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Sample records for etx induced lung

  1. Moderate postnatal hyperoxia accelerates lung growth and attenuates pulmonary hypertension in infant rats after exposure to intra-amniotic endotoxin.

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    Tang, Jen-Ruey; Seedorf, Gregory J; Muehlethaler, Vincent; Walker, Deandra L; Markham, Neil E; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Abman, Steven H

    2010-12-01

    To determine the separate and interactive effects of fetal inflammation and neonatal hyperoxia on the developing lung, we hypothesized that: 1) antenatal endotoxin (ETX) causes sustained abnormalities of infant lung structure; and 2) postnatal hyperoxia augments the adverse effects of antenatal ETX on infant lung growth. Escherichia coli ETX or saline (SA) was injected into amniotic sacs in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 days of gestation. Pups were delivered 2 days later and raised in room air (RA) or moderate hyperoxia (O₂, 80% O₂ at Denver's altitude, ∼65% O₂ at sea level) from birth through 14 days of age. Heart and lung tissues were harvested for measurements. Intra-amniotic ETX caused right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and decreased lung vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) protein contents at birth. In ETX-exposed rats (ETX-RA), alveolarization and vessel density were decreased, pulmonary vascular wall thickness percentage was increased, and RVH was persistent throughout the study period compared with controls (SA-RA). After antenatal ETX, moderate hyperoxia increased lung VEGF and VEGFR-2 protein contents in ETX-O₂ rats and improved their alveolar and vascular structure and RVH compared with ETX-RA rats. In contrast, severe hyperoxia (≥95% O₂ at Denver's altitude) further reduced lung vessel density after intra-amniotic ETX exposure. We conclude that intra-amniotic ETX induces fetal pulmonary hypertension and causes persistent abnormalities of lung structure with sustained pulmonary hypertension in infant rats. Moreover, moderate postnatal hyperoxia after antenatal ETX restores lung growth and prevents pulmonary hypertension during infancy.

  2. Vitamin D treatment improves survival and infant lung structure after intra-amniotic endotoxin exposure in rats: potential role for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

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    Mandell, Erica; Seedorf, Gregory; Gien, Jason; Abman, Steven H

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D (vit D) has anti-inflammatory properties and modulates lung growth, but whether vit D can prevent lung injury after exposure to antenatal inflammation is unknown. We hypothesized that early and sustained vit D treatment could improve survival and preserve lung growth in an experimental model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia induced by antenatal exposure to endotoxin (ETX). Fetal rats (E20) were exposed to ETX (10 μg), ETX + Vit D (1 ng/ml), or saline (control) via intra-amniotic (IA) injections and delivered 2 days later. Newborn pups exposed to IA ETX received daily intraperitoneal injections of vit D (1 ng/g) or saline for 14 days. Vit D treatment improved oxygen saturations (78 vs. 87%; P < 0.001) and postnatal survival (84% vs. 57%; P < 0.001) after exposure to IA ETX compared with IA ETX alone. Postnatal vit D treatment improved alveolar and vascular growth at 14 days by 45% and 25%, respectively (P < 0.05). Vit D increased fetal sheep pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) growth and tube formation by 64% and 44%, respectively (P < 0.001), and prevented ETX-induced reductions of PAEC growth and tube formation. Vit D directly increased fetal alveolar type II cell (ATIIC) growth by 26% (P < 0.001) and enhanced ATIIC growth in the presence of ETX-induced growth suppression by 73% (P < 0.001). We conclude that antenatal vit D therapy improved oxygenation and survival in newborn rat pups and enhanced late lung structure after exposure to IA ETX in vivo, which may partly be due to direct effects on vascular and alveolar growth.

  3. Drug induced interstitial lung disease.

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    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease.

  4. Genetic resistance determinants, in vitro time-kill curve analysis and pharmacodynamic functions for the novel topoisomerase II inhibitor ETX0914 (AZD0914 in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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    Sunniva eFoerster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae to all available therapeutic antimicrobials has emerged and new efficacious drugs for treatment of gonorrhea are essential. The topoisomerase II inhibitor ETX0914 (also known as AZD0914 is a new spiropyrimidinetrione antimicrobial that has different mechanisms of action from all previous and current gonorrhea treatment options. In this study, the N. gonorrhoeae resistance determinants for ETX0914 were further described and the effects of ETX0914 on the growth of N. gonorrhoeae (ETX0914 wild type, single step selected resistant mutants, and efflux pump mutants were examined in a novel in vitro time-kill curve analysis to estimate pharmacodynamic parameters of the new antimicrobial. For comparison, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, and tetracycline were also examined (separately and in combination with ETX0914. ETX0914 was rapidly bactericidal for all wild type strains and had similar pharmacodynamic properties to ciprofloxacin. All selected resistant mutants contained mutations in amino acid codons D429 or K450 of GyrB and inactivation of the MtrCDE efflux pump fully restored the susceptibility to ETX0914. ETX0914 alone and in combination with azithromycin and ceftriaxone was highly effective against N. gonorrhoeae and synergistic interaction with ciprofloxacin, particularly for ETX0914-resistant mutants, was found. ETX0914, monotherapy or in combination with azithromycin (to cover additional sexually transmitted infections, should be considered for phase III clinical trials and future gonorrhea treatment.

  5. Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury

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    Tomás Reinert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin is a chemotherapeutic agent commonly used to treat curable diseases such as germinative tumors and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The major limitation of bleomycin therapy is pulmonary toxicity, which can be life threatening in up to 10% of patients receiving the drug. The mechanism of bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP involves oxidative damage, relative deficiency of the deactivating enzyme bleomycin hydrolase, genetic susceptibility, and the elaboration of inflammatory cytokines. Ultimately, BIP can progress to lung fibrosis. The diagnosis of BIP is established by the combination of systemic symptoms, radiological and histological findings, and respiratory function tests abnormalities, while other disorders should be excluded. Although the diagnosis and pathophysiology of this disease have been better characterized over the past few years, there is no effective therapy for the disease. In general, the clinical picture is extremely complex. A greater understanding of the BIP pathogenesis may lead to the development of new agents capable of preventing or even treating the injury already present. Physicians who prescribe bleomycin must be aware of the potential pulmonary toxicity, especially in the presence of risk factors. This review will focus on BIP, mainly regarding recent advances and perspectives in diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Toluene-induced acute lung injury

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    Abhishek Singhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toluene inhalation is an important occupational health hazard in persons working in factories manufacturing paint, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and rubber. The present report describes an unusual case of toluene-induced acute lung injury threatening life.

  7. Performance testing of the Ford/GE Second Generation Single-Shaft Electric Propulsion (ETX-II) System

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    MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1993-06-01

    System-level-operational testing of the ETX-II test-bed electric vehicle is described and the results discussed. Because the traction battery is a major factor in the performance of an electric vehicle, previously reported work on the sodium-sulfur battery designed for use with the ETX-II is reviewed in detail. Chassis dynamometer performance of the test-bed vehicle met or exceeded design goals and compared reasonably well with SIMPLEV computer modeling results. Areas are identified wherein further work is needed to establish a firmer basis for comparison of the simulation and the observed results.

  8. Inspiratory resistive breathing induces acute lung injury.

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    Toumpanakis, Dimitris; Kastis, George A; Zacharatos, Panagiotis; Sigala, Ioanna; Michailidou, Tatiana; Kouvela, Maroussa; Glynos, Constantinos; Divangahi, Maziar; Roussos, Charis; Theocharis, Stamatios E; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros

    2010-11-01

    Resistive breathing is associated with large negative intrathoracic pressures. Increased mechanical stress induces high-permeability pulmonary edema and lung inflammation. To determine the effects of resistive breathing on the healthy lung. Anesthetized rats breathed through a two-way nonrebreathing valve. The inspiratory line was connected to a resistance setting peak inspiratory tracheal pressure at 50% of maximum (inspiratory resistive breathing), while 100% oxygen was supplied to prevent hypoxemia. Quietly breathing animals (100% oxygen) served as controls. Lung injury was evaluated after 3 and 6 hours of resistive breathing. After both 3 and 6 hours of resistive breathing, lung permeability was increased, as assessed by (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scintigraphy and Evans blue dye extravasation. Tissue elasticity, measured on the basis of static pressure-volume curves and by the low-frequency forced oscillation technique, was also increased. After both 3 and 6 hours of resistive breathing, gravimetric measurements revealed the presence of pulmonary edema and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage showed increased total protein content, whereas the total cell count was elevated only after 6 hours of resistive breathing. Cytokine levels were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue by ELISA and were increased after 6 hours compared with controls. Western blot analysis showed early activation of Src kinase via phosphorylation (at 30 min), and Erk1/2 and IκBα (nuclear factor-κB inhibitor) were phosphorylated at 3 and 6 hours. Pathology revealed the presence of lung injury after resistive breathing. Resistive breathing induces acute lung injury and inflammation.

  9. Acute and subacute chemical-induced lung injuries: HRCT findings

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    Akira, Masanori, E-mail: Akira@kch.hosp.go.jp [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, 1180 Nagasone-cho, Kita-ku, Sakai City, Osaka 591-8555 (Japan); Suganuma, Narufumi [Department of Environmental Medicine, Kochi Medical School (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Lung injury caused by chemicals includes bronchitis, bronchiolitis, chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, and sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease. Each chemical induces variable pathophysiology and the situation resembles to the drug induced lung disease. The HRCT features are variable and nonspecific, however HRCT may be useful in the evaluation of the lung injuries and so we should know about HRCT features of lung parenchymal abnormalities caused by chemicals.

  10. In vitro growth of multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates is inhibited by ETX0914, a novel spiropyrimidinetrione.

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    Papp, John R; Lawrence, Kenneth; Sharpe, Samera; Mueller, John; Kirkcaldy, Robert D

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has severely limited the number of treatment options, and the emergence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance threatens the effectiveness of the last remaining recommended treatment regimen. This study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to ETX0914, a novel spiropyrimidinetrione that inhibits DNA biosynthesis. In vitro activity was determined by agar dilution against 100 N. gonorrhoeae isolates collected from men presenting with urethritis in the USA during 2012-2013 through the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) that inhibited growth in 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90) of isolates was calculated for each antimicrobial agent. ETX0914 demonstrated a high level of antimicrobial activity against N. gonorrhoeae, including isolates with decreased susceptibility or resistance to currently available agents. The ability of ETX0914 to inhibit the growth of N. gonorrhoeae was similar to ceftriaxone, which is currently recommended in combination with azithromycin to treat gonorrhoea. The data presented in this study strongly suggest that ETX0914 should be evaluated in a clinical trial for the treatment of N. gonorrhoeae. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Lung emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: Studies in mice

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    Eijl, Teunis Jan Ahasuerus van

    2006-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to shed some more light on the mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema. We used elastase instillation to induce lung emphysema, and subsequently perfused the lungs ex-vivo with buffer at a range of flows to measure changes

  12. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

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    Baker S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Baker, Alysa Fairchild Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. Keywords: non–small cell lung cancer, acute, late, toxicity, stricture

  13. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

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    Baker, Sarah; Fairchild, Alysa

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. PMID:28210168

  14. Allicin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of allicin, an active component of garlic, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced acute lung injury. Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to LPS intravenous injection with or without allicin treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. Also, A549 cells were stimulated with LPS in the ...

  15. Uranium induces apoptosis in lung epithelial cells

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    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Sadanandan, Bindu; Thomas, Renard; Wilson, Bobby L. [Texas Southern University, Environmental Toxicology Program, Department of Chemistry, Houston, TX (United States); Ravichandran, Prabakaran; Sharma, Chidananda S.; Ramesh, Vani; Hall, Joseph C.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T. [Norfolk State University, Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Center for Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive material present everywhere in the environment. It is toxic because of its chemical or radioactive properties. Uranium enters environment mainly from mines and industry and cause threat to human health by accumulating in lungs as a result of inhalation. In our previous study, we have shown the effectiveness of antioxidant system response to the oxidative stress induced by uranyl acetate (UA) in rat lung epithelial (LE) cells. As part of our continuing studies; here, we investigated the mechanism underlying when LE cells are exposed to different concentration of UA. Oxidative stress may lead to apoptotic signaling pathways. LE cells treated with 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mM of UA results in dose and time-dependent increase in activity of both caspases-3 and -8. Increase in the concentration of cytochrome-c oxidase in cytosol was seen in LE cells treated with 1 mM UA as a result of mitochondria membrane permeability. The cytochrome-c leakage may trigger the apoptotic pathway. TUNEL assay performed in LE cells treated with 1 mM of UA showed significant incorporation of dNTPs in the nucleus after 24 h. In the presence of the caspase inhibitors, we observed the significant decrease in the activity of caspases-8 and -3 in 0.5 and 1 mM UA-treated LE cells. (orig.)

  16. Effects of HIFU induced cavitation on flooded lung parenchyma.

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    Wolfram, Frank; Dietrich, Georg; Boltze, Carsten; Jenderka, Klaus Vitold; Lesser, Thomas Günther

    2017-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has gained clinical interest as a non-invasive local tumour therapy in many organs. In addition, it has been shown that lung cancer can be targeted by HIFU using One-Lung Flooding (OLF). OLF generates a gas free saline-lung compound in one lung wing and therefore acoustic access to central lung tumours. It can be assumed that lung parenchyma is exposed to ultrasound intensities in the pre-focal path and in cases of misguiding. If so, cavitation might be induced in the saline fraction of flooded lung and cause tissue damage. Therefore this study was aimed to determine the thresholds of HIFU induced cavitation and tissue erosion in flooded lung. Resected human lung lobes were flooded ex-vivo. HIFU (1,1 MHz) was targeted under sonographic guidance into flooded lung parenchyma. Cavitation events were counted using subharmonic passive cavitation detection (PCD). B-Mode imaging was used to detect cavitation and erosion sonographically. Tissue samples out of the focal zone were analysed histologically. In flooded lung, a PCD and a sonographic cavitation detection threshold of 625  Wcm - 2 ( p r  = 4, 3  MPa ) and 3.600  Wcm - 2 ( p r  = 8, 3  MPa ) was found. Cavitation in flooded lung appears as blurred hyperechoic focal region, which enhances echogenity with insonation time. Lung parenchyma erosion was detected at intensities above 7.200  Wcm - 2 ( p r  = 10, 9  MPa ). Cavitation occurs in flooded lung parenchyma, which can be detected passively and by B-Mode imaging. Focal intensities required for lung tumour ablation are below levels where erosive events occur. Therefore focal cavitation events can be monitored and potential risk from tissue erosion in flooded lung avoided.

  17. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

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    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  18. [NLRP3 inflammasome induces pyroptosis in lung tissues of radiation-induced lung injury in mice].

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    Han, Rong; Wu, Dongming; Deng, Shihua; Liu, Teng; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Ying

    2017-09-01

    Objective To establish a radiation-induced lung injury model and investigate the role of caspase-1-dependent programmed cell death (pyroptosis) in the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. Methods BALB/c mice were sacrificed after receiving 5-day 15 Gy X-ray irradiation at chest cavity. The pathological changes of pulmonary tissues were observed by HE staining. The apoptosis of lung tissues cells after irradiation was detected by TUNEL assay. The expressions of γ-H2AX, ki67, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC/TMS-1) were detected by Western blot analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to check mRNA levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β and IL-18. Immunohistochemical staining was used to determine the expressions of NLRP3, caspase-1 and TMS1 in lung tissues. The activity of caspase-1 was evaluated by caspase-1 assay kit, and the serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18 were detected by ELISA. Results After irradiation, the capillaries of the alveolar wall of the mice were dilated and congested, inflammatory cells infiltrated, the alveolar wall thickened. Positive rate of lung tissue cells was raised in TUNEL staining. The expressions of γ-H2AX and ki67 were elevated, indicating that DNA damage and cell proliferation activity decreased in lung tissues. The mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and MCP-1 in lung cells increased; the serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18 increased; the expressions of IL-1β, IL-18, NLRP3, caspase-1 and ASC/TMS-1 in lung tissues were enhanced; and caspase-1 activity increased. Conclusion After irradiation, the pyroptosis caused by the activation of NLRP3 inflammatory body occurred in the lung tissue of mice.

  19. Responding to the challenge of untreatable gonorrhea: ETX0914, a first-in-class agent with a distinct mechanism-of-action against bacterial Type II topoisomerases

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    Basarab, Gregory S.; Kern, Gunther H.; McNulty, John; Mueller, John P.; Lawrence, Kenneth; Vishwanathan, Karthick; Alm, Richard A.; Barvian, Kevin; Doig, Peter; Galullo, Vincent; Gardner, Humphrey; Gowravaram, Madhusudhan; Huband, Michael; Kimzey, Amy; Morningstar, Marshall; Kutschke, Amy; Lahiri, Sushmita D.; Perros, Manos; Singh, Renu; Schuck, Virna J. A.; Tommasi, Ruben; Walkup, Grant; Newman, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    With the diminishing effectiveness of current antibacterial therapies, it is critically important to discover agents that operate by a mechanism that circumvents existing resistance. ETX0914, the first of a new class of antibacterial agent targeted for the treatment of gonorrhea, operates by a novel mode-of-inhibition against bacterial type II topoisomerases. Incorporating an oxazolidinone on the scaffold mitigated toxicological issues often seen with topoisomerase inhibitors. Organisms resistant to other topoisomerase inhibitors were not cross-resistant with ETX0914 nor were spontaneous resistant mutants to ETX0914 cross-resistant with other topoisomerase inhibitor classes, including the widely used fluoroquinolone class. Preclinical evaluation of ETX0914 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics showed distribution into vascular tissues and efficacy in a murine Staphylococcus aureus infection model that served as a surrogate for predicting efficacious exposures for the treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. A wide safety margin to the efficacious exposure in toxicological evaluations supported progression to Phase 1. Dosing ETX0914 in human volunteers showed sufficient exposure and minimal adverse effects to expect a highly efficacious anti-gonorrhea therapy. PMID:26168713

  20. Combined prednisolone and pirfenidone in bleomycin-induced lung disease

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    Preyas J Vaidya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin is a cytostatic drug commonly employed in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, seminomas, and choriocarcinoma. Bleomycin may induce a chronic pulmonary inflammation that may progress to fibrosis. So far, only corticosteroids have been used in the treatment of bleomycin-induced lung disease with variable results. Pirfenidone is an antifibrotic drug that has been approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We report two cases of bleomycin-induced lung disease treated successfully with pirfenidone and oral corticosteroids.

  1. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity mimicking metastatic lung disease.

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    Patel, P; Honeybourne, D; Watson, R D

    1987-05-01

    A 65 year old man developed atrial arrhythmias secondary to a congestive cardiomyopathy which were resistant to quinidine and disopyramide. Amiodarone controlled the paroxysmal atrial tachycardia but 4 months after starting the drug he developed increasing dyspnoea and radiological changes highly suggestive of metastatic lung disease. Lung biopsy showed change of drug-induced pneumonitis and 4 months after stopping amiodarone his symptoms resolved and the chest X-ray had cleared. Amiodarone may cause pulmonary toxicity mimicking metastatic lung disease.

  2. Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung cancer cells. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... (8-OHdG), and apoptosis based on 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were evaluated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, namely, H1155, ...

  3. Multidrug-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Nanjing, China, Are Sensitive to Killing by a Novel DNA Gyrase Inhibitor, ETX0914 (AZD0914).

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    Su, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Bao-Xi; Le, Wen-Jing; Liu, Yu-Rong; Wan, Chuan; Li, Sai; Alm, Richard A; Mueller, John P; Rice, Peter A

    2015-10-19

    We tested the activity of ETX0914 against 187 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from men with urethritis in Nanjing, China, in 2013. The MIC50, MIC90, and MIC range for ETX0914 were 0.03 μg/ml, 0.06 μg/ml, and ≤0.002 to 0.125 μg/ml, respectively. All isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 36.9% (69/187) were resistant to azithromycin. Of the isolates, 46.5% were penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG), 36% were tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (TRNG), and 13% (24 isolates) had an MIC of 0.125 μg/ml for ceftriaxone. ETX0914 may be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Corilagin Attenuates Aerosol Bleomycin-Induced Experimental Lung Injury

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    Wang, Zheng; Guo, Qiong-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Ju; Li, Xiao; Li, Wen-Ting; Ma, Xi-Tao; Ma, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressing lethal disease with few clinically effective therapies. Corilagin is a tannin derivative which shows anti-inflammatory and antifibrotics properties and is potentiated in treating IPF. Here, we investigated the effect of corilagin on lung injury following bleomycin exposure in an animal model of pulmonary fibrosis. Corilagin abrogated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as assessed by H&E; Masson’s trichrome staining and lung hydroxyproline content in lung tissue. Corilagin reduced the number of apoptotic lung cells and prevented lung epithelial cells from membrane breakdown, effluence of lamellar bodies and thickening of the respiratory membrane. Bleomycin exposure induced expression of MDA, IKKα, phosphorylated IKKα (p-IKKα), NF-κB P65, TNF-α and IL-1β, and reduced I-κB expression in mice lung tissue or in BALF. These changes were reversed by high-dose corilagin (100 mg/kg i.p) more dramatically than by low dose (10 mg/kg i.p). Last, corilagin inhibits TGF-β1 production and α-SMA expression in lung tissue samples. Taken together, these findings confirmed that corilagin attenuates bleomycin-induced epithelial injury and fibrosis via inactivation of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokine release and NF-κB and TGF-β1 signaling. Corilagin may serve as a promising therapeutic agent for pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:24886817

  5. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs.

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    Lin, Chia-Chih; Hsieh, Nan-Kuang; Liou, Huey Ling; Chen, Hsing I

    2012-03-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI). Niacinamide (NAC) is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC) on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g), PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight), cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight). There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate) and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose) polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS). The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental role in the PMA-induced lung injury. ATP is beneficial

  6. Particulate matter-induced epigenetic changes and lung cancer.

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    Li, Jinghong; Li, Willis X; Bai, Chunxue; Song, Yuanlin

    2017-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Cigarette smoking is the well-known risk factor for lung cancer. Epidemiological studies suggest that air pollution, especially particulate matter (PM) exposure, is associated with increased lung cancer risk and mortality independent of cigarette smoking. English-language publications focusing on PM, epigenetic changes, and lung cancer were reviewed. The epigenome serves as an interface between the environment and the genome. PM is one of the environmental factors that can cause epigenetic changes. The epigenome serves as an interface between the environment and the genome. Some of the epigenetic changes lead to increased disease susceptibility and progression. In cardiovascular disease and asthma, the association between PM exposure and the disease specific epigenetic changes has been identified. In lung cancer, the epigenetic changes in DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression are commonly found, but the specific link between PM exposure and lung cancer remains incompletely understood. The results of epidemiological studies indicate the important effects of PM exposure on lung cancer. PM2.5 is consistently associated with the increased lung cancer risk and mortality. Based on the epidemiological associations between PM exposure and lung cancer, PM-induced epigenetic changes may play important roles in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge of epigenetic changes associated with PM exposure and lung cancer. Better understanding of the link between PM exposure and lung cancer at the epigenomic level by comprehensive comparison approach may identify lung cancer early detection biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Drug induced lung disease; Medikamenteninduzierte Lungenveraenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia [Medizinisches Zentrum Meander (MMC) Amersfoort (Netherlands). Abt. fuer Radiologie; Eisenhuber, Edith [Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Wien (Austria). Abt. fuer Radiologie

    2010-12-15

    There is an ever increasing number of drugs that can cause lung disease. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, since the clinical symptoms are mostly nonspecific. Various HRCT patterns can be correlated - though with overlaps - to lung changes caused by certain groups of drugs. Alternative diagnosis such as infection, edema or underlying lung disease has to be excluded by clinical-radiological means. Herefore is profound knowledge of the correlations of drug effects and imaging findings essential. History of drug exposure, suitable radiological findings and response to treatment (corticosteroids and stop of medication) mostly provide the base for the diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. Cannabidiol improves lung function and inflammation in mice submitted to LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A; Almeida, V I; Costola-de-Souza, C; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Vitoretti, L B; Gimenes-Junior, J A; Akamine, A T; Crippa, J A; Tavares-de-Lima, W; Palermo-Neto, J

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that the prophylactic treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) reduces inflammation in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). In this work we analyzed the effects of the therapeutic treatment with CBD in mice subjected to the model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI on pulmonary mechanics and inflammation. CBD (20 and 80 mg/kg) was administered (i.p.) to mice 6 h after LPS-induced lung inflammation. One day (24 h) after the induction of inflammation the assessment of pulmonary mechanics and inflammation were analyzed. The results show that CBD decreased total lung resistance and elastance, leukocyte migration into the lungs, myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue, protein concentration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-6) and chemokines (MCP-1 and MIP-2) in the bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant. Thus, we conclude that CBD administered therapeutically, i.e. during an ongoing inflammatory process, has a potent anti-inflammatory effect and also improves the lung function in mice submitted to LPS-induced ALI. Therefore the present and previous data suggest that in the future cannabidiol might become a useful therapeutic tool for the attenuation and treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.

  9. Metformin prevents tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmott, Regan M.; Mercado, Jose R.; Maier, Colleen R.; Kawabata, Shigeru; Fox, Stephen D.; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the mTOR pathway is an important and early event in tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis, and therapies that target mTOR could be effective in the prevention or treatment of lung cancer. The biguanide metformin, which is widely prescribed for the treatment of type II diabetes, might be a good candidate for lung cancer chemoprevention because it activates AMPK, which can inhibit the mTOR pathway. To test this, A/J mice were treated with oral metformin after exposure to the tobacco carcinogen NNK. Metformin reduced lung tumor burden by up to 53% at steady-state plasma concentrations that are achievable in humans. mTOR was inhibited in lung tumors but only modestly. To test whether intraperitoneal administration of metformin might improve mTOR inhibition, we injected mice and assessed biomarkers in liver and lung tissues. Plasma levels of metformin were significantly higher after injection than oral administration. In liver tissue, metformin activated AMPK and inhibited mTOR. In lung tissue, metformin did not activate AMPK but inhibited phosphorylation of IGF-IR/IR, Akt, ERK, and mTOR. This suggested that metformin indirectly inhibited mTOR in lung tissue by decreasing activation of IGF-1R/IR and Akt upstream of mTOR. Based on these data, we repeated the NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis study using intraperitoneal administration of metformin. Metformin decreased tumor burden by 72%, which correlated with decreased cellular proliferation and marked inhibition of mTOR in tumors. These studies show that metformin prevents tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis, and support clinical testing of metformin as a chemopreventive agent. PMID:20810672

  10. Differential Gene Expression in Chemically Induced Mouse Lung Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisheng Yao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of similarities in histopathology and tumor progression stages between mouse and human lung adenocarcinomas, the mouse lung tumor model with lung adenomas as the endpoint has been used extensively to evaluate the efficacy of putative lung cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, a competitive cDNA library screening (CCLS was employed to determine changes in the expression of mRNA in chemically induced lung adenomas compared with paired normal lung tissues. A total of 2555 clones having altered expression in tumors were observed following competitive hybridization between normal lung and lung adenomas after primary screening of over 160,000 clones from a mouse lung cDNA library. Among the 755 clones confirmed by dot blot hybridization, 240 clones were underexpressed, whereas 515 clones were overexpressed in tumors. Sixty-five clones with the most frequently altered expression in six individual tumors were confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. When examining the 58 known genes, 39 clones had increased expression and 19 had decreased expression, whereas the 7 novel genes showed overexpression. A high percentage (>60% of overexpressed or underexpressed genes was observed in at least two or three of the lesions. Reproducibly overexpressed genes included ERK-1, JAK-1, surfactant proteins A, B, and C, NFAT1, α-1 protease inhibitor, helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase (CHUK, α-adaptin, α-1 PI2, thioether S-methyltransferase, and CYP2C40. Reproducibly underexpressed genes included paroxanase, ALDH II, CC10, von Ebner salivary gland protein, and α- and β-globin. In addition, CCLS identified several novel genes or genes not previously associated with lung carcinogenesis, including a hypothetical protein (FLJ11240 and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor homologue. This study shows the efficacy of this methodology for identifying genes with altered expression. These genes may prove to be helpful in our understanding of the genetic basis of

  11. CXCR2 is critical for dsRNA-induced lung injury: relevance to viral lung infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ying

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory viral infections are characterized by the infiltration of leukocytes, including activated neutrophils into the lung that can lead to sustained lung injury and potentially contribute to chronic lung disease. Specific mechanisms recruiting neutrophils to the lung during virus-induced lung inflammation and injury have not been fully elucidated. Since CXCL1 and CXCL2/3, acting through CXCR2, are potent neutrophil chemoattractants, we investigated their role in dsRNA-induced lung injury, where dsRNA (Poly IC is a well-described synthetic agent mimicking acute viral infection. Methods We used 6–8 week old female BALB/c mice to intratracheally inject either single-stranded (ssRNA or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA into the airways. The lungs were then harvested at designated timepoints to characterize the elicited chemokine response and resultant lung injury following dsRNA exposure as demonstrated qualititatively by histopathologic analysis, and quantitatively by FACS, protein, and mRNA analysis of BAL fluid and tissue samples. We then repeated the experiments by first pretreating mice with an anti-PMN or corresponding control antibody, and then subsequently pretreating a separate cohort of mice with an anti-CXCR2 or corresponding control antibody prior to dsRNA exposure. Results Intratracheal dsRNA led to significant increases in neutrophil infiltration and lung injury in BALB/c mice at 72 h following dsRNA, but not in response to ssRNA (Poly C; control treatment. Expression of CXCR2 ligands and CXCR2 paralleled neutrophil recruitment to the lung. Neutrophil depletion studies significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration and lung injury in response to dsRNA when mice were pretreated with an anti-PMN monoclonal Ab. Furthermore, inhibition of CXCR2 ligands/CXCR2 interaction by pretreating dsRNA-exposed mice with an anti-CXCR2 neutralizing Ab also significantly attenuated neutrophil sequestration and lung injury. Conclusion

  12. Tangeretin sensitises human lung cancer cells to TRAIL- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. (H1299 and H1975). Methods: ... Western blotting was performed to assess the expression of death receptors, apoptosis pathway proteins, JNK and ERK1/2. ...... upregulation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. World J.

  13. Modulation of cyclophosphamide-induced early lung injury by allicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashry, Nora A; Gameil, Nariman M; Suddek, Ghada M

    2013-06-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) causes lung injury in rats through its ability to generate free radicals with subsequent epithelial and endothelial cell damage. This study was conducted to assess whether allicin can ameliorate CP-induced early lung injury in rats. Male Sprague Dawely rats were divided into four groups. Group I was the control group. Group II received allicin (50 mg/kg/d, p.o.) for 14 consecutive days. Group III was injected once with CP (150 mg/kg, i.p.). Group IV received allicin for seven consecutive days, before and after CP injection (150 mg/kg, i.p.). The parameters of study were serum biomarkers, lung tissue antioxidant profile and histopathological changes in lung tissue. A single intraperitoneal injection of CP markedly altered the levels of several biomarkers in lung homogenates. Significant increases in lung content of lipid hydroperoxides were seen that paralleled the decreased levels of total reduced glutathione. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) was significantly increased. CP increased the level of serum biomarkers; total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Pretreatment of rats daily with oral allicin seven days prior to and seven days after CP inject significantly inhibited the development of lung injury, prevented the alterations in lung and serum biomarkers associated with inflammatory reactions, with less lipid peroxidation (LP) and restoration of antioxidants. Moreover, allicin attenuated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α expression in rat serum. In addition, allicin effectively blunted CP-induced histopathological changes in lung tissue. Our results suggest that allicin is efficient in blunting CP-induced pulmonary damage.

  14. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 abrogates bleomycin-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Parra, G J; Vadivel, A; Coltan, L; Hall, A; Eaton, F; Schuster, M; Loibner, H; Penninger, J M; Kassiri, Z; Oudit, G Y; Thébaud, B

    2012-06-01

    Despite substantial progress, mortality and morbidity of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI), remain unacceptably high. There is no effective treatment for ARDS/ALI. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) through Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-generated Angiotensin II contributes to lung injury. ACE2, a recently discovered ACE homologue, acts as a negative regulator of the RAS and counterbalances the function of ACE. We hypothesized that ACE2 prevents Bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung injury. Fourteen to 16-week-old ACE2 knockout mice-male (ACE2(-/y)) and female (ACE2(-/-))-and age-matched wild-type (WT) male mice received intratracheal BLM (1.5U/kg). Male ACE2(-/y) BLM injured mice exhibited poorer exercise capacity, worse lung function and exacerbated lung fibrosis and collagen deposition compared with WT. These changes were associated with increased expression of the profibrotic genes α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Transforming Growth Factor ß1. Compared with ACE2(-/y) exposed to BLM, ACE2(-/-) exhibited better lung function and architecture and decreased collagen deposition. Treatment with intraperitoneal recombinant human (rh) ACE2 (2 mg/kg) for 21 days improved survival, exercise capacity, and lung function and decreased lung inflammation and fibrosis in male BLM-WT mice. Female BLM WT mice had mild fibrosis and displayed a possible compensatory upregulation of the AT2 receptor. We conclude that ACE2 gene deletion worsens BLM-induced lung injury and more so in males than females. Conversely, ACE2 protects against BLM-induced fibrosis. rhACE2 may have therapeutic potential to attenuate respiratory morbidity in ALI/ARDS.

  15. Rosmarinic acid potentiates carnosic acid induced apoptosis in lung fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Sana; Mies, Fr?d?rique; Ben Ali, Ridha; Mlika, Mona; Jameleddine, Saloua; Mc Entee, Kathleen; Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by over-population and excessive activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts disrupting normal lung structure and functioning. Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) was reported to cure bleomycin-(BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that CA decreased human lung fibroblast (HLF) viability with IC50 value of 17.13?1.06 ?M, while RA had no cytotoxic effect. In the presence of 50 ?M of RA, dose-response for CA shifted...

  16. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity mimicking metastatic lung disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P.; Honeybourne, D.; Watson, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    A 65 year old man developed atrial arrhythmias secondary to a congestive cardiomyopathy which were resistant to quinidine and disopyramide. Amiodarone controlled the paroxysmal atrial tachycardia but 4 months after starting the drug he developed increasing dyspnoea and radiological changes highly suggestive of metastatic lung disease. Lung biopsy showed change of drug-induced pneumonitis and 4 months after stopping amiodarone his symptoms resolved and the chest X-ray had cleared. Amiodarone m...

  17. Radiation-induced heart disease in lung cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xin; Feng, Yuanming; Yang, Chengwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ping; Deng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), which affects the patients’ prognosis with both acute and late side effects, has been published extensively in the radiotherapy of breast cancer, lymphoma and other benign diseases. Studies on RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy, however, are less extensive and clear even though the patients with lung cancer are delivered with higher doses to the heart during radiation treatment. Methods: In this article, after extensive literature search and analysis, we reviewed the current evidence on RIHD in lung cancer patients after their radiation treatments and investigated the potential risk factors for RIHD as compared to other types of cancers. Result: Cardiac toxicity has been found highly relevant in lung cancer radiotherapy. So far, the crude incidence of cardiac complications in the lung cancer patients after radiotherapy has been up to 33%. Conclusion: The dose to the heart, the lobar location of tumor, the treatment modality, the history of heart and pulmonary disease and smoking were considered as potential risk factors for RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy. As treatment techniques improve over the time with better prognosis for lung cancer survivors, an improved prediction model can be established to further reduce the cardiac toxicity in lung cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27741117

  18. Hydrogen water alleviates lung injury induced by one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qifei; Zhang, Jingyao; Wan, Yong; Song, Sidong; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Guangjian; Liu, Chang; Fu, Junke

    2015-12-01

    With the development of thoracic surgeries, one-lung ventilation (OLV) has been routinely used to facilitate surgical exposure. However, OLV can cause lung injury during the surgical process and becomes an important factor affecting the outcomes. To date, effective treatments for the prevention of lung injury caused by OLV are lacking. Hydrogen has been demonstrated to have effective protection against tissue injuries caused by oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This study investigated the efficacy of hydrogen water consumption on the prevention of lung injury induced by OLV in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32, 240-260 g) were divided randomly into the following four groups: sham group, sham + H2 group, OLV group, OLV + H2 group. The rats drank hydrogen water or degassed hydrogen water for 4 wk before the operation and received OLV for 60 min and two-lung ventilation for 60 min. Lung tissues were assayed for wet-to-dry ratio, oxidative stress variables, proinflammatory cytokines, and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Hydrogen water consumption reduced wet-to-dry weight ratio, malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity and decreased the concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the lung tissues compared with sham group and sham + H2 group. Hydrogen water consumption further attenuated NF-κB activation and caused histopathologic alterations. Our data demonstrated that hydrogen water consumption ameliorated OLV-induced lung injury, and it may exert its protective role by its anti-inflammation, antioxidation and reducing NF-κB activity in the lung tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naqibullah, Matiuallah; Shaker, Saher B; Bach, Karen S

    2015-01-01

    , rheumatoid arthritis, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Recently, RTX has also been suggested for the treatment of certain connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Rare but serious pulmonary adverse reactions are reported. To raise awareness about...

  20. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-09-29

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model.Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells.

  1. Lung irradiation induces pulmonary vascular remodelling resembling pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadi, G; Bartelds, B; van der Veen, S J; Dickinson, M G; Brandenburg, S; Berger, R M F; Langendijk, J A; Coppes, R P; van Luijk, P

    2012-04-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a commonly fatal pulmonary vascular disease that is often diagnosed late and is characterised by a progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from typical vascular remodelling. Recent data suggest that vascular damage plays an important role in the development of radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity. Therefore, the authors investigated whether irradiation of the lung also induces pulmonary hypertension. Different sub-volumes of the rat lung were irradiated with protons known to induce different levels of pulmonary vascular damage. Early loss of endothelial cells and vascular oedema were observed in the irradiation field and in shielded parts of the lung, even before the onset of clinical symptoms. 8 weeks after irradiation, irradiated volume-dependent vascular remodelling was observed, correlating perfectly with pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy and pulmonary dysfunction. The findings indicate that partial lung irradiation induces pulmonary vascular remodelling resulting from acute pulmonary endothelial cell loss and consequential pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, the close resemblance of the observed vascular remodelling with vascular lesions in PAH makes partial lung irradiation a promising new model for studying PAH.

  2. Inflammation-induced preterm lung maturation: lessons from animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy J M; Westover, Alana J

    2017-06-01

    Intrauterine inflammation, or chorioamnionitis, is a major contributor to preterm birth. Prematurity per se is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality resulting from lung immaturity but exposure to chorioamnionitis reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Animal experiments have identified that an increase in pulmonary surfactant production by the preterm lungs likely underlies this decreased risk of RDS in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Further animal experimentation has shown that infectious or inflammatory agents in amniotic fluid exert their effects on lung development by direct effects within the developing respiratory tract, and probably not by systemic pathways. Differences in the effects of intrauterine inflammation and glucocorticoids demonstrate that canonical glucocorticoid-mediated lung maturation is not responsible for inflammation-induced changes in lung development. Animal experimentation is identifying alternative lung maturational pathways, and transgenic animals and cell culture techniques will allow identification of novel mechanisms of lung maturation that may lead to new treatments for the prevention of RDS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Infection with influenza virus induces IL-33 in murine lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goffic, Ronan; Arshad, Muhammad Imran; Rauch, Michel; L'Helgoualc'h, Annie; Delmas, Bernard; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Samson, Michel

    2011-12-01

    IL-33, a novel IL-1 family member, is crucially expressed and involved in pulmonary diseases, but its regulation in viral diseases such as influenza A virus (IAV) remains unclear. This study aimed to characterize the expression and release of IL-33 in lungs of IAV-infected mice in vivo and in murine respiratory epithelial cells (MLE-15) in vitro. Our results provide evidence of up-regulation of IL-33 mRNA in IAV-infected murine lungs, compared with noninfected control mice. The overexpression of IL-33 was positively correlated with a significant increase in mRNA encoding the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6, and was also associated with an increase in IFN-β mRNA. A profound overexpression of IL-33 protein was evident in IAV-infected murine lungs and bronchoalveolar lavages of influenza-infected mice, compared with low concentrations in naive lungs in vivo. Immunolocalization highlighted the cellular expression of IL-33 in alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells, along with increased infiltrate cells in virus-infected lungs. Further in vitro experiments showed an induction of IL-33 transcript-in MLE-15 cells and human epithelial cells (A549) infected with different strains of IAV in comparison with noninfected cells. In conclusion, our findings evidenced a profound expression of IL-33 in lungs during both in vivo and in vitro IAV infections, suggesting a role for IL-33 in virus-induced lung infections.

  4. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  5. Vildagliptin-induced acute lung injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Sato, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Ryoko; Furukawa, Tomoyasu; Tanaka, Junta; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2016-08-12

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are a class of oral hypoglycemic drugs and are used widely to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus in many countries. Adverse effects include nasopharyngitis, headache, elevated serum pancreatic enzymes, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition, a few cases of interstitial pneumonia associated with their use have been reported in the Japanese literature. Here we describe a patient who developed drug-induced acute lung injury shortly after the administration of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin. A 38-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes mellitus developed acute respiratory failure 1 day after administration of vildagliptin. Chest computed tomography revealed nonsegmental ground-glass opacities in her lungs. There was no evidence of bacterial pneumonia or any other cause of her respiratory manifestations. After discontinuation of vildagliptin, she recovered fully from her respiratory disorder. She received insulin therapy for her diabetes mellitus, and her subsequent clinical course has been uneventful. The period of drug exposure in previously reported cases of patients with drug-induced interstitial pneumonia caused by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor varied from several days to over 6 months. In the present case, our patient developed interstitial pneumonia only 1 day after the administration of vildagliptin. The precise mechanism of her vildagliptin-induced lung injury remains uncertain, but physicians should consider that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor-induced lung injury, although rare, may appear acutely, even within days after administration of this drug.

  6. Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung cancer cells. Jie Huang, Fa-jiu Li, Shi Chen, Yi Shi, Xiao-jiang Wang, Chuan-hai Wang, Qing- ..... method for the determination of green and black tea polyphenols in biomatrices by high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric array detection.

  7. Amiodarone-Induced Lung Injury With Bilateral Lung Pneumonitis and Peripheral Eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaid, Ammar; Baskaran, Gautam; Dougherty, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is a widely used antiarrhythmic that is used in the management of a variety of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Amiodarone-induced lung injury is an adverse effect in 5% of patients taking amiodarone, usually within 12 months of commencing therapy. Different mechanisms of injury and histopathological changes have been proposed and described. Eosinophilic pneumonia is one uncommon presentation of amiodarone-induced lung injury. The following is a case report of a 62-year-old woman who, after taking 400 mg of amiodarone twice daily for 8 months, developed bilateral interstitial pneumonitis with peripheral eosinophilia. After cessation of amiodarone, she had significant improvement in terms of her clinical symptoms and partial regression of pulmonary infiltrates on radiological imaging. The case underlies the importance of vigilance monitoring patients who are taking potentially pneumotoxic drugs as well as describing a classic example of drug-induced pneumonitis.

  8. Restrictive ventilatory insufficiency and lung injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion of the pancreas in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C F; Chen, H T; Wang, D; Li, J P; Fong, Y

    2008-09-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) of the rat pancreas induces acute pancreatitis with a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Activated inflammatory cells sequestered in the lung and the proteases released from the inflammatory pancreas both induce acute lung injury. Ischemia was induced by clamping the gastroduodenal artery and the splenic artery for 2 hours to induce ischemia of the pancreas, followed by reperfusion for 6 hours. We then observed lung function parameters, such as weight changes, compliance, functional residual capacity (FRC), and respiratory work. This protocol resulted in elevation in the blood concentrations of nitric oxide (P lung compliance (Cchord), but significant increases in respiratory work. The lung weight/body weight ratio also increased significantly. I/R of the pancreas induced lung injury and restrictive ventilatory insufficiency. Inflammatory responses in the lung tissues induced by oxidative stress and nitrosative stress may be major factors inducing lung injury and a restrictive type of ventilatory insufficiency.

  9. Levobuipivacaine-Induced Dissemination of A549 Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Shun-Ming; Lin, Bo-Feng; Wong, Chih-Shung; Chuang, Wen-Ting; Chou, Yu-Ting; Wu, Zhi-Fu

    2017-08-17

    While anaesthetics are frequently used on cancer patients during surgical procedures, their consequence on cancer progression remains to be elucidated. In this study, we sought to investigate the influence of local anesthetics on lung cancer cell dissemination in vitro and in vivo. A549 human non-small lung cancer cells were treated with various local anaesthetics including ropivacaine, lidocaine, levobupivacaine and bupivacaine. Cell barrier property was assessed using an electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of treated cells was studied by immunofluorescence staining. In vitro and in vivo cancer cell dissemination were investigated.Gene expression microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qrt-PCR) assays were used to identify the genes responsible for levobupivacaine-mediated cancer cell dissemination.The results illustrated that only levobupivacaine induced EMT in the treated cells and also caused the dissemination of cancer cells in vitro. In addition, after intravenous injection, levobupivacaine encouraged cancer cell dissemination in vivo. Gene expression microarray, qrt-PCR and immunoblotting revealed that after levobupivacaine treatment, the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)- 2α gene was upregulated in cancer cells. Our findings suggest that levobupivacaine may induce A549 lung cancer cell dissemination both in vitro and in vivo. More specifically, HIF-2α signaling possibly contributes to levobupivacaine-mediated A549 lung cancer cell dissemination.

  10. A Case of Lung Lesions Induced by a soccer Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Takemoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old youth soccer forward received a direct hit from a kicked soccer ball on the anterior right chest when the goal keeper kicked the ball from a distance of 1 meter. Immediately following the hit, the subject experienced dypnea, chest pain and had a cough, with several milliliters of hemoptysis. His symptoms subsided after 20 minutes of rest. However, he still felt mild discomfort and was taken to our department for evaluation. On examination, all vital signs were normal. A computed tomography scan of the chest was obtained, and revealed a small area of opacification in the right lung field suggesting a pulmonary contusion or traumatic lung edema. Ten days after the initial injury, he was cleared for full participation. We herein reported the first case of a lung lesion induced by a soccer ball. Conservative treatment resulted in a favorable outcome.

  11. The cationic amino acid transporter 2 is induced in inflammatory lung models and regulates lung fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothenberg Marc E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine is an amino acid that serves as a substrate for the enzymes nitric oxide synthase (NOS and arginase, leading to synthesis of NO and ornithine, respectively. As such, arginine has the potential to influence diverse fundamental processes in the lung. Methods We used mice deficient in cationic amino acid transporter (CAT 2 in models of allergic airway inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. Results We report that the arginine transport protein CAT2 was over-expressed in the lung during the induction of allergic airway inflammation. Furthermore, CAT2 mRNA was strongly induced by transgenically over-expressed IL-4, and allergen-induced expression was dependent upon signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription (STAT 6. In situ mRNA hybridization demonstrated marked staining of CAT2, predominantly in scattered mononuclear cells. Analysis of allergic airway inflammation and bleomycin-induced inflammation in CAT2-deficient mice revealed that while inflammation was independent of CAT2 expression, bleomycin-induced fibrosis was dependent upon CAT2. Mechanistic analysis revealed that arginase activity in macrophages was partly dependent on CAT2. Conclusion Taken together, these results identify CAT2 as a regulator of fibrotic responses in the lung.

  12. Budesonide ameliorates lung injury induced by large volume ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ying-Nan; Yu, Kai-Jiang; Wang, Guo-Nian

    2016-06-04

    Ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) is a health problem for patients with acute respiratory dysfunction syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of budesonide in treating VILI. Twenty-four rats were randomized to three groups: a ventilation group, ventilation/budesonide group, and sham group were ventilated with 30 ml/kg tidal volume or only anesthesia for 4 hor saline or budesonide airway instillation immediately after ventilation. The PaO2/FiO2and wet-to-dry weight ratios, protein concentration, neutrophil count, and neutrophil elastase levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the levels of inflammation-related factors were examined. Histological evaluation of and apoptosis measurement inthe lung were conducted. Compared with that in the ventilation group, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly increased by treatment with budesonide. The lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, total protein, neutrophil elastase level, and neutrophilcount in BALF were decreased in the budesonide group. The BALF and plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 levels were decreased, whereas the IL-10 level was increased in the budesonide group. The phosphorylated nuclear factor (NF)-kBlevels in lung tissue were inhibited by budesonide. The histological changes in the lung and apoptosis were reduced by budesonide treatment. Bax, caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-3 were down-regulated, and Bcl-2 was up-regulated by budesonide. Budesonide ameliorated lung injury induced by large volume ventilation, likely by improving epithelial permeability, decreasing edema, inhibiting local and systemic inflammation, and reducing apoptosis in VILI.

  13. Proton-pump inhibitor omeprazole attenuates hyperoxia induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jute; Jimenez, Julio; Nagatomo, Taro; Toelen, Jaan; Brady, Paul; Salaets, Thomas; Lesage, Flore; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Deprest, Jan

    2016-08-27

    The administration of supplemental oxygen to treat ventilatory insufficiency may lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent tissue damage. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) can modulate hyperoxic lung injury by a currently unknown mechanism. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of administration of omeprazole on the induction of CYP1A1 and its influence on hyperoxic lung injury in an established preterm rabbit model. Omeprazole was administered either (1) directly to the fetus, (2) to the mother or (3) after birth to the pups in different doses (2-10 or 20 mg/kg). Controls were injected with the same amount of saline. Pups were housed in normoxia (21 %) or hyperoxia (>95 %) for 5 days. Outcome parameters were induction of CYP1A1 measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) immediately after delivery, at day 3 and day 5 as well as lung function, morphometry and immunohistochemistry assessed at day 5 of life. Transcriptome analysis was used to define the targeted pathways. Daily neonatal injections demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in CYP1A1. Lung function tests showed a significant improvement in tissue damping, tissue elasticity, total lung capacity, static compliance and elastance. Morphometry revealed a more developed lung architecture with thinned septae in animals treated with the highest dose (20 mg/kg) of omeprazole. Surfactant protein B, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor were significantly increased on immunohistochemical stainings after omeprazole treatment. Neonatal administration of omeprazole induces CYP1A1 in a dose-dependent matter and combined pre- and postnatal administration attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in preterm rabbits, even with the lowest dose of omeprazole without clear CYP1A1 induction.

  14. Unusual progression and subsequent improvement in cystic lung disease in a child with radiation-induced lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Michael S. [Monroe Carell Jr. Children' s Hospital at Vanderbilt, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Chadha, Ashley D. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Carroll, Clinton M.; Borinstein, Scott C. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Young, Lisa R. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Radiation-induced lung disease is a known complication of therapeutic lung irradiation, but the features have not been well described in children. We report the clinical, radiologic and histologic features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in a 4-year-old child who had previously received lung irradiation as part of successful treatment for metastatic Wilms tumor. Her radiologic abnormalities and clinical symptoms developed in an indolent manner. Clinical improvement gradually occurred with corticosteroid therapy. However, the observed radiologic progression from interstitial and reticulonodular opacities to diffuse cystic lung disease, with subsequent improvement, is striking and has not been previously described in children. (orig.)

  15. Ozone therapy ameliorates paraquat-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldirim, Umit; Uysal, Bulent; Yuksel, Ramazan; Macit, Enis; Eyi, Yusuf E; Toygar, Mehmet; Tuncer, Salim K; Ardic, Sukru; Arziman, Ibrahim; Aydin, Ibrahim; Oztas, Yesim; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Topal, Turgut

    2014-12-01

    Paraquat (PQ) overdose can cause acute lung injury and death. Ozone therapy (OT) was previously demonstrated to alleviate inflammation and necrosis in various pathologies. We therefore hypothesized that OT has ameliorative and preventive effects on PQ-induced lung damage due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidants properties. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were separated into three groups: sham, PQ, and PQ+OT groups. 15 mg/kg PQ was administered intraperitoneally in PQ and PQ+OT groups to induce experimental lung injury. One hour after PQ treatment, PQ+OT group was administered a single dose of ozone-oxygen mixture (1 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal route for four consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on fifth day after PQ administration. Blood samples and lung tissues were collected to evaluate the inflammatory processes, antioxidant defense and pulmonary damage. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neopterin levels, tissue oxidative stress parameters, total TGF-β1 levels, and histological injury scores in PQ+OT group were significantly lower than PQ group (Ptherapy. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  16. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced acute lung injury in an isolated perfused rabbit-lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masato; Nishida, Osamu; Nakamura, Fujio; Katsuya, Hirotada

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Some animal studies suggest that free radical scavengers inhibit the onset of oxidant-induced ALI. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is chemically similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as the endogenous antioxidant vitamin E. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that propofol has antioxidant potential. We hypothesized that propofol may attenuate ALI by acting as a free-radical scavenger. We investigated the effects of propofol on oxidant-induced ALI induced by purine and xanthine oxidase (XO), in isolated perfused rabbit lung, in two series of experiments. In series 1, we examined the relationship between the severity of ALI and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In series 2, we evaluated the effects of propofol on attenuating ALI and the dose dependence of these effects. The lungs were perfused for 90 min, and we evaluated the effects on the severity of ALI by monitoring the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), and the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure (Ppc). In series 1, treatment with catalase (an H2O2 scavenger) prior to the addition of purine and XO resulted in complete prevention of ALI, suggesting that H2O2 may be involved closely in the pathogenesis of ALI. In series 2, pretreatment with propofol at concentrations in excess of 0.5 mM significantly inhibited the increases in the Kfc values, and that in excess of 0.75 mM significantly inhibited the increase in the Ppa values. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced ALI in an isolated perfused rabbit lung model, probably due to its antioxidant action.

  17. Cigarette smoke induces distinct chromatin histone modifications in lung cells: implication in pathogenesis of COPD and lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Isaac K.; Nevid, Michael Z.; Friedman, Alan E.; Rahman, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated oxidative stress induces several signaling cascades, including kinases, which results in chromatin modifications (histone acetylation/deacetylation and histone methylation/demethylation). We have previously reported that CS induces chromatin remodeling in pro-inflammatory gene promoters; however, the underlying site-specific histone marks formed in histones H3 and H4 during CS exposure in lungs in vivo and in lung cells in vitro, which can either drive gene expression or repression are not known. We hypothesize that CS exposure in mouse and human bronchial epithelial cells (H292) can cause site-specific posttranslational histone modifications (PTMs) that may play an important role in the pathogenesis of CS-induced chronic lung diseases. We used a bottom-up mass spectrometry approach to identify some potentially novel histone marks, including acetylation, mono-methylation and di-methylation in specific lysine and arginine residues of histones H3 and H4 in mouse lungs and H292 cells. We found that CS-induced distinct posttranslational histone modification patterns in histone H3 and histone H4 in lung cells, which may be considered as usable biomarkers for CS-induced chronic lung diseases. These identified histone marks (histone H3 and histone H4) may play an important role in epigenetic state during the pathogenesis of smoking-induced chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. PMID:24283195

  18. Montelukast Induces Apoptosis-Inducing Factor-Mediated Cell Death of Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ju Tsai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing novel chemo-prevention techniques and advancing treatment are key elements to beating lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Our previous cohort study showed that cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists, mainly montelukast, decreased the lung cancer risk in asthma patients. In the current study, we conducted in vivo and in vitro experiments to demonstrate the inhibiting effect of montelukast on lung cancer and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Using Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice, we showed that feeding montelukast significantly delayed the tumor growth in mice (p < 0.0001. Montelukast inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and induced the cell death of lung cancer cells. Further investigation showed the down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF in montelukast-treated lung cancer cells. Montelukast also markedly decreased the phosphorylation of several proteins, such as with no lysine 1 (WNK1, protein kinase B (Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2, MAPK/Erk kinase (MEK, and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40-kDa (PRAS40, which might contribute to cell death. In conclusion, montelukast induced lung cancer cell death via the nuclear translocation of AIF. This study confirmed the chemo-preventive effect of montelukast shown in our previous cohort study. The utility of montelukast in cancer prevention and treatment thus deserves further studies.

  19. Montelukast Induces Apoptosis-Inducing Factor-Mediated Cell Death of Lung Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Ju; Chang, Wei-An; Tsai, Pei-Hsun; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Ho, Ya-Wen; Yen, Meng-Chi; Lin, Yi-Shiuan; Kuo, Po-Lin; Hsu, Ya-Ling

    2017-06-24

    Developing novel chemo-prevention techniques and advancing treatment are key elements to beating lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Our previous cohort study showed that cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists, mainly montelukast, decreased the lung cancer risk in asthma patients. In the current study, we conducted in vivo and in vitro experiments to demonstrate the inhibiting effect of montelukast on lung cancer and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Using Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing mice, we showed that feeding montelukast significantly delayed the tumor growth in mice (p Montelukast inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation and induced the cell death of lung cancer cells. Further investigation showed the down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), up-regulation of Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in montelukast-treated lung cancer cells. Montelukast also markedly decreased the phosphorylation of several proteins, such as with no lysine 1 (WNK1), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), MAPK/Erk kinase (MEK), and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40-kDa (PRAS40), which might contribute to cell death. In conclusion, montelukast induced lung cancer cell death via the nuclear translocation of AIF. This study confirmed the chemo-preventive effect of montelukast shown in our previous cohort study. The utility of montelukast in cancer prevention and treatment thus deserves further studies.

  20. Effects of sevoflurane on ventilator induced lung injury in a healthy lung experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A; Moreno, A; García, J; Sánchez, C; Santos, M; García, J

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) causes a systemic inflammatory response in tissues, with an increase in IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α in blood and tissues. Cytoprotective effects of sevoflurane in different experimental models are well known, and this protective effect can also be observed in VILI. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of sevoflurane in VILI. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. Twenty female rats were studied. The animals were mechanically ventilated, without sevoflurane in the control group and sevoflurane 3% in the treated group (SEV group). VILI was induced applying a maximal inspiratory pressure of 35 cmH2O for 20 min without any positive end-expiratory pressure for 20 min (INJURY time). The animals were then ventilated 30 min with a maximal inspiratory pressure of 12 cmH2O and 3 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure (time 30 min POST-INJURY), at which time the animals were euthanized and pathological and biomarkers studies were performed. Heart rate, invasive blood pressure, pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 were recorded. The lung wet-to-dry weight ratio was used as an index of lung edema. No differences were found in the blood gas analysis parameters or heart rate between the 2 groups. Blood pressure was statistically higher in the control group, but still within the normal clinical range. The percentage of pulmonary edema and concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in lung tissue in the SEV group were lower than in the control group. Sevoflurane attenuates VILI in a previous healthy lung in an experimental subclinical model in rats. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex and smoking sensitive model of radon induced lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovsky, M.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Radon and radon progeny inhalation exposure are recognized to cause lung cancer. Only strong evidence of radon exposure health effects was results of epidemiological studies among underground miners. Any single epidemiological study among population failed to find reliable lung cancer risk due to indoor radon exposure. Indoor radon induced lung cancer risk models were developed exclusively basing on extrapolation of miners data. Meta analyses of indoor radon and lung cancer case control studies allowed only little improvements in approaches to radon induced lung cancer risk projections. Valuable data on characteristics of indoor radon health effects could be obtained after systematic analysis of pooled data from single residential radon studies. Two such analyses are recently published. Available new and previous data of epidemiological studies of workers and general population exposed to radon and other sources of ionizing radiation allow filling gaps in knowledge of lung cancer association with indoor radon exposure. The model of lung cancer induced by indoor radon exposure is suggested. The key point of this model is the assumption that excess relative risk depends on both sex and smoking habits of individual. This assumption based on data on occupational exposure by radon and plutonium and also on the data on external radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the data on external exposure in Mayak nuclear facility. For non-corrected data of pooled European and North American studies the increased sensitivity of females to radon exposure is observed. The mean value of ks for non-corrected data obtained from independent source is in very good agreement with the L.S.S. study and Mayak plutonium workers data. Analysis of corrected data of pooled studies showed little influence of sex on E.R.R. value. The most probable cause of such effect is the change of men/women and smokers/nonsmokers ratios in corrected data sets in North American study. More correct

  2. AKT1E¹⁷K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Donatella; Belmonte, Stefania; Colelli, Fabiana; Scarfò, Marzia; De Marco, Carmela; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Mirante, Teresa; Camastra, Caterina; Gagliardi, Monica; Rizzuto, Antonia; Mignogna, Chiara; Paciello, Orlando; Papparella, Serenella; Fagman, Henrik; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6-2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26) locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice) we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype.

  3. Autotaxin and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios-Angelos Mouratis

    Full Text Available Acute Lung Injury (ALI is a life-threatening, diffuse heterogeneous lung injury characterized by acute onset, pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a common cause of both direct and indirect lung injury and when administered to a mouse induces a lung phenotype exhibiting some of the clinical characteristics of human ALI. Here, we report that LPS inhalation in mice results in increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF levels of Autotaxin (ATX, Enpp2, a lysophospholipase D largely responsible for the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in biological fluids and chronically inflamed sites. In agreement, gradual increases were also detected in BALF LPA levels, following inflammation and pulmonary edema. However, genetic or pharmacologic targeting of ATX had minor effects in ALI severity, suggesting no major involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute inflammation. Moreover, systemic, chronic exposure to increased ATX/LPA levels was shown to predispose to and/or to promote acute inflammation and ALI unlike chronic inflammatory pathophysiological situations, further suggesting a differential involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute versus chronic pulmonary inflammation.

  4. Autotaxin and Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Nikos; Katsifa, Aggeliki; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Kaffe, Eleanna; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is a life-threatening, diffuse heterogeneous lung injury characterized by acute onset, pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common cause of both direct and indirect lung injury and when administered to a mouse induces a lung phenotype exhibiting some of the clinical characteristics of human ALI. Here, we report that LPS inhalation in mice results in increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of Autotaxin (ATX, Enpp2), a lysophospholipase D largely responsible for the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in biological fluids and chronically inflamed sites. In agreement, gradual increases were also detected in BALF LPA levels, following inflammation and pulmonary edema. However, genetic or pharmacologic targeting of ATX had minor effects in ALI severity, suggesting no major involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute inflammation. Moreover, systemic, chronic exposure to increased ATX/LPA levels was shown to predispose to and/or to promote acute inflammation and ALI unlike chronic inflammatory pathophysiological situations, further suggesting a differential involvement of the ATX/LPA axis in acute versus chronic pulmonary inflammation. PMID:26196781

  5. The Effects of Resveratrol on Hyperoxia-induced Lung Injury in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özmert M.A. Özdemir

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: This experimental study showed that oxidative stress and NO contributed to the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced lung injury, and that resveratrol had a preventive effect on hyperoxic lung injury through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  6. Relation between radiation-induced whole lung functional loss and regional structural changes in partial irradiated rat lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Luijk, P; Novakova-Jiresova, A; Faber, H; Steneker, MNJ; Kampinga, HH; Meertens, H; Coppes, RP

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity is characterized by dose, region, and time-dependent severe changes in lung morphology and function. This study sought to determine the relation between the structural and functional changes in the irradiated rat lung at three different phases after

  7. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qiao, Juan, E-mail: qjuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Yun, E-mail: luyun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  8. Rosmarinic acid potentiates carnosic acid induced apoptosis in lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Sana; Mies, Frédérique; Ben Ali, Ridha; Mlika, Mona; Jameleddine, Saloua; Mc Entee, Kathleen; Shlyonsky, Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by over-population and excessive activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts disrupting normal lung structure and functioning. Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) was reported to cure bleomycin-(BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that CA decreased human lung fibroblast (HLF) viability with IC50 value of 17.13±1.06 μM, while RA had no cytotoxic effect. In the presence of 50 μM of RA, dose-response for CA shifted to IC50 value of 11.70±1.46 μM, indicating synergic action. TGFβ-transformed HLF, rat lung fibroblasts and L929 cells presented similar sensitivity to CA and CA+RA (20μM+100μM, respectively) treatment. Rat alveolar epithelial cells died only under CA+RA treatment, while A549 cells were not affected. Annexin V staining and DNA quantification suggested that HLF are arrested in G0/G1 cell cycle phase and undergo apoptosis. CA caused sustained activation of phospho-Akt and phospho-p38 expression and inhibition of p21 protein.Addition of RA potentiated these effects, while RA added alone had no action.Only triple combination of inhibitors (MAPK-p38, pan-caspase, PI3K/Akt/autophagy) partially attenuated apoptosis; this suggests that cytotoxicity of CA+RA treatment has a complex mechanism involving several parallel signaling pathways. The in vivo antifibrotic effect of CA and RA was compared with that of Vitamine-E in BLM-induced fibrosis model in rats. We found comparable reduction in fibrosis score by CA, RA and CA+RA, attenuation of collagen deposition and normalization of oxidative stress markers. In conclusion, antifibrotic effect of CA+RA is due to synergistic pro-apoptotic action on lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts.

  9. Rosmarinic acid potentiates carnosic acid induced apoptosis in lung fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Bahri

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by over-population and excessive activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts disrupting normal lung structure and functioning. Rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid (CA and rosmarinic acid (RA was reported to cure bleomycin-(BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We demonstrate that CA decreased human lung fibroblast (HLF viability with IC50 value of 17.13±1.06 μM, while RA had no cytotoxic effect. In the presence of 50 μM of RA, dose-response for CA shifted to IC50 value of 11.70±1.46 μM, indicating synergic action. TGFβ-transformed HLF, rat lung fibroblasts and L929 cells presented similar sensitivity to CA and CA+RA (20μM+100μM, respectively treatment. Rat alveolar epithelial cells died only under CA+RA treatment, while A549 cells were not affected. Annexin V staining and DNA quantification suggested that HLF are arrested in G0/G1 cell cycle phase and undergo apoptosis. CA caused sustained activation of phospho-Akt and phospho-p38 expression and inhibition of p21 protein.Addition of RA potentiated these effects, while RA added alone had no action.Only triple combination of inhibitors (MAPK-p38, pan-caspase, PI3K/Akt/autophagy partially attenuated apoptosis; this suggests that cytotoxicity of CA+RA treatment has a complex mechanism involving several parallel signaling pathways. The in vivo antifibrotic effect of CA and RA was compared with that of Vitamine-E in BLM-induced fibrosis model in rats. We found comparable reduction in fibrosis score by CA, RA and CA+RA, attenuation of collagen deposition and normalization of oxidative stress markers. In conclusion, antifibrotic effect of CA+RA is due to synergistic pro-apoptotic action on lung fibroblasts and myofibroblasts.

  10. Hypoxia-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is Involved in Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Xu, Jun-mei; Liu, Lei; Liu, Su-mei; Zhu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease that contributes to the morbidity and mortality of a number of lung diseases. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to lung fibrosis are poorly understood. This study investigated the roles of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the associated molecular mechanisms in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The bleomycin-induced fibrosis animal model was established by intratracheal injection of a single dose of bleomycin. Protein expression was measured by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Typical lesions of lung fibrosis were observed 1 week after bleomycin injection. A progressive increase in MMP-2, S100A4, α-SMA, HIF-1α, ZEB1, CD44, phospho-p44/42 (p-p44/42), and phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38) protein levels as well as activation of EMT was observed in the lung tissues of bleomycin mice. Hypoxia increased HIF-1α and ZEB1 expression and activated EMT in H358 cells. Also, continuous incubation of cells under mild hypoxic conditions increased CD44, p-p44/42, and p-p38 protein levels in H358 cells, which correlated with the increase in S100A4 expression. In conclusion, bleomycin induces progressive lung fibrosis, which may be associated with activation of EMT. The fibrosis-induced hypoxia may further activate EMT in distal alveoli through a hypoxia-HIF-1α-ZEB1 pathway and promote the differentiation of lung epithelial cells into fibroblasts through phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 proteins.

  11. Hypoxia-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is Involved in Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a severe disease that contributes to the morbidity and mortality of a number of lung diseases. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to lung fibrosis are poorly understood. This study investigated the roles of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and the associated molecular mechanisms in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The bleomycin-induced fibrosis animal model was established by intratracheal injection of a single dose of bleomycin. Protein expression was measured by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Typical lesions of lung fibrosis were observed 1 week after bleomycin injection. A progressive increase in MMP-2, S100A4, α-SMA, HIF-1α, ZEB1, CD44, phospho-p44/42 (p-p44/42, and phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 protein levels as well as activation of EMT was observed in the lung tissues of bleomycin mice. Hypoxia increased HIF-1α and ZEB1 expression and activated EMT in H358 cells. Also, continuous incubation of cells under mild hypoxic conditions increased CD44, p-p44/42, and p-p38 protein levels in H358 cells, which correlated with the increase in S100A4 expression. In conclusion, bleomycin induces progressive lung fibrosis, which may be associated with activation of EMT. The fibrosis-induced hypoxia may further activate EMT in distal alveoli through a hypoxia-HIF-1α-ZEB1 pathway and promote the differentiation of lung epithelial cells into fibroblasts through phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 proteins.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in the perivascular space in lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabst Reinhard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS contained in tobacco smoke and a variety of environmental and occupational dusts is a toxic agent causing lung inflammation characterized by migration of neutrophils and monocytes into alveoli. Although migration of inflammatory cells into alveoli of LPS-treated rats is well characterized, the dynamics of their accumulation in the perivascular space (PVS leading to a perivascular inflammation (PVI of pulmonary arteries is not well described. Methods Therefore, we investigated migration of neutrophils and monocytes into PVS in lungs of male Sprague-Dawley rats treated intratracheally with E. coli LPS and euthanized after 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hours. Control rats were treated with endotoxin-free saline. H&E stained slides were made and immunohistochemistry was performed using a monocyte marker and the chemokine Monocyte-Chemoattractant-Protein-1 (MCP-1. Computer-assisted microscopy was performed to count infiltrating cells. Results Surprisingly, the periarterial infiltration was not a constant finding in each animal although LPS-induced alveolitis was present. A clear tendency was observed that neutrophils were appearing in the PVS first within 6 hours after LPS application and were decreasing at later time points. In contrast, mononuclear cell infiltration was observed after 24 hours. In addition, MCP-1 expression was present in perivascular capillaries, arteries and the epithelium. Conclusion PVI might be a certain lung reaction pattern in the defense to infectious attacks.

  13. Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Available As Farmer's Lung: Causes and Symptoms of Mold and Dust Induced Respiratory Illness (PDF) Other resources in: Farm Health & Safety Biological Systems Engineering Other resources by: Robert ...

  14. Ventilator-induced Lung Injury : Similarity and Differences between Children and Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C.J.; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that mechanical ventilation can injure the lung, producing an entity known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). There are various forms of VILI, including volutrauma (i.e., injury caused by overdistending the lung), atelectrauma (injury due to repeated opening/closing of

  15. Oleic acid vs saline solution lung lavage-induced acute lung injury: effects on lung morphology, pressure-volume relationships, and response to positive end-expiratory pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, Thomas; Meinhardt, Juergen P; Herrmann, Peter; Weiss, Andreas; Quintel, Michael; Pelosi, Paolo

    2006-08-01

    To compare two lung injury models (oleic acid [OA] and saline solution washout [SW]) regarding lung morphology, regional inflation, and recruitment during static pressure-volume (PV) curves, and the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) below and above the lower inflection point (Pflex). Fourteen adult pigs underwent OA or SW lung injury. Lung volumes were measured using CT. PV curves were obtained with simultaneous CT scanning at lung apex and base. Fractional inflation and recruitment were compared to data on PEEP above and below Pflex. Severity of lung injury was comparable. At zero PEEP, SW showed an increased amount of edema and poorly aerated lung volume, recruitment during inspiration, and a better oxygenation response with PEEP. Whole-lung PV curves were similar in both models, reflecting changes in alveolar inflation or deflation. On the inspiratory PV limb, recruitment and inflation were on the same line, while there was a substantial difference between deflation and derecruitment on the expiratory limb. PEEP-induced recruitment at lung apex and base was at or above the derecruitment line on the expiratory limb and showed no relationship to the whole-lung expiratory PV curve. The following conclusions were made: (1) OA and SW models are comparable in mechanics but not in lung injury characteristics; (2) neither inspiratory nor expiratory whole-lung PV curves are useful to select PEEP in order to optimize recruitment; and (3) after recruitment, there is no difference in derecruitment between the models at high PEEP, while more collapse occurs at lower PEEP in the basal sections of SW lungs.

  16. Tanshinone IIA ameliorates seawater exposure-induced lung injury by inhibiting aquaporins (AQP) 1 and AQP5 expression in lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahuan; Xu, Min; Fan, Qixin; Xie, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yong; Mu, Deguang; Zhao, Pengtao; Zhang, Bo; Cao, Fale; Wang, Yanxia; Jin, Faguang; Li, Zhichao

    2011-04-30

    Aquaporins (AQPs), a family of transmembrane water channels, mediate physiological response to changes of fluid volume and osmolarity. It is still unknown what role of AQPs plays in seawater drowning-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and whether pharmacologic modulation of AQPs could alleviate the severity of ALI caused by seawater aspiration. In our study, the results from RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that intratracheal installation of seawater up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of AQP1 and AQP5 in lung tissues. Furthermore, we found that treatment of tanshinone IIA (TIIA, one of the main active components from Chinese herb Danshen) significantly reduced the elevation of AQP1 and AQP5 expression induced by seawater in rats, A549 cells and primary alveolar type II cells. Treatment of TIIA also improved lung histopathologic changes and blood-gas indices, and reduced lung edema and vascular leakage. These findings demonstrated that AQP1 and AQP5 might play an important role in the development of lung edema and lung injury, and that treatment with TIIA could significantly alleviate seawater exposure-induced ALI, which was probably through the inhibition of AQP1 and AQP5 over-expression in lungs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of morin on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by suppressing the lung NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianzhu, Zhang; Shihai, Yang; Juan, Du

    2014-12-01

    In previous study, the anti-inflammatory effect of morin had been found. In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of morin on acute lung injury using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The cell counting in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was measured. The animal lung edema degree was evaluated by wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and IL-6 were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The protein level of lung NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was measured by Western blotting. The data showed that treatment with the morin markedly attenuated inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased lung NLRP3 inflammasome protein level, and improved SOD activity and inhibited MPO activity. Histological studies demonstrated that morin substantially inhibited LPS-induced neutrophils in lung tissue compared with model group. The results indicated that the morin had a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice.

  18. Inhaled nitric oxide exacerbated phorbol-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hen I; Chu, Shi Jye; Hsu, Kang; Wang, David

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in isolated rat lung. Typical acute lung injury was induced successfully by PMA during 60 min of observation. PMA (2 microg/kg) elicited a significant increase in microvascular permeability, (measured using the capillary filtration coefficient Kfc), lung weight gain, lung weight/body weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pretreatment with inhaled NO (30 ppm) significantly exacerbated acute lung injury. All of the parameters reflective of lung injury increased significantly except PAP (P<0.05). Coadministration of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5 mM) attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO in PMA-induced lung injury, except for PAP. In addition, L-NAME (5 mM) significantly attenuated PMA-induced acute lung injury except for PAP. These experimental data suggest that inhaled NO significantly exacerbated acute lung injury induced by PMA in rats. L-NAME attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO.

  19. Creation of lung-targeted dexamethasone immunoliposome and its therapeutic effect on bleomycin-induced lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Acute lung injury (ALI, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, which is routinely treated with the administration of systemic glucocorticoids. The current study investigated the distribution and therapeutic effect of a dexamethasone(DXM-loaded immunoliposome (NLP functionalized with pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A antibody (SPA-DXM-NLP in an animal model. METHODS: DXM-NLP was prepared using film dispersion combined with extrusion techniques. SP-A antibody was used as the lung targeting agent. Tissue distribution of SPA-DXM-NLP was investigated in liver, spleen, kidney and lung tissue. The efficacy of SPA-DXM-NLP against lung injury was assessed in a rat model of bleomycin-induced acute lung injury. RESULTS: The SPA-DXM-NLP complex was successfully synthesized and the particles were stable at 4°C. Pulmonary dexamethasone levels were 40 times higher with SPA-DXM-NLP than conventional dexamethasone injection. Administration of SPA-DXM-NLP significantly attenuated lung injury and inflammation, decreased incidence of infection, and increased survival in animal models. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of SPA-DXM-NLP to animal models resulted in increased levels of DXM in the lungs, indicating active targeting. The efficacy against ALI of the immunoliposomes was shown to be superior to conventional dexamethasone administration. These results demonstrate the potential of actively targeted glucocorticoid therapy in the treatment of lung disease in clinical practice.

  20. Protective Effects of Infliximab on Lung Injury Induced by Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Aysel; Tumkaya, Levent; Turut, Hasan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Cure, Erkan; Kalkan, Yildiray; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Acipayam, Ahmet

    2015-11-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is used to treat cancers, several forms of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions, although MTX may cause pulmonary toxicity related to the production of free oxygen radicals, various cytokines. Infliximab (IB) with its potent effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibition also inhibits the release of endothelin-1 (ET-1). We aimed to investigate whether IB reduces pulmonary damage induced by an overdose of MTX. The rats were divided into 3 groups of 8 animals. The control group was given only saline. One dose of 20mg/kg MTX intraperitoneal was administered in the MTX group. IB 7 mg/kg was given to the MTX+IB (MI) group. Three days after IB was administered, 20mg/kg MTX was given. Five days after MTX was administered, all rats were sacrificed. The TNF-α, ET-1, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and caspase-3 levels in MTX group were significantly higher than in control groups of TNF-α (P=.001), ET-1 (P=.001), MDA (P=.001), MPO (P=.001) and caspase-3 levels (P=.001) and MI groups of TNF-α (P=.009), ET-1 (P=.001), MDA (P=.047), MPO (P=.007) and caspase-3 levels (P=.003). The MI group had less histopathological damage in lung tissue than the MTX group. Overdose of MTX leads to cytokine release and the formation of reactive oxygen species in addition to increased ET-1 secretion release that causes lung damage. IB, as a potent proinflammatory agent, TNF-α blocker, can decrease ET-1 release and oxidative stress, it may show significant protective effects in lung tissue against damage caused by MTX overdose. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Mild hypothermia reduces ventilator-induced lung injury, irrespective of reducing respiratory rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslami, Hamid; Kuipers, Maria T.; Beurskens, Charlotte J. P.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2012-01-01

    In the era of lung-protective mechanical ventilation using limited tidal volumes, higher respiratory rates are applied to maintain adequate minute volume ventilation. However, higher respiratory rates may contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury (VIII). Induced hypothermia reduces carbon dioxide

  2. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkal, B.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Gultekin, F.A. [Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guven, B. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Turkcu, U.O. [Mugla School of Health Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla (Turkey); Bektas, S. [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey); Can, M. [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Kozlu, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-09-27

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage.

  3. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani; Qiao, Juan; Lu, Yun

    2016-02-13

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure titration and recruitment maneuver on lung inflammation and hyperinflation in experimental acid aspiration-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Aline M; Luo, Rubin; Fantoni, Denise T; Gutierres, Claudia; Lu, Qin; Gu, Wen-Jie; Otsuki, Denise A; Malbouisson, Luiz M S; Auler, Jose O C; Rouby, Jean-Jacques

    2012-12-01

    In acute lung injury positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and recruitment maneuver are proposed to optimize arterial oxygenation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of such a strategy on lung histological inflammation and hyperinflation in pigs with acid aspiration-induced lung injury. Forty-seven pigs were randomly allocated in seven groups: (1) controls spontaneously breathing; (2) without lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (3) without lung injury, PEEP titration; (4) without lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver; (5) with lung injury, PEEP 5 cm H2O; (6) with lung injury, PEEP titration; and (7) with lung injury, PEEP titration + recruitment maneuver. Acute lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid. PEEP titration was performed by incremental and decremental PEEP from 5 to 20 cm H2O for optimizing arterial oxygenation. Three recruitment maneuvers (pressure of 40 cm H2O maintained for 20 s) were applied to the assigned groups at each PEEP level. Proportion of lung inflammation, hemorrhage, edema, and alveolar wall disruption were recorded on each histological field. Mean alveolar area was measured in the aerated lung regions. Acid aspiration increased mean alveolar area and produced alveolar wall disruption, lung edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and lung inflammation. PEEP titration significantly improved arterial oxygenation but simultaneously increased lung inflammation in juxta-diaphragmatic lung regions. Recruitment maneuver during PEEP titration did not induce additional increase in lung inflammation and alveolar hyperinflation. In a porcine model of acid aspiration-induced lung injury, PEEP titration aimed at optimizing arterial oxygenation, substantially increased lung inflammation. Recruitment maneuvers further improved arterial oxygenation without additional effects on inflammation and hyperinflation.

  5. Tregs promote the differentiation of Th17 cells in silica-induced lung fibrosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiyu Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of silica dust and characterized by lung inflammation and fibrosis. Previous study showed that Tregs regulate the process of silicosis by modulating the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the lung. Th17 cells share reciprocal developmental pathway with Tregs and play a pivotal role in the immunopathogenesis of many lung diseases by recruiting and activating neutrophils, but the regulatory function of Tregs on Th17 response in silica induced lung fibrosis remains to be explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the role of Th17 and IL-17 in the development of silicosis and their interaction with Tregs, Treg-depleted mice model was generated and exposed to silica to establish experimental model of silica-induced lung fibrosis. Here we showed that silica increased Th17 response in lung fibrosis. Tregs depletion enhanced the neutrophils accumulation and attenuated Th17 response in silica induced lung fibrosis. Both mRNA and protein results showed that Tregs exerted its modulatory function on Th17 cells and IL-17 by regulating TGF-β1 and IL-1β. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggested that Tregs could promote Th17 cells differentiation by regulating TGF-β1 and IL-1β in silica induced lung fibrosis of mice, which further the understanding of the progress of silicosis and provide a new insight in the regulatory mechanism of Th17 by Tregs in lung inflammation.

  6. Ischemia and reperfusion of the lung tissues induced increase of lung permeability and lung edema is attenuated by dimethylthiourea (PP69).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K H; Chao, D; Liu, C F; Chen, C F; Wang, D

    2010-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether oxygen radical scavengers of dimethylthiourea (DMTU), superoxide dismutase (SOD), or catalase (CAT) pretreatment attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced lung injury. After isolation from a Sprague-Dawley rat, the lungs were perfused through the pulmonary artery cannula with rat whole blood diluted 1:1 with a physiological salt solution. An acute lung injury was induced by 10 minutes of hypoxia with 5% CO2-95% N2 followed by 65 minutes of ischemia and then 65 minutes of reperfusion. I/R significantly increased microvascular permeability as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight-to-body weight ratio (LW/BW), and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (PCBAL). DMTU pretreatment significantly attenuated the acute lung injury. The capillary filtration coefficient (P<.01), LW/BW (P<.01) and PCBAL (P<.05) were significantly lower among the DMTU-treated rats than hosts pretreated with SOD or CAT. The possible mechanisms of the protective effect of DMTU in I/R-induced lung injury may relate to the permeability of the agent allowing it to scavenge intracellular hydroxyl radicals. However, whether superoxide dismutase or catalase antioxidants showed protective effects possibly due to their impermeability of the cell membrane not allowing scavenging of intracellular oxygen radicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lysyl oxidase promotes bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis through modulating inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Liu, Qingbo; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jianfeng; Yu, Ronghuan; Ge, Gaoxiang

    2014-12-01

    Enzymes involved in collagen biosynthesis, including lysyl oxidase (LOX), have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. LOX expression is significantly upregulated in bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis, and knockdown of LOX expression or inhibition of LOX activity alleviates the lung fibrosis. Unexpectedly, treatment of the mice with LOX inhibitor at the inflammatory stage, but not the fibrogenic stage, efficiently reduces collagen deposition and normalizes lung architecture. Inhibition of LOX impairs inflammatory cell infiltration, TGF-β signaling, and myofibroblast accumulation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LOX sensitizes the fibrosis-resistant Balb/c mice to BLM-induced inflammation and lung fibrosis. These results suggest that LOX is indispensable for the progression of BLM-induced experimental lung fibrosis by aggravating the inflammatory response and subsequent fibrosis process after lung injury. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Piperine Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Modulating NF-κB Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Liu, Jingyao; Li, Hongyan; Gu, Lina

    2016-02-01

    Piperine, one of the active components of black pepper, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effects of piperine on lipolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) have not been reported. Thus, the protective effects of piperine against LPS-induced ALI were investigated in this study. LPS-induced lung injury was assessed by histological study, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and inflammatory cytokine production. Our results demonstrated that piperine attenuated LPS-induced MPO activity, lung edema, and inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production. Histological studies showed that piperine obviously attenuated LPS-induced lung injury. In addition, piperine significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that piperine had a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of piperine is through inhibition of NF-κB activation. Piperine may be a potential therapeutic agent for ALI.

  9. Preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting the administration of fluids attenuates lung edema progression in oleic acid-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Cano, A; Gracia Romero, M; Monge García, M I; Guijo González, P; Ruiz Campos, J

    2017-04-01

    A study is made of the influence of preemptive hemodynamic intervention restricting fluid administration upon the development of oleic acid-induced lung injury. A randomized in vivo study in rabbits was carried out. University research laboratory. Sixteen anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rabbits. Hemodynamic measurements obtained by transesophageal Doppler signal. Respiratory mechanics computed by a least square fitting method. Lung edema assessed by the ratio of wet weight to dry weight of the right lung. Histological examination of the left lung. Animals were randomly assigned to either the early protective lung strategy (EPLS) (n=8) or the early protective hemodynamic strategy (EPHS) (n=8). In both groups, lung injury was induced by the intravenous infusion of oleic acid (OA) (0.133mlkg -1 h -1 for 2h). At the same time, the EPLS group received 15mlkg -1 h -1 of Ringer lactate solution, while the EPHS group received 30mlkg -1 h -1 . Measurements were obtained at baseline and 1 and 2h after starting OA infusion. After 2h, the cardiac index decreased in the EPLS group (pfluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemoprevention with Acetylsalicylic Acid, Vitamin D and Calcium Reduces Risk of Carcinogen-induced Lung Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, J

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: Research has shown that chemoprevention may be effective against the development of lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor.......Background/Aim: Research has shown that chemoprevention may be effective against the development of lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor....

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  12. AKT1E¹⁷K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Malanga

    Full Text Available The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6-2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26 locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype.

  13. AKT1E17K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Donatella; Belmonte, Stefania; Colelli, Fabiana; Scarfò, Marzia; De Marco, Carmela; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Mirante, Teresa; Camastra, Caterina; Gagliardi, Monica; Rizzuto, Antonia; Mignogna, Chiara; Paciello, Orlando; Papparella, Serenella; Fagman, Henrik; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6–2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26) locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice) we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype. PMID:26859676

  14. APRV Mode in Ventilator Induced Lung Injury (VILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI, being a significant iatrogenic complication in the ICU patients, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Numerous approaches, protocols and ventilation modes have been introduced and examined to decrease the incidence of VILI in the ICU patients. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV, firstly introduced by Stock and Downs in 1987, applies higher Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP levels in prolonged periods (P and T high in order to preserve satisfactory lung volume and consequently alveolar recruitment. This mode benefits a time-cycled release phase to a lower set of pressure for a short period of time (P and T low i.e. release time (1,2. While some advantages have been introduced for APRV such as efficiently recruited alveoli over time, more homogeneous ventilation, less volutrauma, probable stabilization of patent alveoli and reduction in atelectrauma, protective effects of APRV on lung damage only seem to be substantial if spontaneous breathing responds to more than 30% of total minute ventilation (3. APRV in ARDS patients should be administered cautiously; T low<0.6 seconds, for recruiting collapsed alveoli; however overstretching of alveoli especially during P high should not be neglected and appropriate sedation considered. The proposed advantages for APRV give the impression of being outstanding; however, APRV, as a non-physiologic inverse ratio mode of ventilation, might result in inflammation mainly due to impaired patient-ventilator interaction explaining the negative or minimally desirable effects of APRV on inflammation (4. Consequently, continuous infusion of neuromuscular blocking drugs during ARDS has been reported to reduce mortality (5. There are insufficient confirming data on the superiority of APRV above other ventilatory methods in regard to oxygenation, hemodynamics, regional blood flow, patient comfort and length of mechanical ventilation. Based on current findings

  15. Dexmedetomidine Alleviates Hyperoxia-Induced Acute Lung Injury via Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuyue; Wu, Di; Yang, Yang; Liu, Tingting; Liu, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine (Dex), a specific agonist of α2-adrenoceptor, has been reported to have extensive pharmacological effects. In this study, we focused on the protective effect of Dex on hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury and further explored its possible molecular mechanisms. The model of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury was established by continuous inhalation of oxygen (FiO2= 0.90) for 7 d in neonatal rats in vivo. The in vitro experiments were carried out in LPS/ATP or hyperoxia-treated RAW264.7 cells. ELISA, western blot, TUNEL staining, and immunohistochemistry staining assays were performed and the commercial kits were used to assess the beneficial effect of Dex on hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury. According to our results, Dex treatment attenuated hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury via decreasing the lung wet/dry(W/D) weight ratio and mitigating pathomorphologic changes. Moreover, the oxidative stress injury, inflammatory reaction, and apoptosis in lung epithelial cells were inhibited by Dex treatment. In addition, the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome was restrained by Dex both in lung tissue in vivo and RAW264.7 cells in vitro. These data provide evidence that Dex may ameliorate hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury, which suggests a potential clinical application of Dex in long-term supplemental oxygen therapy. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Relation between radiation-induced whole lung functional loss and regional structural changes in partial irradiated rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijk, Peter; Novakova-Jiresova, Alena; Faber, Hette; Steneker, Marloes N J; Kampinga, Harm H; Meertens, Haarm; Coppes, Robert P

    2006-04-01

    Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity is characterized by dose, region, and time-dependent severe changes in lung morphology and function. This study sought to determine the relation between the structural and functional changes in the irradiated rat lung at three different phases after irradiation. Six groups of animals were irradiated to 16-22 Gy to six different lung regions, each containing 50% of the total lung volume. Before and every 2 weeks after irradiation, the breathing rate (BR) was measured, and at Weeks 8, 26, and 38 CT was performed. From the computed tomography scans, the irradiated lung tissue was delineated using a computerized algorithm. A single quantitative measure for structural change was derived from changes of the mean and standard deviation of the density within the delineated lung. Subsequently, this was correlated with the BR in the corresponding phase. In the mediastinal and apex region, the BR and computed tomography density changes did not correlate in any phase. After lateral irradiation, the density changes always correlated with the BR; however, in all other regions, the density changes only correlated significantly (r(2) = 0.46-0.85, p < 0.05) with the BR in Week 26. Changes in pulmonary function correlated with the structural changes in the absence of confounding heart irradiation.

  17. Activation of rho is involved in the mechanism of hydrogen-peroxide-induced lung edema in isolated perfused rabbit lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Y; Ishii, Y; Kitamura, S; Sugiyama, Y

    2001-09-01

    Acute lung injury is attributed primarily to increased vascular permeability caused by reactive oxygen species derived from neutrophils, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Increased permeability is accompanied by the contraction and cytoskeleton reorganization of endothelial cells, resulting in intercellular gap formation. The Rho family of Ras-like GTPases is implicated in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and cell contraction. We examined the role of Rho in H2O2-induced pulmonary edema with the use of isolated perfused rabbit lungs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the role of Rho in increased vascular permeability induced by H2O2 in perfused lungs. Vascular permeability was evaluated on the basis of the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc, ml/min/cm H2O/100 g). We found that H2O2 (300 microM) increased lung weight, Kfc, and pulmonary capillary pressure. These effects of H2O2 were abolished by treatment with Y-27632 (50 microM), an inhibitor of the Rho effector p160 ROCK. In contrast, the muscular relaxant papaverine inhibited the H2O2-induced rise in pulmonary capillary pressure, but did not suppress the increases in lung weight and Kfc. These findings indicate that H2O2 causes pulmonary edema by elevating hydrostatic pressure and increasing vascular permeability. Y-27632 inhibited the formation of pulmonary edema by blocking both of these H2O2-induced effects. Our results suggest that Rho-related pathways have a part in the mechanism of H2O2-induced pulmonary edema. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  19. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 is protective in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lin; Bi, Jing; Zhu, Xiaodan; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Jie; Rong, Linyi; Wang, Qin; Xu, Nuo; Zhong, Ming; Zhu, Duming; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2014-09-15

    Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) plays a key role in lung development, but its role in acute lung injury has not been well characterized. Lipopolysaccharide instillation caused acute lung injury, which significantly elevated lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, protein and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inhibited surfactant protein A and C expression in lung tissue, and increased pathological injury. Pretreatment with KGF-2 improved the above lung injury parameters, partially restored surfactant protein A and C expression, and KGF-2 given 2-3 days before LPS challenge showed maximum lung injury improvement. Pretreatment with KGF-2 also markedly reduced the levels of TNF-α, MIP-2, IL-1β and IL-6 in BALF and the levels of IL-1β and IL-6 in lung tissue. Histological analysis showed there was increased proliferation of alveolar type II epithelial cells in lung parenchyma, which reached maximal 2 days after KGF-2 instillation. Intratracheal administration of KGF-2 attenuates lung injury induced by LPS, suggesting KGF-2 may be potent in the intervention of acute lung injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of three rat strains for development of radiation-induced lung injury after hemithoracic irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, MR; Kampinga, HH; Szabo, BG; Vujaskovic, Z

    The purpose of this study is to define differences in radiation sensitivity among rat strains using breathing frequency and lung perfusion as end points of radiation-induced lung injury. The results have confirmed previous findings in mice showing that-under stringently controlled iso-dose/volume

  1. Taurine attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in C57/Bl6 fibrosis prone mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robb, W B

    2010-03-01

    The amino acid taurine has an established role in attenuating lung fibrosis secondary to bleomycin-induced injury. This study evaluates taurine\\'s effect on TGF-beta1 expression and the development of lung fibrosis after single-dose thoracic radiotherapy.

  2. Inhibition or knock out of Inducible nitric oxide synthase result in resistance to bleomycin-induced lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crimi Nunzio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, by comparing the responses in wild-type mice (WT and mice lacking (KO the inducible (or type 2 nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, we investigated the role played by iNOS in the development of on the lung injury caused by bleomycin administration. When compared to bleomycin-treated iNOSWT mice, iNOSKO mice, which had received bleomycin, exhibited a reduced degree of the (i lost of body weight, (ii mortality rate, (iii infiltration of the lung with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (MPO activity, (iv edema formation, (v histological evidence of lung injury, (vi lung collagen deposition and (vii lung Transforming Growth Factor beta1 (TGF-β1 expression. Methods Mice subjected to intratracheal administration of bleomycin developed a significant lung injury. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine revealed a positive staining in lungs from bleomycin-treated iNOSWT mice. Results The intensity and degree of nitrotyrosine staining was markedly reduced in tissue section from bleomycin-iNOSKO mice. Treatment of iNOSWT mice with of GW274150, a novel, potent and selective inhibitor of iNOS activity (5 mg/kg i.p. also significantly attenuated all of the above indicators of lung damage and inflammation. Conclusion Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that iNOS plays an important role in the lung injury induced by bleomycin in the mice.

  3. Cerium-144-induced lung gumors in two strains of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in the extrapolation of radiation cancer risk factors from one species or population to another is the choice of the risk model to use, either absolute or relative. The purpose of this study was to compare absolute and relative risk models in predicting the lung-tumor risks between a low lung-tumor incidence strain of mice and a high-incidence strain of mice. The conclusion from this study is that absolute risk is more accurate than relative risk for predicting lung tumor risk from high to low lung-tumor incidence strains of mice.

  4. Trauma hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury involves a gut-lymph-induced TLR4 pathway in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego C Reino

    Full Text Available Injurious non-microbial factors released from the stressed gut during shocked states contribute to the development of acute lung injury (ALI and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS. Since Toll-like receptors (TLR act as sensors of tissue injury as well as microbial invasion and TLR4 signaling occurs in both sepsis and noninfectious models of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury, we hypothesized that factors in the intestinal mesenteric lymph after trauma hemorrhagic shock (T/HS mediate gut-induced lung injury via TLR4 activation.The concept that factors in T/HS lymph exiting the gut recreates ALI is evidenced by our findings that the infusion of porcine lymph, collected from animals subjected to global T/HS injury, into naïve wildtype (WT mice induced lung injury. Using C3H/HeJ mice that harbor a TLR4 mutation, we found that TLR4 activation was necessary for the development of T/HS porcine lymph-induced lung injury as determined by Evan's blue dye (EBD lung permeability and myeloperoxidase (MPO levels as well as the induction of the injurious pulmonary iNOS response. TRIF and Myd88 deficiency fully and partially attenuated T/HS lymph-induced increases in lung permeability respectively. Additional studies in TLR2 deficient mice showed that TLR2 activation was not involved in the pathology of T/HS lymph-induced lung injury. Lastly, the lymph samples were devoid of bacteria, endotoxin and bacterial DNA and passage of lymph through an endotoxin removal column did not abrogate the ability of T/HS lymph to cause lung injury in naïve mice.Our findings suggest that non-microbial factors in the intestinal mesenteric lymph after T/HS are capable of recreating T/HS-induced lung injury via TLR4 activation.

  5. Partial liquid ventilation improves lung function in ventilation-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Vazquez de Anda; R.A. Lachmann; S.J.C. Verbrugge (Serge); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.J. Haitsma (Jack); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractDisturbances in lung function and lung mechanics are present after ventilation with high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Therefore, the authors investigated whether partial liquid ventilation can re-establish

  6. Graphene-induced apoptosis in lung epithelial cells through EGFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Ming; Bangalore, Preeti; Chen, Eric Y.; Lu, David; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Suh, Andrew; Gehring, Matthew; Cangco, John P.; Garcia, Santiago G.; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Expanding interest in nanotechnology applied to electronic and biomedical fields has led to fast-growing development of various nanomaterials. Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms with unique physical and chemical properties. Recently, graphene has been used in many studies on electronics, photonics, composite materials, energy generation and storage, sensors, and biomedicine. However, the current health risk assessment for graphene has been relatively limited and inconclusive. This study evaluated the toxicity effects of graphene on the airway epithelial cell line BEAS-2B, which represents the first barrier of the human body to interact with airborne graphene particles. Our result showed that graphene can induce the cellular Ca2+ by phospholipase C (PLC) associated pathway by activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Subsequently, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors activate the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores. Those Ca2+ signals further trigger the calcium-regulated apoptosis in the cell. Furthermore, the stimulation can cause EGFR upregulation, which have been demonstrated to associate with diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cardiovascular diseases. This study highlights the additional health risk considering that it can function as a contributing factor for other respiratory diseases.

  7. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Samir A., E-mail: salama.3@buckeyemail.osu.edu [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11751 (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and GTMR Unit, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); Omar, Hany A. [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62514 (Egypt); Maghrabi, Ibrahim A. [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); AlSaeed, Mohammed S. [Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia); EL-Tarras, Adel E. [High Altitude Research Center, Taif University, Al-Haweiah, Taif 21974 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  8. One-lung ventilation induces hyperperfusion and alveolar damage in the ventilated lung: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozian, A; Schilling, T; Fredén, F; Maripuu, E; Röcken, C; Strang, C; Hachenberg, T; Hedenstierna, G

    2008-04-01

    One-lung ventilation (OLV) increases mechanical stress in the lung and affects ventilation and perfusion (V, Q). There are no data on the effects of OLV on postoperative V/Q matching. Thus, this controlled study evaluates the influence of OLV on V/Q distribution in a pig model using a gamma camera technique [single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)] and relates these findings to lung histopathology after OLV. Eleven anaesthetized and ventilated pigs (V(T)=10 ml kg(-1), Fio2=0.40, PEEP=5 cm H2O) were studied. After lung separation, OLV and thoracotomy were performed in seven pigs (OLV group). During OLV and in a two-lung ventilation (TLV), control group (n=4) ventilation settings remained unchanged. SPECT with (81m)Kr (ventilation) and (99m)Tc-labelled macro-aggregated albumin (perfusion) was performed before, during, and 90 min after OLV/TLV. Finally, lung tissue samples were harvested and examined for alveolar damage. OLV affected ventilation and haemodynamic variables, but there were no differences between the OLV group and the control group before and after OLV/TLV. SPECT revealed an increase of perfusion in the dependent lung compared with baseline (49-56%), and a corresponding reduction of perfusion (51-44%) in non-dependent lungs after OLV. No perfusion changes were observed in the control group. This resulted in increased low V/Q regions and a shift of V/Q areas to 0.3-0.5 (10(-0.5)-10(-0.3)) in dependent lungs of OLV pigs and was associated with an increased diffuse alveolar damage score. OLV in pigs results in a substantial V/Q mismatch, hyperperfusion, and alveolar damage in the dependent lung and may thus contribute to gas exchange impairment after thoracic surgery.

  9. The receptor for advanced glycation end products in ventilator-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Maria T.; Aslami, Hamid; Tuinman, Pieter Roel; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M.; Jongsma, Geartsje; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F.; Choi, Goda; Wolthuis, Esther K.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Bresser, Paul; Schultz, Marcus J.; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The innate immune response mediates this iatrogenic inflammatory condition. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor that can amplify immune and inflammatory responses. We

  10. The receptor for advanced glycation end products in ventilator-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Maria T; Aslami, Hamid; Tuinman, Pieter Roel; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M; Jongsma, Geartsje; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F; Choi, Goda; Wolthuis, Esther K; Roelofs, Joris Jth; Bresser, Paul; Schultz, Marcus J; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The innate immune response mediates this iatrogenic inflammatory condition. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor that can amplify immune and inflammatory responses.

  11. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set shows high throughput gene expression assessment using RNAseq to examine how ozone-induced transcriptional changes in the lung are influenced by...

  12. Ventilation and Perfusion Lung Scintigraphy of Allergen-Induced Airway Responses in Atopic Asthmatic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Parameswaran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both ventilation (V and perfusion (Q of the lungs are altered in asthma, but their relationships with allergen-induced airway responses and gas exchange are not well described.

  13. TGFβ signaling in lung epithelium regulates bleomycin-induced alveolar injury and fibroblast recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, Amber L; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Xu, Xiaochuan C; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Jones, Brittany R; Boomershine, Chad S; Ortiz, Camila; Sherrill, Taylor P; McMahon, Frank B; Gleaves, Linda A; Blackwell, Timothy S; Lawson, William E

    2011-06-01

    The response of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to lung injury plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanisms by which AECs regulate fibrotic processes are not well defined. We aimed to elucidate how transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling in lung epithelium impacts lung fibrosis in the intratracheal bleomycin model. Mice with selective deficiency of TGFβ receptor 2 (TGFβR2) in lung epithelium were generated and crossed to cell fate reporter mice that express β-galactosidase (β-gal) in cells of lung epithelial lineage. Mice were given intratracheal bleomycin (0.08 U), and the following parameters were assessed: AEC death by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick-end labeling assay, inflammation by total and differential cell counts from bronchoalveolar lavage, fibrosis by scoring of trichrome-stained lung sections, and total lung collagen content. Mice with lung epithelial deficiency of TGFβR2 had improved AEC survival, despite greater lung inflammation, after bleomycin administration. At 3 wk after bleomycin administration, mice with epithelial TGFβR2 deficiency showed a significantly attenuated fibrotic response in the lungs, as determined by semiquantitatve scoring and total collagen content. The reduction in lung fibrosis in these mice was associated with a marked decrease in the lung fibroblast population, both total lung fibroblasts and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-derived (S100A4(+)/β-gal(+)) fibroblasts. Attenuation of TGFβ signaling in lung epithelium provides protection from bleomycin-induced fibrosis, indicating a critical role for the epithelium in transducing the profibrotic effects of this cytokine.

  14. Comparison of lung alveolar and tissue cells in silica-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstrand, M; Absher, P M; Hemenway, D R; Trombley, L; Baldor, L C

    1991-01-01

    The silicon dioxide mineral, cristobalite (CRS) induces inflammation involving both alveolar cells and connective tissue compartments. In this study, we compared lung cells recovered by whole lung lavage and by digestion of lung tissue from rats at varying times after 8 days of exposure to aerosolized CRS. Control and exposed rats were examined between 2 and 36 wk after exposure. Lavaged cells were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage with phosphate-buffered saline. Lung wall cells were prepared via collagenase digestion of lung tissue slices. Cells from lavage and lung wall were separated by Percoll density centrifugation. The three upper fractions, containing mostly macrophages, were cultured, and the conditioned medium was assayed for effect on lung fibroblast growth and for activity of the lysosomal enzyme, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. Results demonstrated that the cells separated from the lung walls exhibited different reaction patterns compared with those cells recovered by lavage. The lung wall cells exhibited a progressive increase in the number of macrophages and lymphocytes compared with a steady state in cells of the lung lavage. This increase in macrophages apparently was due to low density cells, which showed features of silica exposure. Secretion of a fibroblast-stimulating factor was consistently high by lung wall macrophages, whereas lung lavage macrophages showed inconsistent variations. The secretion of NAG was increased in lung lavage macrophages, but decreased at most observation times in lung wall macrophages. No differences were found among cells in the different density fractions regarding fibroblast stimulation and enzyme secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Shichao Han; Weixia Cai; Xuekang Yang; Yanhui Jia; Zhao Zheng; Hongtao Wang; Jun Li; Yan Li; Jianxin Gao; Lei Fan; Dahai Hu

    2015-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibiti...

  16. Antenatal betamethasone attenuates intrauterine infection-aggravated hyperoxia-induced lung injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Soo; Chang, Yun Sil; Kim, Jin Kyu; Ahn, So Yoon; Kim, Eun Sun; Sung, Dong Kyung; Jeon, Ga Won; Hwang, Jong Hee; Shim, Jae Won; Park, Won Soon

    2013-06-01

    Intrauterine infection can exacerbate postnatal hyperoxic lung injury. We hypothesized that antenatal betamethasone treatment attenuates hyperoxic lung injury aggravated by intrauterine infection in neonatal rats. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight experimental groups according to (i) whether rats were exposed to normoxia (N) or hyperoxia (H, 85% oxygen) from postnatal day (P)1 to P14, (ii) whether antenatal betamethasone (0.2 mg/dose) or vehicle was administered to pregnant rats at gestation days (E)19 and E20, and (iii) whether intrauterine infection was induced or not antenatally. Intrauterine infection was induced by intracervical inoculation of Escherichia coli into pregnant rats on E19. We measured cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in P1 rat lungs and performed morphometric analyses and assessed inflammatory responses in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at P14 by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and measurement of myeloperoxidase activity, collagen, and cytokine levels. Cytokine levels in P1 rat lungs were increased by intrauterine infection, and these increases were attenuated by antenatal betamethasone. Hyperoxic lung injuries, indicated by morphometric changes and an inflammatory response in the lung and BAL fluid, were aggravated by intrauterine infection at P14. This aggravation was significantly attenuated by antenatal betamethasone. Antenatal betamethasone attenuated aggravated hyperoxic lung injuries induced by intrauterine infection in neonatal rats via its anti-inflammatory actions.

  17. NLRP3 deletion protects from hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Jutaro; Fukumoto, Itsuko; Parthasarathy, Prasanna Tamarapu; Cox, Ruan; Huynh, Bao; Ramanathan, Gurukumar Kollongod; Venugopal, Rajan Babu; Allen-Gipson, Diane S; Lockey, Richard F; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2013-07-15

    Inspiration of a high concentration of oxygen, a therapy for acute lung injury (ALI), could unexpectedly lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI). Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat PYD-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) senses the ROS, triggering inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production and secretion. However, the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in HALI is unclear. The main aim of this study is to determine the effect of NLRP3 gene deletion on inflammatory response and lung epithelial cell death. Wild-type (WT) and NLRP3(-/-) mice were exposed to 100% O2 for 48-72 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues were examined for proinflammatory cytokine production and lung inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung pathological score was suppressed in NLRP3(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. Hyperoxia-induced recruitment of inflammatory cells and elevation of IL-1β, TNFα, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were attenuated in NLRP3(-/-) mice. NLRP3 deletion decreased lung epithelial cell death and caspase-3 levels and a suppressed NF-κB levels compared with WT controls. Taken together, this research demonstrates for the first time that NLRP3-deficient mice have suppressed inflammatory response and blunted lung epithelial cell apoptosis to HALI.

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization enhances ventilator-associated pneumonia-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Tzyy-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Zhen; Hsu, Ching-Mei; Chen, Lee-Wei

    2016-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the single-most common pathogen of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Large quantities of PA in the trachea of ventilated patients are associated with an increased risk of death. However, the role of PA colonization in PA VAP-induced lung injury remains elusive. This study examined the effect and mechanism of PA colonization in VAP-induced lung injury. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase knockout (JNK1(-/-)) mice received mechanical ventilation for 3 h at 2 days after receiving nasal instillation of PA (1 × 10(6) colony forming unit) or normal saline. Intranasal instillation of PA or mechanical ventilation induced the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the lungs. Phospho-JNK protein expression in the lungs was significantly increased in mice receiving mechanical ventilation after PA instillation as compared with those receiving ventilation alone. Mechanical ventilation after PA instillation significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) proteins; neutrophil sequestration; and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in the lungs of WT mice, but not in JNK1(-/-) mice. PA colonization plays an important role in PA VAP-induced lung injury through the induction of JNK1-mediated inflammation. PA-induced VAP causes lung injury through JNK signaling pathway in the lungs. JNK inhibition in ICU patients with higher percentages of PA colonization may reduce VAP-induced lung injury and mortality.

  19. The role of the Akt/mTOR pathway in tobacco-carcinogen induced lung tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmott, Regan M.; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, and 85–90% of lung cancer cases are associated with tobacco use. Tobacco components promote lung tumorigenesis through genotoxic effects, as well as through biochemical modulation of signaling pathways such as the Akt/mTOR pathway that regulate cell proliferation and survival. This review will describe cell surface receptors and other upstream components required for tobacco-carcinogen induced activation of Akt and mTOR. Preclinical studies demonstrate that inhibitors of the Akt/mTOR pathway inhibit tumor formation in mouse models of carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Some of these inhibitors will be highlighted, and their clinical potential for the treatment and prevention of lung cancer will be discussed. PMID:20028747

  20. Ventilation-induced lung injury is not exacerbated by growth restriction in preterm lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Beth J; Hooper, Stuart B; Coia, Elise; Zahra, Valerie A; Jenkin, Graham; Malhotra, Atul; Sehgal, Arvind; Kluckow, Martin; Gill, Andrew W; Sozo, Foula; Miller, Suzanne L; Polglase, Graeme R

    2016-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth are frequent comorbidities and, combined, increase the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes compared with that in appropriately grown (AG) infants. Potential underlying reasons for this increased respiratory morbidity in IUGR infants compared with AG infants include altered fetal lung development, fetal lung inflammation, increased respiratory requirements, and/or increased ventilation-induced lung injury. IUGR was surgically induced in preterm fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) by ligation of a single umbilical artery. Four weeks later, preterm lambs were euthanized at delivery or delivered and ventilated for 2 h before euthanasia. Ventilator requirements, lung inflammation, early markers of lung injury, and morphological changes in lung parenchymal and vascular structure and surfactant composition were analyzed. IUGR preterm lambs weighed 30% less than AG preterm lambs, with increased brain-to-body weight ratio, indicating brain sparing. IUGR did not induce lung inflammation or injury or alter lung parenchymal and vascular structure compared with AG fetuses. IUGR and AG lambs had similar oxygenation and respiratory requirements after birth and had significant, but similar, increases in proinflammatory cytokine expression, lung injury markers, gene expression, and surfactant phosphatidylcholine species compared with unventilated controls. IUGR does not induce pulmonary structural changes in our model. Furthermore, IUGR and AG preterm lambs have similar ventilator requirements in the immediate postnatal period. This study suggests that increased morbidity and mortality in IUGR infants is not due to altered lung tissue or vascular structure, or to an altered response to early ventilation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R., E-mail: sunilvr@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS −/− mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS −/− mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS −/− mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS −/− mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS −/− mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. -- Highlights: ► Lung injury, inflammation and oxidative stress are induced by the model vesicant CEES ► RNS generated via iNOS are important in the CEES-induced pulmonary toxicity ► iNOS −/− mice are protected from CEES-induced lung toxicity and

  2. Laser-induced thermotherapy of lung metastases and primary lung tumors; Laserinduzierte Thermotherapie von Lungenmetastasen und primaeren Lungentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J. (Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J.-W.-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt; Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J.-W.-Goethe-Universitaet, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt); Fieguth, H.G. (Klinik fuer Thorax-, Herz- und thorakale Gefaesschirurgie, Klinikum der J.-W.-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt); Eichler, K.; Straub, R.; Lehnert, T.; Zangos, S.; Mack, M. (Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum der J.-W.-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt)

    2004-07-01

    We present laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of primary and secondary lung tumors analysing indications and technical concepts. Thirty patients with lung metastases of different primary tumors (n=24) as well as localized lung tumors (n=6) were prospectively treated in 41 sessions using laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT). An MR-compatible puncture system was used with direct puncture technique. The puncture was performed via CT guidance in care vision technique. Eight patients were thermoablated using MR tomographical monitoring, 22 patients using CT monitoring. Local therapy effects, tumor control rate, side effects, complications, and survival were evaluated. In 74% of cases (28/38 lesions) of 24 patients with lung metastases and in all cases of the 6 patients with lung carcinoma a complete local ablation could be achieved. The complication rate (pneumothorax) was 9,8%. One patient with bronchial carcinoma had to be thoracotomized and resected. 93% of the patients are still alive. Percutaneous LITT of lung tumors permits a complete ablation of lung metastases and lung carcinomas with a low complication rate. Indications for the procedure were defined for patients with no more than 5 metastases up to 3 cm in size. (orig.) [German] Wir stellen nachfolgend die Ergebnisse der laserinduzierten Thermotherapie (LITT) primaerer und sekundaerer Lungentumoren vor und analysieren die Indikationsstellung und die Interventionstechnik. Dreissig Patienten mit Lungenmetastasen unterschiedlicher Primaertumoren (n=24) sowie lokalisierten Bronchialkarzinomen (n=6) wurden prospektiv in 41 Sitzungen mittels MR-gesteuerter LITT therapiert. Zum Einsatz kam ein MR-kompatibles Punktionssystem in direkter Punktionstechnik; die Punktion erfolgte jeweils unter CT-Steuerung in Care-vision-Technik. Acht Patienten wurden mittels MR-tomographischem Monitoring thermoablatiert, 22 Patienten mittels CT-Monitoring. Evaluiert wurden die lokalen Therapieeffekte, Tumorkontrollrate, und die Frage von

  3. Prostaglandin E₂ protects murine lungs from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and lung dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dackor, Ryan T; Cheng, Jennifer; Voltz, James W; Card, Jeffrey W; Ferguson, Catherine D; Garrett, Ryan C; Bradbury, J Alyce; DeGraff, Laura M; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Flake, Gordon P; Travlos, Gregory S; Ramsey, Randle W; Edin, Matthew L; Morgan, Daniel L; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2011-11-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is a lipid mediator that is produced via the metabolism of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase enzymes. In the lung, PGE(2) acts as an anti-inflammatory factor and plays an important role in tissue repair processes. Although several studies have examined the role of PGE(2) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in rodents, results have generally been conflicting, and few studies have examined the therapeutic effects of PGE(2) on the accompanying lung dysfunction. In this study, an established model of pulmonary fibrosis was used in which 10-12-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were administered a single dose (1.0 mg/kg) of bleomycin via oropharyngeal aspiration. To test the role of prostaglandins in this model, mice were dosed, via surgically implanted minipumps, with either vehicle, PGE(2) (1.32 μg/h), or the prostacyclin analog iloprost (0.33 μg/h) beginning 7 days before or 14 days after bleomycin administration. Endpoints assessed at 7 days after bleomycin administration included proinflammatory cytokine levels and measurement of cellular infiltration into the lung. Endpoints assessed at 21 days after bleomycin administration included lung function assessment via invasive (FlexiVent) analysis, cellular infiltration, lung collagen content, and semiquantitative histological analysis of the degree of lung fibrosis (Ashcroft method). Seven days after bleomycin administration, lymphocyte numbers and chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 expression were significantly lower in PGE(2)- and iloprost-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated controls (P bleomycin challenge, PGE(2) also protected against the decline in lung static compliance, lung fibrosis, and collagen production that is associated with 3 wk of bleomycin exposure. However, PGE(2) had no therapeutic effect on these parameters when administered 14 days after bleomycin challenge. In summary, PGE(2) prevented the decline in lung static compliance and protected against lung fibrosis when it

  4. Prostaglandin E2 protects murine lungs from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and lung dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dackor, Ryan T.; Cheng, Jennifer; Voltz, James W.; Card, Jeffrey W.; Ferguson, Catherine D.; Garrett, Ryan C.; Bradbury, J. Alyce; DeGraff, Laura M.; Lih, Fred B.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Flake, Gordon P.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Ramsey, Randle W.; Edin, Matthew L.; Morgan, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a lipid mediator that is produced via the metabolism of arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase enzymes. In the lung, PGE2 acts as an anti-inflammatory factor and plays an important role in tissue repair processes. Although several studies have examined the role of PGE2 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in rodents, results have generally been conflicting, and few studies have examined the therapeutic effects of PGE2 on the accompanying lung dysfunction. In this study, an established model of pulmonary fibrosis was used in which 10–12-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were administered a single dose (1.0 mg/kg) of bleomycin via oropharyngeal aspiration. To test the role of prostaglandins in this model, mice were dosed, via surgically implanted minipumps, with either vehicle, PGE2 (1.32 μg/h), or the prostacyclin analog iloprost (0.33 μg/h) beginning 7 days before or 14 days after bleomycin administration. Endpoints assessed at 7 days after bleomycin administration included proinflammatory cytokine levels and measurement of cellular infiltration into the lung. Endpoints assessed at 21 days after bleomycin administration included lung function assessment via invasive (FlexiVent) analysis, cellular infiltration, lung collagen content, and semiquantitative histological analysis of the degree of lung fibrosis (Ashcroft method). Seven days after bleomycin administration, lymphocyte numbers and chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 expression were significantly lower in PGE2- and iloprost-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated controls (P bleomycin challenge, PGE2 also protected against the decline in lung static compliance, lung fibrosis, and collagen production that is associated with 3 wk of bleomycin exposure. However, PGE2 had no therapeutic effect on these parameters when administered 14 days after bleomycin challenge. In summary, PGE2 prevented the decline in lung static compliance and protected against lung fibrosis when it was administered

  5. Resveratrol ameliorates LPS-induced acute lung injury via NLRP3 inflammasome modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Kai; Fei, Dongsheng; Gong, Rui; Cao, Yanhui; Pan, Shangha; Zhao, Mingran; Zhao, Mingyan

    2016-12-01

    NLRP3 inflammasome plays a pivotal role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI), accelerating IL-1β and IL-18 release and inducing lung inflammation. Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, has anti-inflammatory properties via inhibition of oxidation, leukocyte priming, and production of inflammatory mediators. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol on NLRP3 inflammasome in lipopolysaccharide-induced ALI. Mice were intratracheally instilled with 3mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce ALI. Resveratrol treatment alleviated the LPS-induced lung pathological damage, lung edema and neutrophil infiltration. In addition, resveratrol reversed the LPS-mediated elevation of IL-1β and IL-18 level in the BAL fluids. In lung tissue, resveratrol also inhibited the LPS-induced NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1 mRNA and protein expression, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, resveratrol administration not only suppressed the NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, NF-κB activity and ROS production in the LPS-treated mice, but also inhibited the LPS-induced thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) protein expression and interaction of TXNIP-NLRP3 in lung tissue. Meanwhile, resveratrol obviously induced SIRT1 mRNA and protein expression in the LPS-challenged mice. Taken together, our study suggests that resveratrol protects against LPS-induced lung injury by NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition. These findings further suggest that resveratrol may be of great value in the treatment of ALI and a potential and an effective pharmacological agent for inflammasome-relevant diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of biliverdin administration on acute lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Junko; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toru; Shimizu, Hiroko; Kawanishi, Susumu; Omori, Emiko; Endo, Yasumasa; Tamaki, Naofumi; Morita, Manabu; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation induces pulmonary inflammation that leads to acute lung injury. Biliverdin, a metabolite of heme catabolism, has been shown to have potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of intravenous biliverdin administration on lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Biliverdin or vehicle was administered to the rats 1 h before sham or hemorrhagic shock-inducing surgery. The sham-operated rats underwent all surgical procedures except bleeding. To induce hemorrhagic shock, rats were bled to achieve a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg that was maintained for 60 min, followed by resuscitation with shed blood. Histopathological changes in the lungs were evaluated by histopathological scoring analysis. Inflammatory gene expression was determined by Northern blot analysis, and oxidative DNA damage was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in the lungs. Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation resulted in prominent histopathological damage, including congestion, edema, cellular infiltration, and hemorrhage. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation significantly ameliorated these lung injuries as judged by histopathological improvement. After hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, inflammatory gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased by 18- and 8-fold, respectively. Inflammatory gene expression significantly decreased when biliverdin was administered prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Moreover, after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, lung 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in mitochondrial DNA expressed in the pulmonary interstitium increased by 1.5-fold. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation decreased mitochondrial 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels to almost the same level as that in the control animals. We also

  7. Effects of biliverdin administration on acute lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kosaka

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation induces pulmonary inflammation that leads to acute lung injury. Biliverdin, a metabolite of heme catabolism, has been shown to have potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of intravenous biliverdin administration on lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Biliverdin or vehicle was administered to the rats 1 h before sham or hemorrhagic shock-inducing surgery. The sham-operated rats underwent all surgical procedures except bleeding. To induce hemorrhagic shock, rats were bled to achieve a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg that was maintained for 60 min, followed by resuscitation with shed blood. Histopathological changes in the lungs were evaluated by histopathological scoring analysis. Inflammatory gene expression was determined by Northern blot analysis, and oxidative DNA damage was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in the lungs. Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation resulted in prominent histopathological damage, including congestion, edema, cellular infiltration, and hemorrhage. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation significantly ameliorated these lung injuries as judged by histopathological improvement. After hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, inflammatory gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased by 18- and 8-fold, respectively. Inflammatory gene expression significantly decreased when biliverdin was administered prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Moreover, after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, lung 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in mitochondrial DNA expressed in the pulmonary interstitium increased by 1.5-fold. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation decreased mitochondrial 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels to almost the same level as that in the

  8. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Miranda da Silva

    Full Text Available Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA, an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1% or vehicle (distillated water during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure. Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant.

  9. CORM-2 inhibits TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Fei, Dongsheng; Gong, Rui; Yang, Wei; Yu, Wei; Pan, Shangha; Zhao, Mingran; Zhao, Mingyan

    2016-11-01

    Accumulated studies suggest that exogenously administered carbon monoxide is beneficial for the resolution of acute lung inflammation. The present study aimed to examine the effects and the underlying mechanisms of CORM-2 on thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was intratracheally induced by LPS in C57BL6 mice. CORM-2 or iCORM-2 (30mg/kg i.p.) was administered immediately before LPS instillation. 6 h later, lung bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were acquired for IL-18, IL-1β, and cell measurement, and lung issues were collected for histologic examination, wet/dry weight ratio, and determination of TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome expression, NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-ΚB activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. LPS triggered significant lung edema, lung injury, and leukocyte infiltration, and elevated the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 in lung BAL fluids. CORM-2 pretreatment resulted in a marked amelioration of lung injury and reduced IL-1β and IL-18 secretion in BAL fluids. In lung tissues; CORM-2 down-regulated mRNA and protein level of TXNIP, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1. Furthermore, CORM-2 reduced ROS production, inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB activity, and interaction of TXNIP-NLRP3. However, no significant differences were detected between the LPS and iCORM-2 (an inactive variant of CORM-2) group. CORM-2 suppresses TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and protects against LPS-induced lung injury.

  10. Adult Lung Spheroid Cells Contain Progenitor Cells and Mediate Regeneration in Rodents With Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Eric; Cores, Jhon; Hensley, M Taylor; Anthony, Shirena; Vandergriff, Adam; de Andrade, James B M; Allen, Tyler; Caranasos, Thomas G; Lobo, Leonard J; Cheng, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Lung diseases are devastating conditions and ranked as one of the top five causes of mortality worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for lung regeneration. Previous animal and clinical studies have focused on the use of mesenchymal stem cells (from other parts of the body) for lung regenerative therapies. We report a rapid and robust method to generate therapeutic resident lung progenitors from adult lung tissues. Outgrowth cells from healthy lung tissue explants are self-aggregated into three-dimensional lung spheroids in a suspension culture. Without antigenic sorting, the lung spheroids recapitulate the stem cell niche and contain a natural mixture of lung stem cells and supporting cells. In vitro, lung spheroid cells can be expanded to a large quantity and can form alveoli-like structures and acquire mature lung epithelial phenotypes. In severe combined immunodeficiency mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, intravenous injection of human lung spheroid cells inhibited apoptosis, fibrosis, and infiltration but promoted angiogenesis. In a syngeneic rat model of pulmonary fibrosis, lung spheroid cells outperformed adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in reducing fibrotic thickening and infiltration. Previously, lung spheroid cells (the spheroid model) had only been used to study lung cancer cells. Our data suggest that lung spheroids and lung spheroid cells from healthy lung tissues are excellent sources of regenerative lung cells for therapeutic lung regeneration. The results from the present study will lead to future human clinical trials using lung stem cell therapies to treat various incurable lung diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis. The data presented here also provide fundamental knowledge regarding how injected stem cells mediate lung repair in pulmonary fibrosis. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice induces chronic lung inflammation, iBALT formation, and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupelli, Madhulika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chiba, Norika; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Jones, Heather D; Peterson, Ellena; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Crother, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5 × 10(5) CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs). Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis.

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice induces chronic lung inflammation, iBALT formation, and fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Jupelli

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5 × 10(5 CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs. Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis.

  13. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Takehiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. Methods BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1 or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA. Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. Results The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Conclusions Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

  14. Macrophage micro-RNA-155 promotes lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Liu, Zhi; Su, Jie; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Bai, San-Xing; Zhang, Jin-Zhou; Yu, Shi-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Micro-RNA (miR)-155 is a novel gene regulator with important roles in inflammation. Herein, our study aimed to explore the role of miR-155 in LPS-induced acute lung injury(ALI). ALI in mice was induced by intratracheally delivered LPS. Loss-of-function experiments performed on miR-155 knockout mice showed that miR-155 gene inactivation protected mice from LPS-induced ALI, as manifested by preserved lung permeability and reduced lung inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Bone marrow transplantation experiments identified leukocytes, but not lung parenchymal-derived miR-155-promoted acute lung inflammation. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of miR-155 in lung tissue was greatly elevated in wild-type mice after LPS stimulation. In situ hybridization showed that miR-155 was mainly expressed in alveolar macrophages. In vitro experiments performed in isolated alveolar macrophages and polarized bone marrow-derived macrophages confirmed that miR-155 expression in macrophages was increased in response to LPS stimulation. Conversely, miR-155 gain-of-function in alveolar macrophages remarkably exaggerated LPS-induced acute lung injury. Molecular studies identified the inflammation repressor suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1) as the downstream target of miR-155. By binding to the 3'-UTR of the SOCS-1 mRNA, miR-155 downregulated SOCS-1 expression, thus, permitting the inflammatory response during lung injury. Finally, we generated a novel miR-155 knockout rat strain and showed that the proinflammatory role of miR-155 was conserved in rats. Our study identified miR-155 as a proinflammatory factor after LPS stimulation, and alveolar macrophages-derived miR-155 has an important role in LPS-induced ALI. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lidocaine against sepsis-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Jie; Liao, Changli; Li, Xiaobing; Liu, Minghua; Song, Daqiang; Jiang, Xian

    2017-04-01

    Lidocaine (Lido) is reported to suppress inflammatory responses and exhibit a therapeutic effect in models of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) exerts pro-inflammatory effects by enhancing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. However, the precise mechanism by which Lido confers protection against ALI is not clear. ALI was induced in RAGE WT and RAGE knockout (KO) rats using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) operations for 24 h. The results showed that Lido significantly inhibited CLP-induced lung inflammation and histopathological lung injury. Furthermore, Lido significantly reduced CLP-induced upregulation of HMGB1 and RAGE expression and activation of the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. With the use of RAGE KO rats, we demonstrate here that RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lido against CLP-induced lung inflammatory cell infiltration and histopathological lung injury. These results suggest that RAGE deficiency attenuates the protective effect of Lido against CLP-induced ALI by attenuating the pro-inflammatory cytokines production.

  16. Crystalline silica-induced leukotriene B4-dependent inflammation promotes lung tumour growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Shuchismita R; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Bodduluri, Sobha R; Krishnan, Elangovan; Hegde, Bindu; Hoyle, Gary W; Fraig, Mostafa; Luster, Andrew D; Haribabu, Bodduluri

    2015-04-29

    Chronic exposure to crystalline silica (CS) causes silicosis, an irreversible lung inflammatory disease that may eventually lead to lung cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that in K-ras(LA1) mice, CS exposure markedly enhances the lung tumour burden and genetic deletion of leukotriene B4 receptor-1 (BLT1(-/-)) attenuates this increase. Pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation induced by CS is significantly reduced in BLT1(-/-)K-ras(LA1) mice. CS exposure induces LTB4 production by mast cells and macrophages independent of inflammasome activation. In an air-pouch model, CS-induced neutrophil recruitment is dependent on LTB4 production by mast cells and BLT1 expression on neutrophils. In an implantable lung tumour model, CS exposure results in rapid tumour growth and decreased survival that is attenuated in the absence of BLT1. These results suggest that the LTB4/BLT1 axis sets the pace of CS-induced sterile inflammation that promotes lung cancer progression. This knowledge may facilitate development of immunotherapeutic strategies to fight silicosis and lung cancer.

  17. Low Tidal Volume Reduces Lung Inflammation Induced by Liquid Ventilation in Piglets With Severe Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lijun; Feng, Huizhen; Chen, Xiaofan; Liang, Kaifeng; Ni, Chengyao

    2017-05-01

    Total liquid ventilation (TLV) is an alternative treatment for severe lung injury. High tidal volume is usually required for TLV to maintain adequate CO2 clearance. However, high tidal volume may cause alveolar barotrauma. We aim to investigate the effect of low tidal volume on pulmonary inflammation in piglets with lung injury and under TLV. After the establishment of acute lung injury model by infusing lipopolysaccharide, 12 piglets were randomly divided into two groups, TLV with high tidal volume (25 mL/kg) or with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg) for 240 min, respectively. Extracorporeal CO2 removal was applied in low tidal volume group to improve CO2 clearance and in high tidal volume group as sham control. Gas exchange and hemodynamic status were monitored every 30 min during TLV. At the end of the study, pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by collecting lung tissue and blood samples from piglets. Arterial blood pressure, PaO2 , and PaCO2 showed no remarkable difference between groups during the observation period. Compared with high tidal volume strategy, low tidal volume resulted in 76% reduction of minute volume and over 80% reduction in peak inspiratory pressure during TLV. In addition, low tidal volume significantly diminished pulmonary mRNA expression and plasmatic level of IL-6 and IL-8. We conclude that during TLV, low tidal volume reduces lung inflammation in piglets with acute lung injury without compromising gas exchange. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Praeruptorin D and E attenuate lipopolysaccharide/hydrochloric acid induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng-Jiu; Li, Jing-Rong; Zhu, Zheng-Guang; Kong, Huan-Yu; Jin, Hong; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Tian, Yuan-Xin; Li, Zhong-Huang; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Wu, Shu-Guang

    2013-06-15

    Acute lung injury is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and increased microvascular permeability, which causes a high mortality rate worldwide. The dry root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn has been long used to treat respiratory diseases in China. In the present study, Praeruptorin A, C, D and E (PA, PC, PD and PE), four pyranocoumarins extracted from this herb, have been investigated for the pharmacological effects in experimental lung injury mouse models. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged mice, PA and PC did not show protective effect against lung injury at the dose of 80 mg/kg. However, PD and PE significantly inhibited the infiltration of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the same dose. There was no statistically significant difference between PD and PE group. Further study demonstrated that PD and PE suppressed protein extravasations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, attenuated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the pathological changes in the lung. Both PD and PE suppressed LPS induced Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation in the lung by decreasing the cytoplasmic loss of Inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) protein and inhibiting the translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. We also extended our study to acid-induced acute lung injury and found that these two compounds protected mice from hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced lung injury by inhibiting PMNs influx, IL-6 release and protein exudation. Taken together, these results suggested that PD and PE might be useful in the therapy of lung injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sodium butyrate protects against severe burn-induced remote acute lung injury in rats.

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    Xun Liang

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1, a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI. Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1 sham group, sham burn treatment; 2 burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution for resuscitation; 3 burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer's solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  20. [Expert assessment of asbestos-induced lung damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W

    1990-04-01

    Asbestos is a mineral of special technical properties and therefore used in many products all over the world. The inhalation of asbestos causes chronic inflammation of lung--the asbestosis--and pleura--pleuraplaques and pleuritis--and is responsible for mesothelioma and lung cancer. Under normal conditions the diagnosis asbestosis is easy because of the typical x-ray findings and the history of intensive exposure of asbestos. In rare conditions the history of exposure is uncertain and the diagnosis might be difficult. The expected anuity depends on the loss of lung-function. First we find a restrictive ventilatory disorder i.e. a reduction in VC and compliance. Later after progress of the disease the gasexchange is impaired. In case of mesothelioma or lungcancer the person is generally expected to be unable to work.

  1. Twist1 suppresses senescence programs and thereby accelerates and maintains mutant Kras-induced lung tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Phuoc T; Shroff, Emelyn H; Burns, Timothy F

    2012-01-01

    overexpressed in primary human lung tumors. The suppression of TWIST1 in human lung cancer cells also induced cellular senescence. Hence, TWIST1 is a critical regulator of cellular senescence programs, and the suppression of TWIST1 in human tumors may be an effective example of pro-senescence therapy....... mouse model and in human lung tumors that the inhibition of Twist1 restores a senescence program inducing the loss of a neoplastic phenotype. The Twist1 gene encodes for a transcription factor that is essential during embryogenesis. Twist1 has been suggested to play an important role during tumor...... progression. However, there is no in vivo evidence that Twist1 plays a role in autochthonous tumorigenesis. Through two novel transgenic mouse models, we show that Twist1 cooperates with Kras(G12D) to markedly accelerate lung tumorigenesis by abrogating cellular senescence programs and promoting...

  2. Development and Assessment of Countermeasure Formulations for Treatment of Lung Injury Induced by Chlorine Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Gary W.; Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F.; Mo, Yiqun; Humphrey, David M.; Rawson, Greg; Niño, Joe A.; Carson, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine is a commonly used, reactive compound to which humans can be exposed via accidental or intentional release resulting in acute lung injury. Formulations of rolipram (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor), triptolide (a natural plant product with anti-inflammatory properties), and budesonide (a corticosteroid), either neat or in conjunction with poly(lactic:glycolic acid) (PLGA), were developed for treatment of chlorine-induced acute lung injury by intramuscular injection. Formulations were produced by spray-drying, which generated generally spherical microparticles that were suitable for intramuscular injection. Multiple parameters were varied to produce formulations with a wide range of in vitro release kinetics. Testing of selected formulations in chlorine-exposed mice demonstrated efficacy against key aspects of acute lung injury. The results show the feasibility of developing microencapsulated formulations that could be used to treat chlorine-induced acute lung injury by intramuscular injection, which represents a preferred route of administration in a mass casualty situation. PMID:26952014

  3. Twist1 suppresses senescence programs and thereby accelerates and maintains mutant Kras-induced lung tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuoc T Tran

    Full Text Available KRAS mutant lung cancers are generally refractory to chemotherapy as well targeted agents. To date, the identification of drugs to therapeutically inhibit K-RAS have been unsuccessful, suggesting that other approaches are required. We demonstrate in both a novel transgenic mutant Kras lung cancer mouse model and in human lung tumors that the inhibition of Twist1 restores a senescence program inducing the loss of a neoplastic phenotype. The Twist1 gene encodes for a transcription factor that is essential during embryogenesis. Twist1 has been suggested to play an important role during tumor progression. However, there is no in vivo evidence that Twist1 plays a role in autochthonous tumorigenesis. Through two novel transgenic mouse models, we show that Twist1 cooperates with Kras(G12D to markedly accelerate lung tumorigenesis by abrogating cellular senescence programs and promoting the progression from benign adenomas to adenocarcinomas. Moreover, the suppression of Twist1 to physiological levels is sufficient to cause Kras mutant lung tumors to undergo senescence and lose their neoplastic features. Finally, we analyzed more than 500 human tumors to demonstrate that TWIST1 is frequently overexpressed in primary human lung tumors. The suppression of TWIST1 in human lung cancer cells also induced cellular senescence. Hence, TWIST1 is a critical regulator of cellular senescence programs, and the suppression of TWIST1 in human tumors may be an effective example of pro-senescence therapy.

  4. Toxicidade pulmonar induzida pela rapamicina Lung toxicity induced by rapamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Damas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available As doenças pulmonares induzidas por fármacos constituem uma causa crescente de morbilidade, tendo sido descritas diferentes formas de toxicidade associadas a inúmeras substâncias. O sirolimus (rapamicina é um fármaco imunossupressor usado de forma crescente no contexto do transplante de órgãos sólidos, nomeadamente no transplante renal. A toxicidade pulmonar tem sido descrita como um dos potenciais efeitos laterais, nomeadamente causando formas de pneumonite intersticial ou, mais raramente, hemorragia alveolar. Os autores descrevem os casos de quatro doentes (3 do sexo masculino, 1 do sexo feminino com idades compreendidas entre os 46-71 anos, recipientes de transplante renal (rim cadáver há 3 anos (1 doente e 7 anos (3 doentes. A imunosupressão consistia em micofenolato mofetil, prednisolona e rapamicina. Os quatro doentes foram admitidos por febre, tosse produtiva (2 e dispneia (3. Apresentavam imagem radiológica de infiltrados pulmonares bilaterais de predomínio basal. O LBA mostrou alveolite linfocítica em 3 doentes, tendo-se observado no entanto diferentes relações CD4/CD8., para além de neutrofilia em 2 deles. No restante doente, observou-se hemorragia alveolar grave. Não houve em nenhum dos casos qualquer isolamento de micro organismos patogénicos no LBA. As queixas apresentadas, bem como as alterações radiológicas regrediram com a suspensão do fármaco. Estes quatro casos revelaram alguma variedade, quer na apresentação clínica, quer nos achados dos exames subsidiários efectuados, nomeadamente no LBA. Este facto pode ter como causa diferentes mecanismos fisiopatológicos a nível do pulmão induzidos pelo sirolimus.Drug induced lung diseases (DILD are an increasingly cause of morbidity. Many drugs have been described, causing several patterns of injury. Sirolimus is an immunosuppressive agent increasingly used in renal and other solid organ transplantation. Pulmonary toxicity has been recognised as a potential

  5. The secretome of induced pluripotent stem cells reduces lung fibrosis in part by hepatocyte growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdhar, Amiq; Grad, Iwona; Tamò, Luca; Gugger, Mathias; Feki, Anis; Geiser, Thomas

    2014-11-10

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and irreversible fibrotic lung disease, resulting in respiratory insufficiency and reduced survival. Pulmonary fibrosis is a result of repeated alveolar epithelial microinjuries, followed by abnormal regeneration and repair processes in the lung. Recently, stem cells and their secretome have been investigated as a novel therapeutic approach in pulmonary fibrosis. We evaluated the potential of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) conditioned media (iPSC-cm) to regenerate and repair the alveolar epithelium in vitro and improve bleomycin induced lung injury in vivo. IPSC-cm was collected from cultured iPSC derived from human foreskin fibroblasts and its biological effects on alveolar epithelial wound repair was studied in an alveolar wound healing assay in vitro. Furthermore, iPSC-cm was intratracheally instilled 7 days after bleomycin induced injury in the rat lungs and histologically and biochemically assessed 7 days after instillation. iPSC-cm increased alveolar epithelial wound repair in vitro compared with medium control. Intratracheal instillation of iPSC-cm in bleomycin-injured lungs reduced the collagen content and improved lung fibrosis in the rat lung in vivo. Profibrotic TGFbeta1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression were markedly reduced in the iPSC-cm treated group compared with control. Antifibrotic hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was detected in iPSC-cm in biologically relevant levels, and specific inhibition of HGF in iPSC-cm attenuated the antifibrotic effect of iPSC-cm, indicating a central role of HGF in iPSC-cm. iPSC-cm increased alveolar epithelial wound repair in vitro and attenuated bleomycin induced fibrosis in vivo, partially due to the presence of HGF and may represent a promising novel, cell free therapeutic option against lung injury and fibrosis.

  6. In silico identification of potential key regulatory factors in smoking-induced lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    El-aarag, Salem A.; Mahmoud, Amal; Hashem, Medhat H.; Abd Elkader, Hatem; Hemeida, Alaa E.; ElHefnawi, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is the most commonly diagnosed cancer. Like other cancers, it is a complex and highly heterogeneous disease involving multiple signaling pathways. Identifying potential therapeutic targets is critical for the development of effective treatment strategies. Methods We used a systems biology approach to identify potential key regulatory factors in smoking-induced lung cancer. We first identified genes that were diffe...

  7. Allergic inflammation does not impact chemical-induced carcinogenesis in the lungs of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Konstantinos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the relationship between allergic inflammation and lung carcinogenesis is not clearly defined, several reports suggest an increased incidence of lung cancer in patients with asthma. We aimed at determining the functional impact of allergic inflammation on chemical carcinogenesis in the lungs of mice. Methods Balb/c mice received single-dose urethane (1 g/kg at day 0 and two-stage ovalbumin during tumor initiation (sensitization: days -14 and 0; challenge: daily at days 6-12, tumor progression (sensitization: days 70 and 84; challenge: daily at days 90-96, or chronically (sensitization: days -14 and 0; challenge: daily at days 6-12 and thrice weekly thereafter. In addition, interleukin (IL-5 deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice received ten weekly urethane injections. All mice were sacrificed after four months. Primary end-points were number, size, and histology of lung tumors. Secondary end-points were inflammatory cells and mediators in the airspace compartment. Results Ovalbumin provoked acute allergic inflammation and chronic remodeling of murine airways, evident by airspace eosinophilia, IL-5 up-regulation, and airspace enlargement. Urethane resulted in formation of atypical alveolar hyperplasias, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas in mouse lungs. Ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation during tumor initiation, progression, or continuously did not impact the number, size, or histologic distribution of urethane-induced pulmonary neoplastic lesions. In addition, genetic deficiency in IL-5 had no effect on urethane-induced lung tumorigenesis. Conclusions Allergic inflammation does not impact chemical-induced carcinogenesis of the airways. These findings suggest that not all types of airway inflammation influence lung carcinogenesis and cast doubt on the idea of a mechanistic link between asthma and lung cancer.

  8. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Ar [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Sil [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Ho [Department of Pathology, Pochon CHA University, College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Jung, E-mail: khj57@yuhs.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Do, E-mail: ydy1130@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  9. Depletion of tumor associated macrophages slows the growth of chemically-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Fritz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for lung cancer, and low dose aspirin intake reduces lung cancer risk. However, the roles that specific inflammatory cells and their products play in lung carcinogenesis have yet to be fully elucidated. In mice, alveolar macrophage numbers increase as lung tumors progress, and pulmonary macrophage programming changes within 2 weeks of carcinogen exposure. To examine how macrophages specifically affect lung tumor progression, they were depleted in mice bearing urethane-induced lung tumors using clodronate-encapsulated liposomes. Alveolar macrophage populations decreased to ≤ 50% of control levels after 4-6 weeks of liposomal clodronate treatment. Tumor burden decreased by 50% compared to vehicle treated mice, and tumor cell proliferation, as measured by Ki67 staining, was also attenuated. Pulmonary fluid levels of IGF-I, CXCL1, IL-6 and CCL2 diminished with clodronate liposome treatment. Tumor associated macrophages expressed markers of both M1 and M2 programming in vehicle and clodronate liposome treated mice. Mice lacking CCR2 (the receptor for macrophage chemotactic factor CCL2 had comparable numbers of alveolar macrophages and showed no difference in tumor growth rates when compared to similarly treated wild-type mice suggesting that while CCL2 may recruit macrophages to lung tumor microenvironments, redundant pathways can compensate when CCL2/CCR2 signaling is inactivated. Depletion of pulmonary macrophages rather than inhibition of their recruitment may be an advantageous strategy for attenuating lung cancer progression.

  10. Radiation-induced heart disease in lung cancer radiotherapy: A dosimetric update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xin; Feng, Yuanming; Yang, Chengwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ping; Deng, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD), which affects the patients' prognosis with both acute and late side effects, has been published extensively in the radiotherapy of breast cancer, lymphoma and other benign diseases. Studies on RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy, however, are less extensive and clear even though the patients with lung cancer are delivered with higher doses to the heart during radiation treatment. In this article, after extensive literature search and analysis, we reviewed the current evidence on RIHD in lung cancer patients after their radiation treatments and investigated the potential risk factors for RIHD as compared to other types of cancers. Cardiac toxicity has been found highly relevant in lung cancer radiotherapy. So far, the crude incidence of cardiac complications in the lung cancer patients after radiotherapy has been up to 33%. The dose to the heart, the lobar location of tumor, the treatment modality, the history of heart and pulmonary disease and smoking were considered as potential risk factors for RIHD in lung cancer radiotherapy. As treatment techniques improve over the time with better prognosis for lung cancer survivors, an improved prediction model can be established to further reduce the cardiac toxicity in lung cancer radiotherapy.

  11. Lung tissue regeneration after induced injury in Runx3 KO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Bae, Suk-Chul; Jung, Han-Sung

    2010-09-01

    Runx3 is essential for normal murine lung development, and Runx3 knockout (KO) mice, which die soon after birth, exhibit alveolar hyperplasia. Wound healing, tissue repair, and regeneration mechanisms are necessary in humans for proper early lung development. Previous studies have reported that various signaling molecules, such as pErk, Tgf-beta1, CCSP, pJnk, Smad3, and HSP70 are closely related to wound healing. In order to confirm the relationship between lung defects caused by the loss of function of Runx3 and wound healing, we have localized various wound-healing markers after laser irradiation in wild-type and in Runx3 KO mouse lungs at post-natal day 1. Our results indicate that pERK, Tgf-beta1, CCSP, pJnk, and HSP70 are dramatically down-regulated by loss of Runx3 during lung wound healing. However, Smad3 is up-regulated in the Runx3 KO laser-irradiated lung region. Therefore, the lung wound-healing mechanism is inhibited in the Runx3 KO mouse, which shows abnormal lung architecture, by reduced pErk, Tgf-beta1, CCSP, pJnk, and HSP70 and by induced Smad3.

  12. Carbon nanoparticles induce ceramide- and lipid raft-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells: a target for a preventive strategy against environmentally-induced lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peuschel Henrike

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution in lung epithelial cells induces pathogenic endpoints like proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory reactions. The activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a key event responsible for signalling events involving mitogen activated protein kinases specific for these endpoints. The molecular events leading to receptor activation however are not well understood. These events are relevant for the toxicological evaluation of inhalable particles as well as for potential preventive strategies in situations when particulate air pollution cannot be avoided. The current study therefore had the objective to elucidate membrane-coupled events leading to EGFR activation and the subsequent signalling cascade in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the molecular target of ectoine, a biophysical active substance which we described to prevent carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Methods Membrane signalling events were investigated in isolated lipid rafts from lung epithelial cells with regard to lipid and protein content of the signalling platforms. Using positive and negative intervention approaches, lipid raft changes, subsequent signalling events, and lung inflammation were investigated in vitro in lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN and in vivo in exposed animals. Results Carbon nanoparticle treatment specifically led to an accumulation of ceramides in lipid rafts. Detailed analyses demonstrated a causal link of ceramides and subsequent EGFR activation coupled with a loss of the receptor in the lipid raft fractions. In vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrate the relevance of these events for carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Moreover, the compatible solute ectoine was able to prevent ceramide-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and subsequent signalling as well as lung inflammation in vivo. Conclusion The data identify a so far unknown event in pro

  13. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae induces sustained lung oxidative stress and protease expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T King

    Full Text Available Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is a prevalent bacterium found in a variety of chronic respiratory diseases. The role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation is not well defined. In this study we examined the effect of NTHi on two important lung inflammatory processes 1, oxidative stress and 2, protease expression. Bronchoalveolar macrophages were obtained from 121 human subjects, blood neutrophils from 15 subjects, and human-lung fibroblast and epithelial cell lines from 16 subjects. Cells were stimulated with NTHi to measure the effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS production and extracellular trap formation. We also measured the production of the oxidant, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT in the lungs of mice infected with this bacterium. NTHi induced widespread production of 3-NT in mouse lungs. This bacterium induced significantly increased ROS production in human fibroblasts, epithelial cells, macrophages and neutrophils; with the highest levels in the phagocytic cells. In human macrophages NTHi caused a sustained, extracellular production of ROS that increased over time. The production of ROS was associated with the formation of macrophage extracellular trap-like structures which co-expressed the protease metalloproteinase-12. The formation of the macrophage extracellular trap-like structures was markedly inhibited by the addition of DNase. In this study we have demonstrated that NTHi induces lung oxidative stress with macrophage extracellular trap formation and associated protease expression. DNase inhibited the formation of extracellular traps.

  14. The protective effect of Sambucus ebulus against lung toxicity induced by gamma irradiation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the potential antioxidant and lung protective activities of Sambucus ebulus (SE against toxicity induced by gamma irradiation. Hydroalcoholic extract of SE (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg was studied for its lung protective activity. Phenol and flavonoid contents of SE were determined. Male C57 mice were divided into ten groups with five mice per group. Only the first and second groups (as negative control received intraperitoneally normal saline fluid. Groups 3 to 5 received only SE extract at doses of 20 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally; three groups were repeatedly injected for 15 days as chronic group. Groups 6 to 8 received a single-dose of gamma irradiation just 2 hours before irradiation as acute group. The ninth and tenth groups (as positive control received only gamma rays. Animal was exposed whole-body to 6 Gy gamma radiation. After irradiation, tissue sections of lung parenchyma were examined by light microscope for any histopathologic changes. SE at doses 50 and 100 mg/kg improved markedly histopathological changes induced by gamma irradiation in lung. Lung protective effect of SE could be due to attention of lipid peroxidation. Our study demonstrated that SE as a natural product has a protective effect against lung toxicity induced by   gamma irradiation in animal.

  15. Autotaxin induces lung epithelial cell migration through lysoPLD activity-dependent and -independent pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; He, Donghong; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Zhong, Mintao; Salgia, Ravi; Morris, Andrew J.; Smyth, Susan S.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Zhao, Yutong

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Lung cell migration is a crucial step for re-epithelialization that in turn is essential for remodeling and repair after lung injury. We hypothesize that secreted autotaxin (ATX), which exhibits lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, stimulates lung epithelial cell migration through lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) generation-dependent and -independent pathways. Release of endogenous ATX protein and activity was detected in lung epithelial cell culture medium. ATX with V5 tag (ATX-V5) overexpressed conditional medium had higher LPA levels compared to control medium and stimulated cell migration through Gαi-coupled LPA receptors, cytoskeleton rearrangement, phosphorylation of PKCδ and cortactin at the leading edge of migrating cells. Inhibition of PKCδ attenuated ATX-V5 overexpressed conditional medium-mediated phosphorylation of cortactin. In addition, a recombinant ATX mutant, lacking lysoPLD activity, or heat-inactived ATX also induced lung epithelial cell migration. Extracelluar ATX bound to LPA receptor and integrin β4 complex on A549 cell surface. Finally, intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide into mouse airway induced ATX release and LPA production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These results suggested a significant role for ATX in lung epithelial cell migration and remodeling through its ability to induce LPA production-mediated phosphorylation of PKCδ and cortactin. In addition we also demonstrated assocation of ATX with epithelial cell surface LPA receptor and integrin β4. PMID:21696367

  16. Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12) correlates with radiation-induced lung fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Myung Gu; Jeong, Ye Ji; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sujae [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    MMPs are classified into five subgroups: collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13), gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), stromelysins (MMP-3, MMP-10, MMP-11), as well as metalloelastase (MMP-12), the membrane-type MMPs (MMP14, MMP15), and other MMPS (e. g., MMP-19, and MMP20). MMP-12 (matrix metalloproteinase12), also known as macrophage metalloelastase, was first identified as an elastolytic metalloproteinase secreted by inflammatory macrophages 30 years ago. MMP-12 degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) components to facilitate tissue remodeling. It can degrade elastin and other substrates, such as type IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, gelatin, vitronectin, entactin, heparin, and chondroitin sulfates. In the lung, MMP-12 is identified in alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers as an elastolytic MMP. Inactivation of the MMP-12 gene in knockout mice demonstrates a critical role of MMP-12 in smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of MMP-12 by radiation in lung, so we evaluate that MMP-12 expression pattern in normal lung tissue and cancer cell following radiation. Radiation induced lung injury most commonly occurs as a result of radiation therapy administered to treat cancer. The present study demonstrates that MMP-12 was highly increased in the lung damaged by radiation Thus, MMP-12 might be of potential relevance as a clinically diagnostic tool and sensitive biomarker for radiation induced lung injury and fibrosis.

  17. Preventive effects of valnemulin on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibao; Zhang, Xuemei; Chu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Song, Keji; Jiang, Youshuai; Yu, Lu; Deng, Xuming

    2010-10-01

    Valnemulin reportedly regulates inflammatory responses in addition to its in vitro antibacterial activity. In this study, we established a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory lung injury and investigated the effect of valnemulin (100 mg/kg) on acute lung injury (ALI) 8 h after LPS challenge. We prepared bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for measuring protein concentrations, cytokine levels, and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity, and collected lungs for assaying wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratios, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, cytokine mRNA expression, and histological change. We found that the pre-administration of valnemulin significantly decreases the W/D ratio of lungs, protein concentrations, and the number of total cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and leukomonocytes, and histologic analysis indicates that valnemulin significantly attenuates tissue injury. Furthermore, valnemulin significantly increases LPS-induced SOD activity in BALF and decreases lung MPO activity as well. In addition, valnemulin also inhibits the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1beta, which is consistent with mRNA expression in lung. The results showed that valnemulin had a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice.

  18. Allicin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Committee for the Purpose of Control and. Supervision ... with 100 μL of Hoechst 33342 (5 μg/mL) for 30 min and visualized under a fluorescent microscope (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar,. Germany). Real time PCR .... claudin-4 in the lung tissues was determined by real time PCR with β-actin used as a control; * p < 0.05 vs.

  19. Ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) in acute respiratory distress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is the most severe manifestation of acute lung injury and it is associated with high mortality rate. ARDS is characterized by the acute onset of diffuse neutrophilic alveolar infiltrates protein-rich edema due to enhanced alveolar-capillary permeability and hypoxemic respiratory failure.

  20. Nitrofurantoin-induced immune-mediated lung and liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Rade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nitrofurantoin, a furan derivative, introduced in the fifties has widely been used as an effective agent for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI. Spectrum of adverse reactions to nitrofurantoin is wide, ranging from eosinophilic interstitial lung disease, acute hepatitis and granulomatous reaction, to the chronic active hepatitis, a very rare adverse effect, that can lead to cirrhosis and death. Case report. We presented a 55-year-old female patient with eosinophilic interstitial lung disease, severe chronic active hepatitis and several other immune- mediated multisystemic manifestations of prolonged exposure to nitrofurantoin because of the recurrent UTI caused by Escherichia coli. We estimated typical radiographic and laboratory disturbances, also restrictive ventilatory changes, severe reduction of carbon monoxide diffusion capacity and abnormal liver function tests. Lymphocytic-eosinophylic alveolitis was consistent with druginduced reaction. Hepatitis was confirmed by liver biopsy. After withdrawal of nitrofurantoin and application of high dose of glicocorticosteroids, prompt clinical and laboratory recovery was achieved. Conclusion. Adverse drug reactions should be considered in patients with concomitant lung and liver disease. The mainstay of treatment is drug withdrawal and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in severe cases. Consideration should be given to monitor lung and liver function tests during long term nitrofurantoin therapy.

  1. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor attenuates ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou-Chin Lan

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion (IR-induced acute lung injury (ALI is implicated in several clinical conditions including lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion and etc. IR-induced ALI remains a challenge in the current treatment. Carbonic anhydrase has important physiological function and influences on transport of CO2. Some investigators suggest that CO2 influences lung injury. Therefore, carbonic anhydrase should have the role in ALI. This study was undertaken to define the effect of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide (AZA, in IR-induced ALI, that was conducted in a rat model of isolated-perfused lung with 30 minutes of ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6 per group: sham, sham + AZA 200 mg/kg body weight (BW, IR, IR + AZA 100 mg/kg BW, IR + AZA 200 mg/kg BW and IR+ AZA 400 mg/kg BW. IR caused significant pulmonary micro-vascular hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, neutrophilic sequestration, and an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Increases in carbonic anhydrase expression and perfusate pCO2 levels were noted, while decreased Na-K-ATPase expression was noted after IR. Administration of 200mg/kg BW and 400mg/kg BW AZA significantly suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-17 and attenuated IR-induced lung injury, represented by decreases in pulmonary hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension and neutrophilic sequestration. AZA attenuated IR-induced lung injury, associated with decreases in carbonic anhydrase expression and pCO2 levels, as well as restoration of Na-K-ATPase expression.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor attenuates ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chou-Chin; Peng, Chung-Kan; Tang, Shih-En; Huang, Kun-Lun; Wu, Chin-Pyng

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is implicated in several clinical conditions including lung transplantation, cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, re-expansion of collapsed lung from pneumothorax or pleural effusion and etc. IR-induced ALI remains a challenge in the current treatment. Carbonic anhydrase has important physiological function and influences on transport of CO2. Some investigators suggest that CO2 influences lung injury. Therefore, carbonic anhydrase should have the role in ALI. This study was undertaken to define the effect of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide (AZA), in IR-induced ALI, that was conducted in a rat model of isolated-perfused lung with 30 minutes of ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion. The animals were divided into six groups (n = 6 per group): sham, sham + AZA 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), IR, IR + AZA 100 mg/kg BW, IR + AZA 200 mg/kg BW and IR+ AZA 400 mg/kg BW. IR caused significant pulmonary micro-vascular hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, neutrophilic sequestration, and an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Increases in carbonic anhydrase expression and perfusate pCO2 levels were noted, while decreased Na-K-ATPase expression was noted after IR. Administration of 200mg/kg BW and 400mg/kg BW AZA significantly suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-17) and attenuated IR-induced lung injury, represented by decreases in pulmonary hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension and neutrophilic sequestration. AZA attenuated IR-induced lung injury, associated with decreases in carbonic anhydrase expression and pCO2 levels, as well as restoration of Na-K-ATPase expression. PMID:28644844

  3. Role of reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase in vesicant-induced lung injury, inflammation and altered lung functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R; Shen, Jianliang; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Gow, Andrew J; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2012-05-15

    Pulmonary toxicity induced by sulfur mustard and related vesicants is associated with oxidative stress. In the present studies we analyzed the role of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung injury and inflammation induced by vesicants using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) as a model. C57Bl/6 (WT) and iNOS-/- mice were sacrificed 3 days or 14 days following intratracheal administration of CEES (6 mg/kg) or control. CEES intoxication resulted in transient (3 days) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and protein content in WT, but not iNOS-/- mice. This correlated with expression of Ym1, a marker of oxidative stress in alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, in iNOS-/- mice, Ym1 was only observed 14 days post-exposure in enlarged alveolar macrophages, suggesting that they are alternatively activated. This is supported by findings that lung tumor necrosis factor and lipocalin Lcn2 expression, mediators involved in tissue repair were also upregulated at this time in iNOS-/- mice. Conversely, CEES-induced increases in the proinflammatory genes, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, were abrogated in iNOS-/- mice. In WT mice, CEES treatment also resulted in increases in total lung resistance and decreases in compliance in response to methacholine, effects blunted by loss of iNOS. These data demonstrate that RNS, generated via iNOS play a role in the pathogenic responses to CEES, augmenting oxidative stress and inflammation and suppressing tissue repair. Elucidating inflammatory mechanisms mediating vesicant-induced lung injury is key to the development of therapeutics to treat mustard poisoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. ETX2514 is a broad-spectrum β-lactamase inhibitor for the treatment of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria including Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Réville, Thomas F; Guler, Satenig; Comita-Prevoir, Janelle; Chen, Brendan; Bifulco, Neil; Huynh, Hoan; Lahiri, Sushmita; Shapiro, Adam B; McLeod, Sarah M; Carter, Nicole M; Moussa, Samir H; Velez-Vega, Camilo; Olivier, Nelson B; McLaughlin, Robert; Gao, Ning; Thresher, Jason; Palmer, Tiffany; Andrews, Beth; Giacobbe, Robert A; Newman, Joseph V; Ehmann, David E; de Jonge, Boudewijn; O'Donnell, John; Mueller, John P; Tommasi, Rubén A; Miller, Alita A

    2017-06-30

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections are a serious threat to public health. Among the most alarming resistance trends is the rapid rise in the number and diversity of β-lactamases, enzymes that inactivate β-lactams, a class of antibiotics that has been a therapeutic mainstay for decades. Although several new β-lactamase inhibitors have been approved or are in clinical trials, their spectra of activity do not address MDR pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii. This report describes the rational design and characterization of expanded-spectrum serine β-lactamase inhibitors that potently inhibit clinically relevant class A, C and D β-lactamases and penicillin-binding proteins, resulting in intrinsic antibacterial activity against Enterobacteriaceae and restoration of β-lactam activity in a broad range of MDR Gram-negative pathogens. One of the most promising combinations is sulbactam-ETX2514, whose potent antibacterial activity, in vivo efficacy against MDR A. baumannii infections and promising preclinical safety demonstrate its potential to address this significant unmet medical need.

  5. Antibiotic drug levofloxacin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meijun; Wu, Hongcheng; Wu, Shibo; Ge, Ting; Wang, Guoan; Zhou, Yingyan; Sheng, Shimo; Jiang, Jingbo

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and its clinical management remains challenge. Here, we repurposed antibiotic levofloxacin for lung cancer treatment. We show that levofloxacin is effectively against a panel of lung cancer cell lines via inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis, regardless of cellular origin and genetic pattern, in in vitro cell culture system and in vivo xenograft lung tumor model. Mechanistically, levofloxacin inhibits activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I and III, leading to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and reduction of ATP production. In addition, levofloxacin significantly increases levels of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in vitro and oxidative stress markers (HEL and 4-HNE) in vivo. Antioxidants, such as NAC and vitamin C, prevent the inhibitory effects of levofloxacin, confirming the induction of oxidative damage as the mechanism of its action in lung cancer cells. Our work demonstrates that levofloxacin is a useful addition to the treatment of lung cancer. Our work also suggests that targeting mitochondria may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for lung cancer treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Opposite effects of ANP receptors in attenuation of LPS-induced endothelial permeability and lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Junjie; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Poroyko, Valeriy; Birukova, Anna A

    2012-03-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been recently identified as a modulator of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by pro-inflammatory agonists. While previous studies tested effects of exogenous ANP administration, the role of endogenous ANP in the course of ALI remains unexplored. This study examined regulation of ANP and its receptors NPR-A, NPR-B and NPR-C by LPS and involvement of ANP receptors in the modulation of LPS-induced lung injury. Primary cultures of human pulmonary endothelial cells (EC) were used in the in vitro tests. Expression of ANP and its receptors was determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Agonist-induced cytoskeletal remodeling was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining, and EC barrier function was characterized by measurements of transendothelial electrical resistance. In the murine model of ALI, LPS-induced lung injury was assessed by measurements of protein concentration and cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). LPS stimulation significantly increased mRNA expression levels of ANP and NPR-A in pulmonary EC. Pharmacological inhibition of NPR-A augmented LPS-induced EC permeability and blocked barrier protective effects of exogenous ANP on LPS-induced intercellular gap formation. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of ANP clearance receptor NPR-C significantly attenuated LPS-induced barrier disruptive effects. Administration of NPR-A inhibitor in vivo exacerbated LPS-induced lung injury, whereas inhibition of NPR-C suppressed LPS-induced increases in BAL cell count and protein content. These results demonstrate for the first time opposite effects of NPR-A and NPR-C in the modulation of ALI and suggest a compensatory protective mechanism of endogenous ANP in the maintenance of lung vascular permeability in ALI. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Alleviation of Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Acute Lung Injury by MiR-454

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    Zhengang Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although acute lung injury (ALI is an important and common disease in humans, its pathogenesis is poorly understood and its therapeutic outcome has not been significantly improved in the past years. Here, we examined whether application of microRNAs might inhibit the ALI-associated lung inflammatory, and subsequently reduce the injury. Methods: In vitro, we performed bioinformatics analyses to identify the miRNAs that target the most important chemo-attractive factor CXCL12, and confirmed that the binding was functional by luciferase reporter assay. We prepared adeno-associated virus (AAV carrying miRNA mimics or null control. We expressed miRNA in mouse lung through i.v. injection of AAV and then we used Lipopolysaccharides (LPS to induce ALI in mice. We analyzed the changes in permeability index and production of inflammatory cytokines in mouse lung, and we also verified the effects of virus-mediated gene expression by examining the levels of miRNAs and CXCL12 in lung by RT-qPCR and ELISA, and by quantifying the recruited inflammatory cells in mouse lung by flow cytometry. Results: We found that miR-454 targeted the 3'-UTR of CXCL12 mRNA to inhibit its protein translation in human lung epithelial cells. Overexpression of miR-454 in mouse lung significantly reduced the LPS-induced increases in permeability index and production of inflammatory cytokines CXCL1, CXCL2, IL6 and TNFα, possibly through suppression of CXCL12/CXCR4-mediated recruitment of inflammatory cells. Conclusion: Overexpression of miR-454 in lung may be a promising therapeutic approach to reduce the severity of ALI.

  8. Pharmacological inhibition of leukotrienes in an animal model of bleomycin-induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crimi Nunzio

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leukotrienes are increased locally in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, a role for these arachidonic acid metabolites has been thoroughly characterized in the animal bleomycin model of lung fibrosis by using different gene knock-out settings. We investigated the efficacy of pharmacological inhibition of leukotrienes activity in the development of bleomycin-induced lung injury by comparing the responses in wild-type mice with mice treated with zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor and MK-571, a cys-leukotrienes receptor antagonist. Mice were subjected to intra-tracheal administration of bleomycin or saline and were assigned to receive either MK-571 at 1 mg/Kg or zileuton at 50 mg/Kg daily. One week after bleomycin administration, BAL cell counts, lung histology with van Gieson for collagen staining and immunohistochemical analysis for myeloperoxidase, IL-1 and TNF-α were performed. Following bleomycin administration both MK-571 and zileuton treated mice exhibited a reduced degree of lung damage and inflammation when compared to WT mice as shown by the reduction of:(i loss of body weight, (ii mortality rate, (iii lung infiltration by neutrophils (myeloperoxidase activity, BAL total and differential cell counts, (iv lung edema, (v histological evidence of lung injury and collagen deposition, (vi lung myeloperoxidase, IL-1 and TNF-α staining. This is the first study showing that the pharmacological inhibition of leukotrienes activity attenuates bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. Given our results as well as those coming from genetic studies, it might be considered meaningful to trial this drug class in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis, a disease that still represents a major challenge to medical treatment.

  9. Cyclin D expression in plutonium-induced lung tumors in F344 rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G. [SouthWest Scientific Resources, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The genetic mechanisms responsible for {alpha}-radiation-induced lung cancer in rats following inhalation of {sup 239}Pu is an ongoing area of research in our laboratory. Previous studies have examined the status of the p53 gene by immunohistochemistry. Only two tumors (2/26 squamous cell carcinomas) exhibited detectable levels of p53 products. Both were the result of mutations in codons 280 and 283. More recent studies of X-ray-induced lung tumors in rats showed a similar lack of involvement of p53. In conclusion, we found that {alpha}-radiation-induced rat lung tumors have a high incidence (31 of 39) of cyclin D{sub 1} overexpression.

  10. Bcl2 Family Functions as Signaling Target in Nicotine-/NNK-Induced Survival of Human Lung Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xingming

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and has a strong etiological association with cigarette smoking. Nicotine and nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are two major components in cigarette smoke that significantly contribute to the development of human lung cancer. Nicotine is able to stimulate survival of both normal human lung epithelial and lung cancer cells. In contrast to nicotine, NNK is a more potent carcinogen that not only induces single-stran...

  11. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) promotes lung fibroblast proliferation, survival and differentiation to myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Cao, Jian; Pulkoski-Gross, Ashleigh; Zucker, Stanley; Foda, Hussein D

    2016-02-17

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressively fatal disease. Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (EMMPRIN) is a glycosylated transmembrane protein that induces the expression of some matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in neighboring stromal cells through direct epithelial-stromal interactions. EMMPRIN is highly expressed in type II alveolar epithelial cells at the edges of the fibrotic areas in IPF lung sections. However, the exact role of EMMPRIN in IPF is unknown. To determine if EMMPRIN contributes to lung fibroblast proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and differentiation to myofibroblasts, normal Human lung fibroblasts (NHLF) transiently transfected with either EMMPRIN/GFP or GFP were treated with TGF- β1 from 0 to 10 ng/ml for 48 h and examined for cell proliferation (thymidine incorporation), apoptosis (FACS analysis and Cell Death Detection ELISA assay), cell migration (Modified Boyden chamber) and differentiation to myofibroblasts using Western blot for α-smooth actin of cell lysates. The effect of EMMPRIN inhibition on NHLF proliferation, apoptosis, migration and differentiation to myofibroblasts after TGF- β1 treatment was examined using EMMPRIN blocking antibody. We examined the mechanism by which EMMPRIN induces its effects on fibroblasts by studying the β-catenin/canonical Wnt signaling pathway using Wnt luciferase reporter assays and Western blot for total and phosphorylated β-catenin. Human lung fibroblasts overexpressing EMMPRIN had a significant increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to control fibroblasts. Furthermore, EMMPRIN promoted lung fibroblasts resistance to apoptosis. Lung fibroblasts overexpressing EMMPRIN showed a significantly increased expression of α- smooth muscle actin, a marker of differentiation to myofibroblasts compared to control cells. TGF-β1 increased the expression of EMMPRIN in lung fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. Attenuation of EMMPRIN expression with the use of an

  12. Hypoxia-preconditioned mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Hypoxia preconditioning has been proven to be an effective method to enhance the therapeutic action of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. However, the beneficial effects of hypoxic MSCs in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R lung injury have yet to be investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that the administration of hypoxic MSCs would have a positive therapeutic impact on I/R lung injury at molecular, cellular, and functional levels.I/R lung injury was induced in isolated and perfused rat lungs. Hypoxic MSCs were administered in perfusate at a low (2.5×105 cells and high (1×106 cells dose. Rats ventilated with a low tidal volume of 6 ml/kg served as controls. Hemodynamics, lung injury indices, inflammatory responses and activation of apoptotic pathways were determined.I/R induced permeability pulmonary edema with capillary leakage and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, pro-inflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, cytosolic cytochrome C, and activated MAPK, NF-κB, and apoptotic pathways. The administration of a low dose of hypoxic MSCs effectively attenuated I/R pathologic lung injury score by inhibiting inflammatory responses associated with the generation of ROS and anti-apoptosis effect, however this effect was not observed with a high dose of hypoxic MSCs. Mechanistically, a low dose of hypoxic MSCs down-regulated P38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling but upregulated glutathione, prostaglandin E2, IL-10, mitochondrial cytochrome C and Bcl-2. MSCs infused at a low dose migrated into interstitial and alveolar spaces and bronchial trees, while MSCs infused at a high dose aggregated in the microcirculation and induced pulmonary embolism.Hypoxic MSCs can quickly migrate into extravascular lung tissue and adhere to other inflammatory or structure cells and attenuate I/R lung injury through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. However, the dose of MSCs needs to be optimized to prevent pulmonary embolism and thrombosis.

  13. Protective effect of U74500A on phorbol myristate acetate-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shi-Jye; Chang, Deh-Ming; Wang, David; Lin, Hen-I; Lin, Shih-Hua; Hsu, Kang

    2004-08-01

    1. The present study was designed to determine whether U74500A could ameliorate acute lung injury (ALI) induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in our rat isolated lung model compared with any amelioration induced by dimethylthiourea (DMTU), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. 2. Acute lung injury was induced successfully by PMA during 60 min of observation. At 2 microg/kg, PMA elicited a significant increase in microvascular permeability (measured using the capillary filtration coefficient Kfc), lung weight gain, the lung weight/bodyweight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. 3. Pretreatment with 1.5 mg/kg U74500A significantly attenuated ALI; there was no significant increase in any parameters measured, except for pulmonary arterial pressure. The protective effect of U74500A was approximately the same as that of 600 mg/kg DMTU. However, 6000 U/kg SOD, 50,000 U/kg catalase and 6000 U/kg SOD + 50,000 U/kg catalase had no protective effect. 4. These experimental data suggest that U74500A significantly ameliorates ALI induced by PMA in rats.

  14. Inhibition of acid-induced lung injury by hyperosmolar sucrose in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Zeenat; Yiming, Maimiti; Grunig, Gabriele; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2005-10-15

    Acid aspiration causes acute lung injury (ALI). Recently, we showed that a brief intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose, given concurrently with airway acid instillation, effectively blocks the ensuing ALI. The objective of the present study was to determine the extent to which intravascular infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose might protect against acid-induced ALI when given either before or after acid instillation. Our studies were conducted in anesthetized rats and in isolated, blood-perfused rat lungs. We instilled HCl through the airway, and we quantified lung injury in terms of the extravascular lung water (EVLW) content, filtration coefficient (Kfc), and cell counts and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage. We infused hyperosmolar sucrose via the femoral vein. In anesthetized rats, airway HCl instillation induced ALI as indicated by a 52% increase of EVLW and a threefold increase in Kfc. However, a 15-min intravenous infusion of hyperosmolar sucrose given up to 1 h before or 30 min after acid instillation markedly blunted the increases in EVLW, as well as the increases in cell count, and in protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Hyperosmolar pretreatment also blocked the acid-induced increase of Kfc. Studies in isolated perfused lungs indicated that the protective effect of hyperosmolar sucrose was leukocyte independent. We conclude that a brief period of vascular hyperosmolarity protects against acid-induced ALI when the infusion is administered shortly before, or shortly after, acid instillation in the airway. The potential applicability of hyperosmolar sucrose in therapy for ALI requires consideration.

  15. Attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress by caffeine ameliorates hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ru-Jeng; Jing, Xigang; Michalkiewicz, Teresa; Afolayan, Adeleye J; Wu, Tzong-Jin; Konduri, Girija G

    2017-05-01

    Rodent pups exposed to hyperoxia develop lung changes similar to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants. Oxidative stress from hyperoxia can injure developing lungs through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Early caffeine treatment decreases the rate of BPD, but the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that caffeine attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung injury through its chemical chaperone property. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were raised either in 90 (hyperoxia) or 21% (normoxia) oxygen from postnatal day 1 (P1) to postnatal day 10 (P10) and then recovered in 21% oxygen until P21. Caffeine (20 mg/kg) or normal saline (control) was administered intraperitoneally daily starting from P2. Lungs were inflation-fixed for histology or snap-frozen for immunoblots. Blood caffeine levels were measured in treated pups at euthanasia and were found to be 18.4 ± 4.9 μg/ml. Hyperoxia impaired alveolar formation and increased ER stress markers and downstream effectors; caffeine treatment attenuated these changes at P10. Caffeine also attenuated the hyperoxia-induced activation of cyclooxygenase-2 and markers of apoptosis. In conclusion, hyperoxia-induced alveolar growth impairment is mediated, in part, by ER stress. Early caffeine treatment protects developing lungs from hyperoxia-induced injury by attenuating ER stress. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation mediates lung fibroblast proliferation and differentiation in hyperoxia-induced chronic lung disease in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, YanRui; Yue, ShaoJie; Luo, ZiQiang; Cao, ChuanDing; Yu, XiaoHe; Liao, ZhengChang; Wang, MingJie

    2016-10-21

    Previous studies have suggested that endogenous glutamate and its N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play important roles in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in newborn rats. We hypothesized that NMDAR activation also participates in the development of chronic lung injury after withdrawal of hyperoxic conditions. In order to rule out the anti-inflammatory effects of NMDAR inhibitor on acute lung injury, the efficacy of MK-801 was evaluated in vivo using newborn Sprague-Dawley rats treated starting 4 days after cessation of hyperoxia exposure (on postnatal day 8). The role of NMDAR activation in hyperoxia-induced lung fibroblast proliferation and differentiation was examined in vitro using primary cells derived from the lungs of 8-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to hyperoxic conditions. Hyperoxia for 3 days induced acute lung injury in newborn rats. The acute injury almost completely disappeared 4 days after cessation of hyperoxia exposure. However, pulmonary fibrosis, impaired alveolarization, and decreased pulmonary compliance were observed on postnatal days 15 and 22. MK-801 treatment during the recovery period was found to alleviate the chronic damage induced by hyperoxia. Four NMDAR 2 s were found to be upregulated in the lung fibroblasts of newborn rats exposed to hyperoxia. In addition, the proliferation and upregulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin and (pro) collagen I in lung fibroblasts were detected in hyperoxia-exposed rats. MK-801 inhibited these changes. NMDAR activation mediated lung fibroblast proliferation and differentiation and played a role in the development of hyperoxia-induced chronic lung damage in newborn rats.

  17. Possible regulatory role of galectin-9 on Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Shigeki; Oomizu, Souichi; Niki, Toshiro; Shimizu, Hiroki; Obase, Yasushi; Korenaga, Masataka; Oka, Mikio; Hirashima, Mistuomi

    2012-01-01

    Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a member of the galectin family of lectins that exhibit binding affinity for β-galactosides. We found a T cell line-derived Gal-9 with novel eosinophil chemoattractant activity, but its role in eosinophilic inflammation of the lung is unknown. We evaluated the role of Gal-9 in Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice. To evaluate the role of Gal-9 in Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation, we developed a mouse model of eosinophilic pneumonia induced by the Ascaris suum antigen, and analyzed eosinophilic inflammation in Gal-9-deficient mice. The therapeutic effects of recombinant Gal-9 on lung inflammation were also examined in this mouse model. To evaluate lung inflammation, numbers of inflammatory cells and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were estimated by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The BALF of this mouse model of eosinophilic pneumonia induced by the Ascaris suum antigen contained increased numbers of inflammatory cells and elevated Gal-9 levels. Compared with wild-type mice, the BALF of Gal-9-deficient mice contained higher numbers of both eosinophils and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Th2 cytokines and eotaxin levels were also higher, and levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells were lower in Gal-9-deficient mice than in wild-type mice. Intranasal administration of recombinant Gal-9 prevented eosinophilic inflammation of the lung and upregulated the release of endogenous Gal-9. Our findings suggest that Gal-9 negatively regulates Th2-mediated eosinophilic inflammation of the lung and that Foxp3+ regulatory T cells might be involved in suppressing allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Reversible Lansoprazole-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease Showing Improvement after Drug Cessation

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    Hwang, Kyu Won; Woo, Ok Hee; Yong, Hwan Seok; Shin, Bong Kyung; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Eun Young [College of Medicine, Korea University, Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Lansoprazole is an acid proton-pump inhibitor that is similar to omeprazole. It is used to treat duodenal or gastric ulcers, H. pylori infection, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Common adverse effects of lansoprazole are diarrhea, abdominal pain, skin rash and/or itching. Information from U.S. National Library of Medicine warns that this drug can on rare occasion cause cough or cold-like symptoms. The pathophysiological mechanisms of lansoprazole-related pulmonary symptoms are not yet understood. In particular, there are no known reports regarding lansoprazole-induced interstitial lung diseases. We report here a case of interstitial lung disease (ILD) induced by oral administration of lansoprazole, which showed a pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) as detected from a video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy. We believe that this is the first report of a case of pathologically proven lansoprazole-induced ILD for which a surgical lung biopsy was performed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of DI-ILD caused by lansoprazole. The diagnosis was made by considering the radiological, histopathological and clinical findings, including the close temporal relationship between lansoprazole exposure and symptom severity. Other possible causes were excluded due to a lack of a temporal relationship between the symptoms and work history or prednisolone therapy, and no other history of specific allergen exposure. When there is diffuse interstitial lung disease with an unknown etiology, it is important to remember that drugs can be the cause of pulmonary symptoms and it is crucial to take a careful patient history. If there is a recent history of taking lansoprazole in a patient with clinical and radiological findings of diffuse interstitial lung disease, we recommend stopping the medication to see if there is clinical and radiological improvement. That way, one can avoid using invasive procedures to

  19. Mitigation of cadmium-induced lung injury by Nigella sativa oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; El-Ghaiesh, Sabah; Hantash, Ehab; Alomar, Suliman

    2016-12-01

    Induction of oxidative stress and inflammation are considered the primary mechanism of cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Nigella sativa (NS) seeds and their oil (NSO) have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. This study was conducted to assess the protective effect of NSO on Cd-induced lung damage in rat. Forty adult male Wistar rats were divided equally into 4 groups. Animals in groups I, II, and III received 1 ml of isotonic saline intraperitoneally (IP), 2 mg/kg of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) dissolved in isotonic saline IP, and 1 ml/kg of NSO by gastric gavage, respectively. Group IV rats received NSO an hour prior to CdCl2 administration via the same routes and doses as previously described. All animals were treated for 28 days. At the end of the study, animals were sacrificed; lungs were harvested for histopathological studies using light and electron microscopy. Saline-treated and NSO-treated rats showed normal lung parenchyma. However, CdCl2-treated rats showed massive degenerative changes in alveolar epithelial lining, disrupted interalveolar septa, and hemolytic debris in alveoli. Rats treated with both NSO and CdCl2 (group IV) showed amelioration of most Cd-induced lung damage with minimal histopathological changes in lung architecture. This study elucidates the protective effects of NSO on Cd-induced lung injury in rats and highlights the possibility of using NSO as a protective agent in individuals at high risk of Cd-induced lung toxicity.

  20. Leptin attenuates lipopolysaccharide or oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hai-Ying; Xu, Min; Ji, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Yan-Xia; Dong, Ming-Qing; Liu, Man-Ling; Xu, Dun-Quan; Zhao, Peng-Tao; Liu, Yi; Luo, Ying; Niu, Wen; Zhang, Bo; Ye, Jing; Li, Zhi-Chao

    2013-12-01

    Leptin is reported to be involved in acute lung injury (ALI). However, the role and underlying mechanisms of leptin in ALI remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether leptin deficiency promoted the development of ALI. LPS or oleic acid (OA) were administered to wild-type and leptin deficient (ob/ob) mice to induce ALI. Leptin level, survival rate, and lung injury were examined. Results showed that leptin levels were predominantly increased in the lung, but also in the heart, liver, kidney, and adipose tissue after LPS adminiatration. Compared with wild-type mice, LPS- or OA-induced lung injury was worse and the survival rate was lower in ob/ob mice. Moreover, leptin deficiency promoted the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Exogenous administration of leptin reduced lethality in ob/ob mice and ameliorated lung injury partly through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB, p38, and ERK pathways. These results indicated that leptin deficiency contributed to the development of lung injury by enhancing inflammatory response, and a high level of leptin improved survival and protected against ALI.

  1. Prostaglandin D2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiki Kida

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Although it is well known that lipid mediator prostaglandins are involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether genetic disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS affects the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in mouse. Compared with H-PGDS naïve (WT mice, H-PGDS-deficient mice (H-PGDS-/- represented increased collagen deposition in lungs 14 days after the bleomycin injection. The enhanced fibrotic response was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 on day 3. H-PGDS deficiency also increased vascular permeability on day 3 and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs on day 3 and 7. Immunostaining showed that the neutrophils and macrophages expressed H-PGDS, and its mRNA expression was increased on day 3and 7 in WT lungs. These observations suggest that H-PGDS-derived PGD2 plays a protective role in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis.

  2. Prostaglandin D2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Inflammation and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Taiki; Ayabe, Shinya; Omori, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Maehara, Toko; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Murata, Takahisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal lung disease with limited therapeutic options. Although it is well known that lipid mediator prostaglandins are involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, the role of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether genetic disruption of hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS) affects the bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis in mouse. Compared with H-PGDS naïve (WT) mice, H-PGDS-deficient mice (H-PGDS-/-) represented increased collagen deposition in lungs 14 days after the bleomycin injection. The enhanced fibrotic response was accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 on day 3. H-PGDS deficiency also increased vascular permeability on day 3 and infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in lungs on day 3 and 7. Immunostaining showed that the neutrophils and macrophages expressed H-PGDS, and its mRNA expression was increased on day 3and 7 in WT lungs. These observations suggest that H-PGDS-derived PGD2 plays a protective role in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. Bixin protects mice against ventilation-induced lung injury in an NRF2-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shasha; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Quijada, Hector; Wondrak, Georg T; Wang, Ting; Garcia, Joe G N; Zhang, Donna D

    2016-01-05

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a therapeutic intervention widely used in the clinic to assist patients that have difficulty breathing due to lung edema, trauma, or general anesthesia. However, MV causes ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), a condition characterized by increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier that results in edema, hemorrhage, and neutrophil infiltration, leading to exacerbated lung inflammation and oxidative stress. This study explored the feasibility of using bixin, a canonical NRF2 inducer identified during the current study, to ameliorate lung damage in a murine VILI model. In vitro, bixin was found to activate the NRF2 signaling pathway through blockage of ubiquitylation and degradation of NRF2 in a KEAP1-C151 dependent manner; intraperitoneal (IP) injection of bixin led to pulmonary upregulation of the NRF2 response in vivo. Remarkably, IP administration of bixin restored normal lung morphology and attenuated inflammatory response and oxidative DNA damage following MV. This observed beneficial effect of bixin derived from induction of the NRF2 cytoprotective response since it was only observed in Nrf2(+/+) but not in Nrf2(-/-) mice. This is the first study providing proof-of-concept that NRF2 activators can be developed into pharmacological agents for clinical use to prevent patients from lung injury during MV treatment.

  4. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase and tyrosine kinase inhibition modulate airway pressure-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L; Tucker, A

    1998-11-01

    We determined whether drugs which modulate the state of protein tyrosine phosphorylation could alter the threshold for high airway pressure-induced microvascular injury in isolated perfused rat lungs. Lungs were ventilated for successive 30-min periods with peak inflation pressures (PIP) of 7, 20, 30, and 35 cmH2O followed by measurement of the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), a sensitive index of hydraulic conductance. In untreated control lungs, Kfc increased by 1.3- and 3.3-fold relative to baseline (7 cmH2O PIP) after ventilation with 30 and 35 cmH2O PIP. However, in lungs treated with 100 microM phenylarsine oxide (a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor), Kfc increased by 4.7- and 16.4-fold relative to baseline at these PIP values. In lungs treated with 50 microM genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor), Kfc increased significantly only at 35 cmH2O PIP, and the three groups were significantly different from each other. Thus phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibition increased the susceptibility of rat lungs to high-PIP injury, and tyrosine kinase inhibition attenuated the injury relative to the high-PIP control lungs.

  5. Black tea prevents cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis and lung damage

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    Chattopadhyay Dhrubajyoti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung damage. One prominent deleterious effect of cigarette smoke is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may lead to apoptosis and lung injury. Since black tea has antioxidant property, we examined the preventive effect of black tea on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and lung injury in a guinea pig model. Methods Guinea pigs were subjected to cigarette smoke exposure from five cigarettes (two puffs/cigarette per guinea pig/day for seven days and given water or black tea to drink. Sham control guinea pigs were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Lung damage, as evidenced by inflammation and increased air space, was assessed by histology and morphometric analysis. Protein oxidation was measured through oxyblot analysis of dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives of the protein carbonyls of the oxidized proteins. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay, activation of caspase 3, phosphorylation of p53 as well as over-expression of Bax by immunoblot analyses. Results Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model caused lung damage. It appeared that oxidative stress was the initial event, which was followed by inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury. All these pathophysiological events were prevented when the cigarette smoke-exposed guinea pigs were given black tea infusion as the drink instead of water. Conclusion Cigarette smoke exposure to a guinea pig model causes oxidative damage, inflammation, apoptosis and lung injury that are prevented by supplementation of black tea.

  6. [Significance of the NLRP3 inflammasome expression in rats with acute lung injury induced by phosgene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D K; Shao, Y R; Shen, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, J; Zhang, F

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To investigate changes of NLRP3 signal transduction pathway of acute lung injury induced by phosgene to analyze NLRP3-mediated IL-1β release inflammatory process in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into two groups, 10 rats in the Air group that consists of the rats with air exposure, 10 rats in the Psg group that consists of the rats with phosgene exposure at 8.33 g/m(3) for 5 min. The specimens of serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung were collected after 6h. Morphological changes were observed by HE staining. The expression of NLRP3 in the lung of two groups was detected by immunohistochemistry. NLRP3、ASC and caspase-1 expression in the lung tissue was quantified by Western blot. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of NLRP3、ASC and caspase-1 mRNA in the lung tissue. The concentrations of IL-1β、IL-18 and IL-33 in the serum and BALF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RT-PCR were used to detect the expression of IL-1β、IL-18 and IL-33 mRNA in the lung tissue. Results: We successfully replicated the model of phosgene-induced ALI in rats. Morphological of HE staining after phosgene exposure to 6 h observed inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue in Phosgene group. Immunohistochemical staining results showed that there were many NLRP3 positive cells in lung tissue in Phosgene group. The levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1 mRNA and protein expression in lung were significantly increased ( P lung ASC mRNA and protein expression ( P >0.05) . Compared with Air group, the serum, BALF and lung tissue of IL-1β、IL-18 and IL-33 mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased ( P NLRP3-mediated inflammatory response probably involved in the process of the phosgene, so it maybe one of the pathogenesis of acute lung injury.

  7. Relationship between drug-induced interstitial lung diseases and cytochrome P450 polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Petal A H M; Bekers, Otto; Drent, Marjolein

    2010-09-01

    Interstitial lung disease and especially drug-induced interstitial lung disease can occur as a cause of drug(s) or drug-drug interactions. In this review we summarize the possible role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in drug-induced interstitial lung disease. The CYP enzyme family plays an important role in the metabolism of all sorts of ingested, injected or inhaled xenobiotic substances. Although the liver is considered to be the major metabolism site of CYP enzymes, in recent years more CYP isoforms have been detected in lung tissue. Polymorphisms in these CYP genes can influence the metabolic activity of the subsequent enzymes, which in turn may lead to localized (toxic) reactions and tissue damage. Drug toxicity can be the consequence of no or very poor enzyme activity, especially if no other metabolic route is available. In the case of reduced enzyme activity, dose reduction or prescribing an alternative drug metabolized by a different, unaffected CYP enzyme is recommended to prevent toxic side effects. Therefore, knowing a patient's CYP profile before drug prescription could be a way to prevent drug-induced interstitial lung disease. Moreover, it might be helpful in explaining serious adverse effects from inhaled, injected or ingested xenobiotic substances.

  8. Xuebijing Ameliorates Sepsis-Induced Lung Injury by Downregulating HMGB1 and RAGE Expressions in Mice

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    Qiao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xuebijing (XBJ injection, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported as a promising approach in the treatment of sepsis in China. However, its actual molecular mechanisms in sepsis-induced lung injury are yet unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of XBJ on inflammation and the underlying mechanisms in a model of caecal ligation and puncture-(CLP- induced lung injury. The mice were divided into CLP group, CLP+XBJ group (XBJ, 4 mL/kg per 12 hours, and sham group. The molecular and histological examinations were performed on the lung, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples of mice at the points of 6, 24, and 48 hours after CLP. The results show that XBJ reduces morphological destruction and neutrophil infiltration in the alveolar space and lung wet/dry weight ratio, which improves mortality of CLP-induced lung injury. Meanwhile, XBJ treatment downregulates high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE expression, as well as neutrophil counts, production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the BAL fluids. In conclusion, these results indicate that XBJ may reduce the mortality through inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines secretion mediated by HMGB1/RAGE axis.

  9. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia: a rare histopathological variant of chemotherapy-induced lung injury.

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    Gupta, Arjun; Sen, Shiraj; Naina, Harris

    2016-04-06

    Bleomycin-induced lung injury is the most common chemotherapy-associated lung disease, and is linked with several histopathological patterns. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) is a relatively new and rare histological pattern of diffuse lung injury. We report the first known case of bleomycin-induced AFOP. A 36-year-old man with metastatic testicular cancer received three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin, before being transitioned to paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin. He subsequently presented with exertional dyspnoea, cough and pleuritic chest pain. CT of the chest demonstrated bilateral ground glass opacities with peribronchovascular distribution and pulmonary function tests demonstrated a restrictive pattern of lung disease with impaired diffusion. Transbronchial biopsy revealed intra-alveolar fibrin deposits with organising pneumonia, consisting of intraluminal loose connective tissue consistent with AFOP. The patient received high-dose corticosteroids with symptomatic and radiographic improvement. AFOP should be recognised as a histopathological variant of bleomycin-induced lung injury. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Caffeine Mitigates Lung Inflammation Induced by Ischemia-Reperfusion of Lower Limbs in Rats

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    Wei-Chi Chou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reperfusion of ischemic limbs can induce inflammation and subsequently cause acute lung injury. Caffeine, a widely used psychostimulant, possesses potent anti-inflammatory capacity. We elucidated whether caffeine can mitigate lung inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR of the lower limbs. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to receive IR, IR plus caffeine (IR + Caf group, sham-operation (Sham, or sham plus caffeine (n=12 in each group. To induce IR, lower limbs were bilaterally tied by rubber bands high around each thigh for 3 hours followed by reperfusion for 3 hours. Caffeine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection was administered immediately after reperfusion. Our histological assay data revealed characteristics of severe lung inflammation in the IR group and mild to moderate characteristic of lung inflammation in the IR + Caf group. Total cells number and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group (P<0.001 and P=0.008, resp.. Similarly, pulmonary concentrations of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity of the IR group were significantly higher than those of the IR + Caf group (all P<0.05. These data clearly demonstrate that caffeine could mitigate lung inflammation induced by ischemia-reperfusion of the lower limbs.

  11. Salidroside Attenuates Ventilation Induced Lung Injury via SIRT1-Dependent Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome

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    Yan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salidroside (SDS is the main effective ingredient of Rhodiola rosea L with a variety of pharmacologic properties. We aim to investigate the effects of SDS on ventilation induced lung injury (VILI and explore the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: Lung injury was induced in male ICR mice via mechanical ventilation (30 ml/kg for 4h. The mice were divided in four groups:(1 Control group; (2 Ventilation group; (3 SDS group; (4 Ventilation with SDS group. SDS (50 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally 1h before operation. Mouse lung vascular endothelial cells (MLVECs were subjected to cyclic stretch for 4h. Results: It was found that SDS attenuated VILI as shown in HE staining, cell count and protein content levels in BAL fluid, W/D and Evans blue dye leakage into the lung tissue. SDS treatment inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent caspase-1 cleavage as well as interleukin (IL-1β secretion both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, SDS administration up-regulated SIRT1 expression. Importantly, knockdown of SIRT1 reversed the inhibitory effect of SDS on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings indicate that SDS may confer protection against ventilation induced lung injury via SIRT1-de-pendent inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

  12. Salidroside Attenuates Ventilation Induced Lung Injury via SIRT1-Dependent Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Chu-Fan; Liu, Yu-Jian; Mao, Yan-Fei; Lv, Zhou; Li, Si-Yuan; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Lai

    2017-01-01

    Salidroside (SDS) is the main effective ingredient of Rhodiola rosea L with a variety of pharmacologic properties. We aim to investigate the effects of SDS on ventilation induced lung injury (VILI) and explore the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Lung injury was induced in male ICR mice via mechanical ventilation (30 ml/kg) for 4h. The mice were divided in four groups:(1) Control group; (2) Ventilation group; (3) SDS group; (4) Ventilation with SDS group. SDS (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1h before operation. Mouse lung vascular endothelial cells (MLVECs) were subjected to cyclic stretch for 4h. It was found that SDS attenuated VILI as shown in HE staining, cell count and protein content levels in BAL fluid, W/D and Evans blue dye leakage into the lung tissue. SDS treatment inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent caspase-1 cleavage as well as interleukin (IL)-1β secretion both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, SDS administration up-regulated SIRT1 expression. Importantly, knockdown of SIRT1 reversed the inhibitory effect of SDS on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Taken together, these findings indicate that SDS may confer protection against ventilation induced lung injury via SIRT1-de-pendent inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hyperglycemia promotes K-Ras-induced lung tumorigenesis through BASCs amplification.

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    Carla Micucci

    Full Text Available Oncogenic K-Ras represents the most common molecular change in human lung adenocarcinomas, the major histologic subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The presence of K-Ras mutation is associated with a poor prognosis, but no effective treatment strategies are available for K-Ras -mutant NSCLC. Epidemiological studies report higher lung cancer mortality rates in patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we use a mouse model of K-Ras-mediated lung cancer on a background of chronic hyperglycemia to determine whether elevated circulating glycemic levels could influence oncogenic K-Ras-mediated tumor development. Inducible oncogenic K-Ras mouse model was treated with subtoxic doses of streptozotocin (STZ to induce chronic hyperglycemia. We observed increased tumor mass and higher grade of malignancy in STZ treated diabetic mice analyzed at 4, 12 and 24 weeks, suggesting that oncogenic K-Ras increased lung tumorigenesis in hyperglycemic condition. This promoting effect is achieved by expansion of tumor-initiating lung bronchio-alveolar stem cells (BASCs in bronchio-alveolar duct junction, indicating a role of hyperglycemia in the activity of K-Ras-transformed putative lung stem cells. Notably, after oncogene K-Ras activation, BASCs show upregulation of the glucose transporter (Glut1/Slc2a1, considered as an important player of the active control of tumor cell metabolism by oncogenic K-Ras. Our novel findings suggest that anti-hyperglycemic drugs, such as metformin, may act as therapeutic agent to restrict lung neoplasia promotion and progression.

  14. Osteopontin protects against hyperoxia-induced lung injury by inhibiting nitric oxide synthases.

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    Zhang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Shuang; Zhou, Yu-Jie; Zhu, Guang-Fa; Foda, Hussein D

    2010-04-05

    Exposure of adult mice to more than 95% O(2) produces a lethal injury by 72 hours. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of murine hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein produced principally by macrophages. OPN inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which generates large amounts of nitric oxide production. However, the relationship between nitric oxide and endogenous OPN in lung tissue during hyperoxia-induced ALI has not yet been elucidated, thus we examined the role that OPN plays in the hyperoxia-induced lung injury and its relationships with NOS. One hundred and forty-four osteopontin knock-out (KO) mice and their matched wild type background control (WT) were exposed in sealed cages > 95% oxygen or room air for 24- 72 hours, and the severity of lung injury was assessed; expression of OPN, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and iNOS mRNA in lung tissues at 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for the detection of iNOS, eNOS, and OPN protein in lung tissues. OPN KO mice developed more severe acute lung injury at 72 hours of hyperoxia. The wet/dry weight ratio increased to 6.85 +/- 0.66 in the KO mice at 72 hours of hyperoxia as compared to 5.31 +/- 0.92 in the WT group (P < 0.05). iNOS mRNA (48 hours: 1.04 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.63 +/- 0.09, P < 0.01; 72 hours: 0.89 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05) and eNOS mRNA (48 hours: 0.62 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05; 72 hours: 0.67 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.45 +/- 0.09, P < 0.05) expression was more significantly increased in OPN KO mice than their matched WT mice when exposed to hyperoxia. IHC study showed higher expression of iNOS (20.54 +/- 3.18 vs. 12.52 +/- 2.46, P < 0.05) and eNOS (19.83 +/- 5.64 vs. 9.45 +/- 3.82, P < 0.05) in lung tissues of OPN KO mice at 72 hours of hyperoxia. OPN can protect against

  15. Pre-Treatment with Allopurinol or Uricase Attenuates Barrier Dysfunction but Not Inflammation during Murine Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Maria T.; Aslami, Hamid; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M.; Hegeman, Maria A.; Jongsma, Geartsje; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J.; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Uric acid released from injured tissue is considered a major endogenous danger signal and local instillation of uric acid crystals induces acute lung inflammation via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome and

  16. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS

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    REYHANEH SEPEHR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD, referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2 pups, hyperoxic (90% O2 pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS, and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS. Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~ 31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure.

  17. Sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line XWLC-05.

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    Zhou, Lan; Yao, Qian; Li, Yan; Huang, Yun-Chao; Jiang, Hua; Wang, Chuan-Qiong; Fan, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Xuanwei district in Yunnan Province has the highest incidence of lung cancer in China, especially among non-smoking women. Cruciferous vegetables can reduce lung cancer risk by prompting a protective mechanism against respiratory tract inflammation caused by air pollution, and are rich in sulforaphane, which can induce changes in gene expression. We investigated the effect of sulforaphane-induced apoptosis in Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell line (XWCL-05) to explore the value of sulforaphane in lung cancer prevention and treatment. Cell growth inhibition was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay; cell morphology and apoptosis were observed under transmission electron microscope; cell cycle and apoptosis rates were detected using flow cytometry; B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) messenger RNA expression were determined by quantitative PCR; and p53, p73, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-9 protein expression were detected by Western blotting. Sulforaphane inhibited XWLC-05 cell growth with inhibitory concentration (IC)50 of 4.04, 3.38, and 3.02 μg/mL at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Sulforaphane affected the XWLC-05 cell cycle as cells accumulated in the G2/M phase. The proportion of apoptotic cells observed was 27.6%. Compared with the control, the sulforaphane group showed decreased Bcl-2 and p53 expression, and significantly increased p73, PUMA, Bax, and caspase-9 protein expression (P Sulforaphane induces Xuanwei lung adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis. Its possible mechanism may involve the upregulation of p73 expression and its effector target genes PUMA and Bax in lung cancer cells, downregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene B cl -2, and activation of caspase-9. It may also involve downregulation of the mutant p53 protein. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. CD147 deficiency blocks IL-8 secretion and inhibits lung cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis

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    Wang, Hongkai; Zhuo, Yunyun; Hu, Xu; Shen, Weiwei; Zhang, Ying; Chu, Tongwei, E-mail: chtw@sina.com

    2015-03-06

    Bone is a frequent target of lung cancer metastasis, which is associated with significant morbidity and poor prognosis; however, the molecular basis of this process is still unknown. This study investigated the role of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (also known as cluster of differentiation (CD)147) in osteoclastogenesis resulting from bone metastasis, based on the enrichment of this glycoprotein on the surface of many malignant bone tumors. RNA interference was used to silence CD147 expression in A549 human lung cancer cells. Compared with conditioned medium (CM) from control cells (A549-CM), CM from CD147-deficient cells (A549-si-CM) suppressed receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand-stimulated osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. The mRNA levels of osteoclast-specific genes such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K were also reduced in the presence of A549-si-CM. CD147 knockdown in A549 cells decreased interleukin (IL)-8mRNA and protein expression. IL-8 is present in large amounts in A549-CM and mimicked its inductive effect on osteoclastogenesis; this was reversed by depletion of IL-8 from the medium. Taken together, these results indicate that CD147 promotes lung cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis by modulating IL-8 secretion, and suggest that CD147 is a potential therapeutic target for cancer-associated bone resorption in lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Bone loss frequently results from lung cancer metastasis. • Cluster of differentiation (CD)147 was depleted in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. • RAW 264.7 cell osteoclastogenesis was blocked by medium from CD147-deficient cells. • Interleukin (IL)-8 level was reduced in the conditioned medium. • Osteoclastogenesis induced by lung tumor cells requires CD147-mediated IL-8 release.

  19. Changes in expression of cytokines in polyhexamethylene guanidine-induced lung fibrosis in mice: Comparison of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Jeon, Doin; Kim, Hyeon-Young; Lee, Kyuhong

    2018-01-15

    Inhalation of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) causes irreversible pulmonary injury, such as pulmonary fibrosis. However, the mechanism underlying PHMG-induced lung injury is unclear. In this study, we compared the difference in time-dependent lung injury between PHMG- and bleomycin (BLM)-treated mice and determined cytokines involved in inducing lung injury by performing cytokine antibody array analysis. Mice were treated once with 1.8mg/kg BLM or 1.2mg/kg PHMG through intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed on days 7 and 28. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis showed that the number of neutrophils was significantly higher in PHMG-treated mice than in BLM-treated mice on day 7. Histopathological analysis showed inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis mainly in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli in the lungs of PHMG- and BLM-treated mice. However, continuous macrophage infiltration in the alveolar space and bronchioloalveolar epithelial hyperplasia (BEH) were only observed in PHMG-treated mice. Cytokine antibody array analysis showed that 15 and eight cytokines were upregulated in PHMG- and BLM-treated mice, respectively, on day 7. On day 28, 13 and five cytokines were upregulated in PHMG and BLM-treated mice, respectively. In addition, the expressed cytokines between days 7 and 28 in BLM-treated mice were clearly different, but were similar in PHMG-treated mice. Consequently, between PHMG- and BLM-treated mice, we observed differences in the expression patterns and types of cytokines. These differences are considered to be a result of the inflammatory processes induced by both substances, which may mainly involve macrophage infiltration. Therefore, continuous induction of the inflammatory response by PHMG may play an important role in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Protective effect of sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide on LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, You Jin; Back, Moon Jung; Fu, Zhicheng; Lee, Joo Hyun; Won, Jong Hoon; Ha, Hae Chan; Lee, Hae Kyung; Jang, Ji Min; Choi, Jong Min; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2016-12-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a respiratory failure disease and the major source of mortality in the critically ill patients. The main pathological changes involved in ALI include the excessive recruitment and activation of neutrophils by increased pro-inflammatory mediators. However, any specific therapy for ALI has not been developed. The objective of this study was to investigate protective effects of parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone produced in feverfew, on LPS-induced lung injury. In the present study, parthenolide treatment reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells, airway permeability and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced ALI mouse model. Further, LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of NF-κB, the key regulatory transcription factor in ALI, was inhibited by parthenolide treatment in lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and alveolar macrophage MH-S cells. These results suggest that parthenolide may provide a beneficial therapeutic strategy for ALI.

  1. Threshold for Radon-Induced Lung Cancer From Inhaled Plutonium Data

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    Jerry M. Cuttler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cohen’s lung cancer mortality data, from his test of the LNT theory, do not extend to the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL above which inhaled radon decay products begin to induce excess lung cancer mortality. Since there is concern about the level of radon in homes, it is important to set the radon limit near the NOAEL to avoid the risk of losing a health benefit. Assuming that dogs model humans, data from a study on inhaled plutonium dioxide particulates in dogs were assessed, and the NOAEL for radon-induced lung tumors was estimated to be about 2100 Bq/m3. The US Environmental Protection Agency should consider raising its radon action level from 150 to at least 1000 Bq/m3.

  2. Role of NLRP3 inflammasomes in lung injury induced by gut hypoxic stress and its mechanism

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    Shi-qiang XIONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic stress of the gut may induce impairment of gut barrier function, ensuing translocation of gutderived factors which can damage the function of remote organs, especially the development of acute lung injury (ALI. High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary injury caused by hypoxia, while inflammation involved in the pathogenesis of HAPE has been gradually recognized. It has been also recognized that the cleavage and maturation of proinflammatory cytokines mediated by NLRP3 inflammasome play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of lung injury. Further investigation on the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in lung injury induced by gut hypoxic stress is of an important clinical significance for further improvement in the treatment of hypoxic inflammatory diseases. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.14

  3. Citral inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by activating PPAR-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongbin; Sun, Zhanfeng; Guo, Xiaotong

    2015-01-15

    Citral, a component of lemongrass oil, has been reported to have many pharmacological activities such as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of citral on acute lung injury (ALI) and the molecular mechanisms have not been reported. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of citral on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury and investigate the molecular mechanisms. LPS-induced acute lung injury model was used to detect the anti-inflammatory effect of citral in vivo. The alveolar macrophages were used to investigate the molecular mechanism of citral in vitro. The results showed that pretreatment with citral remarkably attenuated pulmonary edema, histological severities, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production in LPS-induced ALI in vivo. In vitro, citral inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production in alveolar macrophages. LPS-induced NF-κB activation was also inhibited by citral. Furthermore, we found that citral activated PPAR-γ and the anti-inflammatory effects of citral can be reversed by PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. In conclusion, this is the first to demonstrate that citral protects LPS-induced ALI in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of citral is associated with activating PPAR-γ, thereby inhibiting LPS-induced inflammatory response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydroxysafflor yellow A suppress oleic acid-induced acute lung injury via protein kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chaoyun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Huang, Qingxian [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, Shandong 264000 (China); Wang, Chunhua; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Duan, Yunfeng; Yuan, Shuai [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Bai, Xianyong, E-mail: xybai2012@163.com [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Inflammation response and oxidative stress play important roles in acute lung injury (ALI). Activation of the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway may attenuate ALI by suppressing immune responses and inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a natural flavonoid compound that reduces oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine-mediated damage. In this study, we examined whether HSYA could protect the lungs from oleic acid (OA)-induced injury, which was used to mimic ALI, and determined the role of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in this process. Arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}), carbon dioxide tension, pH, and the PaO{sub 2}/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio in the blood were detected using a blood gas analyzer. We measured wet/dry lung weight ratio and evaluated tissue morphology. The protein and inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, PKA, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, and the concentrations of cAMP and malondialdehyde in the lung tissue were detected using assay kits. Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, and p22{sup phox} levels in the lung tissue were analyzed using Western blotting. OA increased the inflammatory cytokine and ROS levels and caused lung dysfunction by decreasing cAMP synthesis, inhibiting PKA activity, stimulating caspase 3, and reducing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. H-89 increased these effects. HSYA significantly increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibited the inflammatory response via cAMP/PKA pathway activation, and attenuated OA-induced lung injury. Our results show that the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is required for the protective effect of HSYA against ALI. - Highlights: • Oleic acid (OA) cause acute lung injury (ALI) via inhibiting cAMP/PKA signal pathway. • Blocking protein kinase A (PKA) activation may

  5. Inhibition of chlorine-induced lung injury by the type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Weiyuan; Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Rando, Roy J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA (United States); Pathak, Yashwant V. [College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Hoyle, Gary W., E-mail: Gary.Hoyle@louisville.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Chlorine is a highly toxic respiratory irritant that when inhaled causes epithelial cell injury, alveolar-capillary barrier disruption, airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, and pulmonary edema. Chlorine is considered a chemical threat agent, and its release through accidental or intentional means has the potential to result in mass casualties from acute lung injury. The type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram was investigated as a rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury. Rolipram inhibits degradation of the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic AMP. Potential beneficial effects of increased cyclic AMP levels include inhibition of pulmonary edema, inflammation, and airway hyperreactivity. Mice were exposed to chlorine (whole body exposure, 228–270 ppm for 1 h) and were treated with rolipram by intraperitoneal, intranasal, or intramuscular (either aqueous or nanoemulsion formulation) delivery starting 1 h after exposure. Rolipram administered intraperitoneally or intranasally inhibited chlorine-induced pulmonary edema. Minor or no effects were observed on lavage fluid IgM (indicative of plasma protein leakage), KC (Cxcl1, neutrophil chemoattractant), and neutrophils. All routes of administration inhibited chlorine-induced airway hyperreactivity assessed 1 day after exposure. The results of the study suggest that rolipram may be an effective rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury and that both systemic and targeted administration to the respiratory tract were effective routes of delivery. -- Highlights: ► Chlorine causes lung injury when inhaled and is considered a chemical threat agent. ► Rolipram inhibited chlorine-induced pulmonary edema and airway hyperreactivity. ► Post-exposure rolipram treatments by both systemic and local delivery were effective. ► Rolipram shows promise as a rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury.

  6. Immature monocytes contribute to cardiopulmonary bypass-induced acute lung injury by generating inflammatory descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhichen; Han, Junyan; Hao, Xing; Wang, Jinhong; Jiang, Chunjing; Hao, Yu; Wang, Hong; Wu, Xueying; Shen, Liwei; Dong, Xiaojun; Li, Tong; Li, Guoli; Zhang, Jianping; Hou, Xiaotong; Zeng, Hui

    2017-03-01

    As immune regulatory and effector cells, monocytes play an important role in the blood-extracorporeal circuit contact-related acute lung injury in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, circulating monocytes are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous, so we characterised how immature monocytes affect acute lung injury induced by CPB. The identification and dynamic changes in monocyte subsets were monitored by flow cytometry in patients undergoing CPB and in a rat model of CPB. The differentiation and migration of monocyte subsets were explored by in vitro cultures and adoptive transfer in the CPB rat model. We observed a dramatic increase of two monocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of patients undergoing CPB, involving tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-producing, mature intermediate CD14(high)CD16(+) monocytes and a novel immature CD14(low)CD16(-) subset. The immature CD14(low)CD16(-) monocytes possessed limited ability for TNF-α production, and failed to suppress T-cell proliferation mediated by T-cell receptor signalling. However, these immature cells were highly proliferative and could differentiate into TNF-α producing, mature CD14(high)CD16(+) monocytes. In the rat model of CPB, we further demonstrated that CPB induced migration of immature monocytes into the lungs, either from the bone marrow or from the spleen. Moreover, we confirmed the hypothesis that immature subsets could contribute to CPB-induced acute lung injury by giving rise to TNF-α producing descendants. The immature CD14(low)CD16(-) monocytes might contribute to blood-circuit contact-induced acute lung injury by generating TNF-α-producing, mature monocytes. New strategies based on monocyte manipulation could be a promising therapeutic approach for minimising CPB-related lung injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Lung injury during LPS-induced inflammation occurs independently of the receptor P2Y1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Elisabetta

    2017-03-01

    Disruption of the lung endothelial and epithelial barriers during acute inflammation leads to excessive neutrophil migration. It is likely that activated platelets promote pulmonary recruitment of neutrophils during inflammation, and previous studies have found that anti-platelet therapy and depletion of circulating platelets have lung-protective effects in different models of inflammation. Because ADP signaling is important for platelet activation, I investigated the role of the ADP-receptor P2Y 1 , a G protein-coupled receptor expressed on the surface of circulating platelets, during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and lung injury in P2Y 1 -null and wild-type mice. Systemic inflammation was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of LPS (3 mg/kg), and the mice were analyzed 24 h posttreatment. The data show that the LPS-induced inflammation levels were comparable in the P2Y 1 -null and wild-type mice. Specifically, splenomegaly, counts of circulating platelets and white blood cells (lymphocytes and neutrophils), and assessments of lung injury (tissue architecture and cell infiltration) were similar in the P2Y 1 -null and wild-type mice. Based on my results, I conclude that lung injury during LPS-induced inflammation in mice is independent of P2Y 1 signaling. I propose that if a blockade of purinergic signaling in platelets is a potential lung-protective strategy in the treatment of acute inflammation, then it is more likely to be a result of the disruption of the signaling pathway mediated by P2Y 12 , another G protein-coupled receptor that mediates platelet responses to ADP.

  8. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is essential for paraquat-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenning; Zhao, Hongyu; Liu, Wei; Li, Tiegang; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Min

    2015-02-01

    The innate immune response is important in paraquat-induced acute lung injury, but the exact pathways involved are not elucidated. The objectives of this study were to determine the specific role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the process. Acute lung injury was induced by administering paraquat (PQ) intraperitoneally. NLRP3 inflammasome including NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 mRNA and protein expression in lung tissue and IL-1β and IL-18 levels in BALF were detected at 4, 8, 24, and 72 h after PQ administration in rats. Moreover, rats were pretreated with 10, 30, and 50 mg/kg NLRP3 inflammasome blocker glybenclamide, respectively, 1 h before PQ exposure. At 72 h after PQ administration, lung histopathology changes, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 protein expression, as well as secretion of cytokines including IL-1β and IL-18 in BALF were investigated. The NLRP3 inflammasome including NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1 expression, and cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 levels in PQ poisoning rats were significantly higher than that in the control group. NLRP3 inflammasome blocker glybenclamide pretreatment attenuated lung edema, inhibited the NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 activation, and reduced IL-1β and IL-18 levels in BALF. In the in vitro experiments, IL-1β and IL-18 secreted from RAW264.7 mouse macrophages treated with paraquat were attenuated by glybenclamide. In conclusion, paraquat can induce IL-1β/IL-18 secretion via NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 pathway, and the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for paraquat-induced acute lung injury.

  9. Hesperidin as radioprotector against radiation-induced lung damage in rat: A histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hassan Haddadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated by ionizing radiation, and one of the organs commonly affected by ROS is the lung. Radiation-induced lung injury including pneumonia and lung fibrosis is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy (RT of patients with thorax irradiation. Administration of antioxidants has been proved to protect against ROS. The present study was aimed to assess the protective effect of hesperidin (HES against radiation-induced lung injury of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into three groups. G1: Received no HES and radiation (sham. G2: Underwent γ-irradiation to the thorax. G3: Received HES and underwent γ-irradiation. The rats were exposed to a single dose of 18 Gy using cobalt-60 unit and were administered HES (100 mg/kg for 7 days before irradiation. Histopathological analysis was performed 24 h and 8 weeks after RT. Histopathological results in 24 h showed radiation-induced inflammation and presence of more inflammatory cells as compared to G1 (P < 0.05. Administration of HES significantly decreased such an effect when compared to G2 (P < 0.05. Histopathological evaluation in 8 weeks showed a significant increase in mast cells, inflammation, inflammatory cells, alveolar thickness, vascular thickness, pulmonary edema, and fibrosis in G2 when compared to G1 (P < 0.05. HES significantly decreased inflammatory response, fibrosis, and mast cells when compared to G2 (P < 0.05. Administration of HES resulted in decreased radiation pneumonitis and radiation fibrosis in the lung tissue. Thus, the present study showed HES to be an efficient radioprotector against radiation-induced damage in the lung of tissue rats.

  10. Mast cells protect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkins, Robert D; Carrigan, Svetlana O; Wu, Zhengli; Stadnyk, Andrew W; Cowley, Elizabeth; Issekutz, Thomas; Berman, Jason; Lin, Tong-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised individuals. Maintaining the integrity of the respiratory epithelium is critical for an effective host response to P. aeruginosa. Given the close spatial relationship between mast cells and the respiratory epithelium, and the importance of tightly regulated epithelial permeability during lung infections, we examined whether mast cells influence airway epithelial integrity during P. aeruginosa lung infection in a mouse model. We found that mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh)/Kit(W-sh) mice displayed greatly increased epithelial permeability, bacterial dissemination, and neutrophil accumulation compared with wild-type animals after P. aeruginosa infection; these defects were corrected on reconstitution with mast cells. An in vitro Transwell co-culture model further demonstrated that a secreted mast cell factor decreased epithelial cell apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor production after P. aeruginosa infection. Together, our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for mast cells in the maintenance of epithelial integrity during P. aeruginosa infection, through a mechanism that likely involves prevention of epithelial apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor production. Our understanding of mechanisms of the host response to P. aeruginosa will open new avenues for the development of successful preventative and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of caffeine on cisplatin-induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Gan; Bhoopalan, Vanitha; Wang, David; Wang, Le; Xu, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    .... The effect of caffeine on cisplatin-based cancer treatment is not well known. Caspase-3 activation and cell growth inhibition assays were used to determine the effect of caffeine on cisplatin-induced apoptosis and cell growth in lung cancer cells...

  12. Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATS 2013 Biomarkers of asbestos-induced lung injury: the influence of fiber characteristics and exposure methodology Urmila P Kodavanti, Debora Andrews, Mette C Schaldweiler, Jaime M Cyphert, Darol E Dodd, and Stephen H Gavett NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC; NIEH...

  13. Deletion of ASK1 Protects against Hyperoxia-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutaro Fukumoto

    Full Text Available Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, a member of the MAPK kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K family, is activated by various stimuli, which include oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, calcium influx, DNA damage-inducing agents and receptor-mediated signaling through tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR. Inspiration of a high concentration of oxygen is a palliative therapy which counteracts hypoxemia caused by acute lung injury (ALI-induced pulmonary edema. However, animal experiments so far have shown that hyperoxia itself could exacerbate ALI through reactive oxygen species (ROS. Our previous data indicates that ASK1 plays a pivotal role in hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI. However, it is unclear whether or not deletion of ASK1 in vivo protects against HALI. In this study, we investigated whether ASK1 deletion would lead to attenuation of HALI. Our results show that ASK1 deletion in vivo significantly suppresses hyperoxia-induced elevation of inflammatory cytokines (i.e. IL-1β and TNF-α, cell apoptosis in the lung, and recruitment of immune cells. In summary, the results from the study suggest that deletion of ASK1 in mice significantly inhibits hyperoxic lung injury.

  14. Chronic Exposure to Particulate Nickel Induces Neoplastic Transformation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amie L. Holmes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is a well-known human lung carcinogen with the particulate form being the most potent; however, the carcinogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. Few studies have investigated the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel in its target cell, human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of particulate nickel in human lung epithelial cells. We found that nickel subsulfide induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells (BEP2D. Chronic exposure to nickel subsulfide readily induced cellular transformation, inducing 2.55, 2.9 and 2.35 foci per dish after exposure to 1, 2.5 and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide, respectively. Sixty-one, 100 and 70 percent of the foci isolated from 1, 2.5, and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide treatments formed colonies in soft agar and the degree of soft agar colony growth increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, chronic exposure to particulate nickel induces genotoxicity and cellular transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

  15. Treatment with the Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor 4-Methylumbelliferone Suppresses SEB-Induced Lung Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Uchakina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bacterial superantigens, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, can lead to the induction of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS. To date, there are no known effective treatments for SEB-induced inflammation. In the current study we investigated the potential use of the hyaluronic acid synthase inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU on staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB induced acute lung inflammation. Culturing SEB-activated immune cells with 4-MU led to reduced proliferation, reduced cytokine production as well as an increase in apoptosis when compared to untreated cells. Treatment of mice with 4-MU led to protection from SEB-induced lung injury. Specifically, 4-MU treatment led to a reduction in SEB-induced HA levels, reduction in lung permeability, and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Taken together, these results suggest that use of 4-MU to target hyaluronic acid production may be an effective treatment for the inflammatory response following exposure to SEB.

  16. Ventilator-induced Lung Injury Is Mediated by the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Maria T.; Aslami, Hamid; Janczy, John R.; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.; Wolthuis, Esther K.; Choi, Goda; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Flavell, Richard A.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Bresser, Paul; Leemans, Jaklien C.; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J.; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The innate immune response is important in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) but the exact pathways involved are not elucidated. The authors studied the role of the intracellular danger sensor NLRP3 inflammasome. Methods: NLRP3 inflammasome gene expression was analyzed in respiratory

  17. Ventilator-induced lung injury is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Maria T; Aslami, Hamid; Janczy, John R; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F; Vlaar, Alexander P J; Wolthuis, Esther K; Choi, Goda; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Flavell, Richard A; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Bresser, Paul; Leemans, Jaklien C; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J; Wieland, Catharina W

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The innate immune response is important in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) but the exact pathways involved are not elucidated. The authors studied the role of the intracellular danger sensor NLRP3 inflammasome. METHODS: NLRP3 inflammasome gene expression was analyzed in respiratory

  18. Time-response relationship of nano and micro particle induced lung inflammation. Quartz as reference compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roursgaard, Martin; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of engineered particles, including nanoparticles, are being manufactured, increasing the need for simple low-dose toxicological screening methods. This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of biomarkers related to acute and sub-chronic particle-induced lung inflammation of...

  19. Neutrophils Promote Mycobacterial Trehalose Dimycolate-Induced Lung Inflammation via the Mincle Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook-Bin Lee

    Full Text Available Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM, a cord factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, is an important regulator of immune responses during Mtb infections. Macrophages recognize TDM through the Mincle receptor and initiate TDM-induced inflammatory responses, leading to lung granuloma formation. Although various immune cells are recruited to lung granulomas, the roles of other immune cells, especially during the initial process of TDM-induced inflammation, are not clear. In this study, Mincle signaling on neutrophils played an important role in TDM-induced lung inflammation by promoting adhesion and innate immune responses. Neutrophils were recruited during the early stage of lung inflammation following TDM-induced granuloma formation. Mincle expression on neutrophils was required for infiltration of TDM-challenged sites in a granuloma model induced by TDM-coated-beads. TDM-induced Mincle signaling on neutrophils increased cell adherence by enhancing F-actin polymerization and CD11b/CD18 surface expression. The TDM-induced effects were dependent on Src, Syk, and MAPK/ERK kinases (MEK. Moreover, coactivation of the Mincle and TLR2 pathways by TDM and Pam3CSK4 treatment synergistically induced CD11b/CD18 surface expression, reactive oxygen species, and TNFα production by neutrophils. These synergistically-enhanced immune responses correlated with the degree of Mincle expression on neutrophil surfaces. The physiological relevance of the Mincle-mediated anti-TDM immune response was confirmed by defective immune responses in Mincle⁻/⁻ mice upon aerosol infections with Mtb. Mincle-mutant mice had higher inflammation levels and mycobacterial loads than WT mice. Neutrophil depletion with anti-Ly6G antibody caused a reduction in IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression upon TDM treatment, and reduced levels of immune cell recruitment during the initial stage of infection. These findings suggest a new role of Mincle signaling on neutrophils

  20. Diet‐induced obese mice exhibit altered immune responses to acute lung injury induced by Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Taomei; Yuan, Guiqiang; Ren, Yi; Wang, Zhengyi; Jia, Yiping; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Deng, Junliang; Yu, Shumin; Hu, Yanchun; Shen, Liuhong; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Ya; Ren, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity has been associated with impaired immunity and increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. It also exerts protective effects against mortality secondary to acute lung injury. The effects of obesity on immune responses to acute lung injury induced by Escherichia coli were investigated to determine if the above‐mentioned differences in its effects were related to infection severity. Methods Diet‐induced obesity (DIO) and lean control mice received intranasal instillations of 109 or 1010 CFUs of E. coli. The immune responses were examined at 0 h (uninfected), 24 h, and 96 h postinfection. Results Following infection, the DIO mice exhibited higher leukocyte, interleukin (IL)−10, IL‐6, and tumor necrosis factor‐α levels and more severe lung injury than the lean mice. Following inoculation with 1010 CFUs of E. coli, the DIO mice exhibited higher mortality and more severe inflammation‐induced injury than the lean mice, but no differences in E. coli counts were noted between the two groups. However, inoculated with 109 CFUs of E. coli, the DIO mice exhibited smaller E. coli burdens at 24 h and 96 h after infection, as well as lower concentrations of IL‐10 and tumor necrosis factor‐α and less severe lung injury at 96 h after infection. Conclusions The results support the emerging view that obesity may be beneficial in the setting of milder infection but detrimental in the setting of more severe infection. PMID:27558300

  1. DNaseI Protects against Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis Mediated by Mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraquat (PQ poisoning is a lethal toxicological challenge that served as a disease model of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanism is undetermined and no effective treatment has been discovered. Methods and Findings. We demonstrated that PQ injures mitochondria and leads to mtDNA release. The mtDNA mediated PBMC recruitment and stimulated the alveolar epithelial cell production of TGF-β1 in vitro. The levels of mtDNA in circulation and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF were elevated in a mouse of PQ-induced lung injury. DNaseI could protect PQ-induced lung injury and significantly improved survival. Acute lung injury markers, such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, and marker of fibrosis, collagen I, were downregulated in parallel with the elimination of mtDNA by DNaseI. These data indicate a possible mechanism for PQ-induced, mtDNA-mediated lung injury, which may be shared by other causes of lung injury, as suggested by the same protective effect of DNaseI in bleomycin-induced lung injury model. Interestingly, increased mtDNA in the BALF of patients with amyopathic dermatomyositis-interstitial lung disease can be appreciated. Conclusions. DNaseI targeting mtDNA may be a promising approach for the treatment of PQ-induced acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis that merits fast tracking through clinical trials.

  2. Immunohistochemical detection of CCR2 and CX3CR1 in sepsis-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jun-Ling; Ishida, Yuko; Kimura, Akihiko; Tsokos, Michael; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2009-11-20

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory disease with high mortality. In the present study, we immunohistochemically examined CCR2 and CX3CR1 expression in sepsis-induced lung injury, and discussed its availability for the postmortem diagnosis of sepsis. Lung samples were obtained from different lung lobes of nine sepsis and eight control cases with postmortem intervals between 12 and 48h. Immunohistochemically, mononuclear cells recruited into the lungs expressed CCR2 and CX3CR1 in both sepsis and non-septic groups. In double-color immunofluorescence analysis, CCR2- or CX3CR1-positive cells could be identified as CD68-positive macrophages. Moreover, most of CD68-positive macrophages expressed both CCR2 and CX3CR1. Morphometrically, the average of CCR2- and CX3CR1-positive macrophages was significantly increased in sepsis group, compared with control group (sepsis vs. control: 41.6+/-1.3% vs. 8.0+/-0.4% in CCR2; 36.2+/-1.3% vs. 9.2+/-0.4% in CX3CR1). These observations implied that CCR2- or CX3CR1-positive macrophages were recruited into the lungs under several pathological conditions. In particular, their recruitment might be more evident in sepsis. Moreover, from the forensic aspects, immunohistochemical detection of CCR2 and CX3CR1 expression in the lungs can be considered as valuable diagnostic tools for the postmortem diagnosis of sepsis.

  3. Therapeutic Effect of the Tuber of Alisma orientale on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyun Ha Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Alisma orientale, an ethnic herb, has been prescribed for treating various diseases in Asian traditional medicine, experimental evidence to support its therapeutic effects is lacking. Here, we sought to determine whether A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury (ALI. Ethanol extract of the tuber of A. orientale (EEAO was prepared and fingerprinted by HPLC for its constituents. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS for the induction of ALI. At 2 h after LPS treatment, mice received an intratracheal (i.t. spraying of various amounts of EEAO to the lung. Bioluminescence imaging of transgenic NF-κB/luciferase reporter mice shows that i.t. EEAO posttreatment suppressed lung inflammation. In similar experiments with C57BL/6 mice, EEAO posttreatment significantly improved lung inflammation, as assessed by H&E staining of lung sections, counting of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses of proinflammatory cytokines and Nrf2-dependent genes in the inflamed lungs. Furthermore, EEAO posttreatment enhanced the survival of mice that received a lethal dose of LPS. Together, our results provide evidence that A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on ALI induced by sepsis.

  4. Dietary Curcumin Increases Antioxidant Defenses in Lung, Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis, and Improves Survival in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James C.; Kinniry, Paul A.; Arguiri, Evguenia; Serota, Matthew; Kanterakis, Stathis; Chatterjee, Shampa; Solomides, Charalambos C.; Javvadi, Prashanthi; Koumenis, Constantinos; Cengel, Keith A.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of lung radiotherapy is limited by radiation tolerance of normal tissues and by the intrinsic radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells. The chemopreventive agent curcumin has known antioxidant and tumor cell radiosensitizing properties. Its usefulness in preventing radiation-induced pneumonopathy has not been tested previously. We evaluated dietary curcumin in radiation-induced pneumonopathy and lung tumor regression in a murine model. Mice were given 1%or 5%(w/w) dietary curcumin or control diet prior to irradiation and for the duration of the experiment. Lungs were evaluated at 3 weeks after irradiation for acute lung injury and inflammation by evaluating bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid content for proteins, neutrophils and at 4 months for pulmonary fibrosis. In a separate series of experiments, an orthotopic model of lung cancer using intravenously injected Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells was used to exclude possible tumor radioprotection by dietary curcumin. In vitro, curcumin boosted antioxidant defenses by increasing heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels in primary lung endothelial and fibroblast cells and blocked radiation-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Dietary curcumin significantly increased HO-1 in lungs as early as after 1 week of feeding, coinciding with a steady-state level of curcumin in plasma. Although both 1% and 5% w/w dietary curcumin exerted physiological changes in lung tissues by significantly decreasing LPS-induced TNF-α production in lungs, only 5%dietary curcumin significantly improved survival of mice after irradiation and decreased radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Importantly, dietary curcumin did not protect LLC pulmonary metastases from radiation killing. Thus dietary curcumin ameliorates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and increases mouse survival while not impairing tumor cell killing by radiation. PMID:20426658

  5. [Effect of copper sulphate on the lung damage induced by chronic intermittent exposure to ozone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún G, Manuel J; Sánchez R, Susan A; Dussaubat D, Nelson; Miller A, María E; González B, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Ozone exposure could increase lung damage induced by airborne particulate matter. Particulate matter lung toxicity has been attributed to its metallic content. To evaluate the acute effect of intratracheal administration of copper sulfate (CuSO4) on rat lungs previously damaged by a chronic intermittent ozone exposure. Two-months-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone four h per day, five days a week, during two months. CuSO4 was intratracheally instilled 20 h after ozone exposure. Controls breathed filtered air or were instilled with 0.9% NaCl or with CuSO4 or were only exposed to ozone. We evaluated lung histopathology. F2 isoprostanes were determined in plasma. Cell count, total proteins, γ glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatases (AP) were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Ozone increased total cell count, macrophages, proteins and AP in BALF (p Ozone plus CuSO4 exposed animals showed a neutrophil inflammatory lung response and an increase in total cell count, proteins, GGT and AP in BALF (p ozone induces a neutrophil pulmonary inflammatory response and cytoplasmic damage in macrophages.

  6. Mixed Herbal Medicine Induced Diffuse Infiltrative Lung Disease: The HRCT and Histopathologic Findings

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    Kim, Tae Gyu; Shin, Eun A [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joung Sook [Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the high-resolution CT (HRCT) and pathologic findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse interstitial lung disease. Eight patients (6 women and 2 men, age range: 31 to 81 years, mean age: 51.4 years) who presented with cough or dyspnea after taking mixed herbal medicine were included in this study. All the patients underwent plain chest radiography and HRCT. We obtained pathologic specimens from 7 patients via fluoroscopy guided large bore cutting needle biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy. All the patients were treated with steroid therapy. The most common HRCT finding was bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity (n=7), followed by peribronchial consolidation (n=5) and inter- or intralobular septal thickening (n=2). For the disease distribution, the lower lung zone was dominantly involved. The pathologic results of 7 patients were nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (n=3), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (n=2), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n=1) and eosinophilic pneumonia (n=1). Irrespective of the pathologic results, all 8 patients improved clinically and radiologically after steroid treatment. The HRCT findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse infiltrative lung disease were mainly bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity, peribronchial consolidation and dominant involvement of the lower lung zone. Those pathologic findings were nonspecific and the differential diagnosis could include interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and eosinophilic pneumonia

  7. Stiffness-activated GEF-H1 expression exacerbates LPS-induced lung inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Mambetsariev

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is accompanied by decreased lung compliance. However, a role of tissue mechanics in modulation of inflammation remains unclear. We hypothesized that bacterial lipopolysacharide (LPS stimulates extracellular matrix (ECM production and vascular stiffening leading to stiffness-dependent exacerbation of endothelial cell (EC inflammatory activation and lung barrier dysfunction. Expression of GEF-H1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, ECM proteins fibronectin and collagen, lysyl oxidase (LOX activity, interleukin-8 and activation of Rho signaling were analyzed in lung samples and pulmonary EC grown on soft (1.5 or 2.8 kPa and stiff (40 kPa substrates. LPS induced EC inflammatory activation accompanied by expression of ECM proteins, increase in LOX activity, and activation of Rho signaling. These effects were augmented in EC grown on stiff substrate. Stiffness-dependent enhancement of inflammation was associated with increased expression of Rho activator, GEF-H1. Inhibition of ECM crosslinking and stiffening by LOX suppression reduced EC inflammatory activation and GEF-H1 expression in response to LPS. In vivo, LOX inhibition attenuated LPS-induced expression of GEF-H1 and lung dysfunction. These findings present a novel mechanism of stiffness-dependent exacerbation of vascular inflammation and escalation of ALI via stimulation of GEF-H1-Rho pathway. This pathway represents a fundamental mechanism of positive feedback regulation of inflammation.

  8. Protection Against Lung Cancer Patient Plasma-Induced Lymphocyte Suppression by Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides

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    Li-Xin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS in protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocytes. Lung cancer is a major cause of disease and loss of life in the United States and worldwide. Cancer cells release immunosuppressive mediators, such as PGE2, TGF-β, IL-10, and VEGF, to inhibit the immune response to escape from immune surveillance. Gl-PS has been shown to counteract this immune inhibition in an animal cell culture model, and thus to facilitate tumor control. The present study explored whether or not such an effect could also be demonstrated in human lung cancer patients. Methods: Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, MTT, immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis were used to assess lymphocyte activation with PHA. Results: The plasma of lung cancer patients suppressed proliferation, CD69 expression, and perforin and granzyme B production in lymphocytes upon activation by PHA, effects that were partially of fully reversed by Gl-PS. Conclusion: Lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocyte activation by phytohemagglutinin may be antagonized fully or partially by Gl-PS, an observation suggesting the potential of Gl-PS in cancer therapy.

  9. Activation of Akt protects alveoli from neonatal oxygen-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphonse, Rajesh S; Vadivel, Arul; Coltan, Lavinia; Eaton, Farah; Barr, Amy J; Dyck, Jason R B; Thébaud, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the main complication of extreme prematurity, resulting in part from mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. Currently, no specific treatment exists for BPD. BPD is characterized by an arrest in alveolar development and increased apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Type 2 AECs are putative distal lung progenitor cells, capable of regenerating alveolar homeostasis after injury. We hypothesized that the protection of AEC2 death via the activation of the prosurvival Akt pathway prevents arrested alveolar development in experimental BPD. We show that the pharmacologic inhibition of the prosurvival factor Akt pathway with wortmannin during the critical period of alveolar development impairs alveolar development in newborn rats, resulting in larger and fewer alveoli, reminiscent of BPD. Conversely, in an experimental model of BPD induced by oxygen exposure of newborn rats, alveolar simplification is associated with a decreased activation of lung Akt. In vitro studies with rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells cultured in hyperoxia (95% O(2)) showed decreased apoptosis and improved cell survival after the forced expression of active Akt by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. In vivo, adenovirus-mediated Akt gene transfer preserves alveolar architecture in the newborn rat model of hyperoxia-induced BPD. We conclude that inhibition of the prosurvival factor Akt disrupts normal lung development, whereas the expression of active Akt in experimental BPD preserves alveolar development. We speculate that the modulation of apoptosis may have therapeutic potential in lung diseases characterized by alveolar damage.

  10. Sub-chronic exposure to second hand smoke induces airspace leukocyte infiltration and decreases lung elastance

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    John M. Hartney

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to second hand tobacco smoke is associated with the development and/or exacerbation of several different pulmonary diseases in humans. To better understand the possible effects of second hand smoke exposure in humans, we sub-chronically (4 weeks exposed mice to a mixture of mainstream and sidestream tobacco smoke at concentrations similar to second hand smoke exposure in humans. The inflammatory response to smoke exposures was assessed at the end of this time by enumeration of pulmonary leukocyte infiltration together with measurements of lung elastance and pathology. This response was measured in both healthy wild type (C57BL/6 mice as well as mouse mutants deficient in the expression of Arhgef1 (Arhgef1–/– that display constitutive pulmonary inflammation and decreased lung elastance reminiscent of emphysema. The results from this study show that sub-chronic second hand smoke exposure leads to significantly increased numbers of airspace leukocytes in both healthy and mutant animals. While sub-chronic cigarette smoke exposure is not sufficient to induce changes in lung architecture as measured by mean linear intercept, both groups exhibit a significant decrease in lung elastance. Together these data demonstrate that even sub-chronic exposure to second hand smoke is sufficient to induce pulmonary inflammation and decrease lung elastance in both healthy and diseased animals and in the absence of tissue destruction.

  11. Mesoporous carbon nanomaterials induced pulmonary surfactant inhibition, cytotoxicity, inflammation and lung fibrosis.

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    Chen, Yunan; Yang, Yi; Xu, Bolong; Wang, Shunhao; Li, Bin; Ma, Juan; Gao, Jie; Zuo, Yi Y; Liu, Sijin

    2017-12-01

    Environmental exposure and health risk upon engineered nanomaterials are increasingly concerned. The family of mesoporous carbon nanomaterials (MCNs) is a rising star in nanotechnology for multidisciplinary research with versatile applications in electronics, energy and gas storage, and biomedicine. Meanwhile, there is mounting concern on their environmental health risks due to the growing production and usage of MCNs. The lung is the primary site for particle invasion under environmental exposure to nanomaterials. Here, we studied the comprehensive toxicological profile of MCNs in the lung under the scenario of moderate environmental exposure. It was found that at a low concentration of 10μg/mL MCNs induced biophysical inhibition of natural pulmonary surfactant. Moreover, MCNs at similar concentrations reduced viability of J774A.1 macrophages and lung epithelial A549 cells. Incubating with nature pulmonary surfactant effectively reduced the cytotoxicity of MCNs. Regarding the pro-inflammatory responses, MCNs activated macrophages in vitro, and stimulated lung inflammation in mice after inhalation exposure, associated with lung fibrosis. Moreover, we found that the size of MCNs played a significant role in regulating cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory potential of this nanomaterial. In general, larger MCNs induced more pronounced cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects than their smaller counterparts. Our results provided valuable information on the toxicological profile and environmental health risks of MCNs, and suggested that fine-tuning the size of MCNs could be a practical precautionary design strategy to increase safety and biocompatibility of this nanomaterial. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury

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    Shichao Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by BAY11-7082 attenuated burn-induced ALI, as demonstrated by the concomitant remission of histopathologic changes and the reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, inflammatory cytokines in rat lung tissue, and protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. In the in vitro experiments, we used AMs (alveolar macrophages challenged with burn serum to mimic the postburn microenvironment and noted that the serum significantly upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. The use of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC partially reversed NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cells exposed to burn serum. These results indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an essential role in burn-induced ALI and that burn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activity is a partly ROS-dependent process. Targeting this axis may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced ALI.

  13. ROS-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity Is Essential for Burn-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shichao; Cai, Weixia; Yang, Xuekang; Jia, Yanhui; Zheng, Zhao; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun; Li, Yan; Gao, Jianxin; Fan, Lei; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is necessary for initiating acute sterile inflammation. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and the signaling pathways involved in burn-induced ALI. We observed that the rat lungs exhibited enhanced inflammasome activity after burn, as evidenced by increased levels of NLRP3 expression and Caspase-1 activity and augmented inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by BAY11-7082 attenuated burn-induced ALI, as demonstrated by the concomitant remission of histopathologic changes and the reduction of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, inflammatory cytokines in rat lung tissue, and protein concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In the in vitro experiments, we used AMs (alveolar macrophages) challenged with burn serum to mimic the postburn microenvironment and noted that the serum significantly upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The use of ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed NLRP3 inflammasome activity in cells exposed to burn serum. These results indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays an essential role in burn-induced ALI and that burn-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activity is a partly ROS-dependent process. Targeting this axis may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of burn-induced ALI.

  14. Endotoxin induced peritonitis elicits monocyte immigration into the lung: implications on alveolar space inflammatory responsiveness

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    Welte Tobias

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute peritonitis developing in response to gram-negative bacterial infection is known to act as a trigger for the development of acute lung injury which is often complicated by the development of nosocomial pneumonia. We hypothesized that endotoxin-induced peritonitis provokes recruitment of monocytes into the lungs, which amplifies lung inflammatory responses to a second hit intra-alveolar challenge with endotoxin. Methods Serum and lavage cytokines as well as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells were analyzed at different time points after intraperitoneal or intratracheal application of LPS. Results We observed that mice challenged with intraperitoneal endotoxin developed rapidly increasing serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cytokine and chemokine levels (TNFα, MIP-2, CCL2 and a nearly two-fold expansion of the alveolar macrophage population by 96 h, but this was not associated with the development of neutrophilic alveolitis. In contrast, expansion of the alveolar macrophage pool was not observed in CCR2-deficient mice and in wild-type mice systemically pretreated with the anti-CD18 antibody GAME-46. An intentional two-fold expansion of alveolar macrophage numbers by intratracheal CCL2 following intraperitoneal endotoxin did not exacerbate the development of acute lung inflammation in response to intratracheal endotoxin compared to mice challenged only with intratracheal endotoxin. Conclusion These data, taken together, show that intraperitoneal endotoxin triggers a CCR2-dependent de novo recruitment of monocytes into the lungs of mice but this does not result in an accentuation of neutrophilic lung inflammation. This finding represents a previously unrecognized novel inflammatory component of lung inflammation that results from endotoxin-induced peritonitis.

  15. Chest wall restriction limits high airway pressure-induced lung injury in young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L A; Peevy, K J; Moise, A A; Parker, J C

    1989-05-01

    High peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) during mechanical ventilation can induce lung injury. In the present study we compare the respective roles of high tidal volume with high PIP in intact immature rabbits to determine whether the increase in capillary permeability is the result of overdistension of the lung or direct pressure effects. New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to one of three protocols, which produced different degrees of inspiratory volume limitation: intact closed-chest animals (CC), closed-chest animals with a full-body plaster cast (C), and isolated excised lungs (IL). The intact animals were ventilated at 15, 30, or 45 cmH2O PIP for 1 h, and the lungs of the CC and C groups were placed in an isolated lung perfusion system. Microvascular permeability was evaluated using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). Base-line Kfc for isolated lungs before ventilation was 0.33 +/- 0.31 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100g-1 and was not different from the Kfc in the CC group ventilated with 15 cmH2O PIP. Kfc increased by 850% after ventilation with only 15 cmH2O PIP in the unrestricted IL group, and in the CC group Kfc increased by 31% after 30 cmH2O PIP and 430% after 45 cmH2O PIP. Inspiratory volume limitation by the plaster cast in the C group prevented any significant increase in Kfc at the PIP values used. These data indicate that volume distension of the lung rather than high PIP per se produces microvascular damage in the immature rabbit lung.

  16. Antenatal and postnatal corticosteroid and resuscitation induced lung injury in preterm sheep

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    Kallapur Suhas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Initiation of ventilation using high tidal volumes in preterm lambs causes lung injury and inflammation. Antenatal corticosteroids mature the lungs of preterm infants and postnatal corticosteroids are used to treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Objective To test if antenatal or postnatal corticosteroids would decrease resuscitation induced lung injury. Methods 129 d gestational age lambs (n = 5-8/gp; term = 150 d were operatively delivered and ventilated after exposure to either 1 no medication, 2 antenatal maternal IM Betamethasone 0.5 mg/kg 24 h prior to delivery, 3 0.5 mg/kg Dexamethasone IV at delivery or 4 Cortisol 2 mg/kg IV at delivery. Lambs then were ventilated with no PEEP and escalating tidal volumes (VT to 15 mL/kg for 15 min and then given surfactant. The lambs were ventilated with VT 8 mL/kg and PEEP 5 cmH20 for 2 h 45 min. Results High VT ventilation caused a deterioration of lung physiology, lung inflammation and injury. Antenatal betamethasone improved ventilation, decreased inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression and alveolar protein leak, but did not prevent neutrophil influx. Postnatal dexamethasone decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, but had no beneficial effect on ventilation, and postnatal cortisol had no effect. Ventilation increased liver serum amyloid mRNA expression, which was unaffected by corticosteroids. Conclusions Antenatal betamethasone decreased lung injury without decreasing lung inflammatory cells or systemic acute phase responses. Postnatal dexamethasone or cortisol, at the doses tested, did not have important effects on lung function or injury, suggesting that corticosteroids given at birth will not decrease resuscitation mediated injury.

  17. Effects of adiponectin on acute lung injury in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Bao, Hong-Guang; Si, Yan-Na; Han, Liu; Zhang, Rui; Cai, Meng-Meng; Shen, Yan

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the possible beneficial effects of adiponectin (APN) on acute lung injury in a rat model of sepsis. We subjected male Sprague-Dawley rats to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to establish sepsis models. We randomly animals divided into four groups: control (C), model (CLP), preemptive APN administration (APN plus CLP), and delayed APN administration (CLP plus APN). We killed the animals 24 h after CLP and collected blood samples to determine PaO2 and PaCO2. Lung samples were taken for histologic assessment and measurement of myeloperoxidase activity. We measured neutrophil and macrophage count and cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histology findings and lung injury score analysis revealed acute lung injury in rats in the CLP group, whereas those in the APN-treated group had mild lung injury. The effects of sepsis on the increasing cell number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as the wet/dry weight ratio, neutrophil infiltration, and myeloperoxidase activity of lung tissue were significantly attenuated by APN administration. Adiponectin also significantly alleviated hypoxemia and hypercapnia resulting from the development of lung injury. In addition, in APN-treated rats, the levels of pulmonary inflammatory molecule (macrophage inflammatory protein-2) and cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α) were down-regulated compared with the CLP group. Adiponectin administration ameliorates acute lung injury in a rat model of sepsis induced by CLP, no matter whether it is administrated before or after the onset of sepsis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome in rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, H; Wang, Y; Zeng, X; Zhu, Q; Xie, W; Dai, S

    2014-12-01

    Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 IgG1 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of various forms of lymphoma and haematological autoimmune diseases. Interstitial lung disease is a rare but lethal pulmonary toxicity of rituximab. Nod-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a molecular platform activated upon signs of cellular 'danger' to trigger the maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We report the first case of rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease (R-ILD) with NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the lung. A 30-year-old male patient diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was treated with four cycles of rituximab in one month. Three weeks after last rituximab administration, he developed progressive dyspnoea associated with respiratory failure, which was diagnosed as R-ILD. The patient showed a good response to steroid treatment, and lung biopsy was performed 5 days after the treatment. Immunohistopathological studies of lung specimens showed high expressions of inflammasome components NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase-1 in lung interstitium with a heavy infiltration of CD19-positive cells. The levels of inflammasome-related cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in the serum were declined during the therapy. This is the first report confirmed the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in pulmonary toxicity of rituximab. Inhibited activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in lung by steroid treatment could reverse R-ILD and block subsequent lung fibrosis. This result could open a new sight into the pathogenesis and provide a new target for the treatment of R-ILD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Beryllium-induced lung disease in the dog following two exposures to BeO

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    Haley, P.J.; Finch, G.L.; Hoover, M.D.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Bice, D.E.; Muggenburg, B.A. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The authors have shown previously that dogs exposed once to aerosols of beryllium oxide (BeO) calcined at 500 or 1,000[degrees]C developed granulomatous lung lesions as well as Be-specific immune responses in the blood and lung. In this report, they investigate the immunopathologic consequences of exposing dogs twice to aerosols of BeO. Dogs previously exposed to aerosols of 500 or 1,000[degrees]C calcined BeO to achieve an initial lung burden (ILB) of either 50 or 17 [mu]g/kg body wt were exposed a second time to BeO calcined at 500[degrees]C, 2.5 years after the first exposure, to achieve an ILB of about 50 [mu]g/kg body wt. Immune responses of peripheral blood and lung lymphocytes were measured at 0, 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 165, 180, and 210 days postexposure (dpe), and dogs were euthanized at 210 dpe. Be-specific immune responses occurred in blood at 30 dpe and again at 150 to 210 dpe. Only sporadic positive responses were seen among lung lymphocytes when cells were cultured in 10% fetal bovine serum. In contrast, samples collected at 165, 180, and 210 dpe and incubated with 10% dog serum showed a large number of positive responses in both blood and lung. Histologic lesions were characterized by perivascular and interstitial infiltrates of lymphocytes and macrophages with progression to patchy granulomatous pneumonia accompanied by focal septal fibrosis. The authors conclude that Be-induced granulomatous and fibrotic lung lesions are accompanied by Be-specific immune responses within the lung but these changes do not appear to be cumulative if enough time has elapsed between exposures. 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Preclinical validation and imaging of Wnt-induced repair in human 3D lung tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Franziska E; Vierkotten, Sarah; Wagner, Darcy E; Burgstaller, Gerald; Costa, Rita; Koch, Ina; Lindner, Michael; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver; Königshoff, Melanie

    2015-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by a progressive loss of lung tissue. Inducing repair processes within the adult diseased lung is of major interest and Wnt/β-catenin signalling represents a promising target for lung repair. However, the translation of novel therapeutic targets from model systems into clinical use remains a major challenge.We generated murine and patient-derived three-dimensional (3D) ex vivo lung tissue cultures (LTCs), which closely mimic the 3D lung microenvironment in vivo. Using two well-known glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors, lithium chloride (LiCl) and CHIR 99021 (CT), we determined Wnt/β-catenin-driven lung repair processes in high spatiotemporal resolution using quantitative PCR, Western blotting, ELISA, (immuno)histological assessment, and four-dimensional confocal live tissue imaging.Viable 3D-LTCs exhibited preserved lung structure and function for up to 5 days. We demonstrate successful Wnt/β-catenin signal activation in murine and patient-derived 3D-LTCs from COPD patients. Wnt/β-catenin signalling led to increased alveolar epithelial cell marker expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression, as well as altered macrophage activity and elastin remodelling. Importantly, induction of surfactant protein C significantly correlated with disease stage (per cent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in patient-derived 3D-LTCs.Patient-derived 3D-LTCs represent a valuable tool to analyse potential targets and drugs for lung repair. Enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signalling attenuated pathological features of patient-derived COPD 3D-LTCs. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  1. Overexpression of cathepsin K during silica-induced lung fibrosis and control by TGF-β

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    Lison Dominique

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung fibrosis is characterized by tissue remodeling resulting from an imbalance between synthesis and degradation of extracellular organic matrices. To examine whether cathepsin(s (Cat are important in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, we assessed the expression of four Cat known for their collagenolytic activity in a model of silica-induced lung fibrosis. Methods Different strains of mice were transorally instilled with 2.5 mg crystalline silica or other particles. Cat expression (Cat K, S, L and B was quantified in lung tissue and isolated pulmonary cells by quantitative RT-PCR. In vitro, we assessed the effect of different cytokines, involved in lung inflammatory and fibrotic responses, on the expression of Cat K by alveolar macrophages and fibroblasts. Results In lung tissue, Cat K transcript was the most strongly upregulated in response to silica, and this upregulation was intimately related to the fibrotic process. In mouse strains known for their differential response to silica, we showed that the level of Cat K expression following silica treatment was inversely related to the level of TGF-β expression and the susceptibility of these strains to develop fibrosis. Pulmonary macrophages and fibroblasts were identified as Cat K overproducing cells in the lung of silicotic mice. In vitro, Cat K was downregulated in mouse and human lung fibroblasts by the profibrotic growth factor TGF-β1. Conclusion Altogether, these data suggest that while Cat K may contribute to control lung fibrosis, TGF-β appears to limit its overexpression in response to silica particles.

  2. Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates oleic acid-induced acute lung injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    ARDS) induced by oleic acid (0.15 ml/kg, intravenous (i.v.)) ... infiltrating leukocytes is the hallmark of pulmonary inflammation associated with ... different reagents including, but not limited to bleomycin, bacterial lipopolysaccharide ...

  3. VEGF and IL-18 in induced sputum of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovina, Nikoletta; Hillas, Georgios; Dima, Efrossini; Vlastos, Fotis; Loukides, Stylianos; Veldekis, Dimitrios; Roussos, Charis; Alhanatis, Manos; Bakakos, Petros

    2011-06-01

    Cytokines are key players in the biological processes of malignant tumors and special interest has been focused on cytokines exerting tumor and anti-tumor properties, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Interleukin-18 (IL-18). Aim of this study was to assess IL-18 and VEGF levels in induced sputum of lung cancer patients at diagnosis, and assess their possible association with the histological type of cancer, the stage and the overall patient survival. Seventy six patients with a diagnosis of lung cancer were recruited and were followed up for 48months. Thirteen healthy smokers and 16 healthy non-smokers were used as control groups. VEGF and IL-18 were measured by ELISA in sputum supernatants at the time of diagnosis. Lung cancer patients had significantly higher baseline IL-18 and VEGF levels compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). No difference was found in IL-18 and VEGF levels between the various stages in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and between limited and extended small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, the ratio of VEGF/IL-18 was significantly higher in NSCLC compared to SCLC patients (p=0.018). In extended SCLC overall survival was inversely associated with baseline sputum VEGF levels (p=0.034) and estimated mortality risk was 1.14 (95% CI 1.006-1.283) for an increase of 100pg/ml in VEGF levels. Such association was not found regarding baseline IL-18 levels. VEGF levels in induced sputum may have a prognostic role in the survival of SCLC. The ratio VEGF/IL-18 in induced sputum differs between NSCLC and SCLC, indicating differences in angiogenesis mechanisms and/or immunological response in these two major histological types of lung cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of montelukast on smoke-induced lung injury in rats

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    Basyigit Ilknur

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To evaluate the effects of montelukast in smoke-induced lung injury. Methods 28 Wistar-Albino rats were enrolled into 4 groups with 7 rats per group. The healthy control group was exposed to fresh air while all rats in the 3 experimental groups were exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 weeks for 2 hours per day. After histopathological verification of smoke induced lung injury, montelukast (0.1 mg/kg dissolved in Na2CO3 was given in one group (MON, Na2CO3 only was given in another group (MON control and placebo was injected in the third group (COPD control intraperitoneally for 21 days. At the end of this period blood samples were obtained for serum TNF-α assessment and light and electron microscopy analyses were performed on the lung tissues of sacrificed rats. Results Serum TNF-α levels in the MON group were significantly lower than in the MON control and COPD control groups (38.84 ± 4.9 pg/ml, 77.5 ± 5.8 pg/ml and 79.2 ± 6.9 pg/ml respectively, p 0.05. Light and electron microscopic evaluation of the lungs demonstrated that the total histopathological damage score of the lung samples was significantly lower in the MON group than in MON controls and COPD controls (5.14 ± 0.5, 8.4 ± 0.6 and 8.7 ± 0.4 respectively, p 0.05. Conclusion These findings suggest that montelukast might have a protective effect on smoke-induced lung injury in rats both from a histopathological and inflammatory point of view.

  5. IL-17A deficiency mitigates bleomycin-induced complement activation during lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Ellyse; Fisher, Amanda J; Gu, Hongmei; Mickler, Elizabeth A; Agarwal, Manisha; Wilke, Carol A; Kim, Kevin K; Moore, Bethany B; Vittal, Ragini

    2017-12-01

    Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and complement (C') activation have each been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have reported that IL-17A induces epithelial injury via TGF-β in murine bronchiolitis obliterans; that TGF-β and the C' cascade present signaling interactions in mediating epithelial injury; and that the blockade of C' receptors mitigates lung fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of IL-17A in regulating C' in lung fibrosis. Microarray analyses of mRNA isolated from primary normal human small airway epithelial cells indicated that IL-17A (100 ng/ml; 24 h; n = 5 donor lungs) induces C' components (C' factor B, C3 , and GPCR kinase isoform 5), cytokines ( IL8 , -6 , and -1B ), and cytokine ligands ( CXCL1 , -2 , -3 , -5 , -6 , and -16 ). IL-17A induces protein and mRNA regulation of C' components and the synthesis of active C' 3a (C3a) in normal primary human alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECs). Wild-type mice subjected to IL-17A neutralization and IL-17A knockout ( il17a -/- ) mice were protected against bleomycin (BLEO)-induced fibrosis and collagen deposition. Further, BLEO-injured il17a -/- mice had diminished levels of circulating Krebs Von Den Lungen 6 (alveolar epithelial injury marker), local caspase-3/7, and local endoplasmic reticular stress-related genes. BLEO-induced local C' activation [C3a, C5a, and terminal C' complex (C5b-9)] was attenuated in il17a -/- mice, and IL-17A neutralization prevented the loss of epithelial C' inhibitors (C' receptor-1 related isoform Y and decay accelerating factor), and an increase in local TUNEL levels. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of il17a in fibrotic mice arrested the progression of lung fibrosis, attenuated cellular apoptosis (caspase-3/7) and lung deposition of collagen and C' (C5b-9). Compared to normals, plasma from IPF patients showed significantly higher hemolytic activity. Our findings demonstrate that limiting complement activation by

  6. Influenza Virus Infection Induces Platelet-Endothelial Adhesion Which Contributes to Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Michael G; Gamage, Asela; Zyla, Roman; Armstrong, Susan M; Advani, Suzanne; Advani, Andrew; Wang, Changsen; Lee, Warren L

    2015-12-04

    Lung injury after influenza infection is characterized by increased permeability of the lung microvasculature, culminating in acute respiratory failure. Platelets interact with activated endothelial cells and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of some forms of acute lung injury. Autopsy studies have revealed pulmonary microthrombi after influenza infection, and epidemiological studies suggest that influenza vaccination is protective against pulmonary thromboembolism; however, the effect of influenza infection on platelet-endothelial interactions is unclear. We demonstrate that endothelial infection with both laboratory and clinical strains of influenza virus increased the adhesion of human platelets to primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells. Platelets adhered to infected cells as well as to neighboring cells, suggesting a paracrine effect. Influenza infection caused the upregulation of von Willebrand factor and ICAM-1, but blocking these receptors did not prevent platelet-endothelial adhesion. Instead, platelet adhesion was inhibited by both RGDS peptide and a blocking antibody to platelet integrin α5β1, implicating endothelial fibronectin. Concordantly, lung histology from infected mice revealed viral dose-dependent colocalization of viral nucleoprotein and the endothelial marker PECAM-1, while platelet adhesion and fibronectin deposition also were observed in the lungs of influenza-infected mice. Inhibition of platelets using acetylsalicylic acid significantly improved survival, a finding confirmed using a second antiplatelet agent. Thus, influenza infection induces platelet-lung endothelial adhesion via fibronectin, contributing to mortality from acute lung injury. The inhibition of platelets may constitute a practical adjunctive strategy to the treatment of severe infections with influenza.IMPORTANCE There is growing appreciation of the involvement of the lung endothelium in the pathogenesis of severe infections with influenza virus. We have

  7. NLRP3 deletion protects from hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumoto, Jutaro; Fukumoto, Itsuko; Parthasarathy, Prasanna Tamarapu; Cox, Ruan; Huynh, Bao; Ramanathan, Gurukumar Kollongod; Venugopal, Rajan Babu; Allen-Gipson, Diane S.; Lockey, Richard F.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2013-01-01

    Inspiration of a high concentration of oxygen, a therapy for acute lung injury (ALI), could unexpectedly lead to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI). Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat PYD-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) senses the ROS, triggering inflammasome activation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production and secretion. However, the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in HALI is unclear. The main aim of this study is to determine the e...

  8. History of Mechanical Ventilation. From Vesalius to Ventilator-induced Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Arthur S

    2015-05-15

    Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving therapy that catalyzed the development of modern intensive care units. The origins of modern mechanical ventilation can be traced back about five centuries to the seminal work of Andreas Vesalius. This article is a short history of mechanical ventilation, tracing its origins over the centuries to the present day. One of the great advances in ventilatory support over the past few decades has been the development of lung-protective ventilatory strategies, based on our understanding of the iatrogenic consequences of mechanical ventilation such as ventilator-induced lung injury. These strategies have markedly improved clinical outcomes in patients with respiratory failure.

  9. Losartan attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by suppression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wang; Deng, Yue; Deng, Jia; Wang, Dao-Xin; Zhang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Recent study has shown that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) with high level of angiotensin II (AngII) generated form AngI catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme. AngII plays a major effect mainly through AT1 receptor. Therefore, we speculate inhibition of AT1 receptor may possibly attenuate the lung injury. Losartan, an antagonist of AT1 receptor for angiotensin II, attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation response in ALI, but the mechanism of losartan in ALI still remains unclear. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Control group, ALI group (LPS), and Losartan group (LPS + Losartan). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were obtained for analysis. The expressions of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and caspase-3 were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting. In ALI group, TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity in lung tissue, pulmonary edema and lung injury were significantly increased. Losartan significantly reduced LPS-induced increase in TNF-α and protein level in BALF, MPO activity, pulmonary edema and lung injury in LPS-induced lung injury. The mRNA and protein expression levels of LOX-1 were significantly decreased with the administration of losartan in LPS-induced lung injury. Also, losartan blocked the protein levels of caspase-3 and ICAM-1 mediated by LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury. Losartan attenuated lung injury by alleviation of the inflammation and cell apoptosis by inhibition of LOX-1 in LPS-induced lung injury.

  10. Epsilon Toxin Is Essential for the Virulence of Clostridium perfringens Type D Infection in Sheep, Goats, and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J. P.; Adams, V.; Beingesser, J.; Hughes, M. L.; Poon, R.; Lyras, D.; Hill, A.; McClane, B. A.; Rood, J. I.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens type D causes disease in sheep, goats, and other ruminants. Type D isolates produce, at minimum, alpha and epsilon (ETX) toxins, but some express up to five different toxins, raising questions about which toxins are necessary for the virulence of these bacteria. We evaluated the contribution of ETX to C. perfringens type D pathogenicity in an intraduodenal challenge model in sheep, goats, and mice using a virulent C. perfringens type D wild-type strain (WT), an isogenic ETX null mutant (etx mutant), and a strain where the etx mutation has been reversed (etx complemented). All sheep and goats, and most mice, challenged with the WT isolate developed acute clinical disease followed by death in most cases. Sheep developed various gross and/or histological changes that included edema of brain, lungs, and heart as well as hydropericardium. Goats developed various effects, including necrotizing colitis, pulmonary edema, and hydropericardium. No significant gross or histological abnormalities were observed in any mice infected with the WT strain. All sheep, goats, and mice challenged with the isogenic etx mutant remained clinically healthy for ≥24 h, and no gross or histological abnormalities were observed in those animals. Complementation of etx knockout restored virulence; most goats, sheep, and mice receiving this complemented mutant developed clinical and pathological changes similar to those observed in WT-infected animals. These results indicate that ETX is necessary for type D isolates to induce disease, supporting a key role for this toxin in type D disease pathogenesis. PMID:23630957

  11. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Oxidative Stress Induced Lung Alveolar Epithelial Cell Apoptosis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the lung injuries of critical ill patients. This study investigates the protection conferred by α2 adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine (Dex from lung alveolar epithelial cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and the underlying mechanisms. Methods. The lung alveolar epithelial cell line, A549, was cultured and then treated with 500 μM H2O2 with or without Dex (1 nM or Dex in combination with atipamezole (10 nM, an antagonist of α2 receptors. Their effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry. Cleaved-caspases 3 and 9, BAX, Bcl-2, phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR, ERK1/2, and E-cadherin expression were also determined with immunocytochemistry. Results. Upregulation of cleaved-caspases 3 and 9 and BAX and downregulation of Bcl-2, p-mTOR, and E-cadherin were found following H2O2 treatment, and all of these were reversed by Dex. Dex also prevented the ROS generation, cytochrome C release, and cell cycle arrest induced by H2O2. The effects of Dex were partially reversed by atipamezole. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that Dex protected lung alveolar epithelial cells from apoptotic injury, cell cycle arrest, and loss of cell adhesion induced by H2O2 through enhancing the cell survival and proliferation.

  12. Innate type 2 response to Alternaria extract enhances ryegrass-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with A. alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airways compared with ryegrass-only challenges. Type 2 ILC2 and Th2 cell recruitment to the airways was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass-challenged mice. Innate immune challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. A single exposure to Alternaria extract in ryegrass-sensitized and -challenged mice enhances the type 2 lung inflammatory response, including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production, possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposure to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma.

  13. Innate Type-2 Response to Alternaria Extract Enhances Ryegrass-induced Lung Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Lund, Sean; Baum, Rachel; Rosenthal, Peter; Khorram, Naseem; Doherty, Taylor A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to the fungal allergen Alternaria alternata as well as ryegrass pollen has been implicated in severe asthma symptoms during thunderstorms. We have previously shown that Alternaria extract induces innate type 2 lung inflammation in mice. We hypothesized that the innate eosinophilic response to Alternaria extract may enhance lung inflammation induced by ryegrass. Methods Mice were sensitized to ryegrass allergen and administered a single challenge with Alternaria alternata extract before or after final ryegrass challenges. Levels of BAL eosinophils, neutrophils, Th2 cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), IL-5 and IL-13 as well as inflammation and mucus were assessed. Results Mice receiving ryegrass sensitization and challenge developed an eosinophilic lung response. A single challenge with Alternaria extract given 3 days before or 3 days after ryegrass challenges resulted in increased eosinophils, peribronchial inflammation and mucus production in the airway compared with ryegrass only challenges. Type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) and Th2 cell recruitment to the airway was increased after Alternaria extract exposure in ryegrass challenged mice. Innate challenges with Alternaria extract induced BAL eosinophilia, Th2 cell recruitment as well as ILC2 expansion and proliferation. Conclusions A single exposure of Alternaria extract in ryegrass sensitized and challenged mice enhances the type-2 lung inflammatory response including airway eosinophilia, peribronchial infiltrate, and mucus production possibly through Th2 cell recruitment and ILC2 expansion. If translated to humans, exposures to both grass pollen and Alternaria may be a potential cause of thunderstorm-related asthma. PMID:24296722

  14. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seong Ho, E-mail: yoosh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A. [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Song, Byoung-Joon, E-mail: bj.song@nih.gov [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI.

  15. Role of TNFR1 in lung injury and altered lung function induced by the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Vasanthi R; Patel-Vayas, Kinal; Shen, Jianliang; Gow, Andrew J; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2011-02-01

    Lung toxicity induced by sulfur mustard is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. To elucidate mechanisms mediating pulmonary damage, we used 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. Male mice (B6129) were treated intratracheally with CEES (3 or 6 mg/kg) or control. Animals were sacrificed 3, 7 or 14 days later and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue collected. Treatment of mice with CEES resulted in an increase in BAL protein, an indication of alveolar epithelial damage, within 3 days. Expression of Ym1, an oxidative stress marker also increased in the lung, along with inducible nitric oxide synthase, and at 14 days, cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, inflammatory proteins implicated in tissue injury. These responses were attenuated in mice lacking the p55 receptor for TNFα (TNFR1-/-), demonstrating that signaling via TNFR1 is key to CEES-induced injury, oxidative stress, and inflammation. CEES-induced upregulation of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and MnSOD was delayed or absent in TNFR1-/- mice, relative to WT mice, suggesting that TNFα mediates early antioxidant responses to lung toxicants. Treatment of WT mice with CEES also resulted in functional alterations in the lung including decreases in compliance and increases in elastance. Additionally, methacholine-induced alterations in total lung resistance and central airway resistance were dampened by CEES. Loss of TNFR1 resulted in blunted functional responses to CEES. These effects were most notable in the airways. These data suggest that targeting TNFα signaling may be useful in mitigating lung injury, inflammation and functional alterations induced by vesicants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effects of salidroside from Rhodiola rosea on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shuang; Xiong, Ying; Song, Bocui; Song, Yu; Wang, Dacheng; Chu, Xiao; Chen, Na; Huo, Meixia; Deng, Xuming; Lu, Jing

    2012-08-01

    Salidroside is a major component extracted from Rhodiola rosea. In this study, we investigated protective effects of salidroside on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. In the mouse model, we found that pretreatment with a single 120 mg/kg dose of salidroside prior to the administration of intratracheal LPS induced a significant decrease in the W/D ratio and mouse myeloperoxidase activity of lung, reduction protein concentration, the number of total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, salidroside also inhibited the production of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β, and the NF-κB DNA-binding activation after LPS challenge. These results indicated that salidroside possess a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice.

  17. Effects of roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, on the lung functions in a saline lavage-induced model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosutova, P; Mikolka, P; Kolomaznik, M; Rezakova, S; Calkovska, A; Mokra, D

    2017-09-22

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with deterioration of alveolar-capillary lining and transmigration and activation of inflammatory cells. Whereas a selective phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor roflumilast has exerted potent anti-inflammatory properties, this study evaluated if its intravenous delivery can influence inflammation, edema formation, and respiratory parameters in rabbits with a lavage-induced model of ALI. ALI was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage (30 ml/kg). Animals were divided into 3 groups: ALI without therapy (ALI), ALI treated with roflumilast i.v. (1 mg/kg; ALI+Rofl), and healthy ventilated controls (Control), and were ventilated for following 4 h. Respiratory parameters (blood gases, ventilatory pressures, lung compliance, oxygenation indexes etc.) were measured and calculated regularly. At the end of experiment, animals were overdosed by anesthetics. Total and differential counts of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were estimated microscopically. Lung edema was expressed as wet/dry lung weight ratio. Treatment with roflumilast reduced leak of cells (P<0.01), particularly of neutrophils (P<0.001), into the lung, decreased lung edema formation (P<0.01), and improved respiratory parameters. Concluding, the results indicate a future potential of PDE4 inhibitors also in the therapy of ALI.

  18. Ticagrelor Attenuates Apoptosis of Lung and Myocardial Cells Induced by Abdominal Aorta Ischemia/Reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Orhan; Kunt, Atike Tekeli; Yazir, Yusufhan; Yardimoğlu, Melda; Yilmaz, Seda Güleç; Aydin, Ufuk; Rençber, Selenay Furat; Baris, Ozgur; Balci, Canan; Isbir, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of ticagrelor pretreatment on the prevention of lung and heart injury induced by abdominal aorta ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and also to determine the effective dose. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-400 g were randomized into five groups. The animals received ticagrelor at doses of 7.5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg or normal saline 0.1 ml/kg orally via gastric gavage before the ischemic period. In the control and study groups, I/R injury was induced by clamping the aorta infrarenally for 2 hs, followed by 4 h of reperfusion. After sacrifice, hearts and lungs of the animals were extracted for both histopathological and biochemical analysis. There was a significant difference between the animals that received 7.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg dose of ticagrelor regarding tissue malondealdehyde (MDA), and glutathione reductase levels in both lung and heart Ticagrelor treatment at 25 mg/kg led to significant cardiac remodeling activity and normal lung architecture against I/R induced injury. The number of TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in alveolar epithelium and myocytes were increased in the sections from saline (I/R) group rats, and decreased following 25 mg/kg ticagrelor treatment. Ticagrelor dose-dependently inhibits platelet aggregation, increases cyclooxygenase-2 and also inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine all resulting in attenuation of I/R injury. Ticagrelor at 25 mg/kg was determined as the dose effective against I/R-induced injury in lung and heart in Sprague-Dawley rats in the present study. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Diet-induced obesity reprograms the inflammatory response of the murine lung to inhaled endotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, Susan C., E-mail: susan.tilton@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Waters, Katrina M.; Karin, Norman J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Zangar, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lee, K. Monica [Battelle Toxicology Northwest, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Bigelow, Diana J.; Pounds, Joel G.; Corley, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The co-occurrence of environmental factors is common in complex human diseases and, as such, understanding the molecular responses involved is essential to determine risk and susceptibility to disease. We have investigated the key biological pathways that define susceptibility for pulmonary infection during obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) and regular weight (RW) C57BL/6 mice exposed to inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced a strong inflammatory response in all mice as indicated by elevated cell counts of macrophages and neutrophils and levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MDC, MIP-1γ, IL-12, RANTES) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Additionally, DIO mice exhibited 50% greater macrophage cell counts, but decreased levels of the cytokines, IL-6, TARC, TNF-α, and VEGF relative to RW mice. Microarray analysis of lung tissue showed over half of the LPS-induced expression in DIO mice consisted of genes unique for obese mice, suggesting that obesity reprograms how the lung responds to subsequent insult. In particular, we found that obese animals exposed to LPS have gene signatures showing increased inflammatory and oxidative stress response and decreased antioxidant capacity compared with RW. Because signaling pathways for these responses can be common to various sources of environmentally induced lung damage, we further identified biomarkers that are indicative of specific toxicant exposure by comparing gene signatures after LPS exposure to those from a parallel study with cigarette smoke. These data show obesity may increase sensitivity to further insult and that co-occurrence of environmental stressors result in complex biosignatures that are not predicted from analysis of individual exposures. - Highlights: ► Obesity modulates inflammatory markers in BAL fluid after LPS exposure. ► Obese animals have a unique transcriptional signature in lung after LPS exposure. ► Obesity elevates inflammatory stress and reduces antioxidant capacity in the lung

  20. Enhanced cough reflex in a model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Blanco, Joan Antoni; Aguilera, Mònica; Domènech, Anna; Tarrasón, Gema; Prats, Neus; Miralpeix, Montse; De Alba, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Fibrotic lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, are associated with spontaneous dry cough and hypersensitivity to tussive agents. Understanding the pathophysiology driving enhanced cough may help us to define better therapies for patients. We hypothesized that lung fibrosis induced by intratracheal bleomycin would exacerbate the cough reflex induced by tussive agents in guinea pigs. Disease progression in the lungs was characterized at days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after bleomycin administration. Inflammatory and fibrotic markers, as well as neurotrophin levels, were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and/or lung tissue. Cough sensitivity to citric acid, capsaicin and allylisothiocyanate was evaluated in conscious animals at days 14 and 21 after bleomycin administration. Pulmonary lesions evolved from an early inflammatory phase (from day 1 to day 7) to a fibrotic stage (between days 14 and 28). Fibrosis was related to increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (day 21: saline, 0.26 ng/ml; bleomycin, 0.49 ng/ml). At day 14, we also observed increased cough reflexes to citric acid (163%), capsaicin (125%) and allylisothiocyanate (178%). Cough exacerbation persisted, but at a lower extent, by day 21 for capsaicin (100%) and allylisothiocyanate (54%). Moreover, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, suggested to induce nerve remodelling in chronic cough, were also enhanced (day 1: saline, 14.21 pg/ml; bleomycin, 30.09 pg/ml). In summary, our model of bleomycin-induced cough exacerbation may be a valuable tool to investigate cough hypersensitivity and develop antitussive therapies for fibrotic lung diseases. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  1. Mechanisms of lung endothelial barrier disruption induced by cigarette smoke: role of oxidative stress and ceramides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Kelly S; Hatoum, Hadi; Brown, Mary Beth; Gupta, Mehak; Justice, Matthew J; Beteck, Besem; Van Demark, Mary; Gu, Yuan; Presson, Robert G; Hubbard, Walter C; Petrache, Irina

    2011-12-01

    The epithelial and endothelial cells lining the alveolus form a barrier essential for the preservation of the lung respiratory function, which is, however, vulnerable to excessive oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic insults. Whereas profound breaches in this barrier function cause pulmonary edema, more subtle changes may contribute to inflammation. The mechanisms by which cigarette smoke (CS) exposure induce lung inflammation are not fully understood, but an early alteration in the epithelial barrier function has been documented. We sought to investigate the occurrence and mechanisms by which soluble components of mainstream CS disrupt the lung endothelial cell barrier function. Using cultured primary rat microvascular cell monolayers, we report that CS induces endothelial cell barrier disruption in a dose- and time-dependent manner of similar magnitude to that of the epithelial cell barrier. CS exposure triggered a mechanism of neutral sphingomyelinase-mediated ceramide upregulation and p38 MAPK and JNK activation that were oxidative stress dependent and that, along with Rho kinase activation, mediated the endothelial barrier dysfunction. The morphological changes in endothelial cell monolayers induced by CS included actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, junctional protein zonula occludens-1 loss, and intercellular gap formation, which were abolished by the glutathione modulator N-acetylcysteine and ameliorated by neutral sphingomyelinase inhibition. The direct application of ceramide recapitulated the effects of CS, by disrupting both endothelial and epithelial cells barrier, by a mechanism that was redox and apoptosis independent and required Rho kinase activation. Furthermore, ceramide induced dose-dependent alterations of alveolar microcirculatory barrier in vivo, measured by two-photon excitation microscopy in the intact rat. In conclusion, soluble components of CS have direct endothelial barrier-disruptive effects that could be ameliorated by glutathione

  2. Ketamine attenuates sepsis-induced acute lung injury via regulation of HMGB1-RAGE pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kehan; Yang, Jianxue; Han, Xuechang

    2016-05-01

    High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) and receptor for the advanced glycation end product (RAGE) play important roles in the development of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Ketamine is considered to confer protective effects on ALI during sepsis. In this study, we investigated the effects of ketamine on HMGB1-RAGE activation in a rat model of sepsis-induced ALI. ALI was induced in wild type (WT) and RAGE deficient (RAGE(-/-)) rats by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or HMGB1 to mimic sepsis-induced ALI. Rats were randomly divided to six groups: sham-operation+normal saline (NS, 10 mL/kg), sham-operation+ketamine (10 mg/kg), CLP/HMGB1+NS (10 mL/kg), CLP/HMGB1+ketamine (5 mg/kg), CLP/HMGB1+ketamine (7.5 mg/kg), and CLP/HMGB1+ketamine (10 mg/kg) groups. NS and ketamine were administered at 3 and 12 h after CLP/HMGB1 via intraperitoneal injection. Pathological changes of lung, inflammatory cell counts, expression of HMGB1 and RAGE, and concentrations of various inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) and lung tissue were then assessed. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways in the lung were also evaluated. CLP/HMGB1 increased the wet to dry weight ratio and myeloperoxidase activity in lung, the number of total cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in the BALF, and inflammatory mediators in the BALF and lung tissues. Moreover, expression of HMGB1 and RAGE in lung tissues was increased after CLP. Ketamine inhibited all the above effects. It also inhibited the activation of IκB-α, NF-κB p65, and MAPK. Ketamine protects rats against HMGB1-RAGE activation in a rat model of sepsis-induced ALI. These effects may partially result from reductions in NF-κB and MAPK. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Losartan regulates oxidative stress via caveolin-1 and NOX4 in mice with ventilator- induced lung injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xuguang; Lou, Anni; Li, Yang; Yang, Renqiang; Ning, Zuowei; Li, Xu

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of losartan in regulating oxidative stress and the underlying mechanism in mice with ventilator-induced lung injury. Thirty-six male C57 mice were randomly divided into control group, losartan treatment group, mechanical ventilation model group, and ventilation plus losartan treatment group. After the corresponding treatments, the lung injuries in each group were examined and the expressions of caveolin-1 and NOX4 in the lung tissues were detected. The mean Smith score of lung injury was significantly higher in mechanical ventilation model group (3.3) than in the control group (0.4), and losartan treatment group (0.3); the mean score was significantly lowered in ventilation plus losartan treatment group (2.3) compared with that in the model group (Plosartan treatment groups (Plosartan treatment (Plosartan treatment. Losartan can alleviate ventilator-induced lung injury in mice and inhibit the expression of caveolin-1 and NOX4 and their interaction in the lungs.

  4. Effects of an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on phorbol myristate acetate-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hen I; Chu, Shi Jye; Wang, David; Chen, Hsing I; Hsu, Kang

    2003-01-01

    1. In the present study, we determined whether the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) could ameliorate the acute lung injury (ALI) induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in rat isolated lung. 2. Typical ALI was induced successfully by PMA during 60 min of observation. At 2 micro g/kg, PMA elicited a significant increase in microvascular permeability (measured using the capillary filtration coefficient Kfc), lung weight gain, lung weight/bodyweight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. 3. Pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME (5 mmol/L) significantly attenuated ALI. None of the parameters reflective of lung injury showed significant increase, except for PAP (P < 0.001). The addition of l-arginine (4 mmol/L) blocked the protective effective of l-NAME. Pretreatment with l-arginine exacerbated PMA-induced lung injury. 4. These data suggest that l-NAME significantly ameliorates ALI induced by PMA in rats, indicating that endogenous NO plays a key role in the development of lung oedema in PMA-induced lung injury.

  5. Lipoxygenase pathway mediates increases of airway resistance and lung inflation induced by exposure to nanotitanium dioxide in rats.

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    Lee, Jyu-Feng; Tung, Shu-Ping; Wang, David; Yeh, Diana Yuwung; Fong, Yao; Young, Yu-Chung; Leu, Fur-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Nanotitanium dioxide particle (nTiO2) inhalation has been reported to induce lung parenchymal injury. After inhalation of nTiO2, we monitored changes in 5-lipoxygenase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in rat lung tissue. Lung function parameters include specific airway resistance (SRaw), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), functional residual capacity (FRC), and lung compliance (Cchord); blood white blood cell count (WBC), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH); and lung lavage leukotriene C4, interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrotic factor α (TNFα), hydroxyl radicals, and NO. Leukotriene receptor antagonist MK571 and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor MK886 were used for pharmacologic intervention. Compared to control, nTiO2 exposure induced near 5-fold increase in 5-lipoxygenase mRNA expression in lung tissue. iNOS mRNA increased while eNOS mRNA decreased. Lavage leukotriene C4; IL6; TNFα; NO; hydroxyl radicals; and blood WBC, NO, hydrogen peroxide, and LDH levels rose. Obstructive ventilatory insufficiency was observed. MK571 and MK886 both attenuated the systemic inflammation and lung function changes. We conclude that inhaled nTiO2 induces systemic inflammation, cytokine release, and oxidative and nitrosative stress in the lung. The lipoxygenase pathway products, mediated by oxygen radicals and WBC, play a critical role in the obstructive ventilatory insufficiency induced by nTiO2.

  6. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

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    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  7. Methylene Blue in Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury after Pneumonectomy: an Experimental Study

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    Ye. V Suborov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the expediency and efficiency of using methylene blue (MB on a model of pneumectomy (PE and subsequent ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI in sheep. Materials and methods. The study was conducted at the Research Laboratory of University of Tromse. The experiment included 23 sheep weighing 41.0±4.9 kg. Thoracotomy and right-sided pneumonectomy were performed in the animals under general anesthesia and controlled artificial ventilation. After measurement of the parameters of systemic hemodynamics and extravascular water of the lung (EVWL, the animals were divided into 3 groups: 1 a control group (CG, n=7 with a tidal volume (TV of 6 ml/kg and an end-expiratory positive pressure (PEEP of 2 cm H2O; 2 a VILI group (n=9 with a TV of 12 ml/kg and a PEEP of 0 cm H2O; 3 a group of MB (n=7 that was given in parallel with a damaging ventilation mode. The thermodilution technique (using a Cold Z-021 monitor, (Pulsion, Germany was employed to measure volumetric parameters and EVWL. The parameters of pulmonary hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics, and blood gas composition were recorded. Results: After its reduction at PE, EVWL index increased during damaging ventilation in the VILI and MB groups. In addition, there was an increase in pulmonary artery wedge pressure after PE in the MB and VILI groups. In the latter group, arterial hypoxemia was observed at the end of the experiment. Along with this, after PE pulmonary compliance decreased and airway pressure elevated in the VILI and MB groups. Conclusion: In the presented model of VILI, MB does not prevent the development of postp-neumectomic edema of the lung. Key words: thermochromodilution, acute lung injury, pneumectomy, ventilator-induced lung injury, postpneumectomic edema of the lung, methylene blue.

  8. Effects of FTY720 on Lung Injury Induced by Hindlimb Ischemia Reperfusion in Rats

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    Liangrong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a biologically active lysophospholipid mediator involved in modulating inflammatory process. We investigated the effects of FTY720, a structural analogue of S1P after phosphorylation, on lung injury induced by hindlimb ischemia reperfusion (IR in rats. Methods. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups SM, IR, F3, F5, and F10. Group SM received sham operation, and bilateral hindlimb IR was established in group IR. The rats in groups F3, F5, and F10 were pretreated with 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg/d FTY720 for 7 days before IR. S1P lyase (S1PL, sphingosine kinase (SphK 1, and SphK2 mRNA expressions, wet/dry weight (W/D, and polymorphonuclear/alveolus (P/A in lung tissues were detected, and the lung injury score was evaluated. Results. W/D, P/A, and mRNA expressions of S1PL, SphK1, and SphK2 were higher in group IR than in group SM, while these were decreased in both groups F5 and F10 as compared to IR (p<0.05. The lung tissue presented severe lesions in group IR, which were attenuated in groups F5 and F10 with lower lung injury scores than in group IR (p<0.05. Conclusions. FTY720 pretreatment could attenuate lung injury induced by hindlimb IR by modulating S1P metabolism and decreasing pulmonary neutrophil infiltration.

  9. Cigarette smoke induces an unfolded protein response in the human lung: a proteomic approach.

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    Kelsen, Steven G; Duan, Xunbao; Ji, Rong; Perez, Oscar; Liu, Chunli; Merali, Salim

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking, which exposes the lung to high concentrations of reactive oxidant species (ROS) is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies indicate that ROS interfere with protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and elicit a compensatory response termed the "unfolded protein response" (UPR). The importance of the UPR lies in its ability to alter expression of a variety of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. The present study used comparative proteomic technology to test the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking induces a UPR in the human lung. Studies were performed on lung tissue samples obtained from three groups of human subjects: nonsmokers, chronic cigarette smokers, and ex-smokers. Proteomes of lung samples from chronic cigarette smokers demonstrated 26 differentially expressed proteins (20 were up-regulated, 5 were down-regulated, and 1 was detected only in the smoking group) compared with nonsmokers. Several UPR proteins were up-regulated in smokers compared with nonsmokers and ex-smokers, including the chaperones, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calreticulin; a foldase, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); and enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. In cultured human airway epithelial cells, GRP78 and the UPR-regulated basic leucine zipper, transcription factors, ATF4 and Nrf2, which enhance expression of important anti-oxidant genes, increased rapidly (< 24 h) with cigarette smoke extract. These data indicate that cigarette smoke induces a UPR response in the human lung that is rapid in onset, concentration dependent, and at least partially reversible with smoking cessation. We speculate that activation of a UPR by cigarette smoke may protect the lung from oxidant injury and the development of COPD.

  10. Inflammation in lung after acute myocardial infarction is induced by dendritic cell-mediated immune response.

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    Hu, L J; Ren, W Y; Shen, Q J; Ji, H Y; Zhu, L

    2017-01-01

    The present study was performed to describe the changes of lung tissues in mice with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and also explain the cell mechanism involved in inflammation in lung. AMI was established by left coronary ligation in mice. Then mice were divided into three groups: control group, MW1 group (sampling after surgery for one week) and MW2 group (sampling after surgery for two weeks). Afterwards, measurement of lung weight and lung histology, cell sorting in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and detection of several adhesive molecules, inflammatory molecules as well as enzyme associated with inflammation were performed. Moreover, dendritic cells (DCs) were isolated from bone marrow of C57B/L6 mice. After incubating with necrotic myocardium, the expression of antigen presenting molecules, co-stimulatory molecules and inflammatory molecules were detected by flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry in DCs. We also detected T-cell proliferation after incubating with necrotic myocardium-treated DCs. AMI induced pathological changes of lung tissue and increased inflammatory cell amount in BAL fluid. AMI also increased the expression of several inflammatory factors, adhesive molecules and enzymes associated with inflammation. CD11c and TLR9, which are DC surface markers, showed a significantly increased expression in mice with AMI. Additionally, necrotic myocardium significantly increased the expression of co-stimulatory factors including CD83 and CD80, inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ and NF-κB in DCs. Furthermore, DCs treated with necrotic myocardium also significantly promoted T-cell proliferation. AMI induced inflammation in lung and these pathological changes were mediated by DC-associated immune response.

  11. Computed tomography assessment of pharmacological lung volume reduction induced by bronchodilators in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Naoya; Muro, Shigeo; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Susumu; Kiyokawa, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Tamaki; Kudo, Megumi; Kinose, Daisuke; Kubo, Takeshi; Hoshino, Yuma; Ogawa, Emiko; Hirai, Toyohiro; Mishima, Michiaki

    2012-08-01

    Pharmacological lung volume reduction in COPD is an important goal in treatment with long-acting bronchodilators because in addition to airflow limitation, lung hyperinflation considerably affects COPD symptoms. Quantitative computed tomography (CT) simultaneously provides structural information about airway dimensions, emphysematous changes, and lung volumes, some of which are difficult to be evaluated by pulmonary function. Here, we evaluated changes in CT parameters and pulmonary function in 30 patients with COPD who underwent CT scans before and one year after starting tiotropium treatment and in 12 patients with COPD who were not treated with long-acting bronchodilators. Baseline pulmonary function and CT parameters did not differ between the two groups. One-year tiotropium therapy improved physiological-indices including residual volume (RV) and ratio of RV to total lung capacity (RV/TLC) (-235 mL, p = 0.005, and -2.9%, p = 0.0001, respectively), and CT-indices including wall area percent (WA%) and inner luminal area in right upper lobe apical and lower lobe basal segmental bronchi (-1.59%, p = 0.01, 2.27 mm(2), p = 0.0005; and -1.33%, p = 0.0008, 3.42 mm(2), p volume (LAV) and total lung volume (CT-TLV) (-92 mL, p = 0.0003, and -211 mL, p = 0.002, respectively). Changes in LAV, CT-TLV, RV, and RV/TLC were significantly greater in the tiotropium, than the non-bronchodilator group. The tiotropium-induced reduction in LAV correlated with the decrease in RV (ρ = 0.45, p = 0.01). Our findings not only indicate the value of the comprehensive CT measurements in assessing the effects of bronchodilators, including pharmacological lung volume reduction, but also further understanding of the structural changes underlying physiological improvements induced by bronchodilators.

  12. Multiple exposures to swine barn air induce lung inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness

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    Willson Philip

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine farmers repeatedly exposed to the barn air suffer from respiratory diseases. However the mechanisms of lung dysfunction following repeated exposures to the barn air are still largely unknown. Therefore, we tested a hypothesis in a rat model that multiple interrupted exposures to the barn air will cause chronic lung inflammation and decline in lung function. Methods Rats were exposed either to swine barn (8 hours/day for either one or five or 20 days or ambient air. After the exposure periods, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR to methacholine (Mch was measured and rats were euthanized to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, blood and lung tissues. Barn air was sampled to determine endotoxin levels and microbial load. Results The air in the barn used in this study had a very high concentration of endotoxin (15361.75 ± 7712.16 EU/m3. Rats exposed to barn air for one and five days showed increase in AHR compared to the 20-day exposed and controls. Lungs from the exposed groups were inflamed as indicated by recruitment of neutrophils in all three exposed groups and eosinophils and an increase in numbers of airway epithelial goblet cells in 5- and 20-day exposure groups. Rats exposed to the barn air for one day or 20 days had more total leukocytes in the BALF and 20-day exposed rats had more airway epithelial goblet cells compared to the controls and those subjected to 1 and 5 exposures (P Conclusion We conclude that multiple exposures to endotoxin-containing swine barn air induce AHR, increase in mucus-containing airway epithelial cells and lung inflammation. The data also show that prolonged multiple exposures may also induce adaptation in AHR response in the exposed subjects.

  13. Lung-specific loss of α3 laminin worsens bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Nebreda, Luisa I; Rogel, Micah R; Eisenberg, Jessica L; Hamill, Kevin J; Soberanes, Saul; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Chi, Monica; Cho, Takugo; Radigan, Kathryn A; Ridge, Karen M; Misharin, Alexander V; Woychek, Alex; Hopkinson, Susan; Perlman, Harris; Mutlu, Gokhan M; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Jones, Jonathan C R; Budinger, G R Scott

    2015-04-01

    Laminins are heterotrimeric proteins that are secreted by the alveolar epithelium into the basement membrane, and their expression is altered in extracellular matrices from patients with pulmonary fibrosis. In a small number of patients with pulmonary fibrosis, we found that the normal basement membrane distribution of the α3 laminin subunit was lost in fibrotic regions of the lung. To determine if these changes play a causal role in the development of fibrosis, we generated mice lacking the α3 laminin subunit specifically in the lung epithelium by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the surfactant protein C promoter (SPC-Cre) with mice expressing floxed alleles encoding the α3 laminin gene (Lama3(fl/fl)). These mice exhibited no developmental abnormalities in the lungs up to 6 months of age, but, compared with control mice, had worsened mortality, increased inflammation, and increased fibrosis after the intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Similarly, the severity of fibrosis induced by an adenovirus encoding an active form of transforming growth factor-β was worse in mice deficient in α3 laminin in the lung. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of α3 laminin in the lung epithelium does not affect lung development, but plays a causal role in the development of fibrosis in response to bleomycin or adenovirally delivered transforming growth factor-β. Thus, we speculate that the loss of the normal basement membrane organization of α3 laminin that we observe in fibrotic regions from the lungs of patients with pulmonary fibrosis contributes to their disease progression.

  14. Acute ozone-induced lung injury in rats: Structural-functional relationships of developing alveolar edema

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    Paterson, J.F.; Hammond, M.D.; Montgomery, M.R.; Sharp, J.T.; Farrier, S.E.; Balis, J.U. (James A. Haley Veterans Hospital Research Service, Tampa, FL (United States))

    1992-11-01

    As part of a study on the effects of acute ozone stress on the lung surfactant system, we correlated morphometric, biochemical, and functional indices of lung injury using male rats exposed to 3 ppm ozone for 1, 2, 4, and 8 hr. Evaluation of lung mechanics, using the Pulmonary Evaluation and Diagnostic Laboratory System, revealed a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance (ml/cmH[sub 2]O/kg) from a control value of 0.84 [plus minus] 0.02 (SEM) to 0.72 [plus minus] 0.04 and 0.57 [plus minus] 0.06 at 4 and 8 hr, respectively. At 2 hr there was a transient increase in PaO[sub 2] to 116 torr (control = 92 torr) followed by a decrease at 4 hr (65 torr) and 8 hr (55 torr). Morphometry of lung tissue, fixed by perfusion of fixative via the pulmonary artery at 12 cm H[sub 2]O airway distending pressure, demonstrated an increase in the area of the intravascular compartment at 8 hr, in association with a 65 and 39% replacement of the alveolar area by fluid in ventral and dorsal lung regions, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.966) between alveolar edema and transudated proteins in lavage fluid. A stepwise multiple regression model, with edema as the dependent variable, suggested that pulmonary vasodilatation, hypoxemia, and depletion of surfactant tubular myelin in lavage fluid were indices for predicting alveolar edema. In a second model, with lavage protein concentration as the dependent variable, decreasing dynamic compliance and hypoxemia were predictors of progressive, intraalveolar transudation of plasma proteins. The above structural-functional relationships support the concept that ozone-induced high-protein alveolar edema is pathogenetically linked to pulmonary hyperemia, deficiency of surfactant tubular myelin, and associated lung dysfunctions.

  15. High fluence laser irradiation induces reactive oxygen species generation in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Xing, Da; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2006-09-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been used for therapies such as curing spinal cord injury, healing wound et al. Yet, the mechanism of LPLI remains unclear. Our previous study showed that low fluences laser irradiation induces human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1) proliferation, but high fluences induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activation. In order to study the mechanism of apoptosis induced by high fluences LPLI further, we have measured the dynamics of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using H IIDCFDA fluorescence probes during this process. ASTC-a-1 cells apoptosis was induced by He-Ne laser irradiation at high fluence of 120J/cm2. A confocal laser scanning microscope was used to perform fluorescence imaging. The results demonstrated that high fluence LPLI induced the increase of mitochondria ROS. Our studies contribute to clarify the biological mechanism of high fluence LPLI-induced cell apoptosis.

  16. Exercise-Induced Hypoxemia in Juvenile Thyroid Carcinoma With Lung Metastases.

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    Segerer, Florian J; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph; Wirth, Clemens; Hebestreit, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) has been reported in patients with juvenile thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine for lung metastases. This retrospective study tested the hypothesis that EIAH is due to ventilation-perfusion-mismatch in this rare pulmonary condition. 50 patients (age 13-23 years) treated for juvenile thyroid carcinoma and lung metastasis with (131)I and 24 controls with thyroid cancer but without lung metastases and prior (131)I-treatment were assessed in a state of acute hypothyroidism by com-puted tomography of the lungs, pulmonary function testing, cardiopulmonary exercise test with measurements of gas exchange, oxygen saturation, alveolar-arterial difference in pO2 (p(A-a)O2) and pCO2 (p(ET-a)CO2). 10 of the 50 patients with lung metastases showed EIAH. They had more pronounced pulmonary fibrosis on computed tomography, a widened p(A-a)O2, and p(ET-a)CO2, a lower DVE/DVCO2-slope, a lower respiratory rate and no increased dead space ventilation. A more pronounced EIAH was associated with male gender, younger age, lower diffusion capacity, higher p(ET-a)CO2 during exercise and a higher peak exercise tidal volume over vital capacity ratio. EIAH in patients with thyroid carcinoma and pulmonary metastases is not related to ventilation-perfusion mismatch but to alveolar hypoventilation, possibly related to an increased work of breathing with pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Mitochondrial Targeted Endonuclease III DNA Repair Enzyme Protects against Ventilator Induced Lung Injury in Mice

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    Masahiro Hashizume

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial targeted DNA repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, was previously reported to protect against mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage and ventilator induced lung injury (VILI. In the present study we determined whether mitochondrial targeted endonuclease III (EndoIII which cleaves oxidized pyrimidines rather than purines from damaged DNA would also protect the lung. Minimal injury from 1 h ventilation at 40 cmH2O peak inflation pressure (PIP was reversed by EndoIII pretreatment. Moderate lung injury due to ventilation for 2 h at 40 cmH2O PIP produced a 25-fold increase in total extravascular albumin space, a 60% increase in W/D weight ratio, and marked increases in MIP-2 and IL-6. Oxidative mtDNA damage and decreases in the total tissue glutathione (GSH and the GSH/GSSH ratio also occurred. All of these indices of injury were attenuated by mitochondrial targeted EndoIII. Massive lung injury caused by 2 h ventilation at 50 cmH2O PIP was not attenuated by EndoIII pretreatment, but all untreated mice died prior to completing the two hour ventilation protocol, whereas all EndoIII-treated mice lived for the duration of ventilation. Thus, mitochondrial targeted DNA repair enzymes were protective against mild and moderate lung damage and they enhanced survival in the most severely injured group.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells: A double-edged sword in radiation-induced lung injury.

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    Yao, Yi; Zheng, Zhongliang; Song, Qibin

    2017-12-13

    Radiation therapy is an important treatment modality for multiple thoracic malignancies. However, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI), which is the term generally used to describe damage to the lungs caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, remains a critical issue affecting both tumor control and patient quality of life. Despite tremendous effort, there is no current consensus regarding the optimal treatment approach for RILI. Because of a number of functional advantages, including self-proliferation, multi-differentiation, injury foci chemotaxis, anti-inflammation, and immunomodulation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been a focus of research for many years. Accumulating evidence indicates the therapeutic potential of transplantation of MSCs derived from adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, and bone marrow for inflammatory diseases, including RILI. However, reports have also shown that MSCs, including fibrocytes, lung hematopoietic progenitor cells, and ABCG2+ MSCs, actually enhance the progression of lung injuries. These contradictory results suggest that MSCs may have dual effects and that caution should be taken when using MSCs to treat RILI. In this review, we present and discuss recent evidence of the double-edged function of MSCs and provide comments on the prospects of these findings. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. [Effects of high dose ambroxol on lung injury induced by paraquat in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-teng; Tian, Ying-ping; Shi, Han-wen; Lv, Cui-huan; Liu, Jian-hui; Sun, Zhi-ping

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of high dose ambroxol, a mucoactive drug, on acute lung injury caused by paraquat in rats. One hundred and thirty-six healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (n = 24) injected with normal saline intraperitoneally, PQ group (n = 56) [(2% paraquat (25 mg/kg) injected into peritoneal cavity on the first day)] and AT group (n = 56) ambroxol 35 mg/kg was injected into peritoneum daily after paraquat intoxication once daily for 7 consecutive days. The arterial gas was determined and the extent of lung injury was assessed by measuring the ratio of wet to dry weight (W/D) and protein content in BALF, the WBC count, the percentage of PMN, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the blood and BALF respectively. Left lung tissue was observed through both light microscope and electron microscope (TEM). The white cell count and the content of protein in the blood and the BALF of PQ group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P ambroxol was administered. Treatment with ambroxol (35 mg/kg) could influence the status of oxidative stress in lung and alleviate lung injury induced by paraquat. Ambroxol has obviously therapeutic effect on paraquat poisoning.

  20. Effect of commercial saccharin preparations on urethan-induced lung tumorigenesis in strain A mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, J C; Arnold, L J; Shimkin, M B

    1980-11-01

    The effect of commercial saccharin preparations on urethan-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis was assessed by gavaging groups of male strain A mice with 1-g/kg doses of each saccharin preparation on a daily basis 5 days/week. Gavage was initiated 1 week before i.p. injection of either a low (0.1 mg/g) or a high (1 mg/g) dose of urethan and continued until the mice were sacrificed 16 weeks after urethan administration. The average number of surface lung tumors per mouse for each group of mice was determined and was compared statistically with the appropriate control group. The commercial saccharin preparations did not produce an elevated lung tumor response when administered alone. One of the four saccharin preparations enhanced the lung tumor response to urethan when given in conjunction with the low dose of urethan, but this enhancement was not statistically significant. At the high urethan dose, all saccharin preparations produced a statistically significant enhancement of the lung tumor response to urethan.

  1. Propofol inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis in lung epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B.

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    Lv, Xiang; Zhou, Xuhui; Yan, Jia; Jiang, Jue; Jiang, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in lung endothelial apoptosis which is crucial for lung fibrogenesis in ARDS progression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been reported to be involved in LPS-induced lung epithelial cell apoptosis. Propofol is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic agent in clinic and it could attenuate LPS-induced epithelial cells oxidation and apoptosis. However, the mechanisms are still obscure. In this study, we examined whether and how propofol attenuates LPS-induced oxidation and apoptosis in BEAS-2B cells. Compared with control group, LPS up-regulated Pin-1, phosphatase A2 (PP2A) expression, induced p66Shc-Ser36 phosphorylation, and facilitated p66Shc mitochondrial translocation, thus leading to superoxide anion (O2-) generation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, active caspase 3 over-expression and cell viability inhibition. Importantly, propofol was shown to down-regulate LPS-induced PP2A expression, limit p66Shc mitochondrial translocation, decrease O2- generation, inhibit mitochondrial cytochrome c release, reduce active caspase 3 expression, and recover cells viability, while propofol had no effects on LPS-induced Pin-1 expression and p66Shc-Ser36 phosphorylation. Moreover, the protective effects of propofol on LPS-induced BEAS-2B cells apoptosis were similar to that of calyculin A, which is an inhibitor of PP2A. We also found that FTY720, which is an activator of PP2A, can effectively reverse the protective function of propofol. Our data illustrated that propofol could alleviate LPS-induced BEAS-2B cells oxidation and apoptosis through down-regulating PP2A expression, limiting p66Shc-Ser36 dephosphorylation and p66Shc mitochondrial translocation, decreasing O2- generation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, activating caspase 3 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective Effects of Myrtol Standardized Against Radiation-Induced Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-yun; Qu, Hong-jin; Guo, Jia-ming; Zhao, Hai-nan; Yang, Yan-yong; Zhang, Pei; Cao, Kun; Lei, Xiao; Cui, Jian-guo; Liu, Cong; Cai, Jian-ming; Gao, Fu; Li, Bai-long

    2016-01-01

    As a major complication after thoracic radiotherapy, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) has great impact on long term quality of life and could result in fatal respiratory insufficiency The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Myrtol standardized on RILI, and to investigate the underlying mechanism. A mouse model of radiation-induced lung injury was generated by using thoracic irradiation with a single dose of 16Gy. Mice were orally administrated with Myrtol (25 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks after irradiation, while prednisone (5 mg/kg/day) was used as a positive control. After then, the body weight and lung coefficient were calculated. The severity of fibrosis was evaluated by observing pulmonary sections after radiation and collagen content in lung tissues was calculated following the hydroxyproline (HYP) assay. Pathological changes were observed in all the groups by using HE staining and Masson staining. The serum levels of TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 were also measured with an ELISA assay. Western blot assay was used to measure the impact of Myrtol on AKT and its downstream signaling pathway, including MMP-2 and MMP-9. The levels of Vimentin and α-SMA were evaluated with an immunofluorescence assay. Treatment with Myrtol standardized, but not prednisone, reduced lung coefficient and collagen deposition in lung tissues, while attenuated histological damages induced by irradiation. Myrtol standardized also reduced the production of MDA, while increased the level of SOD. It was also observed that Myrtol standardized inhibited TGF-β1 and a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2. While in prednisone group, even though the early pneumonitis was ameliorated, the collagen disposition remained unchanged in latter times. Immunofluorescence analysis also revealed elevation of vimentin and α-SMA in the alveoli after a single dose of 16Gy. The present results suggest Myrtol standardized as an effective agent for

  3. Protective Effects of Myrtol Standardized Against Radiation-Induced Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-yun Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: As a major complication after thoracic radiotherapy, radiation-induced lung injury (RILI has great impact on long term quality of life and could result in fatal respiratory insufficiency The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Myrtol standardized on RILI, and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Methods: A mouse model of radiation-induced lung injury was generated by using thoracic irradiation with a single dose of 16Gy. Mice were orally administrated with Myrtol (25 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks after irradiation, while prednisone (5 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. After then, the body weight and lung coefficient were calculated. The severity of fibrosis was evaluated by observing pulmonary sections after radiation and collagen content in lung tissues was calculated following the hydroxyproline (HYP assay. Pathological changes were observed in all the groups by using HE staining and Masson staining. The serum levels of TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 were also measured with an ELISA assay. Western blot assay was used to measure the impact of Myrtol on AKT and its downstream signaling pathway, including MMP-2 and MMP-9. The levels of Vimentin and α-SMA were evaluated with an immunofluorescence assay. Results: Treatment with Myrtol standardized, but not prednisone, reduced lung coefficient and collagen deposition in lung tissues, while attenuated histological damages induced by irradiation. Myrtol standardized also reduced the production of MDA, while increased the level of SOD. It was also observed that Myrtol standardized inhibited TGF-β1 and a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2. While in prednisone group, even though the early pneumonitis was ameliorated, the collagen disposition remained unchanged in latter times. Immunofluorescence analysis also revealed elevation of vimentin and α-SMA in the alveoli after a single dose of 16Gy. Conclusion: The present

  4. Inhibition of Chlorine-Induced Lung Injury by the Type 4 Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Rolipram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weiyuan; Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F.; Rando, Roy J.; Pathak, Yashwant V.; Hoyle, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    Chlorine is a highly toxic respiratory irritant that when inhaled causes epithelial cell injury, alveolar-capillary barrier disruption, airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, and pulmonary edema. Chlorine is considered a chemical threat agent, and its release through accidental or intentional means has the potential to result in mass casualties from acute lung injury. The type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram was investigated as a rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury. Rolipram inhibits degradation of the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic AMP. Potential beneficial effects of increased cyclic AMP levels include inhibition of pulmonary edema, inflammation, and airway hyperreactivity. Mice were exposed to chlorine (whole body exposure, 228–270 ppm for 1 h) and were treated with rolipram by intraperitoneal, intranasal, or intramuscular (either aqueous or nanoemulsion formulation) delivery starting 1 h after exposure. Rolipram administered intraperitoneally or intranasally inhibited chlorine-induced pulmonary edema. Minor or no effects were observed on lavage fluid IgM (indicative of plasma protein leakage), KC (Cxcl1, neutrophil chemoattractant), and neutrophils. All routes of administration inhibited chlorine-induced airway hyperreactivity assessed 1 day after exposure. The results of the study suggest that rolipram may be an effective rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury and that both systemic and targeted administration to the respiratory tract were effective routes of delivery. PMID:22763362

  5. Protective effect of adenosine receptors against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Boris; Varn, Matthew N.; Zemskova, Marina A.; Zemskov, Evgeny A.; Sridhar, Supriya; Lucas, Rudolf; Verin, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) affect 200,000 people a year in the USA. Pulmonary vascular and specifically endothelial cell (EC) barrier compromise is a hallmark of these diseases. We have recently shown that extracellular adenosine enhances human pulmonary (EC) barrier via activation of adenosine receptors (ARs) in cell cultures. On the basis of these data, we hypothesized that activation of ARs might exert barrier-protective effects in a model of ALI/ARDS in mice. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of pre- and posttreatment of adenosine and 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a nonselective stable AR agonist, on LPS-induced lung injury. Mice were given vehicle or LPS intratracheally followed by adenosine, NECA, or vehicle instilled via the internal jugular vein. Postexperiment cell counts, Evans Blue Dye albumin (EBDA) extravasation, levels of proteins, and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. Harvested lungs were used for histology and myeloperoxidase studies. Mice challenged with LPS alone demonstrated an inflammatory response typical of ALI. Cell counts, EBDA extravasation, as well as levels of proteins and inflammatory cytokines were decreased in adenosine-treated mice. Histology displayed reduced infiltration of neutrophils. NECA had a similar effect on LPS-induced vascular barrier compromise. Importantly, posttreatment with adenosine or NECA recovers lung vascular barrier and reduces inflammation induced by LPS challenge. Furthermore, adenosine significantly attenuated protein degradation of A2A and A3 receptors induced by LPS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that activation of ARs protects and restores vascular barrier functions and reduces inflammation in LPS-induced ALI. PMID:24414256

  6. Pycnogenol, a compound isolated from the bark of pinus maritime mill, attenuates ventilator-induced lung injury through inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, YF; Zhang, JH; Xu, ZF; Deng, XM

    2015-01-01

    Background: During mechanical ventilation, high end-inspiratory lung volume results in a permeability type pulmonary oedema, called ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury involves multiple mechanisms, such as excessive inflammation. And pycnogenol is a mixture of flavonoid compounds extracted from pine tree bark that have anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: We investigated the effects of pyncogenol on ventilator-induced lung injury in r...

  7. [Protective effect of rupatadine against oleic acid-induced acute lung injury in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin-Li; Lu, Jing; Yu, Shu-Qin; He, Jian-Lin; Zhou, Min; Xu, Guang-Lin

    2007-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) makes up a spectrum of disease that is commonly defined as "acute non-cardiogenic edematous lung injury". It may contribute to morbidity and mortality in the critically ill patient in the intensive care unit. ALI was induced by oleic acid in rabbits. During the experiment, blood samples were taken from cervical artery and subjected to blood-gas analysis at different time points after oleic acid injection. Shortly after the rabbits were killed at 3 hour after iv OA injection, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was colleted, and the concentrations of protein, platelet-activating factor (PAF), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin 8 (IL-8) in BALF were then measured by ELISA. The ratio of wet to dry weight (W/D) of left lung was calculated to assess alveolar edema. Lung tissue was fixed in formaldehyde and stained with HE, and examined under a light microscope. The OA-induced elevation of arterial blood oxygen pressure was inhibited, as well as PAF, ICAM-1, IL-8 in BALF in rupatadine group. Furthermore, rupatadine also decreased the concentration of protein in BALF and inhibited the increase of the W/D weight ratio significantly. Light microscopic findings showed that the damage in rupatadine groups was far less severe than that in OA model group. Pretreatment with rupatadine has a beneficial effect on acute lung injury induced by oleic acid in rabbits. The ultimate reduction of inflammatory factors was involved, at least in part, in the mechanism of action of rupatadine effects.

  8. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice

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    Lifang Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local renin-angiotensin system (RAS activation has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. It has been reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 could inhibit RAS-mediated epithelial injury and fibrogenesis and that ACE2 deficiency could aggravate acute and chronic lung injury. Through research, it could be deduced that ACE2 could protect against pulmonary fibrosis as a therapeutic target. Methods: Time-course analysis of the pathological characteristics of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was undertaken in a mouse model, and the effect of exogenous ACE2 on lung fibrosis was studied. Immunohistchemistry (IHC staining and western blot (WB testing for AGT and ACE2 were performed to evaluate the regulation of local RAS. TUNEL staining was used to observe epithelial apoptosis. Leukocyte common antigen (LCA and pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A IHC staining and WB testing were performed to assess the inflammatory response and epithelial regeneration. Masson's staining and a hydroxyproline assay were performed to examine collagen deposition. IHC staining and WB testing for TGF-β1 and α-SMA were performed to investigate the regulation of pro-fibrotic cytokines and the activation of fibroblasts. Results: Exogenous ACE2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by reversing the reduction of local ACE2 and by suppressing the elevation of AGT. ACE2 decreased the apoptosis index and LCA levels and ameliorated the dynamic change in SP-A level, thus protecting against epithelial injury. Reductions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA were also found in ACE2-treated mice, indicating the inhibition of fibrogenesis. Conclusion: ACE2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as an anti-inflammatory anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic agent, and it might be a promising therapeutic target for IPF.

  9. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifang; Wang, Yuxiang; Yang, Tuo; Guo, Yanfei; Sun, Tieying

    2015-01-01

    Local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). It has been reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) could inhibit RAS-mediated epithelial injury and fibrogenesis and that ACE2 deficiency could aggravate acute and chronic lung injury. Through research, it could be deduced that ACE2 could protect against pulmonary fibrosis as a therapeutic target. Time-course analysis of the pathological characteristics of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis was undertaken in a mouse model, and the effect of exogenous ACE2 on lung fibrosis was studied. Immunohistchemistry (IHC) staining and western blot (WB) testing for AGT and ACE2 were performed to evaluate the regulation of local RAS. TUNEL staining was used to observe epithelial apoptosis. Leukocyte common antigen (LCA) and pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) IHC staining and WB testing were performed to assess the inflammatory response and epithelial regeneration. Masson's staining and a hydroxyproline assay were performed to examine collagen deposition. IHC staining and WB testing for TGF-β1 and α-SMA were performed to investigate the regulation of pro-fibrotic cytokines and the activation of fibroblasts. Exogenous ACE2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by reversing the reduction of local ACE2 and by suppressing the elevation of AGT. ACE2 decreased the apoptosis index and LCA levels and ameliorated the dynamic change in SP-A level, thus protecting against epithelial injury. Reductions of TGF-β1 and α-SMA were also found in ACE2-treated mice, indicating the inhibition of fibrogenesis. ACE2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis as an anti-inflammatory anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic agent, and it might be a promising therapeutic target for IPF. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Role of cholesterol in the biophysical dysfunction of surfactant in ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockeroth, Dan; Gunasekara, Lasantha; Amrein, Matthias; Possmayer, Fred; Lewis, James F; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation may lead to an impairment of the endogenous surfactant system, which is one of the mechanisms by which this intervention contributes to the progression of acute lung injury. The most extensively studied mechanism of surfactant dysfunction is serum protein inhibition. However, recent studies indicate that hydrophobic components of surfactant may also contribute. It was hypothesized that elevated levels of cholesterol significantly contribute to surfactant dysfunction in ventilation-induced lung injury. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were randomized to either high-tidal volume or low-tidal volume ventilation and monitored for 2 h. Subsequently, the lungs were lavaged, surfactant was isolated, and the biophysical properties of this isolated surfactant were analyzed on a captive bubble surfactometer with and without the removal of cholesterol using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The results showed lower oxygenation values in the high-tidal volume group during the last 30 min of ventilation compared with the low-tidal volume group. Surfactant obtained from the high-tidal volume animals had a significant impairment in function compared with material from the low-tidal volume group. Removal of cholesterol from the high-tidal volume group improved the ability of the surfactant to reduce the surface tension to low values. Subsequent reconstitution of high-cholesterol values led to an impairment in surface activity. It is concluded that increased levels of cholesterol associated with endogenous surfactant represent a major contributor to the inhibition of surfactant function in ventilation-induced lung injury.

  11. Probable clozapine-induced parenchymal lung disease and perimyocarditis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Erlend; Nissen, Trygve; Wynn, Rolf

    2016-12-08

    Clozapine is the archetypical atypical antipsychotic, its primary indication being treatment resistant schizophrenia. Severe side effects caused by clozapine, including leukopenia, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis, are well known. A rarely described side effect is concurrent perimyocarditis and parenchymal lung disease. A previously physically healthy 23-year-old male Caucasian that suffered from schizophrenia presented with flu-like symptoms 1 week after starting clozapine treatment. Treatment with clozapine was discontinued. He developed respiratory distress. Investigations showed significant parenchymal infiltration in both of the lungs, pericardial fluid, and heart failure. He initially received treatment for suspected malignant neuroleptic syndrome and later for suspected infection, but these tentative diagnoses were not confirmed. The patient's condition gradually improved. In retrospect, clozapine-induced parenchymal lung disease and perimyocarditis were deemed the most probable causes. Concurrent perimyocarditis and parenchymal lung disease are rare side effects of clozapine. Clozapine-induced disease in general is considered an exclusion diagnosis. Lacking a verifiable diagnosis when suspecting a side effect of clozapine, clinicians might treat the most likely and serious condition presenting and consider discontinuing clozapine until the diagnostic uncertainty is reasonably resolved.

  12. Characterization of a murine model of monocrotaline pyrrole-induced acute lung injury

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    Pullamsetti Soni S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New animal models of chronic pulmonary hypertension in mice are needed. The injection of monocrotaline is an established model of pulmonary hypertension in rats. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of pulmonary hypertension by injection of the active metabolite, monocrotaline pyrrole. Methods Survival studies, computed tomographic scanning, histology, bronchoalveolar lavage were performed, and arterial blood gases and hemodynamics were measured in animals which received an intravenous injection of different doses of monocrotaline pyrrole. Results Monocrotaline pyrrole induced pulmonary hypertension in Sprague Dawley rats. When injected into mice, monocrotaline pyrrole induced dose-dependant mortality in C57Bl6/N and BALB/c mice (dose range 6–15 mg/kg bodyweight. At a dose of 10 mg/kg bodyweight, mice developed a typical early-phase acute lung injury, characterized by lung edema, neutrophil influx, hypoxemia and reduced lung compliance. In the late phase, monocrotaline pyrrole injection resulted in limited lung fibrosis and no obvious pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion Monocrotaline and monocrotaline pyrrole pneumotoxicity substantially differs between the animal species.

  13. Ghrelin attenuates acute pancreatitis-induced lung injury and inhibits substance P expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolei; Xue, Chengrui

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ghrelin administration on the severity of acute lung injury and on the production of proinflammatory cytokines and Substance P (SP) in rats with acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in rats by sodium taurocholate injection through pancreaticobiliary duct. Ghrelin 20 nmol/kg was given before and after the treatment. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and -6 levels in the serum were measured using the radioimmunoassay method. Morphological signs of lung injury, pulmonary water content, microvascular permeability, and myeloperoxidase activity were measured. Meanwhile, the determination of pulmonary SP mRNA level and its expression were performed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The serum proinflammatory cytokines, pulmonary water content, microvascular permeability, and myeloperoxidase activity were increased, and morphological damages were observed in the lung of AP rats. SP mRNA level and its expression were significantly higher in sham-operated rats (P ghrelin. Pulmonary SP expression was also significantly down-regulated by ghrelin (P Ghrelin attenuates the severity of acute lung injury induced by AP. The reduction of neutrophil sequestration, limitation of proinflammatory cytokines release, and inhibition of pulmonary SP expression may be the mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effect of ghrelin.

  14. Agmatine Protects against Zymosan-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

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    Xuanfei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson’s disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI.

  15. Beta-Cryptoxanthin supplementation prevents cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, oxidative damage and squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In epidemiologic studies, high intake of beta-cryptoxanthin has been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer, particularly among current smokers. However, data are not available from well-controlled animal studies to examine the effects of beta-cryptoxanthin on cigarette smoke-induced lung ...

  16. An ethanol extract of Origanum vulgare attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary injury and oxidative lung damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Chabra, Aroona; Naghshvar, Farshad; Salehi, Fatemeh; Habibi, Emran; Haghi-Aminjan, Hamed

    2014-10-01

    Injury to normal tissues is the major limiting side effect of using cyclophosphamide (CP), an antineoplastic alkylating compound. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of an extract of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), an antioxidative medicinal plant, against CP-induced oxidative lung damage in mice. Mice were pre-treated with various doses of O. vulgare extract (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days followed by an injection with CP (200 mg/kg b.w.) One hour after the injection of O. vulgare on the last day, mice were injected with CP; 24 h later, they were euthanized, their lungs were immediately removed, and biochemical and histological studies were conducted. A single dose of CP markedly altered the levels of several biomarkers associated with oxidative stress in lung homogenates. Pretreatment with O. vulgare significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and attenuated the alterations in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity induced by CP in lung tissue. In addition, O. vulgare effectively alleviated CP-induced histopathological changes in lung tissue. Our results revealed that O. vulgare protects lung tissues from CP-induced pulmonary damage and suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of lung disease produced by CP. Because O. vulgare has been extensively used as an additive agent and is regarded as safe, it may be used concomitantly as a supplement for reducing lung damage in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  17. Combined alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid protects against smoke-induced lung squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological studies show the benefit of fruits and vegetables on reducing risk of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Previously, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure (SM)-induced lung lesions in ferrets were prevented by a combination of carotene,...

  18. Humic acid enhances cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in mice and IL-8 release of human monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijl, S. van; Mortaz, E.; Ferreira, A.F.; Kuper, F.; Nijkamp, F.P.; Folkerts, G.; Bloksma, N.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is the main factor in the etiology of lung emphysema. Generally prolonged, substantial exposure is required to develop the disease. Humic acid is a major component of cigarette smoke that accumulates in smokers' lungs over time and induces tissue damage. Objectives: To investigate

  19. Influenza Infection in Mice Induces Accumulation of Lung Mast Cells through the Recruitment and Maturation of Mast Cell Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnegar, Behdad; Mendez-Enriquez, Erika; Westin, Annika; Söderberg, Cecilia; Dahlin, Joakim S; Grönvik, Kjell-Olov; Hallgren, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are powerful immune cells that mature in the peripheral tissues from bone marrow (BM)-derived mast cell progenitors (MCp). Accumulation of MCs in lung compartments where they are normally absent is thought to enhance symptoms in asthma. The enrichment of lung MCs is also observed in mice subjected to models of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether other types of lung inflammation trigger increased number of MCp, which give rise to MCs, is unknown. Here, mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza A was used as a model of respiratory virus infection. Intranasal administration of the virus induced expression of VCAM-1 on the lung vascular endothelium and an extensive increase in integrin β7(hi) lung MCp. Experiments were performed to distinguish whether the influenza-induced increase in the number of lung MCp was triggered mainly by recruitment or in situ cell proliferation. A similar proportion of lung MCp from influenza-infected and PBS control mice were found to be in a proliferative state. Furthermore, BM chimeric mice were used in which the possibility of influenza-induced in situ cell proliferation of host MCp was prevented. Influenza infection in the chimeric mice induced a similar number of lung MCp as in normal mice. These experiments demonstrated that recruitment of MCp to the lung is the major mechanism behind the influenza-induced increase in lung MCp. Fifteen days post-infection, the influenza infection had elicited an immature MC population expressing intermediate levels of integrin β7, which was absent in controls. At the same time point, an increased number of toluidine blue(+) MCs was detected in the upper central airways. When the inflammation was resolved, the MCs that accumulated in the lung upon influenza infection were gradually lost. In summary, our study reveals that influenza infection induces a transient accumulation of lung MCs through the recruitment and maturation of MCp. We speculate that temporary augmented numbers of lung

  20. Oleic Acid Induces Lung Injury in Mice through Activation of the ERK Pathway

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    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleic acid (OA can induce acute lung injury in experimental models. In the present work, we used intratracheal OA injection to show augmented oedema formation, cell migration and activation, lipid mediator, and cytokine productions in the bronchoalveolar fluids of Swiss Webster mice. We also demonstrated that OA-induced pulmonary injury is dependent on ERK1/2 activation, since U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, blocked neutrophil migration, oedema, and lipid body formation as well as IL-6, but not IL-1β production. Using a mice strain carrying a null mutation for the TLR4 receptor, we proved that increased inflammatory parameters after OA challenges were not due to the activation of the TLR4 receptor. With OA being a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, we suggest the possible involvement of this enzyme as an OA target triggering lung inflammation.

  1. House dust mite induced lung inflammation does not alter circulating vitamin D levels.

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    Ling Chen

    Full Text Available Low circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] are associated with chronic lung diseases such as asthma. However, it is unclear whether vitamin D is involved in disease pathogenesis or is modified by the inflammation associated with the disease process. We hypothesized that allergic inflammation decreases the level of circulating 25(OHD and tested this using a mice model of house dust mite (HDM induced allergic airway inflammation. Cellular influx was measured in bronchoalvelar lavage (BAL fluid, and allergic sensitization and 25(OHD levels were measured in serum. Exposure to HDM caused a robust inflammatory response in the lung that was enhanced by prior influenza infection. These responses were not associated with any change in circulating levels of 25(OHD. These data suggest that alterations in circulating 25(OHD levels induced by Th-2 driven inflammation are unlikely to explain the cross-sectional epidemiological association between vitamin D deficiency and asthma.

  2. Caryocar brasiliense camb protects against genomic and oxidative damage in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, N.B.R.; Rangel, M.P.; Martins, V.; Hage, M.; Gelain, D.P.; Barbeiro, D.F.; Grisolia, C.K.; Parra, E.R.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of Caryocar brasiliense Camb, commonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative damage in lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of pequi fruit against urethane-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in forty 8-12 week old male BALB/C mice. An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress. Prior supplementation with pequi oil or its extract (15 µL, 60 days) significantly reduced urethane-induced oxidative stress. A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:26200231

  3. PTEN gene and phosphorylation of Akt protein expression in the LPS-induced lung fibroblast

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    Mao-lin HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate PTEN gene expression and the Akt phosphorylation of protein expression in the LPS-induced lung fibroblast, to initially reveal the relation between PTEN gene and the Akt phosphorylated proteins to LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation mechanism. Methods: BrdU experiments was performed to evaluate the LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation,  RT-PCR and Western Blot analysis were used to analyze the PTEN gene expression and Western blot was performed to analyze Akt phosphorylated protein expression. Results: PTEN mRNA level of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05 with LPS simulation for 24h and 72h , and there were no significant difference between the experimental group and control group the experimental group and control group (P>0.05 . PTEN protein expression levels of the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05 , at 72h, and PTEN mRNA levels had no significant differences between these of the experimental and control group at 6h,12h and 24h(p>0.05. Phosphorylation Akt protein level (relative to total Akt protein was significantly higer than the control group (P<0.05 at 24h and 72h, and phosphorylation Akt protein levels had no significant differences between these of the experimental and control group at 6h and 12h (P>0.05 .Conclusion: PTEN gene and phosphorylation Akt protein involve in LPS-induced lung fibroblast proliferation signal transduction pathway.

  4. Ghrelin ameliorates acute lung injury induced by oleic acid via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuli; Liu, Zhijun; Yu, Ting; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Linlin

    2018-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediates the protective effect of ghrelin on ALI. We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Protein levels were detected by western blot. Rats with OA treatment showed significant pulmonary injury, edema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, cytokine release, hypoxia and CO 2 retention as compared with controls. Plasma and pulmonary content of ghrelin was reduced in rats with ALI, and mRNA expression was downregulated. Ghrelin (10nmol/kg) treatment ameliorated the above symptoms, but treatment with the ghrelin antagonists D-Lys 3 GHRP-6 (1μmol/kg) and JMV 2959 (6mg/kg) exacerbated the symptoms. ERS induced by OA was prevented by ghrelin and augmented by ghrelin antagonist treatment. The ERS inducer, tunicamycin (Tm) prevented the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on ALI. The decreased ratio of p-Akt and Akt induced by OA was improved by ghrelin treatment, and was further exacerbated by ghrelin antagonists. Ghrelin protects against ALI by inhibiting ERS. These results provide a new target for prevention and therapy of ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Osimertinib for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) T790M-positive Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiya; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Norio; Sawa, Kenji; Yoshimoto, Naoki; Suzumura, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Mitsuoka, Shigeki; Asai, Kazuhisa; Kimura, Tatsuo; Yoshimura, Naruo; Kuwae, Yuko; Hirata, Kazuto

    2017-09-01

    A 75-year-old man with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma was treated with osimertinib due to disease progression despite having been administered erlotinib. Both an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) L858R mutation on exon 21 and a T790M mutation on exon 20 were detected in a specimen from a recurrent primary tumor. Five weeks after osimertinib initiation, he developed general fatigue and dyspnea. Chest computed tomography scan revealed diffuse ground glass opacities and consolidation on both lungs. An analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed marked lymphocytosis, and a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen showed a thickened interstitium with fibrosis and prominent lymphocytic infiltration. We diagnosed the patient to have interstitial lung disease induced by osimertinib.

  6. [Total hepatic ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury in rats and protective effects of melatonin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun Ling; Yang, Ba Xian; Zhao, Dong; Jia, Ruo

    2008-06-18

    To explore total hepatic ischemia-reperfusion(I/R)-induced lung injury in rats,its related mechanism and the protective effects of melatonin on lungs. This study was divided into 2 parts. In the first part, 72 healthy male SD rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly divided into 2 groups: I/R group(ischemia-reperfusion,n=36) and sham-operation group(n=36). Total hepatic I/R was produced by occlusion of hepatic helium for 30 minutes, and the occlusion was then released for reperfusion. The animals were killed at 5 minutes prior to ischemia and 0 h, 0.5 h, 1 h, 3 h and 6 h after reperfusion in sham-operation group and I/R group (n=6 at each time point), and the lung tissue was taken. Through comparisons of these two groups, we observed the dynamic changes of lung tissue after total hepatic I/R. In the second part, 12 healthy male SD rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly divided into 2 groups: melatonin group(n=6) and vehicle group(n=6). Melatonin (0.5%,10 mg/kg)or vehicle of the same volume was injected via femoral vein 15 min before ischemia and 10 min before reperfusion, the animals were killed at 1 h after reperfusion, and the lung tissue was taken. Through comparisons of these two groups, we observed the effects of melatonin. (1)Total hepatic I/R led to severe histological injury in lungs. Compared with those in sham-operation group, the MDA content and apoptotic index were increased, the SOD activity was decreased, the p-ERK/ERK ratio and PCNA-positive index were decreased respectively 0 h and 0.5 h after reperfusion, and then were increased gradually. Histological examination revealed that the alveolar architecture was destroyed with interstitial thickening and neutrophil infiltration in I/R group. Correlate analysis revealed that p-ERK/ERK ratio showed a positive correlation with PCNA-positive index(r=0.56, P<0.05) and apoptotic index (r=0.62, P<0.05) in I/R group. (2)Melatonin treatment alleviated total hepatic I/R-induced lung injury. In melatonin group, the

  7. Changes in Stroke Volume Induced by Lung Recruitment Maneuver Predict Fluid Responsiveness in Mechanically Ventilated Patients in the Operating Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biais, Matthieu; Lanchon, Romain; Sesay, Musa; Le Gall, Lisa; Pereira, Bruno; Futier, Emmanuel; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine

    2017-02-01

    Lung recruitment maneuver induces a decrease in stroke volume, which is more pronounced in hypovolemic patients. The authors hypothesized that the magnitude of stroke volume reduction through lung recruitment maneuver could predict preload responsiveness. Twenty-eight mechanically ventilated patients with low tidal volume during general anesthesia were included. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, stroke volume, and pulse pressure variations were recorded before lung recruitment maneuver (application of continuous positive airway pressure of 30 cm H2O for 30 s), during lung recruitment maneuver when stroke volume reached its minimal value, and before and after volume expansion (250 ml saline, 0.9%, infused during 10 min). Patients were considered as responders to fluid administration if stroke volume increased greater than or equal to 10%. Sixteen patients were responders. Lung recruitment maneuver induced a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure and stroke volume in both responders and nonresponders. Changes in stroke volume induced by lung recruitment maneuver were correlated with those induced by volume expansion (r = 0.56; P volume during lung recruitment maneuver predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI, 62 to 98) and a specificity of 92% (95% CI, 62 to 99). Pulse pressure variations more than 6% before lung recruitment maneuver discriminated responders with a sensitivity of 69% (95% CI, 41 to 89) and a specificity of 75% (95% CI, 42 to 95). The area under receiver operating curves generated for changes in stroke volume induced by lung recruitment maneuver (0.96; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.99) was significantly higher than that for pulse pressure variations (0.72; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.88; P volume decrease during lung recruitment maneuver could predict preload responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients in the operating room.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide induces inflammation and facilitates lung metastasis in a breast cancer model via the prostaglandin E2-EP2 pathway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LI, SHANCHENG; XU, XIAOYA; JIANG, MAN; BI, YULI; XU, JIYING; HAN, MINGYONG

    2015-01-01

    .... BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in order to establish an inflammatory animal model and 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were injected through the tail vein to induce lung metastasis...

  9. Bronchoconstriction Induces TGF-β Release and Airway Remodelling in Guinea Pig Lung Slices.

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    Tjitske A Oenema

    Full Text Available Airway remodelling, including smooth muscle remodelling, is a primary cause of airflow limitation in asthma. Recent evidence links bronchoconstriction to airway remodelling in asthma. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A possible player is the multifunctional cytokine TGF-β, which plays an important role in airway remodelling. Guinea pig lung slices were used as an in vitro model to investigate mechanisms involved in bronchoconstriction-induced airway remodelling. To address this aim, mechanical effects of bronchoconstricting stimuli on contractile protein expression and TGF-β release were investigated. Lung slices were viable for at least 48 h. Both methacholine and TGF-β1 augmented the expression of contractile proteins (sm-α-actin, sm-myosin, calponin after 48 h. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that increased sm-myosin expression was enhanced in the peripheral airways and the central airways. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction mediated the release of biologically active TGF-β, which caused the increased contractile protein expression, as inhibition of actin polymerization (latrunculin A or TGF-β receptor kinase (SB431542 prevented the methacholine effects, whereas other bronchoconstricting agents (histamine and KCl mimicked the effects of methacholine. Collectively, bronchoconstriction promotes the release of TGF-β, which induces airway smooth muscle remodelling. This study shows that lung slices are a useful in vitro model to study mechanisms involved in airway remodelling.

  10. Oral recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis TDM induced granulomatous lung pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shen-An; Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2017-02-01

    Trehalose 6'6-dimycolate (TDM) is the most abundant glycolipid on the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). TDM is capable of inducing granulomatous pathology in mouse models that resembles those induced by MTB infection. Using the acute TDM model, this work investigates the effect of recombinant human and mouse lactoferrin to reduce granulomatous pathology. C57BL/6 mice were injected intravenously with TDM at a dose of 25 μg·mouse -1 . At day 4 and 6, recombinant human or mouse lactoferrin (1 mg·(100 μL) -1 ·mouse -1 ) were delivered by gavage. At day 7 after TDM injection, mice were evaluated for lung pathology, cytokine production, and leukocyte populations. Mice given human or mouse lactoferrin had reduced production of IL-12p40 in their lungs. Mouse lactoferrin increased IL-6 and KC (CXCL1) in lung tissue. Increased numbers of macrophages were observed in TDM-injected mice given human or mouse lactoferrin. Granulomatous pathology, composed of mainly migrated leukocytes, was visually reduced in mice that received human or mouse lactoferrin. Quantitation of granulomatous pathology demonstrated a significant decrease in mice given human or mouse lactoferrin compared with TDM control mice. This report is the first to directly compare the immune modulatory effects of both heterologous recombinant human and homologous mouse lactoferrin on the development of TDM-induced granulomas.

  11. Integrative Assessment of Chlorine-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope-Varsalona, Hannah; Concel, Vincent J.; Liu, Pengyuan; Bein, Kiflai; Berndt, Annerose; Martin, Timothy M.; Ganguly, Koustav; Jang, An Soo; Brant, Kelly A.; Dopico, Richard A.; Upadhyay, Swapna; Di, Y. P. Peter; Hu, Zhen; Vuga, Louis J.; Medvedovic, Mario; Kaminski, Naftali; You, Ming; Alexander, Danny C.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Prows, Daniel R.; Knoell, Daren L.

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis for the underlying individual susceptibility to chlorine-induced acute lung injury is unknown. To uncover the genetic basis and pathophysiological processes that could provide additional homeostatic capacities during lung injury, 40 inbred murine strains were exposed to chlorine, and haplotype association mapping was performed. The identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were evaluated through transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. Using ≥ 10% allelic frequency and ≥ 10% phenotype explained as threshold criteria, promoter SNPs that could eliminate putative transcriptional factor recognition sites in candidate genes were assessed by determining transcript levels through microarray and reverse real-time PCR during chlorine exposure. The mean survival time varied by approximately 5-fold among strains, and SNP associations were identified for 13 candidate genes on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 9, and 15. Microarrays revealed several differentially enriched pathways, including protein transport (decreased more in the sensitive C57BLKS/J lung) and protein catabolic process (increased more in the resistant C57BL/10J lung). Lung metabolomic profiling revealed 95 of the 280 metabolites measured were altered by chlorine exposure, and included alanine, which decreased more in the C57BLKS/J than in the C57BL/10J strain, and glutamine, which increased more in the C57BL/10J than in the C57BLKS/J strain. Genetic associations from haplotype mapping were strengthened by an integrated assessment using transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. The leading candidate genes associated with increased susceptibility to acute lung injury in mice included Klf4, Sema7a, Tns1, Aacs, and a gene that encodes an amino acid carrier, Slc38a4. PMID:22447970

  12. Effect of postnatal malnutrition on hyperoxia-induced newborn lung development

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    M.M.G.B. Mataloun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Among them, hyperoxia and lung immaturity are considered to be fundamental; however, the effect of malnutrition is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 7 days of postnatal malnutrition and hyperoxia on lung weight, volume, water content, and pulmonary morphometry of premature rabbits. After c-section, 28-day-old New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into four groups: control diet and room air (CA, N = 17, control diet and ≥95% O2 (CH, N = 17, malnutrition and room air (MA, N = 18, and malnutrition and ≥95% O2 (MH, N = 18. Malnutrition was defined as a 30% reduction of all the nutrients provided in the control diet. Treatments were maintained for 7 days, after which histological and morphometric analyses were conducted. Lung slices were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, modified orcein-resorcin or picrosirius. The results of morphometric analysis indicated that postnatal malnutrition decreased lung weight (CA: 0.83 ± 0.19; CH: 0.96 ± 0.28; MA: 0.65 ± 0.17; MH: 0.79 ± 0.22 g and water content, as well as the number of alveoli (CA: 12.43 ± 3.07; CH: 8.85 ± 1.46; MA: 7.33 ± 0.88; MH: 6.36 ± 1.53 x 10-3/mm and elastic and collagen fibers. Hyperoxia reduced the number of alveoli and increased septal thickening and the mean linear intercept. The reduction of alveolar number, collagen and elastic fibers was intensified when malnutrition and hyperoxia were associated. These data suggest that dietary restriction enhances the magnitude of hyperoxia-induced alveolar growth arrest and lung parenchymal remodeling. It is interesting to consider the important influence of postnatal nutrition upon lung development and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  13. Impact of interleukin-6 on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and lung inflammation in mice

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    Izziki Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of various forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH. Recent studies in patients with idiopathic PH or PH associated with underlying diseases suggest a role for interleukin-6 (IL-6. Methods To determine whether endogenous IL-6 contributes to mediate hypoxic PH and lung inflammation, we studied IL-6-deficient (IL-6-/- and wild-type (IL-6+/+ mice exposed to hypoxia for 2 weeks. Results Right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and the number and media thickness of muscular pulmonary vessels were decreased in IL-6-/- mice compared to wild-type controls after 2 weeks' hypoxia, although the pressure response to acute hypoxia was similar in IL-6+/+ and IL-6-/- mice. Hypoxia exposure of IL-6+/+ mice led to marked increases in IL-6 mRNA and protein levels within the first week, with positive IL-6 immunostaining in the pulmonary vessel walls. Lung IL-6 receptor and gp 130 (the IL-6 signal transducer mRNA levels increased after 1 and 2 weeks' hypoxia. In vitro studies of cultured human pulmonary-artery smooth-muscle-cells (PA-SMCs and microvascular endothelial cells revealed prominent synthesis of IL-6 by PA-SMCs, with further stimulation by hypoxia. IL-6 also markedly stimulated PA-SMC migration without affecting proliferation. Hypoxic IL-6-/- mice showed less inflammatory cell recruitment in the lungs, compared to hypoxic wild-type mice, as assessed by lung protein levels and immunostaining for the specific macrophage marker F4/80, with no difference in lung expression of adhesion molecules or cytokines. Conclusion These data suggest that IL-6 may be actively involved in hypoxia-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in mice.

  14. Protective effect of Astragaloside IV against sepsis-induced acute lung injury in rats

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    Ruiqin Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the protective effects of AS-IV against sepsis-induced ALI. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP method in Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were randomly assigned into five groups: animals undergoing a sham CLP (sham group; animals undergoing CLP (CLP group; animals undergoing CLP and treated with AS-IV at 2.5 mg/kg bw (low-dose AS-IV [L-AS] group, at 5 mg/kg bw (mid-dose AS-IV [M-AS] group, and at 10 mg/kg bw (high-dose AS-IV [H-AS] group. At 6 h, 12 h and 24 h post-CLP surgery, six rats were respectively sacrificed to collect blood and lung tissue samples. The levels of arterial blood gas index, lung water content, protein level and leukocyte counts (total amount, neutrophils and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 in BALF were measured at each time point in different groups. HE-staining and optical microscopy were performed to examine the pathological changes in lungs. The 72 h-survival rate of each group was also recorded. PaO2 was decreased significantly, while the lung water content, BALF protein level, cell numbers, BALF cytokine TNF-α and IL-6 levels were increased significantly for CLP group as compared with sham group. Moreover, pathological injury was observed in lung tissue indicating the successful sepsis-induced ALI model. Speaking of the effect of AS-IV, we founded that, compared with the CLP group, the AS-IV treatment groups could significantly alleviate all the above negative changes exited in the CLP group in a dose-dependent manner. What’s more, the pathological injury was also gradually improved by AS-IV treatment compared with the CLP rats. AS-IV exerts its protective effect against sepsis-induced ALI in rats via improving pulmonary ventilation function, decreasing the permeability of alveolar epithelium and capillary as well as repressing lung inflammation.

  15. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor protects lung adenocarcinoma cells against cigarette sidestream smoke particulates-induced oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin [Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Su-Chin; Lin, Chun-Ju; Cheng, Li-Chuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, Lih-Ann, E-mail: lihann@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-03-15

    Environmental cigarette smoke has been suggested to promote lung adenocarcinoma progression through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-signaled metabolism. However, whether AhR facilitates metabolic activation or detoxification in exposed adenocarcinoma cells remains ambiguous. To address this question, we have modified the expression level of AhR in two human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and examined their response to an extract of cigarette sidestream smoke particulates (CSSP). We found that overexpression of AhR in the CL1-5 cell line reduced CSSP-induced ROS production and oxidative DNA damage, whereas knockdown of AhR expression increased ROS level in CSSP-exposed H1355 cells. Oxidative stress sensor Nrf2 and its target gene NQO1 were insensitive to AhR expression level and CSSP treatment in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. In contrast, induction of AhR expression concurrently increased mRNA expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes CYP1B1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 in a ligand-independent manner. It appeared that AhR accelerated xenobiotic clearing and diminished associated oxidative stress by coordinate regulation of a set of phase I and II metabolizing genes. However, the AhR-signaled protection could not shield cells from constant oxidative stress. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of CSSP induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via the p53–p21–Rb1 signaling pathway. Despite no effect on DNA repair rate, AhR facilitated the recovery of cells from growth arrest when CSSP exposure ended. AhR-overexpressing lung adenocarcinoma cells exhibited an increased anchorage-dependent and independent proliferation when recovery from exposure. In summary, our data demonstrated that AhR protected lung adenocarcinoma cells against CSSP-induced oxidative stress and promoted post-exposure clonogenicity. -- Highlights: ► AhR expression level influences cigarette sidestream smoke-induced ROS production. ► AhR reduces oxidative stress by coordinate regulation of

  16. Beta-cryptoxanthin protection against cigarette smoke-induced inflammatory responses in the lung is due to the action of its own molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher intake of the dietary xanthophyll, beta-cryptoxanthin (BCX), has been associated with a lower risk of lung cancer death in smokers. We have previously shown that BCX feeding was effective in reducing both cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung inflammation in ferrets and carcinogen-induced lung tu...

  17. Protective Effects of Cucurbitacin B on Acute Lung Injury Induced by Sepsis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Shu; Liu, Xing; Lv, Shuguang; Wang, Zhifang

    2017-03-18

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of cucurbitacin B (CuB) on sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS An ALI model was made by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in SD rats. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=15 per group): animals undergoing a sham CLP (sham group); animals undergoing CLP (CLP control group); animals undergoing CLP and treated with CuB at 1 mg/kg of body weight (bw) (low-dose CuB [L-CuB] group), animals undergoing CuB at 2 mg/kg of bw (mid-dose CuB [M-CuB] group); and animals undergoing CuB at 5 mg/kg of bw (high-dose CuB [H-CuB] group). Samples of blood and lung tissue were harvested at different time points (6, 12, and 24 hour post-CLP surgery) for the detection of indicators which represented ALI. Five rats were respectively sacrificed at each time point. Pathological changes of lung tissue were observed by H&E staining. Another 50 rats were distributed into the same five groups to record the 72 hour survival rates. RESULTS Treatment with CuB significantly increased the blood gas PaO2 levels and decreased lung wet/dry (W/D) ratio (pCuB. In addition, CuB performed its pulmonary protection effects in a dose-depended manner. CONCLUSIONS CuB can effectively improve the pulmonary gas exchange function, reduce pulmonary edema, and inhibit the inflammatory response in the lung, revealing that CuB may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for sepsis-induced ALI.

  18. Overexpression of Brg1 Alleviates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Lung Injury through Antioxidative Stress Effects

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    Mian Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate whether overexpression of Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1 can alleviate lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (HIR and its precise mechanism. Methods. Cytomegalovirus-transgenic Brg1-overexpressing (CMV-Brg1 mice and wild-type (WT C57BL/6 mice underwent HIR. Lung histology, oxidative injury markers, and antioxidant enzyme concentrations in the lung were assessed. The protein expression levels of Brg1, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, and NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 in the lung were analyzed by Western blotting. Results. In the WT group, histopathological analysis revealed that lung damage peaked at 6 h after HIR. Meanwhile, the lung reactive oxygen species (ROS and 8-isoprostane levels were significantly increased. The protein expression of Brg1 in lung tissue decreased to a minimum at 6 h. Overexpression of Brg1 alleviated lung injury and decreased the amounts of oxidative products, including the levels of 8-isoprostane and ROS, as well as the percentage of positive cells for 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE and 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. Brg1 overexpression increased the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 as well as activated the antioxidases. In addition, it decreased the expression of inflammatory factors. Conclusion. Overexpression of Brg1 alleviates oxidative lung injury induced by HIR, likely through the Nrf2 pathway.

  19. Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor–2 Deficiency Confers Protection against Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury and Fibrosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Long Shuang; Fu, Panfeng; Patel, Priya; Harijith, Anantha; Sun, Tianjiao; Zhao, Yutong; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Chun, Jerold

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, the accumulation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling through its G protein–coupled receptors is critical for its various biological functions. Recently, LPA and LPA receptor 1 were implicated in lung fibrogenesis. However, the role of other LPA receptors in fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we use a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model to investigate the roles of LPA2 in pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, we found that LPA2 knockout (Lpar2−/−) mice were protected against bleomycin-induced lung injury, fibrosis, and mortality, compared with wild-type control mice. Furthermore, LPA2 deficiency attenuated the bleomycin-induced expression of fibronectin (FN), α–smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen in lung tissue, as well as levels of IL-6, transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β), and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In human lung fibroblasts, the knockdown of LPA2 attenuated the LPA-induced expression of TGF-β1 and the differentiation of lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, resulting in the decreased expression of FN, α-SMA, and collagen, as well as decreased activation of extracellular regulated kinase 1/2, Akt, Smad3, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Moreover, the knockdown of LPA2 with small interfering RNA also mitigated the TGF-β1–induced differentiation of lung fibroblasts. In addition, LPA2 deficiency significantly attenuated the bleomycin-induced apoptosis of alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells in the mouse lung. Together, our data indicate that the knockdown of LPA2 attenuated bleomycin-induced lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, and this may be related to an inhibition of the LPA-induced expression of TGF-β and the activation and differentiation of fibroblasts. PMID:23808384

  20. Astilbin alleviates sepsis-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting the expression of macrophage inhibitory factor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Sun, Li-Chao; Zhi, Li-da; Wen, Qian-Kuan; Qi, Zhi-Wei; Yan, Sheng-Tao; Li, Wen; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2017-10-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by severe infections. Astilbin is a dihydroflavonol derivative found in many medicinal and food plants with multiple pharmacological functions. To investigate the effects of astilbin on sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI), cecal ligation and puncture was performed on rats to establish a sepsis-induced ALI model; these rats were then treated with astilbin at different concentrations. Lung injury scores, including lung wet/dry ratio, protein leakage, myeloperoxidase activity, and inflammatory cell infiltration were determined to evaluate the effects of astilbin on sepsis-induced ALI. We found that astilbin treatment significantly attenuates sepsis-induced lung injury and improves survival rate, lung injury scores, lung wet/dry ratio, protein leakage, myeloperoxidase activity, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Astilbin treatment also dramatically decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Further, astilbin treatment inhibited the expression and production of macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), which inhibits the inflammatory response. Collectively, these data suggest that astilbin has a protective effect against sepsis-induced ALI by inhibiting MIF-mediated inflammatory responses. This study provides a molecular basis for astilbin as a new medical treatment for sepsis-induced ALI.

  1. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P<0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P<0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  2. Protective effect of salvianolate on lung injury induced by ischemia reperfusion injury of liver in mice

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    Zheng-xin WANG

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the protective effect of salvianolate on lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion(IR injury in mice and its underlying mechanisms.Methods A hepatic IR model of mice was reproduced,and 24 animals were assigned into 3 groups(8 each: sham operation(SO group,control group and salvianolate(SV group.Just before ischemia induction,animals in SV group received salvianolate injection at a dose of 60 mg/kg via tail vein,while in control group the mice received normal saline with an equal volume,and in SO group the mice received the same operation as in SV group but without producing liver ischemia.Four hours after reperfusion,the serum,liver and lung tissue were collected.The alanine aminotransferase(ALT and aspartate aminotransferase(AST levels in serum were detected and the histological changes in liver and lung were examined.The wet-to-dry weight ratio of pulmonary tissue was measured.The contents of tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α,interleukin(IL-6,IL-1β and IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA,and the relative mRNA levels of TNF-α,IL-6,IL-1β and IL-10 in pulmonary tissue were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR.The activaty of transcription factor NF-κB was measured with Western blotting analysis.Results No significant pathologic change was found in mice of SO group.Compared with the mice in control group,those in SV group exhibited lower levels of ALT and AST(P < 0.01,lighter histological changes in liver and lung(P < 0.05,lower levels of wet-to-dry weight ratio of lung tissue(P < 0.05,lower expression levels of TNF-α,IL-6,IL-1β and IL-10 in BALF and lung tissue(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01.Further examination demonstrated that the activity of NF-κB in SV group was significantly down-regulated as compared with that in control group.Conclusion Salvianolate can attenuate lung injury induced by hepatic IR in mice,the mechanism may inclade

  3. Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT/SLCO2A1 Protects the Lung from Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis.

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    Takeo Nakanishi

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin (PG E2 exhibits an anti-fibrotic effect in the lung in response to inflammatory reactions and is a high-affinity substrate of PG transporter (SLCO2A1. The present study aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological relevance of SLCO2A1 to bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Slco2a1 protein was expressed in airway and alveolar type I (ATI and II (ATII epithelial cells, and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry further demonstrated cell surface expression of Slco2a1 in ATI cells in wild type (WT C57BL/6 mice. PGE2 uptake activity was abrogated in ATI-like cells from Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1-/- mice, which was clearly observed in the cells from WT mice. Furthermore, the PGE2 concentrations in lung tissues were lower in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice. The pathological relevance of SLCO2A1 was further studied in mouse BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis models. BLM (1 mg/kg or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline was intratracheally injected into WT and Slco2a1-/- mice, and BLM-induced fibrosis was evaluated on day 14. BLM induced more severe fibrosis in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice, as indicated by thickened interstitial connective tissue and enhanced collagen deposition. PGE2 levels were higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but lower in lung tissues of Slco2a1-/- mice. Transcriptional upregulation of TGF-β1 was associated with enhanced gene transcriptions of downstream targets including plasminogen activator inhitor-1. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant activation of protein kinase C (PKC δ along with a modest activation of Smad3 in lung from Slco2a1-/- mice, suggesting a role of PKCδ associated with TGF-β signaling in aggravated fibrosis in BLM-treated Slco2a1-/- mice. In conclusion, pulmonary PGE2 disposition is largely regulated by SLCO2A1, demonstrating that SLCO2A1 plays a critical role in protecting the lung from BLM-induced fibrosis.

  4. Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT/SLCO2A1) Protects the Lung from Bleomycin-Induced Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Mimura, Reo; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Uetoko, Yuka; Komori, Hisakazu; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 exhibits an anti-fibrotic effect in the lung in response to inflammatory reactions and is a high-affinity substrate of PG transporter (SLCO2A1). The present study aimed to evaluate the pathophysiological relevance of SLCO2A1 to bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Slco2a1 protein was expressed in airway and alveolar type I (ATI) and II (ATII) epithelial cells, and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry further demonstrated cell surface expression of Slco2a1 in ATI cells in wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. PGE2 uptake activity was abrogated in ATI-like cells from Slco2a1-deficient (Slco2a1-/-) mice, which was clearly observed in the cells from WT mice. Furthermore, the PGE2 concentrations in lung tissues were lower in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice. The pathological relevance of SLCO2A1 was further studied in mouse BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis models. BLM (1 mg/kg) or vehicle (phosphate buffered saline) was intratracheally injected into WT and Slco2a1-/- mice, and BLM-induced fibrosis was evaluated on day 14. BLM induced more severe fibrosis in Slco2a1-/- than in WT mice, as indicated by thickened interstitial connective tissue and enhanced collagen deposition. PGE2 levels were higher in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but lower in lung tissues of Slco2a1-/- mice. Transcriptional upregulation of TGF-β1 was associated with enhanced gene transcriptions of downstream targets including plasminogen activator inhitor-1. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant activation of protein kinase C (PKC) δ along with a modest activation of Smad3 in lung from Slco2a1-/- mice, suggesting a role of PKCδ associated with TGF-β signaling in aggravated fibrosis in BLM-treated Slco2a1-/- mice. In conclusion, pulmonary PGE2 disposition is largely regulated by SLCO2A1, demonstrating that SLCO2A1 plays a critical role in protecting the lung from BLM-induced fibrosis.

  5. Low-Dose Radiation Induces Cell Proliferation in Human Embryonic Lung Fibroblasts but not in Lung Cancer Cells

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    Xinyue Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormesis and adaptive responses are 2 important biological effects of low-dose ionizing radiation (LDR. In normal tissue, LDR induces hormesis as evinced by increased cell proliferation; however, whether LDR also increases tumor cell proliferation needs to be investigated. In this study, cell proliferation was assayed by total cell numbers and the Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3′ -kinase(PI3K-Akt (PI3K/AKT phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Human embryonic lung fibroblast 2BS and lung cancer NCI-H446 cell lines were irradiated with LDR at different doses (20-100 mGy. In response to 20 to 75 mGy X-rays, cell proliferation was significantly increased in 2BS but not in NCI-H446 cells. In 2BS cells, LDR at 20 to 75 mGy also stimulated phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK pathway proteins including ERK, MEK, and Raf and of the PI3K/AKT pathway protein AKT. To test whether ERK1/2 and AKT pathway activation was involved in the stimulation of cell proliferation in 2BS cells, the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways were inhibited using their specific inhibitors, U0126 and LY294002. U0126 decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and LY294002 decreased the phosphorylation of AKT; each could significantly inhibit LDR-induced 2BS cell proliferation. However, LDR did not stimulate these kinases, and kinase inhibitors also did not affect cell proliferation in the NCI-H446 cells. These results suggest that LDR stimulates cell proliferation via the activation of both MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in 2BS but not in NCI-H446 cells. This finding implies the potential for applying LDR to protect normal tissues from radiotherapy without diminishing the efficacy of tumor therapy.

  6. Cthrc1 lowers pulmonary collagen associated with bleomycin-induced fibrosis and protects lung function.

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    Binks, Andrew P; Beyer, Megyn; Miller, Ryan; LeClair, Renee J

    2017-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) involves collagen deposition that results in a progressive decline in lung function. This process involves activation of Smad2/3 by transforming growth factor (TGF)- β and Wnt signaling pathways. Collagen Triple Helix Repeat-Containing-1 (Cthrc1) protein inhibits Smad2/3 activation. To test the hypothesis that Cthrc1 limits collagen deposition and the decline of lung function, Cthrc1 knockout (Cthrc1 -/- ) and wild-type mice (WT) received intratracheal injections of 2.5 U/kg bleomycin or saline. Lungs were harvested after 14 days and Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) TGF- β , IL1- β , hydroxyproline and lung compliance were assessed. TGF- β was significantly higher in Cthrc1 -/- compared to WT (53.45 ± 6.15 ng/mL vs. 34.48 ± 11.05) after saline injection. Bleomycin injection increased TGF- β in both Cthrc1 -/- (66.37 ± 8.54 ng/mL) and WT (63.64 ± 8.09 ng/mL). Hydroxyproline was significantly higher in Cthrc1 -/- compared to WT after bleomycin-injection (2.676 ± 0.527  μ g/mg vs. 1.889 ± 0.520, P  = 0.028). Immunohistochemistry of Cthrc1 -/- lung sections showed intracellular localization and activation of β -catenin Y654 in areas of tissue remodeling that was not evident in WT Lung compliance was significantly reduced by bleomycin in Cthrc1 -/- but there was no effect in WT animals. These data suggest Cthrc1 reduces fibrotic tissue formation in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and the effect is potent enough to limit the decline in lung function. We conclude that Cthrc1 plays a protective role, limiting collagen deposition and could form the basis of a novel therapy for pulmonary fibrosis. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  7. Impact of ventilation-induced lung injury on the structure and function of lamellar bodies.

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    Milos, Scott; Khazaee, Reza; McCaig, Lynda A; Nygard, Karen; Gardiner, Richard B; Zuo, Yi Y; Yamashita, Cory; Veldhuizen, Ruud

    2017-09-01

    Alterations to the pulmonary surfactant system have been observed consistently in ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI) including composition changes and impairments in the surface tension reducing ability of the isolated extracellular surfactant. However, there is limited information about the effects of VILI on the intracellular form of surfactant, the lamellar body. It is hypothesized that VILI leads to alterations of lamellar body numbers and function. To test this hypothesis, rats were randomized to one of three groups, nonventilated controls, control ventilation, and high tidal volume ventilation (VILI). Following physiological assessment to confirm lung injury, isolated lamellar bodies were tested for surfactant function on a constrained sessile drop surfactometer. A separate cohort of animals was used to fix the lungs followed by examination of lamellar body numbers and morphology using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed an impaired ability of reducing surface tension for the lamellar bodies isolated from the VILI group as compared with the two other groups. The morphological assessment revealed that the number, and the relative area covered by, lamellar bodies were significantly decreased in animals with VILI animals as compared with the other groups. It is concluded that VILI causes significant alterations to lamellar bodies. It is speculated that increased secretion causes a depletion of lamellar bodies that cannot be compensated by de novo synthesis of surfactant in these injured lungs. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Pistacia chinensis: A Potent Ameliorator of CCl4 Induced Lung and Thyroid Toxicity in Rat Model

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    Kiran Naz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study protective effect of ethanol extract of Pistacia chinensis bark (PCEB was investigated in rats against CCl4 induced lung and thyroid injuries. PCEB dose dependently inhibited the rise of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, hydrogen peroxide, nitrite, and protein content and restored the levels of antioxidant enzymes, that is, catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and quinone reductase in both lung and thyroid tissues of CCl4 treated rats. Decrease in number of leukocytes, neutrophils, and hemoglobin and T3 and T4 content as well as increase in monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes count with CCl4 were restored to normal level with PCEB treatment. Histological study of CCl4 treated rats showed various lung injuries like rupture of alveolar walls and bronchioles, aggregation of fibroblasts, and disorganized Clara cells. Similarly, histology of CCl4 treated thyroid tissues displayed damaged thyroid follicles, hypertrophy, and colloidal depletion. However, PCEB exhibited protective behaviour for lungs and thyroid, with improved histological structure in a dose dependant manner. Presence of three known phenolic compounds, that is, rutin, tannin, and gallic acid, and three unknown compounds was verified in thin layer chromatographic assessment of PCEB. In conclusion, P. chinensis exhibited antioxidant activity by the presence of free radical quenching constituents.

  9. Targeted Metabolomics Identifies Pharmacodynamic Biomarkers for BIO 300 Mitigation of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury.

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    Jones, Jace W; Jackson, Isabel L; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Kaytor, Michael D; Kane, Maureen A

    2017-10-02

    Biomarkers serve a number of purposes during drug development including defining the natural history of injury/disease, serving as a secondary endpoint or trigger for intervention, and/or aiding in the selection of an effective dose in humans. BIO 300 is a patent-protected pharmaceutical formulation of nanoparticles of synthetic genistein being developed by Humanetics Corporation. The primary goal of this metabolomic discovery experiment was to identify biomarkers that correlate with radiation-induced lung injury and BIO 300 efficacy for mitigating tissue damage based upon the primary endpoint of survival. High-throughput targeted metabolomics of lung tissue from male C57L/J mice exposed to 12.5 Gy whole thorax lung irradiation, treated daily with 400 mg/kg BIO 300 for either 2 weeks or 6 weeks starting 24 h post radiation exposure, were assayed at 180 d post-radiation to identify potential biomarkers. A panel of lung metabolites that are responsive to radiation and able to distinguish an efficacious treatment schedule of BIO 300 from a non-efficacious treatment schedule in terms of 180 d survival were identified. These metabolites represent potential biomarkers that could be further validated for use in drug development of BIO 300 and in the translation of dose from animal to human.

  10. Toona Sinensis Extracts Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in the Human Lung Large Cell Carcinoma

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    Cheng-Yuan Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Toona sinensis extracts have been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects in human ovarian cancer cell lines, human promyelocytic leukemia cells and human lung adenocarcinoma. Its safety has also been confirmed in animal studies. However, its anti-cancer properties in human lung large cell carcinoma have not been studied. Here, we used a powder obtained by freeze-drying the super-natant of centrifuged crude extract from Toona sinensis leaves (TSL-1 to treat the human lung carcinoma cell line H661. Cell viability was evaluated by the 3-(4-,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that TSL-1 blocked H661 cell cycle progression. Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of cell cycle proteins that promote cell cycle progression, including cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin D1, and increased the expression of proteins that inhibit cell cycle progression, including p27. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that TSL-1 induced H661 cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that TSL-1 reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2, and degraded the DNA repair protein, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase. TSL-1 shows potential as a novel therapeutic agent or for use as an adjuvant for treating human lung large cell carcinoma.

  11. Structure Activity Relationships of Engineered Nanomaterials in inducing NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Chronic Lung Fibrosis.

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    Wang, Xiang; Sun, Bingbing; Liu, Sijin; Xia, Tian

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that certain engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) could induce chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis, however, the key structure activity relationships (SARs) that the link the physicochemical properties and the fibrogenic effects have not been thoroughly reviewed. Recently, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the SAR, and it has been demonstrated that ENMs including rare earth oxides (REOs), graphene and graphene oxides (GO), fumed silica, as well as high aspect ratio materials (such as CNTs and CeO 2 nanowires etc .) could trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β production in macrophages and subsequent series of profibrogenic cytokines, i.e. TGF-β1 and PDGF-AA in vitro and in vivo , resulting in synergistically cell-cell communication among macrophages, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts in a process named epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and collagen deposition in the lung as the adverse outcomes. Interestingly, different ENMs engage a range of distinct pathways leading to the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β production in macrophages, which include frustrated phagocytosis, physical piercing, plasma membrane perturbation or damage to lysosomes due to high aspect ratio, particle structure, surface reactivity, transformation, etc . Furthermore, ENM's properties determine the biopersistence in vivo, which also play a major role in chronic lung fibrosis. Based on these progresses, we reviewed recent findings in the literature on the major SARs leading to chronic lung effects.

  12. Rapamycin Regulates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Damage in SP-C-Deficient Mice

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    Satish K. Madala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to the distal respiratory epithelium has been implicated as an underlying cause of idiopathic lung diseases. Mutations that result in SP-C deficiencies are linked to a small subset of spontaneous and familial cases of interstitial lung disease (ILD and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Gene-targeted mice that lack SP-C (−/− develop an irregular ILD-like disease with age and are a model of the human SP-C related disease. In the current study, we investigated whether rapamycin could ameliorate bleomycin-induced fibrosis in the lungs of −/− mice. +/+ and −/− mice were exposed to bleomycin with either preventative administration of rapamycin or therapeutic administration beginning eight days after the bleomycin injury. Rapamycin-treatment increased weight loss and decreased survival of bleomycin-treated +/+ and −/− mice. Rapamycin did not reduce the fibrotic disease in the prophylactic or rescue experiments of either genotype of mice. Further, rapamycin treatment augmented airway resistance and reduced lung compliance of bleomycin-treated −/− mice. Rapamycin treatment was associated with an increased expression of profibrotic Th2 cytokines and reduced expression of INF-γ. These findings indicate that novel therapeutics will be required to treat individuals with SP-C deficient ILD/IPF.

  13. Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): Volutrauma and Molecular Effects

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    Carrasco Loza, R; Villamizar Rodríguez, G; Medel Fernández, N

    2015-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical condition secondary to a variety of insults leading to a severe acute respiratory failure and high mortality in critically ill patients. Patients with ARDS generally require mechanical ventilation, which is another important factor that may increase the ALI (acute lung injury) by a series of pathophysiological mechanisms, whose common element is the initial volutrauma in the alveolar units, and forming part of an entity known clinically as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Injured lungs can be partially protected by optimal settings and ventilation modes, using low tidal volume (VT) values and high positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP). The benefits in ARDS outcomes caused by these interventions have been confirmed by several prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and are attributed to reduction in volutrauma. The purpose of this article is to present an approach to VILI pathophysiology focused on the effects of volutrauma that lead to lung injury and the ‘mechanotransduction’ mechanism. A more complete understanding about the molecular effects that physical forces could have, is essential for a better assessment of existing strategies as well as the development of new therapeutic strategies to reduce the damage resulting from VILI, and thereby contribute to reducing mortality in ARDS. PMID:26312103

  14. Nitric oxide mediates lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

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    Kao, Shang Jyh; Peng, Tai-Chu; Lee, Ru Ping; Hsu, Kang; Chen, Chao-Fuh; Hung, Yu-Kuen; Wang, David; Chen, Hsing I

    2003-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to play a role in lung injury (LI) induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). However, controversy exists as to the potential beneficial or detrimental effect of NO. In the present study, an in situ, perfused rat lung model was used to study the possible role of NO in the LI induced by I/R. The filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight gain (LWG), protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage (PCBAL), and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) were measured to evaluate the degree of pulmonary hypertension and LI. I/R resulted in increased Kfc, LWG, and PCBAL. These changes were exacerbated by inhalation of NO (20-30 ppm) or 4 mM L-arginine, an NO precursor. The permeability increase and LI caused by I/R could be blocked by exposure to 5 mM N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; a nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor), and this protective effect of L-NAME was reversed with NO inhalation. Inhaled NO prevented the increase in PAP caused by I/R, while L-arginine had no such effect. L-NAME tended to diminish the I/R-induced elevation in PAP, but the suppression was not statistically significant when compared to the values in the I/R group. These results indicate that I/R increases Kfc and promotes alveolar edema by stimulating endogenous NO synthesis. Exogenous NO, either generated from L-arginine or delivered into the airway, is apparently also injurious to the lung following I/R. Copyright 2003 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. The role of lymphocytes in radiotherapy-induced adverse late effects in the lung

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    Florian Wirsdörfer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis are dose-limiting side effects of thoracic irradiation. Thoracic irradiation triggers acute and chronic environmental lung changes that are shaped by the damage response of resident cells, by the resulting reaction of the immune system, and by repair processes. Although considerable progress has been made during the last decade in defining involved effector cells and soluble mediators, the network of pathophysiological events and the cellular cross-talk linking acute tissue damage to chronic inflammation and fibrosis still require further definition. Infiltration of cells from the innate and adaptive immune systems is a common response of normal tissues to ionizing radiation. Herein lymphocytes represent a versatile and wide-ranged group of cells of the adaptive immune system that can react under specific conditions in various ways and participate in modulating the lung environment by adopting pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory or even pro- or anti-fibrotic phenotypes. The present review provides an overview on published data about the role of lymphocytes in radiation-induced lung disease and related damage-associated pulmonary diseases with a focus on T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. We also discuss the suspected dual role of specific lymphocyte subsets during the pneumonitic phase and fibrotic phase that is shaped by the environmental conditions and the interaction and the intercellular cross-talk between cells from the innate and adaptive immune systems and (damaged resident epithelial cells and stromal cells (e.g. endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, fibroblasts. Finally, we highlight potential therapeutic targets suited to counteract pathological lymphocyte responses to prevent or treat radiation-induced lung disease.

  16. Cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in mice is associated with prolyl endopeptidase, an enzyme involved in collagen breakdown

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    Koelink, Pim J.; Henricks, Paul A. J.; Jackson, Patricia L.; Nijkamp, Frans P.; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Folkerts, Gert

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP), derived from the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, plays an important role in neutrophil recruitment to the lung. PGP formation is a multistep process involving neutrophils, metalloproteinases (MMPs), and prolyl endopeptidase (PE). This cascade of events is now investigated in the development of lung emphysema. A/J mice were whole body exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 wk. After 20 wk or 8 wk after smoking cessation, animals were killed, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were collected to analyze the neutrophilic airway inflammation, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels. Lung tissue degradation was assessed by measuring the mean linear intercept. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the peptide l-arginine-threonine-arginine (RTR), which binds to PGP sequences, on the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days of smoke exposure. Neutrophilic airway inflammation was induced by cigarette smoke exposure. MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, PE activity, and PGP levels were elevated in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. PE was highly expressed in epithelial and inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils) in lung tissue of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. After smoking cessation, the neutrophil influx, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels were decreased or reduced to normal levels. Moreover, RTR inhibited the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days' smoke exposure. In the present murine model of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema, it is demonstrated for the first time that all relevant components (neutrophils, MMP-8, MMP-9, PE) involved in PGP formation from collagen are upregulated in the airways. Together with MMPs, PE may play an important role in the formation of PGP and thus in the pathophysiology of lung emphysema. PMID:21112944

  17. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates acute lung injury induced by high mobility group box-1.

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    Yuxiao Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI is considered to be the major cause of respiratory failure in critically ill patients. Clinical studies have found that in patients with sepsis and after hemorrhage, the elevated level of high mobility group box-1(HMGB-1 in their circulation is highly associated with ALI, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Extracellular HMGB-1 has cytokine-like properties and can bind to Toll-like Receptor-4 (TLR4, which was reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI. The aim of this study was to determine whether HMGB-1 directly contributes to ALI and whether TLR4 signaling pathway is involved in this process. METHODS: Recombinant human HMGB-1 (rhHMGB-1 was used to induce ALI in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Lung specimens were collected 2 h after HMGB-1 treatment. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, TLR4 protein, and TLR4 mRNA in lungs as well as pathological changes of lung tissue were assessed. In cell studies, the alveolar macrophage cell line, NR8383, was collected 24 h after rhHMGB-1 treatment and the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in cultured medium as well as TLR4 protein and mRNA levels in the cell were examined. TLR4-shRNA-lentivirus was used to inhibit TLR4 expression, and a neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibody was used to neutralize rhHMGB-1 both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Features of lung injury and significant elevation of IL-1β and TNF-α levels were found in lungs of rhHMGB-1-treated animals. Cultured NR8383 cells were activated by rhHMGB-1 treatment and resulted in the release of IL-1β and TNF-α. TLR4 expression was greatly up-regulated by rhHMGB-1. Inhibition of TLR4 or neutralization of HMGB1 with a specific antibody also attenuated the inflammatory response induced by HMGB-1 both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSION: HMGB-1 can activate alveolar macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines and induce ALI through a mechanism that relies on TLR-4.

  18. Oxidative injury induced by cadmium sulfide nanoparticles in A549 cells and rat lungs.

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    Wang, Junfeng; Jiang, Chunyang; Alattar, Mohamed; Hu, Xiaoli; Ma, Dong; Liu, Huibin; Meng, Chunyan; Cao, Fuyuan; Li, Weihong; Li, Qingzhao

    2015-01-01

    Rod-shaped cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) are becoming increasingly important in many industrial fields, but their potential hazards remain unknown. This study aimed to explore the patterns and mechanisms of lung injury induced by CdS NPs. A549 cells and rats were exposed to two types of CdS NPs with a same diameter of 20-30 nm but different lengths, CdS1 (80-100 nm) and CdS2 (110-130 nm). The using doses were included 10 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml two types of CdS NPs for cellular experiments and five times dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for rats' exposure. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue staining were used to detect the A549 cell mortality percentage. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined in A549 cell. The vigor of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected both in A549 cells and in rats' serum and lung tissues. The cellular morphological changes were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the pathological changes were observed in rats' lung tissue. CdS NPs significantly increased A549 cell mortality percentage. The CdS NPs also increased the levels of ROS and MDA content, whereas they decreased SOD and CAT activities. In parallel, similar changes of the contents of MDA, SOD and CAT were also observed in the sera and lung tissues of CdS NP-treated rats. The cellular TEM detection revealed that two types of CdS nanorods appeared as orderly arranged rounded fat droplets separately and leading to nucleus condensation (CdS1). These cellular and rats' tissues changes in the group treated with CdS1 were more significant than the CdS2 groups. Furthermore, CdS NPs induced many pathological changes, including emphysematous changes in rat lung tissue. Especially visible lung consolidation can be observed in the CdS1 group. CdS NPs induce oxidative injury in the respiratory system, and their toxic effects may be related to grain length.

  19. Cocaine enhances HIV-1 gp120-induced lymphatic endothelial dysfunction in the lung.

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    Zhang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Susan; Yu, Jinlong; Kuzontkoski, Paula M; Groopman, Jerome E

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary complications are common in both AIDS patients and cocaine users. We addressed the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which HIV and cocaine may partner to induce their deleterious effects. Using primary lung lymphatic endothelial cells (L-LECs), we examined how cocaine and HIV-1 gp120, alone and together, modulate signaling and functional properties of L-LECs. We found that brief cocaine exposure activated paxillin and induced cytoskeletal rearrangement, while sustained exposure increased fibronectin (FN) expression, decreased Robo4 expression, and enhanced the permeability of L-LEC monolayers. Moreover, incubating L-LECs with both cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 exacerbated hyperpermeability, significantly enhanced apoptosis, and further impaired in vitro wound healing as compared with cocaine alone. Our studies also suggested that the sigma-1 receptor (Sigma-1R) and the dopamine-4 receptor (D4R) are involved in cocaine-induced pathology in L-LECs. Seeking clinical correlation, we found that FN levels in sera and lung tissue of HIV(+) donors were significantly elevated as compared to HIV(-) donors. Our in vitro data demonstrate that cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 induce dysfunction and damage of lung lymphatics, and suggest that cocaine use may exacerbate pulmonary edema and fibrosis associated with HIV infection. Continued exploration of the interplay between cocaine and HIV should assist the design of therapeutics to ameliorate HIV-induced pulmonary disorders within the drug using population. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  20. Bax translocation into mitochondria during dihydroartemisinin(DHA)-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

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    Lu, Ying-ying; Chen, Tong-sheng; Qu, Jun-Le

    2009-02-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua, has been shown to possess promising anticancer activities and induce cancer cell death through apoptotic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study was investigated in human lung adenocarconoma ASTC-a-1 cell line and aimed to determine whether the apoptotic process was mediated by Bax activation and translocation during DHA-induced apoptosis. In this study, DHA induced a time-dependent apoptotic cell death, which was assayed by Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) and Hoechst 33258 staining. Detection of Bax aggregation and translocation to mitochondria was observed in living cells which were co-transfected with GFP-Bax and Dsred-mito plasmid using confocal fluorescence microscope technique. Overall, these results demonstrated that Bax activation and translocation to mitochondria occurred during DHA-induced apoptosis.

  1. Clozapine Induces Autophagic Cell Death in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

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    Yu-Chun Yin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Previous studies have shown that patients with schizophrenia have a lower incidence of cancer than the general population, and several antipsychotics have been demonstrated to have cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these results remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of clozapine, which is often used to treat patients with refractory schizophrenia, on the growth of non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines and to examine whether autophagy contributes to its effects. Methods: A549 and H1299 cells were treated with clozapine, and cell cytotoxicity, cell cycle and autophagy were then assessed. The autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 and siRNA-targeted Atg7 were used to determine the role of autophagy in the effect of clozapine. Results: Clozapine inhibited A549 and H1299 proliferation and increased p21 and p27 expression levels, leading to cell cycle arrest. Clozapine also induced a high level of autophagy, but not apoptosis, in both cell lines, and the growth inhibitory effect of clozapine was blunted by treatment with the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or with an siRNA targeting atg7. Conclusions: Clozapine inhibits cell proliferation by inducing autophagic cell death in two non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines. These findings may provide insights into the relationship between clozapine use and the lower incidence of lung cancer among patients with schizophrenia.

  2. Piperine induces apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells via p53-dependent mitochondrial signaling pathway.

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    Lin, Yi; Xu, Jianping; Liao, Hehe; Li, Lu; Pan, Lei

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of piperine on human lung cancer A549 cells and to explore its mechanisms. Piperine was found to exert the greatest cytotoxic effect against A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it showed no effect on WI38 human lung fibroblasts. This cell growth-inhibitory effect might be attributed to cell DNA damage and cytotoxic effects. Besides, piperine had the ability to cause cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and to activate caspase-3 and caspase-9 cascades in A549 cells. Furthermore, piperine-induced apoptosis could be blocked by the broad caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk in majority. In addition, piperine treatment decreased Bcl-2 protein expression, but increased Bax protein expression in A549 cells, which were positively correlated with an elevated expression of p53 compared to control. Taken together, these results suggested that piperine could induce p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 cascades, as well as increasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Thus, piperine could be developed as an effective antitumor agent in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer without toxicity to the host.

  3. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice.

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    Li, X X; Jiang, D Y; Huang, X X; Guo, S L; Yuan, W; Dai, H P

    2015-12-21

    The specific role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis of mice, a model of human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, has not been characterized. We injected bleomycin intratracheally into TLR4 knockout (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. Twenty-one days after injection, mice were sacrificed and their lungs were harvested for pathological, hydroxyproline, mRNA expression, and collagen I analyses. Body weight changes and mortality were observed. Light microscopy showed that lung fibrosis was minimal in TLR4(-/-) compared to that in WT mice on day 21 after bleomycin instillation. The Ashcroft score was significantly lower in TLR4(-/-) than in WT mice (3.667 ± 0.730 vs 4.945 ± 0.880, P bleomycin injection (0.281 ± 0.022 vs 0.371 ± 0.047, P bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice expressed significantly lower type I collagen mRNA levels (mesenchymal marker; 11.069 ± 2.627 vs 4.589 ± 1.440, P Bleomycin-treated TLR4(-/-) mice had a significantly lower mortality rate on day 21 than WT mice (33 vs 75%, P 0.05). Thus, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis is TLR4-dependent and TLR4 promoted fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice.

  4. Protective effect of Launaea procumbens (L. on lungs against CCl4-induced pulmonary damages in rat

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    Khan Rahmat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Launaea procumbens (L. is traditionally used in the treatment of various human ailments including pulmonary damages. The present study was arranged to evaluate the role of Launaea procumbens methanol extract (LME against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced oxidative pulmonary damages in rat. Methods 36 Sprague–Dawley male rats (170-180 g were randomly divided into 06 groups. After a week of acclamization, group I was remained untreated while group II was given olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p. and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO orally, groups III, IV, V and VI were administered CCl4, 3 ml/kg body weight (30% in olive oil i.p.. Groups IV, V were treated with 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg of LME whereas group VI was administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of rutin (RT after 48 h of CCl4 treatment for four weeks. Antioxidant profile in lungs were evaluated by estimating the activities of antioxidant enzymes; catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, glutathione reductase (GSR, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, quinone reductase (QR and reduced glutathione (GSH. CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS with conjugation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA damages, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs counts and histopathology. Results Administration of CCl4 for 6 weeks significantly (p  reduced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration while increased TBARS contents and DNA damages in lung samples. Co-treatment of LME and rutin restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH contents. Changes in TBARS concentration and DNA fragmentation were significantly (p  decreased with the treatment of LME and rutin in lung. Changes induced with CCl4 in histopathology of lungs were significantly reduced with co-treatment of LME and rutin. Conclusion Results of present study revealed

  5. Rac2 is involved in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation leading to pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizmendi, Narcy; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Chung, Kerri L; Davidson, Courtney; Rey-Parra, Juliana; Chao, Danny V; Thebaud, Bernard; Lacy, Paige; Vliagoftis, Harissios

    2014-06-27

    Pulmonary fibrotic diseases induce significant morbidity and mortality, for which there are limited therapeutic options available. Rac2, a ras-related guanosine triphosphatase expressed mainly in hematopoietic cells, is a crucial molecule regulating a diversity of mast cell, macrophage, and neutrophil functions. All these cell types have been implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis in a variety of animal models. For the studies described here we hypothesized that Rac2 deficiency protects mice from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. To determine the role of Rac2 in pulmonary fibrosis we used a bleomycin-induced mouse model. Anesthetized C57BL/6 wild type and rac2-/- mice were instilled intratracheally with bleomycin sulphate (1.25 U/Kg) or saline as control. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected at days 3 and 7 of treatment and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). On day 21 after bleomycin treatment, we measured airway resistance and elastance in tracheotomized animals. Lung sections were stained for histological analysis, while homogenates were analyzed for hydroxyproline and total collagen content. BLM-treated rac2-/- mice had reduced MMP-9 levels in the BAL on day 3 and reduced neutrophilia and TNF and CCL3/MIP-1α levels in the BAL on day 7 compared to BLM-treated WT mice. We also showed that rac2-/- mice had significantly lower mortality (30%) than WT mice (70%) at day 21 of bleomycin treatment. Lung function was diminished in bleomycin-treated WT mice, while it was unaffected in bleomycin-treated rac2-/- mice. Histological analysis of inflammation and fibrosis as well as collagen and hydroxyproline content in the lungs did not show significant differences between BLM-treated rac2-/- and WT and mice that survived to day 21. Rac2 plays an important role in bleomycin-induced lung injury. It is an important signaling molecule leading to BLM-induced mortality and it also mediates the physiological changes seen in the airways

  6. Isoliquiritigenin protects against sepsis-induced lung and liver injury by reducing inflammatory responses.

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    Chen, Xiong; Cai, Xueding; Le, Rongrong; Zhang, Man; Gu, Xuemei; Shen, Feixia; Hong, Guangliang; Chen, Zimiao

    2018-02-05

    Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases worldwide, often leads to multiple organ failure, mainly due to uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Despite accumulating knowledge obtained in recent years, effective drugs to treat sepsis in the clinic are still urgently needed. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a chalcone compound, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about the effects of ISL on sepsis and its related complications. In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of ISL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injuries and identified the mechanisms underlying these effects. ISL inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse primary peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) exposed to LPS. In an acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model, ISL prevented LPS-induced structural damage and inflammatory cell infiltration. Additionally, pretreatment with ISL attenuated sepsis-induced lung and liver injury, accompanied by a reduction in inflammatory responses. Moreover, these protective effects were mediated by the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway-mediated inhibition of inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that ISL may be a potential therapeutic agent for sepsis-induced injuries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Diethylcarbamazine Attenuates the Development of Carrageenan-Induced Lung Injury in Mice

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    Edlene Lima Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethylcarbamazine (DEC is an antifilarial drug with potent anti-inflammatory properties as a result of its interference with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of DEC in a mouse model of acute inflammation (carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The injection of carrageenan into the pleural cavity induced the accumulation of fluid containing a large number of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs as well as infiltration of PMNs in lung tissues and increased production of nitrite and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased expression of interleukin-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Carrageenan also induced the expression of nuclear factor-κB. The oral administration of DEC (50 mg/Kg three days prior to the carrageenan challenge led to a significant reduction in all inflammation markers. The present findings demonstrate that DEC is a potential drug for the treatment of acute lung inflammation.

  8. Poor Baseline Pulmonary Function May Not Increase the Risk of Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity

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    Wang, Jingbo [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Cao, Jianzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yuan, Shuanghu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ji, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Arenberg, Douglas [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dai, Jianrong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Stanton, Paul; Tatro, Daniel; Ten Haken, Randall K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Luhua, E-mail: wlhwq@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academic Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fengkong@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan/Ann Arbor Veterans Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Poor pulmonary function (PF) is often considered a contraindication to definitive radiation therapy for lung cancer. This study investigated whether baseline PF was associated with radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving conformal radiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients treated with CRT and tested for PF at baseline were eligible. Baseline predicted values of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed. Additional factors included age, gender, smoking status, Karnofsky performance status, coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tumor location, histology, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, and mean lung dose (MLD) were evaluated for RILT. The primary endpoint was symptomatic RILT (SRILT), including grade ≥2 radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Results: There was a total of 260 patients, and SRILT occurred in 58 (22.3%) of them. Mean FEV1 values for SRILT and non-SRILT patients were 71.7% and 65.9% (P=.077). Under univariate analysis, risk of SRILT increased with MLD (P=.008), the absence of COPD (P=.047), and FEV1 (P=.077). Age (65 split) and MLD were significantly associated with SRILT in multivariate analysis. The addition of FEV1 and age with the MLD-based model slightly improved the predictability of SRILT (area under curve from 0.63-0.70, P=.088). Conclusions: Poor baseline PF does not increase the risk of SRILT, and combining FEV1, age, and MLD may improve the predictive ability.

  9. Carvacrol and Pomegranate Extract in Treating Methotrexate-Induced Lung Oxidative Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Şen, Velat; Bozkurt, Mehtap; Türkçü, Gül; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Sezgi, Cengizhan; Abakay, Özlem; Kaplan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carvacrol (CRV) and pomegranate extract (PE) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced lung injury in rats. Material/Methods A total of 32 male rats were subdivided into 4 groups: control (group I), MTX treated (group II), MTX+CRV treated (group III), and MTX+PE treated (group IV). A single dose of 73 mg/kg CRV was administered intraperitoneally to rats in group III on Day 1 of the investigation. To group IV, a dose of 225 mg/kg of PE was administered via orogastric gavage once daily over 7 days. A single dose of 20 mg/kg of MTX was given intraperitoneally to groups II, III, and IV on Day 2. The total duration of experiment was 8 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured from rat lung tissues and cardiac blood samples. Results Serum and lung specimen analyses demonstrated that MDA, TOS, and OSI levels were significantly greater in group II relative to controls. Conversely, the TAC level was significantly reduced in group II when compared to the control group. Pre-administering either CRV or PE was associated with decreased MDA, TOS, and OSI levels and increased TAC levels compared to rats treated with MTX alone. Histopathological examination revealed that lung injury was less severe in group III and IV relative to group II. Conclusions MTX treatment results in rat lung oxidative damage that is partially counteracted by pretreatment with either CRV or PE. PMID:25326861

  10. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in alveolar macrophages contributes to mechanical stretch-induced lung inflammation and injury.

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    Wu, Jianbo; Yan, Zhibo; Schwartz, David E; Yu, Jingui; Malik, Asrar B; Hu, Guochang

    2013-04-01

    Mechanical ventilation of lungs is capable of activating the innate immune system and inducing sterile inflammatory response. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β is among the definitive markers for accurately identifying ventilator-induced lung inflammation. However, mechanisms of IL-1β release during mechanical ventilation are unknown. In this study, we show that cyclic stretch activates the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes and induces the release of IL-1β in mouse alveolar macrophages via caspase-1- and TLR4-dependent mechanisms. We also observed that NADPH oxidase subunit gp91(phox) was dispensable for stretch-induced cytokine production, whereas mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species was required for stretch-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release. Further, mechanical ventilation activated the NLRP3 inflammasomes in mouse alveolar macrophages and increased the production of IL-1β in vivo. IL-1β neutralization significantly reduced mechanical ventilation-induced inflammatory lung injury. These findings suggest that the alveolar macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome may sense lung alveolar stretch to induce the release of IL-1β and hence may contribute to the mechanism of lung inflammatory injury during mechanical ventilation.

  11. Adrenaline stimulates the proliferation and migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards the LPS-induced lung injury

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    Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Zhiming; Qian, Mengjia; Wang, Lingyan; Bai, Chunxue; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could modulate inflammation in experimental lung injury. On the other hand, adrenergic receptor agonists could increase DNA synthesis of stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic role of adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. BMSCs were cultured with adrenergic receptor agonists or antagonists. Suspensions of lung cells or sliced lung tissue from animals with or without LPS-induced injury were co-cultured with BMSCs. LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages were co-cultured with BMSCs (with adrenaline stimulation or not) in Transwell for 6 hrs. A preliminary animal experiment was conducted to validate the findings in ex vivo study. We found that adrenaline at 10 μM enhanced proliferation of BMSCs through both α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Adrenaline promoted the migration of BMSCs towards LPS-injured lung cells or lung tissue. Adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs decreased the inflammation of LPS-stimulated macrophages, probably through the expression and secretion of several paracrine factors. Adrenaline reduced the extent of injury in LPS-injured rats. Our data indicate that adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs might contribute to the prevention from acute lung injury through the activation of adrenergic receptors, promotion of proliferation and migration towards injured lung, and modulation of inflammation. PMID:24684532

  12. Adrenaline stimulates the proliferation and migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards the LPS-induced lung injury.

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    Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Zhiming; Qian, Mengjia; Wang, Lingyan; Bai, Chunxue; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could modulate inflammation in experimental lung injury. On the other hand, adrenergic receptor agonists could increase DNA synthesis of stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic role of adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. BMSCs were cultured with adrenergic receptor agonists or antagonists. Suspensions of lung cells or sliced lung tissue from animals with or without LPS-induced injury were co-cultured with BMSCs. LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages were co-cultured with BMSCs (with adrenaline stimulation or not) in Transwell for 6 hrs. A preliminary animal experiment was conducted to validate the findings in ex vivo study. We found that adrenaline at 10 μM enhanced proliferation of BMSCs through both α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Adrenaline promoted the migration of BMSCs towards LPS-injured lung cells or lung tissue. Adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs decreased the inflammation of LPS-stimulated macrophages, probably through the expression and secretion of several paracrine factors. Adrenaline reduced the extent of injury in LPS-injured rats. Our data indicate that adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs might contribute to the prevention from acute lung injury through the activation of adrenergic receptors, promotion of proliferation and migration towards injured lung, and modulation of inflammation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in Cigarette Smoke Exposure and Influenza A Virus Infection-Induced Lung Injury

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    Bhandary, Yashodhar P.; Shetty, Shwetha K.; Marudamuthu, Amarnath S.; Midde, Krishna K.; Ji, Hong-Long; Shams, Homoyoun; Subramaniam, Renuka; Fu, Jian; Idell, Steven; Shetty, Sreerama

    2015-01-01

    Parenchymal lung inflammation and airway and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis are associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE), which contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Epidemiological studies indicate that people exposed to chronic cigarette smoke with or without COPD are more susceptible to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. We found increased p53, PAI-1 and apoptosis in AECs, with accumulation of macrophages and neutrophils in the lungs of patients with COPD. In Wild-type (WT) mice with passive CSE (PCSE), p53 and PAI-1 expression and apoptosis were increased in AECs as was lung inflammation, while those lacking p53 or PAI-1 resisted AEC apoptosis and lung inflammation. Further, inhibition of p53-mediated induction of PAI-1 by treatment of WT mice with caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSP) reduced PCSE-induced lung inflammation and reversed PCSE-induced suppression of eosinophil-associated RNase1 (EAR1). Competitive inhibition of the p53-PAI-1 mRNA interaction by expressing p53-binding 3’UTR sequences of PAI-1 mRNA likewise suppressed CS-induced PAI-1 and AEC apoptosis and restored EAR1 expression. Consistent with PCSE-induced lung injury, IAV infection increased p53, PAI-1 and apoptosis in AECs in association with pulmonary inflammation. Lung inflammation induced by PCSE was worsened by subsequent exposure to IAV. Mice lacking PAI-1 that were exposed to IAV showed minimal viral burden based on M2 antigen and hemagglutination analyses, whereas transgenic mice that overexpress PAI-1 without PCSE showed increased M2 antigen and inflammation after IAV infection. These observations indicate that increased PAI-1 expression promotes AEC apoptosis and exacerbates lung inflammation induced by IAV following PCSE. PMID:25932922

  14. Bioinformatics methods for learning radiation-induced lung inflammation from heterogeneous retrospective and prospective data.

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    Spencer, Sarah J; Bonnin, Damian Almiron; Deasy, Joseph O; Bradley, Jeffrey D; El Naqa, Issam

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy outcomes are determined by complex interactions between physical and biological factors, reflecting both treatment conditions and underlying genetics. Recent advances in radiotherapy and biotechnology provide new opportunities and challenges for predicting radiation-induced toxicities, particularly radiation pneumonitis (RP), in lung cancer patients. In this work, we utilize datamining methods based on machine learning to build a predictive model of lung injury by retrospective analysis of treatment planning archives. In addition, biomarkers for this model are extracted from a prospective clinical trial that collects blood serum samples at multiple time points. We utilize a 3-way proteomics methodology to screen for differentially expressed proteins that are related to RP. Our preliminary results demonstrate that kernel methods can capture nonlinear dose-volume interactions, but fail to address missing biological factors. Our proteomics strategy yielded promising protein candidates, but their role in RP as well as their interactions with dose-volume metrics remain to be determined.

  15. Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease in a patient with follicular lymphoma: A rare case report

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    Suhas Aagre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD-20 antigen expressed in more than 90% of all B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL. We report a case of 33-year-old female without any comorbidities, newly diagnosed with stage IIIB follicular lymphoma treated with rituximab-based chemotherapy. Patient developed exertional dyspnea and dry cough after the fourth cycle of rituximab-based chemotherapy. Diagnostic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT of the lungs revealed bilateral patchy ground glass opacities suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD. It was managed successfully with supplemental oxygen and corticosteroids with discontinuation of the Rituximab. Extensive review of the literature did not reveal ample of material on rituximab-induced ILD (RTX-ILD.

  16. Lung injury induced by sepsis: lessons learned from large animal models and future directions for treatment.

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    Sadowitz, Benjamin; Roy, Shreyas; Gatto, Louis A; Habashi, Nader; Nieman, Gary

    2011-12-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain common complications of sepsis. Unfortunately, development of effective pharmacologic and ventilatory treatment strategies for sepsis-induced ALI/ARDS has not made significant progress over the past several decades. One of the major reasons for this conundrum involves the animal models used as platforms for testing new treatment strategies. High-fidelity, clinically translational, large animal models are essential for developing treatments that will ultimately be successful in human clinical trials. Additionally, treatment strategies purely based on pharmacologic intervention are largely destined for failure as the redundancies in the systemic inflammatory response largely negate the effectiveness of a single-action drug. Conversely, a treatment strategy based on the appropriate use of mechanical ventilation affects lung physiology on a breath-to-breath basis and has the potential to treat, and even prevent, the ALI/ARDS associated with sepsis.

  17. Diet-Induced Obesity Reprograms the Inflammatory Response of the Murine Lung to Inhaled Endotoxin

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    Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Karin, Norman J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Zangar, Richard C.; Lee, Monika K.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Pounds, Joel G.; Corley, Richard A.

    2013-03-01

    The co-occurrence of environmental factors is common in complex human diseases and, as such, understanding the molecular responses involved is essential to determine risk and susceptibility to disease. We have investigated the key biological pathways that define susceptibility for pulmonary infection during obesity in diet-induced obese (DIO) and regular weight (RW) C57BL/6 mice exposed to inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS induced a strong inflammatory response in all mice as indicated by elevated cell counts of macrophages and neutrophils and levels of proinflammatory cytokines (MDC, MIP-1γ, IL-12, RANTES) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Additionally, DIO mice exhibited 50% greater macrophage cell counts, but decreased levels of the cytokines, IL-6, TARC, TNF-α, and VEGF relative to RW mice. Microarray analysis of lung tissue showed over half of the LPS-induced expression in DIO mice consisted of genes unique for obese mice, suggesting that obesity reprograms how the lung responds to subsequent insult. In particular, we found that obese animals exposed to LPS have gene signatures showing increased inflammatory and oxidative stress response and decreased antioxidant capacity compared with RW. Because signaling pathways for these responses can be common to various sources of environmentally induced lung damage, we further identified biomarkers that are indicative of specific toxicant exposure by comparing gene signatures after LPS exposure to those from a parallel study with cigarette smoke. These data show obesity may increase sensitivity to further insult and that co-occurrence of environmental stressors result in complex biosignatures that are not predicted from analysis of individual exposures.

  18. Low tidal volume ventilation preconditioning ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

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    Zhang, Y; Gao, J; Wang, C-J; Zhou, L-J; Fang, X-Z; Yang, L-Q

    2016-07-01

    Effects of low tidal volume (LTV) ventilation preconditioning in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI) have not been studied. We investigated the effect of LTV ventilation pre-treatment on ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups (n = 8 each): (1) sham rats injected (i.p.) with 0.9% (physiologic) saline; sham rats pre-treated with tidal volume 6 ml/kg ventilation for 1 h followed by injection (i.p.) of physiologic saline (mechanical ventilation; MV-saline group); (2) LPS group (rats injected with LPS (i.p.); rats pre-treated with tidal volume 6 ml/kg ventilation for 1 h before injection (i.p.) with LPS (MV-LPS group). Animals were observed for 6 h. ALI extent was evaluated by lung wet-to-dry ratio, Evans Blue Dye extravasation, and histologic examination. We measured levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. Apoptotic index (AI) and the expression of pulmonary RhoA, ROCK2 mRNA, and ROCK1 protein in lung alveolar cells was determined. Lipopolysaccharide caused severe ALI, as evidenced by increases in ALI extent, impairment of pulmonary functions, and increases in pulmonary levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and AI. LTV ventilation preconditioning mitigated LPS-induced increases in release of pulmonary pro-inflammatory cytokines and AI of alveolar cells. Expression of pulmonary RhoA, ROCK2 mRNA, and ROCK1 protein was upregulated by LPS and reduced by LTV ventilation pre-treatment. Low tidal volume ventilation preconditioning can attenuate release of pulmonary pro-inflammatory cytokines and decrease the AI induced by severe sepsis. Early protection seems to be mediated partly through inhibition of activation of a Rho pathway. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adiponectin attenuates lung fibroblasts activation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat.

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    Rong Yao

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common complications of paraquat (PQ poisoning, which demands for more effective therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests adiponectin (APN may be a promising therapy against fibrotic diseases. In the current study, we determine whether the exogenous globular APN isoform protects against pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-treated mice and human lung fibroblasts, and dissect the responsible underlying mechanisms. BALB/C mice were divided into control group, PQ group, PQ + low-dose APN group, and PQ + high-dose APN group. Mice were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after PQ treatment. We compared pulmonary histopathological changes among different groups on the basis of fibrosis scores, TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA pulmonary content via Western blot and real-time quantitative fluorescence-PCR (RT-PCR. Blood levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were determined by ELISA. Human lung fibroblasts WI-38 were divided into control group, PQ group, APN group, and APN receptor (AdipoR 1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA group. Fibroblasts were collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after PQ exposure for assay. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined via Kit-8 (CCK-8 and fluorescein Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling. The protein and mRNA expression level of collagen type III, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. APN treatment significantly decreased the lung fibrosis scores, protein and mRNA expression of pulmonary TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA content, and blood MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Pretreatment with APN significantly attenuated the reduced cell viability and up-regulated collagen type III expression induced by PQ in lung fibroblasts, (p<0.05. APN pretreatment up-regulated AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, expression in WI-38 fibroblasts. AdipoR1 siRNA abrogated APN-mediated protective effects in PQ-exposed fibroblasts. Taken together, our data suggests APN protects against PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a

  20. Magnetite Nanoparticles Induce Genotoxicity in the Lungs of Mice via Inflammatory Response

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    Yukari Totsuka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials are useful for their characteristic properties and are commonly used in various fields. Nanosized-magnetite (MGT is widely utilized in medicinal and industrial fields, whereas their toxicological properties are not well documented. A safety assessment is thus urgently required for MGT, and genotoxicity is one of the most serious concerns. In the present study, we examined genotoxic effects of MGT using mice and revealed that DNA damage analyzed by a comet assay in the lungs of imprinting control region (ICR mice intratracheally instilled with a single dose of 0.05 or 0.2 mg/animal of MGT was approximately two- to three-fold higher than that of vehicle-control animals. Furthermore, in gpt delta transgenic mice, gpt mutant frequency (MF in the lungs of the group exposed to four consecutive doses of 0.2 mg MGT was significantly higher than in the control group. Mutation spectrum analysis showed that base substitutions were predominantly induced by MGT, among which G:C to A:T transition and G:C to T:A transversion were the most significant. To clarify the mechanism of mutation caused by MGT, we analyzed the formation of DNA adducts in the lungs of mice exposed to MGT. DNA was extracted from lungs of mice 3, 24, 72 and 168 h after intratracheal instillation of 0.2 mg/body of MGT, and digested enzymatically. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG and lipid peroxide-related DNA adducts were quantified by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Compared with vehicle control, these DNA adduct levels were significantly increased in the MGT-treated mice. In addition to oxidative stress- and inflammation related-DNA adduct formations, inflammatory cell infiltration and focal granulomatous formations were also observed in the lungs of MGT-treated mice. Based on these findings, it is suggested that inflammatory responses are probably involved in the genotoxicity induced by MGT in the lungs of mice.

  1. Ventilator-induced lung injury is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome.

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    Kuipers, Maria T; Aslami, Hamid; Janczy, John R; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F; Vlaar, Alexander P J; Wolthuis, Esther K; Choi, Goda; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Flavell, Richard A; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Bresser, Paul; Leemans, Jaklien C; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J; Wieland, Catharina W

    2012-05-01

    The innate immune response is important in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) but the exact pathways involved are not elucidated. The authors studied the role of the intracellular danger sensor NLRP3 inflammasome. NLRP3 inflammasome gene expression was analyzed in respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages obtained from ventilated patients (n = 40). In addition, wild-type and NLRP3 inflammasome deficient mice were randomized to low tidal volume (approximately 7.5 ml/kg) and high tidal volume (approximately 15 ml/kg) ventilation. The presence of uric acid in lung lavage, activation of caspase-1, and NLRP3 inflammasome gene expression in lung tissue were investigated. Moreover, mice were pretreated with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, glibenclamide, or vehicle before start of mechanical ventilation. VILI endpoints were relative lung weights, total protein in lavage fluid, neutrophil influx, and pulmonary and systemic cytokine and chemokine concentrations. Data represent mean ± SD. Mechanical ventilation up-regulated messenger RNA expression levels of NLRP3 in alveolar macrophages (1.0 ± 0 vs. 1.70 ± 1.65, P less than 0.05). In mice, mechanical ventilation increased both NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein messenger RNA levels, respectively (1.08 ± 0.55 vs. 3.98 ± 2.89; P less than 0.001 and 0.95 ± 0.53 vs. 6.0 ± 3.55; P less than 0.001), activated caspase-1, and increased uric acid levels (6.36 ± 1.85 vs. 41.9 ± 32.0, P less than 0.001). NLRP3 inflammasome deficient mice displayed less VILI due to high tidal volume mechanical ventilation compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, treatment with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist or glibenclamide reduced VILI. Mechanical ventilation induced a NLRP3 inflammasome dependent pulmonary inflammatory response. NLRP3 inflammasome deficiency partially protected mice from VILI.

  2. siRNA delivery targeting to the lung via agglutination-induced accumulation and clearance of cationic tetraamino fullerene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kosuke; Okamoto, Koji; Doi, Kent; Harano, Koji; Noiri, Eisei; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2014-05-12

    The efficient treatment of lung diseases requires lung-selective delivery of agents to the lung. However, lung-selective delivery is difficult because the accumulation of micrometer-sized carriers in the lung often induces inflammation and embolization-related toxicity. Here we demonstrate a lung-selective delivery system of small interfering RNA (siRNA) by controlling the size of carrier vehicle in blood vessels. The carrier is made of tetra(piperazino)fullerene epoxide (TPFE), a water-soluble cationic tetraamino fullerene. TPFE and siRNA form sub-micrometer-sized complexes in buffered solution and these complexes agglutinate further with plasma proteins in the bloodstream to form micrometer-sized particles. The agglutinate rapidly clogs the lung capillaries, releases the siRNA into lung cells to silence expression of target genes, and is then cleared rapidly from the lung after siRNA delivery. We applied our delivery system to an animal model of sepsis, indicating the potential of TPFE-based siRNA delivery for clinical applications.

  3. Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy in amiodarone-induced acute lung toxicity: comparison with Tc-99m DTPA inhalation scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Gamze Kapa; Ozdogan, O; Guneri, S; Tamc, B; Durak, H

    2006-11-01

    This case demonstrates the use of Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy in amiodarone (AD)-induced lung toxicity. The aim of this presentation is also to discuss different scintigraphic modalities in the diagnosis and follow up in AD-induced lung toxicity. A 77-year-old man, with a suspicious AD-induced acute lung toxicity, underwent Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy and Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy. Rapid alveolar clearance of Tc-99m DTPA was found during AD therapy and increased lung uptake of Tc-99m HMPAO was also demonstrated. These findings supported the diagnosis AD lung toxicity. After cessation of therapy, Tc-99m DTPA alveolar clearance was decreased. Although there was some decrease in L/H and L/B ratios of Tc-99m HMPAO after 3 weeks of stopping therapy, Tc-99m HMPAO uptake in the lungs was still continued. This finding may be the result of ongoing pulmonary inflammation as a result of the long half-life of AD. Compared with Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation scintigraphy, Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy may have a role in the diagnosis of AD lung toxicity. Nevertheless, there is a need for longitudinal studies investigating patients under AD therapy using follow-up Tc-9m HMPAO scintigraphy.

  4. Characterization of lung stem cell niches in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In lung fibrosis, alveolar epithelium degenerates progressively. The goal of regenerative medicine is to aid repair and regeneration of the lost tissues in parenchyma and airways for which mobilization of tissue-resident endogenous or bone marrow-derived exogenous stem cells niches is a critical step. We used a lung injury model in mice to identify and characterize functional lung stem cells to clarify how stem cell niches counteract this degenerative process. Methods Short term assay (STA) - Bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis were assessed in a model of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in wild-type (WT), gp91phox-/- (NOX-/-), and gp91phoxMMP-12 double knockout (DKO) mice on C57Bl/6 background and Hoechst 33322 dye effluxing side population (SP) cells characterized. Long term assay (LTA) - In a bleomycin induced lung fibrosis model in C57Bl6 mice, the number of mature cells were quantified over 7, 14, and 21 days in bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB), lung parenchyma (LP) and brochoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid by FACS. BrdU pulse chase experiment (10 weeks) was used to identify label retaining cells (LRC). BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were characterized by hematopoietic (CD45+), pluripotency (TTF1+, Oct3/4+, SSEA-3+, SSEA-4+, Sca1+, Lin-, CD34+, CD31+), and lung lineage-specific (SPC+, AQP-5+, CC-10+) markers. Clonogenic potential of LRCs were measured by CFU-c assays. Results STA- In lung, cellularity increased by 5-fold in WT and 6-fold in NOX-/- by d7. Lung epithelial markers were very low in expression in all SP flow sorted from lung of all three genotypes cultured ex vivo. (p bleomycin, the SP in NOX-/- lung increased by 3.6-fold over WT where it increased by 20-fold over controls. Type I and II alveolar epithelial cells progressively diminished in all three genotypes by d21 post-bleomycin. D7 post-bleomycin, CD45+ cells in BALf in NOX-/- was 1.7-fold > WT, 57% of which were Mf that decreased by 67% in WT and 83% in NOX-/- by d21.LTA

  5. Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Attenuates Seawater Instillation-Induced Acute Lung Injury via the Nrf2 Pathway in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Mengyuan; Zhang, Sheng; Wu, Lifeng; Huan, Le; Huang, Fenglou; Cui, Yunliang; Lin, Zhaofen

    2016-12-01

    Seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury involves oxidative stress and apoptosis. Although hydrogen gas inhalation is reportedly protective in multiple types of lung injury, the effect of hydrogen gas inhalation on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of hydrogen gas on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury and explored the mechanisms involved. Rabbits were randomly assigned to control, hydrogen (2 % hydrogen gas inhalation), seawater (3 mL/kg seawater instillation), and seawater + hydrogen (3 mL/kg seawater instillation + 2 % hydrogen gas inhalation) groups. Arterial partial oxygen pressure and lung wet/dry weight ratio were detected. Protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels were determined. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to monitor changes in lung specimens, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. In addition, NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) 2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein expression were measured, and apoptosis was assessed by measuring caspase-3 expression and using terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. Hydrogen gas inhalation markedly improved lung endothelial permeability and decreased both MDA content and MPO activity in lung tissue; these changes were associated with decreases in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in BALF. Hydrogen gas also alleviated histopathological changes and cell apoptosis. Moreover, Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions were significantly activated and caspase-3 expression was inhibited. These results demonstrate that hydrogen gas inhalation attenuates seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury in rabbits and that the protective effects observed may be related to the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  6. Extent and computed tomography appearance of early radiation induced lung injury for non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Lübeck Christiansen, Rasmus; Asmussen, Jon Thor

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study investigates the extent and appearance of radiologic injury in the lung after radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and correlates radiologic response with clinical and dosimetric factors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible follow-up CT...... scans acquired up to six months after radiotherapy were evaluated for radiologic injuries in 220 NSCLC patients. Radiologic injuries were divided into three categories: (1) interstitial changes, (2) ground-glass opacity, or (3) consolidation. The relationship between the fraction of injured lung of each...... category and clinical or dosimetric factors was investigated. RESULTS: Radiological injuries of category 1-3 were found in 67%, 52%, and 51% of the patients, and the mean (and maximum) fraction of injured lung was 4.4% (85.9%), 2.4% (46.0%), and 2.1% (22.9%), respectively. Traditional lung dose metrics...

  7. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury in rats is greater after acid instillation than after sepsis-induced acute lung injury, but does not increase systemic inflammation: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuiper Jan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine whether acute lung injury from direct and indirect origins differ in susceptibility to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI and resultant systemic inflammatory responses. Methods Rats were challenged by acid instillation or 24 h of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, followed by mechanical ventilation (MV with either a low tidal volume (Vt of 6 mL/kg and 5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; LVt acid, LVt sepsis or with a high Vt of 15 mL/kg and no PEEP (HVt acid, HVt sepsis. Rats sacrificed immediately after acid instillation and non-ventilated septic animals served as controls. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were monitored. After 4 h, lung wet to dry (W/D weight ratios, histological lung injury and plasma mediator concentrations were measured. Results Oxygenation and lung compliance decreased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. Additionally, W/D weight ratios and histological lung injury scores increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. MV increased W/D weight ratio and lung injury score, however this effect was mainly attributable to HVt ventilation after acid instillation. Similarly, effects of HVt on oxygenation were only observed after acid instillation. HVt during sepsis did not further affect oxygenation, compliance, W/D weight ratio or lung injury score. Plasma interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α concentrations were increased after acid instillation as compared to sepsis, but plasma intercellular adhesion molecule-1 concentration increased during sepsis only. In contrast to lung injury parameters, no additional effects of HVt MV after acid instillation on plasma mediator concentrations were observed. Conclusions During MV more severe lung injury develops after acid instillation as compared to sepsis. HVt causes VILI after acid instillation, but not during sepsis. However, this differential effect was not observed in the systemic release of

  8. Caffeine modulates glucocorticoid-induced expression of CTGF in lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrholz, Markus; Glaser, Kirsten; Speer, Christian P; Seidenspinner, Silvia; Ottensmeier, Barbara; Kunzmann, Steffen

    2017-03-23

    Although caffeine and glucocorticoids are frequently used to treat chronic lung disease in preterm neonates, potential interactions are largely unknown. While anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are well defined, their impact on airway remodeling is less characterized. Caffeine has been ascribed to positive effects on airway inflammation as well as remodeling. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) plays a key role in airway remodeling and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. The current study addressed the impact of glucocorticoids on the regulation of CTGF in the presence of caffeine using human lung epithelial and fibroblast cells. The human airway epithelial cell line H441 and the fetal lung fibroblast strain IMR-90 were exposed to different glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, budesonide, betamethasone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone) and caffeine. mRNA and protein expression of CTGF, TGF-β1-3, and TNF-α were determined by means of quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. H441 cells were additionally treated with cAMP, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, and the selective phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4 inhibitor cilomilast to mimic caffeine-mediated PDE inhibition. Treatment with different glucocorticoids (1 μM) significantly increased CTGF mRNA levels in H441 (p caffeine (10 mM), both glucocorticoid-induced mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in IMR-90 cells (p caffeine alone significantly suppressed basal expression of CTGF mRNA and protein in IMR-90 cells. Caffeine-induced reduction of CTGF mRNA expression seemed to be independent of cAMP levels, adenylyl cyclase activation, or PDE-4 inhibition. While dexamethasone or caffeine treatment did not affect TGF-β1 mRNA in H441 cells, increased expression of TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 mRNA was detected upon exposure to dexamethasone or dexamethasone and caffeine, respectively. Moreover

  9. Inhibition of cholinephosphotransferase activity in lung injury induced by 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, a mustard analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha Roy, Somdutta; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Kabir, Syeda; Rajaratnam, Veera; Smith, Milton; Das, Salil K

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to mustard gas causes inflammatory lung diseases including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A defect in the lung surfactant system has been implicated as a cause of ARDS. A major component of lung surfactant is dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and the major pathway for its synthesis is the cytidine diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) pathway. It is not known whether the ARDS induced by mustard gas is mediated by its direct effects on some of the enzymes in the CDP-choline pathway. In the present study we investigated whether mustard gas exposure modulates the activity of cholinephosphotransferase (CPT) the terminal enzyme by CDP-choline pathway. Adult guinea pigs were intratracheally infused with single doses of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) (0.5 mg/kg b.wt. in ethanol). Control animals were injected with vehicles only. The animals were sacrificed at different time and the lungs were removed after perfusion with physiological saline. CPT activity increased steadily up to 4 h and then decreased at 6 h and stabilized at 7 days in both mitochondria and microsomes. To determine the dose-dependent effect of CEES on CPT activity we varied the doses of CEES (0.5-6.0 mg/kg b.wt.) and sacrificed the animals at 1 h and 4 h. CPT activity showed a dose-dependent increase of up to 2.0 mg/kg b.wt. of CEES in both mitochondria and microsomes then decreased at 4.0 mg/kg b.wt. For further studies we used a fixed single dose of CEES (2.0 mg/kg b.wt.) and fixed exposure time (7 days). Lung injury was determined by measuring the leakage of iodinated-bovine serum albumin into lung tissue and expressed as the permeability index. CEES exposure (2.0 mg/kg b.wt. for 7 days) caused a significant decrease of both CPT gene expression (approximately 1.7-fold) and activity (approximately 1.5-fold) in the lung. This decrease in CPT activity was not associated with any mutation of the CPT gene. Previously we reported that CEES infusion increased the production of

  10. Lung stress, strain, and energy load: engineering concepts to understand the mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Gary F; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader M; Gatto, Louis A

    2016-12-01

    It was recently shown that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mortality has not been reduced in over 15 years and remains ~40 %, even with protective low tidal volume (LVt) ventilation. Thus, there is a critical need to develop novel ventilation strategies that will protect the lung and reduce ARDS mortality. Protti et al. have begun to analyze the impact of mechanical ventilation on lung tissue using engineering methods in normal pigs ventilated for 54 h. They used these methods to assess the impact of a mechanical breath on dynamic and static global lung strain and energy load. Strain is the change in lung volume in response to an applied stress (i.e., Tidal Volume-Vt). This study has yielded a number of exciting new concepts including the following: (1) Individual mechanical breath parameters (e.g., Vt or Plateau Pressure) are not directly correlated with VILI but rather any combination of parameters that subject the lung to excessive dynamic strain and energy/power load will cause VILI; (2) all strain is not equal; dynamic strain resulting in a dynamic energy load (i.e., kinetic energy) is more damaging to lung tissue than static strain and energy load (i.e., potential energy); and (3) a critical consideration is not just the size of the Vt but the size of the lung that is being ventilated by this Vt. This key concept merits attention since our current protective ventilation strategies are fixated on the priority of keeping the Vt low. If the lung is fully inflated, a large Vt is not necessarily injurious. In conclusion, using engineering concepts to analyze the impact of the mechanical breath on the lung is a novel new approach to investigate VILI mechanisms and to help design the optimally protective breath. Data generated using these methods have challenged some of the current dogma surrounding the mechanisms of VILI and of the components in the mechanical breath necessary for lung protection.

  11. Bax is not involved in the resveratrol-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2010-02-01

    Resveratrol (RV) is a natural plant polyphenol widely present in foods such as grapes, wine, and peanuts. Previous studies indicate that RV has an ability to inhibit various stages of carcinogenesis and eliminate preneoplastic cells in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of RV-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cell. In this report, we analyzed whether Bax translocation from cytoplasm to mitochondria during RV-induced apoptosis in single living cell using onfocal microscopey. Cells were transfected with GFP-Bax plasmid. Cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay was used to assess the inhibition of RV on the cells viability. Apoptotic activity of RV was detected by Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Our results showed that RV induced a dose-dependent apoptosis in which Bax did not translocate to mitochondrias.

  12. MiR-122 Induces Radiosensitization in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debin Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MiR-122 is a novel tumor suppresser and its expression induces cell cycle arrest, or apoptosis, and inhibits cell proliferation in multiple cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. Radioresistance of cancer cell leads to the major drawback of radiotherapy for NSCLC and the induction of radiosensitization could be a useful strategy to fix this problem. The present work investigates the function of miR-122 in inducing radiosensitization in A549 cell, a type of NSCLC cells. MiR-122 induces the radiosensitization of A549 cells. MiR-122 also boosts the inhibitory activity of ionizing radiation (IR on cancer cell anchor-independent growth and invasion. Moreover, miR-122 reduced the expression of its targeted genes related to tumor-survival or cellular stress response. These results indicate that miR-122 would be a novel strategy for NSCLC radiation-therapy.

  13. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.; Bell, Matthew W.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tokar, Erik J., E-mail: tokare@niehs.nih.gov

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  14. Diosmetin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury through Activating the Nrf2 Pathway and Inhibiting the NLRP3 Inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinmei; Ci, Xinxin; Wen, Zhongmei; Peng, Liping

    2017-04-06

    Acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common clinical syndrome of diffuse lung inflammation with high mortality rates and limited therapeutic methods. Diosmetin, an active component from Chinese herbs, has long been noticed because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diosmetin on LPS-induced ALI model and unveil the possible mechanisms. Our results revealed that pretreatment with diosmetin effectively alleviated lung histopathological changes, which were further evaluated by lung injury scores. Diosmetin also decreased lung wet/ dry ratios, as well as total protein levels, inflammatory cell infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine (eg. TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) overproduction in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Additionally, increased MPO, MDA and ROS levels induced by LPS were also markly suppressed by diosmetin. Furthermore, diosmetin significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 along with its target gene HO-1 and blocked the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the lung tissues, which might be central to the protective effects of diosmetin. Further supporting these results, in vitro experiments also showed that diosmetin activated Nrf2 and HO-1, as well as inhibited the NLRP3 inflammasome in both RAW264.7 and A549 cells. The present study highlights the protective effects of diosmetin on LPS-induced ALI via activation of Nrf2 and inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome, bringing up the hope of its application as a therapeutic drug towards LPS-induced ALI.

  15. Perillyl alcohol suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Oh; Okunishi, Katsuhide; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Harada, Hiroaki; Kawahata, Kimito; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko [Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Dohi, Makoto, E-mail: mdohi-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Institute of Respiratory Immunology, Shibuya Clinic for Respiratory Diseases and Allergology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits the mevalonate pathway. •We examined whether POH suppresses immune responses with a mouse model of asthma. •POH treatment during sensitization suppressed Ag-induced priming of CD4{sup +} T cells. •POH suppressed airway eosinophila and cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes. -- Abstract: Perillyl alcohol (POH) is an isoprenoid which inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, key enzymes that induce conformational and functional changes in small G proteins to conduct signal production for cell proliferation. Thus, it has been tried for the treatment of cancers. However, although it affects the proliferation of immunocytes, its influence on immune responses has been examined in only a few studies. Notably, its effect on antigen-induced immune responses has not been studied. In this study, we examined whether POH suppresses Ag-induced immune responses with a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. POH treatment of sensitized mice suppressed proliferation and cytokine production in Ag-stimulated spleen cells or CD4{sup +} T cells. Further, sensitized mice received aerosolized OVA to induce allergic airway inflammation, and some mice received POH treatment. POH significantly suppressed indicators of allergic airway inflammation such as airway eosinophilia. Cytokine production in thoracic lymph nodes was also significantly suppressed. These results demonstrate that POH suppresses antigen-induced immune responses in the lung. Considering that it exists naturally, POH could be a novel preventive or therapeutic option for immunologic lung disorders such as asthma with minimal side effects.

  16. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Merajuddin; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Nayak, Vadithe Lakshma; Kamal, Ahmed; Adil, Syed F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano composites (PGE-HRG-Ag) were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE) as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.

  17. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-jun Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara (RJFs in acute lung injury (ALI mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mg/kg per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3 in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide triggers nuclear import of Lpcat1 to regulate inducible gene expression in lung epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bryon; Kaercher, Leah; Snavely, Courtney; Zhao, Yutong; Zou, Chunbin

    2012-07-26

    To report that Lpcat1 plays an important role in regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inducible gene transcription. Gene expression in Murine Lung Epithelial MLE-12 cells with LPS treatment or Haemophilus influenza and Escherichia coli infection was analyzed by employing quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques. Nucleofection was used to deliver Lenti-viral system to express or knock down Lpcat1 in MLE cells. Subcellular protein fractionation and Western blotting were utilized to study Lpcat1 nuclear relocation. Lpcat1 translocates into the nucleus from the cytoplasm in murine lung epithelia (MLE) after LPS treatment. Haemophilus influenza and Escherichia coli, two LPS-containing pathogens that cause pneumonia, triggered Lpcat1 nuclear translocation from the cytoplasm. The LPS inducible gene expression profile was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after silencing Lpcat1 or overexpression of the enzyme in MLE cells. We detected that 17 out of a total 38 screened genes were upregulated, 14 genes were suppressed, and 7 genes remained unchanged in LPS treated cells in comparison to controls. Knockdown of Lpcat1 by shRNA dramatically changed the spectrum of the LPS inducible gene transcription, as 18 genes out of 38 genes were upregulated, of which 20 genes were suppressed or unchanged. Notably, in Lpcat1 overexpressed cells, 25 genes out of 38 genes were reduced in the setting of LPS treatment. These observations suggest that Lpcat1 relocates into the nucleus in response to bacterial infection to differentially regulate gene transcriptional repression.

  19. Prediction of lung cells oncogenic transformation for induced radon progeny alpha particles using sugarscape cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradaran, Samaneh; Maleknasr, Niaz; Setayeshi, Saeed; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2014-01-01

    Alpha particle irradiation from radon progeny is one of the major natural sources of effective dose in the public population. Oncogenic transformation is a biological effectiveness of radon progeny alpha particle hits. The biological effects which has caused by exposure to radon, were the main result of a complex series of physical, chemical, biological and physiological interactions. The cellular and molecular mechanisms for radon-induced carcinogenesis have not been clear yet. Various biological models, including cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenesis effects of radon progeny alpha particles. In this paper, sugars cape cellular automata have been presented for computational study of complex biological effect of radon progeny alpha particles in lung bronchial airways. The model has included mechanism of DNA damage, which has been induced alpha particles hits, and then formation of transformation in the lung cells. Biomarkers were an objective measure or evaluation of normal or abnormal biological processes. In the model, the metabolism rate of infected cell has been induced alpha particles traversals, as a biomarker, has been followed to reach oncogenic transformation. The model results have successfully validated in comparison with "in vitro oncogenic transformation data" for C3H 10T1/2 cells. This model has provided an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular changes, at the various stages in radiation carcinogenesis, involving human cells. It has become well known that simulation could be used to investigate complex biomedical systems, in situations where traditional methodologies were difficult or too costly to employ.

  20. Effects of ultrafine particles-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Clara cell protein (CC16), the main secretory product of bronchiolar Clara cells, plays an important protective role in the respiratory tract against oxidative stress and inflammation. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (EC-UFP)-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells and CC16 in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Methods Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were exposed to EC-UFP (507 μg/m3 for 24 h) or filtered air immediately prior to allergen challenge and systemically treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or vehicle prior and during EC-UFP inhalation. CC16 was measured up to one week after allergen challenge in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in serum. The relative expression of CC16 and TNF-α mRNA were measured in lung homogenates. A morphometrical analysis of mucus hypersecretion and electron microscopy served to investigate goblet cell metaplasia and Clara cell morphological alterations. Results In non sensitized mice EC-UFP inhalation caused alterations in CC16 concentration, both at protein and mRNA level, and induced Clara cell hyperplasia. In sensitized mice, inhalation of EC-UFP prior to OVA challenge caused most significant alterations of BALF and serum CC16 concentration, BALF total protein and TNF-α relative expression compared to relevant controls; their Clara cells displayed the strongest morphological alterations and strongest goblet cell metaplasia occurred in the small airways. NAC strongly reduced both functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in EC-UFP-induced augmentation of functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation. PMID:20420656

  1. Effects of ultrafine particles-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Francesca; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; van Miert, Erik; Takenaka, Shinji; Karg, Erwin; Blume, Cornelia; Mempel, Martin; Schulz, Holger; Bernard, Alfred; Behrendt, Heidrun

    2010-04-26

    Clara cell protein (CC16), the main secretory product of bronchiolar Clara cells, plays an important protective role in the respiratory tract against oxidative stress and inflammation. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (EC-UFP)-induced oxidative stress on Clara cells and CC16 in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice were exposed to EC-UFP (507 microg/m(3) for 24 h) or filtered air immediately prior to allergen challenge and systemically treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or vehicle prior and during EC-UFP inhalation. CC16 was measured up to one week after allergen challenge in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in serum. The relative expression of CC16 and TNF-alpha mRNA were measured in lung homogenates. A morphometrical analysis of mucus hypersecretion and electron microscopy served to investigate goblet cell metaplasia and Clara cell morphological alterations. In non sensitized mice EC-UFP inhalation caused alterations in CC16 concentration, both at protein and mRNA level, and induced Clara cell hyperplasia. In sensitized mice, inhalation of EC-UFP prior to OVA challenge caused most significant alterations of BALF and serum CC16 concentration, BALF total protein and TNF-alpha relative expression compared to relevant controls; their Clara cells displayed the strongest morphological alterations and strongest goblet cell metaplasia occurred in the small airways. NAC strongly reduced both functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells. Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress plays an important role in EC-UFP-induced augmentation of functional and morphological alterations of Clara cells in allergic lung inflammation.

  2. Role for macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Shanley, T P; Jones, M L

    1996-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) is a C-X-C chemokine that possesses chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Rat MIP-2 was cloned and expressed as a 7.9-kDa peptide that exhibited dose-dependent neutrophil chemotactic activity at concentrations from 10 to 250 nM. Rabbit polyclonal Ab to th...... instillation of LPS was found to be MIP-2-dependent. These data indicate that MIP-2 plays a significant role in LPS-induced inflammatory response in rat lungs and is required for the full recruitment of neutrophils....

  3. Overexpression of IL-38 protein in anticancer drug-induced lung injury and acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Masaki; Okamoto, Masaki; Kawayama, Tomotaka; Matsuoka, Masanobu; Kaieda, Shinjiro; Sakazaki, Yuki; Kinoshita, Takashi; Mori, Daisuke; Inoue, Akira; Hoshino, Tomoaki

    2017-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-38, a member of the IL-1 family, shows high homology to IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). Its function in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is still unknown. To determine the expression pattern of IL-38 mRNA, a panel of cDNAs derived from various tissues was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical reactivity with anti-human IL-38 monoclonal antibody (clone H127C) was evaluated semi-quantitatively in lung tissue samples from 12 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP), 5 with acute exacerbation of IPF, and 10 with anticancer drug-induced ILD (bleomycin in 5 and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in 5). Control lung tissues were obtained from areas of normal lung in 22 lung cancer patients who underwent extirpation surgery. IL-38 transcripts were strongly expressed in the lung, spleen, synoviocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at a lower level in pancreas and muscle. IL-38 protein was not strongly expressed in normal pulmonary alveolar tissues in all 22 control lungs. In contrast, IL-38 was overexpressed in the lungs of 4 of 5 (80%) patients with acute IPF exacerbation and 100% (10/10) of the patients with drug-induced ILD. IL-38 overexpression was limited to hyperplastic type II pneumocytes, which are considered to reflect regenerative change following diffuse alveolar damage in ILD. IL-38 may play an important role in acute and/or chronic inflammation in anticancer drug-induced lung injury and acute exacerbation of IPF. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Isoproterenol attenuates high vascular pressure-induced permeability increases in isolated rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L

    1997-12-01

    To separate the contributions of cellular and basement membrane components of the alveolar capillary barrier to the increased microvascular permeability induced by high pulmonary venous pressures (Ppv), we subjected isolated rat lungs to increases in Ppv, which increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) without significant hemorrhage (31 cmH2O) and with obvious extravasation of red blood cells (43 cmH2O). Isoproterenol (20 microM) was infused in one group (Iso) to identify a reversible cellular component of injury, and residual blood volumes were measured to assess extravasation of red blood cells through ruptured basement membranes. In untreated lungs (High Ppv group), Kfc increased 6.2 +/- 1.3 and 38.3 +/- 15.2 times baseline during the 31 and 43 cmH2O Ppv states. In Iso lungs, Kfc was 36.2% (P Kfc increases at moderate Ppv, possibly because of an endothelial effect, but it did not affect red cell extravasation at higher vascular pressures.

  5. Environmentally persistent free radicals induce airway hyperresponsiveness in neonatal rat lungs

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    Lominiki Slawo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased asthma risk/exacerbation in children and infants is associated with exposure to elevated levels of ultrafine particulate matter (PM. The presence of a newly realized class of pollutants, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs, in PM from combustion sources suggests a potentially unrecognized risk factor for the development and/or exacerbation of asthma. Methods Neonatal rats (7-days of age were exposed to EPFR-containing combustion generated ultrafine particles (CGUFP, non-EPFR containing CGUFP, or air for 20 minutes per day for one week. Pulmonary function was assessed in exposed rats and age matched controls. Lavage fluid was isolated and assayed for cellularity and cytokines and in vivo indicators of oxidative stress. Pulmonary histopathology and characterization of differential protein expression in lung homogenates was also performed. Results Neonates exposed to EPFR-containing CGUFP developed significant pulmonary inflammation, and airway hyperreactivity. This correlated with increased levels of oxidative stress in the lungs. Using differential two-dimensional electrophoresis, we identified 16 differentially expressed proteins between control and CGUFP exposed groups. In the rats exposed to EPFR-containing CGUFP; peroxiredoxin-6, cofilin1, and annexin A8 were upregulated. Conclusions Exposure of neonates to EPFR-containing CGUFP induced pulmonary oxidative stress and lung dysfunction. This correlated with alterations in the expression of various proteins associated with the response to oxidative stress and the regulation of glucocorticoid receptor translocation in T lymphocytes.

  6. First-Breath-Induced Type 2 Pathways Shape the Lung Immune Environment

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    Simona Saluzzo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available From birth onward, the lungs are exposed to the external environment and therefore harbor a complex immunological milieu to protect this organ from damage and infection. We investigated the homeostatic role of the epithelium-derived alarmin interleukin-33 (IL-33 in newborn mice and discovered the immediate upregulation of IL-33 from the first day of life, closely followed by a wave of IL-13-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s, which coincided with the appearance of alveolar macrophages (AMs and their early polarization to an IL-13-dependent anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. ILC2s contributed to lung quiescence in homeostasis by polarizing tissue resident AMs and induced an M2 phenotype in transplanted macrophage progenitors. ILC2s continued to maintain the M2 AM phenotype during adult life at the cost of a delayed response to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. These data highlight the homeostatic role of ILC2s in setting the activation threshold in the lung and underline their implications in anti-bacterial defenses.

  7. Mucosal BCG Vaccination Induces Protective Lung-Resident Memory T Cell Populations against Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Carolina; Zedler, Ulrike; Kühl, Anja A.; Lozza, Laura; Saikali, Philippe; Sander, Leif E.; Vogelzang, Alexis; Kupz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), yet its moderate efficacy against pulmonary TB calls for improved vaccination strategies. Mucosal BCG vaccination generates superior protection against TB in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been implicated in protective immune responses against viral infections, but the role of TRM cells following mycobacterial infection is unknown. Using a mouse model of TB, we compared protection and lung cellular infiltrates of parenteral and mucosal BCG vaccination. Adoptive transfer and gene expression analyses of lung airway cells were performed to determine the protective capacities and phenotypes of different memory T cell subsets. In comparison to subcutaneous vaccination, intratracheal and intranasal BCG vaccination generated T effector memory and TRM cells in the lung, as defined by surface marker phenotype. Adoptive mucosal transfer of these airway-resident memory T cells into naive mice mediated protection against TB. Whereas airway-resident memory CD4+ T cells displayed a mixture of effector and regulatory phenotype, airway-resident memory CD8+ T cells displayed prototypical TRM features. Our data demonstrate a key role for mucosal vaccination-induced airway-resident T cells in the host defense against pulmonary TB. These results have direct implications for the design of refined vaccination strategies. PMID:27879332

  8. The LIM-only protein FHL2 attenuates lung inflammation during bleomycin-induced fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaleem Alnajar

    Full Text Available Fibrogenesis is usually initiated when regenerative processes have failed and/or chronic inflammation occurs. It is characterised by the activation of tissue fibroblasts and dysregulated synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. FHL2 (four-and-a-half LIM domain protein 2 is a scaffolding protein that interacts with numerous cellular proteins, regulating signalling cascades and gene transcription. It is involved in tissue remodelling and tumour progression. Recent data suggest that FHL2 might support fibrogenesis by maintaining the transcriptional expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and the excessive synthesis and assembly of matrix proteins in activated fibroblasts. Here, we present evidence that FHL2 does not promote bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, but rather suppresses this process by attenuating lung inflammation. Loss of FHL2 results in increased expression of the pro-inflammatory matrix protein tenascin C and downregulation of the macrophage activating C-type lectin receptor DC-SIGN. Consequently, FHL2 knockout mice developed a severe and long-lasting lung pathology following bleomycin administration due to enhanced expression of tenascin C and impaired activation of inflammation-resolving macrophages.

  9. Carbon nanotubes induce inflammation but decrease the production of reactive oxygen species in lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, D; Follot, S; Gentilhomme, E; Flahaut, E; Arnaud, R; Dabouis, V; Castellarin, C; Debouzy, J C

    2010-06-04

    With the rapid spread of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) applications, the respiratory toxicity of these compounds has attracted the attention of many scientists. Several studies have reported that after lung administration, CNTs could induce granuloma, fibrosis, or inflammation. By comparison with the mechanisms involved with other toxic particles such as asbestos, this effect could be attributed to an increase of oxidative stress. The aim of the present work was to test this hypothesis in vivo. Mice were intranasally instilled with 1.5mg/kg of double walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs). Six, 24, or 48h after administration, inflammation and localisation of DWCNTs in lungs were microscopically observed. Local oxidative perturbations were investigated using ESR spin trapping experiments, and systemic inflammation was assessed by measuring the plasma concentration of cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IGF-1, Leptin, G-CSF, and VEGF. Examination of lungs and the elevation of proinflammatory cytokines in the plasma (Leptin and IL-6 at 6h) confirmed the induction of an inflammatory reaction. This inflammatory reaction was accompanied by a decrease in the local oxidative stress. This effect could be attributed to the scavenger capability of pure CNTs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fipronil induces lung inflammation in vivo and cell death in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowsky, Kaitlin; Sethi, Ram S; Gill, Jatinder P S; Singh, Baljit

    2016-01-01

    Fipronil is an insecticide that acts at the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor and glutamate-gated chloride channels in the central nervous systems of target organisms. The use of fipronil is increasing across the globe. Presently, very little data exist on the potential impact of exposure to fipronil on the lungs. We studied effects of intranasal (N = 8) and oral (N = 8) treatment with fipronil (10 mg/kg) on lungs of mice. Control mice were given groundnut oil orally (N = 7) or ethanol intranasally (N = 7) as these were the vehicles for respective treatments. Hematoxylin-eosin stained lung sections showed normal histology in the control lungs compared to the thickened alveolar septa, disruption of the airways epithelium and damage to vascular endothelium in the intranasal and the oral groups. Mice exposed to fipronil either orally or intranasally showed increased von Willebrand factor staining in the endothelium and septal capillaries. Compared to the control mice, TLR4 expression in airway epithelium was increased in mice treated intranasally but not orally with fipronil. Oral fipronil reduced TLR9 staining in the airway epithelium but intranasal exposure caused intense staining in the alveolar septa and airway epithelium. There were higher numbers of TLR4 positive cells in alveolar septa in lungs of mice treated intranasally (P = 0.010) compared to the respective control and orally treated mice but no significant differences between treatments for TLR9 positive stained cells (P = 0.226). The U937 macrophage cells exposed to fipronil at concentrations of 0.29 μm to 5.72 μm/ml over 3- or 24-hour showed significant increase in cell death at higher concentrations of fipronil (P fipronil on TLR4 (P = 0.49) or TLR9 (P = 0.94) expression on macrophage cell line. While both oral or intranasal fipronil treatments induced signs of lung inflammation, the number TLR4-positive septal cells was increased only following intranasal treatment

  11. [Effects and mechanisms of high-volume hemofiltration on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury of piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W M; Yan, G F; Lu, Z J; Lu, G P

    2017-05-04

    Objective: To compare the effects of high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) on cardiopulmonary functions, lung fluid balance, lung damage and cytokine expression in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury piglet model, and to further evaluate the value of high-volume hemofiltration in acute lung injury. Method: Eighteen piglets were randomly divided into the control group (6 piglets), the CVVH group (6 piglets) and the HVHF group (6 piglets). By general anesthesia, the intravenous infusion of 0.15 mg/kg endotoxin were received in all the animals and induced acute lung injury.High-volume hemofiltration and continuous veno-venous hemofiltration were addressed to different groups.Subsequently, hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulse contour cardiac index, systemic venous resistance index and extravascular lung water index) as well as gas exchange and lung mechanics parameters (respiratory rate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen, dynamic lung compliance and airway resistance) were intermittently measured.Lung tissues were collected for further analysis (the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, lung injury scoring). The plasma protein levels of cytokines (interleukin(IL) -6, 10 and tumor necrosis factors alpha(TNF-α)) were also assessed.Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni post-test were conducted to identify significant differences among the control, CVVH and HVHF group. Result: Compared with CVVH, HVHF had the capacity to improve significantly the index of Cdyn(HVHF (2.3±0.5) vs. CVVH (1.5±0.5) ml/(cmH(2)O·kg), 1 cmH(2)O=0.098 kPa, Plung water accumulation(index of EVLWI in HVHF (22.7±2.1) vs.CVVH (39.5±2.6) ml/m(2,) Plung injury scoring of HVHF group was significantly lower than those of CVVH group((7.8±1.9) vs. (11.3±2.2) scores, Pvolume hemofiltration can improve respiratory function of piglets

  12. The Nitrated Fatty Acid 10-Nitro-oleate Diminishes Severity of LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind T. Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is an inflammatory condition culminating in respiratory failure. There is currently no effective pharmacological treatment. Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. We therefore hypothesized that delivery of NFAs directly to the site of inflammation would reduce the severity of ALI. Pulmonary delivery of 10-nitro-oleate following endotoxin-induced ALI in mice reduced markers of lung inflammation and injury, including capillary leakage, lung edema, infiltration of neutrophils into the lung, and oxidant stress, as well as plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Nitro-oleate delivery likewise downregulated expression of proinflammatory genes by alveolar macrophages, key cells in regulation of lung inflammation. These effects may be accounted for by the observed increases in the activity of PPAR-γ and the PPAR-γ-induced antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2, together with the decreased activity of NF-κB. Our results demonstrate that pulmonary delivery of NFAs reduces severity of acute lung injury and suggest potential utility of these molecules in other inflammatory lung diseases.

  13. Longitudinal follow-up study of smoking-induced emphysema progression in low-dose CT screening of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, N.

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major public health problem that is predicted to be third leading cause of death in 2030. Although spirometry is traditionally used to quantify emphysema progression, it is difficult to detect the loss of pulmonary function by emphysema in early stage, and to assess the susceptibility to smoking. This study presents quantification method of smoking-induced emphysema progression based on annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in lung cancer screening. The method consists of three steps. First, lung lobes are segmented using extracted interlobar fissures by enhancement filter based on fourdimensional curvature. Second, LAV of each lung lobe is segmented. Finally, smoking-induced emphysema progression is assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV percentage in each lung lobe. This method was applied to 140 participants in lung cancer CT screening for six years. The results showed that LAV progressions of nonsmokers, past smokers, and current smokers are different in terms of pack-year and smoking cessation duration. This study demonstrates effectiveness in diagnosis and prognosis of early emphysema in lung cancer CT screening.

  14. Thalidomide alleviates acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury via down-regulation of NFκB induced TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng; Li, Hong-Yun; Ji, Shu-Sheng; Li, Wen; Fan, Li-Juan

    2014-09-01

    We studied the effect of thalidomide on NFκB-induced TNF-α in acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury in the rat. Rats were intragastrically administered thalidomide (100mg/kg) daily for 8 days and then acute pancreatitis was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the rat biliopancreatic duct. Serum amylase (AMY), blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), ratios of lung wet/dry weight, and cytoplasmic IκBα and TNF-α protein and nuclear NFκBp65 protein were measured. Also, lung NFκBp65 and TNF-α mRNA were measured. Compared with the model group, the pathological score of the pancreas and lung, serum AMY, ratios of lung wet/dry weight, and lung NFκBp65 and TNF-α mRNA and protein of rats given thalidomide were decreased significantly (PThalidomide may inhibit TNF-α expression via down-regulation of the NFκB signaling pathway to alleviate acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondria Targeted Peptide Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Controls Inflammation and Protects Against Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Lung Injury

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    Liu-Long Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Spinal cord injury (SCI is a common and devastating disease, which results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and secondary lung injury. Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are closely related to lung injury in diverse disease models. No studies have demonstrated the effects of mitochondrial targeted peptide SS-31 in a mouse model of SCI-induced lung injury. Methods: Immediately after injury, mice in the treatment groups received a daily, single-dose intraperitoneal injection of SS-31 and for the next 2 days. The sham and SCI groups also received a daily single dose of vehicle (DMSO and 0.9% NaCl, 1: 3. The lung tissue of mice was examined after SCI, and tissue damage, apoptosis, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction were recorded. Results: SS-31 treatment attenuated lung edema and tissue damage. Furthermore, SS-31 treatment reduced apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, the number of total macrophages and M1 macrophages, and neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, SS-31 treatment attenuated reactive oxygen species levels, reversed mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Conclusions: Collectively, our results demonstrate that SS-31 attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction, controls inflammatory responses, and alleviates the severity of lung damage in a mouse model of SCI-induced lung injury.

  16. Early biomarkers and potential mediators of ventilation-induced lung injury in very preterm lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Peter G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is closely associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI in very preterm infants. The greatest risk of VILI may be in the immediate period after birth, when the lungs are surfactant deficient, still partially filled with liquid and not uniformly aerated. However, there have been very few studies that have examined this immediate post-birth period and identified the initial injury-related pathways that are activated. We aimed to determine if the early response genes; connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, cysteine rich-61 (CYR61 and early growth response 1 (EGR1, were rapidly induced by VILI in preterm lambs and whether ventilation with different tidal volumes caused different inflammatory cytokine and early response gene expression. Methods To identify early markers of VILI, preterm lambs (132 d gestational age; GA, term ~147 d were resuscitated with an injurious ventilation strategy (VT 20 mL/kg for 15 min then gently ventilated (5 mL/kg for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min (n = 4 in each. To determine if early response genes and inflammatory cytokines were differentially regulated by different ventilation strategies, separate groups of preterm lambs (125 d GA; n = 5 in each were ventilated from birth with a VT of 5 (VG5 or 10 mL/kg (VG10 for 135 minutes. Lung gene expression levels were compared to levels prior to ventilation in age-matched control fetuses. Results CTGF, CYR61 and EGR1 lung mRNA levels were increased ~25, 50 and 120-fold respectively (p CTGF, CYR61, EGR1, IL1-β, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels compared to control levels. CTGF, CYR61, IL-6 and IL-8 expression levels were higher in VG10 than VG5 lambs; although only the IL-6 and CYR61 mRNA levels reached significance. Conclusion CTGF, CYR61 and EGR1 may be novel early markers of lung injury and mechanical ventilation from birth using relatively low tidal volumes may be less injurious than using higher tidal volumes.

  17. Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation

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    Joshua B. Lewis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6 is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP, respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal

  18. Up-Regulation of Claudin-6 in the Distal Lung Impacts Secondhand Smoke-Induced Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joshua B; Milner, Dallin C; Lewis, Adam L; Dunaway, Todd M; Egbert, Kaleb M; Albright, Scott C; Merrell, Brigham J; Monson, Troy D; Broberg, Dallin S; Gassman, Jason R; Thomas, Daniel B; Arroyo, Juan A; Reynolds, Paul R

    2016-10-17

    It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung. Cldn6 transgenic (TG) and control mice were continuously provided doxycycline from postnatal day (PN) 30 until euthanasia date at PN90. A subset of Cldn6 TG and control mice were also subjected to daily secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) via a nose only inhalation system from PN30-90 and compared to room air (RA) controls. Animals were euthanized on PN90 and lungs were harvested for histological and molecular characterization. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was procured for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting revealed increased Cldn6 expression in TG vs. control animals and SHS decreased Cldn6 expression regardless of genetic up-regulation. Histological evaluations revealed no adverse pulmonary remodeling via Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining or any qualitative alterations in the abundance of type II pneumocytes or proximal non-ciliated epithelial cells via staining for cell specific propeptide of Surfactant Protein-C (proSP-C) or Club Cell Secretory Protein (CCSP), respectively. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of Cldn6 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. As a general theme, inflammation induced by SHS exposure was influenced by the availability of Cldn6. These data reveal captivating

  19. Effect of hypertonic saline treatment on the inflammatory response after hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holms, Carla Augusto; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Kahvegian, Marcia; Massoco, Cristina Oliveira; Fantoni, Denise Tabacchi; Gutierrez, Paulo Sampaio; Auler Junior, Jose Otavio Costa

    2015-08-01

    Hypertonic saline has been proposed to modulate the inflammatory cascade in certain experimental conditions, including pulmonary inflammation caused by inhaled gastric contents. The present study aimed to assess the potential anti-inflammatory effects of administering a single intravenous dose of 7.5% hypertonic saline in an experimental model of acute lung injury induced by hydrochloric acid. Thirty-two pigs were anesthetized and randomly allocated into the following four groups: Sham, which received anesthesia and were observed; HS, which received intravenous 7.5% hypertonic saline solution (4 ml/kg); acute lung injury, which were subjected to acute lung injury with intratracheal hydrochloric acid; and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline, which were subjected to acute lung injury with hydrochloric acid and treated with hypertonic saline. Hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters were recorded over four hours. Subsequently, bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected at the end of the observation period to measure cytokine levels using an oxidative burst analysis, and lung tissue was collected for a histological analysis. Hydrochloric acid instillation caused marked changes in respiratory mechanics as well as blood gas and lung parenchyma parameters. Despite the absence of a significant difference between the acute lung injury and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline groups, the acute lung injury animals presented higher neutrophil and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed pulmonary edema, congestion and alveolar collapse in both groups; however, the differences between groups were not significant. Despite the lower cytokine and neutrophil levels observed in the acute lung injury + hypertonic saline group, significant differences were not observed among the treated and non-treated groups. Hypertonic saline infusion after intratracheal hydrochloric

  20. Prevention of chinese green tea on 3,4-benzopyrene-induced lung cancer and its mechanism in animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qihua GU

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Chinese green tea is one of the daily consumption beverages in the world and is considered a promising cancer chemopreventive agent. In the present study, we investigate the role of lung cancer prevention by green tea and its mechanism. Methods Three groups of female SD rats were kept with the same feed. Rats in group A were administrated with 1% green tea drinking, while in group B and group C with water only. Animals in group A and group B were given 3,4-benzopyrene-corn oil mixture pulmonary injection fortnightly for 4 times, while in group C corn oil only. Rats were sacrificed 1 year after the first injection under narcotism. Lung tumors and lung tissues were performed H&E staining for cancer identification. Each case of lung cancer was examined for expression of p53 and Bcl-2 with in situ hybridization analysis and immunohistochemistry staining. Results No cancer was found in rats in group C. However, in group B, 15 out of 20 rats were found generating lung cancer, and in group A, 6 out of 20 rats inducing lung cancer were recorded. The rate of lung carcinogenesis in rats was decreased from 75% to 30% by 1% chinese green tea oral administration (χ2=8.12, P0.05. However, significantly lower level of Bcl-2 expression was found in lung cancer tissues of group A than that of group B (P<0.05. Conclusion The results indicate that chinese green tea inhibits lung carcinogenesis. Chinese green tea can slightly upregulate expression of p53, but significantly downregulate expression of Bcl-2 in lung cancer, and this may be related to the mechanism of lung cancer prevention.

  1. Effect of heparin and related glycosaminoglycan on PDGF-induced lung fibroblast proliferation, chemotactic response and matrix metalloproteinases activity

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    Masahiro Sasaki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast migration, proliferation, extacellular matrix protein synthesis and degradation are the key events in various biological and pathological processes in pulmonary fibrosis. In addition, biopsy specimens from the lungs of patients with plumomary fibrosis show increased numbers of mast cells which have metachromatic granules containing heparin, histamin and proteases. Little is known about how these products influence pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of heparin and related glycosaminoglycans on PDGF-induced lung fibroblast proliferation and chemotactic response in vitro. In addition, we examined the effect of heparin on both the induction of matorix metalloproteinases (MMPs and MMPs activity in lung fibroblasts in vitro.

  2. Rituximab induced lung injury in a case of NHL: Diagnosis and follow up on FDG PET/CT

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    Joshi, Prathamesh; Lele, Vikram [Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Worli (United States); Saikia, Tapan [Prince Aly Khan Hospital, Mumbai (India)

    2012-09-15

    Rituximab induced lung injury is a rare but serious side effect of this agent. We describe the valuable role played by 18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography (FDG PET CT)in the diagnosis and follow up of this condition in a patient with non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)receiving rituximab. Abnormal uptake of FDG in lungs of patients receiving this drug should be care fully evaluated to diagnose this potentially fatal side effect.

  3. Pre-treatment with allopurinol or uricase attenuates barrier dysfunction but not inflammation during murine ventilator-induced lung injury.

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    Maria T Kuipers

    Full Text Available Uric acid released from injured tissue is considered a major endogenous danger signal and local instillation of uric acid crystals induces acute lung inflammation via activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI is mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome and increased uric acid levels in lung lavage fluid are reported. We studied levels in human lung injury and the contribution of uric acid in experimental VILI.Uric acid levels in lung lavage fluid of patients with acute lung injury (ALI were determined. In a different cohort of cardiac surgery patients, uric acid levels were correlated with pulmonary leakage index. In a mouse model of VILI the effect of allopurinol (inhibits uric acid synthesis and uricase (degrades uric acid pre-treatment on neutrophil influx, up-regulation of adhesion molecules, pulmonary and systemic cytokine levels, lung pathology, and regulation of receptors involved in the recognition of uric acid was studied. In addition, total protein and immunoglobulin M in lung lavage fluid and pulmonary wet/dry ratios were measured as markers of alveolar barrier dysfunction.Uric acid levels increased in ALI patients. In cardiac surgery patients, elevated levels correlated significantly with the pulmonary leakage index. Allopurinol or uricase treatment did not reduce ventilator-induced inflammation, IκB-α degradation, or up-regulation of NLRP3, Toll-like receptor 2, and Toll-like receptor 4 gene expression in mice. Alveolar barrier dysfunction was attenuated which was most pronounced in mice pre-treated with allopurinol: both treatment strategies reduced wet/dry ratio, allopurinol also lowered total protein and immunoglobulin M levels.Local uric acid levels increase in patients with ALI. In mice, allopurinol and uricase attenuate ventilator-induced alveolar barrier dysfunction.

  4. Ursolic acid improves survival and attenuates lung injury in septic rats induced by cecal ligation and puncture.

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    Hu, Zhansheng; Gu, Zhilong; Sun, Meina; Zhang, Ke; Gao, Penghui; Yang, Qinwu; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Sepsis is characterized as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome during infection, which can result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. Ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to detect the possible protective effects of UA on sepsis-evoked acute lung injury. A rat model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was used. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with UA (10 mg/kg) after CLP, and then the survival was determined twice a day for 4 d. The protective effects of UA on CLP-induced acute lung injury were assayed at 24 h after CLP. The results revealed that UA treatment markedly improved the survival of septic rats, and attenuated CLP-induced lung injury, including reduction of lung wet/dry weight ratio, infiltration of leukocytes and proteins, myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde content. In addition, UA significantly decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β, inhibited the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the lung, which are involved in the productions of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. These findings indicate that UA exerts protective effects on CLP-induced septic rats. UA may be a potential therapeutic agent against sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Lung Acutely Induce Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and DNA Damage in Various Organs of Mice

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    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CeO2 nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs which are used as a diesel fuel additive are emitted in the particulate phase in the exhaust, posing a health concern. However, limited information exists regarding the in vivo acute toxicity of CeO2 NPs on multiple organs. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 h effects of intratracheally instilled CeO2 NPs in mice (0.5 mg/kg on oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in major organs including lung, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and brain. Lipid peroxidation measured by malondialdehyde production was increased in the lungs only, and reactive oxygen species were increased in the lung, heart, kidney, and brain. Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the lung, liver, and kidney, whereas glutathione increased in lung but it decreased in the kidney. Total nitric oxide was increased in the lung and spleen but it decreased in the heart. Tumour necrosis factor-α increased in all organs studied. Interleukin- (IL- 6 increased in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen. IL-1β augmented in the lung, heart, kidney, and spleen. Moreover, CeO2 NPs induced DNA damage, assessed by COMET assay, in all organs studied. Collectively, these findings indicate that pulmonary exposure to CeO2 NPs causes oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in multiple organs.

  6. The role of the acute phase protein PTX3 in the ventilator-induced lung injury

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    JM Real

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an acute phase proinflammatory protein produced by fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that PTX3 is a key modulator of inflammation. Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life saving therapeutic approach for patients with acute lung injury that, nevertheless could lead to an inflammatory response and tissue injury (ventilator-induced lung injury: VILI, representing a major cause of iatrogenic lung damage in intensive units. Our objective was to investigate the role of PTX3 in VILI. PTX3 transgenic, knockout and Wt control mice (n = 12/group were ventilated (45ml·kg–1 until respiratory system Elastance increased 50% (Ers150%, an indicator of VILI. Histological analysis demonstrated that using a Ers150% was appropriate for our analysis since identical degrees of inflammation were observed in Tg, KO and Wt mice as assessed by leukocyte infiltration, oedema, alveolar collapse and number of breaks in alveolar septa. However, Tg mice reached Ers150% faster than Wt controls (p = 0.0225. We also showed that the lack of PTX3 does not abolish the occurrence of VILI in KOs. Gene expression profile of PTX3, IL-1beta, IL-6, KC, IFNgamma, TGFbeta and PCIII were investigated by QPCR. MV drastically up modulated PTX3 as well as IL-1beta, IL-6, IFNgamma and KC. Alternatively, mice were ventilated for 20, 40 and 60 min. The faster kinetics of Tg mice to reach Ers150% was accompanied by an earlier augmentation of IL-1b and PTX3 expression. The kinetics of local PTX3 expression in the lungs of ventilated mice strongly suggests the involvement of this pentraxin in the pathogenesis of VILI.

  7. Milan PM1 Induces Adverse Effects on Mice Lungs and Cardiovascular System

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    Francesca Farina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a link between inhaled particulate matter (PM exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with cardiorespiratory diseases. Since the response to PM1 has not yet been deeply investigated, its impact on mice lungs and cardiovascular system is here examined. A repeated exposure to Milan PM1 was performed on BALB/c mice. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf and the lung parenchyma were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2; heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p50 subunit (NFκB-p50; inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS; endothelial-selectin (E-selectin, cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; alkaline phosphatase (ALP; heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70; caspase-8-p18, and a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (cytochrome 1B1 (Cyp1B1. Heart tissue was tested for HO-1, caspase-8-p18, NFκB-p50, iNOS, E-selectin, and myeloperoxidase (MPO; plasma was screened for markers of platelet activation and clot formation (soluble platelet-selectin (sP-selectin; fibrinogen; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1. PM1 triggers inflammation and cytotoxicity in lungs. A similar cytotoxic effect was observed on heart tissues, while plasma analyses suggest blood-endothelium interface activation. These data highlight the importance of lung inflammation in mediating adverse cardiovascular events following increase in ambient PM1 levels, providing evidences of a positive correlation between PM1 exposure and cardiovascular morbidity.

  8. Nanosilver induces minimal lung toxicity or inflammation in a subacute murine inhalation model

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    O'Shaughnessy Patrick T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the environmental and health consequences of silver nanoparticles as the use of this material becomes widespread. Although human exposure to nanosilver is increasing, only a few studies address possible toxic effect of inhaled nanosilver. The objective of this study was to determine whether very small commercially available nanosilver induces pulmonary toxicity in mice following inhalation exposure. Results In this study, mice were exposed sub-acutely by inhalation to well-characterized nanosilver (3.3 mg/m3, 4 hours/day, 10 days, 5 ± 2 nm primary size. Toxicity was assessed by enumeration of total and differential cells, determination of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lungs were evaluated for histopathologic changes and the presence of silver. In contrast to published in vitro studies, minimal inflammatory response or toxicity was found following exposure to nanosilver in our in vivo study. The median retained dose of nanosilver in the lungs measured by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES was 31 μg/g lung (dry weight immediately after the final exposure, 10 μg/g following exposure and a 3-wk rest period and zero in sham-exposed controls. Dissolution studies showed that nanosilver did not dissolve in solutions mimicking the intracellular or extracellular milieu. Conclusions Mice exposed to nanosilver showed minimal pulmonary inflammation or cytotoxicity following sub-acute exposures. However, longer term exposures with higher lung burdens of nanosilver are needed to ensure that there are no chronic effects and to evaluate possible translocation to other organs.

  9. Maternal PUFA ω-3 Supplementation Prevents Neonatal Lung Injuries Induced by Hyperoxia in Newborn Rats

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    Dyuti Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is one of the most common complications of prematurity, occurring in 30% of very low birth weight infants. The benefits of dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3 during pregnancy or the perinatal period have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation on lung injuries in newborn rats exposed to prolonged hyperoxia. Pregnant female Wistar rats (n = 14 were fed a control diet (n = 2, a PUFA ω-6 diet (n = 6, or a PUFA ω-3 diet (n = 6, starting with the 14th gestation day. At Day 1, female and newborn rats (10 per female were exposed to hyperoxia (O2, n = 70 or to the ambient air (Air, n = 70. Six groups of newborns rats were obtained: PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30, PUFA ω-6/air (n = 30, PUFA ω-3/O2 (n = 30, PUFA ω-3/air (n = 30, control/O2 (n = 10, and control/air (n = 10. After 10 days, lungs were removed for analysis of alveolarization and pulmonary vascular development. Survival rate was 100%. Hyperoxia reduced alveolarization and increased pulmonary vascular wall thickness in both control (n = 20 and PUFA ω-6 groups (n = 60. Maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation prevented the decrease in alveolarization caused by hyperoxia (n = 30 compared to PUFA ω-6/O2 (n = 30 or to the control/O2 (n = 10, but did not significantly increase the thickness of the lung vascular wall. Therefore, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation may protect newborn rats from lung injuries induced by hyperoxia. In clinical settings, maternal PUFA ω-3 supplementation during pregnancy and during lactation may prevent BPD development after premature birth.

  10. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M.; Fodah, Ramy A.; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. PMID:25398987

  11. Heme Attenuation Ameliorates Irritant Gas Inhalation-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Lam, Adam; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Carlisle, Matthew A; Traylor, Amie; Agarwal, Anupam; Matalon, Sadis

    2016-01-10

    Exposure to irritant gases, such as bromine (Br2), poses an environmental and occupational hazard that results in severe lung and systemic injury. However, the mechanism(s) of Br2 toxicity and the therapeutic responses required to mitigate lung damage are not known. Previously, it was demonstrated that Br2 upregulates the heme degrading enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Since heme is a major inducer of HO-1, we determined whether an increase in heme and heme-dependent oxidative injury underlies the pathogenesis of Br2 toxicity. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Br2 gas (600 ppm, 30 min) and returned to room air. Thirty minutes postexposure, mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of the heme scavenging protein, hemopexin (Hx) (3 μg/gm body weight), or saline. Twenty-four hours postexposure, saline-treated mice had elevated total heme in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma and acute lung injury (ALI) culminating in 80% mortality after 10 days. Hx treatment significantly lowered heme, decreased evidence of ALI (lower protein and inflammatory cells in BALF, lower lung wet-to-dry weight ratios, and decreased airway hyperreactivity to methacholine), and reduced mortality. In addition, Br2 caused more severe ALI and mortality in mice with HO-1 gene deletion (HO-1-/-) compared to wild-type controls, while transgenic mice overexpressing the human HO-1 gene (hHO-1) showed significant protection. This is the first study delineating the role of heme in ALI caused by Br2. The data suggest that attenuating heme may prove to be a useful adjuvant therapy to treat patients with ALI.

  12. Caspase-1 Activation Protects Lung Endothelial Barrier Function during Infection-Induced Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Diego F.; Housley, Nicole; Koloteva, Anna; Zhou, Chun; O’Donnell, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated activation of the inflammasome–caspase-1–IL-1β axis elicits damaging hyperinflammation during critical illnesses, such as pneumonia and sepsis. However, in critical illness models of Salmonella infection, burn, or shock, caspase-1 inhibition worsens outcomes. These paradoxical effects suggest that caspase-1 drives novel protective responses. Whether the protective effects of caspase-1 activation involve canonical immune cell and/or nonimmune cell responses is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in addition to its recognized proinflammatory function, caspase-1 initiates protective stress responses in nonimmune cells. In vivo, lung epithelial and endothelial barrier function and inflammation were assessed in mice infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence or absence of a caspase-1 inhibitor. Lung endothelial barrier function was assessed ex vivo in isolated, perfused rat lungs infected with P. aeruginosa in the presence or absence of a caspase-1 inhibitor. Endothelial barrier function during P. aeruginosa infection was assessed in vitro in cultured rat wild-type pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) or recombinant PMVECs engineered to decrease caspase-1 expression. We demonstrated in vivo that caspase-1 inhibition in P. aeruginosa–infected mice ameliorated hyperinflammation, but, counterintuitively, increased pulmonary edema. Ex vivo, caspase-1 inhibition increased pulmonary permeability in P. aeruginosa–infected isolated rat lungs. To uncouple caspase-1 from its canonical inflammatory role, we used cultured rat PMVECs in vitro and discovered that genetic knockdown of caspase-1 accelerated P. aeruginosa–induced barrier disruption. In conclusion, caspase-1 is a sentinel stress-response regulator that initiates proinflammatory responses and also initiates novel response(s) to protect PMVEC barrier function during pneumonia. PMID:27119735

  13. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M; Fodah, Ramy A; Warawa, Jonathan M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2015-01-15

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Silica induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Paul M; Perkins, Timothy N; Wouters, Emiel F M; Mossman, Brooke T; Reynaert, Niki L

    2013-02-12

    In myeloid cells the inflammasome plays a crucial role in innate immune defenses against pathogen- and danger-associated patterns such as crystalline silica. Respirable mineral particles impinge upon the lung epithelium causing irreversible damage, sustained inflammation and silicosis. In this study we investigated lung epithelial cells as a target for silica-induced inflammasome activation. A human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) were exposed to toxic but nonlethal doses of crystalline silica over time to perform functional characterization of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, bFGF and HMGB1. Quantitative RT-PCR, caspase-1 enzyme activity assay, Western blot techniques, cytokine-specific ELISA and fibroblast (MRC-5 cells) proliferation assays were performed. We were able to show transcriptional and translational upregulation of the components of the NLRP3 intracellular platform, as well as activation of caspase-1. NLRP3 activation led to maturation of pro-IL-1β to secreted IL-1β, and a significant increase in the unconventional release of the alarmins bFGF and HMGB1. Moreover, release of bFGF and HMGB1 was shown to be dependent on particle uptake. Small interfering RNA experiments using siNLRP3 revealed the pivotal role of the inflammasome in diminished release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, danger molecules and growth factors, and fibroblast proliferation. Our novel data indicate the presence and functional activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells, which prolongs an inflammatory signal and affects fibroblast proliferation, mediating a cadre of lung diseases.

  15. Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases. Often forgotten; Medikamenteninduzierte interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen. Haeufig vergessen

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    Poschenrieder, F.; Stroszczynski, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Regensburg (Germany); Hamer, O.W. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Regensburg (Germany); Lungenfachklinik Donaustauf, Donaustauf (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases (DILD) are probably more common than diagnosed. Due to their potential reversibility, increased vigilance towards DILD is appropriate also from the radiologist's point of view, particularly as these diseases regularly exhibit radiological correlates in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs. Based on personal experience typical relatively common manifestations of DILD are diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), eosinophilic pneumonia (EP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), organizing pneumonia (OP), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). These patterns are presented based on case studies, whereby emphasis is placed on the clinical context. This is to highlight the relevance of interdisciplinary communication and discussion in the diagnostic field of DILD as it is a diagnosis of exclusion or of probability in most cases. Helpful differential diagnostic indications for the presence of DILD, such as an accompanying eosinophilia or increased attenuation of pulmonary consolidations in amiodarone-induced pneumopathy are mentioned and the freely available online database http://www.pneumotox.com is presented. (orig.) [German] Medikamenteninduzierte interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen (engl. ''drug-induced interstitial lung diseases'', DILD) sind wahrscheinlich haeufiger, als sie diagnostiziert werden. Aufgrund ihrer potenziellen Reversibilitaet ist eine erhoehte Vigilanz gegenueber DILD auch seitens der Radiologie angebracht, da diese regelmaessig ein radiomorphologisches Korrelat in der hochaufloesenden Computertomographie (''high-resolution CT'', HRCT) der Lunge aufweisen. Typische, nach eigener Erfahrung relativ haeufige Manifestationsformen von DILD sind der diffuse Alveolarschaden (engl. ''diffuse alveolar damage'', DAD), die eosinophile Pneumonie (EP), die Hypersensitivitaetspneumonitis (HP), die organisierende

  16. PEEP-induced changes in lung volume in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Two methods to estimate alveolar recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellamonica, J; Lerolle, N; Sargentini, C; Beduneau, G; Di Marco, F; Mercat, A; Richard, J C M; Diehl, J L; Mancebo, J; Rouby, J J; Lu, Q; Bernardin, G; Brochard, L

    2011-10-01

    Lung volumes, especially functional residual capacity (FRC), are decreased in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) contributes to increased end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and to improved oxygenation, but differentiating recruitment of previously nonaerated lung units from distension of previously open lung units remains difficult. This study evaluated simple methods derived from bedside EELV measurements to assess PEEP-induced lung recruitment while monitoring strain. Prospective multicenter study in 30 mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS in five university hospital ICUs. Two PEEP levels were studied, each for 45 min, and EELV (nitrogen washout/washin technique) was measured at both levels, with the difference (Δ) reflecting PEEP-induced lung volume changes. Alveolar recruitment was measured using pressure-volume (PV) curves. High and low recruiters were separated based on median recruitment at high PEEP. Minimum predicted increase in lung volume computed as the product of ΔPEEP by static compliance was subtracted from ΔEELV as an independent estimate of recruitment. Estimated and measured recruitments were compared. Strain induced by PEEP was also calculated from the same measurements. FRC was 31 ± 11% of predicted. Median [25th-75th percentiles] PEEP-induced recruitment was 272 [187-355] mL. Estimated recruitment correlated with recruited volume measured on PV curves (ρ = 0.68), with a slope close to identity. The ΔEELV/FRC ratio differentiated high from low recruiters (110 [76-135] vs. 55 [23-70]%, p = 0.001). Strain increase due to PEEP was larger in high recruiters (p = 0.002). PEEP-induced recruitment and strain can be assessed at the bedside using EELV measurement. We describe two bedside methods for predicting low or high alveolar recruitment during ARDS.

  17. Mast cells modulate acute ozone-induced inflammation of the murine lung

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    Kleeberger, S.R.; Seiden, J.E.; Levitt, R.C.; Zhang, L.Y. (Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1993-11-01

    We hypothesized that mast cells modulate lung inflammation that develops after acute ozone (O3) exposure. Two tests were done: (1) genetically mast-cell-deficient (WBB6F1-W/Wv, WCB6F1-SI/SId) and bone-marrow-transplanted W/Wv mice were exposed to O3 or filtered air, and the inflammatory responses were compared with those of mast-cell-sufficient congenic mice (WBB6F1-(+)/+, WCB6F1-(+)/+); (2) genetically O3-susceptible C57BL/6J mice were treated pharmacologically with putative mast-cell modulators or vehicle, and the O3-induced inflammatory responses were compared. Mice were exposed to 1.75 ppm O3 or air for 3 h, and lung inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 6 and 24 h after exposure. Relative to O3-exposed W/Wv and SI/SId mice, the mean numbers of lavageable polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and total BAL protein concentration (a marker of permeability) were significantly greater in the respective O3-exposed normal congenic +/+ mice (p < 0.05). Mast cells were reconstituted in W/Wv mice by transplantation of bone marrow cells from congenic +/+ mice, and O3-induced lung inflammation was assessed in the mast-cell-replete W/Wv mice. After O3 exposure, the changes in lavageable PMNs and total protein of mast-cell-replete W/Wv mice were not different from age-matched normal +/+ control mice, and they were significantly greater than those of sham-transplanted W/Wv mice (p < 0.05). Genetically susceptible C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with a mast-cell stabilizer (nedocromil sodium), secretagogue (compound 48/80), or vehicle, and the mice were exposed to O3.

  18. Genetic Phagocyte NADPH Oxidase Deficiency Enhances Nonviable Candida albicans-Induced Inflammation in Mouse Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Daiki; Fujimoto, Kenta; Hirose, Rika; Yamanaka, Hiroko; Homme, Mizuki; Ishibashi, Ken-Ichi; Miura, Noriko; Ohno, Naohito; Aratani, Yasuaki

    2017-02-01

    Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have mutated phagocyte NADPH oxidase, resulting in reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the mechanism underlying hyperinfection in CGD is well understood, the basis for inflammatory disorders that arise in the absence of evident infection has not been fully explained. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phagocyte NADPH oxidase deficiency on lung inflammation induced by nonviable Candida albicans (nCA). Mice deficient in this enzyme (CGD mice) showed more severe neutrophilic pneumonia than nCA-treated wild-type mice, which exhibited significantly higher lung concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC). Neutralization of these proinflammatory mediators significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration. In vitro, production of IL-1β and TNF-α from neutrophils and that of KC from macrophages was enhanced in nCA-stimulated neutrophils from CGD mice. Expression of IL-1β mRNA was higher in the stimulated CGD neutrophils than in the stimulated wild-type cells, concomitant with upregulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and its upstream regulator extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Pretreatment with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor significantly enhanced IL-1β production in the wild-type neutrophils stimulated with nCA. These results suggest that lack of ROS production because of NADPH oxidase deficiency results in the production of higher levels of proinflammatory mediators from neutrophils and macrophages, which may at least partly contribute to the exacerbation of nCA-induced lung inflammation in CGD mice.

  19. Rhinovirus exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jennifer A; Kicic, Anthony; Berry, Luke J; Fernandes, Lynette B; Zosky, Graeme R; Sly, Peter D; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle) daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B). Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils), increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance). We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms.

  20. Rhinovirus exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease in adult mice.

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    Jennifer A Phan

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B. Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils, increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance. We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms.

  1. COX-2 and PPAR-γ confer cannabidiol-induced apoptosis of human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Robert; Heinemann, Katharina; Merkord, Jutta; Rohde, Helga; Salamon, Achim; Linnebacher, Michael; Hinz, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    The antitumorigenic mechanism of cannabidiol is still controversial. This study investigates the role of COX-2 and PPAR-γ in cannabidiol's proapoptotic and tumor-regressive action. In lung cancer cell lines (A549, H460) and primary cells from a patient with lung cancer, cannabidiol elicited decreased viability associated with apoptosis. Apoptotic cell death by cannabidiol was suppressed by NS-398 (COX-2 inhibitor), GW9662 (PPAR-γ antagonist), and siRNA targeting COX-2 and PPAR-γ. Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis was paralleled by upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-γ mRNA and protein expression with a maximum induction of COX-2 mRNA after 8 hours and continuous increases of PPAR-γ mRNA when compared with vehicle. In response to cannabidiol, tumor cell lines exhibited increased levels of COX-2-dependent prostaglandins (PG) among which PGD(2) and 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) caused a translocation of PPAR-γ to the nucleus and induced a PPAR-γ-dependent apoptotic cell death. Moreover, in A549-xenografted nude mice, cannabidiol caused upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-γ in tumor tissue and tumor regression that was reversible by GW9662. Together, our data show a novel proapoptotic mechanism of cannabidiol involving initial upregulation of COX-2 and PPAR-γ and a subsequent nuclear translocation of PPAR-γ by COX-2-dependent PGs.

  2. Arctigenin represses TGF-β-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanrui; Lou, Zhiyuan; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2017-11-18

    Arctigenin (ARC) is a lignan that is abundant in Asteraceae plants, which show anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The current study investigated whether ARC affects cancer progression and metastasis, focusing on EMT using invasive human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. No toxicity was observed in the cells treated with different doses of ARC (12-100 μM). The treatment of ARC repressed TGF-β-stimulated changes of metastatic morphology and cell invasion and migration. ARC inhibited TGF-β-induced phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of smad2/3, and expression of snail. ARC also decreased expression of N-cadherin and increased expression of E-cadherin in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. These changes were accompanied by decreased amount of phospho-smad2/3 in nucleus and nuclear translocation of smad2/3. Moreover, ARC repressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK and transcriptional activity of β-catenin. Our data demonstrate anti-metastatic activity of ARC in lung cancer model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chlorella vulgaris Induces Apoptosis of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) Cells.

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    Zhang, Zhi-Dong; Liang, Kai; Li, Kun; Wang, Guo-Quan; Zhang, Ke-Wei; Cai, Lei; Zhai, Shui-Ting; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris), a unicellular green microalga, has been widely used as a food supplement and reported to have antioxidant and anticancer properties. The current study was designed to assess the cytotoxic, apoptotic, and DNA-damaging effects of C. vulgaris growth factor (CGF), hot water C. vulgaris extracts, inlung tumor A549 and NCI-H460 cell lines. A549 cells, NCI-H460 cells, and normal human fibroblasts were treated with CGF at various concentra