conditions to the DEMO boundary conditions. The results of the FE simulations are evaluated considering damage at most critical highly loaded areas of the structure and discussed with regard to the impact of

  1. Non-linear failure analysis of HCPB blanket for DEMO taking into account high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaa, J.; Kecskés, S.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.; Boccaccini, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First non-linear structural analysis for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Module taking into account high dose irradiation. • Most critical areas were identified and analyzed with regard to the effect of irradiation on predicted damage at these areas. • Despite the extensive computing time 100 cycles were simulated by using the sub-modelling technique investigating damage at most critical area. • The results show a positive effect of irradiation on calculated damage which is mainly attributed to the irradiation induced hardening. - Abstract: For the European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket of DEMO the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER has been selected as structural material. During operation the HCPB blanket will be subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings and high irradiation doses. Taking into account the material and structural behaviour under these conditions is a precondition for a reliable blanket design. For considering high dose irradiation in structural analysis of the DEMO blanket, the coupled deformation damage model, extended recently taking into account the influence of high dose irradiation on the material behaviour of EUROFER and implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, has been used. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations of the DEMO HCPB blanket have been performed considering the design of the HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) as reference and the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions of previous analyses. The irradiation dose rate required at each position in the structure as an additional loading parameter is estimated by extrapolating the results available for the TBM in ITER scaling the value calculated in neutronics and activation analysis for ITER boundary conditions to the DEMO boundary conditions. The results of the FE simulations are evaluated considering damage at most critical highly loaded areas of the structure and discussed with regard to the impact of

  2. Current design of the European TBM systems and implications on DEMO breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito; Calderoni, P. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A. [ENEA, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, Bo (Italy); Ghidersa, B. [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Poitevin, Y.; Pacheco, J. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Description of the Helium Cooling Systems of HCLL and HCPB-TBS after the Conceptual Design Review. • Description of the PbLi loop of HCLL-TBS after the Conceptual Design Review. • Description of the possible ROX (Return of Experience) from design and operation of the Test Blanket Systems. • Discussion on the DEBO relevancy of the main technologies adopted in the Helium Cooling Systems and PbLi loop. - Abstract: Europe is committed in developing the design of the two Test Blanket Systems (TBS) based on HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) breeding blanket (BB) concepts. The complexity of the TBS design comes not only from the innovative fabrication technologies and materials adopted for Test Blanket Modules (TBM) but also from the requirements and functions that the TBM ancillary systems have to satisfy and implement. Indeed, the main TBM ancillary systems, namely the Helium Cooling System, the Coolant Purification System and Tritium Extraction System, all belonging to the Safety Important Class (SIC), have to implement fundamental functions, like the transport of the surface and volumetric heat from the TBM to the heat sink, the extraction and processing of the tritium generated in the TBM, the confinement of radioactive inventory, the support to the investment protection and safety functions. On top of the full compliance with the ITER safety principles, the design of the TBM systems is focused on providing high operational reliability and availability not to jeopardize ITER program and, at the same time, also a good operational flexibility to make possible the achievement of the main TBM scientific objectives. This paper gives an overview of the design status of the HCLL and HCPB-TBM (ancillary) systems, updated to the conclusion of the conceptual design phase (CDR). The most relevant technologies, the still open points, the main issues related to the integration in ITER and last relevant results from the on

  3. Feasibility study of a neutron activation system for EU test blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Kuo, E-mail: kuo.tian@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Calderoni, Pattrick [Fusion for Energy(F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Klix, Axel [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper summarizes the technical baseline and preliminary design of EU TBM Neutron Activation System, briefly describes the key components, and outlines the major integration challenges. - Abstract: The Neutron Activation System (NAS) for the EU Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) and Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) is an instrument that is proposed to determine the absolute neutron fluence and absolute neutron flux with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the corresponding Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). In the NAS activation probes are exposed to the ITER neutron flux for periods ranging from several tens of seconds up to a full plasma pulse length, and the induced gamma activities are subsequently measured. The NAS is composed of a pneumatic transfer system and a counting station. The pneumatic transfer system includes irradiation ends in TBMs, transfer pipes, return gas pipes, a transfer station with a distributor (carousel), and a pressurized gas driving system, while the counting station consists of gamma ray detectors, signal processing electronic devices, and data analyzing software for neutron source strength evaluation. In this paper, a brief description on the proposed TBM NAS as well as the key components is presented, and the integration challenges of TBM NAS are outlined.

  4. Preliminary engineering assessment of the HCLL and HCPB Neutron Activation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, Pattrick; Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona, (Spain); Angelone, Maurizio [ENEA, Unita Tecnica Fusione, Frascati, (Italy); Klix, Axel [KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Neutron Activation System (NAS) is one of the four types of neutronics sensors considered for the testing of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER. It measures the absolute neutron flux intensity with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the TBM. The working principle of the NAS is as follows: the system moves small activation probes (capsules) into selected positions in the TBM (irradiation ends) by means of pneumatic transport with pressurized helium gas; the capsules are irradiated for a selected period, depending on their materials composition (several tens of seconds up to the full plasma pulse length); immediately after the irradiation they are extracted and transported to a gamma spectrometer by means of the same pneumatic transport system; the gamma spectrometer determines the induced gamma activity; the neutron flux and neutron fluence is calculated from the measured gamma activity and the known activation cross section of the materials in the activation probe; after the measurement the capsule is sent either to a disposal or storage (for later measurement). This paper summarizes the results of the feasibility assessment of the TBM NAS in the conceptual design phase, including design justification, identification of requirements based on the expected operating conditions in ITER and preliminary engineering assessment of the activation materials, irradiation ends integration in the modules design and the counting station. (authors)

  5. Measurement and Analysis of the Neutron and Gamma-Ray Flux Spectra in a Neutronics Mock-Up of the HCPB Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, K.; Freiesleben, H.; Poenitz, E.; Klix, A.; Unholzer, S.; Batistoni, P.; Fischer, U.; Leichtle, D.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear parameters of a breeding blanket, such as tritium production rate, nuclear heating, activation and dose rate, are calculated by integral folding of an energy dependent cross section (or coefficient) with the neutron (or gamma-ray) flux energy spectra. The uncertainties of the designed parameters are determined by the uncertainties of both the cross section data and the flux spectra obtained by transport calculations. Also the analysis of possible discrepancies between measured and calculated integral nuclear parameter represents a two-step procedure. First, the energy region and the amount of flux discrepancies has to be found out and second, the cross section data have to be checked. To this end, neutron and gamma-ray flux spectra in a mock-up of the EU Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeder Test Blanket Module (TBM), irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons, were measured and analysed by means of Monte Carlo transport calculations. The flux spectra were determined for the energy ranges that are relevant for the most important nuclear parameters of the TBM, which are the tritium production rate and the shielding capability. The fast neutron flux which determines the tritium production on 7 Li and dominates the shield design was measured by the pulse-height distribution obtained from an organic liquid scintillation detector. Simultaneously, the gamma-ray flux spectra were measured. The neutron flux at lower energies, down to thermal, which determines the tritium production on 6 Li, was measured with time-of-arrival spectroscopy. For this purpose, the TUD neutron generator was operated in pulsed mode (pulse width 10 μs, frequency 1 kHz) and the neutrons arriving at a 3 He proportional counter in the mock-up were recorded as a function of time after the source neutron pulse. The spectral distributions for the two positions in the mock-up, where measurements were carried out, were calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, version 5, and nuclear data from the

  6. Construction of PREMUX and preliminary experimental results, as preparation for the HCPB breeder unit mock-up testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, F., E-mail: francisco.hernandez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Kolb, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT) (Germany); Annabattula, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Department of Mechanical Engineering (India); Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • PREMUX has been constructed as preparation for a future out-of-pile thermo-mechanical qualification of a HCPB breeder unit mock-up. • The rationale and constructive details of PREMUX are reported in this paper. • PREMUX serves as a test rig for the new heater system developed for the HCPB-BU mock-up. • PREMUX will be used as benchmark for the thermal and thermo-mechanical models developed in ANSYS for the pebble beds of the HCPB-BU. • Preliminary results show the functionality of PREMUX and the good agreement of the measured temperatures with the thermal model developed in ANSYS. - Abstract: One of the European blanket designs for ITER is the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket. The core of the HCPB-TBM consists of so-called breeder units (BUs), which encloses beryllium as neutron multiplier and lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) as tritium breeder in form of pebble beds. After the design phase of the HCPB-BU, a non-nuclear thermal and thermo-mechanical qualification program for this device is running at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Before the complex full scale BU testing, a pre-test mock-up experiment (PREMUX) has been constructed, which consists of a slice of the BU containing the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed. PREMUX is going to be operated under highly ITER-relevant conditions and has the following goals: (1) as a testing rig of new heater concept based on a matrix of wire heaters, (2) as benchmark for the existing finite element method (FEM) codes used for the thermo-mechanical assessment of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed, and (3) in situ measurement of thermal conductivity of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed during the tests. This paper describes the construction of PREMUX, its rationale and the experimental campaign planned with the device. Preliminary results testing the algorithm used for the temperature reconstruction of the pebble bed are reported and compared qualitatively with first analyses

  7. Strategy for the development of EU Test Blanket Systems instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, P., E-mail: Pattrick.Calderoni@f4e.europa.eu; Ricapito, I.; Poitevin, Y.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We developed a strategy for the development of instrumentation for EU ITER TBSs. • TBSs instrumentation functions: safety, operation and scientific mission. • Described activities are in support of ITER design review process. -- Abstract: The instrumentation of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket System is fundamental in ensuring that ITER safety and operational requirements are satisfied as well as in enabling the scientific mission of the TBM program. It carries out three essential functions: (i) safety, intended as compliance with ITER requirements toward public and workers protection; (ii) system control, intended as compliance with ITER operational requirements and investment protection; and (iii) scientific mission, intended as validating technology and predictive tools for blanket concepts relevant to fusion energy systems. This paper describes the strategy for instrumentation development by providing details of the following five steps to be implemented in procured activities in the short to mid-term (3–4 years): (i) provide mapping of sensors requirements based on critical review of preliminary design data; (ii) develop functional specifications for TBS sensors based on the analysis of operative conditions in the various ITER buildings in which they are located; (iii) assess availability of commercial sensors against developed specifications; (iv) develop prototypes when no available solution is identified; and (v) perform single effect tests for the most critical solicitations and post-test examination of commercial products and prototypes. Examples of technology assessment in two technical areas are included to reinforce and complement the strategy description.

  8. MCNP calculations for the HCPB submodules in-pile test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pijlgroms, B.J. [Section Nuclear and Reactor Physics, ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    This report describes the MCNP calculations that have been performed for the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Submodules In-pile Test that has been planned for irradiation in the materials testing High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten. In this test, four HSM-8 submodules will be placed at core position H4. The report presents the neutron flux and power density profiles to be expected in the submodules. For the gamma induced heating only a rough estimation could be made. In the HCPB submodules the total specific heating does not exceed (36.7 {+-} 2.9)[W/cc]. 8 refs.

  9. RAMI analysis for DEMO HCPB blanket concept cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongiovanni, Danilo N., E-mail: danilo.dongiovanni@enea.it [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Pinna, Tonio [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Carloni, Dario [KIT, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) – KIT (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) preliminary assessment for HCPB blanket concept cooling system. • Reliability block diagram (RBD) modeling and analysis for HCPB primary heat transfer system (PHTS), coolant purification system (CPS), pressure control system (PCS), and secondary cooling system. • Sensitivity analysis on system availability performance. • Failure models and repair models estimated on the base of data from the ENEA fusion component failure rate database (FCFRDB). - Abstract: A preliminary RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) assessment for the HCPB (helium cooled pebble bed) blanket cooling system based on currently available design for DEMO fusion power plant is presented. The following sub-systems were considered in the analysis: blanket modules, primary cooling loop including pipework and steam generators lines, pressure control system (PCS), coolant purification system (CPS) and secondary cooling system. For PCS and CPS systems an extrapolation from ITER Test Blanket Module corresponding systems was used as reference design in the analysis. Helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) system reliability block diagrams (RBD) models were implemented taking into account: system reliability-wise configuration, operating schedule currently foreseen for DEMO, maintenance schedule and plant evolution schedule as well as failure and corrective maintenance models. A simulation of plant activity was then performed on implemented RBDs to estimate plant availability performance on a mission time of 30 calendar years. The resulting availability performance was finally compared to availability goals previously proposed for DEMO plant by a panel of experts. The study suggests that inherent availability goals proposed for DEMO PHTS system and Tokamak auxiliaries are potentially achievable for the primary loop of the HCPB concept cooling system, but not for the secondary loop. A

  10. Structural analysis of ITER TBM Frame and Dummy TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Anna; Kim, Byoung Yoon; Bertolini, Claudio; Lucca, Flavio; Komarov, Victor; Merola, Mario; Giancarli, Luciano; Gicquel, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    One of the main engineering performance goals of ITER is to test and validate design concepts of tritium breeding blankets. To accomplish these goals, three ITER equatorial ports are dedicated to the test of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) that are mock-ups of tritium breeding blankets. These TBMs, associated with appropriate shield blocks, will also provide the same thermal and nuclear shielding as the main blanket. The main function of TBM Port Plug (PP) is to accommodate TBMs and provide a standardized interface with the vacuum vessel (VV)/port structure. The feasibility of the design concept of the Frame including two Dummy TBMs has been investigated by proposing design improvements of the reference design through an extensive set of thermal, electromagnetic (EM) and stress analyses. As well, the related static strength was evaluated in accordance with the structural design criteria for ITER in-vessel components (SDC-IC). This paper outlines the engineering aspects of the ITER TBM Frame and Dummy TBM and focuses on the feasibility of the present design by structural assessment

  11. European TBM for ITER: Structural material assessment and breeding capability - Comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreras, Y.; Perlado, J.M.; Ibarra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The ITER European Party is currently developing for DEMO reactor specifications two breeding blanket concepts: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead blanket (HCLL), using a liquid breeder; and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed blanket (HCPB), using a lithiated solid breeder. These two research lines are expected to be tested in ITER as Test Blanket Modules (TBM), in order to demonstrate their safety, economical and environmental suitability. In this sense, structural material activation and breeding blanket capability represent two major challenges. This paper presents new calculations regarding neutronic irradiation inside the ITER Vacuum Vessel. In particular, results are focused on the irradiation affecting the equatorial ports, where the TBM will be located for testing. The methodology employed mainly consists in calculating the neutronic irradiation levels at the required locations with the transport code MCNP, where the input geometry has been previously designed with the program CATIA V5. The main structural materials proposed for the European Test blanket Modules are selected in order to carry out a comparative analysis in safety terms: material activation and basic parameters for damage analysis are evaluated with the code ACAB, based on the neutronic irradiation results mentioned above. Finally, the breeding blanket capability is assessed for both breeding blanket concepts; the results are compared considering the choice of the structural material. (authors)

  12. Design of the breeder units in the new HCPB modular blanket concept and material requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Fischer, U.; Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.; Xu, Z.; Koehly, C.

    2004-01-01

    A major revision of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept took place in 2002-2003 as consequence of the results of the EU Power Plant Conceptual Study. In particular, it was decided to give up the previous maintenance schema based on segments in favour of a large module concept extrapolated from ITER. The adaptation of the HCPB concept to these modules (typical dimension at the FW of 2.0 x 2.0 m) required a complete revision of the box. The coolant flow scheme is based on a radial He flow (at 8 MPa) in order to have the entire manifold system in the rear part of the box. Furthermore, the requirement of a box capable of withstanding the coolant pressure of 8 MPa in case of an in-box LOCA led to a design of modules with an internal stiffening grid in toroidal and poloidal direction This grid results in cells open in the rear radial direction with toroidal-poloidal dimensions of about 20 cm x 20 cm that accommodate the breeder units. These units contain the ceramic breeder (CB) and the Beryllium in form of pebble beds and have to assure the main functions of the blanket, namely, a tritium breeding ratio significantly above one, heat removal with a temperature control in the beds and in the structure, mechanical stability of the beds and extraction of the produced tritium. Due to the relatively high quantity of steel necessary to assure the mechanical stability of the box, a strong requirement for the design of these units is to minimise the amount of steel to improve the neutronic performance. A satisfactory design has been achieved with a radial-toroidal bed configuration similar to the old DEMO design reaching the Tritium self-sufficiency with a radial depth of 47 cm, using monosized Beryllium and CB beds and, using Li 4 SiO 4 , a 6 Li enrichment of about 40%. This design allows a satisfactory control of the maximum acceptable temperatures in the CB and Be beds and the steel structure. The design of the breeder units has not been yet analysed thermo-mechanically in detail

  13. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter; Borchorst, Anette

    2002-01-01

    Der er et komplekst forhold mellem EU og den danske velfærdsstat. Den sociale dimension i det europæiske samarbejde er splittet mellem et pres mod harmonisering og pres for at fastholde national suverænitet. Negativ integration har været den foretrukne interventionsform. Drivkræfterne har især...

  14. EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    2008-01-01

    politiske sigte er, at det tværnationale samarbejde skal øge den politiske og kulturelle samhørighed landene imellem. I det dansk-tyske grænseområde har EU gennem mange år forsøgt at medvirke til øge samarbejdet over grænsen. Der er ydet økonomisk og politisk støtte til forskellige projekter, der kan styrke...

  15. Inzicht interactie tussen TBM en doorboorde grond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festa, D.

    2012-01-01

    Doordat er onvoldoende bekend is over de interactie tussen de tunnelboormachine (TBM) en de doorboorde grond zijn zettingspredicties niet altijd realistisch. Daniele Festa, promovendus aan de TU Delft, wil het inzicht in de TBM-grondinteractie verbeteren door enerzijds het gedrag van het boorschild

  16. Current progress of Chinese HCCB TBM program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Kaiming, E-mail: fengkm@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Shuang Liu, Chengdu 610225 (China); Wang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Yongjin; Chen, Yanjing; Zhao, Zhou; Li, Zaixin; Wang, Pinghua; Wang, Qijie; Ye, Xingfu; Zhao, Fengchao; Zhang, Long; Wang, Feng; Chao, Qixiang; Wu, Xinghua; Wang, Yanlin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Yang, Li; Chen, Yinfen; Yu, Guo [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Shuang Liu, Chengdu 610225 (China); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • China plan to test own test blanket modules (TBM) during ITER different operation phase (H-H,D-D, D-T). • A preliminary design (PD) of HCCB TBM have being performed since 2014. • In order to reduce the effects of magnetic field ripple, the HCCB TBM design has been updated with reduced RAFM mass. • Related R&D on key components fabrication, welding technology, materials development, He test loop constraction and mock-up test of TBM modules and components have being implemented. • The current status on design and related R&D, as well as the development of auxiliary system (TES, CPS,HCS, etc.,) of Chinese HCCB TBS program ware overviewed. - Abstract: ITER is an unique opportunity to test tritium breeding blanket mock-ups in integrated Tokamak operating conditions. Helium-cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) test blanket module will be the primary option of the Chinese ITER TBM program. China plans to test its own test blanket modules (TBM) during ITER different operation phase (H-H,D-D, D-T). A preliminary design of HCCB TBM have been completed in 2013. In order to reduce the effects of magnetic field ripple, the HCCB TBM design has been updated with reduced RAFM mass recently. Related R&D on key components fabrication, welding technology, materials development and mock-up test of TBM modules and components have being implemented. In this paper, the current status on design and related R&D, as well as the development of auxiliary system (TES, CPS,HCS, etc.,) of Chinese HCCB TBS program were introduced.

  17. Current progress of Chinese HCCB TBM program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Kaiming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Yongjin; Chen, Yanjing; Zhao, Zhou; Li, Zaixin; Wang, Pinghua; Wang, Qijie; Ye, Xingfu; Zhao, Fengchao; Zhang, Long; Wang, Feng; Chao, Qixiang; Wu, Xinghua; Wang, Yanlin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Yang, Li; Chen, Yinfen; Yu, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • China plan to test own test blanket modules (TBM) during ITER different operation phase (H-H,D-D, D-T). • A preliminary design (PD) of HCCB TBM have being performed since 2014. • In order to reduce the effects of magnetic field ripple, the HCCB TBM design has been updated with reduced RAFM mass. • Related R&D on key components fabrication, welding technology, materials development, He test loop constraction and mock-up test of TBM modules and components have being implemented. • The current status on design and related R&D, as well as the development of auxiliary system (TES, CPS,HCS, etc.,) of Chinese HCCB TBS program ware overviewed. - Abstract: ITER is an unique opportunity to test tritium breeding blanket mock-ups in integrated Tokamak operating conditions. Helium-cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) test blanket module will be the primary option of the Chinese ITER TBM program. China plans to test its own test blanket modules (TBM) during ITER different operation phase (H-H,D-D, D-T). A preliminary design of HCCB TBM have been completed in 2013. In order to reduce the effects of magnetic field ripple, the HCCB TBM design has been updated with reduced RAFM mass recently. Related R&D on key components fabrication, welding technology, materials development and mock-up test of TBM modules and components have being implemented. In this paper, the current status on design and related R&D, as well as the development of auxiliary system (TES, CPS,HCS, etc.,) of Chinese HCCB TBS program were introduced.

  18. The design decisions of breeding zone sub-module for testing in ITER in order to validate the CHC TBM concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshukov, A.Yu.; Kapyshev, V.K.; Kartashev, I.A.; Kovalenko, V.G.; Razmerov, A.V.; Sviridenko, M.N.; Strebkov, Yu.S.

    2010-01-01

    Russian Federation has adopted the strategy to participate in the TBM Program on the rights of 'Partner' in the development of ceramic helium-cooled (CHC) test blanket module (TBM) concept. In this connection one of the possible collaboration scenarios is to integrate the characteristic design element of RF concept in the structure of 'Leader's' TBM and to test it in ITER environment. According to the collaboration in the framework of Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) the 'Leader' and 'Partner' should develop together the selected (DEMO-relevant) TBM concept which will not disturb the ITER operation. Because of the analogue in the design principles, testing objectives and parameters of the EU CHC TBM concept ('Leader') and of the RF one, the RF specialists have developed the design options of breeding zone sub-module (BZSM) to be integrated in one of the EU TBM cells for further testing in ITER. There are four BZSM design options (according to four types of TBM to be tested) have been developed. Brief explanation of RF strategy in the partnership for the development of CHC blanket concept is presented in this paper. This paper also contains the description of all the four BZSM designs and some technological features.

  19. Set-up of a pre-test mock-up experiment in preparation for the HCPB Breeder Unit mock-up experimental campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, F., E-mail: francisco.hernandez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Kolb, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT) (Germany); Ilić, M.; Kunze, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Németh, J. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary); Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► As preparation for the HCPB-TBM Breeder Unit out-of-pile testing campaign, a pre-test experiment (PREMUX) has been prepared and described. ► A new heater system based on a wire heater matrix has been developed for imitating the neutronic volumetric heating and it is compared with the conventional plate heaters. ► The test section is described and preliminary thermal results with the available models are presented and are to be benchmarked with PREMUX. ► The PREMUX integration in the air cooling loop L-STAR/LL in the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology is shown and future steps are discussed. -- Abstract: The complexity of the experimental set-up for testing a full-scaled Breeder Unit (BU) mock-up for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) has motivated to build a pre-test mock-up experiment (PREMUX) consisting of a slice of the BU in the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} region. This pre-test aims at verifying the feasibility of the methods to be used for the subsequent testing of the full-scaled BU mock-up. Key parameters needed for the modeling of the breeder material is also to be determined by the Hot Wire Method (HWM). The modeling tools for the thermo-mechanics of the pebble beds and for the mock-up structure are to be calibrated and validated as well. This paper presents the setting-up of PREMUX in the L-STAR/LL facility at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. A key requirement of the experiments is to mimic the neutronic volumetric heating. A new heater concept is discussed and compared to several conventional heater configurations with respect to the estimated temperature distribution in the pebble beds. The design and integration of the thermocouple system in the heater matrix and pebble beds is also described, as well as other key aspects of the mock-up (dimensions, layout, cooling system, purge gas line, boundary conditions and integration in the test facility). The adequacy of these methods for the full-scaled BU

  20. Neutron Measurement Instrumentation Development at KIT for the European ITER TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klix, A.; Fischer, U.; Raj, P.; Reimann, Th.; Szalkai, D.; Tian, K. [Association KIT-EURATOM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Angelone, M. [Associazione ENEA-EURATOM sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R., I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Gehre, D. [Technical University of Dresden, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    SPND which would be sensitive also to the fast neutron flux expected in the TBMs. To this end simulations were done with the European Activation System EASY and neutron flux spectra which were calculated with MCNP for the HCPB TBM. Preliminary tests with commercial SPND in a fast reactor were performed. As a result of these activities, several materials have been found which may be suitable for the measurement of fast neutron fluxes in the TBM. Test detectors are under preparation for testing with DT neutron generators. Within the I{sub S}MART project, funded by KIC InnoEnergy, KIT is developing an online detector based on silicon carbide electronics for the TBMs. The operation of such detectors at TBM relevant temperatures is expected to incur lower accumulated radiation damage to them than at room temperature due to annealing effects. Detectors of several designs have been already irradiated with DT neutrons. Irradiation tests at elevated temperatures have been done and further tests are currently underway. This paper summarizes the status of the work for these three neutron flux monitor systems. (authors)

  1. Full scale test platform for European TBM systems integration and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vála, Ladislav, E-mail: ladislav.vala@cvrez.cz; Reungoat, Mathieu; Vician, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A platform for EU-TBS maintenance and integration tests is described. • Its modular design allows adaptation to non-EU TBSs. • Assembling of the facility will be followed by initial tests in 2016. - Abstract: This article deals with description and current status of a project of a non-nuclear, full size (1:1 scale) test platform dedicated to tests, optimization and validation of integration and maintenance operations for the European TBM systems in the ITER port cell #16. The facility called TBM platform reproduces the ITER port cell #16 and port interspace with all the relevant interfaces and mock-ups of the corresponding main components. Thanks to the modular design of the platform, it is possible to adapt or change completely the interfaces in the future if needed or required according to the updated configuration of TBSs. In the same way, based on customer requirements, it will be possible to adapt the interfaces and piping inside the mock-ups in order to represent also the other, non-EU configurations of TBM systems designed for port cells #02 and #18. Construction of this test platform is realized and funded within the scope of the SUSEN project.

  2. Progress on solid breeder TBM at SWIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Pan, C.H.; Zhang, G.S.; Luo, T.Y.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, Y.J.; Ye, X.F.; Hu, G.; Wang, P.H.; Yuan, T.; Feng, Y.J.; Xiang, B.; Zhang, L.; Wang, Q.J.; Cao, Q.X.; Li, Z.X.; Wang, F.

    2010-01-01

    Current progress on the design and R and D of Chinese helium-cooled solid breeder test blanket module, CN HCSB TBM is presented. The updated design on structural, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis has been completed. In order to accommodate the HCSB TBM ancillary system, the design and necessary R and Ds corresponding sub-systems have being developed. Current status on the development of function materials, structure material and the helium test loop are also presented. The Chinese low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels CLF-1, which is the structural material for the HCSB TBM is being manufactured by industry. The neutron multiplier Be and tritium breeder Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles are being prepared in laboratory scale.

  3. Status of ITER TBM port plug conceptual design and analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Yoon, E-mail: byoungyoon.kim@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Sabourin, Flavien; Merola, Mario; Giancarli, Luciano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Villari, R. [ENEA Frascati (Italy); Di Maio, P.A. [University of Palermo (Italy); Lucca, F.; Marconi, M. [LTCalcoli, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy); Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •ITER TBM PP conceptual design with two dummy TBMs was summarized. •TBM PP shielding capability was assessed to allow hands-on operation. •TBM PP steady state hydraulic performance was investigated. •EM and structural analysis was performed to evaluate structural margin. -- Abstract: The test blanket module port plug (TBM PP) consists of a TBM frame and two TBM-sets. However, at any time of the ITER operation, a TBM set can be replaced by a dummy TBM. The frame provides a standardized interface with the vacuum vessel (VV)/port structure and provides thermal isolation from the shield blanket. As one of the plasma-facing components, it shall withstand heat loads while at the same time provide adequate neutron shielding for the VV and magnet coils. The frame design shall provide a stable engineering solution to hold TBM-sets and also provide a mean for rapid remote handling replacement and refurbishment. This paper presents main design features of the conceptual design of TBM PP with two dummy TBMs. Also analysis results are summarized to evaluate shielding, hydraulic, and thermal and structural performances of the TBM PP design.

  4. Status of ITER TBM port plug conceptual design and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Yoon; Sabourin, Flavien; Merola, Mario; Giancarli, Luciano; Villari, R.; Di Maio, P.A.; Lucca, F.; Marconi, M.; Levesy, B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •ITER TBM PP conceptual design with two dummy TBMs was summarized. •TBM PP shielding capability was assessed to allow hands-on operation. •TBM PP steady state hydraulic performance was investigated. •EM and structural analysis was performed to evaluate structural margin. -- Abstract: The test blanket module port plug (TBM PP) consists of a TBM frame and two TBM-sets. However, at any time of the ITER operation, a TBM set can be replaced by a dummy TBM. The frame provides a standardized interface with the vacuum vessel (VV)/port structure and provides thermal isolation from the shield blanket. As one of the plasma-facing components, it shall withstand heat loads while at the same time provide adequate neutron shielding for the VV and magnet coils. The frame design shall provide a stable engineering solution to hold TBM-sets and also provide a mean for rapid remote handling replacement and refurbishment. This paper presents main design features of the conceptual design of TBM PP with two dummy TBMs. Also analysis results are summarized to evaluate shielding, hydraulic, and thermal and structural performances of the TBM PP design

  5. The TBM-CA configuration management approach for the ITER test blanket module - application to the HCLL TBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourd'Heuil, L.; Panayotov, D.; Salavy, J.-F.; Storto, C.; Colombo, M.; Sardain, P.

    2011-01-01

    The European Test Blanket Modules (EU-TBM) are first prototypes of a fusion reactor breeding blanket. They will be tested in dedicated equatorial ports n o 16 of ITER. Technical developments are performed by a Consortium of European Associates (TBM-CA) and supported within the framework of F4E agency. Designing a complex nuclear system like TBM for ITER necessitates an organizational structure inside the consortium to manage in permanence the coherence between requirements (F4E technical and management specifications) and the TBM development through their life time. At the present stage, evolutionary nature of the design from the different teams is important. Highest priority is assigned to the Management support and Design Integration Team (MDIT) to perform an efficient control of the Configuration Management (CM). The TBM-CA CM comprises 4 main processes: a) identifying configuration of a product characteristics, including its interfaces (Configuration identification), b) controlling the evolution from agreed baseline (Configuration Control), c) creating the knowledge database in order to manage the information all along the lifecycle of the items (Configuration status accounting) and d) verifying the current configuration status of the items (Audits). CM is then a powerful tool to link the requirements for engineering, safety, quality assurance and test and acceptance activities. The application of the CM approach is illustrated through the case of TBM-HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead). The result shows that the proposed methodology and tools are suitable and provide quality solution for the items with a complex configuration such as TBM HCLL.

  6. Preliminary Shielding Analysis for HCCB TBM Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Peng; Zhao, Fengchao; Cao, Qixiang; Zhang, Guoshu; Feng, Kaiming

    2015-09-01

    A preliminary shielding analysis on the transport of the Chinese helium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (HCCB TBM) from France back to China after being irradiated in ITER is presented in this contribution. Emphasis was placed on irradiation safety during transport. The dose rate calculated by MCNP/4C for the conceptual package design satisfies the relevant dose limits from IAEA that the dose rate 3 m away from the surface of the package containing low specific activity III materials should be less than 10 mSv/h. The change with location and the time evolution of dose rates after shutdown have also been studied. This will be helpful for devising the detailed transport plan of HCCB TBM back to China in the near future. supported by the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2013GB108000)

  7. Electromagnetic study on HCCR TBM for ITER major disruption scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Youngmin; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Muyoung [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) has been developed in Korea in order to experiment a breeding blanket module in ITER. This TBM will verify the feasibility of tritium self-sufficiency in reactor and the extraction of high-grade heat suitable for electricity generation. Since various loads such as seismic load, electromagnetic (EM) load and heat load significantly affect the soundness of the TBM, a variety of analyses were carried out for design optimization. The EM load is particularly one of main design drivers because large amount of magnetic energy in the plasma are transferred to in-vessel components including the TBM during plasma disruption. Because the TBM is located in equatorial port, major disruption (MD) among various plasma disruption scenarios causes the largest EM loads on the TBM.

  8. Electromagnetic study on HCCR TBM for ITER major disruption scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Youngmin; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Muyoung

    2014-01-01

    Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) has been developed in Korea in order to experiment a breeding blanket module in ITER. This TBM will verify the feasibility of tritium self-sufficiency in reactor and the extraction of high-grade heat suitable for electricity generation. Since various loads such as seismic load, electromagnetic (EM) load and heat load significantly affect the soundness of the TBM, a variety of analyses were carried out for design optimization. The EM load is particularly one of main design drivers because large amount of magnetic energy in the plasma are transferred to in-vessel components including the TBM during plasma disruption. Because the TBM is located in equatorial port, major disruption (MD) among various plasma disruption scenarios causes the largest EM loads on the TBM

  9. Preliminary Design Progress of the HCCR TBM for ITER testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Park, Sung Dae; Kim, Dong Jun; Jin, Hyung Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea has designed a helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) including the TBM-shield, which is called the TBM-set, to be tested in ITER, a Nuclear Facility INB-174. Through the conceptual design review (CDR), its design integrity was successfully demonstrated at the conceptual design level at various loads. After CD approval, preliminary design (PD) was started and the progress is introduced in the present study. After PD review and approval, final design and then fabrication will be started. The main purpose of PD is to design the TBM-set according to the fabrication aspect and more detailed design for interfaces with ITER machine, such as installed TBM port plug and frame. With these considering, PD of TBM-set was started. PD for HCCR TBM has been performed (so far v0.24) from the CD model. FW, BZ, SW, TES/NAS, BM, and connecting support design were performed through the analyses, if necessary. The manufacturability was the main concern for PD model development. Thermal hydraulic analysis will be performed to evaluate the temperature and pressure drop in TBM-set. The structural integrity of TBM-set will be confirmed with combined various loads condition.

  10. Development of liquid type TBM technology for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Kim, S. K.; Yoon, J. S.

    2012-03-01

    The final objectives of this project are as follows; Development of the key techniques for the liquid type TBM for ITER: Developing plan for leading and participating liquid TBM concepts; Estimating cost and schedule according to development schedule and managing technologies; Developing integrated design system and completing the engineering design for liquid TBM; Developing the key technologies for the liquid TBM; Construction of performance test systems for liquid TBM and verification of the performance. We are technically surveying the ITER system design data, the insufficient part of ITER design, and required R and D items and so on. In Korea, HCML TBM, liquid type breeder with lithium or lead lithium, has been studied during the past years to develop a tritium breeding technology for tritium self-sufficiency of nuclear fusion reactor and the TBM was proposed to be tested in ITER. In this study, we can obtain the key technology of nuclear fusion reactor especially on the TBM design, analysis and manufacturing technology through the present project and these technologies will help the construction of Korea fusion DEMO reactor and the development of commercial nuclear fusion reactor in Korea

  11. Overview of TBM R and D activities in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendra Kumar, E., E-mail: rajendrakumare@gmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Suri, A.K. [Materials Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2012-08-15

    In India, development of Lead-Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) blanket is being performed as the primary candidate of Test Blanket Module (TBM) towards DEMO reactor. The LLCB TBM will be tested from the first phase of ITER operation (H-H phase) in one-half of an ITER port no. 2. The Indian TBM R and D program is focused on the development of blanket materials and critical technologies: structural material (IN-RAFMS), breeding materials (Pb-Li, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}), development of technologies for Lead-Lithium cooling system (LLCS), helium cooling system (HCS), tritium extraction system (TES) and TBM related fabrication technologies. This paper will provide an overview of LLCB TBM R and D activities under progress in India.

  12. Thermal and mechanical analyses for the HCPB Submodules in-pile test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, K. [Fuels, Actinides and Isotopes, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-12-01

    A description is given of the Finite Element Method (FEM) and thermal and mechanical computations that have been performed for the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Submodules in-pile tests, which have been planned for irradiation in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten. In this test, four submodules will be placed at core position H4. The report presents the temperature and stress distribution for the highest powered submodule of these four submodules. 9 refs

  13. Seismic analysis for conceptual design of HCCR TBM-set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won, E-mail: dwlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Gentec Co., Daejeon, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The seismic analysis of KO HCCR TBM-set are performed. • The seismic envents like SL-1, SL-2, and SMHV are selected and evaluated with FEM code (ANSYS). • The results of the stresses and deformations are confirmed to meet the design criteria. - Abstract: Using the conceptual design of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) including the TBM-shield for testing in ITER, a seismic analysis is performed. According to the ITER TBM port plug (TBM PP) system load specifications, seismic events are selected as SL-1 (seismic level-1), SL-2 (seismic level-2), and SMHV (seismes maximaux historiquement vraisemblables, Maximum Histroically Probable Earthquakes). In a modal analysis a total of 50 modes are obtained. Then, a spectra response analysis for each seismic event is carried out using ANSYS based on the modal analysis results. For each event, the obtained Tresca stress is evaluated to confirm the design integrity, by comparing the resulting stress to the design criteria. The Tresca strain and displacement are also estimated for the HCCR TBM-set. From the analysis, it was concluded that the maximum stresses by the seismic events meet the design criteria, and the displacements are lower than the designed gap from the TBM PP frame. The results are provided to a load combination analysis.

  14. TBM tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.P.; Hansmire, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is a scientific endeavor to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for the first long-term, high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States. The current status of this long-term project from the construction perspective is described. A key element is construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Tunnel, which is being excavated with a 7.6 m (25 ft) diameter tunnel boring machine (TBM). Development of the ESF may include the excavation of over 15 km (9.3 mi) of tunnel varying in size from 3.0 to 7.6 m (10 to 25 ft). Prior to construction, extensive constructability reviews were an interactive part of the final design. The intent was to establish a constructable design that met the long-term stability requirements for radiological safety of a future repository, while maintaining flexibility for the scientific investigations and acceptable tunneling productivity

  15. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  16. Development of Liquid Type Breeder Technology for ITER-TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Sok; Hong, Bong Geun; Lee, Dong Won

    2008-07-15

    In relation to liquid type TBM technology development, various works are performed. We established a test loop concept to test the MHD effects and materials compatibility for the Pb-17Li breeder material. For the loop construction, electromagnetic pump and storage tank for the Pb-17Li loop was manufactured and some technical requirements are summarised. As a reference, technical literatures relevant to the liquid type TBM materials and the tritium extraction from breeder materials are also surveyed.

  17. Test-element assembly and loading parameters for the in-pile test of HCPB ceramic pebble beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, J.G. van der E-mail: vanderlaan@nrg-nl.com; Boccaccini, L.V.; Conrad, R.; Fokkens, J.H.; Jong, M.; Magielsen, A.J.; Pijlgroms, B.J.; Reimann, J.; Stijkel, M.P.; Malang, S

    2002-11-01

    In the framework of developing the helium cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) blanket an irradiation test of pebble-bed assemblies is prepared at the HFR Petten. The test objective is to concentrate on the effect of neutron irradiation on the thermal-mechanical behaviour of the HCPB breeder pebble-bed at DEMO representative levels of temperature and defined thermal-mechanical loads. The paper reports on the project status, and presents the results of pre-tests, material characteristics, the manufacturing of the pebble-bed assemblies, and the nuclear and thermo-mechanical loading parameters.

  18. Engineering design and analysis of Indian LLCB TBM set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjithkumar, S., E-mail: ranjith@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Sharma, Deepak; Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Danani, Chandan; Kumar, E. Rajendra [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Khan, Istiyak; Bhattacharya, Sujay; Vyas, K.N. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-11-01

    India is developing Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) for testing in ITER for the validation of fusion blanket design tools, tritium breeding performance and high grade heat extraction capability relevant to Indian DEMO. LLCB TBM is designed to withstand various ITER loads and its combinations, like thermal, mechanical including the high pressure coolant loads, electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption and seismic loading conditions. LLCB TBM system is designed in compliance with ITER Safety requirements and guidelines. A few challenging part in the design includes the design of helium cooled First Wall (FW) and back plates, the attachment system between TBM and the shield block to withstand loads for all the ITER operational modes, routing of high temperature process pipes between TBM and the shield block, interfaces between process pipes and the connecting flange, design of manifolds of different process fluids etc. Analysis has been performed on the LLCB TBM set using a Finite Element code, ANSYS. Relevant codes and standards, namely the French code RCC-MR, has been followed for the design analysis. The details of the analysis and further plans and proposals for improvement in design will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Heat transfer characteristics of breeding zone in TBM of KOREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Dae; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Dong Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In South Korea, lithium, Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) has been designed to install in ITER and verify the tritium production and the heat extraction. Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) is composed of four sub-modules and a common back manifold (BM). The HCCR TBM is cooled by a high temperature helium coolant of 300 .deg. C. The breeder, a neutron multiplier and reflector are included in the HCCR TBM. TBM is essential device to verify the tritium production and the heat extraction. The continuous deuterium-tritium (D-T) reaction should occur in order to generate heat and neutrons. The generated neutrons will react with lithium which is breeder. The margin to the allowable temperature for the breeder have a little with the conceptual design model of HCCR-TBM. Some feasible methods was discussed to lower the temperature of the breeding zone. The contact resistance between the wall and pebble beds was main factor to determine the breeder temperature. The installation of the cooling fins was considered to reduce the heat transfer resistance between the wall and the pebble beds. Thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed.

  20. Activity inventories and decay heat calculations for a DEMO with HCPB and HCLL blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankunas, Gediminas; Tidikas, Andrius; Pereslavstev, Pavel; Catalán, Juan; García, Raquel; Ogando, Francisco; Fischer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The afterheat and activity inventories were calculated for Eurofer steel which is the reference structural material for DEMO. • The decay heat for the HCPB DEMO was found to be larger than for the HCLL both for short and longer cooling times. • The comparison calculations were performed for a single outboard blanket module of the HCLL DEMO assuming High-Temperature Ferritic–Martensitic (HT-FM) steel and SS-316 (LN) as structural material. - Abstract: Activation inventories, decay heat and radiation doses are important nuclear quantities which need to be assessed on a reliable basis for the safe operation of a fusion nuclear power reactor. The afterheat and activity inventories were shown to be dominated by the Eurofer steel which is the reference structural material for DEMO. The decay heat for the HCPB DEMO was found to be larger than for the HCLL both for short (a few days) and longer (more than a year) cooling times. As for the alternative steels, the induced radioactivity was turned out to be lowest for the SS-316 until about 200 years after shut-down. Afterwards, the activity level of SS-316 steel was found to be the highest. For these times, the activity of both Eurofer and the HT-FM steel is about one order of magnitude lower.

  1. Transient analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept under accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuming; Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Jin, Xue Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents transient CFD analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB FW for accidental scenarios LOCA and LOFA. • In both LOCA & LOFA, the wall temperature increases quickly to an unacceptable level within seconds. • If the coolant flow rate is maintained at a half of nominal value in case of LOFA (partial LOFA), the wall temperature rises much slower, but will still leads to a damage of structure within minutes. • The simulated heat transfer coefficients were compared with empirical correlations. - Abstract: Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept is one of the DEMO (Demonstration Power Plant) blanket concepts running for the final DEMO design selection. In this paper, transient analyses on the cooling channels of the FW are carried out by means of CFD simulations for the selected accidental scenarios loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and loss-of-flow-accident (LOFA). ANSYS-CFX is used for the simulations. The simulation results help to understand how fast the temperature of the FW can increase and what is the time window that is available until the temperature of the structural material reaches the design limit in order to be able to define a suitable protection strategy for the system. In view of later developments of the models, the heat transfer coefficients calculated with CFD are compared with the values predicted by two widely used correlations for turbulent pipe flows.

  2. Activity inventories and decay heat calculations for a DEMO with HCPB and HCLL blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunas, Gediminas, E-mail: gediminas.stankunas@lei.lt [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos Str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Tidikas, Andrius [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Breslaujos Str. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas (Lithuania); Pereslavstev, Pavel [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Catalán, Juan; García, Raquel; Ogando, Francisco [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The afterheat and activity inventories were calculated for Eurofer steel which is the reference structural material for DEMO. • The decay heat for the HCPB DEMO was found to be larger than for the HCLL both for short and longer cooling times. • The comparison calculations were performed for a single outboard blanket module of the HCLL DEMO assuming High-Temperature Ferritic–Martensitic (HT-FM) steel and SS-316 (LN) as structural material. - Abstract: Activation inventories, decay heat and radiation doses are important nuclear quantities which need to be assessed on a reliable basis for the safe operation of a fusion nuclear power reactor. The afterheat and activity inventories were shown to be dominated by the Eurofer steel which is the reference structural material for DEMO. The decay heat for the HCPB DEMO was found to be larger than for the HCLL both for short (a few days) and longer (more than a year) cooling times. As for the alternative steels, the induced radioactivity was turned out to be lowest for the SS-316 until about 200 years after shut-down. Afterwards, the activity level of SS-316 steel was found to be the highest. For these times, the activity of both Eurofer and the HT-FM steel is about one order of magnitude lower.

  3. Transient analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept under accidental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuming, E-mail: Yuming.chen@kit.edu; Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Jin, Xue Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents transient CFD analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB FW for accidental scenarios LOCA and LOFA. • In both LOCA & LOFA, the wall temperature increases quickly to an unacceptable level within seconds. • If the coolant flow rate is maintained at a half of nominal value in case of LOFA (partial LOFA), the wall temperature rises much slower, but will still leads to a damage of structure within minutes. • The simulated heat transfer coefficients were compared with empirical correlations. - Abstract: Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept is one of the DEMO (Demonstration Power Plant) blanket concepts running for the final DEMO design selection. In this paper, transient analyses on the cooling channels of the FW are carried out by means of CFD simulations for the selected accidental scenarios loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and loss-of-flow-accident (LOFA). ANSYS-CFX is used for the simulations. The simulation results help to understand how fast the temperature of the FW can increase and what is the time window that is available until the temperature of the structural material reaches the design limit in order to be able to define a suitable protection strategy for the system. In view of later developments of the models, the heat transfer coefficients calculated with CFD are compared with the values predicted by two widely used correlations for turbulent pipe flows.

  4. Cooling Performance of TBM-shield Designed for Manufacturability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Dae; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Dong Jun; Yoon, Jae Sung; Ahn, Mu Young

    2016-01-01

    Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) is composed of four sub-modules and a common back manifold (BM). The associated shield is a water-cooled 316L(N)-IG block with internal cooling channels. The purpose of the TBM-shield is to make the condition with the allowable neutron flux and dose rate level. The radially continuous layers of water and structure were configured. The main purpose of the shield is to reduce the neutron flux by absorbing the neutron in the structure. The water could act as the moderator and cool down the structure which is heated due to the reaction with the neutrons. The moderated neutrons are easily absorbed by the structure. It could meet the criteria for the minimum neutron flux by increasing the thickness of structure. The formation of inside cooling channel in the TBM-shield should be considered while maintaining the allowable temperature range. In this work, a manufacturing process including the formation of inside cooling channel was presented. Current design and thermal analysis results for the TBM-shield were presented. The geometry of the shield blocks was considerably changed. The coolant channel was exposed to the outer surface of the TBM-shield. The overall manufacturing process is simplified compared with the previous process of CD model

  5. Cooling Performance of TBM-shield Designed for Manufacturability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Dae; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Dong Jun; Yoon, Jae Sung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu Young [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) is composed of four sub-modules and a common back manifold (BM). The associated shield is a water-cooled 316L(N)-IG block with internal cooling channels. The purpose of the TBM-shield is to make the condition with the allowable neutron flux and dose rate level. The radially continuous layers of water and structure were configured. The main purpose of the shield is to reduce the neutron flux by absorbing the neutron in the structure. The water could act as the moderator and cool down the structure which is heated due to the reaction with the neutrons. The moderated neutrons are easily absorbed by the structure. It could meet the criteria for the minimum neutron flux by increasing the thickness of structure. The formation of inside cooling channel in the TBM-shield should be considered while maintaining the allowable temperature range. In this work, a manufacturing process including the formation of inside cooling channel was presented. Current design and thermal analysis results for the TBM-shield were presented. The geometry of the shield blocks was considerably changed. The coolant channel was exposed to the outer surface of the TBM-shield. The overall manufacturing process is simplified compared with the previous process of CD model.

  6. System engineering approach in the EU Test Blanket Systems Design Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, D.; Sardain, P.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Salavy, J.-F.; Cismondi, F.; Jourd'Heuil, L.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of the Test Blanket Systems demands diverse and comprehensive integration activities. Test Blanket Modules - Consortia of Associates (TBM-CA) applies the system engineering methods in all stages of the Test Blanket System (TBS) design integration. Completed so far integration engineering tasks cover among others status and initial set of TBS operating parameters; list of codes, standards and regulations related to TBS; planning of the TBS interfaces and baseline documentation. Most of the attention is devoted to the establishment the Helium-Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed Lead (HCPB) TBS configuration baseline, TBS break down into sub-systems, identification, definition and management of the internal and external interfaces, development of the TBS plant break down structure (PBS), establishment and management of the required TBS baseline documentation infrastructure. Break down of the TBS into sub-systems that is crucial for the further design and interfaces' management has been selected considering several options and using specific evaluation criteria. Process of the TBS interfaces management covers the planning, definition and description, verification and review, non-conformances and deviations, and modification and improvement processes. Process of interfaces review is developed, identifying the actors, input, activities and output of the review. Finally the relations and interactions of system engineering processes with TBM configuration management and TBM-CA Quality Management System are discussed.

  7. Chip shape and secondary fragmentation through TBM excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tanimoto, Chikaosa; Ueno, Takaaki; Koizumi, Yu; Nakane, Tatsuto

    2008-01-01

    The chips through TBM tunneling are well-known for one of useful indices to reflect the geological conditions. The flat and elongated chips whose width are equal to the spacing of cutter trace indicate the cutting face with less joints and good practice of TBM excavation with less secondary fragmentation rate. Through a case history in granitic rock, the authors proposed the new index, which is the ratio of length of major axis to thickness. Also the authors studied the relationship between the index and the excavation efficiencies. In conclusion, it was clarified that chips with the new index over 3.5 were generally observed when a TBM drove with less than 30% the secondary fragmentation rate. (author)

  8. Progress in engineering design of Indian LLCB TBM set for testing in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Ranjithkumar, S.; Sharma, Deepak; Danani, Chandan; Swami, H.L.; Bhattacharya, R.; Patel, Anita; Kumar, E. Rajendra; Vyas, K.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The tritium breeding for LLCB TBM has been evaluated by neutronic analysis. • Details of thermal-hydraulic analyses performed for FW and internal components of LLCB TBM and shield block have been provided.. • The optimum dimensions of CB zones and Pb–Li flow have been selected to have the maximum temperatures of all components used to lie within their respective temperature window. • The design and thermal analysis of shield block and attachment system have been performed. - Abstract: The Indian Lead–Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is the Indian DEMO relevant blanket module, as a part of the TBM program in ITER. The LLCB TBM will be tested from the first phase of ITER operation in one-half of an ITER port no. 2. LLCB TBM-set consists of LLCB TBM module and shield block, which are attached with the help of attachment systems. This LLCB TBM set is inserted in a water-cooled stainless steel frame called ‘TBM frame’, which also provides the separation between the neighboring TBM-sets (Chinese TBM set) in port no. 2. In LLCB TBM, high-pressure helium gas is used to cool the first wall (FW) structure and lead–lithium eutectic (Pb–Li) flowing separately around the ceramic breeder (CB) pebble bed to cool the TBM internals which are heated due to the volumetric neutron heating during plasma operation. Low-pressure helium is purged inside the CB zones to extract the bred tritium. Thermal-structural analyses have been performed independently on LLCB TBM and shield block for TBM set using ANSYS. This paper will also describe the performance analysis of individual components of LLCB TBM set and their different configurations to optimize their performances

  9. Developing Method Use Of Tbm To User Information Literacy In Six Tbm Sambikerep Villages Surabaya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriyah Fahriyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Community Library in Six PAUD Sambikerep Village,  Sambikerep District Surabaya City expected can closer of resources in the community, causing exasperation reading (literacy for PAUD mothers and parents of early childhood education, broaden knowledge in public life and certainly indirectly educate and improve lives the surrounding community. The purpose of this study to analyze the influence of the use of community library and information literacy of the PAUD Mother and Parent of  early childhood of in the Sambikerep Village, Surabaya City. The population in this study were all Mother and Parents PAUD as Community Library users totaling 292 people. A sample of 64% from the population that found as many as 186 respondents. The sampling technique used in this study is the probability sampling is using simple random sampling. On average respondents about the use of TBM is 3.687 and the information literacy of users is 3,853. The reliably of the questionnare was calculated to be between 0.951 and 0.882 using the Cronbach's Alpha. The analysis Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test is Significant mean score of 0,000 that each variable were normal distribution. Hyphotesis test shows α (0.05> Significancy (0.000 were significant and simultaneous relationship. Analysi Cooeficient using Product Moment Correlation Correlations scores was r = 0.669 with significant ρ = 0.000 <α = 0.05 were medium correlations. Significant correlations tcount Test score of 12.196 and Ttable at significantion score of 0.05 with 185 hp 2.34667 (R2 = 0,447 were positive and significant correlation between the use of TBM and the information literacy of users.

  10. Electromagnetic analysis on Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) TBM during plasma major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon; Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Dong Won

    2015-01-01

    Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be installed at the #18 equatorial port of the Vaccum Vessel in order to test the feasibility of the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant in the ITER TBM Program. Since ITER tokamak contains Vaccum Vessel and set of electromagnetic coils, the TBM as well as other components is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. By the electromagnetic (EM) fast transient events such as major disruption (MD), vertical displacement event (VDE) or magnet fast discharge (MFD) occurred in tokamak system, the eddy current can be induced eventually in the conducting components. As a result, the magnetic field and induced eddy current produce extremely huge EM load (force and moment) on the TBM. Therefore, EM load calculation is one of the most important analyses for optimized design of TBM. In this study, a 20-degree sector model for tokamak system including central solenoid (CS) coil, poloidal field (PF) coil, toroidal field (TF) coil, vaccum vessel, shield blankets and TBM set (TBM, TBM key, TBM shield, TBM frame) is prepared for analysis by ANSYS-EMAG tool. Concerning the installation location of the TBM, a major disruption scenario is particularly applied for fast transient analysis. The final goal of this study is to evaluate the EM load on HCCR TBM during plasma major disruption.

  11. Electromagnetic analysis on Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) TBM during plasma major disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin, E-mail: ymlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon; Park, Yi-Hyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be installed at the #18 equatorial port of the Vaccum Vessel in order to test the feasibility of the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant in the ITER TBM Program. Since ITER tokamak contains Vaccum Vessel and set of electromagnetic coils, the TBM as well as other components is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. By the electromagnetic (EM) fast transient events such as major disruption (MD), vertical displacement event (VDE) or magnet fast discharge (MFD) occurred in tokamak system, the eddy current can be induced eventually in the conducting components. As a result, the magnetic field and induced eddy current produce extremely huge EM load (force and moment) on the TBM. Therefore, EM load calculation is one of the most important analyses for optimized design of TBM. In this study, a 20-degree sector model for tokamak system including central solenoid (CS) coil, poloidal field (PF) coil, toroidal field (TF) coil, vaccum vessel, shield blankets and TBM set (TBM, TBM key, TBM shield, TBM frame) is prepared for analysis by ANSYS-EMAG tool. Concerning the installation location of the TBM, a major disruption scenario is particularly applied for fast transient analysis. The final goal of this study is to evaluate the EM load on HCCR TBM during plasma major disruption.

  12. Design and R and D progress of Korean HCCR TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seungyon, E-mail: sycho@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eo Hwak; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Cheol Woo; Kim, Tae Kyu; Chun, Young-Bum; Kim, Suk Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Young-Hoon [Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-Min [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young; Park, Soon Chang; Kim, Chang-Shuk; Min, Kyungmi [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-10-15

    Korea plans to test a Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER. The HCCR TBM adopts a four sub-module concept considering the fabricability and the transfer of irradiated TBM for post irradiation examination. Each sub-module has seven-layer breeding zone, including three neutron multiplier layers packed with beryllium pebbles, three lithium ceramic pebble bed packed tritium breeder layers, and a reflector layer packed with graphite pebbles. Based on this configuration, neutronic and electromagnetic calculations were performed and their results were applied for the conceptual design of HCCR TBM that considers manufacturing feasibility. Also, a design and safety analysis of HCCR Test Blanket System (TBS) was performed using integrated design tools modifying nuclear system codes for helium coolant and tritium behavior evaluation. The Advanced Reduced Activation Alloy (ARAA) is being developed as a structural material. A total of 73 candidate ARAA alloys were designed and their out-of-pile performance was evaluated. The graphite pebbles as the neutron reflector were fabricated by using mechanical machining and grounding method with the surface coated with SiC. The hydrogen permeation characteristics of structural materials were evaluated using the Hydrogen PERmeation (HYPER) facility. The recent design and R and D progress on these areas are addressed in this paper.

  13. Regression Models and Fuzzy Logic Prediction of TBM Penetration Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Vu Trieu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents statistical analyses of rock engineering properties and the measured penetration rate of tunnel boring machine (TBM based on the data of an actual project. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of rock engineering properties including uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, Brazilian tensile strength (BTS, rock brittleness index (BI, the distance between planes of weakness (DPW, and the alpha angle (Alpha between the tunnel axis and the planes of weakness on the TBM rate of penetration (ROP. Four (4 statistical regression models (two linear and two nonlinear are built to predict the ROP of TBM. Finally a fuzzy logic model is developed as an alternative method and compared to the four statistical regression models. Results show that the fuzzy logic model provides better estimations and can be applied to predict the TBM performance. The R-squared value (R2 of the fuzzy logic model scores the highest value of 0.714 over the second runner-up of 0.667 from the multiple variables nonlinear regression model.

  14. Regression Models and Fuzzy Logic Prediction of TBM Penetration Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Vu Trieu; Katushin, Dmitri; Antonov, Maksim; Veinthal, Renno

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents statistical analyses of rock engineering properties and the measured penetration rate of tunnel boring machine (TBM) based on the data of an actual project. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of rock engineering properties including uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Brazilian tensile strength (BTS), rock brittleness index (BI), the distance between planes of weakness (DPW), and the alpha angle (Alpha) between the tunnel axis and the planes of weakness on the TBM rate of penetration (ROP). Four (4) statistical regression models (two linear and two nonlinear) are built to predict the ROP of TBM. Finally a fuzzy logic model is developed as an alternative method and compared to the four statistical regression models. Results show that the fuzzy logic model provides better estimations and can be applied to predict the TBM performance. The R-squared value (R2) of the fuzzy logic model scores the highest value of 0.714 over the second runner-up of 0.667 from the multiple variables nonlinear regression model.

  15. Development of liquid metal type TBM technology for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Kwak, J. G.; Kim, Y. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The objectives of the ITER project for the construction and operation are to perform the test related to the neutronics, blanket module, tritium treatment technology, advanced plasma technology, and to test the heat extraction and tritium breeding in the test blanket for the fusion reactor. Other parties have been developing the Test Blanket Module (TBM) for testing in the ITER for these purposes. Through this project, we can secure the TBM design and related technology, which will be used as the core technology for the DEMO construction, our own fusion reactor development. In 1st year, the optimized design procedure was established with the existing tools, which have been used in nuclear reactor design, and the optimized HCML TBM design was obtained through iteration method according to the developed design procedure. He cooling system as a TBM auxiliary system was designed considering the final design of the KO HCML TBM such as coolant capacity and operation pressure. Layout for this system was prepared to be installed in the ITER TCWS vault. MHD effect of liquid Li breeder by magnetic flux in ITER such as much higher pressure drop was evaluated with CFD-ACE and it was concluded that the Li breeder should have a slow velocity to reduce this effect. Most results were arranged in the form of DDD including preliminary safety analysis report. In 2nd year, the optimized design procedure was complemented and updated. In performance analysis on thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical one, full 3D meshes were generated and used in this analysis in order to obtain the more exact temperature, deformation, and stress solution. For liquid Li breeder system, design parameters were induced before the detailed design of the system and were used in the design of the liquid Li test loop. LOCA analysis, activation analysis in LOCA, EM analysis were performed as a preliminary safety analysis. In order to develop the manufacturing technology, Be+FMS and FMS to FMS joining conditions

  16. Development of liquid metal type TBM technology for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Kwak, J. G.; Kim, Y.

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of the ITER project for the construction and operation are to perform the test related to the neutronics, blanket module, tritium treatment technology, advanced plasma technology, and to test the heat extraction and tritium breeding in the test blanket for the fusion reactor. Other parties have been developing the Test Blanket Module (TBM) for testing in the ITER for these purposes. Through this project, we can secure the TBM design and related technology, which will be used as the core technology for the DEMO construction, our own fusion reactor development. In 1st year, the optimized design procedure was established with the existing tools, which have been used in nuclear reactor design, and the optimized HCML TBM design was obtained through iteration method according to the developed design procedure. He cooling system as a TBM auxiliary system was designed considering the final design of the KO HCML TBM such as coolant capacity and operation pressure. Layout for this system was prepared to be installed in the ITER TCWS vault. MHD effect of liquid Li breeder by magnetic flux in ITER such as much higher pressure drop was evaluated with CFD-ACE and it was concluded that the Li breeder should have a slow velocity to reduce this effect. Most results were arranged in the form of DDD including preliminary safety analysis report. In 2nd year, the optimized design procedure was complemented and updated. In performance analysis on thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical one, full 3D meshes were generated and used in this analysis in order to obtain the more exact temperature, deformation, and stress solution. For liquid Li breeder system, design parameters were induced before the detailed design of the system and were used in the design of the liquid Li test loop. LOCA analysis, activation analysis in LOCA, EM analysis were performed as a preliminary safety analysis. In order to develop the manufacturing technology, Be+FMS and FMS to FMS joining conditions

  17. Seismic source characterisation of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Brückl, Ewald; Radinger, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method aims at predicting continuously the geological situation ahead of the tunnel without disturbing the construction work. Thereby the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) itself is used as seismic source. The cutting process generates seismic waves radiating into the rock mass and vibrations propagating to the main bearing of the cutter head. These vibrations are monitored and used as pilot signal. For the processing and interpretation it was hypothesized so far that the TBM acts like a single force. To prove this assumption the radiation pattern of several TBM's under construction were investigated. Therefore 3-components geophones were installed at the surface, which were situated directly above the tunnel axes and also with lateral offset. Additional, borehole geophones were placed in the wall of one tube of a two-tube tunnel. The geophones collected the forward and backward radiated wave field, as the TBM, operating in the other tube, passed their positions. The obtained seismic data contains continuous records over a range of 600 m of the TBM position. The offsets vary from 25 m to 400 m and the frequency ranges from 20-250 Hertz. The polarisation of the p-wave and the s-wave and their amplitude ratio were determined and compared with modelled seismograms with different source mechanism. The results show that the description of the source mechanism by a single force can be used as a first order approximation. More complex radiation pattern including tensile forces and several source locations like the transmission of reaction forces over the gripper to the tunnel wall are further tested and addressed.

  18. Status of the in-pile test of HCPB pebble-bed assemblies in the HFR Petten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Fokkens, J.H.; Hofmans, H.E.; Jong, M.; Magielsen, A.J.; Pijlgroms, B.J.; Stijkel, M.P. [NRG, Petten (Netherlands); Conrad, R. [JRC, Inst. for Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Malang, S.; Reimann, J. [FZK, Karlsruhe (Germany); Roux, N. [CEA Saclay (France)

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of developing the helium cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) blanket an irradiation test of pebble-bed assemblies is prepared at the HFR Petten. The test objective is to concentrate on the effect of neutron irradiation on the thermal-mechanical behaviour of the HCPB breeder pebble-bed at DEMO representative levels of temperature and defined thermal-mechanical loads. The basic test elements are EUROFER-97 cylinders with a horizontal bed of ceramic breeder pebbles sandwiched between two beryllium beds. The pebble beds are separated by EUROFER-97 steel plates. The heat flow is managed such as to have a radial temperature distribution in the ceramic breeder pebble-bed as flat as reasonably possible. The paper reports on the project status, and presents the results of pre-tests, material characteristics, the manufacturing of the pebble-bed assemblies, and the nuclear and thermo-mechanical loading parameters. (orig.)

  19. A study of the potential influence of frame coolant distribution on the radiation-induced damage of HCLL-TBM structural material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiovaro, P.; Di Maio, P.A.; Oliveri, E.; Vella, G.

    2007-01-01

    Within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the Helium-Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) breeding blanket concept is one of the two EU lines to be developed for a Long Term fusion reactor, in particular with the aim of manufacturing a Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be implemented in ITER. The HCLL-TBM is foreseen to be located in an ITER equatorial port, being housed inside a steel supporting frame, actively cooled by pressurized water. That supporting frame has been designed to house two different TBMs, providing two cavities separated by a dividing plate 20 cm thick. As the nuclear response of HCLL-TBM might vary accordingly to the supporting frame configuration and composition, at the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo, a parametric study has been launched to investigate such an influence. Previous works dealt with the dependence of the nuclear response of HCLL-TBM on the configuration of a homogeneous frame, the present one has been focused on the investigation of the potential influence of coolant distribution within the frame on the radiation-induced damage of HCLL-TBM structural material. To this purpose, a detailed parametric study of the HCLL-TBM nuclear response has been performed by means of 3D-Monte Carlo neutronic analyses to asses both the rates of displacements per atom and helium production within the structural material. A semi-heterogeneous model of the supporting frame, assuming a realistic coolant distribution, and a 3D heterogeneous model of the HCLL-TBM, taking into account 9% Cr martensitic steel (Z 10 CDV Nb 9-1) as structural material, have been set-up. Both the two models have been inserted into the existing 3D ITER-FEAT one, simulating realistically the reactor lay-out up to the cryostat and providing for a proper D-T neutron source. The analyses have been performed by means of the MCNP-4C code, running a large number of histories for each one of them in such a way that results obtained are affected by statistical

  20. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor for thermophilic palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, P.E.; Chong, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor was developed with the aim to minimize operational problems in the anaerobic treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions. The performance of UASB-HCPB reactor on POME treatment was investigated at 55 °C. Subsequent to start-up, the performance of the UASB-HCPB reactor was evaluated in terms of i) effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT); ii) effect of organic loading rate (OLR); and iii) effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) concentration on thermophilic POME treatment. Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days, removing 88% COD and 90% BOD respectively at an OLR of 28.12 g L −1  d −1 , producing biogas with 52% of methane. Results from the performance study of the UASB-HCPB reactor on thermophilic POME treatment indicated that HRT of 2 days, OLR of 27.65 g L −1  d −1 and MLVSS concentration of 14.7 g L −1 was required to remove 90% of COD and BOD, 80% of suspended solid and at the same time produce 60% of methane. - Highlights: • UASB-HCPB was proposed for POME treatment under thermophilic conditions. • Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days. • 88% COD and 90% BOD were removed at an OLR of 28.12 g COD/L.day during start-up. • HRT of 2 days and OLR of 27.65 g COD/L.day was required to produce 60% methane. • Methanosarcina sp. forms the majority of microbial population in the UASB section

  1. Design and analysis of breeding blanket with helium cooled solid breeder for ITER-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Tao; Feng Kaiming; Chen Zhi; Wang Xiaoyu

    2007-01-01

    Test blanket module (TBM) is one of important components in ITER. Some of related blanket technologies of future fusion, such as tritium self-sufficiency, the exaction of high-grade heat, design criteria and safety requirements and environmental impacts, will be demonstrated in ITER-TBM. In ITER device, the three equatorial ports have allocated for TBM testing. China had proposed to develop independently the ITER-TBM with helium cooled solid breeder in 12th meeting of test blanket workgroup (TBWG-12). In this work, the preliminary design and analysis for Chinese HCSB TBM will be carried out. The TBM must be contains the function of the first wall, breeding blanket, shield and structure. Finally, in the period of preliminary investigation, HCSB TBM design adopt modularization concept which is helium as coolant and tritium purge gas, ferritic/martensitic steel as structural material, Lithium orthosilicate (Li 4 SiO 4 ) as tritium breeder, beryllium pebble as neutron multiplier. TBM is allocated in standard vertical frame port. HCSB TBM consist of first wall, backplate, breeding sub-modules, caps, grid and support plate, and breeding sub-modules is arranged by layout of 2 x 6 in blanket box. In this paper, main components of HCSB TBM will be described in detail, also performance analysis of main components have been completed. (authors)

  2. Interaction between groundwater and TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) excavated tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Font Capó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    A number of problems, e.g. sudden inflows are encountered during tunneling under the piezometric level, especially when the excavation crosses high transmissivity areas. These inflows may drag materials when the tunnel crosses low competent layers, resulting in subsidence, chimney formation and collapses. Moreover, inflows can lead to a decrease in head level because of aquifer drainage. Tunnels can be drilled by a tunnel boring machine (TBM) to minimize inflows and groundwater impacts, restr...

  3. Ground Motion Relations While TBM Drilling in Unconsolidated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Michael; Ritter, Joachim R. R.; Gehrig, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The induced ground motions due to the tunnel boring machine (TBM), which has been used for the drilling of the urban metro tunnel in Karlsruhe (SW Germany), has been studied using the continuous recordings of seven seismological monitoring stations. The drilling has been undertaken in unconsolidated sediments of the Rhine River system, relatively close to the surface at 6-20 m depth and in the vicinity of many historic buildings. Compared to the reference values of DIN 4150-3 (1-80 Hz), no exceedance of the recommended peak ground velocity (PGV) limits (3-5 mm/s) was observed at the single recording site locations on building basements during the observation period between October 2014 and February 2015. Detailed analyses in the time and frequency domains helped with the detection of the sources of several specific shaking signals in the recorded time series and with the comparison of the aforementioned TBM-induced signals. The amplitude analysis allowed for the determination of a PGV attenuation relation (quality factor Q ~ 30-50) and the comparison of the TBM-induced ground motion with other artificially induced and natural ground motions of similar amplitudes.

  4. Comprehensive structural analysis of the HCPB demo blanket under thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic and radiation induced loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Norajitra, P.; Ruatto, P.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1998-01-01

    For the helium-cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Demo Development Program, a comprehensive finite element (FEM) structural analysis has been performed. The analysis refers to the steady-state operating conditions of an outboard blanket segment. On the basis of a three-dimensional model of radial-toroidal sections of the segment box, thermal stresses caused by the temperature gradients in the blanket structure have been calculated. Furthermore, the mechanical loads due to coolant pressure in normal operating conditions as well as an accidental over-pressurization of the blanket box have been accounted for. The stresses caused by a central plasma major disruption from an initial current of 20 MA to zero in 20 ms have been also taken into account. Radiation-induced dimensional changes of breeder and multiplier material caused by both helium production and neutron damage, have also been evaluated and discussed. All the above loads have been combined as input for a FEM stress analysis and the resulting stress distribution has been evaluated according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) norms. (orig.)

  5. Consideration of the Construction Code for TBM-body in ASME BPVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongjun; Kim, Yunjae; Kim, Suk Kwon; Park, Sung Dae; Lee, Dong Won

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, ASME code is briefly introduced, and the TBM-body is classified for selecting the ASME section. With the classification of TBM-body, the appropriate section is determined. Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket System (TBS) has been designed to research on the functions of breeding blanket by KO TBM team. The functions has three subjects as 1) Tritium breeding, 2) Heat conversion and extraction, and 3) Neutron and Gamma-ray shielding. For the process of design, it is needed to select the appropriate construction code as the design criteria. ITER Organization (IO) has proposed that RCC-MR Edition 2007 ver. shall be used for TBM-shield. Because the TBM-shield is connected to the vacuum boundary. For the other part of TBM-set, TBM-body, there is no constraint on the selected code, and the manufacturer can appropriately select the construction code to apply design and fabrication parts. KO TBM Team has considered whether it is appropriate to choose any code for TBM-body. One of the things is ASME code. The advantage of ASME choice is suitable to the domestic status. In the domestic nuclear plant, ASME or KEPIC code is used as regulatory requirements. Based on this, it is possible to prepare a domestic fusion plant regulatory. In this paper, the construction code of TBM-body was determined in ASME BPVC. For the determination of code, the structure of ASME BPVC was introduced and the classification for TBM-body was conducted by the ITER criteria. And the operation conditions of TBM-body that contained creep and irradiation effects was considered to determine the construction code

  6. Consideration of the Construction Code for TBM-body in ASME BPVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjun; Kim, Yunjae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Kwon; Park, Sung Dae; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, ASME code is briefly introduced, and the TBM-body is classified for selecting the ASME section. With the classification of TBM-body, the appropriate section is determined. Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket System (TBS) has been designed to research on the functions of breeding blanket by KO TBM team. The functions has three subjects as 1) Tritium breeding, 2) Heat conversion and extraction, and 3) Neutron and Gamma-ray shielding. For the process of design, it is needed to select the appropriate construction code as the design criteria. ITER Organization (IO) has proposed that RCC-MR Edition 2007 ver. shall be used for TBM-shield. Because the TBM-shield is connected to the vacuum boundary. For the other part of TBM-set, TBM-body, there is no constraint on the selected code, and the manufacturer can appropriately select the construction code to apply design and fabrication parts. KO TBM Team has considered whether it is appropriate to choose any code for TBM-body. One of the things is ASME code. The advantage of ASME choice is suitable to the domestic status. In the domestic nuclear plant, ASME or KEPIC code is used as regulatory requirements. Based on this, it is possible to prepare a domestic fusion plant regulatory. In this paper, the construction code of TBM-body was determined in ASME BPVC. For the determination of code, the structure of ASME BPVC was introduced and the classification for TBM-body was conducted by the ITER criteria. And the operation conditions of TBM-body that contained creep and irradiation effects was considered to determine the construction code.

  7. Design and manufacturing feasibility of ITER TBM Frame and Dummy TBMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung-Yoon, E-mail: byoungyoon.kim@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Marconi, Matteo [LTCalcoli, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy); Maio, Pietro Alessandro Di [University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 6, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Torres, Luc [CNIM, Zone Portuaire De Bregaillon, CS60208, 83507 La Seyne Sur Mer Cedex (France); Lucca, Flavio [LTCalcoli, Piazza Prinetti 26/B, 23807 Merate (Italy); Gicquel, Stefan; Merola, Mario; Giancarli, Luciano M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The metallic gasket sealing performance was confirmed with required compression load. • The structural assessments satisfied the RCC-MR structural requirements. • Cooling circuits were improved considering flow and draining performances. • The manufacturing feasibility was preliminary assessed. - Abstract: The operation and test of mock-ups of tritium breeding blankets relevant for a future commercial reactor is one of the goals of the ITER machine. To accomplish this goal, mock-ups of breeding blankets, called Test Blanket Modules (TBMs), are installed in three ITER equatorial ports. Each TBM and the associated shield form a TBM-set that is mechanically attached to a steel frame called TBM Frame. A Frame and two TBM-Sets form a TBM Port Plug (TBM PP). The ITER Organization is responsible for the design and manufacture of the TBM Frames and of the Dummy TBMs that could replace the TBM-sets in case they were not available. This paper describes the recent results of the design supporting analyses for the TBM Frames and Dummy TBMs that is presently in the preliminary design stage and their impact on the design.

  8. Design and manufacturing feasibility of ITER TBM Frame and Dummy TBMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Marconi, Matteo; Maio, Pietro Alessandro Di; Torres, Luc; Lucca, Flavio; Gicquel, Stefan; Merola, Mario; Giancarli, Luciano M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The metallic gasket sealing performance was confirmed with required compression load. • The structural assessments satisfied the RCC-MR structural requirements. • Cooling circuits were improved considering flow and draining performances. • The manufacturing feasibility was preliminary assessed. - Abstract: The operation and test of mock-ups of tritium breeding blankets relevant for a future commercial reactor is one of the goals of the ITER machine. To accomplish this goal, mock-ups of breeding blankets, called Test Blanket Modules (TBMs), are installed in three ITER equatorial ports. Each TBM and the associated shield form a TBM-set that is mechanically attached to a steel frame called TBM Frame. A Frame and two TBM-Sets form a TBM Port Plug (TBM PP). The ITER Organization is responsible for the design and manufacture of the TBM Frames and of the Dummy TBMs that could replace the TBM-sets in case they were not available. This paper describes the recent results of the design supporting analyses for the TBM Frames and Dummy TBMs that is presently in the preliminary design stage and their impact on the design.

  9. European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) test blanket. ITER design description document. Status 1.12.1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Dalle Donne, M.; Fischer, U.; Gordeev, S.; Hutter, E.; Kleefeldt, K.; Norajitra, P.; Reimann, G.; Ruatto, P.; Schleisiek, K.; Schnauder, H.

    1997-04-01

    The Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is based on the use of separate small lithium orthosilicate and beryllium pebble beds placed between radial toroidal cooling plates. The cooling is provided by helium at 8 MPa. The tritium produced in the pebble beds is purged by the flow of helium at 0.1 MPa. The structural material is martensitic steel. It is foreseen, after an extended R and D work, to test in ITER a blanket module based on the HCPB design, which is one of the two European proposals for the ITER Test Blanket Programme. To facilitate the handling operation the Blanket Test Module (BTM) is bolted to a surrounding water cooled frame fixed to the ITER shield blanket back plate. For the design of the test module, three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutronic calculations and thermohydraulic and stress analyses for the operation during the Basic Performance Phase (BPP) and during the Extended Performance Phase (EPP) of ITER have been performed. The behaviour of the test module during LOCA and LOFA has been investigated. Conceptual designs of the required ancillary loops have been performed. The present report is the updated version of the Design Description Document (DDD) for the HCPB Test Module. It has been written in accordance with a scheme given by the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) and accounts for the comments made by the JCT to the previous version of this report. This work has been performed in the framework of the Nuclear Fusion Project of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhne and it is supported by the European Union within the European Fusion Technology Program. (orig.) [de

  10. Neutronic performance of Indian LLCB TBM set conceptual design in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swami, H.L., E-mail: hswami@ipr.res.in; Shaw, A.K.; Mistry, A.N.; Danani, C.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic analyses of conceptual design of LLCB test blanket module in ITER have been performed. • The estimated total tritium production rate in the LLCB TBM is 1.66E + 17 tritons/s. • Total heat deposited in the LLCB TBM is 0.46 MW and highest power density at TBM first wall is 5.2 Watt/cc. • The estimation shows the maximum DPA 2.72 at TBM FW. - Abstract: Tritium breeding blanket testing program in ITER is an important milestone towards the development of the fusion reactors. ITER organization is providing an opportunity to the partner countries to test their breeding blanket concepts. A mock-up of Indian Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) tritium breeding blanket known as LLCB Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be tested in ITER equatorial port no. 2. LLCB blanket consists of lead lithium (PbLi) as a neutron multiplier & tritium breeder, ceramic breeder (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) as a tritium breeder and India specific Reduced Activation Ferretic Martinic Steel (IN-RAFMS) as a structural material. A stainless steel block which is cooled by water, called as shield block, is attached with TBM to provide neutron shield to ITER TBM port. A comprehensive neutronic performance evaluation is required for the design of the LLCB TBM set (TBM + shield block) and associated ancillary systems in ITER. The neutronic performance of the conceptual design of TBM set in ITER has been carried out and reported here. In order to carry out the neutronic performance evaluation, the neutronic models of the LLCB TBM set along with TBM frame have been constructed and inserted in the equatorial port of ITER reference neutronic model C-lite. Neutronic responses such as tritium production rate, nuclear heating, neutron flux & spectra, gas production & DPA in the LLCB TBM set are calculated considering 500 MW fusion power & fluence level of 0.3 MWa/m{sup 2}. Radiation transport code MCNP6 and FENDL 2.1 nuclear cross-section data library are used to perform the neutronic

  11. On the effects of the TBM-shield body articulation on tunnelling in soft soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festa, D.; Broere, W.; Bosch, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    When a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) is driven in soft soil, the TBM-shield constantly interacts with the surrounding soil profile excavated by the cutting wheel. The interaction pattern of shield-soil interface displacements determines compression and extension sectors in the surrounding soil. Soil

  12. Preliminary verification of structure design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhou, E-mail: zhaozhou@swip.ac.cn; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Qijie; Cao, Qixiang; Feng, Kaiming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Guoshu

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A new and simplification structural design scheme with 1 × 4 configuration is proposed for CN HCCB TBM. • The detail conceptual structural design for 1 × 4 TBM is completed. • The preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis for 1 × 4 TBM had been carried out. - Abstract: Based on the conceptual design of CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration, the preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis had been carried out for it. Hydraulic and thermo-hydraulic analyses show that the coolant manifold system could meet the fluid design requirement preliminarily and the temperature of RAFMs structural parts, Be and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble beds are within the allowable range, and no zone shows a stress higher than the allowable limit in the preliminary structural analysis. These results indicate the design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration is preliminary reasonable.

  13. Preliminary verification of structure design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhou; Zhou, Bing; Wang, Qijie; Cao, Qixiang; Feng, Kaiming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Guoshu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new and simplification structural design scheme with 1 × 4 configuration is proposed for CN HCCB TBM. • The detail conceptual structural design for 1 × 4 TBM is completed. • The preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis for 1 × 4 TBM had been carried out. - Abstract: Based on the conceptual design of CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration, the preliminary hydraulic analysis, thermo-hydraulic analysis and structural analysis had been carried out for it. Hydraulic and thermo-hydraulic analyses show that the coolant manifold system could meet the fluid design requirement preliminarily and the temperature of RAFMs structural parts, Be and Li_4SiO_4 pebble beds are within the allowable range, and no zone shows a stress higher than the allowable limit in the preliminary structural analysis. These results indicate the design for CN HCCB TBM with 1 × 4 configuration is preliminary reasonable.

  14. Surface coating of graphite pebbles for Korean HCCR TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Young-Hoon, E-mail: yunh2@dsu.ac.kr [Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A CVR-SiC coating was successfully formed on graphite pebbles for neutron reflector. • Dense and fine-grained surface morphologies of the SiC coatings were observed. • Oxidation resistance of the CVR-SiC-coated graphite pebbles was improved. - Abstract: The new concept of the recently modified Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is to adopt a graphite reflector in the form of a pebble bed. A protective SiC coating is applied to the graphite pebbles to prohibit their reaction with steam or air as well as dust generation during TBM operation. In this research, the chemical vapor reaction (CVR) method was applied to fabricate SiC-coated graphite pebbles in a silica source. Relatively dense CVR-SiC coating was successfully formed on the graphite pebbles through the reduction of the graphite phase with SiO gas that was simply created from the silica source at 1850 °C (2 h). The microstructural features, XRD patterns, pore-size distribution and oxidation behavior of the SiC-coated graphite pebbles were investigated. To develop the practical process, which will be applied for mass production hereafter, a novel alternative method was applied to form the layer of SiC coating on the graphite pebbles over the silica source.

  15. Surface coating of graphite pebbles for Korean HCCR TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Yun, Young-Hoon; Park, Yi-Hyun; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A CVR-SiC coating was successfully formed on graphite pebbles for neutron reflector. • Dense and fine-grained surface morphologies of the SiC coatings were observed. • Oxidation resistance of the CVR-SiC-coated graphite pebbles was improved. - Abstract: The new concept of the recently modified Helium-Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is to adopt a graphite reflector in the form of a pebble bed. A protective SiC coating is applied to the graphite pebbles to prohibit their reaction with steam or air as well as dust generation during TBM operation. In this research, the chemical vapor reaction (CVR) method was applied to fabricate SiC-coated graphite pebbles in a silica source. Relatively dense CVR-SiC coating was successfully formed on the graphite pebbles through the reduction of the graphite phase with SiO gas that was simply created from the silica source at 1850 °C (2 h). The microstructural features, XRD patterns, pore-size distribution and oxidation behavior of the SiC-coated graphite pebbles were investigated. To develop the practical process, which will be applied for mass production hereafter, a novel alternative method was applied to form the layer of SiC coating on the graphite pebbles over the silica source

  16. Re-analysis of HCPB/HCLL Blanket Mock-up Experiments Using Recent Nuclear Data Libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Fischer, U.; Klix, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Serikov, A.; Villari, R.

    2014-01-01

    We have re-analysed the two breeding blankets experiments performed previously in the frame of the European fusion program on two mock-ups of the European Helium-Cooled-Lithiium Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed (HCPB) test blanket modules for ITER. The tritium production rate and the neutron and photon spectra measured in these mock-ups were compared with calculations using FENDL-3 Starter Library, release 4 and state-of-the-art nuclear data evaluations, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.0. The tritium production calculated for the HCPB mock-up underestimates the experimental result by about 10%. The result calculated with FENDL-3/SLIB4 gives slightly smaller tritium production by 2% than the one with FENDL-2.1. The difference attributes to the slight modification of the total and elastic scattering cross section of Be. For the HCLL experiment, all libraries reproduce the experimental results well. FENDL-3/SLIB4 gives better result both for the measured spectra and the tritium production compared to FENDL-2.1

  17. The use of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) as a seismic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Ingrid; Chwatal, Werner; Radinger, Alexander; Brückl, Ewald

    2014-05-01

    The Tunnel Seismic While Drilling (TSWD) method uses the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) as the seismic source. The method has been developed to predict the geological situation from reflections ahead of the tunnel face without disturbing the tunneling. The vibrations of the TBM are continuously monitored near the drilling head (pilot signal) as well as the direct and reflected seismic wave field at borehole geophones (geophone signal) situated in the tunnel wall behind the TBM. During the processing these signals are correlated and result in excellent seismic traces comparable to conventional seismic methods. The interpretation of the reflections leads to a nearly daily prognosis about 100 m ahead of the TBM. This system was successfully implemented at three different construction sites in Austria and is currently operating at one further. The cutters on front of the TBM head are pressed against the tunnel face and split the rock during rotating which is called the chipping process. This cutting process generates seismic waves radiated into the rock mass and results also in vibrations of the TBM itself. On the one hand it is important to know the source mechanism of the TBM and the radiation pattern of the seismic waves in all directions. Until now this is not well understood. To investigate this 3C-geophones were installed at the surface above the tunnel axis at different construction sites. The obtained seismograms show the forward and backward radiated seismic wave field of the TBM, for the present without consideration of the influence of the free surface. We compare this data with modelled seismograms in which we use different possible source mechanism, like single force or force due to tensile cracks. First results are shown in the scope of this work. On the other hand it is essential to know how good the recorded pilot signal represents the entire chipping process. Due to technically reasons the pilot signal has been registered so far on the non-rotating part

  18. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the MandO is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment

  19. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE CHARACTERIZATIONS PROJECT TUNNEL BORING MACHINE (TBM) SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1997-02-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the tunnel boring machine (TBM) used in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. Since the TBM is an ''as built'' system, the M&O is conducting the System Safety Analysis during the construction or assembly phase of the TBM. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the TBM in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the system/subsystem/component design, (2) add safety features and capabilities to existing designs, and (3) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the TBM during normal operations, excluding hazards occurring during assembly and test of the TBM or maintenance of the TBM equipment.

  20. Overview of LLCB TBM design and R&D activities in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, E. Rajendra, E-mail: rajendrakumare@gmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Vyas, K.N. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2016-11-01

    The Lead-Lithium Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (LLCB-TBM) is the Indian TBM representing the DEMO breeding blanket, to be installed in ITER radial port no-2 for testing in ITER. The conceptual design of LLCB TBM systems and their engineering design are under progress. The neutronic analysis and engineering design of LLCB TBM set (TBM + TBM Shield) is undergoing optimization. The LLCB TBS auxiliary systems; Helium cooling systems, Lead-Lithium Cooling System and Tritium Extraction Systems design are conceptualized and detail design is under progress. The system arrangements in port cell area, Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) vault and Tritium building along with interface requirements have been worked out within the allocated space. LLCB TBS related R&D activities are under progress at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar in association with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai and Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam. The major research and development areas are liquidmetal technologies, lithium ceramic pebbles, lead-lithium eutectic alloy, India specific Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steels (IN-RAFMS) development and fabrication technologies development. This paper will highlight the current LLCB TBM set and axillary systems design and status of R&D activities in various areas.

  1. Current Status of HCCR TBM Design for the Preliminary Design Phase Preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Dae; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Dong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu Young [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) TBM-set will be installed in the equatorial port no.18 of ITER inside the vacuum vessel directly facing the plasma. TBM-set refers the TBM and associated shield and connecting support. After the Conceptual Design Review (CDR), Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) design is being updated for the preparation of the preliminary design phase. The manufacturability is considered based on the TBM-set model of the conceptual design phase. In this work, the design changes for each component of the TBM-set is described in comparison with the CD phase. The current design direction and details is presented. The first wall (FW) is component facing the plasma directly. This component should have a superior cooling performance. Present Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) design was described in comparison with the CD model. The manufacturability was considered in current PD phase. The detained design of the connecting support will be determined reflecting the load assessment. The structural integrity will be confirmed with a various load condition.

  2. R and D progress of Korean HCSB TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seungyon, E-mail: sycho@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young; Yu, In-Keun; Park, Yi-Hyun; Ku, Duck Young [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jin [Mokpo National University, 1666 Youngsan-ro, Cheonggye-myeon, Muan-gun, Jeonnam 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Han-Ki [Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busan-jin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Gyu [Pusan National University, 63-2 Busandaehangno,Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Several R and Ds are being performed for Korean helium cooled solid breeder (HCSB) test blanket module (TBM) in the field of hydrogen isotopes permeation characteristics measurement in the helium purge line, joining technologies of structural materials, breeder pebble materials development, and the measurement of pebble bed characteristics. Electron beam welding for reduced activated ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel is evaluated to find optimal welding conditions. Also, a hydrogen permeation measurement apparatus is newly installed for the evaluation of the permeation barrier characteristics of stainless steel and RAFM steels. Two fabrication methods of lithium orthosilicate pebbles are investigated using slurry droplet methods. As methods of silicon carbide coating on the graphite pebble, microwave coating and chemical vapor deposition coating are evaluated. Two apparatuses are established to assess the thermo-mechanical properties of graphite and breeder pebble beds. The current status of R and D activities on these areas is introduced and the main progresses are addressed in this paper.

  3. TBM tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, G.E.; Gowring, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is a scientific endeavor to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for the first long term, high level nuclear waste repository in the United States. Status of this long-term project form the construction perspective is described. A key element is construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which is being excavated with a 7. 6 m(25 ft) diameter tunnel boring machine (TBM). Development of the ESF may include the excavation of over 15 km (9.3 mi) of tunnel varying in size from 3 to 7.6 m(10 to 25 ft). Prior to construction, extensive constructibility reviews were an interactive part of the final design. Intent was to establish a constructible design that met the long-term stability requirements for radiological safety of a future repository while maintaining flexibility for the scientific investigations and acceptable tunneling productivity

  4. Verification of design rules for EUROFER under TBM operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyk, R.; Aktaa, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the activity presented in this work is, firstly, an evaluation of existing design rules considered for austenitic steels exhibiting cycle-by-cycle hardening, in contrast to the reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFM), which soften under cyclic loading. Secondly, we are aimed in a definition of the range of operating temperatures and loads for the current design of the test blanket module (TBM). Results of cycling tests of the EUROFER 97 have been thereby used to adjust material parameters needed for an ABAQUS-own combined non-linear isotropic-kinematic hardening model. Furthermore, a visco-plastic material model considering material damage and implemented recently as an ABAQUS user material (UMAT) has been also applied for simulations. Some important design rules within the elastic route have been evaluated and their predictions have been compared to results of cyclic simulations using the advanced material models mentioned above

  5. Conceptual design of tritium accountancy system for LLCB TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rudreksh; Sircar, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be tested in ITER for performance evaluation of high grade of heat extraction and tritium breeding. The bred tritium in the breeder materials is extracted and recovered by Tritium Extraction System (TES), whereas tritium permeated from breeder materials to helium coolants, viz., primary coolant and secondary coolant, is recovered by Coolant Purification System (CPS). This recovered tritium has to be accounted before transferring it to tritium plant (i.e., ITER inner fuel). This tritium accountancy is performed by Tritium Accountancy System (TAS). In addition to tritium accountancy, TAS also provides necessary data for the validation of design and modelling tools.In this work, we have presented conceptual design of TAS. It also describes operational philosophy, process parameters, process flow diagram, and interface details with ITER tritium plant. (author)

  6. A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE FROM MAINTAINING THE US ITER DCLL TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. J. Merrill; L. C. Cadwallader; M. Dagher

    2008-09-01

    This paper details an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This ORE analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for maintenance activities anticipated for the US DCLL TBM concept and its ancillary systems. Identification of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and estimates of the time required to perform these tasks were developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This paper details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  7. Overview of design and R and D of solid breeder TBM in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Pan, C.H.; Zhang, G.S.; Yuan, T.; Chen, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Liu, H.B.; Li, Z.Q.; Hu, G.; Wang, X.Y.; Ye, X.F.; Luo, D.L.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhou, Z.W.; Gao, C.M.; Chen, Y.J.; Wang, P.H.; Cao, Q.X.; Wang, Q.J.

    2008-01-01

    Testing of breeding blanket module (TBM) is one of ITER's important objectives. China is performing design and technology development of ITER TBMs based on the development strategy of fusion DEMO in China. Solid breeder with helium-cooled test blanket module concept for test in ITER should be the basic option in China. The progress and status of China helium-cooled solid breeder (CH HCSB) TBM since 2004 are introduced briefly. Concept designs of HCSB TBM and ancillary systems, test strategy for their tests in ITER, key R and D issues are summarized in this paper. An international collaboration in R and D, development and testing of TBMs are proposed

  8. Preliminary thermal-hydraulic and safety analysis of China DFLL-TBM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Tian, Wenxi, E-mail: wxtian@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Jiao, Hong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi’an, Shanxi 710049 (China); Bai, Yunqing; Chen, Hongli [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wu, Yican, E-mail: yican.Wu@Fds.Org.Cn [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Thermal-hydraulic and safety analysis on DFLL-TBM system is performed. • The TBM FW maximum temperature is 541 °C under steady state condition. • The TBM FW maximum temperature does not exceed the melt point of CLAM steel 1500 °C. • Neither the VV pressurization nor vault pressure build-up goes beyond 0.2 MPa. -- Abstract: China has proposed the dual-functional lithium-lead (DFLL) tritium breeding blanket concept for testing in ITER as a test blanket module (TBM), to demonstrate the technologies of tritium self-sufficiency, high-grade heat extraction and efficient electricity production which are needed for DEMO and fusion power plant. Safety assessment of the TBM and its auxiliary system should be conducted to deal with ITER safety issues directly caused by the TBM system failure during the design process. In this work, three potential initial events (PIEs) – in-vessel loss of helium (He) coolant and ex-vessel loss of He coolant and loss of flow without scram (LOFWS) – were analyzed for the TBM system with a modified version of the RELAP5/MOD3 code containing liquid lithium-lead eutectic (LiPb). The code also comprised an empirical expression for MHD pressure drop relevant to three-dimensional (3D) effect, the Lubarsky–Kaufman convective heat transfer correlation for LiPb flow and the Gnielinski convective heat transfer correlation for He flow. Since both LiPb and He serve as TBM coolants, the LiPb and He ancillary cooling systems were modeled to investigate the thermal-hydraulic characteristic of the TBM system and its influence on ITER safety under those accident conditions. The TBM components and the coolants flow within the TBM were simulated with one-dimensional heat structures and their associated hydrodynamic components. ITER enclosures including vacuum vessel (VV), port cell and TCWS vault were also covered in the model for accident analyses. Through this best estimate approach, the calculation indicated that the current

  9. Estimation of Graphite Dust Production in ITER TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji Ho; Kim, Eung Seon

    2013-01-01

    This scheme uses simple equations and the calculation time is much less than others. However, the contact equation requires a specially tuned material properties and instability of system matrix were reported. Second, only a couple of pebbles were modeled using FEM(Finite Element Method) and appropriate boundary and loading conditions are imposed. This scheme gives a detailed information of stress distribution of the pebbles and the stability of calculation is well established. However, the calculation cost is fairly high and only a few pebble can be analyzed in detail at a time with specifically assigned contact conditions. In this study, a prediction model of graphite dust production in ITER(International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) TBM(Test Blanket Module) using FEM was introduced and the amount of dust production for an operation cycle was estimated. In this study, graphite dust generation in the reflector zone of ITER TBM was estimated using FE analysis. A unit-cell model was defined to simulate normal contact forces and slip distances on contact points between the center pebble and the surrounding pebbles. The dust production was calculated using Archard equation. The simulation was repeated with different friction coefficient of graphite material to investigate the effect of friction on the dust production. The calculation result showed that the amount of dust production was 2.22∼3.67e-4 g/m 3 which was almost linearly proportional to the friction coefficient of graphite material. The amount of graphite dust production was considered too much small for a dust explosion

  10. TIG of Reduced Activation Ferrite/Martensitic Steel for the Korean ITER-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Duck Young; Ahn, Mu Young; Yu, In Keun; Cho, Seun Gyon; Oh, Seung Jin

    2010-01-01

    Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be tested in ITER to verify the capability of tritium breeding and recovery and the extraction of thermal energy suitable for the production of electricity. A Helium Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) TBM has been developed in Korea to accomplish these goals. Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel has been chosen as the primary candidate structural material for Korean TBM. Due to the complexity of the First wall (FW) and Side wall (SW), it is necessary to develop various joining technologies, such as Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Electron Beam Welding (EBW) and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding, for the successful fabrication of TBM. In this study, the mechanical properties of TIG welded RAFM steel were investigated. Various mechanical tests of TIG-welded RAFM steel were performed to obtain the optimized TIG welding process for RAFM steel

  11. TIG of Reduced Activation Ferrite/Martensitic Steel for the Korean ITER-TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Duck Young; Ahn, Mu Young; Yu, In Keun; Cho, Seun Gyon [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Jin [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be tested in ITER to verify the capability of tritium breeding and recovery and the extraction of thermal energy suitable for the production of electricity. A Helium Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) TBM has been developed in Korea to accomplish these goals. Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel has been chosen as the primary candidate structural material for Korean TBM. Due to the complexity of the First wall (FW) and Side wall (SW), it is necessary to develop various joining technologies, such as Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), Electron Beam Welding (EBW) and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding, for the successful fabrication of TBM. In this study, the mechanical properties of TIG welded RAFM steel were investigated. Various mechanical tests of TIG-welded RAFM steel were performed to obtain the optimized TIG welding process for RAFM steel

  12. EU Udbudsretten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sune Troels; Jakobsen, Peter Stig; Kalsmose-Hjelmborg, Simon Evers

    I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk.......I bogen, som er en 2. udgave, analyseres EU udbudsdirektiv for offentlige myndigheder og EU's forsyningsvirksomhedsdirektiv. I analyserne inddrages EU-domstolens domme, afgørelser fra Kalgenævnet for Udbud, domme fra danske domstole samt litteratur på dansk og engelsk....

  13. Performance Analysis of Korean Liquid metal type TBM based on Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. H.; Han, B. S.; Park, H. J.; Park, D. K. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    The objective of this project is to analyze a nuclear performance of the Korean HCML(Helium Cooled Molten Lithium) TBM(Test Blanket Module) which will be installed in ITER(International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This project is intended to analyze a neutronic design and nuclear performances of the Korean HCML ITER TBM through the transport calculation of MCCARD. In detail, we will conduct numerical experiments for analyzing the neutronic design of the Korean HCML TBM and the DEMO fusion blanket, and improving the nuclear performances. The results of the numerical experiments performed in this project will be utilized further for a design optimization of the Korean HCML TBM. In this project, Monte Carlo transport calculations for evaluating TBR (Tritium Breeding Ratio) and EMF (Energy Multiplication factor) were conducted to analyze a nuclear performance of the Korean HCML TBM. The activation characteristics and shielding performances for the Korean HCML TBM were analyzed using ORIGEN and MCCARD. We proposed the neutronic methodologies for analyzing the nuclear characteristics of the fusion blanket, which was applied to the blanket analysis of a DEMO fusion reactor. In the results, the TBR of the Korean HCML ITER TBM is 0.1352 and the EMF is 1.362. Taking into account a limitation for the Li amount in ITER TBM, it is expected that tritium self-sufficiency condition can be satisfied through a change of the Li quantity and enrichment. In the results of activation and shielding analysis, the activity drops to 1.5% of the initial value and the decay heat drops to 0.02% of the initial amount after 10 years from plasma shutdown.

  14. Structural analysis by load combination for conceptual design of HCCR TBM-set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won, E-mail: dwlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung; Park, Seong Dae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Gentec Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The structural analyses of the load combination are performed for the HCCR TBM-set. • Structural analyses are performed with the conventional CFD and FEM codes (ANSYS-CFX and ANSYS). • The results of stresses and deformations for all the loads conditions are confirmed to meet the design criteria. - Abstract: Using a conceptual design of the Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) including the TBM-shield for testing in ITER, a structural analysis is performed according to the selected Load Combinations (LCs), which is described in the TBM Port Plug (TBM PP) System Load Specifications. Single load analyses are performed such as dead weight (DW), operating pressure (PresO), operating temperature (THO), electromagnetic (EM; MD-I, MD-II, and MD-IV), seismic (SL-1, SL-2, and SMHV), and in-TBM LOCA-IV. In addition, their results are superposed for the selected LCs. Through an analysis with 14 single load cases and 10 LC cases, it is confirmed that all load combination results meet the design criteria from the stress breakdown analysis according to the RCC-MRx.

  15. First results of the post-irradiation examination of the Ceramic Breeder materials from the Pebble Bed Assemblies Irradiation for the HCPB Blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegeman, J.; Magielsen, A.J.; Peeters, M.; Stijkel, M.P.; Fokkens, J.H.; Laan, J.G. van der

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of developing the European Helium Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) blanket an irradiation test of pebble-bed assemblies is performed in the HFR Petten. The experiment is focused on the thermo-mechanical behavior of the HCPB type breeder pebble-bed at DEMO representative levels of temperature and defined thermal-mechanical loads. To achieve representative conditions a section of the HCPB is simulated by EUROFER-97 cylinders with a horizontal bed of ceramic breeder pebbles sandwiched between two beryllium beds. Floating Eurofer-97 steel plates separate the pebble-beds. The structural integrity of the ceramic breeder materials is an issue for the design of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed concept. Therefore the objective of the post irradiation examination is to study deformation of pebbles and the pebble beds and to investigate the microstructure of the ceramic pebbles from the Pebble Bed Assemblies. This paper concentrates on the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) of the four ceramic pebble beds that have been irradiated in the Pebble Bed Assembly experiment for the HCPB blanket concept. Two assemblies with Li 4 SiO 4 pebble-beds are operated at different maximum temperatures of approximately 600 o C and 800 o C. Post irradiation computational analysis has shown that both have different creep deformation. Two other assemblies have been loaded with a ceramic breeder bed of two types of Li 2 TiO 3 beds having different sintering temperatures and consequently different creep behavior. The irradiation maximum temperature of the Li 2 TiO 3 was 800 o C. To support the first PIE result, the post irradiation thermal analysis will be discussed because thermal gradients have influence on the pebble-bed thermo-mechanical behavior and as a result it may have impact on the structural integrity of the ceramic breeder materials. (author)

  16. Progresses and challenges in supporting activities toward a license to operate European TBM systems in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitevin, Y., E-mail: yves.poitevin@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Ricapito, I.; Zmitko, M. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Tavassoli, F. [CEA, DEN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thomas, N. [ATMOSTAT, F-94815 Villejuif (France); De Dinechin, G. [CEA, DEN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bucci, Ph. [CEA DRT, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rey, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 3640, Karlsruhe (Germany); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Panayotov, D. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Giancarli, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Calderoni, P.; Galabert, J.; Vallory, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A. [C.R. ENEA Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • First EUROFER steel design limits have been introduced in RCC-MRx. • Preliminary fabrication/welding procedure specifications for the European TBM box are under standardization. • Post irradiation examination (PIE) of beryllium pebbles irradiated at 17% of DEMO fluence target has been achieved. • Dynamic modeling of the TBM Systems with EcosimPro{sup ®} has been developed. - Abstract: Licensing a pressurized nuclear equipment like the European Test Blanket Modules (TBM) Systems and, on the longer term, breeder blankets of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO), will require presenting to the Regulator and the Agreed Notified Body, along with design and safety analyses, supporting data like consolidated materials data and design limits, qualified fabrication procedures specifications and validated modeling tools that go often over today's state-of-the-art of nuclear industry. TBM systems feature indeed a newly developed structural material and advanced fabrication processes that were not referenced in any nuclear construction codes before, new type of functional materials, complex structures geometry and many interconnected sub-systems exchanging tritium by permeation or fluid mass transfer. For many years now, Europe has structured its development activities on TBM Systems toward the preparation of licensing. First tangible results are now arising: the EUROFER structural material has been introduced in the RCC-MRx nuclear code, supported by a database of several thousands of test records; TBM box fabrication procedure specifications are under standardization by industry in view of their qualification; a modeling tool for accurate simulation of tritium transport in TBM systems has been developed in view of refining conservative inventory data published in preliminary safety reports and optimizing waste management. Remaining challenges are identified and discussed.

  17. Numerical Analysis for Heat transfer characteristic of Helium cooling system in Helium cooled ceramic reflector Test Module Blanket (HCCR-TBM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Dae; Lee, Dong Won; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Kim, Suk Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The main objectives of ITER project can be summarized into three types as follows - Plasma operation for a long time - Large tokamak device technology - Test blanket module (TBM) installation and verification The thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed in the He cooling channel in the BZ region of the HCCR TBM. The maximum temperature in the breeder material is equal to the limit temperature in the present design cooling channel. Nuclear fusion energy has advantage in terms of safety, resource availability, cost and waste management. There is not enough experimental results about the fusion reactor due to the severe experiments restrictions like vacuum environment, plasma production and significant nuclear heating at the same time. Much research and time is required for the commercial fusion reactor. For technical verification against the commercialization of fusion reactor, 7 countries which are EU, USA, Japan, Russia, China, India, and South Korea are building an ITER in the south of France. New designed cooling channels were proposed to improve the cooling performance. The swirl flow accelerates the mixture flow in the channels.

  18. The Effect of Consolidation on TBM Shield Loading in Water-Bearing Squeezing Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoni, M.; Anagnostou, G.

    2011-01-01

    Jamming or overstressing of the shield due to ground pressure are potential problems for tunnel boring machine (TBM) tunnelling in squeezing ground. The risk of shield jamming depends essentially on the deformation rate of the ground in the vicinity of the working face. The time-dependency of the ground response to the excavation is associated with its rheological properties as well as with the transient consolidation process that takes place around the opening in the case of a low-permeability saturated ground. The present paper focuses on the second mechanism and investigates the interaction between the advancing shield, tunnel lining and consolidating ground by means of transient numerical analyses. For a given set of geotechnical conditions and a given TBM configuration, the load exerted by the ground upon the shield during TBM operation decreases with increasing gross advance rate. During a long break in operations, the ground pressure may increase significantly, thereby necessitating a higher thrust force to overcome shield skin friction and restart the TBM. It is interesting to note that a high advance rate reduces the risk of shield jamming not only during TBM advance, but is also favourable with respect to any subsequent long standstills.

  19. Structural Integrity Analysis considered Load Combination for the Conceptual Design of Korean HCCR TBM-set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Kim, Suk Kwon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Gentec Tech, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    HCCR TBM (Test Blanket Module) set is consist of 4-TBM sub module, one blanket manifold (BM), a shield, and 4-key, which has a function of a connection between BM and the shield. And it shall be installed in the equatorial port No.18 of ITER inside the vacuum vessel directly facing the plasma and shall be cooled by a high-temperature helium coolant. In addition, the HCCR TBM-set safety classification follows the ITER (international thermonuclear reactor) safety importance class (SIC) criteria, and satisfies a design requirement according to RCC-MRx. In this study, some of load combination (LC) analysis for the structure integrity of TBM set were carried out based on the reference. And the LC results showed that they satisfied the design requirement. The material of TBM-set was used from the reference, and RCC-MRx for the stress analysis. In this study, the load combination results were met a design requirement. But some load combination case gave a higher maximum stress value than a design requirement and in these case the stress breakdown analysis according to RCC-MRx was performed, and the result were satisfied the design requirement.

  20. Contact dose rates and relevant radioactive inventory in ITER TBM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.; Guerrini, L.; Poitevin, Y.; Ricapito, I.; Zmitko, M.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the radioactive inventory and of the contact dose rates in the different ITER Test Blanket Modules systems is carried out, both for Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) concept and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) concept. The evaluations have been carried out by means of the MICROSHIELD code, starting from the data on the neutron-induced radioactivity in the blanket materials, already available for both the blanket modules. The possible sources of radioactive material in all the systems have been individuated and their contributes estimated.

  1. Contact dose rates and relevant radioactive inventory in ITER TBM systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, M., E-mail: massimo.zucchetti@polito.it [EURATOM/ENEA Fusion Association Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Guerrini, L., E-mail: Laurent.Guerrini@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, ITER Department, Test Blanket Modules Group, Barcelona (Spain); Poitevin, Y.; Ricapito, I.; Zmitko, M. [Fusion for Energy, ITER Department, Test Blanket Modules Group, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The determination of the radioactive inventory and of the contact dose rates in the different ITER Test Blanket Modules systems is carried out, both for Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) concept and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) concept. The evaluations have been carried out by means of the MICROSHIELD code, starting from the data on the neutron-induced radioactivity in the blanket materials, already available for both the blanket modules. The possible sources of radioactive material in all the systems have been individuated and their contributes estimated.

  2. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis on ITER DFLL-TBM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Liqin; Yuan Run; Chen Hongli; Bai Yunqing

    2012-01-01

    As required for licensing process, accident analyses of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) accounting for site specifications and design changes will be updated. Chinese Dual-Functional Lithium-Lead-Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM) system is a key safety-related component of ITER, its detailed safety analysis, which was designated to demonstrate the integrated technologies of both Helium single coolant (SLL) blanket and Helium-LiPb dual coolant (DLL) blanket, was performed. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) was applied to perform the safety analysis of DFLL-TBM. This study described the process of FMEA studies on DFLL-TBM system. All safety-related Postulated Initiating Events (PIEs) was identified. And a set of PIEs recommended to be taken into account in the further deterministic transient analyses were defined for both SLL and DLL blanket concepts separately.

  3. Analysis of the HCPB breeder blanket bock-up experiment for ITER using SUSD3D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.

    2005-01-01

    In order to validate new nuclear cross-section evaluations, method development and design of the helium-cooled pebble bed (HCPB) test blanket module of ITER a benchmark experiment was performed this year at the Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG) in the scope of the EFF (European Fusion File) project in Europe. The objective of this experiment is to study the tritium breeding ratio and other nuclear quantities in a breeder blanket in order to establish and improve the quality of related JEFF nuclear data. The experiment consists of a metallic beryllium set-up with two double layers of breeder material (Li 2 CO 3 powder). The reaction rate measurements include the Li 2 CO 3 pellets (tritium breeding ratio), activation foils, and neutron and gamma spectrometers inserted at several axial and lateral locations in the block. Our task is to perform the deterministic transport, and cross section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The role of the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is to optimise the design of the benchmark, and to assist in the interpretation of the measurement results. The paper presents the pre- and post- analysis of the benchmark experiment. (author)

  4. Status of the EU test blanket systems safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, Dobromir; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TBS safety demonstration files. • Safety functions and related design features – detailed TBS components classifications. • Nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection. • TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization. • Selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios and accidents analyses. - Abstract: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy (‘Fusion for Energy’ – F4E) provides the European contributions to the ITER international fusion energy research project. Among others it includes also the development, design, technological demonstration and implementation of the European test blanket systems (TBS) in ITER. Currently two EU TBS designs are in the phase of conceptual design – helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an important part of the work devoted to the achievement of the next key project milestone the conceptual design review. The paper reveals the details of the work on EU TBS safety performed in the last couple of years: update of the TBS safety demonstration files; safety functions and related design features; detailed TBS components classifications; nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection; TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization; selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios, and accidents analyses. Finally the authors share the information on on-going and planned future EU TBS safety activities.

  5. Status of the EU test blanket systems safety studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotov, Dobromir, E-mail: dobromir.panayotov@f4e.europa.eu; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • TBS safety demonstration files. • Safety functions and related design features – detailed TBS components classifications. • Nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection. • TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization. • Selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios and accidents analyses. - Abstract: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy (‘Fusion for Energy’ – F4E) provides the European contributions to the ITER international fusion energy research project. Among others it includes also the development, design, technological demonstration and implementation of the European test blanket systems (TBS) in ITER. Currently two EU TBS designs are in the phase of conceptual design – helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an important part of the work devoted to the achievement of the next key project milestone the conceptual design review. The paper reveals the details of the work on EU TBS safety performed in the last couple of years: update of the TBS safety demonstration files; safety functions and related design features; detailed TBS components classifications; nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection; TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization; selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios, and accidents analyses. Finally the authors share the information on on-going and planned future EU TBS safety activities.

  6. Recent progress of China HCCB TBM tritium system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Deli, E-mail: luodeli2005@hotmail.com; Huang, Guoqiang; Huang, Zhiyong; Qin, Cheng; Song, Jiangfeng; He, Kanghao; Chen, Chang’an; Zhang, Guikai; Fu, Jun; Yao, Yong; An, Yongtao

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Comparing with our previous design, improvements have been made according to the up-to-date experiments and simulations: (1) The palladium alloy tube in the previous design is now removed in the upgraded one and the cryogenic molecular sieve bed is replaced by the getter bed to reduce tritium inventory; (2) Hot metal reduction bed is relocated from T-Plant to Port Cell; (3) TAS is now integrated into TES. • The proposed coolant purification is based on catalytic oxidation and molecular sieve bed adsorption for tritium removal, as well as hot metal adsorption for the elimination of non-tritium gaseous impurities. Some operation parameters and functional components are improved. The interface with the high pressure HCS and other plant systems was incorporated taking into account of the requirement from the ITER port management group meetings. - Abstract: China tritium system including Tritium Extraction System (TES) with Tritium Accountancy System (TAS) integrated in and Coolant Purification System (CPS), which is subordinate to Helium Coolant System (HCS), is of great importance for China Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (CN HCCB TBM). The purge gas (99.9% He + 0.1% H{sub 2}) carrying Q{sub 2}O (Q = H, D, T) and Q{sub 2} from Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} ceramic breeder flows through the reduction bed where Q{sub 2}O is reduced into Q{sub 2} and then absorbed by the getter bed. The HT/HTO ratio and the total tritium are determined by TAS. Catalytic oxidation combines with molecular sieve absorption and hot metal purification are applied to remove tritium and other impurities in helium coolant. A loop including depressurization, helium-sweeping assisted thermal desorption, and cold trapping for the regeneration of saturated molecular sieve bed until the concentration of the desorbed Q{sub 2}O is reduced to an acceptable level. This paper introduces the recent progress of China tritium system including updated conceptual designs of TES and

  7. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...

  8. Progress and challenges of the ITER TBM Program from the IO perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.M.; Barabash, V.; Campbell, D.J.; Chiocchio, S.; Cordier, J.-J.; Dammann, A.; Dell’Orco, G.; Elbez-Uzan, J.; Fourneron, J.M.; Friconneau, J.P.; Gasparotto, M.; Iseli, M.; Jung, C.-Y.; Kim, B.-Y.; Lazarov, D.; Levesy, B.; Loughlin, M.; Merola, M.; Nevière, J.-C.; Pascal, R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the organization of the Test Blanket Module (TBM) program, its overall objective and schedule and the status of the technical activities within the ITER Organization-Central Team (IO-CT). The latter include the design integration of the Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) into the nuclear buildings, ensuring all interfaces with other ITER systems, the design of the common TBS components such as the TBM Frames, the Dummy TBMs, and the TBS maintenance tools and equipment in the TBM Port Cell as well as in the Hot Cell building, the design of the TBS connection pipes and the definition of the required maintenance operations and associated R&D. The paper also discusses the major challenges that the TBM Program will be facing in ITER such as the potential impact of the TBMs ferritic/martensitic structures on plasma operations, the approaches to tritium and contamination confinement, the required mitigation and recovery actions in case of accidents, and the assessment of the reliability aspects that could have an impact on ITER availability.

  9. Current status of technology development for fabrication of Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, T., E-mail: tjk@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [TBM Division, Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Status of technology developments for Indian TBM to be installed in ITER is presented. • Procedure development for EB, laser and laser-hybrid welding of RAFM steel presented. • Filler wires for RAFM steel for TIG, NG-TIG and laser-hybrid welding have been developed. • Feasibility of production of channel plate by HIP technology has been demonstrated. - Abstract: Ever since India decided to install its Lead-Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) TBM in ITER, various technologies for fabrication of Indian TBM are being pursued by IPR and IGCAR, in collaboration with various research laboratories in India. Welding consumables for joining India specific RAFM steels (IN-RAFMS), procedures for hot isostatic pressing, electron beam welding, laser and laser-hybrid welding have been developed. Considering the complex nature and limited access available for inspection, innovative inspection procedures that involved use of phased array ultrasonic and C-scan imaging are also being pursued. This paper presents the current status of these developments and provides a roadmap for the future activities planned in realizing Indian TBM for testing in ITER.

  10. Progress and challenges of the ITER TBM Program from the IO perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancarli, L.M., E-mail: luciano.giancarli@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Barabash, V.; Campbell, D.J.; Chiocchio, S.; Cordier, J.-J.; Dammann, A.; Dell’Orco, G.; Elbez-Uzan, J.; Fourneron, J.M.; Friconneau, J.P. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Gasparotto, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Wendelsteinstraße 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Iseli, M.; Jung, C.-Y.; Kim, B.-Y.; Lazarov, D.; Levesy, B.; Loughlin, M.; Merola, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Nevière, J.-C. [Comex-Nucleaire, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Pascal, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2016-11-01

    The paper describes the organization of the Test Blanket Module (TBM) program, its overall objective and schedule and the status of the technical activities within the ITER Organization-Central Team (IO-CT). The latter include the design integration of the Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) into the nuclear buildings, ensuring all interfaces with other ITER systems, the design of the common TBS components such as the TBM Frames, the Dummy TBMs, and the TBS maintenance tools and equipment in the TBM Port Cell as well as in the Hot Cell building, the design of the TBS connection pipes and the definition of the required maintenance operations and associated R&D. The paper also discusses the major challenges that the TBM Program will be facing in ITER such as the potential impact of the TBMs ferritic/martensitic structures on plasma operations, the approaches to tritium and contamination confinement, the required mitigation and recovery actions in case of accidents, and the assessment of the reliability aspects that could have an impact on ITER availability.

  11. Analysis on the Rock-Cutter Interaction Mechanism During the TBM Tunneling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiqing; Wang, He; Zhou, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    The accurate prediction of rock cutting forces of disc cutters is crucial for tunnel boring machine (TBM) design and construction. Disc cutter wear, which affects TBM penetration performance, has frequently been found at TBM sites. By considering the operating path and wear of the disc cutter, a new model is proposed for evaluating the cutting force and wear of the disc cutter in the tunneling process. The circular path adopted herein, which is the actual running path of the TBM disc cutter, shows that the lateral force of the disc cutter is asymmetric. The lateral forces on the sides of the disc cutter are clearly different. However, traditional solutions are obtained by assuming a linear path, where the later forces are viewed as equal. To simulate the interaction between the rock and disc cutter, a simple brittle damage model for rock mass is introduced here. Based on the explicit dynamic finite element method, the cutting force acting on the rock generated by a single disc cutter is simulated. It is shown that the lateral cutting force of the disc cutter strongly affects the wear extent of disc cutter. The wear mechanism is thus underestimated by the classical model, which was obtained by linear cutting tests. The simulation results are discussed and compared with other models, and these simulation results agree well with the results of present ones.

  12. Influence of Corrosion on the Abrasion of Cutter Steels Used in TBM Tunnelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espallargas, N.; Jakobsen, P. D.; Langmaack, L.; Macias, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abrasion on tunnel boring machine (TBM) cutters may be critical in terms of project duration and costs. Several researchers are currently studying the degradation of TBM cutter tools used for excavating hard rock, soft ground and loose soil. So far, the primary focus of this research has been directed towards abrasive wear. Abrasive wear is a very common process in TBM excavation, but with a view to the environment in which the tools are working, corrosion may also exert an influence. This paper presents a selection of techniques that can be used to evaluate the influence of corrosion on abrasion on TBM excavation tools. It also presents the influence of corrosion on abrasive wear for some initial tests, with constant steel and geomaterial and varying properties of the excavation fluids (soil conditioners, anti-abrasion additives and water). The results indicate that the chloride content in the water media greatly influences the amount of wear, providing evidence of the influence of corrosion on the abrasion of the cutting tools. The presence of conditioning additives tailored to specific rock or soil conditions reduces wear. However, when chloride is present in the water, the additives minimise wear rates but fail to suppress corrosion of the cutting tools.

  13. Structural analysis by electro-magnetic loads for conceptual design of HCCR TBM-set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won, E-mail: dwlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Gentec Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jai Hak [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Using the results of EM analysis on the magnetization and the major disruption such as MD-1, MD-2, and MD-IV events, structural analyses are performed with the conventional FEM code (ANSYS). • The obtained stresses and deformations are confirmed to meet the design criteria. • We found that the magnetization effect is dominant compared to the major disruptions. - Abstract: Using a conceptual design of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) including the TBM-shield for testing in ITER, a structural analysis with electro-magnetic (EM) loads is performed. From a previous analysis of the material magnetization due to the use of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel as the TBM structure material and EM analysis considering the major disruption of MD-I, MD-II, and MD-IV, the forces are obtained and used for the current structural analysis. The results indicate that the maximum stress occurs at the He purge line at the upper and lower region of the breeding zone (BZ) box including the graphite reflector region, which meets the design requirement. In addition, displacements are lower than the designed gaps from the TBM port plug (PP) frame. The results are provided to the load combination analysis.

  14. Structural analysis by electro-magnetic loads for conceptual design of HCCR TBM-set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Park, Seong Dae; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung; Shin, Kyu In; Park, Jai Hak; Lee, Youngmin; Ku, Duck Young; Cho, Seungyon

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Using the results of EM analysis on the magnetization and the major disruption such as MD-1, MD-2, and MD-IV events, structural analyses are performed with the conventional FEM code (ANSYS). • The obtained stresses and deformations are confirmed to meet the design criteria. • We found that the magnetization effect is dominant compared to the major disruptions. - Abstract: Using a conceptual design of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) including the TBM-shield for testing in ITER, a structural analysis with electro-magnetic (EM) loads is performed. From a previous analysis of the material magnetization due to the use of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel as the TBM structure material and EM analysis considering the major disruption of MD-I, MD-II, and MD-IV, the forces are obtained and used for the current structural analysis. The results indicate that the maximum stress occurs at the He purge line at the upper and lower region of the breeding zone (BZ) box including the graphite reflector region, which meets the design requirement. In addition, displacements are lower than the designed gaps from the TBM port plug (PP) frame. The results are provided to the load combination analysis.

  15. Model validation of GAMMA code with heat transfer experiment for KO TBM in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, Soo Been; Lee, Eo Hwak; Lee, Dong Won; Park, Goon Cherl

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study, helium supplying system was constructed. ► Preparation for heat transfer experiment in KO TBM condition using helium supplying system was progressed. ► To get more applicable results, test matrix was made to cover the condition for KO TBM. ► Using CFD code; CFX 11, validation and modification for system code GAMMA was performed. -- Abstract: By considering the requirements for a DEMO-relevant blanket concept, Korea (KO) has proposed a He cooled molten lithium (HCML) test blanket module (TBM) for testing in ITER. A performance analysis for the thermal–hydraulics and a safety analysis for the KO TBM have been carried out using a commercial CFD code, ANSYS-CFX, and a system code, GAMMA (GAs multicomponent mixture analysis), which was developed by the gas cooled reactor in Korea. To verify the codes, a preliminary study was performed by Lee using a single TBM first wall (FW) mock-up made from the same material as the KO TBM, ferritic martensitic steel, using a 6 MPa nitrogen gas loop. The test was performed at pressures of 1.1, 1.9 and 2.9 MPa, and under various ranges of flow rate from 0.0105 to 0.0407 kg/s with a constant wall temperature condition. In the present study, a thermal–hydraulic test was performed with the newly constructed helium supplying system, in which the design pressure and temperature were 9 MPa and 500 °C, respectively. In the experiment, the same mock-up was used, and the test was performed under the conditions of 3 MPa pressure, 30 °C inlet temperature and 70 m/s helium velocity, which are almost same conditions of the KO TBM FW. One side of the mock-up was heated with a constant heat flux of 0.3–0.5 MW/m 2 using a graphite heating system, KoHLT-2 (Korea heat load test facility-2). Because the comparison result between CFX 11 and GAMMA showed a difference tendency, the modification of heat transfer correlation included in GAMMA was performed. And the modified GAMMA showed the strong parity with CFX

  16. Strength Evaluation of Heat Affected Zone in Electron Beam Welded ARAA for HCCR TBM in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Jin, H. G.; Lee, E. H.; Lee, D. W. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) has been developed for ITER, and Korean reduced activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steel, called advanced reduced activation alloy (ARAA), has also been developed for a structural material of the HCCR TBM. One case of limited optimized electron beam (EB) welding conditions was selected based on previous work, and the weldability of an EB weld was evaluated for TBM fabrication. The micro-hardness was measured from the base to the weld region, and the microstructures were also observed. A small punch (SP) test considering the HAZ was carried out at room and high (550 .deg. C) temperatures. The empirical mechanical properties of HAZ in the EB weld were evaluated, and the fracture behavior was investigated after the SP test. The SP results show that the estimated yield and tensile strength of the HAZ were higher than the base metal at both temperatures. Korean RAFM steel, ARAA, was developed as a TBM structural material. Using one of the program alloys in ARAA (F206), one case of a limited optimized EB welding condition was selected based on previous works, and the weldability of an EB weld using the SP test was evaluated for TBM fabrication at room and high (550 .deg. C) temperatures. From a micro-Vickers hardness evaluation, the HAZ gave the highest values compared with the other regions. The irregular grain boundaries in the HAZ were observed, but its width was narrower than the TIG weld from the previous results. The optimized welding methods such as the TIG, EB, and laser weld, and the welding procedure considering the PWHT are being established, and the weldability evaluation is also progressing according to the development of the ARAA for the fusion material application in Korea.

  17. Analysis of the impacts of the J-TEXT TBM mock-up on the equilibrium magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengqing [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, and College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Rao, Bo, E-mail: borao@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, and College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, and College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Weihua [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); New Star Institute of Applied Technology, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, Sumei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); School of Engineering,Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • J-TEXT TBM mock-up was designed and fabricated to test and study the distribution of eddy current, electromagnetic and thermal load on the TBM during plasma disruption. • This paper focuses on evaluating the influence of the TBM structural material (RAMF steel) to tokamak discharge and security. The simulation data presents a relatively complete assessment of impacts of the J-TEXT TBM mock-up on the equilibrium magnetic field. • The conclusion of the simulation will offer the guidance for installation interface design of the TBM mock-up. - Abstract: The Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be used in the test port of ITER to demonstrate tritium self-sufficiency and the extraction of high grade heat for electricity production. J-TEXT TBM mock-up using reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel as structural material was designed and fabricated to perform and validate relevant electromagnetic and thermal technologies of the China Helium-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (CN HCCB-TBM) on the J-TEXT. Its size is one third of the CN HCCB-TBM. By using the finite element analysis technology, this paper analyzed the impacts on the equilibrium magnetic field over the plasma region after introducing the structure material RAFM steel. The distribution of toroidal field (TF) ripple and the magnitude of the error field with the mock-up at different positions were given. Simulation shows the distribution of the null field region formed by poloidal field (PF). The influence to tokamak discharge has been evaluated by drawing the magnetic field lines. Based on the results above, we have optimized and finished the installation of the mock-up to J-TEXT which meets the needs of the experiments and to ensure the normal discharge.

  18. Overlever EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Det bliver stadig tydeligere at EU i kraft af den styrkede nationalisme i øst, vest og nord og kombineret med de nye regionale krav om national selvstændighed vil bevæge sig i retning af et mellemstatsligt samarbejde, støttet af en retsorden beskyttet af en domstol, bliver stadig tydeligere. Det ...... mindre sikkert, om den nationale egoisme vil ende med at opløse samarbejdet. EU vil sandsynligvis overleve, men det bliver snarere ligesom det Tysk-Romerske Rige, hvis institutioner overlevede helt til 1804....

  19. Construction of a test platform for Test Blanket Module (TBM) systems integration and maintenance in ITER Port Cell #16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vála, Ladislav, E-mail: ladislav.vala@cvrez.cz [Centrum výzkumu Řež, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic); Reungoat, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.reungoat@cvrez.cz [Centrum výzkumu Řež, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic); Vician, Martin [Centrum výzkumu Řež, Hlavní 130, 250 68 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic); Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan; Panayotov, Dobromir [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A non-nuclear, full size facility – TBM platform – is under construction in CVR. • It is designed for tests, optimization and validation of TBS maintenance operations. • It will allow testing and validation of specific maintenance tools and RH equipment. • It reproduces ITER Port Cell #16, as well as the TBS interfaces and main equipment. • The TBM platform will be available for full operation in the first half of 2016. - Abstract: This paper describes a project of a non-nuclear, 1:1 scale testing platform dedicated to tests, optimization and validation of integration and maintenance operations for the European TBM systems in the ITER Port Cell #16. This TBM platform is currently under construction in Centrum výzkumu Řež, Czech Republic. The facility is realized within the scope of the SUSEN project and its full operation is foreseen in the first half of 2016.

  20. Fabrication of small mock-ups for the KO HCCR TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jae Sung; Kim, Suk Kwon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Dong Won [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yon [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A fabrication procedure for the manufacturing of the HCCR TBM sub-module was performed and small mock-ups were fabricated using an E-beam and laser beam weld to verify the manufacturing procedure and method of the HCCR TBM sub-module. To establish and optimize the welding procedure in an E-beam weld from ARAA material, the distortion and radiographic tests were carried out from the E-beam weld results. It could be noted that a small amount of distortion occurred, but the values are small enough to neglect for the fabrication. In addition, a helium leak test and water pressure test will be performed for verification of the fabricated small mock-ups.

  1. TBM performance prediction in Yucca Mountain welded tuff from linear cutter tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsch, R.; Ozdemir, L.; Gertsch, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses performance prediction which were developed for tunnel boring machines operating in welded tuff for the construction of the experimental study facility and the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The predictions were based on test data obtained from an extensive series of linear cutting tests performed on samples of Topopah String welded tuff from the Yucca Mountain Project site. Using the cutter force, spacing, and penetration data from the experimental program, the thrust, torque, power, and rate of penetration were estimated for a 25 ft diameter tunnel boring machine (TBM) operating in welded tuff. The result show that the Topopah Spring welded tuff (TSw2) can be excavated at relatively high rates of advance with state-of-the-art TBMs. The result also show, however, that the TBM torque and power requirements will be higher than estimated based on rock physical properties and past tunneling experience in rock formations of similar strength

  2. Design and tritium permeation analysis of China HCCB TBM port cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangfeng, S.; Guoqiang, H.; Zhiyong, H.; Chang'an, C.; Deli, L.

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to develop a helium-cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) test blanket module (TBM) on ITER to test key blanket technologies. In this paper, the design and tritium permeation analysis of China HCCB TBM port cell are introduced. A theoretical model has been developed to estimate tritium permeation rates and leak rates from the components and pipes which China has scheduled to house in the port cell. It is shown that on normal working conditions, the permeation and leak rate of the systems in the port cell will be no higher than 1.58 Ci/d without the use of tritium permeation barriers, and 0.10 Ci/d with the use of tritium permeation barriers. It also appears that tritium permeation barriers are necessary for high temperature components such as the reduction bed and the heater

  3. Design and tritium permeation analysis of China HCCB TBM port cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiangfeng, S.; Guoqiang, H.; Zhiyong, H.; Chang' an, C.; Deli, L. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

    2015-03-15

    China is planning to develop a helium-cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) test blanket module (TBM) on ITER to test key blanket technologies. In this paper, the design and tritium permeation analysis of China HCCB TBM port cell are introduced. A theoretical model has been developed to estimate tritium permeation rates and leak rates from the components and pipes which China has scheduled to house in the port cell. It is shown that on normal working conditions, the permeation and leak rate of the systems in the port cell will be no higher than 1.58 Ci/d without the use of tritium permeation barriers, and 0.10 Ci/d with the use of tritium permeation barriers. It also appears that tritium permeation barriers are necessary for high temperature components such as the reduction bed and the heater.

  4. Neutronic design and performance analysis of Korean ITER TBM by Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hyo; Han, Beom Seok; Park, Ho Jin

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a neutronic design of the Korean TBM(Test Blanket Module) which will be installed in ITER(International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). This project is intended to analyze a neutronic design and nuclear performances of the Korean ITER TBM through the transport calculation of MCCARD. In detail, we will conduct numerical experiments for developing the neutronic design of the Korean ITER TBM and improving the nuclear performances. The results of the numerical experiments produced in this project will be utilized for a design optimization of the Korean ITER TBM. In this project, we proposed the neutronic methodologies for analyzing the nuclear characteristics of the fusion blanket. In order to investigate the behavior of neutrons and photons in the fusion blanket, Monte Carlo transport calculation was conducted with MCCARD. In addition, to optimize the neutronic performances of the fusion blanket, we introduced the design concept using a graphite reflector and a Pb multiplier. Through various numerical experiments, it was verified that these design concepts can be utilized efficiently to improve neutronic performances and resolve many drawbacks. The graphite-reflected HCML blanket can provide the neutronic performances far better than the non-reflected blanket, and a slightly-enriched Li breeder can satisfy the tritium self-sufficiency. The HCSB blanket design concept with a graphite reflector and a Pb multiplier was proposed. According to results of the neutronic analyses, the graphite-reflected HCSB blanket with a Pb multiplier can provide the neutronic performances comparable with those of the conventional HCSB blanket

  5. Online Condition Monitoring of Gripper Cylinder in TBM Based on EMD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Tao, Jian-Feng; Yu, Hai-Dong; Huang, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Cheng-Liang

    2017-11-01

    The gripper cylinder that provides braced force for Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) might fail due to severe vibration when the TBM excavates in the tunnel. Early fault diagnosis of the gripper cylinder is important for the safety and efficiency of the whole tunneling project. In this paper, an online condition monitoring system based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method is established for fault diagnosis of the gripper cylinder while TBM is working. Firstly, the lumped mass parameter model of the gripper cylinder is established considering the influence of the variable stiffness at the rock interface, the equivalent stiffness of the oil, the seals, and the copper guide sleeve. The dynamic performance of the gripper cylinder is investigated to provide basis for its health condition evaluation. Then, the EMD method is applied to identify the characteristic frequencies of the gripper cylinder for fault diagnosis and a field test is used to verify the accuracy of the EMD method for detection of the characteristic frequencies. Furthermore, the contact stiffness at the interface between the barrel and the rod is calculated with Hertz theory and the relationship between the natural frequency and the stiffness varying with the health condition of the cylinder is simulated based on the dynamic model. The simulation shows that the characteristic frequencies decrease with the increasing clearance between the barrel and the rod, thus the defects could be indicated by monitoring the natural frequency. Finally, a health condition management system of the gripper cylinder based on the vibration signal and the EMD method is established, which could ensure the safety of TBM.

  6. Gamma-ray dose analysis for ITER JA WCCB-TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi, E-mail: sato.satoshi92@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Enoeda, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    To evaluate the nuclear properties of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) JA Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (WCCB-TBM) and to ensure its design conforms to nuclear licensing regulations, nuclear analyses have been performed for the WCCB-TBM's components, including its frame, shield, flange, port extension, pipe forest, bio-shield and Ancillary Equipment Unit (AEU). Utilising Monte Carlo code MCNP5.14, activation code ACT-4 and the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL-2.1, this paper focusses on the shutdown dose rate calculation for the WCCB-TBM. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) geometry input data for the TBM are created from computer-aided design (CAD) data using the CAD/MCNP automatic conversion code GEOMIT, and other geometry input data are created manually. The ‘Direct 1-Step Monte Carlo’ method is adopted for the decay gamma-ray dose rate calculation. Behind the bio-shield, the effective dose rates 1 day after shutdown are about 0.2 μSv h{sup −1}, which are much lower than 10 μSv h{sup −1}, the upper limit for human access. Behind the flange, the effective dose rates 10{sup 6} s after shutdown are 50–80 μSv h{sup −1}, which are lower than 100 μSv h{sup −1}, the upper limit for human hands-on access for workers performing maintenance.

  7. Status of the Design Tool Development for ITER TBM and Fusion Reactor System in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, H. G.; Lee, D. W.; Shin, K. I.; Lee, E. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Ahn, M. Y.; Cho, S.

    2013-01-01

    Korea has developed a Helium Cooled Molten Lithium (HCML) Test Blanket Module (TBM) and Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) TBM to be tested in the ITER. The main purpose for developing the TBM is to develop the design technology for the DEMO and fusion reactor, and it should be proved experimentally in the ITER. Therefore, we have developed the design scheme and codes including the safety analysis capability for obtaining the license for testing in the ITER. In this study, the current status of the design tool development is summarized. For developing the design scheme and system codes of the ITER TBM program in Korea, the developed system codes such as MARS and GAMMA+ from Gen. IV projects were modified and verified considering the fusion application. For He coolant, 3D analysis and a McEligot correlation as the heat transfer model were proposed and validated considering the high heat from the plasma side and extreme temperature difference between the wall and fluid. For tritium behavior in the He coolant, the TBEC+GAMMA code was developed, and the oxidation layer growth and its permeation rate change were considered in this development. For a liquid metal breeder such as PbLi and Li, GAMMA-FR was developed including physical properties of the generation model and basic heat transfer model in them. For MHD simulation, the Miyazaki model was implemented in GAMMA, and it was validated successfully with the experimental data. Extending the capability of GAMMA-FR, a fusion system design code (SUPERCODE) is going to be coupled with a 3D neutronics code (MCNP)

  8. A spatial estimation model for continuous rock mass characterization from the specific energy of a TBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exadaktylos, G.; Stavropoulou, M.; Xiroudakis, G.; de Broissia, M.; Schwarz, H.

    2008-12-01

    Basic principles of the theory of rock cutting with rolling disc cutters are used to appropriately reduce tunnel boring machine (TBM) logged data and compute the specific energy (SE) of rock cutting as a function of geometry of the cutterhead and operational parameters. A computational code written in Fortran 77 is used to perform Kriging predictions in a regular or irregular grid in 1D, 2D or 3D space based on sampled data referring to rock mass classification indices or TBM related parameters. This code is used here for three purposes, namely: (1) to filter raw data in order to establish a good correlation between SE and rock mass rating (RMR) (or tunnelling quality index Q) along the chainage of the tunnel, (2) to make prediction of RMR, Q or SE along the chainage of the tunnel from boreholes at the exploration phase and design stage of the tunnel, and (3) to make predictions of SE and RMR or Q ahead of the tunnel’s face during excavation of the tunnel based on SE estimations during excavation. The above tools are the basic constituents of an algorithm to continuously update the geotechnical model of the rock mass based on logged TBM data. Several cases were considered to illustrate the proposed methodology, namely: (a) data from a system of twin tunnels in Hong Kong, (b) data from three tunnels excavated in Northern Italy, and (c) data from the section Singuerlin-Esglesias of the Metro L9 tunnel in Barcelona.

  9. Integrated design and performance analysis of the KO HCCR TBM for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won, E-mail: dwlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Kim, Suk Kwon; Lee, Cheol Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Integrated analysis is performed with the conventional CFD code (ANSYS-CFX). • Overall pressure drop and coolant flow scheme are investigated. • Manifold design is being performed considering flow distribution. - Abstract: To develop tritium breeding technology for a Fusion Reactor, Korea has participated in the Test Blanket Module (TBM) program in ITER. The He Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) TBM consists of functional components such as First Wall (FW), Breeding Zone (BZ), Side Wall (SW), and Back Manifold (BM) and it was designed based on the separate analyses for each component in 2012. Based on the each component analysis model, the integrated model is prepared and thermal-hydraulic analysis for the HCCR TBM is performed in the present study. The coolant flow distribution from BM and SW to FW and BZ, and resulted structure temperatures are obtained with the integrated model. It is found that the non-uniform flow rate occurs at FW and BZ and it causes excess of the design limit (550 °C) at some region. Based on this integrated model, we will perform the design optimization for obtaining uniform flow distribution for satisfying the design requirements.

  10. Deterministic 3D transport, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of TPR and reaction rate measurements in HCPB Breeder Blanket mock-up benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.

    2006-01-01

    The Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Breeder Blanket mock-up benchmark experiment was analysed using the deterministic transport, sensitivity and uncertainty code system in order to determine the Tritium Production Rate (TPR) in the ceramic breeder and the neutron reaction rates in beryllium, both nominal values and the corresponding uncertainties. The experiment, performed in 2005 to validate the HCPB concept, consists of a metallic beryllium set-up with two double layers of breeder material (Li 2 CO 3 powder). The reaction rate measurements include the Li 2 CO 3 pellets for the tritium breeding monitoring and activation foils, inserted at several axial and lateral locations in the block. In addition to the well established and validated procedure based on the 2-dimensional (2D) code DORT, a new approach for the 3D modelling was validated based on the TORT/GRTUNCL3D transport codes. The SUSD3D code, also in 3D geometry, was used for the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty calculations. These studies are useful for the interpretation of the experimental measurements, in particular to assess the uncertainties linked to the basic nuclear data. The TPR, the neutron activation rates and the associated uncertainties were determined using the EFF-3.0 9 Be nuclear cross section and covariance data, and compared with those from other evaluations, like FENDL-2.1. Sensitivity profiles and nuclear data uncertainties of the TPR and detector reaction rates with respect to the cross-sections of 9 Be, 6 Li, 7 Li, O and C were determined at different positions in the experimental block. (author)

  11. Multivariate Linear Regression and CART Regression Analysis of TBM Performance at Abu Hamour Phase-I Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, J.; Stypulkowski, J. B.; Bernardeau, F. G.

    2017-12-01

    The first phase of the Abu Hamour drainage and storm tunnel was completed in early 2017. The 9.5 km long, 3.7 m diameter tunnel was excavated with two Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) Tunnel Boring Machines from Herrenknecht. TBM operation processes were monitored and recorded by Data Acquisition and Evaluation System. The authors coupled collected TBM drive data with available information on rock mass properties, cleansed, completed with secondary variables and aggregated by weeks and shifts. Correlations and descriptive statistics charts were examined. Multivariate Linear Regression and CART regression tree models linking TBM penetration rate (PR), penetration per revolution (PPR) and field penetration index (FPI) with TBM operational and geotechnical characteristics were performed for the conditions of the weak/soft rock of Doha. Both regression methods are interpretable and the data were screened with different computational approaches allowing enriched insight. The primary goal of the analysis was to investigate empirical relations between multiple explanatory and responding variables, to search for best subsets of explanatory variables and to evaluate the strength of linear and non-linear relations. For each of the penetration indices, a predictive model coupling both regression methods was built and validated. The resultant models appeared to be stronger than constituent ones and indicated an opportunity for more accurate and robust TBM performance predictions.

  12. Simulation of LLCB TBM in-vessel first wall coolant break into ITER vacuum vessel by using RELAP/MOD3.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tony Sandeep, K.; Chaudhari, Vilas; Rajendra Kumar, E.; Dutta, Anu; Singh, R.K.

    2013-06-01

    To prove Test Blanket Module (TBM) safety in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), various accident scenarios are postulated . One of the postulated initiating events to be analysed is TBM First wall (FW) coolant leak in ITER Vacuum vessel (VV). This accident has been classified as a reference event for the TBM (probability of occurrence >1 E -06 /a). The postulated accident occurs as a result of small leak of TBM FW helium into ITER vacuum vessel (VV), caused by the TBM weld failure. The ingress of this TBM FW helium into ITER plasma induces intense plasma disruption that deposits 1.8 MJ/m 2 of plasma stored thermal energy onto the TBM FW over a period of 1 sec in duration (assumption). Runaway electrons in this process are lost from plasma current channel and cause multiple TBM and ITER FW cooling tube failures within 10 cm torriodal strip. The size of the break is identified as double ended rupture of all coolant channels within this strip around the reactor. For LLCB TBM this represents failure of 4 FW channels. The size of ITER FW break is 0.02 m 2 . Consequently, a simultaneous blow down of TBM FW helium and ITER FW water occurs, injecting helium and water into VV. This pressurisation causes the activation of VV pressure suppressions system and ingress of water into VV. This pressurisation causes the VV pressure suppressions system (VVPSS) to open in an attempt to contain the pressure below the safety limit of 0.2 MPa. This report is intended to do the above accident analysis and assessment of active components of TBM using RELAP code and hence prove its safety in ITER environment. (author)

  13. Development of IN-RAFM steel and fabrication technologies for Indian TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.K., E-mail: shaju@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendrakumar, E. [TBM Division, Institute of Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • India specific RAFM steel IN-RAFM has been produced in commercial scale and physical property data for the same have been generated. • Mechanical properties of the commercial heats are comparable to that of the laboratory heats. • IN-RAFM steel filler wires has been produced indigenously. • Process parameters have been optimized so that toughness of the fusion zone of the EB and laser welds is comparable to that of the base metal even at sub-zero temperatures. • Fabrication of the mock ups of different components of Indian TBM has been initiated. - Abstract: India has indigenously developed its own Indian Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic Steel (IN-RAFM steel) which, it is proposed to use for fabrication of Indian TBM to be installed in ITER. With an objective of qualifying this material for use in ITER, extensive testing of this material to generate the necessary data required to offer this material for Particular Material Appraisal of ITER has been undertaken. Accordingly, data generation on creep, fatigue and physical properties of this steel is in progress. Physical properties like thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for this steel at various temperatures have been measured and thermal conductivity estimated from the measured physical properties. Values obtained for these physical properties are comparable with those reported for other RAFM steels. Results of creep tests that are in progress also indicate that creep is comparable to that of other RAFM steels. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of this steel has been studied in air with total strain control in the strain amplitude range of ±0.25–1% and temperatures range of 300–873 K at a constant strain rate of 3 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}. Results confirm that fatigue life of IN-RAFM steel is at par with that of the European Union grade Eurofer 97 RAFM steel. During production of IN-RAFM steel plates of different thicknesses, it is observed

  14. Prediction of Brittle Failure for TBM Tunnels in Anisotropic Rock: A Case Study from Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammyr, Øyvind

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of spalling and rock burst is especially important for hard rock TBM tunneling, because failure can have larger impact than in a drill and blast tunnel and ultimately threaten excavation feasibility. The majority of research on brittle failure has focused on rock types with isotropic behavior. This paper gives a review of existing theory and its application before a 3.5-m-diameter TBM tunnel in foliated granitic gneiss is used as a case to study brittle failure characteristics of anisotropic rock. Important aspects that should be considered in order to predict brittle failure in anisotropic rock are highlighted. Foliation is responsible for considerable strength anisotropy and is believed to influence the preferred side of v-shaped notch development in the investigated tunnel. Prediction methods such as the semi- empirical criterion, the Hoek- Brown brittle parameters, and the non-linear damage initiation and spalling limit method give reliable results; but only as long as the angle between compression axis and foliation in uniaxial compressive tests is relevant, dependent on the relation between tunnel trend/plunge, strike/dip of foliation, and tunnel boundary stresses. It is further demonstrated that local in situ stress variations, for example, due to the presence of discontinuities, can have profound impact on failure predictions. Other carefully documented case studies into the brittle failure nature of rock, in particular anisotropic rock, are encouraged in order to expand the existing and relatively small database. This will be valuable for future TBM planning and construction stages in highly stressed brittle anisotropic rock.

  15. Disc cutter wear and rock texture in hard rock TBM tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yu; Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tanimoto, Chikaosa; Nakagawa, Shigeo; Fujita, Naoya

    2008-01-01

    Disc cutter wear in TBM tunneling is caused by initial fragmentation of a solid rock face (the primary fragmentation) and fragmentation of residual rock pieces between a cutterhead and the face (the secondary fragmentation). In two projects through sedimentary and granitic rocks, the authors investigated the relationships between the rate of cutter wear caused by the primary fragmentation, point load index and the grain size and contents of abrasive minerals. As a result, it was found that the tensile strength and the mineral contents of rocks significantly influenced the cutter wear in both projects and thus it is necessary to take into account of rock type. (author)

  16. Brain structural changes following adaptive cognitive training assessed by Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Hua, Xue; Martínez, Kenia; Burgaleta, Miguel; Román, Francisco J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Carmona, Susanna; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Thompson, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM) allows the automatic mapping of brain changes across time building 3D deformation maps. This technique has been applied for tracking brain degeneration in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases with high sensitivity and reliability. Here we applied TBM to quantify changes in brain structure after completing a challenging adaptive cognitive training program based on the n-back task. Twenty-six young women completed twenty-four training sessions across twelve weeks and they showed, on average, large cognitive improvements. High-resolution MRI scans were obtained before and after training. The computed longitudinal deformation maps were analyzed for answering three questions: (a) Are there differential brain structural changes in the training group as compared with a matched control group? (b) Are these changes related to performance differences in the training program? (c) Are standardized changes in a set of psychological factors (fluid and crystallized intelligence, working memory, and attention control) measured before and after training, related to structural changes in the brain? Results showed (a) greater structural changes for the training group in the temporal lobe, (b) a negative correlation between these changes and performance across training sessions (the greater the structural change, the lower the cognitive performance improvements), and (c) negligible effects regarding the psychological factors measured before and after training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. R and D status of key technologies for the development of KO TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Yu, In-Keun; Ku, Duck Young; Lee, Sang-Jin; Yoon, Han-Ki; Kim, Tae-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    R and D activities currently being undertaken for Korean Helium Cooled Solid Breeder (HCSB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) include joining technologies of structural materials, breeder pebble material development, and measurement of pebble bed characteristics. The joining performance of ferritic-martensitic steel is evaluated. TIG welding for ferritic-martensitic steel is evaluated to find welding conditions with two different current modes. The fabrication methods of lithium silicate powder and lithium titanate pebble are under development using special process. The Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles showing an average diameter of 1.8 mm was fabricated by water-based sol-gel method. The Li 4 SiO 4 powder with the particle size of about 200 nm was synthesized by PVA polymer solution method. The method of silicon carbide coating on the graphite pebble is investigated, and its possibility is verified based on the coating results on the graphite plate. Sputtered SiC coating layer was crystallized by high temperature heat treatment. The measurement method and database of the thermal properties of the pebble and pebble bed are important for the design of TBM as well as breeding blanket. The initial characteristics of the pebbles are assessed measuring the effective thermal diffusivity of graphite pebble by laser flash method.

  18. Application of quality assurance controls to TBM tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), a 7.62-meter diameter tunnel is being constructed using a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). This tunnel, which may form a portion of a permanent high-level nuclear waste repository, is being constructed under the auspices of a nuclear quality assurance (QA) program. The YMP nuclear QA program applies to items and activities determined to be important to radiological safety, waste isolation, and potential interactions with the environment. The items and activities determined to be important have been assigned a quality assurance classification. This paper focuses on the items (rockbolts, steel sets, and shotcrete) and quality affecting activities involved in providing ground support and excavating the tunnel. Typical activities that have been assigned QA classifications include TBM maintenance, control of water used in the tunnel during construction, and control of diesel emissions in the tunnel. The paper concludes that the key to the successful implementation of nuclear QA requirements for tunneling at Yucca Mountain was the assignment of personnel with the appropriate mix of tunneling and nuclear experience

  19. Overview on the welding technologies of CLAM steel and the DFLL TBM fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual Functional Lithium Lead (DFLL blanket was proposed for its advantages of high energy exchange efficiency and on-line tritium extraction, and it was selected as the candidate test blanket module (TBM for China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR and the blanket for Fusion Design Study (FDS series fusion reactors. Considering the influence of high energy fusion neutron irradiation and high heat flux thermal load on the blanket, China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM steel was selected as the structural material for DFLL blanket. The structure of the blanket and the cooling internal components were pretty complicated. Meanwhile, high precision and reliability were required in the blanket fabrication. Therefore, several welding techniques, such as hot isostatic pressing diffusion bonding, tungsten inner gas welding, electron beam welding and laser beam welding were developed for the fabrication of cooling internals and the assembly of the blanket. In this work, the weldability on CLAM steel by different welding methods and the properties of as-welded and post-weld heat-treated joints were investigated. Meanwhile, the welding schemes and the assembly strategy for TBM fabrication were raised. Many tests and research efforts on scheme feasibility, process standardization, component qualification and blanket assembly were reviewed.

  20. Transportforskning i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter.......Artiklen giver en gennemgang af aktuelle EU transportforskningsemner samt nogle synspunkter og erfaringer baseret på deltagelse i EU forskningsprojekter....

  1. The F4E programme on nuclear data validation and nuclear instrumentation techniques for TBM in ITER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leichtle, D.; Angelone, M.; Batistoni, P.; Calderoni, P.; Fischer, U.; Izquierdo, J.; Klix, A.; Kodeli, I.; Kuc, T.; Lilley, S.; Majerle, Mitja; Packer, L.; Pillon, M.; Pohorecki, W.; Snoj, L.; Villari, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, 9-10 (2014), s. 2169-2173 ISSN 0920-3796 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear data * TBM * neutronic sensors * validation experiments Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2014

  2. Neutronics experiments for uncertainty assessment of tritium breeding in HCPB and HCLL blanket mock-ups irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, P.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Villari, R.; Fischer, U.; Klix, A.; Leichtle, D.; Kodeli, I.; Pohorecki, W.

    2012-01-01

    Two neutronics experiments have been carried out at 14 MeV neutron sources on mock-ups of the helium cooled pebble bed (HCBP) and the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) variants of ITER test blanket modules (TBMs). These experiments have provided an experimental validation of the calculations of the tritium production rate (TPR) in the two blanket concepts and an assessment of the uncertainties due to the uncertainties on nuclear data. This paper provides a brief summary of the HCPB experiment and then focuses in particular on the final results of the HCLL experiment. The TPR has been measured in the HCLL mock-up irradiated for long times at the Frascati 14 MeV Neutron Generator (FNG). Redundant and well-assessed experimental techniques have been used to measure the TPR by different teams for inter-comparison. Measurements of the neutron and gamma-ray spectra have also been performed. The analysis of the experiment, carried out by the MCNP code with FENDL-2.1 and JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data libraries, and also including sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, shows good agreement between measurements and calculations, within the total uncertainty of 5.9% at 1σ level. (paper)

  3. Experimental system design of liquid lithium-lead alloy bubbler for DFLL-TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Li Junge; Xu Shaomei; Weng Kuiping

    2011-01-01

    The liquid lithium-lead alloy bubbler is a very important composition in the tritium unit of Chinese Dual-Functional Lithium Lead Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM). In order to complete the construction and run of the bubbler experimental system,overall design of the system, main circuit design and auxiliary system design have been proposed on the basis of theoretical calculations for the interaction of hydrogen isotope with lithium-lead alloy and experiment for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium-lead alloy by bubbling with rotational jet nozzle. The key of this design is gas-liquid exchange packed column, to achieve the measurement and extraction of hydrogen isotopes from liquid lithium-lead alloy. (authors)

  4. Rock Fragmentation Characteristics by TBM Cutting and Efficiency under Bi-Lateral Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanisms of rock breakage are assessed using tunnel boring machine (TBM disc cutters under bi-axial pressure. Sequential indentation tests were conducted on granite specimens using a tri-axial testing platform. The morphology and volume of the fractured surface were measured and analyzed using a three-dimensional surface profilometer. An analysis of rock breaking growth and efficiency was performed as well. When the minor confining pressure (σ1 is constant, the results show that a larger difference in confining pressure leads to a larger volume of fractured surface, thereafter improving the rock-breaking efficiency even though the penetration energy is enlarged. On the other hand, when the major confining pressure (σ2 is constant, the penetration energy increases proportionally with the σ1; however, the volume of fractured surface is decreased, and the breaking efficiency is attenuated as well.

  5. Discrete/Finite Element Modelling of Rock Cutting with a TBM Disc Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labra, Carlos; Rojek, Jerzy; Oñate, Eugenio

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents advanced computer simulation of rock cutting process typical for excavation works in civil engineering. Theoretical formulation of the hybrid discrete/finite element model has been presented. The discrete and finite element methods have been used in different subdomains of a rock sample according to expected material behaviour, the part which is fractured and damaged during cutting is discretized with the discrete elements while the other part is treated as a continuous body and it is modelled using the finite element method. In this way, an optimum model is created, enabling a proper representation of the physical phenomena during cutting and efficient numerical computation. The model has been applied to simulation of the laboratory test of rock cutting with a single TBM (tunnel boring machine) disc cutter. The micromechanical parameters have been determined using the dimensionless relationships between micro- and macroscopic parameters. A number of numerical simulations of the LCM test in the unrelieved and relieved cutting modes have been performed. Numerical results have been compared with available data from in-situ measurements in a real TBM as well as with the theoretical predictions showing quite a good agreement. The numerical model has provided a new insight into the cutting mechanism enabling us to investigate the stress and pressure distribution at the tool-rock interaction. Sensitivity analysis of rock cutting performed for different parameters including disc geometry, cutting velocity, disc penetration and spacing has shown that the presented numerical model is a suitable tool for the design and optimization of rock cutting process.

  6. Comparison of a Clinical Prediction Rule and a LAM Antigen-Detection Assay for the Rapid Diagnosis of TBM in a High HIV Prevalence Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinod B.; Singh, Ravesh; Connolly, Cathy; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Zumla, Allimudin; Ndungu, Thumbi; Dheda, Keertan

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective The diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in resource poor TB endemic environments is challenging. The accuracy of current tools for the rapid diagnosis of TBM is suboptimal. We sought to develop a clinical-prediction rule for the diagnosis of TBM in a high HIV prevalence setting, and to compare performance outcomes to conventional diagnostic modalities and a novel lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen detection test (Clearview-TB®) using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods Patients with suspected TBM were classified as definite-TBM (CSF culture or PCR positive), probable-TBM and non-TBM. Results Of the 150 patients, 84% were HIV-infected (median [IQR] CD4 count = 132 [54; 241] cells/µl). There were 39, 55 and 54 patients in the definite, probable and non-TBM groups, respectively. The LAM sensitivity and specificity (95%CI) was 31% (17;48) and 94% (85;99), respectively (cut-point ≥0.18). By contrast, smear-microscopy was 100% specific but detected none of the definite-TBM cases. LAM positivity was associated with HIV co-infection and low CD4 T cell count (CD4200 cells/µl; p = 0.03). The sensitivity and specificity in those with a CD4<100 cells/µl was 50% (27;73) and 95% (74;99), respectively. A clinical-prediction rule ≥6 derived from multivariate analysis had a sensitivity and specificity (95%CI) of 47% (31;64) and 98% (90;100), respectively. When LAM was combined with the clinical-prediction-rule, the sensitivity increased significantly (p<0.001) to 63% (47;68) and specificity remained high at 93% (82;98). Conclusions Despite its modest sensitivity the LAM ELISA is an accurate rapid rule-in test for TBM that has incremental value over smear-microscopy. The rule-in value of LAM can be further increased by combination with a clinical-prediction rule, thus enhancing the rapid diagnosis of TBM in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. PMID:21203513

  7. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  8. EU Budgetary Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2013-01-01

    In this article I study the long-term evolution of the main categories of expenditure of the European Union (EU) budget (1984-2011). The aim is to assess the extent to which the EU is affected by a structural form of policy inertia, and to investigate the general pattern of policy stability...... and change in the EU in light of the two models of policy dynamics currently existing in the literature: the incrementalist model and the punctuated equilibrium model. The analysis of long series of original data extracted from the EU budget shows that EU policies do not evolve following an incrementalist...

  9. Development of a potential based code for MHD analysis of LLCB TBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuyan, P.J.; Goswami, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    A two dimensional solver is developed for MHD flows with low magnetic Reynolds' number based on the electrostatic potential formulation for the Lorentz forces and current densities which will be used to calculate the MHD pressure drop inside the channels of liquid breeder based Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). The flow geometry is assumed to be rectangular and perpendicular to the flow direction, with flow and electrostatic potential variations along the flow direction neglected. A structured, non-uniform, collocated grid is used in the calculation, where the velocity (u), pressure (p) and electrostatic potential (φ) are calculated at the cell centers, whereas the current densities are calculated at the cell faces. Special relaxation techniques are employed in calculating the electrostatic potential for ensuring the divergence-free condition for current density. The code is benchmarked over a square channel for various Hartmann numbers up to 25,000 with and without insulation coatings by (i) comparing the pressure drop with the approximate analytical results found in literature and (ii) comparing the pressure drop with the ones obtained in our previous calculations based on the induction formulation for the electromagnetic part. Finally the code is used to determine the MHD pressure drop in case of LLCB TBM. The code gives similar results as obtained by us in our previous calculations based on the induction formulation. However, the convergence is much faster in case of potential based code.

  10. Assessment of design limits and criteria requirements for Eurofer structures in TBM components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, G., E-mail: giacomo.aiello@cea.fr [CEA, DEN/DANS/DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aktaa, J. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Institute for Materials Research II, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Cismondi, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Institut fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rampal, G.; Salavy, J.-F. [CEA, DEN/DANS/DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tavassoli, F. [CEA, DEN/DANS/DMN/DIR, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-07-01

    Eurofer97 is a Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel developed for use as structural material in fusion power reactors blankets and in particular the future DEMOnstration power plant that should follow ITER. In order to evaluate the performances of the different blanket concepts in a fusion-relevant environment, the ITER experimental programme foresees the installation of dedicated Test Blanket Modules (TBMs), representative of the corresponding DEMO blankets, in selected equatorial ports. To be fully relevant, TBMs will have to be designed and fabricated using DEMO relevant technologies and will, in particular, use Eurofer97 as structural material. While the use of ferritic/martensitic steels is not new in the nuclear industry, the fusion environment in ITER poses new challenges for the structural materials. Besides, contrary to DEMO, ITER is characterised by a strongly pulsed mode of operation that could have severe consequences on the lifetime of the components. This paper gives an overview of the issues related to the design of Eurofer97 structures in TBM components, discussing the choice of reference Codes and Standards and the consistency of the design rules with Eurofer97 mechanical properties.

  11. Byg EU om

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Der argumenteres for en række påstande vedrørende en mulig ombygning af EU med henblik på at håndtere den krise, som unionen står i. Grundlæggende for dem alle er, at enten ombygges EU på disse områder, eller også smuldrer samarbejdet. Et internationalt samarbejde som EU kollapser ikke; det mister...

  12. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...... of harmonising measures that could facilitate a better consumer protection from non-safety health risks at the EU level. The EU legislature should use this legislative competence to fill in the regulatory grey area. Two possible ways forward to better integrate food health into the EU food law framework...

  13. Estimation of graphite dust production in ITER TBM using finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji-Ho, E-mail: jhkang@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daekeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eung Seon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daekeok-Daero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Youngmin; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148, Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Graphite dust production was estimated for the Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector. • Wear amount was calculated by Archard model using finite element analysis results. • Life time estimation of graphite dust production was done. - Abstract: In this study, an estimation method of graphite dust production in the pebble-bed type reflector region of the Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project using Finite Element Method (FEM) was proposed and the total amount of dust production was calculated. A unit-cell model of uniformly arranged pebbles was defined with thermal and mechanical loadings. A commercial FEM program, Abaqus V6.10, was used to model and solve the stress field under multiple contact constraints between pebbles in the unit-cell. Resultant normal contact forces and slip distances on the contact points were applied into the Archard adhesive wear model to calculate the amount of graphite dust. The Finite Element (FE) analysis was repeated at 27 unit-cell locations chosen to form an interpolated dust density function for the entire region of the reflector. The dust production calculation was extended to the life time of the HCCR and the total graphite dust production was estimated to 0.279 g at the end of the life time with the maximum graphite dust density of 0.149 μg/mm{sup 3}. The dust explosion could be a safety issue with the calculated dust density level and it requires that an appropriate maintenance to remove sufficient amount of graphite dust regularly to prevent the possibility of dust explosion.

  14. Estimation of graphite dust production in ITER TBM using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji-Ho; Kim, Eung Seon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Youngmin; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite dust production was estimated for the Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector. • Wear amount was calculated by Archard model using finite element analysis results. • Life time estimation of graphite dust production was done. - Abstract: In this study, an estimation method of graphite dust production in the pebble-bed type reflector region of the Korean Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project using Finite Element Method (FEM) was proposed and the total amount of dust production was calculated. A unit-cell model of uniformly arranged pebbles was defined with thermal and mechanical loadings. A commercial FEM program, Abaqus V6.10, was used to model and solve the stress field under multiple contact constraints between pebbles in the unit-cell. Resultant normal contact forces and slip distances on the contact points were applied into the Archard adhesive wear model to calculate the amount of graphite dust. The Finite Element (FE) analysis was repeated at 27 unit-cell locations chosen to form an interpolated dust density function for the entire region of the reflector. The dust production calculation was extended to the life time of the HCCR and the total graphite dust production was estimated to 0.279 g at the end of the life time with the maximum graphite dust density of 0.149 μg/mm"3. The dust explosion could be a safety issue with the calculated dust density level and it requires that an appropriate maintenance to remove sufficient amount of graphite dust regularly to prevent the possibility of dust explosion.

  15. EU Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrin, Julie; Giorgetti, Maria Letizia; Jensen, Camilla

    Following disregard in the 1980s, industrial policy has recently attracted policy attention at EU level. The objective of this study provided by Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee, is to establish the state of the art of a coordinated and integrated EU industrial policy...

  16. OpenLaws.eu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wass, C.; Dini, P.; Eiser, T.; Heistracher, T.J.; Lampoltshammer, T.J.; Marcon, G.; Sageder, C.; Tsiavos, P.; Winkels, R.; Schweighofer, E.; Kummer, F.; Hötzendorfer, W.

    2013-01-01

    The OPENLAWS.eu project aims to linking existing laws, cases and legal literature throughout the EU and member states and potentially worldwide and at adding new user-friendly functionality for a higher productivity. Furthermore, the project should make it possible to easily publish new legal

  17. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  18. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...

  19. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  20. EU ligger i Danmark!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    EU må ikke reduceres til et spørgsmål om folkeafstemninger. Den virkelige udfordring handler om, hvordan EU-beslutninger om alt fra dyretransporter til terrorbekæmpelse kan kontrolleres på en demokratisk måde. De beslutninger, der bliver truffet i Bruxelles er i højeste grad en del af den nationa...

  1. Are EU Banks Safe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Theissen (Roel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ What exactly are the rules banks are subject to, and are they fit for purpose? These are the two questions addressed in this book ‘Are EU banks safe?’ and its descriptive companion book ‘EU banking supervision’. The full rulebook on banks is difficult to find

  2. Investigation of the Rock Fragmentation Process by a Single TBM Cutter Using a Voronoi Element-Based Numerical Manifold Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quansheng; Jiang, Yalong; Wu, Zhijun; Xu, Xiangyu; Liu, Qi

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a two-dimensional Voronoi element-based numerical manifold method (VE-NMM) is developed to analyze the granite fragmentation process by a single tunnel boring machine (TBM) cutter under different confining stresses. A Voronoi tessellation technique is adopted to generate the polygonal grain assemblage to approximate the microstructure of granite sample from the Gubei colliery of Huainan mining area in China. A modified interface contact model with cohesion and tensile strength is embedded into the numerical manifold method (NMM) to interpret the interactions between the rock grains. Numerical uniaxial compression and Brazilian splitting tests are first conducted to calibrate and validate the VE-NMM models based on the laboratory experiment results using a trial-and-error method. On this basis, numerical simulations of rock fragmentation by a single TBM cutter are conducted. The simulated crack initiation and propagation process as well as the indentation load-penetration depth behaviors in the numerical models accurately predict the laboratory indentation test results. The influence of confining stress on rock fragmentation is also investigated. Simulation results show that radial tensile cracks are more likely to be generated under a low confining stress, eventually coalescing into a major fracture along the loading axis. However, with the increase in confining stress, more side cracks initiate and coalesce, resulting in the formation of rock chips at the upper surface of the model. In addition, the peak indentation load also increases with the increasing confining stress, indicating that a higher thrust force is usually needed during the TBM boring process in deep tunnels.

  3. Laboratory tests to study the influence of rock stress confinement on the performances of TBM discs in tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innaurato, N.; Oggeri, C.; Oreste, P.; Vinai, R.

    2011-06-01

    To clarify some aspects of rock destruction with a disc acting on a high confined tunnel face, a series of tests were carried out to examine fracture mechanisms under an indenter that simulates the tunnel boring machine (TBM) tool action, in the presence of an adjacent groove, when a state of stress (lateral confinement) is imposed on a rock sample. These tests proved the importance of carefully establishing the optimal distance of grooves produced by discs acting on a confined surface, and the value (as a mere order of magnitude) of the increase of the thrust to produce the initiation of chip formation, as long as the confinement pressure becomes greater.

  4. Studying the Effect of Tunnel Depth Variation on the Specific Energy of TBM, Case Study: Karaj–Tehran (Iran Water Conveyance Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mirahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tunnel-boring machine (TBM is a common piece of equipment used in tunneling projects. For planning a mechanical excavation project, prediction of TBM performance and the specification of design elements such as required forces are critical. The specific energy of excavation (SE, i.e. drilling energy consumption per unit volume of rock mass, is a crucial parameter for performance prediction of a TBM. In this study, the effect of variation of tunnel depth on SE by considering the post-failure behavior of rock mass was investigated. Several new relations between SE and tunnel depth are proposed according to the statistical analysis obtained from Karaj – Tehran Water Conveyance Tunnel real data. The results showed that there is a direct relation between both parameters and. Polynomial equations are proposed as the best expression of the correlation between these parameters.

  5. EU's lille sikkerhedsnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    I forrige uge indgik EU-kommissionen og EU-Parlamentet en aftale om en fælles afviklingsmekanisme i bank-unionen (Single Resolution Mechanism; SRM). ... Så på trods af mere kapital, nye bail-in regler og afviklingsfonden tror jeg ikke, at det kan udelukkes, at fremtidige "bankredninger" kan...... nødvendigøre statslige midler. Hertil er fonden trods alt for begrænset. ... Proceduren er, at ECB indstiller til SRM's bestyrelse, at en bank skal afvikles, hvorefter EU-kommissionen og nationale tilsynsmyndigheder involveres....

  6. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  7. Examining the effect of adverse geological conditions on jamming of a single shielded TBM in Uluabat tunnel using numerical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohola Hasanpour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe shield jamming events have been reported during excavation of Uluabat tunnel through adverse geological conditions, which resulted in several stoppages at advancing a single shielded tunnel boring machine (TBM. To study the jamming mechanism, three-dimensional (3D simulation of the machine and surrounding ground was implemented using the finite difference code FLAC3D. Numerical analyses were performed for three sections along the tunnel with a higher risk for entrapment due to the combination of overburden and geological conditions. The computational results including longitudinal displacement contours and ground pressure profiles around the shield allow a better understanding of ground behavior within the excavation. Furthermore, they allow realistically assessing the impact of adverse geological conditions on shield jamming. The calculated thrust forces, which are required to move the machine forward, are in good agreement with field observations and measurements. It also proves that the numerical analysis can effectively be used for evaluating the effect of adverse geological environment on TBM entrapments and can be applied to prediction of loads on the shield and pre-estimating of the required thrust force during excavation through adverse ground conditions.

  8. Influence of Subjectivity in Geological Mapping on the Net Penetration Rate Prediction for a Hard Rock TBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongbeom; Macias, Francisco Javier; Jakobsen, Pål Drevland; Bruland, Amund

    2018-05-01

    The net penetration rate of hard rock tunnel boring machines (TBM) is influenced by rock mass degree of fracturing. This influence is taken into account in the NTNU prediction model by the rock mass fracturing factor ( k s). k s is evaluated by geological mapping, the measurement of the orientation of fractures and the spacing of fractures and fracture type. Geological mapping is a subjective procedure. Mapping results can therefore contain considerable uncertainty. The mapping data of a tunnel mapped by three researchers were compared, and the influence of the variation in geological mapping was estimated to assess the influence of subjectivity in geological mapping. This study compares predicted net penetration rates and actual net penetration rates for TBM tunneling (from field data) and suggests mapping methods that can reduce the error related to subjectivity. The main findings of this paper are as follows: (1) variation of mapping data between individuals; (2) effect of observed variation on uncertainty in predicted net penetration rates; (3) influence of mapping methods on the difference between predicted and actual net penetration rate.

  9. EU-retten 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Udover en introduktion til EU-retten, herunder dens institutioner og retskilderne, indeholder bogen en grundig analyse af EF-traktatens regler om fri bevægelighed for varer, personer, tjenesteydelser og kapital....

  10. 2002 electricity statistics: EU and EU+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Electricity generation in the European Union (EU) decreased by 0,7% in the period of 2001 to 2002, reaching 2521,3 billion kWh. Developments varied in different countries. Conventional thermal power plants generated 1340,1 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 53.0% share in the total generation and an increase by 2.7% over the level in the previous year. Generation in nuclear power plants increased by 2.7% to 855.5 billion kWh, which corresponds to a 33,8% share in EU-wide generation. Hydroelectric plants and other plants supplied 15.2% less electricity. Eurostat statistics do not differentiate these data any further. The volume of 332.2 kWh is tantamount to a 13.1% share. In the new EU member countries and the candidate countries, electricity generation showed a moderate increase by 0.4% and 2.1%, respectively. While generation both in conventional power plants and in other plants decreased, a considerable increase is shown for nuclear power generation of +13.5% and +10.6%, respectively [de

  11. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  12. EU Agro Biogas Project

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and universities are cooperating with key industry partners in order to work towards sustainable biogas production in Europe. Fourteen partners from eight European countries are involved in the EU-AGR...

  13. EU Nuclear vs. Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncelet, Jean-Pol

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: • The Fukushima-Daiichi accident represents an opportunity for the nuclear industry to demonstrate its ability to learn from experience through “a continuous improvement strategy”; • Inside the EU: which legal framework for nuclear safety - harmonisation of licensing procedures - EU-level reactor design clearance?; • No way forward without public support: how to address, explain, convince?; • Greater cooperation between industry and international organizations: FORATOM available to contribute

  14. 152Eu decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonova, K.P.; Vinogradov, V.M.; Grigor'ev, E.P.; Zolotavin, A.V.; Makarov, V.M.; Sergeev, V.O.; Usynko, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the measurement of the relative intensities of the most intensive conversion lines of 152 Eu, the determination of as reliable as possible magnitudes of the intensities of γ-quanta using all the available data on γ-radiation of 152 Eu, the measurement of the interval conversion coefficients (ICC) for the most intensive γ-transitions, the determination of the probabilities of the 152 Eu β-decays to the 152 Sm and 152 Gd levels. The conversion lines of the most intensive γ-transitions in the 152 Eu decay are studied and the corresponding ICC are measured on the beta-spectrometers of π√2 and UMB type. The balance for the γ-transitions in the 152 Sm and 152 Gd daughter nuclei are presented. This balance is used to determine the absolute intensities of γ-rays (in terms of the percentage of the 152 Eu decays) and the probabilities of β-transitions to the levels of daughter nuclei. More accurate data on γ-rays and conversion electrons obtained can be used for the calibration of gamma and beta spectrometers

  15. The EU agencies’ role in policy diffusion beyond the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    and health quality within the risk assessment. This paper shows that the EU agencies develop various entrepreneurial methods and that they actively promote policy diffusion beyond the EU through socialisation and learning within international arrangements and collaborations. However, variations......The extensive literature on the EU agencies has mainly focused on their role in the harmonisation and expansion of regulatory standards within the EU. This paper joins this literature and investigates the role of EU agencies in policy diffusion beyond the EU borders. To operationalise this...

  16. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In this paper I try to explore whether the EU can go on expanding and thereby become culturally ever more diversified, and at the same retain its stability. The answer is, in principle, affirmative. Europe has always been much diversified, and therefore it is not possible to define a European...... identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that they would apply for it. An essential part is the willingness of member states to accept a reduction of national sovereignty on some important policy fields. The EU project is basically about lifting the principles of democracy and rule by law on the international level, most and foremost among the member...

  17. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  18. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  19. Performing the EU Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only in politi......This editorial makes use of the EU Referendum to discuss the presence of magic in contemporary societies. It analysis magic in terms of magicians, magical representations, and magical rites – as originally expounded by Malinowski and Mauss – and argues that magic is to be found not only...

  20. Numerical investigation of heat transfer enhancement in ribbed channel for the first wall of DFLL-TBM in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Qiang; Liu Songlin; Li Min; Wang Weihua

    2012-01-01

    As an important component of Dual Functional Lithium Lead-Test Blanket Module (DFLL-TBM), the first wall (FW) must withstand and remove the heat flux from the plasma (q″ = 0.3 MW/m 2 ) and high nuclear power deposited in the structure at normal plasma operation scenario of ITER. In this paper the transverse ribs arranged along the plasma facing inner wall surface were used to enhance the heat transfer capability. After the validation compared with empirical correlations the Standard k–ω model was employed to do the numerical simulation using FLUENT code to investigate the heat transfer efficiency and flow performance of coolant in the ribbed channel preliminarily. The perforation on the bottom of rib was proposed near the lower heat transfer area (LHTA) to improve the heat transfer performance according to results of analyses.

  1. Challenges and Thoughts on Risk Management and Control for the Group Construction of a Super-Long Tunnel by TBM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjiang Deng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The total length of the second stage of the water supply project in the northern areas of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is 540 km, of which the total length of the tunnels is 516 km. The total tunneling mileage is 569 km, which includes 49 slow-inclined shafts and vertical shafts. Among the tunnels constructed in the project, the Ka–Shuang tunnel, which is a single tunnel with a length of 283 km, is currently the longest water-conveyance tunnel in the world. The main tunnel of the Ka–Shuang tunnel is divided into 18 tunnel-boring machine (TBM sections, and 34 drilling-and-blasting sections, with 91 tunnel faces. The construction of the Ka–Shuang tunnel has been regarded as an unprecedented challenge for project construction management, risk control, and safe and efficient construction; it has also presented higher requirements for the design, manufacture, operation, and maintenance of the TBMs and their supporting equipment. Based on the engineering characteristics and adverse geological conditions, it is necessary to analyze the major problems confronted by the construction and systematically locate disaster sources. In addition, the risk level should be reasonably ranked, responsibility should be clearly identified, and a hierarchical-control mechanism should be established. Several techniques are put forward in this paper to achieve the objectives mentioned above; these include advanced geological prospecting techniques, intelligent tunneling techniques combined with the sensing and fusion of information about rock parameters and mechanical parameters, monitoring and early-warning techniques, and modern information technologies. The application of these techniques offers scientific guidance for risk control and puts forward technical ideas about improving the efficiency of safe tunneling. These techniques and ideas have great significance for the development of modern tunneling technologies and research into major

  2. EU-PIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Now in a Second Edition comprising the Brussels I Regulation “recast”, as well as other key EU legislation and case law, this book brings together principles of juridical jurisdiction, choice of law, recognition of judgments and commercial arbitration. It shows the interrelationship of the rules...

  3. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  4. Essential EU Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook takes a broad approach to EU climate law and presents all available legal instruments to combat climate change, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions trading to the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mechanisms. After providing a definition of climate law,

  5. EU-retten 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Nielsen, Poul Runge

    Bogen indeholder en gennemgang af en række generelle problemstillinger vedrørende harmoniseringen indenfor EU samt en nærmere analyse af harmoniseringen på en række udvalgte områder: selskabsret, skatteret, finansielle tjenesteydelser samt den tekniske harmonisering der skal sikre varernes fri be...

  6. EU Agro Biogas Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amon, T.; Mayr, H.; Eder, M.; Hobbs, P.; Rao Ravella, S.; Roth, U.; Niebaum, A.; Doehler, H.; Weiland, P.; Abdoun, E.; Moser, A.; Lyson, M.; Heiermann, M.; Plöchl, M.; Budde, J.; Schattauer, A.; Suarez, T.; Möller, H.; Ward, A.; Hillen, F.; Sulima, P.; Oniszk-Polplawska, A.; Krampe, P.; Pastorek, Z.; Kara, J.; Mazancova, J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Wim, C.; Gioelli, F.; Balsari, P.

    2009-01-01

    EU-AGRO-BIOGAS is a European Biogas initiative to improve the yield of agricultural biogas plants in Europe, to optimise biogas technology and processes and to improve the efficiency in all parts of the production chain from feedstock to biogas utilisation. Leading European research institutions and

  7. The EU's Biofuel Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EU is supporting biofuels, with the aim of reducing greenhouse-gas emission, encouraging the decarbonisation of fuels used in transportation, diversifying energy procurement, offering new earning opportunities in rural areas, and developing long-term replacements for oil. We publish lengthy excerpts from the recent Communication, COM(2006) 34def. which describes the strategy adopted by the Commission [it

  8. The EU's Convergence Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notermans Ton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As economic stagnation continues to mark the EU in the fifth year of the euro zone crisis, political support for integration is waning. The European Parliament elections of 2014 returned a hitherto unparalleled number of Eurosceptic MEPs, with EU-critical parties becoming the largest ones in several Member States. Much of this Euroscepticism is driven by economic polarisation between core and peripheral countries. While an increasing number of voters in the northwestern creditor countries resent having to foot the bill for what they consider economic mismanagement in the periphery, voters in peripheral countries increasingly rebel against what they deem to be an economically catastrophic Diktat from Germany and its allies. Continued political support for European integration will hinge on successful income convergence in the EU but the current dilemma is that such policies might not be politically feasible. Periods of rapid convergence would seem to suggest that success depends on two main policy strategies. First, a monetary policy that promotes credit for productive purposes, leaves inflation control to other instruments, and employs selective credit rationing to prevent asset booms. Second, a vertical industrial policy prioritising selected industrial sectors. The first policy conflicts with the present framework of euro zone monetary policy, but that framework was only installed in the first place because many peripheral countries were desperately in search of an external constraint on domestic distributional conflict. Industrial policies, in turn, require a sufficient degree of state autonomy from business elites in order to be effective, but it is highly questionable whether most states in the EU possess such autonomy. Though there are, as yet hesitant, signs of a reorientation of both monetary and cohesion policy in the EU, the question of the institutional and political preconditions for their successful implementation has been largely

  9. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  10. 'EU divertor celebration day'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.

    2002-01-01

    The meeting 'EU divertor celebration day' organized on 16 January 2002 at Plansee AG, Reutte, Austria was held on the occasion of the completion of manufacturing activities of a complete set of near full-scale prototypes of divertor components including the vertical target, the dome liner and the cassette body. About 30 participants attended the meeting including Dr. Robert Aymar, ITER Director, representatives from EFDA, CEA, ENEA, IPP and others

  11. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States’ ph...

  12. EU COMPARISON OF VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ZENOVIA GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available VAT is one of the newest tools of the global economy and is widely adopted in most of the countries. For EU Member States is required not only the existence of VAT, but also that its main characteristics to be uniformly implemented. This should facilitate intra-Community transactions, but in practice does not as there are many local variations which can lead to costly errors and penalties. The objective of this paper is to collate data about the main characteristics of VAT in EU Member States and to highlight the key differences between them. This survey shows that there continue to be opportunities and risks for businesses trading cross border, as a result of differences in application of Community legislation on VAT. This led to the necessity of VAT reform. On this basis, the Commission adopted on the end of the last year a Communication on the future of VAT. This sets out the fundamental characteristics that must underlie the new VAT regime, and priority actions needed to create a simpler, more efficient and more robust VAT system in the EU.

  13. A Wear Rule and Cutter Life Prediction Model of a 20-in. TBM Cutter for Granite: A Case Study of a Water Conveyance Tunnel in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quansheng; Liu, Jianping; Pan, Yucong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Peng, Xingxin; Gong, Qiuming; Du, Lijie

    2017-05-01

    Disc cutter wear is one of the comprehensive results of the rock-machine interaction in tunnel boring machine (TBM) tunneling. The replacement of the disc cutter is a time-consuming and costly activity that can significantly reduce the TBM utilization ( U) and advance rate (AR), and has a major effect on the total time and cost of TBM tunneling projects. Therefore, the importance of predicting the cutter life accurately can never be overemphasized. Most cutter wear prediction models are only suitable for 17-in. or smaller disc cutters. However, use of large-diameter disc cutters has been an irresistible trend for large-section hard rock TBMs. This study attempts to reveal the genuine wear rule of a 20-in. disc cutter and develop a new empirical model for predicting the cutter life in granite based on field data collected from a water conveyance tunnel constructed by the TBM tunneling method in China. The field data including the actual cutter wear and the geological parameters along the studied tunnel were compiled in a special database that was subjected to statistical analysis to reveal the genuine wear rule of a 20-in. disc cutter and develop the reasonable correlations between some common intact rock parameters and the disc cutter life. These equations were developed based on data from massive to very massive granite with a UCS range of 40-100 MPa, which can be applied for the assessment of the cutter life of a 20-in. disc cutter in similar hard rock projects with similar rock strengths and rock abrasivities.

  14. Luminescence properties of different Eu sites in LiMgPO4:Eu2+, Eu3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, A; Mahlik, S; Grinberg, M; Cai, P; Kim, S I; Seo, H J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the luminescence properties of LiMgPO 4 doped with Eu 3+ and Eu 2+ are presented. Depending on the excitation wavelength, luminescence spectra consist of two distinct broad emission bands peaking at 380 nm and 490 nm related to 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 ( 8 S 7/2 ) luminescence of Eu 2+ and to europium-trapped exciton, respectively, and/or several sharp lines between the 580 nm and 710 nm region, ascribed to the 5 D 0  →  7 F J (J = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4) transitions in Eu 3+ . To explain all the features of the Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ luminescence we discussed the existence of two different Eu sites substituting for Li + , with short and long distance compensation. The evident effect of increasing the intensity of the Eu 2+ luminescence with increasing temperature was observed. It was considered that the charge compensation mechanism for Eu 3+ and Li + as well as Eu 2+ replacing Li + in the LiMgPO 4 is a long distance compensation that allows for the existence of some of the europium ions either as Eu 3+ at low temperature or as Eu 2+ at high temperature. We concluded that Eu 2+ in the Li + site with long distance compensation yields only 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence, whereas Eu 2+ in the Li + site with short distance compensation yields 4f 6 5d 1  → 4f 7 luminescence and europium-trapped exciton emission. (paper)

  15. Free-face-Assisted Rock Breaking Method Based on the Multi-stage Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) Cutterhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qi; Wei, Zhengying; Meng, Hao; Macias, Francisco Javier; Bruland, Amund

    2016-11-01

    In order to improve the rock breaking efficiency of hard rock tunnel boring, many innovative rock breaking methods have been proposed (e.g., the water jet cutting, the high-power laser cutting, the impact-rotary drilling, and the undercutting method). However, most of the methods are not applicable to TBMs due to some structural reasons. Aiming on this problem, a free-face-assisted rock breaking method based on the multi-stage TBM cutterhead has been proposed. Series of proof-of-concept tests includes (1) the static compression test with vertical free face and (2) the rotary cutting tests in different free surface conditions were designed and carried out. The results show that the rock breaking force and efficiency can be significantly reduced and improved, respectively, with the assistance of the free face, due to the failure of the rock close to the free face is tensile-dominated failure. The influencing distance of the free face in the radial direction is at least 330 mm which covers about 5 disk cutters. Finally, the general structure of a small two-stage cutterhead (4 m in diameter) was tentatively designed in order to provide a possible approach to apply the free-face effect to TBMs.

  16. EU and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    during most of the period since the early 1990s, when aid flows from the EU started growing. Regarding trade relations, we note that the EU’s increasing use of antidumping tariffs against Vietnamese exporters during the past years could be an indication of a less friendly and more competitive attitude...... was limited to aid. The reason is largely Vietnam’s historical experiences from the aid relationship with the Soviet Union, which created dependence and eventually an economic crisis when aid flows dried up in the late 1980s. Instead, there has been substantial tension between the donor community and Vietnam...

  17. Development of EU Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Børge

    2007-01-01

    En tematiseret gennemgang af udviklingstrinene i EU's miljøpolitik fra de allerførste skirdt i 1970-72, der måtte basere sig på EU-traktatens generalklausul i Artikel 235, over declarationen på EU-topmødet i Paris i 1972, der kædede økonomisk udvikling sammen med et krav om hensyntagen til miljøet...

  18. Strategic neighbourhood: EU-Europe versus EU-East

    OpenAIRE

    Rahr, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    "Russia and the EU are the strongest actors on the European continent of the 21st century. Will the strategic partnership between the EU and Russia unite the entire continent under a 'common European home' or will the continent be split in two? Russia joining the rest of Europe is set to proceed initially through the Energy Alliance." (author's abstract)

  19. EU pharmaceutical expenditure forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinati, Duccio; Rémuzat, Cécile; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, forecasting has become critically important. Some countries have, for instance, developed pharmaceutical horizon scanning units. The objective of this project was to build a model to assess the net effect of the entrance of new patented medicinal products versus medicinal products going off-patent, with a defined forecast horizon, on selected European Union (EU) Member States' pharmaceutical budgets. This model took into account population ageing, as well as current and future country-specific pricing, reimbursement, and market access policies (the project was performed for the European Commission; see http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). In order to have a representative heterogeneity of EU Member States, the following countries were selected for the analysis: France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. A forecasting period of 5 years (2012-2016) was chosen to assess the net pharmaceutical budget impact. A model for generics and biosimilars was developed for each country. The model estimated a separate and combined effect of the direct and indirect impacts of the patent cliff. A second model, estimating the sales development and the risk of development failure, was developed for new drugs. New drugs were reviewed individually to assess their clinical potential and translate it into commercial potential. The forecast was carried out according to three perspectives (healthcare public payer, society, and manufacturer), and several types of distribution chains (retail, hospital, and combined retail and hospital). Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were carried out. According to the model, all countries experienced drug budget reductions except Poland (+€41 million). Savings were expected to be the highest in the United Kingdom (-€9,367 million), France (-€5,589 million), and, far behind them

  20. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  1. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  2. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  3. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities. 

  4. GENERAL OVERWIEV ON EU ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA GEORGETA PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the international economic crisis on new EU member states has proven to be more severe than the first estimates of the economic analysts. The situation is different for each Member State, the nature and the dimension of the challenges faced are not identical, and the pace of reform is not the same. The economic crisis has prompted intense and sustained action by the EU's national governments, the European Central Bank and the Commission. All have been working closely together to support growth and employment, ensure financial stability, and put in place a better governance system for the future. Sustainable development in the future is the common responsibility of all Member States and EU institutions, because our economies are closely interlinked, and the EU economic governance now reconfigured to provide more effective responses at the policy level, to give a good reaction to the present and the future challenges.

  5. Remote Handling behind port plug in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, O.; Neuberger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Different Test Blanket Modules (TBM) will be used in succession in the same equatorial ports of ITER. The remote handling operations for connection/disconnection of an interface between the port plug of the EU-HCPB-TBM and the port cell equipment are investigated with the goal to reach a quick and simple TBM exchange procedure. This paper describes the operations and systems which are required for connection of the TBM to its supply lines at this interface. The interface is located inside the free space of the port plug flange between the port plug shield and the bioshield of the port cell behind. The approach of the operation place is only available through a narrow gate in the bioshield opened temporarily during maintenance periods. This gate limits the dimensions of the whole system and its tools. The current design of the EU-HCPB-TBM foresees up to 9 supply lines which have to be connected inside the free space of one half of the port plug flange. The connection operations require positioning and adjustment of the tools for each pipe separately. Despite the strict circumstances it is still possible to find such an industrial jointed-arm robot with sufficient payload, which can penetrate into the working area. A mechanical system is necessary to move the robot from its storing place in the hot cell to the port plug on 6 m distance. Each operation requires different end-of-arm tools. The most special one is a pipe positioner tool, which can position and pull the pipe ends to each other and align the tool before welding and hold them in proper position during the welding process. Weld seams can be made by orbital welding tool. The pipe positioner tool has to provide place for welding tool. Using of inbore tool is impossible because pipes have no open ends where the tool could leave it. Orbital tool must be modified to meet requirements of remote handling because it is designed for human handling. The coolant is helium, so for eliminating the leak of helium it is

  6. Application of computational fluid dynamics for the simulation of cryogenic molecular sieve bed absorber of hydrogen isotopes recovery system for Indian LLCB-TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayathri Devi, V.; Sircar, A.; Sarkar, B. [Institute of Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarar (India)

    2015-03-15

    One of the most challenging tasks in the design of the fuel cycle system lies in the effective design of Tritium Extraction System (TES) which involves proper extraction and purification of tritium in the fuel cycle of the fusion reactor. Indian Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (LLCB-TBM) would extract hydrogen isotopes through Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB) adsorber system. A prototype Hydrogen Isotopes Recovery System (HIRS) is being developed to validate the concepts for tritium extraction by adsorption mass transfer mechanism. In this study, a design model has been developed and analyzed to simulate the adsorption mass transfer kinetics in a fixed bed adsorption column. The simulation leads primarily to effective design of HIRS, which is a state-of-the-art technology. The paper describes the process simulation approach and the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The effects of different operating conditions are studied to investigate their influence on the hydrogen isotopes adsorption capacity. The results of the present simulation study would be used to understand the best optimized transport phenomenon before realizing the TES as a system for LLCB-TBM. (authors)

  7. Progress on pebble bed experimental activity for the HE-FUS3 mock-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orco, G.; Sansone, L.; Simoncini, M.; Zito, D.

    2002-01-01

    The EU Long Term for DEMO Programme foresees the qualification of the reference design of the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) - test blanket module (TBM) to be tested in ITER Reactor. In this frame, FZK and ENEA have launched many experimental activities for the evaluation of the interactions between the Tritium breeder and neutron multiplier pebble beds and the steel containment walls. Main aim of these activities is the measuring the pebble bed effective thermal conductivity, the wall heat transfer coefficient as well as their dependency from the mechanical constraints. The paper presents the progress of the testing activity and results of the tests on two mock-up, called Tazza and Helichetta, carried out on the HE-FUS3 facility at ENEA Brasimone. (orig.)

  8. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  9. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process.......A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...

  10. EU Policy. A Debate on EU Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.; Kjoelbye, L.; Aaslund, A.; Zwitserloot, R.

    2008-01-01

    Views from four experts in the field of energy on the EU's energy policy, as laid down in the Third Package, are presented. Kjoelbye and Cohen argue about the pros and cons of unbundling, Aaslund defends the policy of reciprocity towards Gazprom, and Zwitserloot warns that Europe's anti-Gazprom policy endangers security of supply

  11. The Test Blanket Modules project in Europe: From the strategy to the technical plan over next ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitevin, Y.; Zmitko, M.; Orco, G. dell; Laesser, R.; Diegele, E.; Sundstroem, J.; Boccaccini, L.; Salavy, J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    The testing of Breeding Blanket concepts in ITER is recognized as an essential milestone in the development of a future reactor ensuring tritium self-sufficiency, extraction of high grade heat and electricity production. Europe is currently developing two reference breeding blankets for DEMO reactor specifications that will be tested in ITER: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) blanket which uses the eutectic Pb-15. 7 Li as both breeder and neutron multiplier, and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) blanket which features lithiated ceramic pebbles (Li 4 SiO 4 or Li 2 TiO 3 ) as breeder and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier. Both blankets are using the pressurized He technology for heat extraction (8 MPa, inlet/outlet temperature 300/500 o C) and a 9% CrWVTa Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as structural material, the EUROFER. Referring to the so called '' fast-track '' EU scenario, those concepts are intended to be tested in ITER, getting the maximum of information required for launching the DEMO blanket design and construction after the first 10 years of ITER operation. For that, the EU has adopted a blanket testing strategy based on the development of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) that are expected to use DEMO relevant technologies and are designed for each ITER plasma phase to optimize the feedback and to avoid any impact on ITER availability. Following the decision on ITER construction, the EU has reviewed and detailed the fundamental elements for an implementation of the future EU TBMs Project aimed at delivering TBMs Systems to ITER under suitable schedule and acceptance standards. For that the following items have been analyzed in detail and are reported in the present paper: · Impact of the ITER environment (design, standards, schedule, operational scheme) on the TBM systems design and development plan · Project technical plan with focus on the next ten years up to the installation of the first TBMs in ITER · Project risk

  12. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  13. EU citizenship and direct taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Ros (Erik)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main question addressed in this study is: _How has the concept of EU citizenship influenced the legal autonomy of Member States; most notably in the field of direct taxation and are the implications of that influence on the tax autonomy of Member States acceptable?_

  14. EU ENLARGEMENT AT A CROSSROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Cătălina Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to explore the general theme of the EU enlargement strategy in the new 2012 European context. Until now, the EU’s enlargement strategy has yielded impressive results. It succeeded in transforming ten central and eastern European countries from post-communism confusion into open-market, mature and effective systems of democratic governments, and even on the economic front, they have also made astonishing progress. It is no doubt that people in the new EU countries live better then before. In this context, the EU must continue the enlargement process to help stabilize the Balkan region that lie beyond its expanded eastern border. No one can deny that major issues concerning western Balkan countries’ accession are still on the table, and they even exert a geopolitical influence of sorts. This makes it all the more important to see stability and regional co-operation there are strategically vital. An all-out effort must now be made to complete the enlargement process and ensure there is no strategic vacuum. This article provides the framework of analyses for the EU problems and the challenges for the Balkans governments as for Brussels.

  15. Implementatie van EU-handhavingsvoorschriften

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, P.C.; Barkhuysen, T.; Boswijk, P.; Habib, K.; Kruif, C. de; Luchtman, M.J.J.P.; Ouden, W. den; Prechal, A.; Steunenberg, B.; Vervaele, J.A.E.; Voermans, W.J.M.; Vries, S.A. de; Widdershoven, R.J.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Na een verkennend onderzoek op twaalf beleidsterreinen naar aard, wijze en variatie van de EU/EG-beïnvloeding van nationale handhaving, zijn aan de hand van ‘beïnvloedingsscores’ acht beleidsterreinen geselecteerd voor nadere analyse. In het onderzoek staan de volgende vragen centraal:Hoe is de

  16. Absolute measurement of 152Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Baba, Sumiko; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Sekine, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Isamu

    1981-08-01

    A new method of the absolute measurement for 152 Eu was established based on the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic anti-coincidence method. It is a coincidence counting method consisting of a 4πβ-counter and a Ge(Li) γ-ray detector, in which the effective counting efficiencies of the 4πβ-counter for β-rays, conversion electrons, and Auger electrons were obtained by taking the intensity ratios for certain γ-rays between the single spectrum and the spectrum coincident with the pulses from the 4πβ-counter. First, in order to verify the method, three different methods of the absolute measurement were performed with a prepared 60 Co source to find excellent agreement among the results deduced by them. Next, the 4πβ-γ spectroscopic coincidence measurement was applied to 152 Eu sources prepared by irradiating an enriched 151 Eu target in a reactor. The result was compared with that obtained by the γ-ray spectrometry using a 152 Eu standard source supplied by LMRI. They agreed with each other within the error of 2%. (author)

  17. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  18. Rebalancing EU Interest Representation? Assocative Democracy and EU funding of Civil Society Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Salgado, R.

    2014-01-01

    European Union (EU) funding of civil society organizations (CSOs) is a substantial and important part of EU governance, but study of such funding is scarce and theoretically underdeveloped. To fill this gap, this article analyzes the main features of EU funding of CSOs and its effects on the EU

  19. Assessing EU perception in Kazakhstan's mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2017-01-01

    Our main findings suggest that Kazakhstan's mass media positively perceives the role of the EU in the region. Moreover, they tend to portray the EU mainly as an economic powerhouse. Our findings support some suggestions by similar studies of the EU's external perception.

  20. EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pe'er, G.; Dicks, L.V.; Visconti, A.; Arlettaz, R.; Baldi, A.; Kleijn, D.; Scott, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    In December 2013, the European Union (EU) enacted the reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, allocating almost 40% of the EU's budget and influencing management of half of its terrestrial area. Many EU politicians are announcing the new CAP as “greener,” but the new environmental

  1. Electrochemical reduction of Eu (III) in propionic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotto, M.E.; Rabockai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some chronopotentiometric studies of Eu (III) electro-reducion in propionic media that suggests the presence of two parallel rections: Eu (III) → Eu (II) and Eu (III) → Eu (II) → Y are presented. Some experimental data, such Eu (III) reducion, electrolysis of solutions and ionic power of the system are discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  2. EU focus on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Faced with the mounting evidence of the harmful effects of climate change, the European Union is convinced that the world must take urgent action to tackle the problem. That is why the EU has been at the forefront of international efforts to deal with climate change for well over a decade. The EU is convinced that the status quo is simply not an option. Without urgent, concerted action, the problem will continue to get worse with potentially disastrous consequences. That is why the European Union has consistently taken the lead in international moves to tackle climate change and why it will continue to develop this strategy for as long as it takes to guarantee a world for ourselves and our children where everyone can grow, breathe and live in safety

  3. Menneskerettigheder og handelspolitik i EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    to food, the right heat, the right to have a job"; we still live with this division today. There have been a number of attempts over the last 10-15 years, who have tried to work around these problems. One of them is a movement within the UN are trying to reinterpret what it means to have 'development...... point for reaction against the liberalization of the global economy. It is extremely interesting. Again this demonstrates the complexity of EU policy. Some Member States were quite supportive of the WTO, while others expected the ILO to take the lead. See, for example, the declaration on "Core Labour...... is this contradiction "free and fair trade" in the same sentence becomes, in an attempt both economically and politically to get it to make sense within the EU. Ian Manners is a professor and works at Roskilde University, the Institute for society and globalization. His research is globalization and Europeanisation...

  4. Good Governance in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Livioara GOGA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU adhesion, good governance has been analyzed from different perspectives, in the judicial literature being an analytic model or a normative concept. Some authors have wondered if this concept is a fashion, comprising some older ideas and principles, while other authors have asserted that the reasons why different methods of governance appear in the EU are based on “the complexity and the uncertainty of the problems on the agenda, an irreducible, the new approaches on public administration and law, hidden competencies, legitimacy and subsidiarity”. At a normative level, the White Paper of European Governance consecrated five principles on which good governance is based upon: openness, participation, responsibility, efficiency and coherence.

  5. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  6. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2008-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  7. School version of ESTE EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carny, P.; Suchon, D.; Chyly, M.; Smejkalova, E.; Fabova, V.

    2009-01-01

    ESTE EU is information system and software for radiological impacts assessment to the territory of the country in case of radiation accident inside/outside of the country .The program enables to model dispersion of radioactive clouds in small-scale and meso-scale. The system enables the user to estimate prediction of the source term (release to the atmosphere ) for any point of radiation/nuclear accident in Europe (for any point of the release, but especially for the sites of European power reactors ). The system enables to utilize results of real radiological monitoring in the process of source term estimation. Radiological impacts of release to the atmosphere are modelled and calculated across the Europe and displayed in the geographical information system (GIS). The school version of ESTE EU is intended for students of the universities which are interested in or could work in the field of emergency response, radiological and nuclear accidents, dispersion modelling, radiological impacts calculation and urgent or preventive protective measures implementation. The school version of ESTE EU is planned to be donated to specialized departments of faculties in Slovakia, Czech Republic, etc. System can be fully operated in Slovak, Czech or English language. (authors)

  8. Manufacturing pre-qualification of a Short Breeder Unit mockup (SHOBU) as part of the roadmap toward the out-of-pile validation of a full scale Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Breeder Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, Francisco A.; Rey, Jorg; Neuberger, Heiko; Krasnorutskyi, Sergii; Niewöhner, Reinhard; Felde, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A relevant mockup of a HCPB Breeder Unit for ITER (SHOBU) has been manufactured. • The manufacturing technologies used in SHOBU and its assembly sequence are reported. • Preliminary qualification of the welds has been successfully done after codes. • Future work foreseen to manufacture a feasibility mockup according to RCC-MRx code. - Abstract: The key components of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB TBM) in ITER are the Breeder Units (BU). These are the responsible for the tritium breeding and part of the heat extraction in the HCPB TBM. After a detailed design and engineering phase performed during the last years in the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), a reference model for the manufacturing of a HCPB BU mock-up has been obtained. The mid-term is the out-of-pile qualification of the thermal and thermo-mechanical performance of a full-scale HCPB BU mock-up in a dedicated helium loop. Several key manufacturing technologies have been developed for the fabrication of the HCPB BU. In order to pre-qualify these techniques, a Short Breeder Unit mock-up (SHOBU) is under construction and to be tested. This paper aims at describing the relevance of SHOBU with a full-scale HCPB BU, the constitutive parts of SHOBU, the manufacturing and joining technologies involved, the assembly sequence (taking into consideration functional steps like its filling with Li_4SiO_4 pebbles or its assembly in the HCPB TBM) and the welding procedures studied. The paper concludes with a description of the required pre-qualification tests performed to SHOBU, i.e. pressure and leak tightness tests, according to the standards.

  9. The total neutron cross-sections of 151Eu, 153Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1980-12-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV-1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(α)( 151 Eu) = 9180+-150 b at 0.0253 eV; sigmasub(α)( 153 Eu) = 375+-20 b at 0.0253 eV; sigmasub(α)(Eu) = 4600+-120 b at 0.0253 eV

  10. 151Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu3Pd20Ge6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, S.; Yoda, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Higashitaniguchi, S.; Seto, M.; Kitagawa, J.; Takabatake, T.

    2010-01-01

    151 Eu nuclear resonant inelastic scattering of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 . The Eu partial phonon density of states (DOS) in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 are investigated using 151 Eu nuclear resonance inelastic scattering (NRIS). 151 Eu NRIS was carried out at BL09XU of SPring-8. Significant temperature dependence was found in the partial phonon DOS. Judging from the valence change at the Eu 4a site and the comparison with the ab initio calculation of Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 , the change of the Eu DOS is caused by the electronic states. On the other hand, significant acoustic contribution was found even at the guest site of the Eu ones. In addition, slower average velocity than transverse sound velocity was obtained by Eu partial phonon DOS. Considering that heat is carried by the acoustic phonon in materials, the present results demonstrate that the moderate thermal insulation in Eu 3 Pd 20 Ge 6 is connected with the observation of slow average sound velocity at the Eu sites. (K.F.)

  11. Financial Integration into EU: The Romanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of integration between stock market of Romania and other stock markets of European Union (EU countries. Correlations between the stock returns represent the level of integration between the stock markets. Empirical analysis are performed with daily stock returns of 24 EU members including Romania for 2002-2012 period using panel data gravity models and correlations are investigated. Findings reveal that the following factors have significant and robust effects on the financial integration process of Romania with other 23 EU members; (i EU membership, (ii bilateral trade, (iii GDP per capita, (iv 2012 sovereign debt crisis and (v East European location. The results emphasize that intensifying economic relations with EU members can contribute the integration of Romanian stock market with other EU members. designed & hoste

  12. Electronic Structure of Eu6C60

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Xiong; LI Hong-Nian; XU Ya-Bo; WANG Peng; ZHANG Wen-Hua; XU Fa-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We study the valence band of Eu-intercalated C60 by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy to un-derstand the ferromagnetism (FM) and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of Eu6C60. The results reveal the semiconducting property and the remarkable 5d6s-π hybridization. Eu-C60 bonding has both ionic and covalent contributions. No more than half the 5d6s electrons transfer from Eu to the LUMO derived band of C60, and the LUMO+1 derived band is not filled. The remaining valence electrons of Eu, together with some π (LUMO, HOMO and HOMO-1) electrons, constitute the covalent bond. The electronic structure implies that the magnetic coupling in Eu6C60 should be through the intra-atomic f-sd exchange and the medium of the π electrons. The possibility of the GMR being tunnelling magnetoresistance is ruled out.

  13. Wage Implications at EU Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron Dumitrescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In all conditions of time and space, economic activity necessarily involves active work as a determinant factor of production and beneficiary of its results. In the market economy, labor services are provided to production, as with the other factors of production, through market transactions. This article aims labor factor, the role and characteristics of labor as a production factor and the employment in the EU. As a secondary market, labor market is influenced by other markets and generates, in turn, effects that are found in all other structures of the market economy system

  14. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  15. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  16. Understanding the DNA of EU's GDPR

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial Team, IndraStra Global

    2018-01-01

    On May 25, 2018, a new data protection regulation touted as General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Regulation (European Union - EU) 2016/689, will come into force in the European Union (EU) and its 28 Member States. It will replace the 1995 EU Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. The GDPR will have a significant impact in protecting the data and digital footprint of users of apps and another digital platform. It will provide significant new data privacy protections for individuals res...

  17. EU Energy Law. Volume 4. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbeke, J.; Hartridge, O.; Lefevere, J.; Meadows, D.; Runge-Metzger, A.; Slingenberg, Y.; Vainio, M.; Vis, P.; Zapfel, P.

    2006-06-01

    Gives valuable insights in the why's, how's, trade-offs, and critical design choices of the Emission Trading System of the European Union (EU ETS). The chapters deal with (1) The EU ETS: the result of a decade of policy action on the economic dimension of EU environmental policy; (2) The international climate policy developments of the 1990s: UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol, the Marrakech Agreements and the EU's Kyoto ratification decision; (3) Emissions trading: What is it? Design options and misconceptions; (4) The EU ETS Directive 2003/87/EEC explained; (5) The EU ETS Linking Directive explained; (6) The economic efficiency benefits of the EU ETS; (7) The NAP I experience; (8) The key importance of the Registry Regulation and of solid monitoring and verification; and (9) The potential role of the EU ETS for the elaboration of the post-2012 international climate regime. Conclusions are in chapter 10

  18. Den brede, folkelige debat om EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2005-01-01

    I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet.......I Danmark er EUropa noget fjernt på trods af, at EU er rammen om dansk politik, både udenrigs og indenrigs. Danmark er medlem af en de facto føderation, men de brede folkelige debater om hvordan EU skal gestaltes har manglet....

  19. EU agricultural domestic support in GTAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, Pierre; Philippidis, George; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The engagement of JRC IPTS in the GTAP contributing team to the EU domestic support has opened up the opportunity to use the CATS database when compiling EU domestic support payments by member state, which are subsequently calibrated into the GTAP database. To maintain consistency, the GTAP version...... 9 includes EU domestic support which follows the approach adopted in the previous releases (Jensen, 2009, 2010). The difference is for pillar 1 support for which the CATS data are used (in previous GTAP database releases, pillar 1 support was based on EAGF financial reports). All together EU...

  20. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  1. Renewable energies in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2008-01-01

    On January 23, 2008, the European Commission presented proposals in the form of a directive in an effort to give more specific shape to the objective adopted in the spring, i.e. to increase to 20% by 2020 the share of renewable energies in energy consumption in the Community. The proposal was to include legally binding goals for the overall share of renewable energy sources and the share of biofuels in the transport sector. The proposed directive on 'promoting the use of energy from renewable sources' calls upon each member state to ensure that its share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption in 2020 at least corresponds to the target mentioned in Annex I Part A. In addition to the targets, the EU Commission charted a tentative course towards a minimum increase in the share of renewable energies in the period between 2011 and 2020. Finally, the member states are obliged to adopt national action plans. Unfortunately, the EU is missing an important target in its proposed directive: It should establish a framework for harmonized conditions promoting the use of renewable energies. One aspect to be welcomed is the introduction of a system of certificates of origin. It represents the entry, in principle, into a trading system with certificates of origin. The Green Package incorporates a wealth of new approaches. They will have to be tested and, if necessary, supplemented. Something else is evident, however: The directive established the foundations of a vast number of new regulations and red tape. (orig.)

  2. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-01-01

    This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  3. Paradigms for EU Law and the Limits of Delegation. The Case of EU Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoncini Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the idea that the EU is a pure regulatory power based on supranational delegation of competence from the Member States. It claims the insufficiency of this single paradigm to explain the developments of EU law and the need to integrate it with recognition of the constitutional foundations of EU law.

  4. Eestimaa.eu kuulub lätlasele ja riik.eu hollandlasele / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Zone Medias eu domeeninimesid registreeriva Jaanus Puttingu hinnangul on Eesti riik olnud passiivne EL-i domeeninime .eu sisaldavate lehekülgede kaitsmisel, sajad Eestile olulised domeeninimed on juba nii siinsete kui ka piiritaguste inimeste käes. Lisa: Rahvaliit.eu kuulub kinnisvaraportaalile

  5. Energy transfer between the Eu2+ dipole and aggregate centers in CsBr:Eu crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Turchak, R.; Voznjak, T.

    2007-01-01

    The energy transfer between the Eu 2+ -V Cs dipole centers and presumable CsEuBr 3 aggregate centers has been studied in CsBr:Eu crystals by means of investigation of their time-resolved emission spectra and luminescence decay kinetics at 300 K

  6. The 'primacy' and 'direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    The rules on invoking EU norms before the Court of Justice and Member State courts are at the core of EU constitutional law. International agreements binding on the EU form an integral part of EU law and have primacy over inconsistent secondary EU legislation. Moreover, they also have primacy over...

  7. Migration from New EU Member Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to give predictions of the migration potential from the 7 new EU member countries to the EEA/EU-13 countries. Being able to analyze 'real' migration behavior from these particular countries over the period 1990-2000 helps me to avoid problems related to (double) o...

  8. Principles and Practices of EU External Representation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2012-01-01

    With this working paper, CLEER aims to offer a better insight into selected legal aspects concerning the European Union’s redefined diplomatic persona. In particular, the working paper will address issues pertaining to the Lisbon Treaty’s organising principles of EU external action, both under EU

  9. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...

  10. EU criminal law and fundamental rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, Paul; Mitsilegas, V.; Bergström, M.; Konstadinides, Th.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter first offers a background analysis to EU fundamental rights law, recalling the historical affirmation of the protection of fundamental rights as a EU concern, and the important innovation brought about by the Lisbon Treaty (section 2) and the multiplicity of actors involved in the system

  11. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstås...

  12. News and campaign dynamics in EU 27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.; Schuck, A.; Maier, M.; Stengel, K.; Haubold, V.; Süß, K.; Tenscher, J.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation provides an introduction to the media content analysis of the European election campaign conducted in the 27 EU member states in the 3 weeks leading up to the June 2009 elections. The analysis is an integral part of the PIREDEU project (www.piredeu.eu): Providing an Infrastructure

  13. EU Studies in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garski, Salla; Jørgensen, Knud Erik; Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In this brief chapter we take stock of Danish and Swedish scholarship on the European Union (EU). We intend to analyze and evaluate Danish and Swedish scholarship on EU issues, using a mixed methodology integrated into the analysis of this chapter. The method integrates a secondary analysis...

  14. Separated and unaccompanied children in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O’Donnell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of EU law, policy and practical measures address the situation of separated and unaccompanied children who arrive in the EU. However, in the current sensitive political climate, there is a risk of attention and resources being diverted from building on progress.

  15. Optimal Rather than Mandatory EU Company Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertig, G.; McCahery, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A significant debate rages within the EU about whether to give firms the choice to opt in or out of corporate law provisions. Both sides agree that more flexibility and adaptability of legal rules to business needs is crucial. Nevertheless, and not surprisingly, many still view EU mandatory

  16. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  17. Through the EU's Back and Front Doors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen......Through the EU's front- and backdoors: The selective Danish and Norwegian approaches in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice Rebecca Adler-Nissen...

  18. Intra-EU Direct Investment and Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festa Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of the intra-EU direct investment (IDI into the New Member States (NMS using a panel dataset of bilateral capital flows for the period 1993-2013. It is found out by using a simple gravity model that EU membership is the most important determinant. Unlike previous studies including non-EU countries, the distance is insignificant, which is caused by proximity of these countries to one another. A separate analysis focused on subgroups of accession countries gives some evidence that even when size of their economy, distance, institutional quality and EU accession are taken into account, Central European countries receive more IDI than the Baltic and the Balkan states. On the contrary to that, the analysis restricted to the Balkan countries which have joined the EU shows the inexistence of a negative Balkans effect in attracting foreign investment. This finding is relevant because previous studies demonstrate a persistent negative Balkans effect for non-EU Balkan countries and suggests a crucial impact of the EU accession in determining the intra-EU capital flows.

  19. Towards a Practice Turn in EU Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how practice theory can be recruited for the study of European integration. New generations of EU researchers are fascinated by the prospect of leaving the armchair and studying the people and artefacts that make the EU on an everyday level. This article surveys key practice......-oriented, anthropological and micro-sociological studies of the EU and European integration and shows how their findings challenge more traditional understandings of the dynamics of European integration. Moving beyond a stock-taking, the article distinguishes between ‘order- ing’ and ‘disordering’ practices and explores...... the potential of a practice turn in EU studies for both theory (overcoming dualism, replacing substantialism with processualism and rethinking power) and methods (including unstructured interviews, fieldwork and participant observation). A practice turn will force us to rethink core assumptions about the EU...

  20. Why use experiments in EU Studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    two things. First, by summarising the use of experiments in EU research, it provides an overview of the evolution of the use of experiments within EU studies. This includes a content exploration of the pioneering sub-areas within EU studies where experimentation is frequently used. Particular focus......The past decades have witnessed an explosion in the use of experiments. Though experiments have been increasingly applied, their recognition as useful methodological tools to investigate EU-related research questions has lagged behind the rest of the political science community. This article does...... is paid on election, framing and deliberation studies. Second, the article argues for the promising potentials experimentation provides for EU studies, overcoming problems of causal estimation as well as endogeneity concerns. The article concludes by addressing some of the critiques often made against...

  1. The quest for a European civic culture : The EU and EU Citizenship in policies and practices of citizenship education in seven EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.E.; van der Kolk, M.; Berkeley, Dominic; Koska, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Since the Treaty of Maastricht (1992) all nationals of EU member states hold EU citizenship too. EU citizens hold EU citizenship rights in addition to their national rights. These rights include civil, social, economic and political rights. Holding these rights does not guarantee actual

  2. The New European and/or EU Studies Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea; Dolghi, Dorin; Pantea, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In this part we will present turn by turn the evolution of the curriculum in four domains which are developing in the area of European and/or EU Studies: EU Intercultural Dialogue Studies, EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies, EU Communication and Information Studies, EU and Comparative Regionalism, from several points of view. First, we will take into consideration the perspective that each curriculum from the four domains has in the ensemble of European and/or EU Studies, t...

  3. Concentration depolarization of luminescence of Eu3+-doped glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodunov, E.N.; Lebedev, V.P.; Malyshev, V.A.; Przheuskij, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of concentrational depolarization luminescence (CDL) of phosphate and germanate glasses, containing Eu 3+ ions, has been carried out. On the basis of three-body self-consistent approximation the theory of CDL is conceived, which takes into account Eu-Eu interaction of higher multipolarities. By comparing the theory with the experiment energy transfer radii for Eu-Eu dipole-dipole, dipole-quadrupole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions are determined. The attempt to discriminate Eu-Eu interaction types in the studied range of Eu 3+ ion concentration change has failed owing to law accuracy of luminescence emittance anisotropy measurement

  4. EU, Eastern Europe and Values Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an idea of'values imperialism'as a helpful way of conceptualising the relationship between the EU and the states that came within its sphere of influence after the end of the Cold War, particularly its 'neighbours' in Eastern Europe. Values imperialism places its emphasis on the 'superstructure', including norms, laws and social practices. EU larger objective was that the assumptions about government and ownership that were favoured by the dominant powers (EU and the West in the broad term should be absorbed and recapitulated by those countries that were subordinate. The broad framework ofsubordination was established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreements that began to be concluded from 1994 onwards. Patterns of'values imperialism'could also be discovered in the EU Common Strategies on Russia and Ukraine that were adopted in 1999. Article also points out several cases when the EU intervened directly in the domestic affairs of the Eastern Europe countries in a manner that was not always compatible with the provisions on state sovereignty: a 'European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights', launched in 2006, interventions ofEU representatives in the work of local courts and organisation of exit polls, which could be used to discredit the official election results and in this way to undermine the position of local governments. Finally, the author concludes that the EU used 'values imperialism'practices in order to extend its influence, particularly in the Eastern Europe.

  5. Coordinating the Uncoordinated: The EU Forest Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Aggestam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The second European Union (EU Forest Strategy responds to new challenges facing both forests and the forest-based sector which highlights the EU’s need for a policy framework ensuring coordination and coherence of forest-related policies. The objective of the present article is to analyse whether the new Strategy contributes towards horizontal policy coherence of EU forest-related policies, given its shared and exclusive competences. This is achieved by comparing European Commission and forest industry policy priorities as articulated in the Strategy and through research carried out for the recent Cumulative Cost Assessment (CCA of forest-based industries. Results from the comparative analysis demonstrate that the Strategy does not address many EU policies and policy instruments that affect the whole forest value chain and that it clearly omits existing EU policy instrument objectives that entail significant costs for the forest-based industry. It is therefore argued that without coordinating collective EU goals and gathering strong political support, it is at best extremely difficult or at worst impossible, to achieve coherence for EU forest-related policies across the whole forest value chain. Improving coherence of Union forest-related policies will require the Strategy to address more policy areas and instruments, including clearly defined parameters of what constitutes an EU forest-related policy. These pressing needs reach beyond what the Strategy presently sets out to achieve.

  6. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON EU AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Shrestha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigates the medium term economic impact of climate changes on the EU agriculture. The yield change data under climate change scenarios are taken from the BIOMA (Biophysical Models Application simulation environment. We employ CAPRI modelling framework to identify the EU aggregate economic effects as well as regional impacts. We take into account supply and market price adjustments of the EU agricultural sector as well as technical adaptation of crops to climate change. Overall results indicate an increase in yields and production level in the EU agricultural sector due to the climate change. In general, there are relatively small effects at the EU aggregate. For example, the value of land use and welfare change by approximately between -2% and 0.2%. However, there is a stronger impact at regional level with some stronger effects prevailing particularly in the Central and Northern EU and smaller impacts are observed in Southern Europe. Regional impacts of climate change vary by a factor higher up to 10 relative to the aggregate EU impacts. The price adjustments reduce the response of agricultural sector to climate change in particular with respect to production and income changes. The technical adaption of crops to climate change may result in a change production and land use by a factor between 1.4 and 6 relative to no-adaptation situation.

  7. Enlarging the EU's internal energy market: Why would third countries accept EU rule export?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange-Gstoehl, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    Why would countries without a membership perspective seek integration into the EU's internal energy market? One major element of the EU's external energy policy is the export of EU energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond. A core legal instrument the EU uses in this context is the Energy Community Treaty (ECT). The ECT goes both geographically and regarding its depth significantly beyond neighbourhood or association policies, addressing potentially also countries in the 'far neighbourhood' and aiming at the creation of a Single Market for energy with these countries. While, however, EU candidate countries are obliged to adopt the 'acquis' before accessing the EU and therefore comply to EU rules already before they enter the Club, I argue that countries with no or only a vague membership perspective - i.e. countries where the EU cannot apply the 'conditionality' - approach (e.g., ENP countries)-aim at deeper integration with the EU because they are either eager to demonstrate their capability and potential to become part of the Club, they seek greater independence from a regional hegemon or they envisage significant economic gains as common norms, rules and standards are likely to increase economic exchange with the EU.

  8. Growth effects of EU and EZ memberships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schmid, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    of economic integration in Europe. The aim of this article is to investigate whether EU and EZ memberships enhance growth for their members. In order to perform our empirical analysis, we estimate different growth models restricting the time frame to the first 15 years of the Euro - from 1999 to 2013. We find...... a positive impact of EU membership on economic growth, but no impact of being part of the EZ, except during the financial crisis, when the EZ has a negative impact on growth amongst its members. Considering the heated political debate related to the Brexit referendum, our results favour a “yes” to the EU...

  9. AU-EU “Strategic Partnership”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Okeke, Jide

    2013-01-01

    This article appraises strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and European Union (EU). It examines the context and nature of AU and EU security relations and explores the conditions under which partnership has a positive impact in this regard. This includes an evaluation...... of convergence between the two organizations and its effect or lack thereof on African security. The article concludes that events leading up to and initiatives following the 2007 Joint Africa–European Union Strategy have produced a degree of AU and EU convergence, which has had limited impact on the efficacy...... of the African security regime, the level of which remains mediocre at best....

  10. The total neutron cross-sections of 151Eu, 153Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) ( 151 Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) ( 153 Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula. (orig.)

  11. Total neutron cross-sections of /sup 151/Eu, /sup 153/Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) (/sup 151/Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) (/sup 153/Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula.

  12. The EU model evaluation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The model evaluation group (MEG) was launched in 1992 growing out of the Major Technological Hazards Programme with EU/DG XII. The goal of MEG was to improve the culture in which models were developed, particularly by encouraging voluntary model evaluation procedures based on a formalised and consensus protocol. The evaluation intended to assess the fitness-for-purpose of the models being used as a measure of the quality. The approach adopted was focused on developing a generic model evaluation protocol and subsequent targeting this onto specific areas of application. Five such developments have been initiated, on heavy gas dispersion, liquid pool fires, gas explosions, human factors and momentum fires. The quality of models is an important element when complying with the 'Seveso Directive' requiring that the safety reports submitted to the authorities comprise an assessment of the extent and severity of the consequences of identified major accidents. Further, the quality of models become important in the land use planning process, where the proximity of industrial sites to vulnerable areas may be critical. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. EU POLICY ON EDUCATION FUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina PANA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available On average, EU countries allocate 6.4% of total public expenditure for the direct support of the public sector at all levels of education. In view of a more rational allocation of resources seriously diminished by the crisis there are made efforts to identify educational areas considered problematic in terms of accessing various education programs. This paper presents pre-school funding policies and policies to support families with preschool and school age children in the European Union through a comparative analysis of the focus group type. There are also presented concrete ways of achieving that family support such as tax cuts, family allowances or by taking into account certain factors in order to establish fees. In all countries where taxes are paid for pre-compulsory education (ISCED A there is a mechanism by which parental contributions can be adjusted according to the means available taking into account criteria such as family income, number of children, family status (children who live with one parent geographic area, etc.

  14. Cathodoluminescence properties of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Eu2+ and Eu3+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, A. N.; Petrova, M. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) doped with Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ ions is very interesting as a phosphor for conversion of light-emitting diode light for white light sources. The europium ion occupies the structural position of yttrium in yttrium aluminium garnet and has valence state Eu 3+ . Our sample was doped with Zr 4+ , which is why some of the europium ions had valence state Eu 2+ . As a rule, luminescence of Eu 3+ ions is observed in the orange and red range of spectrum. The luminescence of Eu 2+ in yttrium aluminum garnet is characterized by an intensive broad band with maximum of intensity at about 560 nm (green color). In this work, we studied the intensity and decay time dependences on europium concentration, and the influence of excitation power density on the cathodoluminescence of the sample. The most interesting result is the change of visible cathodoluminescence color in dependence on the density of the exciting power

  15. Implementation of integrated homecare in EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    ://www.integratedhomecare.eu/ ) aims to develop a strategy for better clinical continuity in EU. Data and Method A systematic literature review on integrated care forms the base for design of an HTA of integrated home care (IHC) for chronic conditions in such a state of disablement that patient schools are not enough. The EUnet...... approach with the adaption to local conditions in a decentralized approach. This means that a regional level with direct cooperation between the administrative/financial and the clinical/specialist levels is focused. This meso- level is addressed by an international network of national specialist groups......  Implementation of Integrated Home Care in EU Objective WHO put the fragmented delivery of health and social services for large groups of chronic conditions on the research agenda in 2002 as implemented in the call EU-FP7-HEALTH-2007-3.1.6. This granted project ( http...

  16. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  17. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks gave new momentum to European Union (EU) initiatives to improve law enforcement cooperation against terrorism both among its 25 member states and with the United States...

  18. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  19. EU and Tourism Development: Bark or Bite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of major programmes to strengthen the quality and competitiveness of European destinations, the role of the EU in tourism development has often been seen as fairly limited. Despite this, spill-overs or side effects from adjoining policy areas with extensive European regulation...... or intervention can be equally important, and the paper examines key aspects of the EU's role in tourism development in order to discuss to what extent the traditional interpretation of a passive actor of little consequence should be modified or even discarded. Drawing upon European and Nordic documentary sources...... as well as existing specialist literature, the text first examines the development of an EU policy statement on tourism, and then two areas of EU policy - competition policy and regional development - are analysed with a view to establishing side-effects in European and Nordic destinations...

  20. EuCARD final project report

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2014-01-01

    After four years of activity, EuCARD has most of its objectives fulfilled, with some new objectives added and a few others on excellent tracks while requiring additional time. The management has been active in reinforcing the collaborative links between partners and projects, contributing to the preparation of FP7-EuCARD2, initiating FP7-HiLumi-LHC Design Study, to favour sustained collaborations beyond EuCARD. An out-of-contract network has been successfully launched on laser plasma acceleration, to combine forces between accelerator, laser and plasma communities. Communication and dissemination activities have led to two highlights: Accelerating News, an accelerator R&D newsletter initiated by EuCARD and now common to all FP7 accelerator projects (over 1000 subscribers) and a series of monographs on accelerator sciences that is progressively finding its public. The scientific networks have more than fulfilled their initial objectives: roadmaps are defined for neutrino facilities, submitted to the Europe...

  1. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  2. EU 2004 Declaration. EU policy workshop development of offshore wind energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruijne, R.

    2004-09-01

    Participants of the Dutch EU Presidency's 'EU Policy Workshop on the development of offshore wind energy' published this Declaration that called for action at the EU Transport, Energy and Telecom Council on November 29, 2004. The Declaration lists a series of action points on three main issues relating to the development of offshore wind energy in Europe: market development; environment; and grid integration of large scale offshore wind

  3. Synthesis and tunable luminescent properties of Eu-doped Ca2NaSiO4F – Coexistence of the Eu2+ and Eu3+ centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubiao Xie

    Full Text Available Novel phosphors Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu were synthesized successfully by the conventional solid-state method in CO atmosphere, and their spectroscopic properties in UV−vis region were investigated. The photoluminescence properties show that Eu3+ ions were partially reduced to Eu2+ in Ca2NaSiO4F. As a result of radiation and re-absorption energy transfer from Eu2+ to Eu3+, both Eu2+ bluish-green emission at around 520 nm and Eu3+ red emission are observed in the emission spectra under the n-UV light excitation. Furthermore, the ratio between Eu2+ and Eu3+ emissions varies with increasing content of overall Eu. Because relative intensity of the red component from Eu3+ became systematically stronger, white light emission can be realized by combining the emission of Eu2+ and Eu3+ in a single host lattice under n-UV light excitation. These results indicate that the Ca2NaSiO4F:Eu phosphors have potential applications as a n-UV convertible phosphor for light-emitting diodes. Keywords: Phosphors, Luminescence, White LED, Optical materials

  4. EU Contribution to Global CBRN Security

    OpenAIRE

    GOULART DE MEDEIROS MARGARIDA; ABOUSAHL SAID; MAIER EDDIE; SIMONART TRISTAN; DUPRE BRUNO

    2016-01-01

    The EU promotes a culture of CBRN safety and security within the EU and internationally. Accordingly, the Instrument Contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP) contributes to international efforts to mitigate CBRN risks, whether of natural (e.g. pandemics, volcanic eruptions), accidental (Fukushima) or criminal (trafficking, terrorism) origin, following a consistent ‘all hazards’ approach. The aim is twofold: to prevent CBRN incidents and to build partner countries' capacities for emergency r...

  5. U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    of Colombia (FARC), some Palestinian groups (including Hamas’ military and political wings in 2001 and 2003 respectively), and Hezbollah’s military...a “European TFTP” would be aimed at enabling the EU to extract SWIFT data on European soil and send the targeted results onward to U.S. authorities...whether U.S. laws provide adequate protection for PNR data saved in cloud systems operating on U.S. soil . U.S.-EU Data Privacy and Protection

  6. The EU Border Assistance Mission in Libya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    ’s assessment of the EU Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) mission, EUBAM Libya, and its contribution to the country’s overall security situation12. It takes departure in the complete deliverables of the Work Package 3, with The Libyan Review as the main source of reference. The aim of this chapter...... is to outline the mission’s most significant strategic shortcomings and lessons identified, which are important in improving the effectiveness of the capabilities in EU conflict prevention....

  7. ROMANIA'S EU ACCESSION. GAINS AND LOSSES (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available EU accession has brought, as expected, many changes in economic, social and cultural domains. An important chapter is the trade dynamics and how this dynamic has been modified over time by changes in the legal status of Romania's relations with certain trading partners. In this paper we present data on trade with countries with which Romania has concluded trade agreements before accession. Data presentation and analysis continues in "Romania's EU accession. Gains and losses (II".

  8. Insight into Eu redox and Pr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Rongfu; Lin, Litian; Liu, Chunmeng; Dorenbos, P.; Tao, Ye; Huang, Yan; Liang, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    A series of Ln-doped KSrPO4 (Ln = Ce3+, Eu3+, Eu2+, Pr3+) phosphors are prepared through a high-temperature solid-state method. The KSrPO4 compound is confirmed to possess a β-K2SO4 structure with the Pnma

  9. EU climate policy: dividing up the commons

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Delgado

    2007-01-01

    Juan Delgado discusses the economic impact of climate change policies. The EU has committed to an ambitious climate change agenda. The challenge facing Europe now is how to meet the targets at a minimum cost and how to allocate the cost in such a way that it has a neutral impact on competitiveness. This note was presented in August 2007 to the Economic Policy Committee of the EU.

  10. Mobile TV: An assessment of EU policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    The aim of the paper is to discuss EU policies in the area of mobile TV. The European Commission has strongly promoted an EU-wide common policy on mobile TV including the choice of DVB-H as the standard to be used. The paper aims at discussing this policy in view of the technological and market...... developments in the field of mobile media....

  11. The effects of Eu-concentrations on the luminescent properties of SrF2:Eu nanophosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Noto, L.L.; O’Connel, J.H.; Lee, M.E.; Coetsee, E.

    2014-01-01

    SrF 2 :Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure of the nanophosphors was investigated with x-ray diffraction. The average crystallite size calculated using the Scherrer equation was in the range of 7.0 nm. The photoluminescence of Eu doped as-prepared SrF 2 nanophosphors were studied using different excitation sources. The samples showed emission from both the Eu oxidation states, Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ . At low Eu concentrations the emission from Eu 2+ centered at 416 nm was more dominant. While the narrow band of Eu 3+ emission intensity increased with an increase in the Eu concentration. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Eu was indeed in both Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ valance states. The presence of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in the system largely enhanced the response of the Eu 3+ under ultraviolet excitation. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry results suggested that the energy transfer between two ions was likely to occur. The relative photoluminescence intensity of the Eu 2+ rapidly decreased with an increasing laser beam irradiating time. This result would make the current Eu 2+ doped SrF 2 samples unsuitable candidates for several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • SrF 2 : Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesised (hydrothermal technique). • PL and XPS results showed enhanced absorption response of Eu 3+ UV excitation. • Eu concentrations more than 5 mol% improved fluorescence emission. • TOF-SIMS results suggested that the energy transfer from Eu 2+ to Eu 3+ is dominant

  12. The effects of Eu-concentrations on the luminescent properties of SrF{sub 2}:Eu nanophosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Noto, L.L. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa); O’Connel, J.H.; Lee, M.E. [Department of Physics and Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth ZA6031 (South Africa); Coetsee, E., E-mail: CoetseeE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2014-12-15

    SrF{sub 2}:Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structure of the nanophosphors was investigated with x-ray diffraction. The average crystallite size calculated using the Scherrer equation was in the range of 7.0 nm. The photoluminescence of Eu doped as-prepared SrF{sub 2} nanophosphors were studied using different excitation sources. The samples showed emission from both the Eu oxidation states, Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+}. At low Eu concentrations the emission from Eu{sup 2+} centered at 416 nm was more dominant. While the narrow band of Eu{sup 3+} emission intensity increased with an increase in the Eu concentration. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the Eu was indeed in both Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} valance states. The presence of Eu{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+} in the system largely enhanced the response of the Eu{sup 3+} under ultraviolet excitation. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry results suggested that the energy transfer between two ions was likely to occur. The relative photoluminescence intensity of the Eu{sup 2+} rapidly decreased with an increasing laser beam irradiating time. This result would make the current Eu{sup 2+} doped SrF{sub 2} samples unsuitable candidates for several applications, such as white light-emitting diodes and wavelength conversion films for silicon photovoltaic cells. - Highlights: • SrF{sub 2}: Eu nanophosphors were successfully synthesised (hydrothermal technique). • PL and XPS results showed enhanced absorption response of Eu{sup 3+} UV excitation. • Eu concentrations more than 5 mol% improved fluorescence emission. • TOF-SIMS results suggested that the energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} is dominant.

  13. Preparation of EuSe nanoparticles from Eu(III) complex containing selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Taka-aki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    The EuSe nanoparticles were prepared by the thermal reduction of Europium nitrate with new organic selenium compound, tetraphenylphosphonium diphenylphosphinediselenide (PPh 4 )(Se 2 P(C 6 H 5 ) 2 ), for the first time. EuSe nanoparticles were identified by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) measurements. The average size of the EuSe nanoparticles was found to be 19 nm. The energy gap in EuSe nanoparticles of 19 nm was estimated by edge of absorption band, giving the energy gap of 1.86 eV

  14. ENHANCING EU-TAIWAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-hung Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s 2015 new trade strategy: Trade for all: toward a more responsible trade and investment policy, highlights its key role in keeping markets open worldwide and lists the Asia-Pacific region as the priority party for signing Regional Trade Arrangements (RTAs with the EU. The new strategy allows the EU and its member states to initiate talks on economic cooperation agreement (ECA with Taiwan. This article takes the EU-Asia interregional cooperation as a case study while exploring the role of Taiwan in the region. The first section describes the shift in EU’s trade policies and the special features of the types of interregionalism between the EU and Asia. The second section explores the bilateral trade relations. The third section evaluates the opportunities and the internal and external challenges and limitations of an EU-Taiwan ECA, emphasizing the factor of mainland China. The final section provides conclusions on the influence of an EU-Taiwan ECA on the relations of EUTaiwan considering economic and non-economic factor

  15. Optical measurements on iron pnictides containing Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, David; Baumgartner, Andreas; Merz, Johannes; Zapf, Sina; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Aswartham, Saicharan [University of Kentucky, Lexington (United States); Wurmehl, Sabine [IFW, Dresden (Germany); Jiao, Wen-He; Cao, Guang-Han [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-07-01

    The interplay of magnetism with superconductivity is a fascinating, highly debated field of research and many questions still remain unsolved. Members of the EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} family are a perfectly suited playground for investigations concerning this topic, due to the peculiarity of strong local magnetism of the europium (T{sub N}∼ 20K), which is a unique feature among the 122 iron pnictides. Optical studies of the parent compound have already revealed that the spin density wave formation deviates from the other 122 pnictides. To get more insight into the superconducting properties of the EuFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} family we carried out an optical study on differently doped samples. We compare Eu(Fe{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} where electron doping takes place directly in the conducting iron layer, with EuFe{sub 2}(As{sub 1-x}P{sub x}){sub 2} which corresponds to isovalent substitution at atomic positions out of the Fe-plane. The influence of the Eu is furthermore investigated by placing data we obtained on Ba{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 0.4}(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} in juxtaposition to the already highly investigated pure Ba analogue.

  16. Barriers to the EU Single Services Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga V. Biryukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU has the most developed liberalization mechanism in services trade within the framework of an economic bloc. The system of supranational institutions, which decisions are binding upon member states, contributes to a high level of liberalization of trade in services in the EU. However, the creation of a single market for services hasn't completed at all. The reasons are following: not all basic principles for single market are fully applied, and a service is a very specific object for international trade. Financial-economic crisis caused a new wave of protectionism in different countries, which has reflected in the preservation of old and the emergence of new barriers to trade in services within the EU. Integration of services in the Union is accompanied by important trade initiatives at the multilateral level. In the World Trade Organization EU countries negotiate a new agreement on trade in services, and offer provisions which providing transparency, deepening liberalization and investor protection for foreign investors in the market, will also complement and foster the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP EU - USA. Russia is only the fourth among most important partners of the EU in trade in services. At the same time the European Union remains a key Russian partner in trade in services and in goods. There is a considerable potential for growth in this sphere for both partners.

  17. EU GHG Emission Targets: 'Mind the gap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojodice, Ilaria

    2012-06-01

    In Durban, the European Union has been able to overcome the traditional dividing lines between developed and developing countries, setting a 'road-map' for a post-Kyoto framework. This would see countries conclude an 'agreed outcome with legal force' on emissions targets by 2015. Was this a key goal or a partial success for EU climate diplomacy? The main concerns are that the second commitment period would only come into force by 2021, and that necessary carbon cuts are not be increased before 2020. The direct by-product for the EU victory has been the awakening of the debate about raising emissions reductions to 30%. In fact, as stated in the Low Carbon Road-map, the EU has adopted a target of cutting emissions by 20% to by 2020, and of moving to a 30% reduction target if the conditions are right. Is this finally the time for Europe to improve its performance, even if it means going it alone? The EU has always been a strong defender of the Kyoto Protocol under certain constraints, such as developing and emerging countries entering into the deal. But does the EU have all the right assets to fight for this? Where is Europe in achieving its 2020 goal? In essence, this paper provides an estimate of what EU emissions could be in 2020, and how they stand compared to Kyoto and 20% objective of the 2020 strategy. (author)

  18. EU's hær skal tale tyrkisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    For at kunne udleve sine accelererende forsvarsambitioner har EU brug for at låne Tyrkiets 600.000 soldater. Hvis Tyrkiet ikke kan blive EU-medlem, må svaret være at give tyrkerne 'associeret medlemskab' af EU's sikkerhedspolitik. Sker det, vil Tyrkiet med ét være bedre integreret i EU-forsvaret ...

  19. Antidumping duties, undertakings and foreign direct investment in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Vandenbussche, H.; Veugelers, R.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of EU antidumping policy when foreign firms can ‘jump’ antidumping duties through foreign direct investment (FDI) in the EU. We show that duty jumping or duty pre-empting FDI occurs if the EU administration has broader objectives than protecting EU industry's profitability and

  20. The EU's Normative Power in Changing World Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    global order: 1) what is the concept of normative power in world politics?; 2) what is an effective EU toolbox for tackling new challenges?; 3) how does the EU go beyond self-perception and rhetoric?; 4) what is the raison d'etre of the EU?; and 5) how might normative power in EU external policies lead...

  1. Eliminating national borders as labour market barriers in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Harm

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses one important mechanism through which the EU tries to improve the operation of its labour markets: the opening up of national borders for free worker movement within the EU. Free worker movement is a fundamental EU right; but EU enlargement begged the question of how and when to

  2. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  3. The EU Arbitration Convention : An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pit, Harm Mark

    2017-01-01

    The EU Arbitration Convention An evaluating assessment of the governance and functioning of the EU Arbitration Convention Summary for non-experts The EU Arbitration Convention is a convention between EU Member States to eliminate double taxation arising from – for tax purposes – transfer pricing

  4. Moessbauer spectroscopy of 151Eu and 153Eu. Applications to structural chemistry and electronic properties of rare-earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Marc.

    1975-01-01

    The decrease of the 151 Eu isomer shift on hydrogenation of a dilute EuPd alloy (2.5at% Eu) is discussed in term of the volume effect on the charge density at the nucleus. It is shown from 153 Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy in rare earth titanates that a vibrational anisotropy lead to the observation of a Goldanskii-Karyagin effect [fr

  5. Variability of Phenology and Fluxes of Water and Carbon with Observed and Simulated Soil Moisture in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM Version 1.0.1.0.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Aleinov, Igor; Puma, M. J.; Kiang, N. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) is a mixed-canopy dynamic global vegetation model developed specifically for coupling with land surface hydrology and general circulation models (GCMs). This study describes the leaf phenology submodel implemented in the Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0 coupled to the carbon allocation scheme of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. The phenology submodel adopts a combination of responses to temperature (growing degree days and frost hardening), soil moisture (linearity of stress with relative saturation) and radiation (light length). Growth of leaves, sapwood, fine roots, stem wood and coarse roots is updated on a daily basis. We evaluate the performance in reproducing observed leaf seasonal growth as well as water and carbon fluxes for four plant functional types at five Fluxnet sites, with both observed and prognostic hydrology, and observed and prognostic seasonal leaf area index. The phenology submodel is able to capture the timing and magnitude of leaf-out and senescence for temperate broadleaf deciduous forest (Harvard Forest and Morgan- Monroe State Forest, US), C3 annual grassland (Vaira Ranch, US) and California oak savanna (Tonzi Ranch, US). For evergreen needleleaf forest (Hyytiäla, Finland), the phenology submodel captures the effect of frost hardening of photosynthetic capacity on seasonal fluxes and leaf area. We address the importance of customizing parameter sets of vegetation soil moisture stress response to the particular land surface hydrology scheme. We identify model deficiencies that reveal important dynamics and parameter needs.

  6. Variability of phenology and fluxes of water and carbon with observed and simulated soil moisture in the Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Aleinov, I.; Puma, M. J.; Kiang, N. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Ent Terrestrial Biosphere Model (Ent TBM) is a mixed-canopy dynamic global vegetation model developed specifically for coupling with land surface hydrology and general circulation models (GCMs). This study describes the leaf phenology submodel implemented in the Ent TBM version 1.0.1.0.0 coupled to the carbon allocation scheme of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. The phenology submodel adopts a combination of responses to temperature (growing degree days and frost hardening), soil moisture (linearity of stress with relative saturation) and radiation (light length). Growth of leaves, sapwood, fine roots, stem wood and coarse roots is updated on a daily basis. We evaluate the performance in reproducing observed leaf seasonal growth as well as water and carbon fluxes for four plant functional types at five Fluxnet sites, with both observed and prognostic hydrology, and observed and prognostic seasonal leaf area index. The phenology submodel is able to capture the timing and magnitude of leaf-out and senescence for temperate broadleaf deciduous forest (Harvard Forest and Morgan-Monroe State Forest, US), C3 annual grassland (Vaira Ranch, US) and California oak savanna (Tonzi Ranch, US). For evergreen needleleaf forest (Hyytiäla, Finland), the phenology submodel captures the effect of frost hardening of photosynthetic capacity on seasonal fluxes and leaf area. We address the importance of customizing parameter sets of vegetation soil moisture stress response to the particular land surface hydrology scheme. We identify model deficiencies that reveal important dynamics and parameter needs.

  7. Neutron Scattering from Heisenberg Ferromagnets EuO and EuS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetic ordering process in the isotropic exchange coupled ferromagnets EuO and EuS. Quantities investigated include the critical coefficients B and F+ and the critical exponents β, ν, and γ describing respectively the temperature dependence...

  8. Guardians of EU law? Analysing roles and behaviour of Dutch legislative drafters involved in EU compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.

    2017-01-01

    By drafting statutes and delegated acts, national legislative drafters play a crucial role in European Union (EU) compliance. Given their extensive legal training, they can be expected to operate as ‘guardians of EU law’ and thus correct national non-compliant tendencies. Yet, they also have a role

  9. Guardians of EU law? Analysing roles and behaviour of Dutch legislative drafters involved in EU compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Thomann, E.; Sager, F.

    2018-01-01

    By drafting statutes and delegated acts, national legislative drafters play a crucial role in European Union (EU) compliance. Given their extensive legal training, they can be expected to operate as ‘guardians of EU law’ and thus correct national non-compliant tendencies. Yet, they also have a role

  10. Quadrupole splitting and Eu partial lattice dynamics in europium orthophosphate EuPO {sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobes, B., E-mail: b.klobes@fz-juelich.de [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany); Arinicheva, Y., E-mail: y.arinicheva@fz-juelich.de; Neumeier, S., E-mail: s.neumeier@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6) Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (Germany); Simon, R. E., E-mail: r.simon@fz-juelich.de; Jafari, A., E-mail: a.jafari@fz-juelich.de [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany); Bosbach, D., E-mail: d.bosbach@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6) Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (Germany); Hermann, R. P., E-mail: hermannrp@ornl.gov [JARA-FIT - Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institute PGI (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Hyperfine interactions in europium orthophosphate EuPO{sub 4} were investigated using {sup 151}Eu Mössbauer spectroscopy from 6 to 300 K. The value of the quadrupole splitting and the asymmetry parameter were refined and further substantiated by nuclear forward scattering data obtained at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the relative absorption was modeled with an Eu specific Debye temperature of 221(1) K. Eu partial lattice dynamics were probed by means of nuclear inelastic scattering and the mean force constant, the Lamb-Mössbauer factor, the internal energy, the vibrational entropy, the average phonon group velocity were calculated using the extracted density of phonon states. In general, Eu specific vibrations are characterized by rather small phonon energies and contribute strongly to the total entropy of the system. Although there is no classical Debye like behavior at low vibrational energies, the average phonon group velocity can be reasonably approximated using a linear fit.

  11. The EU sustainable energy policy indicators framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Sivickas, Gintautas

    2008-11-01

    The article deals with indicators framework to monitor implementation of the main EU (European Union) directives and other policy documents targeting sustainable energy development. The main EU directives which have impact on sustainable energy development are directives promoting energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, directives implementing greenhouse gas mitigation and atmospheric pollution reduction policies and other policy documents and strategies targeting energy sector. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are among priorities of EU energy policy because the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements has positive impact on energy security and climate change mitigation. The framework of indicators can be developed to establish the main targets set by EU energy and environmental policies allowing to connect indicators via chain of mutual impacts and to define policies and measures necessary to achieve established targets based on assessment of their impact on the targeted indicators representing sustainable energy development aims. The article discusses the application of indicators framework for EU sustainable energy policy analysis and presents the case study of this policy tool application for Baltic States. The article also discusses the use of biomass in Baltic States and future considerations in this field.

  12. INTEGRATION OF ROMANIAN INSURANCES MARKET IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MOROŞAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important phenomena of the last decade has been the convergence of the financial services industry, especially the capital and insurance markets. The convergence in the insurance industry was determined by the increased frequency and the severity of catastrophic risks, market inefficiency in the past, and the new technologies in IT and communications. These globally developments can be observed much better at EU level, one of the most integrated areas of the world, which aimed the convergence of financial market, including an important component such as insurance market. As part of the EU, Romania also aims to financial market convergence with the EU countries. The article offers an overview and an analysis of the insurance market in the EU and Romania. Through a wide series of indicators such as: the amount of insurance premiums, degree of penetration, number of employees or number of insurance companies, it will analyze the evolution of this market convergence, as per all EU countries and Romania. It will identify the stage in which the insurance market in Romania is, regarding the requirements of full integration. Finally, there will be identified factors encouraging and particularly those who are impediments to insurance market convergence in Romania.

  13. Succession of States in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A specter is haunting Europe – the specter of separatism. Scotland, Catalonia, Flanders, South Tyrol – all these regions have separatist movements pursuing independence from their current National State. The breakup of an EU Member State no longer seems impossible. To date, it is unclear what impact this would have on the EU membership of the new entities (with consequences for the character of citizenship, voting rights in the council, number of MEPs etc. that emerge from the old States. The common rules of Public International Law governing the succession of States are insufficient in the case of a succession of States in the EU. Although the Treaties do not provide for such a situation and the past 60 years of European history offer only a few and not really persuasive precedents, the nature of the EU as a joint association of sovereign States (“Staatenverbund” demands a special approach: A separated State will neither be automatically excluded from the EU nor will it automatically become a new Member State.

  14. En 'dansk' immigrationspakke til EU - uden Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    og den franske immigrationspagt i Danmark, skyldes, som så ofte før, at vi her i landet har en Europadebat, der er vendt på hovedet i forhold til den, der føres i de andre EU-lande. Mens danske politikere hen over sensommeren har diskuteret, hvordan man kan minimere EU's indflydelse på dansk......I dag præsenterer Kommissionen en ambitiøs pakke om lovlig og ulovlig indvandring og integration. Målet er, at den skal vedtages sammen med det franske formandskabs immigrationspagt af EU's stats- og regeringschefer den 15.-16. oktober 2008. At der ikke har været mere debat om Kommissionens pakke...... indvandringspolitik og særligt familiesammenføringsreglerne, har resten af EU diskuteret, hvordan man fortsat kan styrke EU's rolle i indvandrings- og immigrationspolitikken og skabe en højere grad af solidaritet mellem medlemslandene. Udgivelsesdato: 8. oktober...

  15. Migration from the new EU member countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller; Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    investigates the potentials, limitations and conflicts of interests that are connected with temporary employment of Eastern European migrant workers within the unskilled labour sectors seen from the perspective of Danish labour market actors; politicians, labour marked unions, Danish employers, Danish......During the past four years more than 52.500 Eastern European EU citizens have worked and lived in Denmark. Migrant workers from the new EU countries are characterized by a high degree of mobility, flexibility and eagerness in terms of working and adapting to working conditions. Poorer socioeconomic...... and working conditions in their home countries as well as being of another cultural background than their Danish colleagues brings with it many challenges. This article examines the consequences of low-skilled labour migration to Denmark from the new EU member countries in Eastern Europe. The article...

  16. The EU as an international security provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Wolff, Stefan; Whitman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This contribution develops a framework of analysis that covers the actors involved in the policy making process of international security provision, the dynamics of this process itself, its outcomes (concrete strategies and policies) and their impact. Our efforts to establish such a framework...... of analysis, which could serve as the foundation for a mid-range theory of the EU as an international security provider, will examine the relevance of, and apply, existing theories of international relations/international security and foreign policy analysis to the specific case of the EU. The framework...... that will emerge from this analysis will then be tested and applied empirically in the following contributions that focus on how particular policies are formulated and implemented, and that analyse, in single and comparative case studies, the impact and effectiveness of the EU as an international security provider....

  17. A research on EU trade policy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sitong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The EU is the world’s largest trade group, occupying an important position in the world trade in goods and services, especially in the field of service trade. The EU trade in services exports and imports are higher than the United States and Japan, and the EU is the world’s largest capital output and input group, and the world’s largest foreign aid providers. With the deepening of the European integration process, Europe’s position in the world economy and trade is on the rise. Therefore, the EU’s trade policy has increasingly become the focus of attention. From the vertical point of view, research directions can be divided into trade in goods policy, trade in services policy, international direct investment policy, trade-related intellectual property policy four field. In this paper, the four vertical areas are illustrated as the focus of the study.

  18. EU CONTRIBUTION TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the EU aid concerning to improved the economic situation from developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify how EU states contribute to helping poor countries, members of the World Trade Organization. For the beginning, we define the EU’position before, during and after the Doha Round – a round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations. Moreover, we analyse the development dimension, focusing on countries „marginalized” until early of XXI century in terms of international trade, because this represents the idea-axis of the Doha Round. In this context, the EU – one of the leading global commercial players and a key member of the institution mentioned above – has set several objectives to achieve the basic goal of negotiations and several ways to support developing countries. To conclude, we propose to define the key points of the European aid for least developed and developing countries.

  19. The innovation of EU environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    actors involved. The seven case-study chapters, written from a variety of perspectives, focus on such topics as the impact of formal and informal institutional factors on policy innovation, the potential influence of new members on EU environmental policy-making, the role of cross-national networks...... and alliances, the shifting balance between leader and laggard members, and the ongoing problem integrating the environment into other policy fields. The book also draws on theoretical approaches ranging from institutional to policy network analyses and examines such pertinent contemporary issues as packaging......Inspired by the recent accession of three environmentally progressive member states to the European Union (EU), this book explores the process of environmental policy innovation in the EU, the forces behind the introduction of new issues and policy approaches, and the roles played by the major...

  20. Optically active centers in Eu implanted, Eu in situ doped GaN, and Eu doped GaN quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodiou, L.; Braud, A.; Doualan, J.-L.; Moncorge, R.; Park, J. H.; Munasinghe, C.; Steckl, A. J.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Daudin, B.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison is presented between Eu implanted and Eu in situ doped GaN thin films showing that two predominant Eu sites are optically active around 620 nm in both types of samples with below and above bandgap excitation. One of these sites, identified as a Ga substitutional site, is common to both types of Eu doped GaN samples despite the difference in the GaN film growth method and in the doping technique. High-resolution photoluminescence (PL) spectra under resonant excitation reveal that in all samples these two host-sensitized sites are in small amount compared to the majority of Eu ions which occupy isolated Ga substitutional sites and thus cannot be excited through the GaN host. The relative concentrations of the two predominant host-sensitized Eu sites are strongly affected by the annealing temperature for Eu implanted samples and by the group III element time opening in the molecular beam epitaxy growth. Red luminescence decay characteristics for the two Eu sites reveal different excitation paths. PL dynamics under above bandgap excitation indicate that Eu ions occupying a Ga substitutional site are either excited directly into the 5 D 0 level or into higher excited levels such as 5 D 1 , while Eu ions sitting in the other site are only directly excited into the 5 D 0 level. These differences are discussed in terms of the spectral overlap between the emission band of a nearby bound exciton and the absorption bands of Eu ions. The study of Eu doped GaN quantum dots reveals the existence of only one type of Eu site under above bandgap excitation, with Eu PL dynamics features similar to Eu ions in Ga substitutional sites

  1. The Danish Folketing and EU Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskjær Christensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    crisis of democratic legitimacy, as a shift from the permissive consensus of EU public opinion became apparent. Danish conditions for accession to the Treaty were renegotiated in 1993, resulting in the Edinburgh Compromise in which Denmark obtained four opt-outs. All four opt-outs remain in place today...... significant policy areas of EU cooperation. Denmark has a small, open economy. It became a member of the European Community in 1973, mainly motivated by the economic benefits that could be achieved through free trade in the common market. The Danes, however, have often only reluctantly endorsed the more...

  2. EU-kaupankäynti rakennusalalla Lapissa

    OpenAIRE

    Torvinen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Kansainvälinen kaupankäynti on jatkuvasti kasvava hankinnan osa-alue, joka vaatii hankkijoilta laajaa tietämystä ja kaupankäyntiin liittyvien asioiden hallintaa. Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin EU-kaupankäyntiä rakennusalalla Lapissa. EU-kaupankäynnin hyötyjä ja haasteita pohdittiin lappilaisesta näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kehittää ja parantaa hankintatoimea vastaamaan paremmin tämän päivän kansainvälisiin kaupankäyntivaatimuksiin. Tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa kansainvälisen k...

  3. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...

  4. Economic integration in NAFTA and the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bislev, Sven

    This te×t critically analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established in both Europe and America are seen as deficient in several...... of the market economies institutions upon the integration process itself depends. This te×t analyzes the institutions of the EU and NAFTA. It covers both the general problems of building new and integrated markets, and several policy areas that are related to economic integration. The institutions established...

  5. THE EU „ RIGHT TO BE FORGOTTEN”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Seucan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific paper aims at presenting the relevant legal aspects related to data protection in the EU (Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data in view of the ruling of the Court of justice of the European Union (C131/12, the content of the judgement of the court, how it has been enforced so far by Google and its impact on EU citizen and future legislation.

  6. Present developmental conditions petroleum substituting energies in the EU; Sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu no genjo (EU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report outlines the policy of development and introduction of petroleum substituting energies, and its diffusion situation in the EU. On the policy, development, introduction and diffusion of petroleum substituting energies in the EU, based on the new EU energy white paper issued in fiscal 1996, the policy of energy and environment in every EU country is first outlined. The policy of and practical approach to petroleum substituting energies in every EU country are next described. In particular, since ALTENER which has been continuously promoted by the EU for 3 years as main control measures against CO2 is newly moving toward the second plan, the trend of ALTENER and the new SAVE2 plan are presented. The content of JOULE-THERMIE is also precisely presented which is the new energy program of the 4th framework R & D program. In relation to the developmental trend of alternative energies to oil in the EU until 2020, its prediction result is presented on the basis of the latest study promoted by EC committee in the ALTENER plan. 10 tabs.

  7. The Impact of the Explosion of EU News on Voter Choice in the 2014 EU Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kleinnijenhuis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The European elections in 2014 were the first to be held after a long period in which EU-related news was prominent in the media. They were held after years of daily news about the euro crisis and after months of news about the popular uprising in the Ukraine against president Yanukovych, who had refused to sign the association agreement with the EU. This could have invited political parties to overcome the usual problem of low salience of EU issues by strongly profiling themselves on EU issues. Turnout at the 2014 EU elections, however, remained low, hinting that parties were unable to convert the attention for European issues into enthusiasm for their party at the European elections. This paper asks how vote choice was influenced by party campaigning on EU related issues. A news effects analysis based on a content analysis of Dutch newspapers and television, and on a panel survey among Dutch voters revealed that EU issues functioned as wedge issues: the more strongly parties were associated in the news with the euro crisis and the Ukraine, the less they succeeded in mobilizing voters.

  8. A reliable spatially normalized template of the human spinal cord--Applications to automated white matter/gray matter segmentation and tensor-based morphometry (TBM) mapping of gray matter alterations occurring with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taso, Manuel; Le Troter, Arnaud; Sdika, Michaël; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Guye, Maxime; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Callot, Virginie

    2015-08-15

    Recently, a T2*-weighted template and probabilistic atlas of the white and gray matter (WM, GM) of the spinal cord (SC) have been reported. Such template can be used as tissue-priors for automated WM/GM segmentation but can also provide a common reference and normalized space for group studies. Here, a new template has been created (AMU40), and accuracy of automatic template-based WM/GM segmentation was quantified. The feasibility of tensor-based morphometry (TBM) for studying voxel-wise morphological differences of SC between young and elderly healthy volunteers was also investigated. Sixty-five healthy subjects were divided into young (n=40, age50years old, mean age 57±5years old) groups and scanned at 3T using an axial high-resolution T2*-weighted sequence. Inhomogeneity correction and affine intensity normalization of the SC and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal intensities across slices were performed prior to both construction of the AMU40 template and WM/GM template-based segmentation. The segmentation was achieved using non-linear spatial normalization of T2*-w MR images to the AMU40 template. Validation of WM/GM segmentations was performed with a leave-one-out procedure by calculating DICE similarity coefficients between manual and automated WM/GM masks. SC morphological differences between young and elderly healthy volunteers were assessed using the same non-linear spatial normalization of the subjects' MRI to a common template, derivation of the Jacobian determinant maps from the warping fields, and a TBM analysis. Results demonstrated robust WM/GM automated segmentation, with mean DICE values greater than 0.8. Concerning the TBM analysis, an anterior GM atrophy was highlighted in elderly volunteers, demonstrating thereby, for the first time, the feasibility of studying local structural alterations in the SC using tensor-based morphometry. This holds great promise for studies of morphological impairment occurring in several central nervous system

  9. EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. Epitaxial growth and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarto, Ronny

    2009-01-01

    Europium oxide (EuO) based materials exhibit a wealth of spectacular phenomena, including half-metallic ferromagnetism, metal-insulator transition, colossal magneto-resistance, large magneto-optical Kerr effect, tunable ferromagnetic ordering temperatures, and large and long-lived photo-induced conductivity. These extraordinary properties make EuO an ideal candidate for implementation in device applications, in particular, for spintronics. Most of the work in the past has been carried out on bulk EuO, but for device applications it is preferred to have the EuO in thin lm form. A urry of studies have therefore emerged in the last decade in order to explore a wide variety of preparation routes and to investigate the properties of the resulting EuO thin films. A recent highlight is the demonstration that doped EuO films can be fabricated on Si and GaN, thereby exhibiting the expected spin-polarized transport effects. Nevertheless, it is still far from a trivial task to prepare EuO thin films with well de ned properties. For bulk EuO, it is already known that stoichiometry is the key issue, and that the presence of small amounts of defects or impurities quickly lead to very large deviations of the material properties. In fact, to make bulk EuO to be stoichiometric one needs temperatures as high as 1800 C. It is obvious that such high temperatures are not compatible with device engineering processes. The preparation of thin films must therefore involve much lower temperatures, preferably not higher than 400-500 C. The consequences are very dear. It turned out that many of the recent studies on EuO thin films are suffering from sample quality problems, due to the presence of, e.g., trivalent Eu species (Eu 3 O 4 , Eu 2 O 3 ), oxygen vacancies, or even Eu metal clusters. Controlled doping of the EuO with trivalent rare-earth ions is also not trivial, since most often even the actual doping concentrations were not known. In fact, one could also question in this respect the

  10. EuO and Gd-doped EuO thin films. Epitaxial growth and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutarto, Ronny

    2009-07-06

    Europium oxide (EuO) based materials exhibit a wealth of spectacular phenomena, including half-metallic ferromagnetism, metal-insulator transition, colossal magneto-resistance, large magneto-optical Kerr effect, tunable ferromagnetic ordering temperatures, and large and long-lived photo-induced conductivity. These extraordinary properties make EuO an ideal candidate for implementation in device applications, in particular, for spintronics. Most of the work in the past has been carried out on bulk EuO, but for device applications it is preferred to have the EuO in thin lm form. A urry of studies have therefore emerged in the last decade in order to explore a wide variety of preparation routes and to investigate the properties of the resulting EuO thin films. A recent highlight is the demonstration that doped EuO films can be fabricated on Si and GaN, thereby exhibiting the expected spin-polarized transport effects. Nevertheless, it is still far from a trivial task to prepare EuO thin films with well de ned properties. For bulk EuO, it is already known that stoichiometry is the key issue, and that the presence of small amounts of defects or impurities quickly lead to very large deviations of the material properties. In fact, to make bulk EuO to be stoichiometric one needs temperatures as high as 1800 C. It is obvious that such high temperatures are not compatible with device engineering processes. The preparation of thin films must therefore involve much lower temperatures, preferably not higher than 400-500 C. The consequences are very dear. It turned out that many of the recent studies on EuO thin films are suffering from sample quality problems, due to the presence of, e.g., trivalent Eu species (Eu{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}), oxygen vacancies, or even Eu metal clusters. Controlled doping of the EuO with trivalent rare-earth ions is also not trivial, since most often even the actual doping concentrations were not known. In fact, one could also question in

  11. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  12. Dye solar cell research: EU delegation presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-11-09

    Full Text Available and the United Kingdom head2rightPV market in SA is relatively small head2rightMainly used for: - Telecommunication - Off grid (lighting and electronic media) - About 200 000 off-grid installations head2rightEnergy payback time, tPB ~ 3 years (EU); In SA...

  13. EU Presidencies between Politics and Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    This book offers the first comprehensive analysis since the Lisbon Treaty came into force of the EU Presidency on national administrations in the member states of Poland, Denmark and Cyprus before, during and after the so- called ‘Trio Presidency’. Placing the practical issues facing officials...

  14. THE CRUCIAL THEMES OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Pelkmans

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical review of the “terms” of the ongoing EU enlargement, in the light of the European public interest. The European public interest ought to include the prospective (Central European members, within a perspective of an enlarged Union in 2010, or so. The following forms a personalised summary of a major report published (in Dutch in September 2001 by the WRR in The Hague (a think-tank, formally under the Dutch Prime Minister, but by statute fully independent. The author was one of the lead-writers of this report. The present article merely focuses on the policy recommendations of the report. It is hoped that these kinds of critical analyses will help to stimulate solid policy debate on the EU in Romania, on the road to EU membership. The article discusses why the notion of a “core-acquis” would improve the enlargement strategy; the application of the core acquis to the internal market, environment and justice and home affairs; judicial and administrative capacity; accession to “euro-land”; the rapid reform of the CAP; a reform of “cohesion” approaches; and a note on the EU budgetary implications.

  15. Risk-sharing agreements in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Holm-Larsen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Our objectives were to explore the changes in the level of interest in risk-sharing agreements (RSAs) in the EU during the last 15 years and the underlying reasons for these changes. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science...

  16. National Constitutional Avenues for Further EU Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Claes, M.; Imamovic, Š.; Reestman, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the

  17. Negotiations in the EU Council of Ministers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Sandrino

    Insiders and outsiders agree; there is something particular about negotiating in Brussels. This book analyses ten years of continuous negotiations about EU enlargement to the Western Balkans, answering questions such as When and how are decisions typically reached in the European Union? What is t...

  18. EU Development Policy in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mold, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    On many fronts, EU development policy is at a critical juncture. In the face of major new challenges, such as the current impasse in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and increasing concerns over security threats, the European Union is having to rethink much of its development

  19. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  20. Learning from the EU Constitutional Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crum, B.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The negative results of referenda on the European Union (EU) Constitutional Treaty in France and the Netherlands, and subsequent low-key adoption of the Treaty of Lisbon raise complex questions about the possible democratization of international organisations. This book provides a full analysis of

  1. Crisis of the EU Eastern Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Bolgova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the Vilnius summit of the EaP project and the consequent Ukrainian crisis with major international effects make possible questioning about the eventual scenarios of the EU eastern politics and possible configurations ofinternational interactions. The article elaborates on the key elements and trends of the EU activities at the post-soviet space that are likely to frame the context of its further developments. The most visible trends analysed here are the extreme differentiation of bilateral relations within the EaP project alongside with the growing symbolism of official rhetoric and program practices of the European Union. As a result, we see the EU's intention to narrow the geographical and qualitative field of its activities on the eastern directionwith saving the shell of the EaP for nominal functioning. Such tactics is not likely to result in a drastic change of the model of conflict dependencies in the "shared neighbourhood". The article analyses key misperceptions of the actors involved in the complex of interactions in the region. The structure is complicated by the deepening and widening of Russia-lead Eurasian integration project. Current crisis of the EU eastern policy is considered to derive from the exaggeration of the value-based, normative aspect of the common foreign policy in general and will have the systemic consequences both for the European external actions and for its internal developments.

  2. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  3. Liminality in EU-Hamas relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly

    their relations of Self. In exploring the procedural relations of the EU and Hamas it argues for the necessity of recognising liminal categories in IR theory and practice while at the same time highlighting the limits of such in-between categories in a world order still structured around the state....

  4. Alternatieve instrumenten voor het EU-landbouwbeleid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Rijswick, van C.W.J.; Bont, de C.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Het EU-landbouwbeleid staat met de parallel lopende onderhandelingen over de uitbreiding en een nieuw WTO-akkoord voor verdere hervormingen. Dit rapport behandelt de vraag of er voor de instrumenten van dit beleid alternatieven kunnen worden aangereikt. Daarbij wordt de aandacht gericht op

  5. The emerging EU quality of care policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollaard, Hans; van de Bovenkamp, Hester M.; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    initiatives regarding the quality systems of the Member States and the quality of services, this paper shows how the depth of EU interference has increased from sharing information to standardization and even to the first signs of enforcement. We argue that at this stage, reflection on the feasibility...

  6. Reduction emissions from transport sector - EU action against climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores and discusses the initiation and development of the EU's policies and strategies against climate change and the share experiences in the EU transport sector to reduce CO2 emission.

  7. Multi-level governance in EU climate law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses the multi-level governance in EU climate law; it connects the international arena, with EU and national decision-making and relates climate change considerations to competitiveness concerns.

  8. Doorkeepers and Gatecrashers: EU Enlargement and Negotiation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the eastward enlargement process of the EU in the framework of a simple war of attrition bargaining game. Both players -- the existing EU members and the applicants -- benefit from enlargement, yet for the applicants, reform to the acquis is costly, while the EU prefers subst...... the benefits for new members are all effective negotiation strategies for the EU that have been applied in the process....

  9. EU emissions trading: Distinctive behavior of small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Naegele, Helene; Zaklan, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the cornerstone of the European Union's climate policy and covers just under half of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions. More than ten years since the EU ETS was first introduced, there continues to be substantial research interest regarding its functioning and the behavior of participating companies. DIW Berlin conducted three econometric studies based on microdata at company and/or installation level. The findings suggest that, overall, there are o...

  10. Overview of the Last Progresses for the European Test Blanket Modules Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salavy, J.-F.; Rampal, G.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Meyder, R.; Neuberger, H.; Laesser, R.; Poitevin, Y.; Zmitko, M.; Rigal, E.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term objective of the EU Breeding Blankets programme is the development of DEMO breeding blankets, which shall assure tritium self-sufficiency, an economically attractive use of the heat produced inside the blankets for electricity generation and a sufficiently high shielding of the superconducting magnets for long time operation. In the short-term so-called DEMO relevant Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) of these breeder blanket concepts shall be designed, manufactured, tested, installed, commissioned and operated in ITER for first tests in a fusion environment. The Helium Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) breeder blanket and the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) concepts are the two breeder blanket lines presently developed by the EU. The main objective of the EU test strategy related to TBMs in ITER is to provide the necessary information for the design and fabrication of breeding blankets for a future DEMO reactor. EU TBMs shall therefore use the same structural and functional materials, apply similar fabrication technologies, and test adequate processes and components. This paper gives an overview of the last progresses in terms of system design, calculations, test program, safety and R-and-D done these last two years in order to cope with the ambitious objective to introduce two EU TBM systems for day-1 of ITER operation. The engineering design of the two systems is mostly concluded and the priority is now on the development and qualification of the fabrication technologies. From calculations point of view, the last modelling efforts related to the thermal-hydraulic of the first wall, the tritium behaviour, and the box thermal and mechanical resistance in accidental conditions are presented. Last features of the TBM and cooling system designs and integration in ITER reactor are highlighted. In particular, this paper also describes the safety and licensing analyses performed for each concept to be able to include the TBM systems in the ITER preliminary safety report

  11. Economic impacts of EU climate policy until 2020; EU:n ilmastopolitiikan talousvaikutukset vuoteen 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, O. E-mail: olavi.rantala@etla.fi

    2012-07-01

    The study evaluates the impacts of EU climate policy on the emission allowance price, electricity prices, the competitiveness of industry and macroeconomic developments in the third EU emission trading period 2013-2020. The economic impacts of climate policy on Finland are compared to the impacts on the entire EU area. It turns out that due to its cold climate and heating energy demand, higher export intensity of the economy and higher energy intensity of the industry Finland pays a higher price for EU climate policy in terms of output and employment losses than the EU on average. The study examines the macroeconomic effects of climate policy also in the more distant future, assuming that climate policy is tightened further in the 2020s. Climate policy implemented by emission trading means that the long-term economic growth in the EU area depends essentially on emission-free electricity production, and no longer on other growth factors, such as the labour supply and productivity growth. (orig.)

  12. Trade in Value Added (TiVA in EU New Member States (EU NMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kersan-Škabić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary trade analysis indicates the necessity of calculating trade in value added (TiVA which is created through global value chains (GVCs. This paper aims to determine the characteristics and importance of GVC trade in the EU new member states (EU NMS with special emphasis placed on the industry level. The results demonstrate different levels of GVC participation of the EU NMS, where Hungary is the most integrated country and Croatia the least integrated. Regional GVCs exist because a huge part of value added (VA comes from EU member states, as in gross export as well as in final demand (Europe as a hub. The most important source countries are Germany and Italy and there is also evidence of geographical and historical relations between the countries. The domination of backward participation has been found in the analysis made on the industrial level, i.e. the EU NMS are highly dependent on the import of intermediates for the production and export of final products. Strong interconnections between imports of intermediate products and exports of final products have been found in the manufacture of computers, electronics and optical products; manufacture of wood, paper, printing and reproduction. This research has contributed to the scarce literature concerning GVC (TiVA in EU NMS and has opened up new possibilities for further research and analysis.

  13. Removing EU milk quotas, soft landing versus hard landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouamra-Mechemache, Z.; Jongeneel, R.; Réquillart, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses EU dairy policy reforms and mainly focus on EU milk quota removal scenarios. The model used to evaluate the scenario is a spatial equilibrium model of the dairy sector. It integrates the main competitor of the EU on world markets, Oceania, as well as the main importing regions in

  14. EU-UN partnership in military conflict management: Whither the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UN) and the European Union (EU) in African conflict management. Constructing the EU as a security actor, including its validation through the UN, is not a process solely based on the normative claims inherent in the EU as a sui generis actor, ...

  15. Sustainable development in the EU : Redefining and operationalizing the concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hees, Sander R W

    Although sustainable development plays an important role in EU law, neither EU law nor EU policy clearly explains what the concept means and how it must be put into practice. Policy-makers, NGOs, politicians and businesses do, however, need guidance on sustainable development for the purpose of good

  16. The EU Dimension to Soil Science in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The EU as a context for science lessons may be given scant attention but EU decision-making is a vital factor in everyday life. Lessons on the emergence of soil science with Charles Darwin's simple scientific experiments can be linked with competence through action, inclusion and argumentations in science lessons. Decisions about an EU Soil…

  17. EU Climate Policy Tracker 2011. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Geurts, F.; Teckenburg, E.; Blok, K.; Becker, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Limiting the rise in the average global temperature to 2C has been the EU goal since 1996, and in December 2010 the UN recognised the need to consider a 1.5C limit. Avoiding overshooting these levels will require massive emissions reductions - in the order of 80-95% for industrialised countries, like those in the EU. The next ten years are crucial in establishing whether society will be able to make this transition, or whether temperature increase limits will be irreversibly missed. Last year, the European Union Climate Policy Tracker (EU CPT) investigated each member state's implementation of policy and legislation, and rated their progress towards a 2050 vision of deep decarbonisation using renewable energy. The uniquely developed rating scheme, modelled on appliance efficiency labels (A-G), gave an indication of how member states were doing compared to a 'low-carbon policy package'. The average score was an 'E', indicating that the level of effort needed to treble, to be on a pace to reach the 2050 vision. However, aggregating best practices across sectors and countries doubled the score - meaning that the tools are already at hand for major improvements across Europe. This report builds on last year's EU CPT by giving an update on action in member states, and an indicative trend in the rating, as well as adding a new section on EU policy. The addition of an EU section is appropriate, with the Commission having produced a roadmap on a low-carbon economy by 2050, a transport white paper, and with another roadmap for 2050 focused on energy anticipated by the end of 2011. This report seeks to answer the question of whether these and other related initiatives are sufficient to help Europe reach its low-carbon goals. When interpreting the results of this report, it is important to understand that the goal underlying the vision here is not the same as the one in the European Commission's 'low-carbon economy' roadmap

  18. Development of the EU Ecolabel Criteria and Revision of the EU Green Public Procurement Criteria for Cleaning Services

    OpenAIRE

    DE ALMEIDA FERREIRA NETO BELMIRA; WOLF Oliver; FIELD Bethany; JENKIN Nicola; TAM Max; BENJAMIN Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a new EU Ecolabel and revise the existing EU Green Public Procurement (GPP) criteria for professional cleaning services (hereafter referred to as cleaning services). This preliminary report investigates the market, operational and sustainability aspects of cleaning services, with a goal to develop a robust evidence base and prioritise key environmental and social issues to support the development of EU Ecolabel criteria and the revision of the EU GP...

  19. The EU's cybercrime and cyber-security rulemaking: mapping the internal and external dimensions of EU security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahey, E.

    2014-01-01

    By taking the EU Cyber Strategy as a case in point, this contribution examines how the distinction between external and internal security in contemporary EU law manifests itself in large-scale risk regulation and in particular, how the EU relies upon external norms to regulate risk. This article

  20. Key challenges in the combat of human trafficking : Evaluating the EU trafficking strategy and EU trafficking directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Alice; Rijken, Conny

    2016-01-01

    The problem of trafficking in human beings (THB) is still omnipresent in Europe, despite the numerous preventive and retributive actions taken. This article evaluates the two most important EU-instruments to combat trafficking: the EU Directive and the EU Strategy. Based on secondary analysis of

  1. EU Law Autonomy Versus European Fundamental Rights Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    In the recently issued Opinion 2/13, the EU Court of Justice ruled that EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights on the basis of the current Draft Accession Agreement would be incompatible with the EU Treaties. This article examines the impact of Opinion 2/13 on European fundamental...... rights protection. It argues that the concerns for EU law autonomy expressed in the Opinion for the most part are unwarranted and that the Court, through the use of classic constitutionalist language, seeks to position EU law as the superior European fundamental rights regime. The article furthermore...

  2. EU's tiltræden til EMRK - et sisyfosarbejde?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Fuglsang Madsen Sørensen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    EU-Domstolen afviste med opinion 2/13 den 18. december 2014 at lade EU tiltræde EMRK på grundlag af et udkast til en tiltrædelsesaftale. I artiklen behandles baggrunden for og det konkrete indhold i EU-Domstolens afvisning, hvorefter det undersøges, i hvilket omfang EMD fremover kan forventes...... at respektere EU-rettens forrang og dermed undlade at holde medlemsstaterne ansvarlige for påståede krænkelser som følge af medlemsstaternes forpligtelser efter EU-retten....

  3. Who wants full membership? Characteristics of Turkish public support for EU membership

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Ali; Carkoglu, Ali

    2003-01-01

    Examines the basis of support and resistance to European Union (EU) membership among voters in Turkey. Issues concerning Turkey's candidacy for EU membership; Description of EU support across different constituencies of public opinion; Implications of EU membership support for EU-Turkey relations; Factors that influenced the expressed support for EU membership.

  4. Consequences of EU air quality directives for spatial development plans in various EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelemeijer, R.B.A.; Blom, W.F.; Bouwman, A.A.; Hammingh, P.; Backes, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past few years, the highest Dutch court of justice has rejected many building plans for new homes, roads and businesses because of reasons related to EU air quality limit values. This has made it clear that detailed impact assessments are necessary to having plans approved for permits, and that failure to achieve limit values can be a reason to reject a plan. An investigation to see whether such issues have also played a role in other EU countries has proven the contrary. Only a few similar court cases have taken place in other countries, while air quality limit values are breached in other EU countries as well. The reason is that the Netherlands has implemented the first EU Daughter Directive in a relatively strict manner in comparison to other countries, in particular: Adopting a strict legal coupling of air quality and spatial planning policies, with many types of plans being subject to an air quality impact assessment; Perceiving limit values as absolute limit values, whereas in many other countries a need to meet a limit value is weighted with other interests in granting permits; Applying limit values to the whole country. Although this application is, in principle, valid for all EU member states, some member states apply limit values only to locations where people can be exposed; Since air quality assessment is detailed in the Netherlands, many locations are appointed where air quality limit values are breached. Clearly, the role of limit values in granting permits for plans differs considerably among the EU countries, while the underlying EU legislation is the same, and while limit values are breached in other countries as well [nl

  5. New EU project supports LHC theorists

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    LHCPhenonet, a new EU-funded research network aimed at improving the theoretical predictions that guide the LHC experiments, has begun its 4-year run as a Marie Curie Initial Training Network. CERN joins the network as an associate partner, along with almost 30 multinational institutions and computing companies.   Theorists from around the world gathered in Valencia to attend LHCPhenonet's kick-off meeting. LHCPhenonet will create research opportunities for young, talented European theorists, providing funding for both doctoral and post-doctoral positions across the various participating institutions – including the University of Durham, DESY, and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). LHCPhenoNet aims to improve the Quantum Field Theory calculations that set the parameters of the LHC experiments, focusing on the LHC phenomenology that gave it its name. The 4.5 million euro project is funded by the EU's 7th Research Framework Programme and will be coordinated through the Span...

  6. EU Design Law and 3D Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholders who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  7. GAUGING THE VERTICAL SPECIALIZATION IN EU TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIA MONICA OEHLER-SINCAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, we review the mechanisms and determinants of vertical specialization (VS, as this has gradually become the dominant characteristic of international trade. Second, we underline that there is a rich literature regarding VS in EU trade, at aggregate and individual levels and research is advancing together with the instruments used to measure trade in value added. Third, our investigation brings to the forefront a classification of EU countries according to their GVC participation index, taking into consideration both upstream and downstream links. As a conclusion, the VS analyses help us better understand the interconnectedness among countries and industries by means of foreign direct investment, trade, labour migration and technology transfer.

  8. Relocating a Company within the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses how a public or private limited company can be relocated in another EU country via establishment of a subsidiary in the second country, followed by a reverse vertical merger (the parent ceases to exist and the subsidiary is the continuing company). The consideration for the ...... for the merger is shares in the subsidiary, which can be effected by giving the parent company's shares in the subsidiary to the parent company's shareholders, but after the shares have taken a brief respite in the subsidiary as own shares......This article analyses how a public or private limited company can be relocated in another EU country via establishment of a subsidiary in the second country, followed by a reverse vertical merger (the parent ceases to exist and the subsidiary is the continuing company). The consideration...

  9. Training the Trainers - from an EU Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bodil

    of Language and Business Communication at the Aarhus School of Business.The other project participants are from Belgium, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. The project, whose overall objective is to create the means to obtain competent trainers, is a follow-up to three previous projects (Grotius...... trainers have to be made available to them. The aim of this paper is to present the EU project, AGIS II, Making things happen: Training the trainers of legal interpreters and translators throughout the EU, coordinated by Kirsten W. RAsmussen and Bodil Martinsen, associate professors at the Department...... of legal interpreting. This process includes, among other things, the development of exemplary curricula, course designs, sample lesson plans and teaching materials, which will be presented and discussed/evaluated at a concluding Seminar on training the trainers, which is to be held in Aarhus, Denmark...

  10. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interest and global climate negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner Brand, U.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    2003-01-01

    Why has the EU been so eager to continue the climate negotiations? Can it be solely attributed to the EU feeling morally obliged to be the main initiator of continued progress on the climate change negotiations, or can industrial interests in the EU, at least partly, explain the behaviour of the EU? We suggest that the EU has a rational economic interest in forcing the technological development of renewable energy sources to get a fast-mover advantage, which will only pay if a sufficient number of countries implement sufficiently stringent GHG reductions. The Kyoto Protocol, which imposes binding reductions on 38 OECD countries, implies that, as a first-mover, the EU will be to sell the necessary new renewable technologies, most prominently wind mills, to other countries, when they ratify and implement the Kyoto target levels. In the latest EU proposal made in Johannesburg, the EU pushed for setting a target of 15% of all energy to come from sources such as windmills, solar panels and waves by 2015. Such a target would further the EU's interests globally, and could explain, in economic terms, why the EU eagerly promotes GHG trade at a global level whereas the US has left the Kyoto agreement to save the import costs of buying the EU's renewable systems. (au)

  11. Rethinking EU Citizenship: Towards the Postmodern Ethics of Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja IVIC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of EU citizenship reflects EU politics of (fixed identity, which guarantees rights only to the homogenous groups (and individuals as representatives of these groups. Hence, it leaves room for marginalizing, othering, excluding and other forms of discrimination, by creating binary oppositions: we/they, citizen/alien, EU/non-EU and so forth. EU citizenship is based on the modernist ethics of priority of right over the good. It is created to promote European idea, so it has only instrumental value. On the other hand, the politics of affinity leads to the substantive EU citizenship founded on multiple identities. The politics of affinity requires a new ethics which will lead to transformation of the main concepts of EU legal discourse.

  12. Self-aggregation of magnetic semiconductor EuS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Kamikubo, Hironari; Kataoka, Mikio; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Controlled formation of aggregates having organized structure of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals is reported. The EuS aggregates in liquid media (methanol) were obtained by means of van der Waals interaction between EuS nanocrystals. The packing structure of the EuS aggregates is characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering measurements (SAXS). TEM image indicates the EuS nanocrystals form self-aggregated 2D orthogonal lattice structure. The diffraction peak of (111) of SAXS profile shows that the cube-shaped EuS form 3D cubic superlattice. We successfully demonstrated that the aggregates of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals formed cubic stacking structure.

  13. Performance indicators for SMEs accessing EU funds

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Adina-Simona

    2013-01-01

    Being the best supporters of national economies Small and Medium Sized Enterprises are actively searching alternative sources of finance for sustaining their goals and their performances. European Union is sustaining the SMEs access to finance by direct funding: grants from the European Commission and indirect funding: financial intermediaries in the SMEs origin country. Considering the importance of SMEs for national and European economy we will analyze the relationship between the EU fundin...

  14. EU Presidencies between Politics and Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Nedergaard, Peter

    and policy- makers into a ‘governmentality’ framework, it analyses the impact on the daily activities of bureaucrats and ministers. The book utilises comprehensive and novel empirical materials, including around 100 interviews with key officials, documentary sources and academic literature. It uncovers...... the kind of negotiations, management and coordination triggered by the immense challenge of presiding over the EU – including being a part of a Trio....

  15. Polen, Deutschland, die EU und Russland

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    Besonders seit dem EU-Beitritt Polens ist es um die deutsch-polnischen Beziehungen nicht besonders gut bestellt. In den vergangenen Jahren hat man sich in erster Linie an bilateralen Konflikten abgearbeitet und keine gemeinsame Europapolitik betrieben. Im Beitrag wird diese Entwicklung rekonstruiert und danach gefragt, ob es angesichts einer solchen Entwicklung Aussichten auf die Wiederherstellung der deutsch-polnischen Interessengemeinschaft gibt oder die Interessen beider Staaten so stark d...

  16. EU Cooperation in the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumas, T.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union with 15 Member States at the end of the century and with 6 more countries in the accession phase has set up certain instruments which enhance energy cooperation among them and with third countries. The major dimensions of EU energy policy presented in the White Paper are the external dimension - globalization of markets, the increasing environmental concern, the technology developments and the EU institutional responsibilities. To contribute to these, certain EU initiatives and supporting actions are undertaken through the energy and the broader co-operation programmes like THERMIE, SYNERGY, SAVE, ALTENER, PHARE, etc. The THERMIE programme supports the demonstration application and dissemination of innovative and successful energy technologies. SYNERGY is a programme for energy co-operation with third countries in energy policy and strategy implementation issues. SAVE and ALTENER concentrate on the promotion and enhancement of energy efficiency practices and use of renewable respectively. PHARE is a technical assistance programme addressed to Eastern European Countries which are in the phase of transition to market economy. There are also other initiatives like the Transeuropean Energy Network (TEN) and the activities managed by the financial institutions namely the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). All this context of programmes and initiatives is modified from period to period in order to serve the EU energy policies and the developments in the energy markets. The recent agreement which came up from the Kyoto conference has actually influenced the direction of actions towards more intensive amelioration of environmental pollution. (author)

  17. Spin fluctuations in EuS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, A.

    1996-02-01

    Demagnetization effects break the isotropy of spin waves. During spring 1995, Peter Boeni et al. performed polarized neutron measurements on EuS using the triple axis spectrometer IN14 at the ILL in Grenoble, in order to investigate the influence of dipolar interactions on the spin waves. In the following work the analysis of the experimental data is described. (author) 25 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  18. Territorial Cooperation With Non-Eu Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cohard, Juan Carlos; Alfonso, Javier; Vázquez-Barquero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    TERRITORIAL COOPERATION WITH NON-EU REGIONS Territorial Cooperation (TC) has been possible because there is a trajectory of many years of work invested by the local actors, participants who have become the architects of TC through the city or region involved. Transcontinental cooperation as studied by the European Union TERCO project is providing important lessons for understanding TC. The purpose of the presentation is to analyze the Andalusian-North of Morocco territorial cooperation during...

  19. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hoppe, Christian; Seifert, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions

  20. Green entrepreneurship: EU experience and Ukraine perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena CHYGRYN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available These days the environmental challenges begin to play crucial role in sustainable development of the countries and regions. European environmental policy aims in the creation of a favorable framework for the development of green entrepreneurship. The paper deals with the analysis of EU experience in supporting and promoting the green entrepreneurship. The author analyzed and systematized the EU trends in GHG emission. The main features and parts of the green economy are described. The author emphasizes that EU has the huge experience in the sphere of developing and providing relevant green activities, which can be used by Ukraine for implementation green entrepreneurship projects on the different levels of the economy. Thus, the green positive practices in Austria, Hungary, Ireland and Spain were described. The author underlines that green entrepreneurship for Ukraine is one of the necessary conditions for improving the environmental status, solving the problems with the rational use of natural resources, increasing the welfare of the citizen, integration into the European Union and to ensure the green of innovative development. The activities which are necessary for mainstreaming for Ukraine’s integrating to the European sustainable entrepreneurship space were considered.

  1. CERN-EU relationship provides various opportunities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony-Kittelsen

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the EU and CERN continues to grow stronger, as the Director-General and the President of Council recently visited Brussels to discuss the progress made since the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) in July 2009. With financial cuts and budget reductions plaguing research programmes across the world, the MoU is a solid basis for enhancing existing or developing new synergies between the two parties.    Rolf Heuer, Michel Spiro and other members of the CERN delegation photographed with Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, EU Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science, during the 2010 Annual CERN-EC meeting. Credits: © European Union, 2010 In recent times, due to the global economic downturn and reductions in national research budgets, the competition for funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7, 2007-2013) has become extremely tough. However, given the large number of CERN proposals accepted by the EC since the start of FP7...

  2. DEINDUSTRIALIZATION AS A PROCESS IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Kandžija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deindustrialization is a natural process in the developed countries, which takes place under the influence of external and internal factors and occurs as a result of economic growth. It is marked by the decline in the share of industry in GDP and employment with a simultaneous increased importance of the service sector. Considering the complexity of the concept, there are many theoretical approaches of deindustrialisation. In this paper the analysis of deindustrialization in the EU was conducted. The research results indicate the existence of relative deindustrialization in the EU, which is characterized by reduced share of agriculture and industry and increased share of the service sector in GDP. Also, it was found that the decrease in employment in the industry was not created as a result of a decrease in industrial production. The EU economy, including the industrial sector, is heavily influenced by the globalization process, while the process of deindustrialization is significantly impacted by the increased volume of foreign direct investment. In key strategic documents European industry is recognized as the main "engine" of the recovery of the European economy. Therefore, the highest  priority is the creation of conditions for the process of reindustrialization, i.e. the development of industry in the variable circumstances, with an emphasis on strengthening and improving the industrial foundation and implementation of new solutions based on innovation, research and new technologies.

  3. Economic disparities between EU states and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CIUREA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has 27 Member States representing a community and a market of 493million citizens, which creates further economic and social disparities between thestates and their 271 regions. In a region in four, the GDP (gross domestic product percapita is 75% below the average for the EU-27. Based on the concepts of solidarity andcohesion, regional policy of the European Union favors reducing structural disparitiesbetween EU regions, the balanced development of the community and promoting aneffective equality of opportunity between people. Over the past 50 years, Europeancooperation has helped build highways, sewage plants, bridges, laboratories forbiotechnology. She helped to revive urban areas and neglected activities, throughcountless projects in the poorest regions of the Union.. Two key values: solidarity andcohesion, underlying these projects and the regional policy of the European Union. Theeconomic, social and territorial cohesion will always be at the heart of Europe Strategy2020, a key mechanism for achieving the priorities for a smart growth, sustainable andinclusive in the Member States and regions.

  4. REFORM OF RULES ON EU VAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zenovia GRIGORE

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In January 2018 the EU has released two proposal designed to simplify the VAT system, specifically around reduced rates, and to reduce compliance costs of smaller businesses in respect of VAT. The EU's common rules on VAT rates do not treat Member States equally. More than 250 exemptions allow several Member States much more flexibility in setting VAT rates than others. While these derogations are due to expire once the reformed VAT system comes into place, the rates proposal will ensure that all Member States have the same flexibility and a uniform structure in which to set their own VAT rates. The second proposal is designed to make trading in other EU member states easier for smaller businesses. Currently, small businesses may benefit from generous thresholds in their state of establishment, but zero thresholds exist for nonestablished businesses, meaning higher compliance costs. The intended proposals will provide simplification measures (around invoicing, record keeping etc. for businesses with a turnover not exceeding €2 million and will allow member states to apply thresholds to non-established businesses with a turnover not exceeding €100,000.

  5. The EU's Antidumping Actions Against Chinese Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yinan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the importance of tariffs in international trade has declined with the reduction of tariff rates under the GATT/WTO programs of multilateral trade liberalization, most governments prefer to protect domestic industries from foreign competitors through a variety of non-tariff barriers. Antidumping actions have recently become the world's biggest trade impediment due to their specific features and the antidumping activity of new users. Since China has become the major engine of world trade growth in recent years, it also has become the largest anti-dumping target in the world. However, the present world competition situation implies that world trade liberalization might arouse regional trade friction. The objective of this research is to identify whether China's WTO accession changed China's situation with regard to EU antidumping actions. The research analysis empirically proved that trade liberalization could partly affect the EU's antidumping actions against Chinese exports and the higher degree of industrial concentricity becomes a motive to increase the EU's antidumping activities against China.

  6. Differences and similarities between the EU and non-EU citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Dhamo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the European Union had a purely economic connotation, as his intent was the free movement of factors of production, in order to create a competitive internal market and achieving a rational distribution of resources. For this reason, the individual was seen simply as a worker and for this purpose the first aspects that are disciplined within the EU are those contained in this sphere. In the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (EEC, the freedom of free movement was reserved for only a few special categories of workers, who were active subjects economically, since what resulted essential at the time was the creation of an internal market. Later the Maastricht Treaty, on one side marks the transition from the EEC to the EU, on the other presents for the first time the "European citizenship", making the free movement an autonomous right of every citizen belonging to a Member State. In this way the free movement is exercised not only for the economic purposes of the Treaties. In December 2000 the Charter of Fundamental Rights or the Charter of Nice was compiled and signed, which defines that the EU seeks to promote a balanced development and ensures free movement of persons, goods, services and capital, and also the freedom of residence. Main objective of this manuscript is an analysis of the differences and similarities between the EU and non-EU citizens.

  7. Contribution of Eu ions on the precipitation of silver nanoparticles in Ag-Eu co-doped borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Qing; Qiu, Jianbei; Zhou, Dacheng; Xu, Xuhui

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles are precipitated from the borate glasses during the melting process without any further heat treatment. • The reduction of Eu 3+ ions to Eu 2+ ions is presented in this material. • The intensity of Ag + luminescence. • The introduction of Eu ions accelerated the reaction between Eu 2+ ions and silver ions inducing the silver clusters formation. - Abstract: Ag + doped sodium borate glasses with different Eu ions concentration were prepared by the melt-quenching method. The absorption at about 410 nm which was caused by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is promoted with increasing of Eu ions concentration. Meanwhile, the luminescent spectra showed that the emission intensity of Ag + decreased while that of the Ag aggregates increased simultaneously. The results indicated that the Ag ions intend to form the high-polymeric state such as Ag aggregates and nanoparticles with increasing of europium ions. Owing to the self-reduction of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ in our glass system, it revealed that Ag + has been reduced by the neighboring Eu 2+ which leads to the formation of Ag aggregates and the precipitation of Ag NPs in the matrix. In addition, energy transfer (ET) process from Ag + /Ag aggregates to the Eu 3+ was investigated for the enhancement of Eu 3+ luminescence

  8. Sharing Lessons Learned Between Industries in EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehleisen, A.; Strucic, M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent events in nuclear industry remind us on importance of continuous sharing of the knowledge and experience gained through evaluations of incidents and accidents. We frequently use experience from our daily life activities to improve our performance and avoid some mistakes or unwanted events. In the similar way we can use other industries experience. These experiences can be applied to improve nuclear safety. For example, Safety Culture, which has a great influence on the level of nuclear power plants safety, is similarly presented in other industries. Mechanisms which led to accidents from weak safety culture in one branch of other industry could be comparable to those in nuclear industry. Some other industries have many more cumulative years of experience than nuclear industry. Aviation and Oil industries are typical representatives. Part of their experience can be used in nuclear industry too. Number of reports from nuclear power plants showed us that not only specific equipment related causes lay behind accidents; there are also other causes and contributors which are more common for all industries. Hence lessons learned in other industry should be assessed and used in nuclear industry too. In the European Union, a regional initiative has been set up in 2008 in support of EU Member State nuclear safety authorities, but also EU technical support organizations, international organizations and the broader nuclear community, to enhance nuclear safety through improvement of the use of lessons learned from operational experience of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The initiative, called ''the EU Clearinghouse on Operational Experience Feedback for NPP'', is organized as a network operated by a centralized office located at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The reduction of occurrence and significance of events in NPPs and their safe operation is its ultimate goal. Among others EU Clearinghouse provides services such as technical and scientific

  9. EU Think Tank Fora as Transaction Cost Reducers: A Study of Informal Interest Intermediation in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybel Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By examining the organisational structure of EU think tank fora (seminars, workshops and conferences, this article proposes that fora can play the role of transaction cost reducers in EU policymaking. I argue that certain aspects of EU policymaking, including i controlled processes of consultation, ii diminishing costs of management, and iii the risk of state capture, incentivise EU institutions to outsource part of the consultation activity to policy actors that can help EU institutions fulfil their informational and legitimacy needs. I argue that think tanks are able to play this role because they i reduce information asymmetries by connecting a wide variety of policy actors and ii act as intermediaries that mitigate opportunistic behaviour. The empirical assessment reveals that the dimensions characterising transactions are present in EU think tank fora. It shows that policy actors that do not usually participate in formal consultation processes frequently attend fora where they meet representatives of EU institutions, particularly Parliament and Commission representatives.

  10. Induced spin-polarization of EuS at room temperature in Ni/EuS multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulopoulos, P., E-mail: poulop@upatras.gr [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Goschew, A.; Straub, A.; Fumagalli, P. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Kapaklis, V.; Wolff, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P.220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Pappas, S. D. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-03-17

    Ni/EuS multilayers with excellent multilayer sequencing are deposited via e-beam evaporation on the native oxide of Si(100) wafers at 4 × 10{sup −9} millibars. The samples have very small surface and interface roughness and show sharp interfaces. Ni layers are nanocrystalline 4–8 nm thick and EuS layers are 2–4 nm thick and are either amorphous or nanocrystalline. Unlike for Co/EuS multilayers, all Eu ions are in divalent (ferromagnetic) state. We show a direct antiferromagnetic coupling between EuS and Ni layers. At room temperature, the EuS layers are spin-polarized due to the proximity of Ni. Therefore, Ni/EuS is a candidate for room-temperature spintronics applications.

  11. Definition of an intramolecular Eu-to-Eu energy transfer within a discrete [Eu2L] complex in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonat, Aline; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Charbonnière, Loïc J

    2012-06-25

    Ligand L, based on two do3a moieties linked by the methylene groups of 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, was synthesized and characterized. The addition of Ln salts to an aqueous solution of L (0.01 M Tris-HCl, pH 7.4) led to the successive formation of [LnL] and [Ln(2)L] complexes, as evidenced by UV/Vis and fluorescence titration experiments. Homodinuclear [Ln(2)L] complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb, and Lu) were prepared and characterized. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the Lu and Yb complexes in D(2)O solution (pD = 7.0) showed C(1) symmetry of these species in solution, pointing to two different chemical environments for the two lanthanide cations. The analysis of the chemical shifts of the Yb complex indicated that the two coordination sites present square antiprismatic (SAP) coordination environments around the metal ions. The spectroscopic properties of the [Tb(2)L] complex upon ligand excitation revealed conventional behavior with τ(H2O) = 2.05(1) ms and ϕ(H2O) = 51%, except for the calculation of the hydration number obtained from the luminescent lifetimes in H(2)O and D(2)O, which pointed to a non-integer value of 0.6 water molecules per Tb(III) ion. In contrast, the Eu complex revealed surprising features such as: 1) the presence of two and up to five components in the (5)D(0)→(7)F(0) and (5)D(0)→(7)F(1) emission bands, respectively; 2) marked differences between the normalized spectra obtained in H(2)O and D(2)O solutions; and 3) unconventional temporal evolution of the luminescence intensity at certain wavelengths, the intensity profile first displaying a rising step before the occurrence of the expected decay. Additional spectroscopic experiments performed on [Gd(2-x)Eu(x)L] complexes (x = 0.1 and 1.9) confirmed the presence of two distinct Eu sites with hydration numbers of 0 (site I) and 2 (site II), and showed that the unconventional temporal evolution of the emission intensity is the result of an unprecedented intramolecular Eu-to-Eu

  12. Carbon pricing in the EU: Evaluation of different EU ETS reform options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, Corjan; Vollebergh, Herman R.J.; Werf, Edwin van der

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various options to support allowance prices in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), such as adjusting the cap, an auction reserve price, and fixed and variable carbon taxes in addition to the EU ETS. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model that explicitly allows for allowance banking and for a detailed cost-effectiveness analysis at the EU Member State level. We find that tightening the cap provides an ad hoc solution to the fundamental issue of the robustness of the effective carbon price, while introducing a price component to the ETS brings structural carbon price support in times of negative demand shocks for emission allowances. These price-based policies still benefit from the intertemporal flexibility through the banking provision in the EU ETS by re-allocating emissions over time with stronger emission reductions in early years and emission increases in later years. A higher emission price has a larger negative impact on the new Member States' economies than on other Member States. Furthermore, introducing a carbon tax in addition to the EU ETS decreases the price of allowances, resulting in welfare gains for net buyers of allowances while net sellers are worse off. - Highlights: • We analyse reform options for European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) with a CGE model. • Variable carbon tax and auction reserve price support carbon price at least cost. • Price-based reforms decrease early emissions but increase later emissions through banking. • New Member States' economies are affected more than others by higher CO_2 prices. • Lower allowance prices due to a carbon tax are unfavourable to net sellers of allowances.

  13. EU import restrictions on genetically modified feeds: impacts on Spanish, EU and global livestock sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippidis, G.

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, much controversy has surrounded the usage of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in commercial agriculture. More specifically, it is feared that GMOs may introduce new allergens into the food chain or contribute to antibiotic resistance. At the current time, the European Union (EU) adopts a zero tolerance policy toward non-approved GMO imports, whilst the approval process has not kept pace with the proliferation of new GMO varieties. In the EU livestock sectors, this apparent mis-match threatens to interrupt supplies of high protein feed inputs (e.g., soy meal) from countries with more relaxed regulations regarding GMOs. Employing a well known multi-region computable general equilibrium framework, this study quantitatively assesses the impact of a hypothetical EU import ban on unapproved GMO varieties of soybean and maize imports on livestock, meat and dairy sectors. The model code is heavily modified to improve the characterisation of the agricultural sectors and land usage, whilst a realistic baseline is employed to update the global database to 2008, the year the hypothetical ban is implemented. In the worst case scenario, there are significant competitive losses in EU livestock, meat and dairy sectors. In Spain, the negative impacts are particularly pronounced given the importance of pig production in agriculture. In contrast, all non-EU regions trade balances improve, with notable trade gains in the USA and Brazil. To conclude, the EU must urgently find a long term strategy for GMOs if it is to reconcile political expediency with pragmatic economic concerns. (Author) 21 refs.

  14. The Limits of Conditionality: Turkey – EU Taxation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Cavlak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Conditionality is mostly defined as the EU policy engendered for candidate countries. However, the mere use of conditionality by the EU does not essentially explain transferring of policies and EU rules towards the candidate countries. EU conditionality may be considered as a comprising approach but in certain policy areas or countries it might not be as successful as it was on other ones. The EU conditionality basically defined as a bargaining policy of affecting through reward, under which the EU provides inducements to candidate or neighbor countries to aligning with the conditions of the EU. In this study the explanatory power of conditionality would be questioned; so the main question will be “to what extent does the EU have influence on policy convergence in a candidate country that does not have a clear membership perspective? Taxation chapter in accession negotiations between Turkey and the EU has been chosen as the case of this research as providing to have an answer on this question. The main objective of this paper is ‘analyzing the extent of EU conditionality on Turkish taxation policy.’ Furthermore, it is argued in this study that “without a concrete incentive, European Union’s impact on a candidate country would be limited.”  

  15. Photoswitchable Faraday effect in EuS-Au nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Akira; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika [Division of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, 060-8628, Sapporo (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Effective photoswitchable europium sulfide nanocrystals with gold nanoparticles using dithiol (DDT: 1,10-decanedithiol) joint molecules, EuS-Au nanosystems, are demonstrated. The TEM image indicates the formation of EuS-Au nanosystems composed of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals and spherical Au nanoparticles. Under visible-light irradiation, a drastic change of absorption band of EuS-Au nanosystems at around 600 nm was observed. The Faraday effects of EuS-Au nanosystems were estimated using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) measurements. The effective change of the MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems under visible-light irradiation was successfully observed at around 670 nm for the first time. The effective reversible changes in MCD spectra with the alternative irradiation cycles of visible light (>440 nm) and dark are also presented. The decrease rate of rotation angle at 670 nm of EuS-Au nanosystems is larger than that of absorbance. These results indicate that the effective change of MCD spectra of EuS-Au nanosystems would be dominated not only by a drastic change of absorption band related to enhanced LSPR of Au nanoparticles but also by specific interaction between EuS and Au in nanosystem under irradiation. Illustration of photoswitch and TEM image of EuS-Au nanosystems. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Should the EU climate policy framework be reformed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ELLISON

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Though to-date the European Union (EU has played the most significant leadership role in international negotiations to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, the emission-reducing performance of individual EU Member states has for many been less than stellar. Several EU15 Member states continue to raise rather than lower emissions. Analysing the most successful policy instruments, this paper argues EU policy efforts could benefit from three important innovations. The following strategies – the adoption of an EU-wide FIT (feed-in tariff, an EU-wide carbon tax and more flexibility in the trading of carbon credits – could significantly improve emission reductions, their relative cost-efficiency and spread burden-sharing more evenly across technologies and Member states. This raises important questions, both about the effectiveness of EU and Kyoto-style commitments, as well as the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS. The commitment strategy, and in particular the EU ETS mechanism, have had the smallest impact on emission reductions. The proposed set of strategies could make a far greater contribution to future EU efforts and potentially lock in the impressive progress already made. Such a policy shift, if successful, would also greatly enhance the EU’s already significant credibility and bargaining power in international climate negotiations.

  17. Business interest of Gazprom in the EU-27 in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijknecht, J.

    2008-04-01

    Gazprom is an important supplier of gas to the EU. Liberalisation of the EU gas market has also influenced the gas relations with Russia and the way the Russian Gas company Gazprom is securing its interest in this internal EU market. From a relationship of bilateral gas contracts with EU member states and their companies before gas market liberalisation, a new approach to secure its market share is beginning to evolve. The positioning of Gazprom in the EU market has raised concerns of EU policy makers. There is some trepidation that the investment strategy of Gazprom in the EU gas market will lead to a position of market dominance in an increasingly import dependent EU market. The discussion on Gazprom's market strategy needs to be fed with factual information on its activities and it is exactly what this new report is providing because information on the activities of Gazprom in the various member states' gas sector was incomplete. In this factual report in Dutch, the author presents a comprehensive oversight and characterisation of Gazprom's downstream assets in the EU-27. Through four layers - long-term contracts, company stakes, asset swaps and political support - a detailed insight is given in Gazprom's downstream activities in the EU-27. [nl

  18. EU Action against Climate Change. EU emissions trading. An open scheme promoting global innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The European Union is committed to global efforts to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from human activities that threaten to cause serious disruption to the world's climate. Building on the innovative mechanisms set up under the Kyoto Protocol to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - joint implementation, the clean development mechanism and international emissions trading - the EU has developed the largest company-level scheme for trading in emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), making it the world leader in this emerging market. The emissions trading scheme started in the 25 EU Member States on 1 January 2005

  19. Material Deprivation in Selected EU Countries According to EU-SILC Income Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stávková Jana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with issues of households at risk of poverty in relative conception. Income poverty means a situation when the threshold of 0.6 of median income is not achieved. The analysis of a broader definition of poverty is based on identification and assessment of material deprivation factors, including: financial stress, housing conditions, availability of consumer durables and basic needs. Data sources are based EU-SILC dataset. Presented analysis is focused on selected EU countries, namely Czech Republic, Finland, France, Spain and United Kingdom. The result identifies the problem areas that cause deprivation symptoms.

  20. The structure of the EU mediasphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaounas, Ilias; Turchi, Marco; Ali, Omar; Fyson, Nick; De Bie, Tijl; Mosdell, Nick; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2010-12-08

    A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed "data-driven inquiry" in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content analysis.

  1. The structure of the EU mediasphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Flaounas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed "data-driven inquiry" in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content

  2. The Structure of the EU Mediasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaounas, Ilias; Turchi, Marco; Ali, Omar; Fyson, Nick; De Bie, Tijl; Mosdell, Nick; Lewis, Justin; Cristianini, Nello

    2010-01-01

    Background A trend towards automation of scientific research has recently resulted in what has been termed “data-driven inquiry” in various disciplines, including physics and biology. The automation of many tasks has been identified as a possible future also for the humanities and the social sciences, particularly in those disciplines concerned with the analysis of text, due to the recent availability of millions of books and news articles in digital format. In the social sciences, the analysis of news media is done largely by hand and in a hypothesis-driven fashion: the scholar needs to formulate a very specific assumption about the patterns that might be in the data, and then set out to verify if they are present or not. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report what we think is the first large scale content-analysis of cross-linguistic text in the social sciences, by using various artificial intelligence techniques. We analyse 1.3 M news articles in 22 languages detecting a clear structure in the choice of stories covered by the various outlets. This is significantly affected by objective national, geographic, economic and cultural relations among outlets and countries, e.g., outlets from countries sharing strong economic ties are more likely to cover the same stories. We also show that the deviation from average content is significantly correlated with membership to the eurozone, as well as with the year of accession to the EU. Conclusions/Significance While independently making a multitude of small editorial decisions, the leading media of the 27 EU countries, over a period of six months, shaped the contents of the EU mediasphere in a way that reflects its deep geographic, economic and cultural relations. Detecting these subtle signals in a statistically rigorous way would be out of the reach of traditional methods. This analysis demonstrates the power of the available methods for significant automation of media content analysis. PMID

  3. The New EU Public Procurement Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , transparency requirements, competitive dialogue, framework agreements, use of social and environmental criteria, Partnering and Public Private Partnerships and concessions. This book contains contributions based on presentations given by a number of the international and Danish speakers at the conference.......31 March 2004 the EU adopted two new public procurement directives: one for the public sector (2004/18/EC) and one for utilities (2004/17/EC). The new directives aim at simplification and modernisation of the previously existing directives including adaptation to electronic purchasing techniques...

  4. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...... all the six relevant greenhouse gases or only CO2 should be traded. What is the simplest and most practicable solution? We argue in favour of the latter option for three main reasons: the possible dominating global warming potential of CO2, expected future developments in CO2 emissions and the fact...

  5. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...... in the context of Egyptian-European relations. The article argues that the EU policies, which earlier have been dominated by a pragmatic approach towards the Mubarak regime, now have to be rethought considering an Egyptian polity, where the contours of a new constitutionalism are developing....

  6. Tax policy at the outskirts of EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterø Jensen, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    of Greenland's tax system, the paper's special focus will be on the corporate tax systemand its interplay with personal taxation, as well on as the system of import duties. In particular, wecarry out computations of effective marginal and average corporate tax rates, as well as average effectivetax burdens...... on consumption, labour income and capital income, and compare these to similarmeasures for EU countries. In addition, we outline how Greenland's economic policy in other areasinterferes with tax policy. Especially fishery regulation, management of government-owned companies,and housing policy have major...

  7. Agents of Institutional Change in EU Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Natali, David

    2018-01-01

    Social Investment package (SIP) through issue-framing, institutional alignment and consensus-building. Despite this, the SIP of 2013 ended as a ‘social investment moment’ that rapidly lost momentum because no additional measures such as indicators or funds were integrated with SIP. Furthermore......The contribution addresses – through actor-centred historical institutionalism – why and how social investment (SI) emerged at the European Union (EU) level. SI policies built on the institutional basis of the policy co-ordination processes in employment and social inclusion, which originated...

  8. Jurisdiction Over Cybertorts in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savin, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses EU jurisdiction rules for civil and commercial tort cases involving the use of the Internet (cybertorts). Since cybertorts have multiplied globally, determination of the appropriate forum in which to recover damages is of paramount importance. Brussels I Regulation (Recast......) contains rules on general jurisdiction, which have largely been unproblematic and rules on special jurisdiction, which have been subject to intense interpretation in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). The CJEU case law on special jurisdiction in cybertorts is divided into two groups: cases...

  9. The impact of the explosion of EU news on voter choice in the 2014 EU Elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, J.; van Atteveldt, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    The European elections in 2014 were the first to be held after a long period in which EU-related news was prominent in the media. They were held after years of daily news about the euro crisis and after months of news about the popular uprising in the Ukraine against president Yanukovych, who had

  10. The Impact of EU Financial Crisis and the EU Member States Measures taken to Leave Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Moagăr-Poladian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focussed on the financial packages and fiscal stimuli measures taken by EU as a group and by each EU country for supporting hard-hit sectors like automotive industry, tourism and construction. The economic crisis from 2008-2009 has led to a sharp decrease of investment climate and a massive contraction of economic activity. This means a sharp decrease of capacity utilisation that had led in time to an excessive unemployment especially in the most hit sectors. The financial rescue measures of EU are comprised in European Economic Recovery Plan (EERP. Measures approved are different from country to country, depending by the political support and the strategy chosen by the government. The EU's response to support the real economy during the economic crisis has been taken very fast and well-organized in certain countries and industries. By contrary, some Member States' recovery measures has been approved late and the rescue strategy wasn’t enough achieved. This has led to a deepening of financial instability and unemployment.

  11. EuAuGe type indides RAgIn (R = Ca, Sr, La, Eu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Sebastian; Schmolke, Kai Heinz; Block, Theresa; Heletta, Lukas; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2017-08-03

    The equiatomic intermetallic phases CaAgIn [a = 482.75(7), b = 750.0(1), c = 835.5(1) pm], SrAgIn [a = 495.86(5), b = 794.71(9), c = 851.89(9) pm], LaAgIn [a = 489.99(5), b = 767.93(9), c = 837.53(9) pm], and EuAgIn [a = 493.02(7), b = 781.6(1), c = 844.2(1) pm] were synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium containers. They crystallize with the EuAuGe type structure, space group Imm2. The four structures were refined from single-crystal X-ray data. The silver and indium atoms build up orthorhombically distorted, puckered Ag{sub 3}In{sub 3} hexagons, which are stacked in AA' sequence, leading to direct Ag-Ag and In-In interlayer bonding (e.g. 303 and 304 pm in CaAgIn). Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements show a magnetic moment of 7.40(1) μ{sub B} per europium atom. EuAgIn orders antiferromagnetically at 5.7(5) K. The divalent nature of europium is also evident from {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectra: δ = -10.50(1) mm.s{sup -1} at 78 K. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Costs of compliance with EU regulations and competitiveness of the EU dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.; Jongeneel, R.; Brouwer, F.M.; Dillen, K.; Meister, A.; Winsten, J.; Roest, de K.; Demont, M.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of cross-compliance mechanism in the European Union with its 2003 CAPreform might affect the costs of production and thus competitiveness of the EU. Little evidence is available to asses the costs of compliance with regulations and it implication for trade. In this study a farm

  13. The EU adventures of 'Herculex' : Report on the EU authorization of the genetically modified maize 1507

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, M.; Pisani, G.

    2014-01-01

    The EU authorization process of the insect-resistant maize 1507, branded by its developer company Pioneer-DuPont as ‘Herculex’, is perhaps the most interesting and emblematic example of the current regulatory crisis of GMO regulation in Europe.1 The case is particularly controversial, because it

  14. Economic Impacts of the 1997 EU Energy Tax: Simulations with Three EU-Wide Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.; Klaassen, G.

    2000-01-01

    In March 1997 the European Commission adopted a proposal that increases existing minimum levels of taxation on mineral oils by around 10 to 25% and introduces excises for other energy products. This paper analyses the macroeconomic impacts of the proposal. It employs three models: HERMES, GEM-E3, and E3ME. All models confirm that the proposal will have positive macroeconomic impacts when the tax revenues are used to reduce social security contributions paid by employers. For the EU as a whole, both GDP and employment are expected to be higher and CO2 emissions are 0.9 to 1.6 percent lower. The positive EU-wide effects can be observed in practically all member states. The sector impacts are modest, with the energy sector expected to face the most negative impacts. Differences between model results are due to the model type (general equilibrium or macro-econometric), the EU countries covered and the way tax exemptions were handled. Crucial assumptions to obtain the 'double dividend' are the modelling of the labour market and the impacts on EU external trade. The sensitivity of the results for the use of tax revenues, tax exemptions and tax rate increases is assessed. 21 refs

  15. Ukraine, Russia and the EU: linked by gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The Ukrainian crisis serves as a reminder just how much Ukraine plays a determining role for the European Union in energy matters, being the funnel through which most of Russian gas has to pass to reach Western Europe. One inevitable conclusion is already obvious: Russia and the EU are intimately linked and Moscow is as dependent on the EU for foreign exchange as is the EU on Russia for its gas. Nevertheless, the absence of stability in Ukraine constitutes a permanent threat to supplies to member states of the EU, especially Germany. (author)

  16. Achieving Economic Growth in the EU Through Lobbyism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2009-01-01

    EU budget. Here, the two main redistribution policies, (1) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and (2) the Structural Funds, consume more than four fifths of the total annual EU budget. Thus, if the EU is to achieve its strategic goal, a strong cure is needed to reduce redistribution and encourage more......At Lisbon in 2000, the European Union (EU) set itself a new strategic goal, namely to become the world's leading economy and to enhance social cohesion across the union, all within a decade. It is argued in this article that one fundamental barrier to the fulfilment of this dream is the fact...

  17. The Eastern Partnership and the EU-Turkey Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiryol Tolga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the prospects and challenges of energy cooperation between the European Union (EU and Turkey within the context of the Eastern Partnership (EaP. Part of the EaP agenda is to advance energy cooperation between the EU and the partner states, particularly regarding the diversification of import routes. As an energy corridor between the EU and the hydrocarbon-rich Caspian states, Turkey is a strategic asset for European energy security. Turkey also has economic ties and political capital in the Caspian region that can help the EU reach out to its eastern partners. Despite robust incentives for cooperation, however, the EU-Turkey energy partnership has so far failed to meet mutual expectations. This article argues that this is primarily due to the inability of the two actors to credibly commit to regional energy cooperation. Commitment problem stems from two factors. First, the predominance of national energy interests over communal ones undermines credible commitment. The variation in energy needs of Member States prevents the EU from acting in unison in external energy policy. Similarly, Turkey also prioritizes its own energy security, particularly in its relations with suppliers, which undermines cooperation with the EU. Second, the EU and Turkey hold divergent perspectives on the potential political payoffs of energy cooperation. Turkish decision makers are convinced that energy cooperation warrants palpable progress in Turkey’s accession while most EU actors appear hesitant to establish a direct connection between energy and accession.

  18. Search for unobserved transitions in "1"4"2Eu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Sajad; Rajbanshi, S.; Bisoi, Abhijit

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the excitation mechanisms responsible for the generation of high spin states in this mass region we have studied "1"4"2Eu nucleus. The high spin states of the "1"4"2Eu was reported earlier by M. Piiparinen et al. Based on this experimental data, they have proposed a level scheme of "1"4"2Eu. The motivation of current work is to remove the remaining incompleteness of the previously reported level scheme of "1"4"2Eu

  19. Ex-ante evaluation of EU ETS during 2013–2030: EU-internal abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jing; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Lam, Long; Gilbert, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates CO 2 emission reduction within the EU resulting from the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) up to 2030. This is performed by constructing a baseline scenario without the ETS and assessing the impacts of the ETS, as currently designed. The results indicate that the ETS will start to impact emissions primarily after 2025 due to the prevalence of a sizable allowance surplus. The impact of approved (i.e. back-loading and 2.2% linear reduction factor (LRF)) and proposed (i.e. market stability reserve (MSR)) policy interventions and the inclusion of aviation, could accelerate the exhaustion of surplus and increase emission reductions during the investigated period. However, these measures would be insufficient to restore the scarcity of allowances and the corresponding carbon price before the start of ETS Phase IV, and the effectiveness of EU-internal abatement cannot be guaranteed until 2023. The effectiveness could be further reduced in the case of the economic shocks or the exclusion of international aviation. To restore the scarcity of allowances, other reform options are necessary. This paper extends the reasoning for the early removal of the back-loaded 900 Mtonne allowances by 2020 and broadening the scope of ETS to other sectors with potential high demand for allowances. - Highlights: • Quantification of CO 2 emission abatement in the EU resulting from the ETS up to 2030. • The impact of policy interventions and the inclusion of aviation is quantified. • The effectiveness of EU ETS in EU-internal abatement is limited until 2023

  20. New opportunities for EU projects at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    In July 2009 the European Commission (EC) finalised how it will spend research funding for 2010, within its Framework Programme 7 (FP7). On 31 July the EC is expected to publish new calls for European project proposals, many of which are relevant to CERN. In the first two and a half years of Framework Programme 7 (2007-2013), CERN has been very successful – the Organization is participating in around 30 EU projects, with total EC contribution of nearly 35 million Euros. The now finalised 2010 Work Programmes for FP7 outline how the EC will allocate budgets within each research field. From these Work Programmes, a series of calls for proposals are published so researchers can apply for targeted funding within given deadlines. The first calls are expected to be launched on 31 July and closed later in the year. The web-site of the CERN EU Projects Office contains a list of all new calls of potential interest to CERN, as well as the relevant Work Programmes and Guide for A...

  1. EU R and D on divertor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Daenner, W.; Pick, M.

    2005-01-01

    Since the last SOFT conference held in Helsinki in 2002, substantial progress has been made in the EU R and D on the divertor components. A number of activities have been completed and new ones have been launched. The present paper gives an update of the works carried out by the EU Participating Team in support of the development of the divertor, which is one of the most challenging components of the next-step ITER machine. The following topics are covered: (1) the further development and consolidation of suitable technologies for the production of high heat-flux components, which culminated with the successful manufacturing and testing of a full-scale vertical target prototype; (2) the completion of the post-irradiation testing of divertor mock-ups and samples; (3) the preparation for the hydraulic and assembly tests of a complete set of full-scale divertor components; (4) the on-going R and D on the definition of workable acceptance criteria for the procurement of ITER high heat-flux components; (5) the activities in support of the divertor design

  2. Transfer pricing rules in EU member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important area of international taxes is transfer pricing. Transfer price is a price set by a taxpayer when selling to, buying from, or sharing resources with a related (associated person. The tran­sac­tions between these persons should be assessed at their arm’s length price in according the arm’s length principle – international accepted standard – as the price which would have been agreed between unrelated parties in free market conditions. This paper is focused on the tranfer pricing rules used in particular EU Member States so as if EU Member States apply the arm’s length principle, define the related persons, apply recommendations of the OECD Guidelines, use the transfer pricing methods, require TP Documentation, exercise specific transfer pricing audit or impose specific penalties and apply APAs. Transfer pricing rules should prevent taxpayers from shifting income to related person organized in tax havens or in countries where they enjoy some special tax benefit.

  3. Dependence of photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity on Eu3+ and ZnO concentrations in Y2O3:Eu3+ and ZnO·Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Y2O3:Eu3+ and ZnO·Y2O3:Eu3+ nanophosphor powders with different concentrations of Eu3+ ions were synthesized by a sol–gel method and their luminescence properties were investigated. The red photoluminescence (PL) from Eu3+ ions with the main...

  4. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS IN THE EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Verhun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of national and regional development strategies for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are studied for a long time, as small and medium businesses are the foundation of the economy and the basis for effective country functioning. The business development program of the European Union countries is particularly interesting because there are several levels that correspond to each other and give full effect on the SMEs development. The EU standards are higher than in non-EU countries; therefore, it is worth considering legislative documents, as well as statistics showing the indicators of openness and access to the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. The complexity and comparative novelty of studying such a problem in Ukraine led to the need to explore sources of information in the original language due to the lack of information in Ukrainian or Russian. All these suggest that the problem of creating strategies at the national and regional level is more relevant and important to study in the West that demonstrates the current state. The subject of the study is to analyse the effectiveness of implementing strategies for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises as well as the impact of national and regional policies on their functioning and development in the European Union countries. Methodology. The authors highlighted the peculiarities and main features of the development strategies implementation for small and medium-sized enterprises in the EU countries through a comparative analysis of the legislative framework, statistical and other data that help assess the performance and effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The content analysis helps to identify peculiarities of the implemented strategies in quantitative and qualitative forms. The thorough analysis using the above-mentioned methods allowed doing a qualitative study of national and regional strategies in the context of the

  5. Thermodynamic assessment of EuBr2 unary and LiBr-EuBr2 and NaBr-EuBr2 binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Weiping; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle

    2009-01-01

    As a basis for the design and development of molten salt mixtures, thermodynamic calculations of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties were carried out on the EuBr 2 unary and LiBr-EuBr 2 and NaBr-EuBr 2 binary systems over a wide temperature and composition range, respectively. The Gibbs energy of EuBr 2 was evaluated using an independent polynomial to fit the experimental heat capacity, the thermodynamic parameters for each phase in the LiBr-EuBr 2 and NaBr-EuBr 2 systems were optimized by using available experimental information on phase diagrams. A regular substitutional solution model for the liquid phase and Neumann-Kopp rule for the stoichiometric compound LiEu 2 Br 5 were adopted to reproduce the experimental data with reasonable excess Gibbs energy. Comparisons between the calculated phase diagrams and thermodynamic quantities show that all reliable experimental information is satisfactorily accounted for by the present thermodynamic description. Some thermodynamic properties were predicted to check the suitability of the present calculation.

  6. Multichannel Luminescence Properties of Mixed-Valent Eu2+/Eu3+ Coactivated SrAl3BO7 Nanocrystalline Phosphors for Near-UV LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Xie, Weijie; Lü, Ying; Feng, Jingchun; Tang, Xinghua; Lin, Jun; Dai, Yuhua; Xie, Yu; Yan, Liushui

    2017-11-20

    Up to now, orchestrating the coexistence of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ activators in a single host lattice has been an extremely difficult task, especially for the appearance of the characteristic emission of Eu 2+ and Eu 3+ in order to generate white light. Nevertheless, here we demonstrate a new Eu 2+ /Eu 3+ coactivated SrAl 3 BO 7 nanocrystalline phosphor with abundant and excellent multichannel luminescence properties. A series of Eu 2+ /Eu 3+ coactivated SrAl 3 BO 7 nanocrystalline phosphors were prepared through a Pechini-type sol-gel method followed by a reduction process. With excitation of UV/NUV light, the prepared SrAl 3 BO 7 :Eu 2+ ,Eu 3+ phosphors show not only the characteristic f-f transitions of Eu 3+ ion ( 5 D J → 7 F J,J' , J, J' = 0-3), but also the 5d → 4f transitions of Eu 2+ ion with comparable intensity from 400 to 700 nm in the whole visible spectral region. The luminescence color of the SrAl 3 BO 7 :Eu 2+ ,Eu 3+ phosphor can be tuned from blue, blue-green, white, and orange to orange-red by changing the excitation wavelength, the overall doping concentration of europium ions (Eu 2+ , Eu 3+ ), and the relative ratio of Eu 2+ to Eu 3+ ions to some extent. A single-phase white-light emission has been realized in SrAl 3 BO 7 :Eu 2+ ,Eu 3+ phosphor. The obtained SrAl 3 BO 7 :Eu 2+ ,Eu 3+ phosphor has potential application in the area of NUV white-light-emitting diodes.

  7. Negative pressure driven valence instability of Eu in cubic Eu0.4La0.6Pd3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R

    2009-01-01

    We report the change in the valency of Eu-ions in the binary intermetallic cubic compound EuPd 3 induced by La doping at rare-earth sites. Doping of La generates negative chemical pressure in the lattice, resulting in a significant increase of the lattice parameter without altering the simple-cubic structure of the compound. Results of dc-magnetic measurements suggest that this increase in the lattice parameter is associated with the valence transition of Eu-ions from Eu 3+ to a mixed-valent state. As Eu 2+ -ions possess a large magnetic moment, this valence transition significantly modifies the magnetic behavior of the compound. In contrast to introducing boron at the vacant body center site of the unit cell to change the valency of Eu-ions, as in the case of EuPd 3 B, our results suggest it can also be altered by doping a rare-earth ion of larger size at the lattice site of Eu in EuPd 3 .

  8. Tipping the scale? Social media’s influences on EU attitudes and vote choice in the Danish 2015 EU referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    Citizens’ media use can be an important predictor of attitudes towards the European Union; those attitudes, in turn, can affect EU-related vote decisions. Elementary changes in the media environment and the increasing pressure on the EU in recent referendums may therefore be connected (e.g. Denmark...... in a referendum. Using a two-wave survey design (n=675), the study investigates if political social media use reinforces existing attitudes towards the EU. Subsequently, positive and negative polarization tendencies are connected to the ‘yes or no’ vote of Danish citizens in the 2015 EU referendum. The study...

  9. Phosphor thermometry: On the synthesis and characterisation of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Eu (YAG:Eu) and YAlO{sub 3}:Eu (YAP:Eu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissel, T. [Fachgebiet Reaktive Strömungen und Messtechnik (RSM), Center of Smart Interfaces (CSI), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Brübach, J., E-mail: bruebach@ekt.tu-darmstadt.de [Fachgebiet Reaktive Strömungen und Messtechnik (RSM), Center of Smart Interfaces (CSI), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Euler, M. [Fachgebiet Reaktive Strömungen und Messtechnik (RSM), Center of Smart Interfaces (CSI), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Frotscher, M.; Litterscheid, C.; Albert, B. [Eduard-Zintl-Institut für Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße 18, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Dreizler, A. [Fachgebiet Reaktive Strömungen und Messtechnik (RSM), Center of Smart Interfaces (CSI), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstraße 32, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    With regard to phosphor thermometry, the materials Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Eu (YAG:Eu) and YAlO{sub 3}:Eu (YAP:Eu) were synthesised and characterised in order to substitute the commonly used thermographic phosphor Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, whose temperature sensitive luminescence lifetime exhibits a strong and most often undesirable cross-sensitivity to the oxygen concentration of the surrounding gas phase. The synthesis is outlined in detail and the crystallographic structure was characterised by X-ray diffraction. In a second step, the luminescence properties following pulsed UV laser excitation were determined. In this context, the emission spectra and the temperature lifetime characteristics were monitored. For Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Eu and YAlO{sub 3}:Eu, temperature sensitive ranges of 1000 K–1470 K and 850 K–1300 K were identified. Contrary to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu, both materials do show much lower cross-sensitivities to the oxygen concentration of the surrounding gas phase. - Highlights: ► Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Eu and YAlO{sub 3}:Eu were synthesised and characterised. ► The synthesis is outlined and the crystallographic structure was characterised. ► Emission spectra and the temperature lifetime characteristics were monitored. ► Compared to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu lower sensitivities to the oxyg. conc. of the gas phase emerged.

  10. EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, B.; Hunt, M.; Talus, K. (eds.)

    2011-12-15

    This third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues presents an overview of some of the most recent developments taking place in the EU energy sector at a time when the Third Energy Package is likely to be or has been implemented in the EU Member States. In this respect, the reader will find a number of contributions which offer detailed and critical views on some of the main issues tackled by the Third Energy Package. Aside from this, the relationship between sector specific regulation and the rules of general competition law is examined in the second section of the book. This part also contains particular contributions on access regimes in gas and electricity markets as well as an innovating analysis on the methods for allocating allowances under the EU Emissions trading scheme and the interaction of such methods with EU state aid rules. Just like the previous volumes of the book, section III offers a deep insight into the external aspects of EU energy policy. Accordingly, the role of the Lisbon Treaty in promoting EU energy policy in the international arena is scrutinized in addition to the most recent evolutions on the topical issue of the Energy Charter Treaty. This section is completed with a daring contribution about the need to adopt a comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and third partners, which is presented using the specific case of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue. Last but not least, some fundamental issues regarding the environmental aspects of EU Energy policy undergo an in-depth study in the final section of the book. Not only is the legal regime of energy efficiency in energy-related products examined, but also the issue of carbon constraining policies under WTO law. Finally, the electricity's industry viewpoint on the 2020 targets rounds off this third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues with judicious comments.

  11. EU Energy Law and Policy Issues. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvaux, B.; Hunt, M.; Talus, K.

    2011-12-01

    This third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues presents an overview of some of the most recent developments taking place in the EU energy sector at a time when the Third Energy Package is likely to be or has been implemented in the EU Member States. In this respect, the reader will find a number of contributions which offer detailed and critical views on some of the main issues tackled by the Third Energy Package. Aside from this, the relationship between sector specific regulation and the rules of general competition law is examined in the second section of the book. This part also contains particular contributions on access regimes in gas and electricity markets as well as an innovating analysis on the methods for allocating allowances under the EU Emissions trading scheme and the interaction of such methods with EU state aid rules. Just like the previous volumes of the book, section III offers a deep insight into the external aspects of EU energy policy. Accordingly, the role of the Lisbon Treaty in promoting EU energy policy in the international arena is scrutinized in addition to the most recent evolutions on the topical issue of the Energy Charter Treaty. This section is completed with a daring contribution about the need to adopt a comprehensive theory of legal harmonization between the EU and third partners, which is presented using the specific case of the EU-Russia Energy Dialogue. Last but not least, some fundamental issues regarding the environmental aspects of EU Energy policy undergo an in-depth study in the final section of the book. Not only is the legal regime of energy efficiency in energy-related products examined, but also the issue of carbon constraining policies under WTO law. Finally, the electricity's industry viewpoint on the 2020 targets rounds off this third volume of EU Energy Law and Policy Issues with judicious comments.

  12. EU Developments of the ITER ECRH System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M.

    2006-01-01

    The electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive (H (and) CD) system of ITER will deliver 20 MW/CW in the plasma at 170 GHz for H (and) CD in addition to 2.5 MW/3 s at 120 GHz for plasma start-up. The EC system is composed of power supplies (PS), up to 24 H (and) CD gyrotrons (1 to 2 MW tubes), 3 start-up gyrotrons (1 MW tubes), 24 transmission lines and two sets of launching antennas: equatorial (EL) and upper (UL) launchers. Under the present ITER procurement package the EU is responsible for one third of the H (and) CD 170 GHz gyrotrons, all PSs associated with the H (and) CD system, and the whole set (4) of upper launchers. In all areas of participation, the EU EC partnership (coordinated by the European Fusion Development Association - EFDA) aims toward advancing the technology of each of these subsystems. For example, procurement of Pulse Step Modulator (PSM) HVPS is under consideration, which might have equivalent costs to the present ITER design (thyristor HVPS and HV series switch), but with an increased flexibility in operation and variation in the EC power waveform. The EU is at the forefront in gyrotron research and is developing a 2 MW CW 170 GHz coaxial cavity gyrotron offering an increase in output power while maintaining moderate power densities in the gyrotron cavity and collector. THALES R in collaboration with its EFDA partners (FZK, CRPP, TEKES) is manufacturing a series of prototype tubes in three phases of typically 1 s, 100 s and then CW pulse capacity (∼ 20 10 ). A 2 MW, CW gyrotron test facility is being built at CRPP that will be used to develop the 2 MW coaxial tube, in addition to testing various components required by the EC system. EFDA has undertaken a parallel development of two launcher options: front (FS) and remote (RS) steering, with the aim of providing an optimum launcher for ITER weighing EC physics aspects and operation reliability. The FS launcher (ITER reference design) offers a significant enhancement in physics

  13. TL dosimetric properties BAM:EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Bellam N.; Murthy, K.V.R.; Subba Rao, B.; Saiprasad, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    In phosphor area today top priority is the replacement of the high performance but very expensive rare earth activated phosphors with cheaper materials. This essentially means replacing the rare earth ions with transition metal ions or post transition ions. Now a day's phosphors are used in various fields. After World War II, the advances in the optical spectroscopy of solids, especially those of transition metals ions help to evolve research on phosphor and solid state luminescence. In 1960 efficient rare earth activated phosphors were developed for use in color TV (Tb 3+ green, Eu 3+ red, and Dy 3+ yellow). In 1970 tricolor lamp was introduced blue emission from Ce 3+ + Tb 3+ pair was used in tricolor lamps. At present combination of halo phosphor and tri-band phosphor blend is used in many lamp as a compromise between performance, phosphor cost and the lamp making Cost. Thermo luminescence of 0.5 Gy X-ray irradiated BAM.Eu has been studied. The irradiated phosphor has been studied for its TL dosimetric properties one week after irradiation and after 100 weeks of storage. Interesting TL results are reported in the present paper. Heating rate used in the present experiment is 6.6 deg C/Sec. The following two figures are on TL recorded 100 weeks after irradiation and TL recorded after 235 weeks of storage. Before storage for 100 weeks the TL glow curve with a hump around 180 deg C followed by a peak at 273 deg C. After storage for 100 weeks the TL pattern changes entirely. i.e. the composite TL peak structure emerged as two well resolved peaks and with slightly higher TL peak temperatures at 215 deg C and 300 deg C. Normally after storage for 100 weeks the peak at 190 deg C reduces in its intensity or disappears in some cases, instead of that the peak appears at 215 deg C as well resolved peak and its intensity is almost comparable to that of 300 deg C peak. Since the TL phenomenon observed is interesting the two well resolved, isolated, high intensity peaks

  14. Assessment of the Eu migration experiments and their modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    2001-01-01

    The humic acid transport of heavy metals in underground water was investigated in laboratory experiments using the lanthanide Eu in the form of 152 Eu 3+ , which is both a model heavy metal and an indicator for assessing the potential hazards of ultimate storage sites for radioactive waste [de

  15. Geographic data as personal data in four EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.-J.; van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Halounova, L.; Li, S.; Safár, V.; Tomková, M.; Rapant, P.; Brázdil, K.; Shi, W.; Anton, F.; Liu, Y.; Stein, A.; Cheng, T.; Pettit, C.; Li, Q.-Q.; Sester, M.; Mostafavi, M.A.; Madden, M.; Tong, X.; Brovelli, M.A.; Haekyong, K.; Kawashima, H.; Coltekin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The EU Directive 95/46/EC on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data aims at harmonising data protection legislation in the European Union. This should promote the free flow of products and services within the EU. This

  16. Study on serious road traffic injuries in the EU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. Commandeur, J.J.F. Welsh, R. Niesen, S. Lerner, M. Thomas, P. Bos, N. & Davidse, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    It is the ambition of the EU to reduce the number of killed and seriously injured on the roads over time. It has turned out that, especially in relation to serious injuries, there is still a significant knowledge gap on how to reduce these numbers in the EU. The Commission is therefore committed to

  17. Selective separation of Eu3+ using polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.V.

    1994-03-01

    A process to selectively remove 241 Am from liquid radioactive waste was investigated as an actinide separation method applicable to Hanford and other waste sites. The experimental procedures involved removal of Eu, a nonradioactive surrogate for Am, from aqueous solutions at pH 5 using organic polymers in conjunction with ultrafiltration. Commercially available polyacrylic acid (60,000 MW) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) synthesized E3 copolymer (∼10,000 MW) were tested. Test solutions containing 10 μg/mL of Eu were dosed vath each polymer at various concentrations in order to bind Eu (i.e., by complexation and/or cation exchange) for subsequent rejection by an ultrafiltration coupon. Test solutions were filtered with and without polymer to determine if enhanced Eu separation could be achieved from polymer treatment. Both polymers significantly increased Eu removal. Optimum concentrations were 20 μg/mL of polyacrylic acid and 100 μg/mL of E3 for 100% Eu rejection by the Amicon PM10 membrane at 55 psi. In addition to enhancement of removal, the polymers selectively bound Eu over Na, suggesting that selective separation of Eu was possible. This suggests that polymer-enhanced ultrafiltration is a potential process for separation of 241 Am from Hanford tank waste, further investigation of binding agents and membranes effective under very alkaline and high ionic strength is warranted. This process also has potential applications for selective separation of toxic metals from industrial process streams

  18. Time for EU Matters: The Europeanization of Dutch Central Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Princen, S.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    To what extent does the European Union (EU) affect national governments? This article seeks to answer this question by assessing the Europeanization of Dutch central government. Using data from a large-scale survey among civil servants, we assess to what extent the EU affects the structure and

  19. A New EU Gas Security of Supply Architecture?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, J. [Clingendael International Energy Programme CIEP, The Hague (Netherlands); Glachant, J.M.; Ahner, N. [European University Institute EUI, San Domenico di Fiesole (Italy); Hafner, M.; Tagliapietra, S. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei FEEM, Milan (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    A series of workshops has been organized in order to take stock and discuss a possible new architecture for EU gas security. Discussions and reflections reported from the workshops held under this project have developed into the concluding ideas and recommendations for a new EU gas security of supply architecture, which are reflected in this article.

  20. EU trade in the time of financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtíková, L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the European Union (EU trade and trade policy in the time of global financial and economic crisis. The analysis of the EU exports and imports points out that the financial crisis has had a negative impact on the intra as well as on the extra-EU trade in the period 2007-2009, but differences among the EU member states have existed. Although the EU tries to support trade development in the world and remove barriers to trade, some protectionist tendencies were recorded in the time of the economic crisis. The last part of the paper gives emphasis to the EU trade policy and some trade measures which have been taken in the EU and its member states to support trade development or vice versa, to protect domestic industries. The results of the analysis show that, although some protectionist tendencies have been recorded both in extra and intra-EU trade, trade relations which are provided among member states are of significant importance all the time.

  1. EU-Korea Conference on Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jehyun

    2011-01-01

    Current research fields in science and technology were presented and discussed at the EKC2009, informing about the interests and directions of the scientists and engineers in EU countries and Korea. The Conference has emerged from the idea of bringing together EU and Korea to get to know each other better, especially in fields of science and technology.

  2. MTU locomotive drive systems for EU emissions stage IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintruff, Ingo [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions limits for diesel locomotives within the European Union are regulated by EU Non-road Directive 97/68/EC which places restrictions on the pollutants NOx, particulate, CO and HC. MTU has developed suitable diesel engines for EU Emissions stage IIIB. (orig.)

  3. Fighting windmills? EU industrial interests and global climate negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    for setting a target of 15% of all energy to come from sources such as windmills, solar panels and waves by 2015. Such a target would further the EU's interests globally, and could explain, in economic terms, why the EU eagerly promotes GHG trade at a global level whereas the US has left the Kyoto agreement...

  4. EU External Relations Law and the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    -historical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent...

  5. EU member states' voting for authorizing genetically engineered crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, Richard D.; Blum, Matthias; Wesseler, Justus

    2015-01-01

    Several authors suggest a gridlock of the European Union's (EU's) approval process for genetically engineered (GE) crops. We analyse the voting behaviour of EU Member States (MSs) for voting results from 2003 to 2015 on the approval of GE crops to test for a gridlock; no reliable data are

  6. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  7. Citizens and EU administration: direct and indirect links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.; Mendes, J.

    2011-01-01

    This briefing note focuses on the legal and non-legal avenues by which transparency and participation have been ensured in EU law and practice. Transparency and participation have produced the main recent changes in the way the EU administration relates to its citizens. We provide an overview of the

  8. Eu-Detect: An algorithm for detecting eukaryotic sequences in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. Plots depicting the classification accuracy of Eu-Detect with various combinations of. 'cumulative sequence count' (40K, 50K, 60K, 70K, 80K) and 'coverage threshold' (20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%,. 80%). While blue bars represent Eu-Detect's average classification accuracy with eukaryotic ...

  9. EU'S ANTIDUMPING POLICIES TOWARDS CHINA AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    CLINCI, Ionut Cristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper first tries to describe the antidumping measures and to explain how they work in the trade relations between EU and China. Then it tries to explain the implications of the antidumping measures from an economic perspective. Finally, the paper tries to answer the question whether the EU discriminates China in its antidumping policies.

  10. Gender Perspective on Access to Energy in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Daskalova, Victoria Ivanova; Feenstra, Mariëlle Henriëtte; Franceschelli, Nicolo

    2017-01-01

    This study, commissioned by the European Parliament Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, presents an overview of the situation within the EU with regard to the way energy poverty is experienced by women and men and explores through a gender lens existing EU legislation

  11. How to Reform the EU Budget? A Multidisciplinary Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueira, F.

    The European Commission is currently drafting a proposal for a review of the EU budget, which could lead to its most significant reform to date. This paper proposes a method for restructuring the EU budget, based on a multidisciplinary approach. The insights of public sector economics, fiscal

  12. EU and OECD benchmarking and peer review compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico

    2009-01-01

    Benchmarking and peer review are essential elements of the so-called EU open method of coordination (OMC) which has been contested in the literature for lack of effectiveness. In this paper we compare benchmarking and peer review procedures as used by the EU with those used by the OECD. Different

  13. The geopolitics of future tourism development in an expanding EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Antony Singleton

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assert the link between the process of EU accession, the consolidation of democratic processes and the improvement of economic and tourism infrastructure to incoming tourism flows. Design/methodology/approach – The methodology of this paper involves explanation of an analysis exploring links between governmental systems and the order necessary for economic development and tourism. The argument is supported by the recent history of tourism development in three countries, two within the EU and one outside. Findings – Accession to the EU (especially in the case of Eastern European countries constitutes a way to emulate the democratic freedoms and greater economic prosperity of existing EU member states. Tourism is one of the areas of economy that benefits from the stability and growth EU membership can bring. Accession to the EU has had beneficial effects for acceding in terms of political stability and tourism growth. Originality/value – The opportunities that EU membership can bring to tourism development for example (also strategies to exploit these opportunities depend to a large degree on the international relations between the EU and its rivals. The extent to which tourism demands ebb and flow is governed by a range of factors, but the issues of conflict and security are game breakers. Understanding the factors and trends involved in the peaceful resolution of conflict (democratic model or use of force to resolve conflict (military model is key in the analysis of future tourism opportunities.

  14. Solar Energy: Incentives to Promote PV in EU27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del P. Pablo-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth in the use of renewable energies in the EU has been remarkable. Among these energies is PV. The average annual growth rate for the EU-27 countries in installed PV capacity in the period 2005-2012 was 41.2%. While the installed capacity of PV has reached almost 82 % of National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP targets for the EU-27 countries for 2020, it is still far from being used at its full potential. Over recent years, several measures have been adopted in the EU to enhance and promote PV. This paper undertakes a complete review of the state of PV power in Europe and the measures taken to date to promote it in EU-27. 25 countries have adopted measures to promote PV. The most widespread measure to promote PV use is Feed- in Tariffs. Tariffs are normally adjusted, in a decreasing manner, annually. Nevertheless, currently, seven countries have decided to accelerate this decrease rate in view of cost reduction of the installations and of higher efficiencies. The second instrument used to promote PV in the EU-27 countries is the concession of subsidies. Nevertheless, subsidies have the disadvantage of being closely linked to budgetary resources and therefore to budgetary constraints. In most EU countries, subsidies for renewable energy for PV are being lowered. Twelve EU-27 countries adopted tax measures. Low-interest loans and green certificate systems were only sparingly used.

  15. Vaccination of poultry against Campylobacter in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in the European Union (EU) since 2005. Reportedly, 212,064 humans have been confirmed ill in 2010 due to a Campylobacter infection in the EU. The major source of infection, among sporadic human cases is to be found in...

  16. Functional foods: regulation and innovations in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide consumers are becoming more interested in the relation between food and health. In order to harmonize regulation on foods throughout the EU, the Regulation EC1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force, as a first specific set of EU legal rules dealing with nutrition and

  17. Why and how the EU should act on armed drones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bruno Oliveira; Backhaus, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    This article systematizes the reasons that demand EU action on the issue of armed drones. It argues that a clear positioning of Brussels is required due to consistency with former practices in similar events and fundamental vectors of EU foreign and security policy, as well as legal and strategic...... position itself in the international debate on the regulation of armed drones....

  18. Venue Shifts and Policy Change in EU Fisheries Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Princen, S.B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades profound changes have taken place in the European Union's (EU) fisheries policy. Partly these changes have occurred within the EU's Common Fisheries Policy itself, but partly policy change has been effected by the application of environmental legislation and policy

  19. Investor protection : towards additional EU regulation of investment funds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, Hanna Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of the fund industry has been one of the most notable trends in the financial markets of recent years. Not only has the demand for funds among EU investors grown, but both the number and types of investment funds also continue to increase. Since investment funds available in the EU can

  20. Forthcoming EU Rules on Exit Taxes for Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Rules on exit taxation for the EU as a whole are under construction at European Council level. Formally, the work on this piece of EU tax legislation is part of the controversial Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB). But it is also thinkable that even without a CCCTB being established in

  1. Facing the challenges of the Eu emissions trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryers, S.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon Capital Markets, a specialist trader in the EU ETS has helped a number of cement and chalk producers in Europe manage their CO 2 (or EU Allowance (EUA)) position. From its experience with working with these companies, it recommends ways in which manufacturers can manage their CO 2 position more effectively. (author)

  2. Designing the emerging EU pesticide policy: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    A European Union (EU) wide pesticide tax scheme is among the future plans of EUpolicy makers. This study examines the information needs for applying an optimal pesticidepolicy framework at the EU level. Damage control specification studies, empirical results from pesticide demand elasticity, issues

  3. Expression of sensitized Eu(3+) luminescence at a multivalent interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Shu-Han; Yilmaz, M Deniz; Blum, Christian; Subramaniam, Vinod; Reinhoudt, David N; Velders, Aldrik H; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    Assembly of a mixture of guest-functionalized antenna and Eu(3+)-complexed ligand molecules in a patterned fashion onto a receptor surface provides efficient localized sensitized emission. Coordination of a carboxylate group of the antenna to the Eu(3+) center and noncovalent anchoring of both

  4. Vulnerabilities of regular labour migration in the EU : Guest editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, Mijke; de Lange, Tesseltje

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to present an interdisciplinary overview of migrant workers vulnerabilities. The contributions all deal with the vulnerabilities of EU and third-country national (TCN) migrant workers with legal residence in a receiving state within the EU. Four of the seven articles

  5. NATO and EU/European Defense Initiatives: Competitive or Complementary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muckel, Hubert

    2006-01-01

    .... This paper analyzes the current status of NATO and the European Union (EU) defense initiatives examines national objectives and interests of European key-players and the US and evaluates the aspects of competitiveness or complement of NATO and EU defense initiatives.

  6. Does EU law resolve or create conflicts between shareholders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The contribution discuss how the harmonisation in the EU has been directed at either preventing or solving conflicts between shareholders.......The contribution discuss how the harmonisation in the EU has been directed at either preventing or solving conflicts between shareholders....

  7. Legal Obstacles to Comprehensive EU External Security Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; Spernbauer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the unification of the EU legal order, the merger of external action objectives and the creation of hybrid coordination structures, the dichotomy between the CFSP and non-CFSP categories of EU external action has been maintained in the Lisbon Treaty. This article considers the legal

  8. Energy transfer mechanism in CsI:Eu crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, V.; Trefilova, L.; Karnaukhova, A.; Ovcharenko, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the scintillation process in CsI:Eu crystal exposed to the pulse electron irradiation (E=0.25 MeV, t 1/2 =15 ns and W=0.003 J/cm 2 ). It has been proved that the energy transfer from the lattice to Eu 2+ ions in CsI:Eu occurs through the re-absorption of STE emission. The proposed model rests on the following experimental facts: (1) the activator emission at 2.68 eV rises gradually after the decay of the excitation pulse even at temperature lower than 90 K when V k centers are immobile; (2) the rise time of 2.68 eV emission and the decay time of STE emission have the same temperature dependences at T=78–300 K; (3) the excitation spectrum of 2.68 eV emission overlaps the emission spectrum of STE. -- Highlights: • The scintillation process in CsI:Eu was studied under pulsed electron irradiation. • A model of the energy transfer from the lattice to Eu 2+ ions in CsI:Eu was proposed. • Eu 2+ ions in CsI:Eu reabsorb the π-emission of self-trapped excitons

  9. THE IMPACT OF EU ENLARGEMENT ON THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred E. Kellermann

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available EU Enlargement is a consequence of the success story of the creation of the European Communities, as many applicant countries were attracted to the new legal order based on the rule of law, rather than to an order or disorder based on the rule of politics. As from May 1st 2004, the EU enlargement, unprecedented in its size, marks a historic milestone for the European Union and its Member States, and also for the whole continent. Given this new context, the EU has to find and define new cooperation partnerships with its neighbours. A major partner, not to be neglected in this new policy is by all means Russia. The first Summit between the enlarged EU and Russia held in Moscow on 21 May 2004 was the first high-level meeting of the 25 EU and Russia following the successful conclusion of negotiations between the European Commission and Russia on the extension of the EU-Russia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA to the ten new EU Member States. The Summit calls for the reinforcement of EU-Russia relations via the creation of Four Common Spaces: a common economic space (with specific reference to environment and energy; a common space of Freedom, Security and Justice; a field of external security; as well as a space of research and education including culture. The next step will be to define shared priorities and concrete measures for each of the Four Common Spaces in a mutually agreed Action Plan.

  10. Agrofuels' role in the EU energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricase, C.; Lombardi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Over last years, growing concerns related to climate changes and to the necessity of a certain and guarantee energy supply have been generating considerations that will induce to a substantial review of the current European economic and energy system. In such a developing context, governments and economic operators have been giving an important role to bio energy as an instrument to lower polluting emissions, to diversify energy supply and to increase the value of rural areas. This was also emphasized by the European Union through specific measures and incentives. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current agrofuel' role (biodiesel and bio ethanol) in the EU energy policy, considering the problems related to their use as underlined by the lively discussion at international level [it

  11. Why are most EU pigs tail docked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'eath, R.B.; Niemi, J.K.; Vosough Ahmadi, B.

    2016-01-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive...... by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: ‘Standard Docked’, a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations...... for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); ‘Standard Undocked’, which is the same as ‘Standard Docked’ but with no tail docking, ‘Efficient Undocked’ and ‘Enhanced Undocked’, which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per...

  12. Cooperation Mechanisms To Achieve Eu Renewable Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Pade, Lise-Lotte; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    targets. Furthermore, countries might find themselves competing for investment in a market with limited capital available. In both cases, the cost-efficiency of the renewable support policies is reduced compared to a coordinated solution. Barriers for joint support such as network regulation regarding......There are considerable benefits from cooperating among member states on meeting the 2020 renewable energy sources (RES) targets. Today countries are supporting investments in renewable energy by many different types of support schemes and with different levels of support. The EU has opened...... for cooperation mechanisms such as joint support schemes for promoting renewable energy to meet the 2020 targets. The potential coordination benefits, with more efficient localisation and composition of renewable investment, can be achieved by creating new areas/sub-segments of renewable technologies where...

  13. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  14. Ideological Responses to the EU Refugee Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Krouwel, André P. M.; Emmer, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The 2016 European Union (EU) refugee crisis exposed a fundamental distinction in political attitudes between the political left and right. Previous findings suggest, however, that besides political orientation, ideological strength (i.e., political extremism) is also relevant to understand such distinctive attitudes. Our study reveals that the political right is more anxious, and the political left experiences more self-efficacy, about the refugee crisis. At the same time, the political extremes—at both sides of the spectrum—are more likely than moderates to believe that the solution to this societal problem is simple. Furthermore, both extremes experience more judgmental certainty about their domain-specific knowledge of the refugee crisis, independent of their actual knowledge. Finally, belief in simple solutions mediated the relationship between ideology and judgmental certainty, but only among political extremists. We conclude that both ideological orientation and strength matter to understand citizens’ reactions to the refugee crisis. PMID:29593852

  15. The EU Comprehensive Approach on Somali Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Caramerli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Aden represents a strategic issue for the international community, as its geographical position is fundamental as the major trade maritime route. About 50 percent of the world container ships pass through the Gulf of Aden each year, 80 percent of those cargos coming from Europe. For this reason, the piracy issue affecting Somalia is a problem affecting EU member states’ security and economy. This paper is focused on the comprehensive approach acted by the European Union, with a special attention on proposing the implementation of programs against illegal fishing and waste dumping in order to fight Somali piracy. The evaluation of the military mission offers an overview on a solution for the near future, while the training missions and the development funds sustain the build-up of national tools and focus on the solving of the roots of the issue.

  16. PSI contribution to the EU project ECOMONT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portmann, W; Siegwolf, R T; Saurer, M; Scheidegger, Y; Geissbuehler, P; Furger, M; Poggio, L; Erne, R; Richter, R; Buerki, D; Graber, W K [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Land-use changes (intensification, extensification and abandonment) in agriculture and forestry are considered to be the major driving forces for changes in ecosystem function and dynamics, and in landscape patterns in Europe. The aim of the EU project ECOMONT is to investigate the potential risks due to land-use change in the mountainous ecosystem. Fluxes of sensible and latent heat, water vapour, CO{sub 2} and pollutants between the vegetation and the atmosphere are sensitive and critical factors characterising landscape function. The Atmospheric Pollution Section of the PSI contributes to this project with the measurements of these fluxes. The measuring techniques, the experimental setup and first results are presented. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  17. The Social Dimension of EU Trade Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2009-01-01

    will ask how the EU initiatives in this area could increase the legitimacy of the ‘trade and social linkage' in international politics and economics from a normative power perspective. Finally, the article concludes by suggesting a more holistic approach to the promotion of the social dimension......'s social dimension in trade relations - human rights versus welfare concerns and exclusive competence versus lack of competence. These questions and tensions are rendered more methodologically problematic by the existence and activities of other actors and trading powers, such as the International Labour...... Organisation (ILO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as the United States and China, for example. The rest of the article will provide refl ections on the ideas raised in the special issue from a normative power perspective in six sections. First, it will elaborate on the role of labour rights...

  18. Search for linking transitions in {sup 143}Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerma, F.; LaFosse, D.R.; Devlin, M. [Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Six SD bands were populated in {sup 143}Eu and {sup 144}Eu, two of which had not been previously observed. Sum spectra were generated to search for two step links from the yrast SD band in {sup 143}Eu. However, no two step links were found. A single link from the SD band in {sup 143}Eu was found at 3364 keV. The level where it feeds into has not been identified. Alpha-particle energy (E{sub {alpha}}) spectra leading to the SD band and to normal states in {sup 143}Eu were measured and a correlation was found between E{sub {alpha}} and the level spin of the residual nucleus.

  19. Economic benefits of the EU Ecodesign Directive. Improving European economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenbroek, E.; Cuijpers, M.; Blok, K.

    2012-04-15

    The EU Ecodesign Directive aims at reducing the environmental impact of a number of products sold in the EU, with emphasis on their energy consumption. Ecofys investigated economic benefits related to the Directive. A correct implementation of the EU Ecodesign Directive would yield yearly savings of up to 600 TWh of electricity and 600 TWh of heat in 2020. In addition to these environmental benefits, this study identified important economic advantages like: Net savings for European consumers and businesses of 90 billion euro per year (1% of EU's current GDP) in the year 2020; Reinvesting these savings in other sectors of the economy would result in the creation of one million jobs; Dependency on imports of energy would be reduced by 23% and 37% for natural gas and coal, respectively. This means the EU could slash natural gas imports from Russia by more than half and imports of coal from Russia could be stopped altogether.

  20. Epistemic Dependence and the EU Seal Ban Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Blichner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On September 2009 the European Union (EU adopted a regulation banning the import of seal products into the EU or placing seal products on the EU market. The European Parliament was the main driving force behind the regulation and the EU has been criticised by affected countries outside the EU for not basing this decision on the available expert knowledge. The questions asked are how, given epistemic dependence, non-experts may challenge an expert based policy proposal. Can non-experts hold experts accountable, and if so in what way? Three main tests and ten subtests of expert knowledge are proposed and these tests are then used to assess whether the European Parliament did in fact argue in a way consistent with available expert knowledge in amending the Commission proposal for a regulation.