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Sample records for ettekanne vitis grammy

  1. Hor filarmonii polutshil Grammy / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta septembris ilmunud plaadifirma Harmonia Mundi heliplaadi Arvo Pärt "Da Pacem", esitab Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor, dirigent Paul Hillier Grammy võidust. Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoori koostööst USA plaadirmaga Harmonia Mundi. Grammy võitnud heliplaadist

  2. Balts show strong notes in Grammy Awards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Los Angeleses 8. veebr. Grammy Awards nominantide seas läti laulja Elina Garanca, dirigendid Paavo Järvi (Schumann "Cello Concerto" and Bloch's "Schelomo") ja Maris Jansons. Eelmisel aastal pälvis Grammy teos Sibelius "Cantatas" (esitajad Ellerheina tütarlastekoor Ester Loitme juhatusel, Eesti Rahvusmeeskoor, ERSO, dirigendid Ants Soots ja Paavo Järvi)

  3. Eesti interpreedid võitsid Grammy auhinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Los Angeleses toimunud muusikaauhindade jagamisel pälvis teiste hulgas Grammy Eesti koorimuusika: auhinna sai Sibeliuse "Kantaadid" Ellerheina, Eesti Rahvusmeeskoori ja Eesti Riikliku Sümfooniaorkestri esituses Paavo Järvi dirigeerimisel

  4. Eestlased võitsid Grammy koorimuusika auhinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Los Angeleses toimunud muusikaauhindade jagamisel pälvis teiste hulgas Grammy Eesti koorimuusika: auhinna sai Sibeliuse "Cantatas" Ellerheina, Eesti Rahvusmeeskoori ja Eesti Riikliku Sümfooniaorkestri esituses Paavo Järvi dirigeerimisel

  5. Paul Hillieri koor tõi Eestile Grammy / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta septembris ilmunud plaadifirma Harmonia Mundi heliplaadi Arvo Pärt "Da Pacem", esitab Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor, dirigent Paul Hillier Grammy võidust. Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoori koostööst USA plaadirmaga Harmonia Mundi. Grammy võitnud heliplaadist

  6. 49. Grammy gala tõi auhinna ka Eestisse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta septembris ilmunud plaadifirma Harmonia Mundi heliplaadi Arvo Pärt "Da Pacem", esitab Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor, dirigent Paul Hillier Grammy võidust. Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoori koostööst USA plaadirmaga Harmonia Mundi. Grammy võitnud heliplaadist. EFK solisti Iris Oja kommentaar

  7. Sibelius tõi eestlastele Grammy! / Gerhard Lock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lock, Gerhard, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Los Angeleses toimunud muusikaauhindade jagamisel pälvis teiste hulgas Grammy Eesti koorimuusika: auhinna sai Sibeliuse "Kantaadid" Ellerheina, Eesti Rahvusmeeskoori ja Eesti Riikliku Sümfooniaorkestri esituses Paavo Järvi dirigeerimisel

  8. Eesti presidendi ettekanne Bertelsmanni foorumil / Lennart Meri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meri, Lennart, 1929-2006

    1996-01-01

    President Lennart Meri töövisiit Saksamaa Liitvabariiki, 17.-21. jaanuar 1995. Kõne on ilmunud ka: Suomen Kuvalehti, 2. veebr., nr. 5, lk. 32-35, pealkiri: Uusi Eurooppa; Kadrioru Teataja nr. 3, aprill, lk. 4-7, pealkiri: "Milleks Euroopa ?": Vabariigi Presidendi ettekanne Bertelsmanni foorumil 20.jaanuaril 1996; Meri, Lennart. Presidendikõned. - Tartu, 1996, lk. 525-531; Meri, Lennart. Botschaften und Zukunftsvisionen: Reden des estnischen Präsidenten. - Bonn, 1999, lk. 205-210, pealkiri: Wozu Europa ?: Vortrag auf dem Bertelsmann-Forum, 20. Januar 1996; The new Europe: strategies for differentiated integration. - Güterslod, 1997, pealkiri: Why we need Europe. - Euroopa identiteet ja EL-i laienemine

  9. VitisCyc: A metabolic pathway knowledgebase for grapevine (Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma eNaithani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed VitisCyc, a grapevine-specific metabolic pathway database that allows researchers to i search and browse the database for its various components such as metabolic pathways, reactions, compounds, genes and proteins, ii compare grapevine metabolic networks with other publicly available plant metabolic networks, and iii upload, visualize and analyze high-throughput data such as transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes etc. using OMICs-Viewer tool. VitisCyc is based on the genome sequence of the nearly homozygous genotype PN40024 of Vitis vinifera ‘Pinot Noir’ cultivar with 12X v1 annotations and was built on BioCyc platform using Pathway Tools software and MetaCyc reference database. Furthermore, VitisCyc was enriched for plant-specific pathways and grape-specific metabolites, reactions and pathways. Currently VitisCyc harbors 68 super pathways, 362 biosynthesis pathways, 118 catabolic pathways, 5 detoxification pathways, 36 energy related and 6 transport pathways, 10,908 enzymes, 2912 enzymatic reactions, 31 transport reactions and 2,024 compounds. VitisCyc, as a community resource, can aid in the discovery of candidate genes and pathways that are regulated during plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress signals generated from a plant’s immediate environment. VitisCyc version 3.18 is available online at http://pathways.cgrb.oregonstate.edu.

  10. VitisCyc: a metabolic pathway knowledgebase for grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, Sushma; Raja, Rajani; Waddell, Elijah N; Elser, Justin; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Deluc, Laurent G; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    We have developed VitisCyc, a grapevine-specific metabolic pathway database that allows researchers to (i) search and browse the database for its various components such as metabolic pathways, reactions, compounds, genes and proteins, (ii) compare grapevine metabolic networks with other publicly available plant metabolic networks, and (iii) upload, visualize and analyze high-throughput data such as transcriptomes, proteomes, metabolomes etc. using OMICs-Viewer tool. VitisCyc is based on the genome sequence of the nearly homozygous genotype PN40024 of Vitis vinifera "Pinot Noir" cultivar with 12X v1 annotations and was built on BioCyc platform using Pathway Tools software and MetaCyc reference database. Furthermore, VitisCyc was enriched for plant-specific pathways and grape-specific metabolites, reactions and pathways. Currently VitisCyc harbors 68 super pathways, 362 biosynthesis pathways, 118 catabolic pathways, 5 detoxification pathways, 36 energy related pathways and 6 transport pathways, 10,908 enzymes, 2912 enzymatic reactions, 31 transport reactions and 2024 compounds. VitisCyc, as a community resource, can aid in the discovery of candidate genes and pathways that are regulated during plant growth and development, and in response to biotic and abiotic stress signals generated from a plant's immediate environment. VitisCyc version 3.18 is available online at http://pathways.cgrb.oregonstate.edu.

  11. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

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    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  12. Characterization of a new pathovar of Agrobacterium vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siliang; Long, Mengling; Fu, Gang; Lin, Shanhai; Qin, Liping; Hu, Chunjin; Cen, Zhenlu; Lu, Jie; Li, Qiqin

    2015-01-01

    A new banana leaf blight was found in Nanning city, China, during a 7-year survey (2003-2009) of the bacterial diseases on banana plants. Eight bacterial strains were isolated from affected banana leaves, and identified as an intraspecific taxon of Agrobacterium vitis based on their 16S rDNA sequence similarities with those of 37 randomly selected bacterial strains registered in GenBank database. The representative strain Ag-1 was virulent on banana leaves and shared similar growth and biochemical reactions with the reference strain IAM14140 of A. vitis. The strains causing banana leaf blight were denominated as A. vitis pv. musae. The traditional A. vitis strains virulent to grapevines were proposed to be revised as A. vitis pv. vitis. This is the first record of a new type of A. vitis causing banana leaf blight in China. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Vääna-Viti hoolekandeküla = Vääna-Viti community setting group home / Tõnu Laigu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laigu, Tõnu, 1956-

    2015-01-01

    Vääna-Viti hoolekandeküla Harku vallas Aiba tee 8/7, valminud 2013. Hoonete arhitektid Tõnu Laigu, Koit Ojaliiv, Mari Rass (QP Arhitektid OÜ), sisearhitektid Andres Labi, Janno Roos (Ruumilabor OÜ). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  14. Differences in the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera Seeds Extracts

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    Ryszard Amarowicz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power.

  15. Function of VtPGIP in pathogenic fungus resistance of Vitis thunbergii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In plants, polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) are very important to inactivate polygalacturonases secreted by pathogens. Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (VtPGIP) was first isolated from the wild grape Vitis thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc., which exhibits high resistance to disease. VtPGIP ...

  16. Using specific length amplified fragment sequencing to construct the high-density genetic map for Vitis ( Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis amurensis Rupr.

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    yinshan eGuo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 149 F1 plants from the interspecific cross between ‘Red Globe’ (Vitis vinifera L. and ‘Shuangyou’ (Vitis amurensis Rupr. and the parent were used to construct a molecular genetic linkage map by using the specific length amplified fragment sequencing technique. DNA sequencing generated 41.282 Gb data consisting of 206,411,693 paired-end reads. The average sequencing depths were 68.35 for ‘Red Globe,’ 63.65 for ‘Shuangyou,’ and 8.01 for each progeny. In all, 115,629 high-quality specific length amplified fragments were detected, of which 42,279 were polymorphic. The genetic map was constructed using 7,199 of these polymorphic markers. These polymorphic markers were assigned to 19 linkage groups; the total length of the map was 1929.13 cM, with an average distance of 0.28 cM between each maker. To our knowledge, the genetic maps constructed in this study contain the largest number of molecular markers. These high-density genetic maps might form the basis for the fine quantitative trait loci mapping and molecular-assisted breeding of grape.

  17. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  18. Effects of irrigation on the seasonal abundance of Empoasca vitis in north-Italian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Duso, C; Pozzebon, A; Tomasi, D; Gaiotti, F; Pavan, F

    2012-02-01

    The effect of irrigation on the abundance of Empoasca vitis (Göthe) populations was investigated in four vineyards located in northeastern Italy. In two experiments, we compared leafhopper population densities in plots irrigated (micro-spray irrigation system) or nonirrigated. In another experiment, we studied the effect of various irrigation systems on E. vitis populations over two successive seasons. In particular, five treatments were compared: control (not irrigated), traditional drip system, three types of subirrigation varying in distance from the row (40, 135, and 95 cm). In this vineyard, stem water potential was monitored with a pressure chamber. E. vitis population densities were affected by irrigation, with higher densities of this pest recorded on irrigated vines. Highest E. vitis densities were detected in drip irrigation plots compared with nonirrigated plots where water stress was highest. Moderate water stress (subirrigation plots) was associated with intermediate leafhopper densities. Implications for integrated pest management are discussed.

  19. Morphology, Structure, and Ontogeny of Trichomes of the Grape Genus (Vitis, Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Yao; Wen, Jun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Xiu-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. We observed that glandular trichomes of V. romanetii secrete mucilage and volatile substances which trap insectes on the glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  20. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of trichomes of the grape genus (Vitis, Vitaceae

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    Zhi-Yao eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. In our observation, the glandular trichomes of V. romanetii can secret mucilage and send out volatile substance so that many insects are often glued to glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  1. Comparative study of diagnostic methods used for monitoring of common grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. crown gall (Agrobacterium vitis Ophel & Kerr in Slovenia

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    Janja LAMOVŠEK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium vitis causes common grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. crown gall disease that destroyed a lot of Slovenian vineyards more than a decade ago. Eighty isolates of Agrobacterium spp. collected during monitoring in 2006 were identified as A. vitis and A. tumefacies by pehA and multiplex PCR method. Tumor-inducing capacity of these strains was assessed on test plants and with PCR methods for detection of the Ti plasmid responsible for tumor induction. With VCF3/VCR3 primer pair six false negatives and no false positives were detected. The high genetic diversity of pathogenic Agrobacterium spp. strains affects the performance of molecular methods, thus biological test should be performed where results from molecular methods are doubtful.

  2. Lesão renal aguda por glicerol: efeito antioxidante da Vitis vinifera L Acute kidney injury by glycerol: antioxidant effect of Vitis vinifera L

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    Elisabete Cristina de Oliveira Martim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A lesão renal aguda (LRA é a complicação mais grave da rabdomiólise. Nessa síndrome, a liberação do pigmento heme desencadeia uma lesão que se caracteriza por vasoconstrição glomerular e toxicidade celular direta com provável componente oxidante. A renoproteção com antioxidantes tem demonstrado efeito satisfatório. As proantocianidinas são antioxidantes naturais encontradas no extrato da semente da uva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antioxidante da Vitis vinifera sobre a função renal de ratos submetidos à lesão induzida por rabdomiólise. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, machos e adultos pesando entre 250 e 300 g. A LRA foi induzida pela administração de glicerol 50% por via muscular. Os animais foram distribuídos em 4 grupos: grupo Salina (6 mL/kg de NaCl a 0,9%, por via intraperitoneal (dose única, Glicerol (6 mL/kg por via muscular metade da dose em cada região femoral, em dose única, grupo Vitis vinifera (3 mg/kg/dia, por via oral durante cinco dias e grupo Glicerol + Vitis vinifera que recebeu Vitis vinifera por cinco dias antes do glicerol. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados a função renal (FR e o perfil oxidativo (peróxidos urinários FOX-2 e MDA-TBARS. O grupo glicerol de animais tratado com Vitis vinifera apresentou melhora da FR e redução dos níveis de peroxidação lipídica. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados deste estudo confirmaram a ação antioxidante da Vitis vinifera na LRA induzida por glicerol.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Acute Kidney Injury (AKI is the most serious complication of rhabdomyolysis. In this syndrome, the delivery of heme pigment induces an injury that distinguishes itself by glomerular vasoconstriction and direct cellular toxicity with oxidative component. The renoprotection with antioxidants has demonstrated satisfactory effect. The proanthocyanidins are natural antioxidants found in the grape seed extract. The aim of this study was to

  3. Phylogeny of the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade in Vitaceae supports the New World origin of the grape genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Qun; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhou, Zhuo; Chen, Long-Qing; Wen, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The grapes and the close allies in Vitaceae are of great agronomic and economic importance. Our previous studies showed that the grape genus Vitis was closely related to three tropical genera, which formed the Ampelocissus-Vitis clade (including Vitis, Ampelocissus, Nothocissus and Pterisanthes). Yet the phylogenetic relationships of the four genera within this clade remain poorly resolved. Furthermore, the geographic origin of Vitis is still controversial, because the sampling of the close relatives of Vitis was too limited in the previous studies. This study reconstructs the phylogenetic relationships within the clade, and hypothesizes the origin of Vitis in a broader phylogenetic framework, using five plastid and two nuclear markers. The Ampelocissus-Vitis clade is supported to be composed of five main lineages. Vitis includes two described subgenera each as a monophyletic group. Ampelocissus is paraphyletic. The New World Ampelocissus does not form a clade and shows a complex phylogenetic relationship, with A. acapulcensis and A. javalensis forming a clade, and A. erdvendbergiana sister to Vitis. The majority of the Asian Ampelocissus species form a clade, within which Pterisanthes is nested. Pterisanthes is polyphyletic, suggesting that the lamellate inflorescence characteristic of the genus represents convergence. Nothocissus is sister to the clade of Asian Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes. The African Ampelocissus forms a clade with several Asian species. Based on the Bayesian dating and both the RASP and Lagrange analyses, Vitis is inferred to have originated in the New World during the late Eocene (39.4Ma, 95% HPD: 32.6-48.6Ma), then migrated to Eurasia in the late Eocene (37.3Ma, 95% HPD: 30.9-45.1Ma). The North Atlantic land bridges (NALB) are hypothesized to be the most plausible route for the Vitis migration from the New World to Eurasia, while intercontinental long distance dispersal (LDD) cannot be eliminated as a likely mechanism. Copyright © 2015

  4. High-throughput sequencing data clarify evolutionary relationships among North American Vitis species and improve identification in USDA Vitis germplasm collections

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    Grapes are one of the most economically important berry crops worldwide, with the vast majority of production derived from the domesticated Eurasian species Vitis vinifera. Expansion of production into new areas, development of new cultivars, and concerns about adapting grapevines for changing clima...

  5. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bei, Roberta; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Steve; Edwards, Everard; Bianchini, Nicolò; Smith, Jason; Collins, Cassandra

    2016-04-23

    Leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI), canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  6. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

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    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  7. Acclimatization of 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstock Aclimatização do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The pre-acclimatization stage can be used to improve micropropagation protocols and increase the yield of produced plants. The influence of sucrose and photon flux density (PFD levels on the acclimatization of in vitro-grown 'VR043-43' (Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia grapevine rootstocks was evaluated. Rooted shoots were obtained from 4-week-old in vitro shoots cultivated in QL (Quoirin and Lepoivre, 1977 culture medium supplemented with 15, 30 and 45 g L-1 of sucrose. The experiment was kept in a 25 ± 2ºC growth room, under 16-h photoperiod and PFD of 18 µmol m-2 s-1 or 43 µmol m-2 s-1. Plants were transferred to an intermittent misting system greenhouse for 10 d followed by 20 d of once-a-day watering routine using a handheld hose. Plant height was influenced by sucrose concentration, and shoots produced on media supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose were the tallest (5.0 cm. The largest leaf area was obtained with 31.3 g L-1 of sucrose, under the PFD of 43 µmol m-2 s-1 (13.3 cm². Absence of sucrose in the culture medium led to a significant reduction in leaf area at both PFDs. Shoot (aerial part dry matter was largest when 30 or 45 g L-1 of sucrose (17.5 and 16.7 mg per plant, respectively were used. Microcuttings rooted in all sucrose concentrations tested. The highest survival percentage (100% during ex vitro acclimatization was obtained for shoots cultured in media supplemented with 45 g L-1 of sucrose under both PFDs tested.A fase de pré-aclimatização pode ser utilizada para aperfeiçoar os protocolos de micropropagação e aumentar o rendimento na produção de mudas. Avaliou-se a influência da sacarose e níveis de densidade de fluxo de fóton (DFF in vitro, na sobrevivência das mudas do porta-enxerto de videira 'VR043-43'(Vitis vinifera x Vitis rotundifolia, na fase de aclimatização. Microestacas obtidas de brotações in vitro foram cultivadas em meio de cultura QL suplementado 15, 30 e 45 g L-1 de sacarose. O

  8. EFFECT OF VITIS VINIFERA AGAINST TRITON X 100 INDUCED HYPERLIPIDAEMIA IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Masani YA; Mathew N; Chakraborty M; Kamath JV

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Vitis vinfera fruit juice (VVFJ) against Triton X 100 induced hyperlipidaemia. Wister strain rats were treated with atorvastatin (ATOR-10mg/kg, p.o.), low and high dose of Vitis vinifera fruit juice (VVFJ- 100 and 500mg/kg) orally for 0, 24 and 44 hours after treated with Triton X 100 (400mg/kg, p.o). 4 hour after the last dose, blood was collected from all the animals and the separated serum was subjected for the estimation of serum lipoproteins level such as Trigly...

  9. Isolation and Identification of the Indigenous Yeast Population during Spontaneous Fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) Grape Must

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Eder, María L.; Reynoso, Cristina; Lauret, Santiago C.; Rosa, Alberto L.

    2017-01-01

    Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) grape must. Alcoholic fermentation was conducted using standard enological practices, and the associated non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast community was analyzed using selective growth media and 5.8-ITS DNA sequencing. Candida californica, Candida hellenica, Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Hanseniaspora vineae were the main non-Saccharomyces species identified on Isabella fermenting must. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a yeast species rarely found on Vitis vinifera L. grapes, was also recognized on Isabella grape must. Candida azymoides, Candida californica and Pichia cecembensis, identified in this work on Isabella fermenting must, have not previously been found on Vitis vinifera L. grape must. Interestingly, C. azymoides, I. hanoiensis and P. cecembensis have recently been isolated from the surface of Vitis labrusca L. grapes from vineyards in the Azores archipelago, suggesting that specific Vitis-yeast species associations are formed independently of geographic origin. We suggest that C. azymoides, C. californica, and P. cecembensis are yeast species preferentially associated with Vitis labrusca L. grapes. Specific biological interactions between grapevines and yeast species may underlie the assembly of differential Vitis-microbial communities. PMID:28424672

  10. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  11. Resveratrols in Grape Berry Skins and Leaves in Vitis Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. Methodology/Principal Finding The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Conclusion Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in

  12. Dissecting the Transcriptional Response to Elicitors in Vitis vinifera Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Bru, Roque; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Lijavetzky, Diego; Pedreño, María A.

    2014-01-01

    The high effectiveness of cyclic oligosaccharides like cyclodextrins in the production of trans-resveratrol in Vitis vinifera cell cultures is enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate. In order to dissect the basis of the interactions among the elicitation responses triggered by these two compounds, a transcriptional analysis of grapevine cell cultures treated with cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate separately or in combination was carried out. The results showed that the activation of genes encoding enzymes from phenylpropanoid and stilbene biosynthesis induced by cyclodextrins alone was partially enhanced in the presence of methyl jasmonate, which correlated with their effects on trans-resveratrol production. In addition, protein translation and cell cycle regulation were more highly repressed in cells treated with cyclodextrins than in those treated with methyl jasmonate, and this response was enhanced in the combined treatment. Ethylene signalling was activated by all treatments, while jasmonate signalling and salicylic acid conjugation were activated only in the presence of methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrins, respectively. Moreover, the combined treatment resulted in a crosstalk between the signalling cascades activated by cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate, which, in turn, provoked the activation of additional regulatory pathways involving the up-regulation of MYB15, NAC and WRKY transcription factors, protein kinases and calcium signal transducers. All these results suggest that both elicitors cause an activation of the secondary metabolism in detriment of basic cell processes like the primary metabolism or cell division. Crosstalk between cyclodextrins and methyl jasmonate-induced signalling provokes an intensification of these responses resulting in a greater trans-resveratrol production. PMID:25314001

  13. Evolutionary genomics of grape (Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera) domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongfeng; Massonnet, Mélanie; Sanjak, Jaleal S; Cantu, Dario; Gaut, Brandon S

    2017-10-31

    We gathered genomic data from grapes ( Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera ), a clonally propagated perennial crop, to address three ongoing mysteries about plant domestication. The first is the duration of domestication; archaeological evidence suggests that domestication occurs over millennia, but genetic evidence indicates that it can occur rapidly. We estimated that our wild and cultivated grape samples diverged ∼22,000 years ago and that the cultivated lineage experienced a steady decline in population size ( N e ) thereafter. The long decline may reflect low-intensity management by humans before domestication. The second mystery is the identification of genes that contribute to domestication phenotypes. In cultivated grapes, we identified candidate-selected genes that function in sugar metabolism, flower development, and stress responses. In contrast, candidate-selected genes in the wild sample were limited to abiotic and biotic stress responses. A genomic region of high divergence corresponded to the sex determination region and included a candidate male sterility factor and additional genes with sex-specific expression. The third mystery concerns the cost of domestication. Annual crops accumulate putatively deleterious variants, in part due to strong domestication bottlenecks. The domestication of perennial crops differs from that of annuals in several ways, including the intensity of bottlenecks, and it is not yet clear if they accumulate deleterious variants. We found that grape accessions contained 5.2% more deleterious variants than wild individuals, and these were more often in a heterozygous state. Using forward simulations, we confirm that clonal propagation leads to the accumulation of recessive deleterious mutations but without decreasing fitness. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Characterization of the ABA signal transduction pathway in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneh, Uri; Biton, Iris; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Ari, Giora

    2012-05-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many key processes in plants including the response to abiotic stress. ABA signal transduction consists of a double-negative regulatory mechanism, whereby ABA-bound PYR/RCARs inhibit PP2C activity, and PP2Cs inactivate SnRK2s. We studied and analyzed the various genes participating in the ABA signaling cascade of the grape (Vitis vinifera). The grape ABA signal transduction consists of at least six SnRK2s. Yeast two-hybrid system was used to test direct interactions between core components of grape ABA signal transduction. We found that a total of forty eight interactions can occur between the various components. Exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses such as drought, high salt concentration and cold, were applied to vines growing in a hydroponic system. These stresses regulated the expression of various grape SnRK2s as well as ABFs in leaves and roots. Based on the interactions between SnRK2s and its targets and the expression pattern, we suggest that VvSnRK2.1 and VvSnRK2.6, can be considered the major VvSnRK2 candidates involved in the stomata response to abiotic stress. Furthermore, we found that the expression pattern of the two grape ABF genes indicates organ specificity of these genes. The key role of ABA signaling in response to abiotic stresses makes the genes involve in this signaling potential candidates for manipulation in programs designed to improve fruit tree performance in extreme environments. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soural, I.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 6093-6112 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Vitis vinifera L * grape cane * stilbenes * accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) * microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) * LC-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015

  16. In vivo analgesic activities and safety assessment of Vitis vinifera L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the analgesic properties of hydro-alcohol fruit extracts of Vitis vinifera (grape) and Punica granatum (pomegranate) in albino male mice. Methods: The analgesic activity of the fruit extracts was examined in vivo using thermal stimulus assays (tail immersion and hot plate) and chemically-induced ...

  17. H-1-NMR Fingerprinting of Vaccinium vitis-idaea Flavonol Glycosides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riihinen, K.R.; Mihaleva, V.V.; Gödecke, T.; Soininen, P.; Laatikainen, R.; Vervoort, J.; Lankin, D.C.; Pauli, G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction - The fruits of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. are a valuable source of biologically active flavonoid derivatives. For studies focused on the purification of its quercetin glycosides (QGs) and related glycosides from plants and for the purpose of biological studies, the availability of

  18. Varietal Distributions of Stilbenes in Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soural, I.; Balík, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 11-14 ISSN 1335-2563 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Vitis vinifera L. * varieties * grape canes * stilbenes * distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  19. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Rhizobium vitis strains from vineyards in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem CANIK OREL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Crown gall-affected grapevine samples were collected during 2009–2010 from major vineyards, located in different Turkish provinces. One hundred and three bacterial strains were obtained from 88 vineyards and 18 grapevine varieties; they were tumorigenic when inoculated in tobacco, sunflower and Datura stramonium plants and were identified as Rhizobium vitis using biochemical and physiological tests as well as PCR and specific primers. Nineteen R. vitis strains presented a number of anomalous biochemical and physiological characters. PCR and opine-specific primers revealed the presence of octopine/cucumopine-type plasmid in 82 R. vitis strains, nopaline-type plasmids in 18 strains and vitopine-type plasmids in three strains. Clonal relationship of strains was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis following digestion of genomic DNA with the restriction endonuclease PmeI. The greatest genetic diversity was found for the strains from Denizli, Ankara and Nevşehir provinces. Nopaline and vitopine-types of Rhizobium vitis were detected for the first time in Turkey.

  20. The phytoalexin resveratrol regulates the initiation of hypersensitive cell death in Vitis cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chang

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR, while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir' does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines derived from the two Vitis species, the bacterial effector Harpin induced a rapid and sensitive accumulation of stilbene synthase (StSy transcripts, followed by massive cell death in V. rupestris. In the present work, we analysed the function of the phytoalexin resveratrol, the product of StSy. We found that cv. 'Pinot Noir' accumulated low resveratrol and its glycoside trans-piceid, whereas V. rupestris produced massive trans-resveratrol and the toxic oxidative δ-viniferin, indicating that the preferred metabolitism of resveratrol plays role in Vitis resistance. Cellular responses to resveratrol included rapid alkalinisation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR5 transcripts, oxidative burst, actin bundling, and cell death. Microtubule disruption and induction of StSy were triggered by Harpin, but not by resveratrol. Whereas most responses proceeded with different amplitude for the two cell lines, the accumulation of resveratrol, and the competence for resveratrol-induced oxidative burst differed in quality. The data lead to a model, where resveratrol, in addition to its classical role as antimicrobial phytoalexin, represents an important regulator for initiation of HR-related cell death.

  1. VitiCanopy: A Free Computer App to Estimate Canopy Vigor and Porosity for Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Bei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI and plant area index (PAI are common and important biophysical parameters used to estimate agronomical variables such as canopy growth, light interception and water requirements of plants and trees. LAI can be either measured directly using destructive methods or indirectly using dedicated and expensive instrumentation, both of which require a high level of know-how to operate equipment, handle data and interpret results. Recently, a novel smartphone and tablet PC application, VitiCanopy, has been developed by a group of researchers from the University of Adelaide and the University of Melbourne, to estimate grapevine canopy size (LAI and PAI, canopy porosity, canopy cover and clumping index. VitiCanopy uses the front in-built camera and GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablet PCs to automatically implement image analysis algorithms on upward-looking digital images of canopies and calculates relevant canopy architecture parameters. Results from the use of VitiCanopy on grapevines correlated well with traditional methods to measure/estimate LAI and PAI. Like other indirect methods, VitiCanopy does not distinguish between leaf and non-leaf material but it was demonstrated that the non-leaf material could be extracted from the results, if needed, to increase accuracy. VitiCanopy is an accurate, user-friendly and free alternative to current techniques used by scientists and viticultural practitioners to assess the dynamics of LAI, PAI and canopy architecture in vineyards, and has the potential to be adapted for use on other plants.

  2. Physical, rheological, functional and film properties of a novel emulsifier: Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP) from Vitis riparia Michx

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel emulsifier, Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), isolated from natural exudate of the species Vitis riparia Michx, was physically and rheologically characterized. The determination of the physical, structural, thermodynamic, emulsification, film, and rheological properties of FGP provide essent...

  3. Discriminated release of phenolic substances from red wine grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) by multicomponent enzymes treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Anthocyanins were released from skins during the early phases of the enzymatic treatments, but were then degraded during further enzymatic treatment; flavonols underwent transformation from glycosylated (rutin) to deglycosylated (quercetin) during...

  4. Muusika hiilgus ja pahupool Grammy peegelduses / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2002-01-01

    Los Angeleses toimunud 44. Grammyde jagamisest 101 kategoorias. Parema kammeransambli esituse kategoorias pärjati võitjaks Gido Kremer ja Kremerata Baltica uus plaat "After Mozart". Muusikaauhindade valikloetelu

  5. Los Grammy Latino, su meta inicial y su fin comercial

    OpenAIRE

    Marinés Arroyo Sotomayor

    2015-01-01

    El artículo refiere lo que es este festival musical que premia el talento latino, quienes participan, su meta inicial y su fin comercial. Muestra que a pesar de la tradición de intolerancia del exilio cubano, la música sirvió, una vez más, como puente de cultura

  6. Peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO in grape (Vitis vinifera L. Peroxidase (POD e polifenoloxidase (PPO em uva (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela de Pieri Troiani

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzimatic activity of peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO extracted from three grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L., cultivated in Marialva city, state of Paraná, was evaluated in this study. The enzymatic extracts were prepared starting from the Rubi, Borbon and Benitaka grape cultivars pulp and peel. The activity of the peroxidase was 53.00 units/100 g in the extract from the Rubi cultivar peel, and 327.00 units/100 g from the Benitaka cultivar, these values being superior to those observed in the same cultivars pulp extracts, which were 7.67 units/100 g and 44.00 units/100 g respectively. However, the result was opposite in the Borbon cultivar, with values of 141.11 units/100 g in the pulp and 11.50 units/100 g in the peel being found. The results of the polyphenoloxidase in the Borbon cultivar activity were 100.18 units/100 g in the pulp and 102.60 units/100 g in the peel, and in the Rubi and Benitaka cultivars were 60.40 units/100 g, 48.62 units/100 g in the pulp and 17.40 units/100 g, and 26.20 units/100 g in the peel, respectively. Protein determination was carried out in each extract, and the results found in the pulp and peel, respectively, were 0.56 and 0.64 mg/100 g for cultivar Benitaka, 1.38 and 6.45 mg/100 g for cultivar Rubi, and 21.38 and 5.68 mg/100 g for Borbon. The extracts were submitted to thermal treatments (60°C, 65°C, 70°C and 75°C for a 1 to 10 minutes period to observe the behavior of the peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase enzymatic activity, being verified a continuous decrease of the peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities as a result of the thermal treatment. The extracts of the Rubi and Benitaka cultivars were more heat stable than the extract from the Borbon cultivar for both enzymes. However, the temperatures used were not enough for a total inactivation of the enzymes.Neste trabalho, estudou-se a atividade enzimática da peroxidase (POD e da polifenoloxidase (PPO extraídas de três cultivares de

  7. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  8. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  9. The Effect of Vitis vinifera L. Leaves Extract on Leishmania infantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Rym; Haouas, Najoua; Ben Kahla-Nakbi, Amel; Hammami, Saoussen; Mighri, Zine; Mhenni, Farouk; Babba, Hamouda

    2013-01-01

    Vitis vinifera L.is a traditional Asian herb widely used for different health problems. In the present research, the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts of Vitis vinifera L. leaves collected from shrub, grown in Tunisia, were prepared and evaluated for the antileishmanial activity against Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was determined and the results showed that the etahnolic extract is more active than the aqueous one (IC50= 0.108 mg/mL). Microscopic observations showed that the ethanolic extract promoted the destruction of cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of Leishmani ainfantum promastigotes and altered the overall shape of the cell. In order to explain the difference of antileishmanial activity between ethanolic and aqueous extracts, anthocyanins amount was determined by spectrophotometry. It was found that the ethanolic extract is richer in anthocyanins than the aqueous one which can explain the higher antileishmanial activity of the ethanolic extract. PMID:24250641

  10. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification

    OpenAIRE

    María Fernanda Lazo-Javalera; Martín Ernesto Tiznado-Hernández; Irasema Vargas-Arispuro; Elisa Valenzuela-Soto; María del Carmen Rocha-Granados; Marcos Edel Martínez-Montero; Marisela Rivera-Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. ?Flame seedless? stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38??C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity o...

  11. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  12. Identification of Agrobacterium vitis as a causal agent of grapevine crown gall in Serbia

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    Kuzmanović N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, a serious outbreak of crown gall disease was observed on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in several commercial vineyards located in the Vojvodina province, Serbia. Bacteria were isolated from the young tumor tissue on nonselective YMA medium and five representative strains were selected for further identification. Tumorigenic (Ti plasmid was detected in all strains by PCR using primers designed to amplify the virC pathogenicity gene, producing a 414-bp PCR product. The strains were identified as Agrobacterium vitis using differential physiological and biochemical tests, and a multiplex PCR assay targeting 23S rRNA gene sequences. In the pathogenicity assay, all strains induced characteristic symptoms on inoculated tomato and grapevine plants. They were less virulent on tomato plants in comparison to the reference strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis. [Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46008: Development of integrated management of harmful organisms in plant production in order to overcome resistance and to improve food quality and safety

  13. Fungal endophytes of wild and hybrid Vitis leaves and their potential for vineyard biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaghan, Gavin; Mayerhofer, Michael; Griffin, Amanda

    2017-07-01

    Plants are colonized by diverse assemblages of fungal endophytes that have potential as biocontrol agents for a variety of crops, including grapevine. Although the diversity of symbionts can be very high in wild plants, the fungal endophytes of wild Vitis plants have not yet been investigated. We surveyed the fungal endophytes of 6 wild populations of Vitis riparia, as well as a cold-tolerant, hybrid grapevine in 5 vineyards (1 certified organic), using 454 pyrosequencing. We detected between 43 and 235 operational taxonomic units per sample, with the highest richness and diversity in the wild, the lowest in conventional vineyards, and intermediate levels in the organic vineyard. Wild plants supported a range of taxa not seen in the conventional vineyards, and vineyards were dominated by relatively few taxa. We also isolated fungi from the wild plants and tested them for their ability to inhibit pathogens of grapevine. Several wild isolates (e.g., Ramularia spp.) were strongly inhibitory to grapevine pathogens. We show that wild Vitis supports a distinct and highly diverse community of fungal endophytes and may represent a rich repository of potential vineyard biocontrol agents.

  14. Exogenous Abscisic Acid Promotes Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Increased Expression of Flavonoid Synthesis Genes in Vitis vinifera × Vitis labrusca Table Grapes in a Subtropical Region

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    Renata Koyama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid (Vitis vinifera ×Vitis labrusca table grape cultivars grown in the subtropics often fail to accumulate sufficient anthocyanins to achieve good uniform berry color. Growers of V. vinifera table grapes in temperate regions generally use ethephon and, more recently, (S-cis-abscisic acid (S-ABA to overcome this problem. The objective of this study was to determine if S-ABA applications at different timings and concentrations have an effect on anthocyanin regulatory and biosynthetic genes, pigment accumulation, and berry color of the Selection 21 cultivar, a new V. vinifera ×V. labrusca hybrid seedless grape that presents lack of red color when grown in subtropical areas. Applications of S-ABA 400 mg/L resulted in a higher accumulation of total anthocyanins and of the individual anthocyaninsanthocyanins: delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3-glucoside in the berry skin and improved the color attributes of the berries. Treatment with two applications at 7 days after véraison (DAV and 21 DAV of S-ABA 400 mg/L resulted in a higher accumulation of total anthocyanins in the skin of berries and increased the gene expression of CHI, F3H, DFR, and UFGT and of the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 transcription factors in the seedless grape cultivar.

  15. Exogenous Abscisic Acid Promotes Anthocyanin Biosynthesis and Increased Expression of Flavonoid Synthesis Genes in Vitis vinifera × Vitis labrusca Table Grapes in a Subtropical Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Renata; Roberto, Sergio R.; de Souza, Reginaldo T.; Borges, Wellington F. S.; Anderson, Mauri; Waterhouse, Andrew L.; Cantu, Dario; Fidelibus, Matthew W.; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid (Vitis vinifera ×Vitis labrusca) table grape cultivars grown in the subtropics often fail to accumulate sufficient anthocyanins to achieve good uniform berry color. Growers of V. vinifera table grapes in temperate regions generally use ethephon and, more recently, (S)-cis-abscisic acid (S-ABA) to overcome this problem. The objective of this study was to determine if S-ABA applications at different timings and concentrations have an effect on anthocyanin regulatory and biosynthetic genes, pigment accumulation, and berry color of the Selection 21 cultivar, a new V. vinifera ×V. labrusca hybrid seedless grape that presents lack of red color when grown in subtropical areas. Applications of S-ABA 400 mg/L resulted in a higher accumulation of total anthocyanins and of the individual anthocyaninsanthocyanins: delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3-glucoside in the berry skin and improved the color attributes of the berries. Treatment with two applications at 7 days after véraison (DAV) and 21 DAV of S-ABA 400 mg/L resulted in a higher accumulation of total anthocyanins in the skin of berries and increased the gene expression of CHI, F3H, DFR, and UFGT and of the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 transcription factors in the seedless grape cultivar. PMID:29632542

  16. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Young Wines Made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L. and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. Grapes Treated by 24-Epibrassinolide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L. and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS (Vitis vinifera L. were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR, 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz, and deionized water (control, at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC, total tannin content (TTC and total anthocyanin content (TAC of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  17. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of young wines made from Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes treated by 24-epibrassinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Luan, Li-Ying; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Huo, Shan-Shan; Gao, Xiang; Fang, Yu-Lin; Xi, Zhu-Mei

    2014-07-14

    The grape berries of two varieties, Yan73 (Vitis vinifera L.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) (Vitis vinifera L.) were treated with 0.40 mg/L 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), 1.00 mg/L brassinazole (Brz), and deionized water (control), at the veraison period. The EBR treatment significantly increased total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of Yan73 and CS wines, whereas Brz treatment decreased TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC), TAC in the two wines. Moreover, the content of most of the phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS in EBR-treated wines was significantly higher than that in control. The antioxidant capacities, which determined using DPPH, ABTS and HRSA methods, of the wines were increased by EBR treatment as well. There was a good correlation between the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. The results demonstrated that EBR could enhance the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Yan73 and CS wines, but the effects may vary by different cultivars.

  18. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  19. Comparison of Insecticide Susceptibilities of Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Three Main Tea-Growing Regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Yu, Hua-Yang; Niu, Chun-Dong; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shun-Fan; Chen, Zhuo; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2015-06-01

    Empoasca vitis (Göthe) is an important insect pest in tea-growing areas of China, and chemical control is the main tactic for the management of this pest. Due to the pressure of increasing insecticide resistance and more stringent food safety regulations, development of sound IPM strategies for E. vitis is an urgent matter. This study comparatively evaluated four field populations of E. vitis from three different tea-growing regions in China for their susceptibilities to eight insecticides using a simple leaf-dip methodology. E. vitis was found to be most sensitive to indoxacarb (LC505 mg/liter) and sophocarpidine (LC50>95 mg/liter, a botanical pesticide) regardless of populations. Population (geographical) variations were higher for indoxacarb and imidacloprid than other compounds. Judging by the 95% fiducial limits of LC50 values, all populations had similar susceptibilities to chlorfenapyr, bifenthrin, and acetamiprid or imidacloprid. Correlation analysis suggested that chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb or isoprocarb may have a high risk of cross resistance. Considering potency (LC50) and maximum residual levels, chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin are good insecticide options followed by acetamiprid and indoxacarb. These results provide valuable information to intelligently select insecticides for IPM programs that are efficacious against E. vitis while also managing insecticide resistance and maximum residual levels for tea production in China. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Newly developed quantitative transactivation system shows difference in activation by Vitis CBF transcription factors on DRE/CRT elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassuth, Annette; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Xiao, Huogen; Moody, Michelle A; Carlow, Chevonne E

    2014-01-01

    Agroinfiltration-based transactivation systems can determine if a protein functions as a transcription factor, and via which promoter element. However, this activation is not always a yes or no proposition. Normalization for variation in plasmid delivery into plant cells, sample collection and protein extraction is desired to allow for a quantitative comparison between transcription factors or promoter elements. We developed new effector and reporter plasmids which carry additional reporter genes, as well as a procedure to assay all three reporter enzymes from a single extract. The applicability of these plasmids was demonstrated with the analysis of CBF transcription factors and their target promoter sequence, DRE/CRT. Changes in the core DRE/CRT sequence abolished activation by Vitis CBF1 or Vitis CBF4, whereas changes in the surrounding sequence lowered activation by Vitis CBF1 but much less so for Vitis CBF4. The system also detected a reduction in activation due to one amino acid change in Vitis CBF1. The newly developed effector and reporter plasmids improve the ability to quantitatively compare the activation on two different promoter elements by the same transcription factor, or between two different transcription factors on the same promoter element. The quantitative difference in activation by VrCBF1 and VrCBF4 on various DRE/CRT elements support the hypothesis that these transcription factors have unique roles in the cold acclimation process.

  1. Biological control of crown gall of grapevine, rose, and tomato by nonpathogenic Agrobacterium vitis strain VAR03-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, A; Inoue, K; Ichinose, Y

    2008-11-01

    A nonpathogenic strain of Agrobacterium vitis VAR03-1 was tested as a biological control agent for crown gall of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). When roots of grapevine, rose (Rose multiflora), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were soaked in a cell suspension of antagonists before planting in soil infested with tumorigenic A. vitis, A. rhizogenes, and A. tumefaciens, respectively, treatment with VAR03-1 significantly reduced the number of plants with tumors and disease severity in the three plant species. The inhibitory effects of treatment with VAR03-1 and the nonpathogenic A. rhizogenes strain K84 on crown gall of rose and tomato were almost identical, and the inhibitory effect of VAR03-1 on grapevine was superior to that of K84. Moreover, VAR03-1 greatly controlled crown gall of grapevine due to tumorigenic A. vitis in the field. VAR03-1 established populations averaging 10(6) colony forming units (CFU)/g of root in the rhizosphere of grapevine and persisted on roots for 2 years. VAR03-1 was bacteriocinogenic, producing a halo of inhibition against those three species of Agrobacterium. This is the first report that a nonpathogenic strain, VAR03-1, can effectively control crown gall caused by tumorigenic A. vitis, A. rhizogenes, and A. tumefaciens.

  2. The novel gene VpPR4-1 from Vitis pseudoreticulata increases powdery mildew resistance in transgenic Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingmin eDai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs can lead to increased resistance of the whole plant to pathogen attack. Here, we isolate and characterize a PR-4 protein from a wild Chinese grape Vitis pseudoreticulata which shows greatly elevated transcription following powdery mildew infection. Its expression profiles under a number of abiotic stresses were also investigated. The PR-4 gene was overexpressed in regenerated V. vinifera cv. Red Globe via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and verified by the Western blot. The transgenic grapevines exhibited higher expression levels of PR-4 protein content than wild-type vines and also repressed the growth of powdery mildew. The PR gene responds differently to different stresses in the PR-4 transformants. This study demonstrates that PR-4 protein in grapes plays a vital role in defense against powdery mildew invasion.

  3. The synthesis and accumulation of resveratrol are associated with veraison and abscisic acid concentration in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis berry skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrols are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that can benefit human health, and only occur in a few plant families including Vitaceae. It has been reported that abscisic acid (ABA can induce veraison (the onset of grape berry ripening and may induce the accumulation of resveratrol in berry skin. However, the relationships between ABA, veraison, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the accumulation of resveratrol in the berry are poorly understood. This study attempted to answer this question through an investigation of the effect of applied ABA and fluridone (a synthetic inhibitor of ABA on the biosynthesis and accumulation of ABA, anthocyanin and resveratrol in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis berry skin. Under natural conditions, resveratrol concentration was very low before 91 DAA (days after anthesis, i.e. 2 weeks after veraison, however, it increased sharply from this point to 126 DAA (maturity. Exogenous ABA applications all resulted in an increase in berry skin ABA and anthocyanin concentration, irrespective of the developmental stage at which the treatment occurred (20 and 10 d pre-veraison,veraison or 7 d post-veraison, thereby advancing veraison. In contrast, resveratrol concentration increased only when ABA was applied at 10 d pre-veraison or at veraison. As a result, the accumulation of resveratrol was associated with veraison in grape berry skin and this accumulation, together with that of anthocyanins, was associated with ABA concentration. The response of resveratrol biosynthesis in the berry skin to manipulation of ABA varied during berry development and was less sensitive to ABA than the response of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  4. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Chemical constituents of Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. f.) C. E. C. Fischer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao-My; Le, Xuan-Tien; Nguyen, Minh-Tam K.

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities of Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm.f.) C. E. C. Fischer leaves extracts using in vitro assays; and isolated bioactive compounds from the fractioned extract which showed the best properties by column chromatography. All extracts showed significant radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Ethyl acetate extracts and their isolated compounds showed the highest free biocapacities. In addition, from ethyl acetate extracts, two pure compounds were elucidated as 6-O-benzoylarbutin (1) and Breynioside B (2); another compound, 6-O-benzoyl-α-D-glucose (3) was also isolated and elucidated from n-butanol extracts.

  6. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. following cryopreservation by vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Lazo-Javalera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. “Flame seedless” stored in liquid nitrogen (LN for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA, total protein and viability were assayed.

  7. Data on antioxidant activity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) following cryopreservation by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Javalera, María Fernanda; Tiznado-Hernández, Martín Ernesto; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa; Rocha-Granados, María Del Carmen; Martínez-Montero, Marcos Edel; Rivera-Domínguez, Marisela

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is used for the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources. This technique very often induces lethal injury or tissue damage. In this study, we measured indicators of viability and cell damage following cryopreservation and vitrification-cryopreservation in Vitis vinifera L. axillary buds cv. "Flame seedless" stored in liquid nitrogen (LN) for: three seconds, one hour, one day, one week and one month; after LN thawed at 38 °C for three minutes. The enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), total protein and viability were assayed.

  8. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Tang

    Full Text Available Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD, which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs from the 'Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir' and 'Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless' varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177, Cys (219] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112, Arg (389, Ser (395], except that Ser (395 in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF, close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs.

  9. Competitividade da cadeia produtiva viti-vinícola do RS

    OpenAIRE

    Triches, Vinícius

    2007-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Sócio-Econômico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia. No presente trabalho é analisada a competitividade da cadeia produtiva viti-vinícola gaúcha, líder no Brasil. Para tanto, utilizou-se como embasamento teórico a noção de cadeias produtivas, competitividade em cadeias produtivas e a Economia dos Custos de Transação. Assim, visou-se verificar, dentro de cinco níveis de análise, as principais características, peculia...

  10. Influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Vitis amurensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Dao, Trong Tuan; Tung, Bui Thanh

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1/09 virus) was identified and considered a strong candidate for a novel influenza pandemic. As part of an ongoing anti-influenza screening programme on natural products, eight oligostilbenes were isolated as active principles from the methanol extract...... of Vitis amurensis. This manuscript reports the isolation, structural elucidation, and anti-viral activities of eight compounds on various neuraminidases from influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1), and oseltamivir-resistant novel H1N1 (H274Y) expressed in 293T cells...

  11. Phenolic compounds involved in grafting incompatibility of Vitis spp: development and validation of an analytical method for their quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canas, Sara; Assunção, Maria; Brazão, João; Zanol, Geni; Eiras-Dias, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Graft incompatibility of Vitis spp is an unresolved worldwide problem with important economic consequences. Grafting comprises a complex set of morphological and physiological alterations, in which the phenolic compounds seem to be strongly involved. Therefore, a detailed analysis and recognition of structural phenolic compounds diversity in the two partners of a Vitis graft is of great importance to evaluate their role as markers of graft establishment. To optimise a sample extraction method, and to develop and validate a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic acids and flavonols in the graft union so as to understand their behaviour in the metabolism of the scion-rootstock system, using compatible and incompatible combinations of a Syrah cultivar and two rootstocks (R110 and SO4). Sixty extracts of Vitis grafting tissues were prepared and analysed by HPLC for the qualitative and quantitative determination of their phenolic profile. Among the phenolic compounds identified in the samples, one benzoic acid (gallic acid), three cinnamic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) and two flavonols (catechin and epicatechin) are potentially suitable as markers of graft incompatibility. The method developed presents good performance and lends itself readily for application in routine analysis of the phenolic composition of Vitis grafting tissues to distinguish compatible and incompatible combinations in the graft callusing stage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Environmental Factors Correlated with the Metabolite Profile of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Berry Skins along a European Latitudinal Gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Del-Castillo-Alonso, M. Á.; Castagna, A.; Csepregi, K.; Hideg, É.; Jakab, G.; Jansen, M. A. K.; Jug, T.; Llorens, L.; Mátai, A.; Martínez-Lüscher, J.; Monforte, L.; Neugart, S.; Olejníčková, Julie; Ranieri, A.; Schödl-Hummel, K.; Schreiner, M.; Soriano, G.; Teszlák, P.; Tittmann, S.; Urban, Otmar; Verdaguer, D.; Zipoli, G.; Martínez-Abaigar, J.; Núñez-Olivera, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 46 (2016), s. 8722-8734 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : berry skins * Europe * hydroxylation ratios * latitudinal gradient * phenolic composition * solar radiation * ultraviolet radiation * Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.154, year: 2016

  13. Novel species of Cylindrocarpon (Neonectria) and Campylocarpon gen. nov. associated with black foot disease of grapevines (Vitis spp.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halleen, F.; Schroers, H.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    Four Cylindrocarpon or Cylindrocarpon-like taxa isolated from asymptomatic or diseased Vitis vinifera plants in nurseries and vineyards of South Africa, New Zealand, Australia, and France were morphologically and phylogenetically compared with other Neonectria/Cylindrocarpon taxa. Sequences of the

  14. Diversity of Aspergillus section Nigri on the surface of Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferranti, Larissa de Souza; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Massi, Fernanda Pelisson

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of Aspergillus species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri on Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes grown in Brazil. The ability of the fungi isolates to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) as well as the presence of these mycotoxins in the gra......This study investigated the presence of Aspergillus species belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri on Vitis labrusca and its hybrid grapes grown in Brazil. The ability of the fungi isolates to produce ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) as well as the presence of these mycotoxins...... in the grapes were also studied. Eighty-eight samples were collected from the main grape producing states in Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul (n=30), Pernambuco (n=21), São Paulo (n=21) and Paraná (n=16). The highest average contamination level by A. section Nigri occurred on the grapes from Pernambuco (66...... and A. vadensis. Regarding mycotoxin-production capacity, 3.2% of the total A. section Nigri isolates (2042) were positive for OTA production and from A. niger "aggregate" (373) tested, 42.1% were FB2 producers. However, none of the 88 grape samples were contaminated with these mycotoxins....

  15. Polyphenolic diversity and characterization in the red-purple berries of East Asian wild Vitis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Kamigakiuchi, Hiroshi; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Mochioka, Ryosuke; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2017-02-01

    Grapes (Vitis spp.) produce diverse polyphenolic compounds, which are phytochemicals that contribute to human health. In this study, the polyphenolic profiles of the red-purple berries of two wild grape species native to Japan, Vitis ficifolia and V. coignetiae, and their interspecific hybrid cultivars were investigated and compared with the profiles of V. vinifera and V. × labruscana cultivars. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) were present at lower concentrations in both skins and seeds of wild grape species and their hybrid cultivars than those in V. vinifera cultivars. They also differed in their composition, consisting mainly of epicatechin in wild grape species, but containing considerable amounts of both epigallocatechin in the skins and epicatechin gallate in the seeds of V. vinifera. In contrast, V. ficifolia varieties and their hybrid cultivars accumulated high concentrations of diverse anthocyanins, and whose compositions of anthocyanins and flavonols differed between species in their degree of modification by glucosylation, acylation, methylation and B-ring hydroxylation. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the polyphenolic constituents clearly separate V. vinifera and V. × labruscana cultivars from the wild grape species as well as between wild grape species, V. coignetiae and V. ficifolia. Intermediate compositions were also observed in the hybrid cultivars between these wild grape species and V. vinifera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca cv. baile berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2015-10-01

    Grape juice and grape skin extracts are important commercial source of polyphenolic compounds which exert different functional properties such as color potential, antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, and health benefits. In this paper we describe a sensitive and specific assay for determination of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile). Five polyphenolic components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 Column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 μm) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.2%, v/v); and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 25 degrees C with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 280, 360, and 520 nm. All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ≥ 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and inter-day variations were less than 1.90%, and the average recoveries were 95.5-105% for analytes. The antioxidant activity determined by DPPH radical assay, ranged from 86-105 for extracts, and 165-252 for studied standards (μM trolox/100 g dry wt.). The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for quality control in functional food and modernization of Campbell Early (Vitis labrusca cv. baile) as potent antioxidant agents.

  17. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A phylogenetic analysis of the grape genus (Vitis L.) reveals broad reticulation and concurrent diversification during neogene and quaternary climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yizhen; Schwaninger, Heidi R; Baldo, Angela M; Labate, Joanne A; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Simon, Charles J

    2013-07-05

    Grapes are one of the most economically important fruit crops. There are about 60 species in the genus Vitis. The phylogenetic relationships among these species are of keen interest for the conservation and use of this germplasm. We selected 309 accessions from 48 Vitis species,varieties, and outgroups, examined ~11 kb (~3.4 Mb total) of aligned nuclear DNA sequences from 27 unlinked genes in a phylogenetic context, and estimated divergence times based on fossil calibrations. Vitis formed a strongly supported clade. There was substantial support for species and less for the higher-level groupings (series). As estimated from extant taxa, the crown age of Vitis was 28 Ma and the divergence of subgenera (Vitis and Muscadinia) occurred at ~18 Ma. Higher clades in subgenus Vitis diverged 16 - 5 Ma with overlapping confidence intervals, and ongoing divergence formed extant species at 12 - 1.3 Ma. Several species had species-specific SNPs. NeighborNet analysis showed extensive reticulation at the core of subgenus Vitis representing the deeper nodes, with extensive reticulation radiating outward. Fitch Parsimony identified North America as the origin of the most recent common ancestor of extant Vitis species. Phylogenetic patterns suggested origination of the genus in North America, fragmentation of an ancestral range during the Miocene, formation of extant species in the late Miocene-Pleistocene, and differentiation of species in the context of Pliocene-Quaternary tectonic and climatic change. Nuclear SNPs effectively resolved relationships at and below the species level in grapes and rectified several misclassifications of accessions in the repositories. Our results challenge current higher-level classifications, reveal the abundance of genetic diversity in the genus that is potentially available for crop improvement, and provide a valuable resource for species delineation, germplasm conservation and use.

  19. Vv-AMP1, a ripening induced peptide from Vitis vinifera shows strong antifungal activity

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    Vivier Melané A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latest research shows that small antimicrobial peptides play a role in the innate defense system of plants. These peptides typically contribute to preformed defense by developing protective barriers around germinating seeds or between different tissue layers within plant organs. The encoding genes could also be upregulated by abiotic and biotic stimuli during active defense processes. The peptides display a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities. Their potent anti-pathogenic characteristics have ensured that they are promising targets in the medical and agricultural biotechnology sectors. Results A berry specific cDNA sequence designated Vv-AMP1, Vitis vinifera antimicrobial peptide 1, was isolated from Vitis vinifera. Vv-AMP1 encodes for a 77 amino acid peptide that shows sequence homology to the family of plant defensins. Vv-AMP1 is expressed in a tissue specific, developmentally regulated manner, being only expressed in berry tissue at the onset of berry ripening and onwards. Treatment of leaf and berry tissue with biotic or abiotic factors did not lead to increased expression of Vv-AMP1 under the conditions tested. The predicted signal peptide of Vv-AMP1, fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP, showed that the signal peptide allowed accumulation of its product in the apoplast. Vv-AMP1 peptide, produced in Escherichia coli, had a molecular mass of 5.495 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry. Recombinant Vv-AMP1 was extremely heat-stable and showed strong antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of plant pathogenic fungi, with very high levels of activity against the wilting disease causing pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae. The Vv-AMP1 peptide did not induce morphological changes on the treated fungal hyphae, but instead strongly inhibited hyphal elongation. A propidium iodide uptake assay suggested that the inhibitory activity of Vv-AMP1 might be associated with altering the membrane

  20. The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling

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    Atanassova Rossitza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. Results In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters, has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3, one polyol (VvPMT5 and one sucrose (VvSUC27 transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2 and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2 genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5, in roots (VvHT2 or in mature leaves (VvHT5. Conclusions This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and

  1. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  2. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  3. Elicitation Phenolic Compounds in Cell Culture of Vitis vinifera L. by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

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    Sák Martin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv. St. Laurent were treated with two elicitors - synthetic methyl jasmonate and natural, prepared from grapevine plant infected with the Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the agent causing the Esca disease of grapevine. Efficiency of phenolic compounds production after elicitation of cell culture was analysed immediately after treatment (15 min, 30 min, 60 min and later (after 24, 48, and 72 hours. The cell growth and content of phenolic compounds (+-catechin, (--epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, syringaldehyde, rutin, vanillic acid, and trans-resveratrol were analysed in cultivated cells as well as in cultivation medium. Pch-treatment increased production of total polyphenols the most significantly 15 min after the elicitation and in optimal time was 2.86 times higher than in nonelicited culture and 1.44 times higher than in MeJa induced cell culture.

  4. Leaf appearance rate and leaf growth in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzini, B.; Miglietta, F.; Orlandini, S.

    1993-01-01

    A morphogenetic approach to the ontogenetic forecast can, at least partially, overcome the difficulties which arise due to the non-linearly of the relation development rate/temperature. In this paper several studies concerning the forecast of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) development are shown. They allow the accomplishment of two models simulating leaf appearance rate and leaf surface growth during vegetative season. Moreover, they allow the forecast of ontogenetic developmental dynamics (data of flowering, ripening, etc.). Models parameterization has been performed using results from the literature, while models validation has been carried using original experiences on two varieties (Sangiovese and Malvasia lunga del Chianti) of Chianti wine. The models simulate with accuracy the development of grapevines. They may be considered as the first step of a global model capable of determining grapevine yield on the basis of radiation use efficiency [it

  5. Compositional investigation of phenolic polymers isolated from Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Patricia M; Kennedy, James A

    2007-07-11

    Phenolic polymer material extracted during commercial red wine fermentations (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) was isolated and analyzed to characterize its chemical composition. Phenolic polymer isolates were prepared from samples taken throughout fermentation and isolated by adsorption chromatography. Isolates were subjected to phloroglucinolysis to analyze the proanthocyanidin amount as well as the subunit composition. Results of phloroglucinolysis revealed that the proanthocyanidin content of individual phenolic polymer isolates varied from 27 to 54%. Subsequent analyses were done in an attempt to quantify materials other than known proanthocyanidin subunits. Results of all experiments indicate that up to 82% of the phenolic polymer isolates could be accounted for by mass. While this figure accounts for a significant portion of the polymeric phenolic material, further investigation will be needed to qualify the remaining 18%.

  6. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the CDPK Gene Family in Grape, Vitis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Feng-Li; Hu, Yang; Gao, Yu-Rong; Ma, Yan-Fei; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2015-06-30

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play vital roles in plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and hormone signaling. Little is known about the CDPK gene family in grapevine. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the 12X grape genome (Vitis vinifera) and identified nineteen CDPK genes. Comparison of the structures of grape CDPK genes allowed us to examine their functional conservation and differentiation. Segmentally duplicated grape CDPK genes showed high structural conservation and contributed to gene family expansion. Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several grape CDPK genes occured in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grapevine and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis divided the grape CDPK genes into four groups. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the corresponding nineteen homologous CDPK genes in the Chinese wild grape (Vitis pseudoreticulata) under various conditions, including biotic stress, abiotic stress, and hormone treatments. The expression profiles derived from reverse transcription and quantitative PCR suggested that a large number of VpCDPKs responded to various stimuli on the transcriptional level, indicating their versatile roles in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, we examined the subcellular localization of VpCDPKs by transiently expressing six VpCDPK-GFP fusion proteins in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts; this revealed high variability consistent with potential functional differences. Taken as a whole, our data provide significant insights into the evolution and function of grape CDPKs and a framework for future investigation of grape CDPK genes.

  7. In Vitro Propagarion and Cryopreservation of Important Grape Cultivars (Vitis Vinifera L. and Rootstocks

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    F. CELEBI TOPRAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grape (Vitis vinifera L. is among the most important species that is cultivated almost all around the world. There are over one thousand varieties that are grown for raisin, fresh consumption and wine making purposes. The grape germplasm resources are generally maintained as whole plants under field conditions. The traditional way of germplasm preservation is very risky due to natural uncertainties. In vitro technologies can help producing healthy propagation materials free from viroids, viruses, bacteria, phytoplasmas, fungi, and nematodes. When combined with cryopreservation technologies in vitro preservation systems can allow safe protection and propagation of valuable Vitis genetic resources. In this study, 12 commercial cultivar and two rootstock materials were tested for the applicability of long term preservation by in vitro clonal propagation and cryopreservation techniques. Axillary shoot tips collected from newly emerging shoots were placed in Magenda boxes containing 30 g/l sucrose on MS medium and cultured in a growth chamber adjusted to 16 h ligth/25o C and 8 h dark/17o C. All grape genotypes tested responded well to this application and produced healthy root and shoots. Shoot explants from these in vitro stocks were subcultured in every three months for one year. Apical dome explants excised from in vitro grape plants were stored in liquid nitrogen for cryopreservation. Genotypes varied in their responses to cryopservation treatment. Five genotypes showed shoot or callus formation. Regenerated shoots continued to grow and produced normal shoots and roots, but no plants could be developed from calli. Flow cytometry analysis of regenerants from continuous subculture and cryopreservation did not show any chromosome number abnormalities. In vitro micropropagation is an excellent choice for a long-term conservation of grape germplasm, which allows access to actively growing plant materials without seasonal restriction. Such cultures are

  8. Wineries Evaluation of Costs and Benefits of Sustainability Certification Program: The Case of Terra Vitis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourjon, Frederique; Chou, Hsia-Chi; Gezart, Anna; Kadison, Amy E; Martinat, Lea; Pomarici, Eugenio; Vecchio, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The current paper analyses the evaluation of the costs and benefits of French wineries (N=69) participating in the sustainability program Terra Vitis, a widespread environmental certification scheme within the French wine industry. An online questionnaire was sent to all Terra Vitis participants, in order to analyse the evaluation of economic costs and benefits (together with environmental benefits) as perceived by wineries. Our findings reveal that older participants in the scheme (over 5 years), firms with higher export share (>40% of annual turnover) and cooperative wineries tend to be keener to assign a positive evaluation to the benefits/costs ratio in both the vineyard and the winery. In the context of increasing concerns regarding the economic and environmental performance of the French agricultural sector, such findings and also the patent research could be useful for policy makers and entrepreneurs in defining mainstream normative and corporate strategies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Plant-bacteria interactions: identification, characterization and localization of beneficial bacterial endophytes isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera

    OpenAIRE

    Nigris, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reports the results obtained during the three years PhD course focused on the study of culturable bacterial endophytes of Vitis vinifera Glera and their beneficial activities. The study, part of a large project named “EndoFlorVit project” (FEARS-UE and Regione Del Veneto), aims at investigate the biodiversity and the plant growth promoting activities of culturable endophytes isolated from Glera grapevine in vineyards of Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG production area. This thesis re...

  10. DISTANT HYBRIDS IN F4 (VITIS VINIFERA L. X MUSCADINIA ROTUNDIFOLIA MICHX. AND OF CULTIVARS OF VITIS VINIFERA L. AND OF CONCERNING THE CONTENT OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

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    Eugeniu ALEXANDROV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of obtaining distant hybrids, as well as any crossing of cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. with representatives of species possessing the necessary qualities (resistance to diseases and pests, low temperature, etc. may change the spectrum of chemical and biochemical compounds responsible for flavour, colour and taste of grapes, obtained juice and wine. Botanical description of distant hybrids was performed during all phases of the vegetative stages; the organs of the plants were studied from spring, at bud unfolding, until early autumn, at the fall of the leaves. For the determination of diglucoside-3,5-malvidin, the fluorimetric method, for determining the methyl anthranilate, the gas chromatographic method was applied. Based on the analyzes of biochemical constituents of grapes of the distant hybrids: DRX-M4-578; -502; -571; -660; -609; -580; etc., compared to the traditional cultivars „Feteasca albă” and „Rară neagră”, it has been found that these varieties are similar. So, the distant hybrids of grapevine haven’t inherited unwanted characters for vines, some of them are strictly limited (diglucoside-3,5-malvidol. These hybrids don’t have the specific characteristics of direct production hybrids, characterised by the foxat taste of the grape berries, caused by the presence of the methyl anthranilate. The distant hybrids studied according to the classical uvologic and technological principles can be classified as follows: 5 distant hybrids are attributed to the table vine species and 2 distant hybrids have mixed properties. According to the physical and biochemical indices of the grapes of the studied distant hybrids, their characteristics are similar to European vine species.

  11. Whole-genome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette transporter family genes in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 "full-size," 41 "half-size," and 15 "soluble" putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog) and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein). We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera.

  12. Whole-genome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette transporter family genes in Vitis vinifera.

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    Birsen Çakır

    Full Text Available The ATP-binding cassette (ABC protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 "full-size," 41 "half-size," and 15 "soluble" putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera.

  13. Anatomía de leño de Maytenus vitis-idaea y M. viscifolia (Celastraceae

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    Ana María Giménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Es objetivo del trabajo describir el leño de Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. y M. viscifolia Griseb. (Celastraceae y determinar rasgos ecoanatómicos. Las muestras fueron recolectadas del bosque natural en la localidad Guampacha, Sierras de Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (distrito chaqueño serrano. Cinco individuos de cada especie fueron seleccionados al azar, obteniéndose una rodaja a 0.3 m. En las descripciones del leño se usó la terminología del Comité de Nomenclatura de IAWA. Los rasgos fundamentales del leño de Maytenus se resumen en: poros pequeños, numerosos, vasos pequeños, miembros de vasos cortos y anillos de crecimiento angostos. El leño de las dos especies estudiadas se caracteriza por presentar porosidad difusa a semicircular, anillos de crecimiento tipo 5b; poros numerosos y pequeños, parénquima axial de distribución apotraqueal en bandas discontinuas de una sola hilera de células, con tendencia a reticulado; escaso paratraqueal unilateral y difuso en agregados, radios heterogéneos; presencia de fibrotraqueidas. Las principales diferencias anatómicas radican en el tipo de poros, fundamentalmente solitarios en M. vitis-idaea y la presencia de radios de mayor longitud en M. viscifolia. Ambas maderas presentan rasgos xerofiticos notorios.Wood anatomy of Maytenus vitis-idaea. y M. viscifolia (Celastraceae. Is objective of this study to describe the wood anatomy of Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. and M. viscifolia Griseb. (Celastraceae and to determine ecoanatomy features. The samples were collected from natural forest in Guampacha, Guasayán, Santiago del Estero, Argentina (Chaco Serrano district. Five individuals were randomly selected; being obtained a track to 0.3 m. IAWA Committee on Nomenclature terminology was used in wood descriptions. Xylem features of Maytenus be summarized as: numerous small pores, short vessel members and growth rings narrow. The wood of the two species were characterized by diffuse to

  14. Evaluation of powdery mildew-resistance of grape germplasm and rapid amplified polymorphic DNA markers associated with the resistant trait in Chinese wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Yu, H; Wang, Y

    2014-05-09

    The resistance of wild Vitis germplasm, including Chinese and American wild Vitis and Vitis vinifera cultivars, to powdery mildew (Uncinula necator Burr.) was evaluated for two consecutive years under natural conditions. Most of the Chinese and North American species displayed a resistant phenotype, whereas all of the European species were highly susceptible. The Alachua and Conquistador accessions of Vitis rotundifolia species, which originated in North America, were immune to the disease, while Baihe-35-1, one of the accessions of Vitis pseudoreticulata, showed the strongest resistance among all Chinese accessions evaluated. Three rapid amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPW02-1756, OPO11-964, and OPY13-661, were obtained after screening 520 random primers among various germplasm, and these markers were found to be associated with powdery mildew resistance in Baihe-35-1 and in some Chinese species, but not in any European species. Analysis of F₁ and F₂ progenies of a cross between resistant Baihe-35-1 and susceptible Carignane (V. vinifera) revealed that the three RAPD markers were linked to the powdery resistant trait in Baihe-35-1 plants. Potential applications of the identified RAPD markers for gene mapping, marker-assisted selection, and breeding were investigated in 168 F₂ progenies of the same cross. Characterization of the resistant phenotype of the selected F₂ seedlings for breeding a new disease-resistant grape cultivar is in progress.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves after exposure to ultraviolet C irradiation.

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    Huifen Xi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L. leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m-2 for 10 min using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape Genome Array (15,700 transcripts. A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58% probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87% probe sets and 1242 (23.55% probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes, protein fate (i.e., HSPs, primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold. CONCLUSIONS: UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves after exposure to ultraviolet C irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huifen; Ma, Ling; Liu, Guotian; Wang, Nian; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Lina; Dai, Zhanwu; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C) radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m-2 for 10 min) using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape) Genome Array (15,700 transcripts). A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58%) probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87%) probe sets and 1242 (23.55%) probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold). UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have great implications for further studies.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Leaves after Exposure to Ultraviolet C Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huifen; Ma, Ling; Liu, Guotian; Wang, Nian; Wang, Junfang; Wang, Lina; Dai, Zhanwu; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Only a small amount of solar ultraviolet C (UV-C) radiation reaches the Earth's surface. This is because of the filtering effects of the stratospheric ozone layer. Artificial UV-C irradiation is used on leaves and fruits to stimulate different biological processes in plants. Grapes are a major fruit crop and are grown in many parts of the world. Research has shown that UV-C irradiation induces the biosynthesis of phenols in grape leaves. However, few studies have analyzed the overall changes in gene expression in grape leaves exposed to UV-C. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, transcriptional responses were investigated in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves before and after exposure to UV-C irradiation (6 W·m−2 for 10 min) using an Affymetrix Vitis vinifera (Grape) Genome Array (15,700 transcripts). A total of 5274 differentially expressed probe sets were defined, including 3564 (67.58%) probe sets that appeared at both 6 and 12 h after exposure to UV-C irradiation but not before exposure. A total of 468 (8.87%) probe sets and 1242 (23.55%) probe sets were specifically expressed at these times. The probe sets were associated with a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, and transcription factors. Interestingly, some of the genes involved in secondary metabolism, such as stilbene synthase, responded intensely to irradiation. Some of the MYB and WRKY family transcription factors, such as VvMYBPA1, VvMYB14, VvMYB4, WRKY57-like, and WRKY 65, were also strongly up-regulated (about 100 to 200 fold). Conclusions UV-C irridiation has an important role in some biology processes, especially cell rescue, protein fate, secondary metabolism, and regulation of transcription.These results opened up ways of exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of UV-C irradiation on grape leaves and have great

  18. Transcriptome characterization of three wild Chinese Vitis uncovers a large number of distinct disease related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Chen; Gao, Min; Wang, Xiping; Fei, Zhangjun

    2015-03-21

    Grape is one of the most valuable fruit crops and can serve for both fresh consumption and wine production. Grape cultivars have been selected and evolved to produce high-quality fruits during their domestication over thousands of years. However, current widely planted grape cultivars suffer extensive loss to many diseases while most wild species show resistance to various pathogens. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of wild grapes would contribute to the improvement of disease resistance in grape breeding programs. We performed deep transcriptome sequencing of three Chinese wild grapes using the Illumina strand-specific RNA-Seq technology. High quality transcriptomes were assembled de novo and more than 93% transcripts were shared with the reference PN40024 genome. Over 1,600 distinct transcripts, which were absent or highly divergent from sequences in the reference PN40024 genome, were identified in each of the three wild grapes, among which more than 1,000 were potential protein-coding genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway annotations of these distinct genes showed those involved in defense responses and plant secondary metabolisms were highly enriched. More than 87,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2,000 small insertions or deletions (indels) were identified between each genotype and PN40024, and approximately 20% of the SNPs caused nonsynonymous mutations. Finally, we discovered 100 to 200 highly confident cis-natural antisense transcript (cis-NAT) pairs in each genotype. These transcripts were significantly enriched with genes involved in secondary metabolisms and plant responses to abiotic stresses. The three de novo assembled transcriptomes provide a comprehensive sequence resource for molecular genetic research in grape. The newly discovered genes from wild Vitis, as well as SNPs and small indels we identified, may facilitate future studies on the molecular mechanisms related to valuable traits possessed by these wild Vitis and contribute

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml).

  20. Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Xu, Xiaozhao; Gao, Min; Li, Xiaoqin; Song, Junyang; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xiping

    2014-04-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I-III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

  1. CLAVATA3-like genes are differentially expressed in grape vine (Vitis vinifera) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tetsumura, Takuya

    2013-10-15

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region [(ESR) CLE] peptides function as intercellular signaling molecules that regulate various physiological and developmental processes in diverse plant species. We identified five CLV3-like genes from grape vine (Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir): VvCLE 6, VvCLE 25-1, VvCLE 25-2, VvCLE 43 and VvCLE TDIF. These CLV3-like genes encode short proteins containing 43-128 amino acids. Except VvCLE TDIF, grape vine CLV3-like proteins possess a consensus amino acid sequence known as the CLE domain. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the VvCLE 6, VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE43 genes have evolved from a single common ancestor to the Arabidopsis CLV3 gene. Expression analyses showed that the five grape CLV3-like genes are expressed in leaves, stems, roots and axillary buds with significant differences in their levels of expression. For example, while all of them were strongly expressed in axillary buds, VvCLE6 and VvCLE43 expression prevailed in roots, and VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE TDIF expression in stems. The differential expression of the five grape CLV3-like peptides suggests that they play different roles in different organs and developmental stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The composition of cell walls from grape skin in Vitis vinifera intraspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Terrier, Nancy; Doco, Thierry; Ros-García, José María

    2017-09-01

    Monastrell is a red grape cultivar adapted to the dry environmental conditions of Murcia, SE Spain. Its berries seem to be characterized by a rigid cell wall structure, which could make difficult the winemaking process. Cabernet Sauvignon cultivar is used to complement Monastrell wines in this region owing to its high phenolic content with high extractability. This study explores the skin cell wall composition of grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera cultivars Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon. Moreover, the morphology of the cell wall material (CWM) from some representative samples was visualized by transmission optical microscopy. The total sugar content of CWM from nine out of ten genotypes of the progeny was lower than that from Monastrell. Seven out of ten genotypes showed lower phenolic content than Cabernet Sauvignon. The CWM from nine out of ten hybrids presented lower protein content than that from Monastrell. This study confirms that skin cell walls from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon hybrid grapes presented major differences in composition compared with their parents. These data could help in the development of new cultivars adapted to the dry conditions of SE Spain and with a cell wall composition favouring extractability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Pink berry grape (Vitis vinifera L.) characterization: Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Hârţa, Monica; Failla, Osvaldo

    2016-01-01

    Color has a fundamental role for the qualitative evaluation and cultivar characterization of fruits. In grape, a normally functional pigment biosynthesis leads to the accumulation of a high quantity of anthocyanins. In this work, 28 Vitis vinifera L. cultivars accumulating low anthocyanins in berries were studied to characterize the biosynthetic dysfunctions in both a phenotypic and genotypic point of view. Reflectance spectroscopy, HPLC profiles and molecular markers related to VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes allowed a detailed description of the pigment-related characteristics of these cultivars. Data were consistent concerning the heterozygosity of the non-functional allele in both investigated genes, resulting in a low colored phenotype as described by reflectance. However, the variability in berry colour among our samples was not fully explained by MybA locus, probably due to specific interferences among the biosynthetic pathways, as suggested by the anthocyanin profile variations detected among our samples. The results presented in this work confirmed the importance of the genetic background: grapes accumulating high levels of cyanidin-3-O-glucosides (di-substituted anthocyanin) are generally originated by white cultivar retro-mutations and they seem to preserve the anomalies in the flavonoid hydroxylases enzymes which negatively affect the synthesis of tri-substituted anthocyanins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Volatile components of grape pomaces from different cultivars of Sicilian Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberto, Giuseppe; Renda, Agatino; Amico, Vincenzo; Tringali, Corrado

    2008-01-01

    The volatile components of grape pomace coming from the processing of some of the most important varieties of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivated in Sicily, namely Nero d'Avola, Nerello Mascalese, Frappato and Cabernet Sauvignon, have been determined by gas-chromatography (GC) and gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). According to the winemaking procedure that entails the removal of stalks before fermentation, two kinds of grape pomace are obtained. The first consists of skins, pulp residues and seeds, the proper grape pomace, which is partially used for grappa, a typical Italian spirit, and alcohol production, the second consists almost exclusively of stalks. On the whole, 38 components have been characterized in the samples of grape pomaces, with Frappato cv. showing the richest composition; instead, 88 components have been detected in the stalks of Frappato, Nero d'Avola, Nerello Mascalese and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. In order to make a comparison between the grape varieties easier, the volatile components detected in the two sets of samples (grape pomaces and stalks) have been grouped in different classes. Significant differences among varieties have been detected and statistical treatment of data is also reported. This study is part of a wider project aimed at the possible exploitation of the main agro-industrial by-products. At the same time it is one of the first reports on the volatile components of this waste material.

  6. Immunomodulating and anti-allergic effects of Negroamaro and Koshu Vitis vinifera fermented grape marc (FGM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzulli, Giuseppe; Magrone, Thea; Vonghia, Luisa; Kaneko, Masahiro; Takimoto, Hiroaki; Kumazawa, Yoshio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols contained in FGM from Negroamaro (N) and Koshu (K) Vitis vinifera have been shown to exhibit several immunomodulating activities. For instance, mice affected by experimental colitis when administered with K-FGM showed an attenuation of the inflammatory process. In murine asthma, K-FGM reduced IgE production and eosinophil number in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. In vitro, both N- and K-FGM were able to induce T regulatory cells in terms of Foxp-3 molecule expression and release of interleukin-10. In another set of experiments both N- and K-FGM were able to balance rate of proliferation/apoptosis/necrosis of normal human peripheral lymphocytes, thus indicating the property of these compounds to maintain immune homeostatic mechanisms in the host. On the other hand, N- and K-FGM inhibited human basophil degranulation, thus, confirming our previous results obtained with rat basophilic leukemia cells. Finally, N- and K-FGM also decreased oxidative burst of human polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes.Taken together, these findings imply the potential clinical usefulness of FGM administration in inflammatory/allergic conditions, such as chronic asthma.

  7. Changes of polyphenols, sugars, and organic acid in 5 Vitis genotypes during berry ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenchang; Sang, Min; Fan, Peige; Wu, Benhong; Wang, Lijun; Duan, Wei; Li, Shaohua

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of sugars, organic acids, and polyphenols during berry ripening in 5 grape genotypes were analyzed using HPLC and HPLC-MS to determine which were correlated. Veraison is critical stage during grape berry development, and marks the beginning of ripening. Glucose and fructose accumulated sharply in a 1: 1ratio, though the concentration of fructose was slightly higher than that of glucose at maturation. Malic acid and tartaric acid were the dominant organic acids, and they decreased rapidly during berry ripening. The 5 cultivars contained 28 anthocyanins and 8 other polyphenols. All anthocyanins accumulated and were positively correlated with the sugars and negatively correlated with the organic acids. Hydroxycinnamic acids declined and were positively correlated with anthocyanin contents. Changes in flavanols and flavonols different among the 5 genotypes, with flavonols positively correlated with anthocyanin content, but the flavanols procyanidin B1and epicatechin negatively correlated with anthocyanins content. There were obvious differences in patterns of change of polyphenols among 5 grape genotypes. The results could be used for improving grape berry quality during ripening and developing a comprehensive database of primary and secondary metabolites in the Vitis for grape breeding. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Deployment of response surface methodology to optimise recovery of grape (Vitis vinifera) stem polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvela, Evangelia; Makris, Dimitris P; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2009-10-15

    A 2(3)-full factorial design and response surface methodology were deployed to assess some basic factors (time, % ethanol and pH) affecting profoundly the extractability of polyphenolic phytochemicals from grape (Vitis vinifera) stems. In an effort to obtain a thorough insight into the applicability of the models established, stem extracts from three different varieties were tested, by determining several indices of the polyphenolic composition, such as total polyphenol (TP), total flavanol (TFl), total flavone (TFn) and proanthocyanidin (PC) concentration. It was shown that the models generated can adequately predict the recovery levels for each polyphenol group, but the optimal conditions predicted for TP, TFl, TFn and PC recovery varied significantly. Notable differences were also seen among the different varieties. Correlation of the polyphenol indices with the antiradical activity and reducing power of the extracts indicated that the PC fraction might exert strong effects, while the influence of other groups was not apparent. Examination of the optimally obtained extracts using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the most prominent compounds were caftaric acid, flavanols and derivatives thereof, as well as dehydroflavonols and flavonols.

  10. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard

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    Giorgia Novello

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant.

  11. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

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    Dennis H Greer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40oC for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly 3-fold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimise the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality.

  12. Response of “Red Globe” (Vitis vinifera L. to cane girdling

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    Soltekin Oğuzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cane girdling on skin colour, harvest date, yield, and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Red Globe table grape variety, was measured over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticulture Research Station in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the spurs after first bud was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife at veraison period. Statistical analyses showed that total soluble solid content, berry width, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of the Red Globe was significantly affected by the girdling treatment in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, total phenolics, titrable acidity, pH and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value although they weren’t statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed on girdled vines 7 and 11 days earliness compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  13. Optimisation of pulsed electric fields extraction of anthocyanin from Beibinghong Vitis Amurensis Rupr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Wen, Liankui; Liu, Jingsheng; Li, Yueru; Zheng, Fei; Min, Weihong; Yue, Hao; Pan, Puqun

    2018-01-01

    Beibinghong Vitis amurensis Rupr has wide plantation area, high productivity and rich anthocyanin. Common hot-extraction has poor deficiency and destroys anthocyanin severely. For Beibinghong V. amurensis Rupr as materials, response surface-optimised electric fields were used, the structure of Beibinghong was observed by SEM, antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH, ABTS and reducing force, the component of anthocyanin was analyzed by HPLC-MS. We found the content of total anthocyanin extracted by pulsed electric fields was 166.65 ± 3.88 mg/100 g.FW. Total anthocyanin from Beibinghong had high antioxidant activity, also contained multiple steady anthocyanin of delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, petunidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-glucoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl) glucoside and delphinidin-3-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl) glucoside et al. In conclusion, the optimised pulsed electric fields method can quickly and efficiently extract several kinds of anthocyanins from V. amurensis Rupr. This study promoted the intensive processing of V. amurensis Rupr and widened the practical application of pulsed electric field technology.

  14. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying by semitransparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated solar dryer: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sumit; Tiwari, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    In present research paper, semi-transparent photovoltaic module (SPVM) integrated greenhouse solar drying system has been used for grapes (Vitis vinifera) drying. Based on hourly experimental information namely solar intensity, moisture evaporated, ambient air temperature, grape surface temperatures, relative humidity and greenhouse air temperature etc. heat and mass transfer coefficient for the SPVM drying system have been evaluated. It has been seen that the convective heat transfer coefficients for grapes found between 3.1-0.84 W/m2 K. Also, there is a fair agreement between theoretical and practical mass transfer (moisture evaporated) during drying of grapes with a correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square percentage deviation (e) of 0.88 and 11.56 respectively. Further, nonlinear regression procedure has been used to fit various drying models namely Henderson and Pabis model, Newton's model, and Page's model. From the analysis, it was found that Page's model is best fitted for grapes drying in SPV greenhouse as well as open sun drying. Further, net electrical energy, thermal energy and equivalent thermal energy were found to be 3.61, 17.66 and 27.15 kWh during six days of drying respectively.

  15. Expanding the chemical space of polyketides through structure-guided mutagenesis of Vitis vinifera stilbene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, Namita; Cress, Brady F; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-08-01

    Several natural polyketides (PKs) have been associated with important pharmaceutical properties. Type III polyketide synthases (PKS) that generate aromatic PK polyketides have been studied extensively for their substrate promiscuity and product diversity. Stilbene synthase-like (STS) enzymes are unique in the type III PKS class as they possess a hydrogen bonding network, furnishing them with thioesterase-like properties, resulting in aldol condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. Chalcone synthases (CHS) in contrast, lack this hydrogen-bonding network, resulting primarily in the Claisen condensation of the polyketide intermediates formed. We have attempted to expand the chemical space of this interesting class of compounds generated by creating structure-guided mutants of Vitis vinifera STS. Further, we have utilized a previously established workflow to quickly compare the wild-type reaction products to those generated by the mutants and identify novel PKs formed by using XCMS analysis of LC-MS and LC-MS/MS data. Based on this approach, we were able to generate 15 previously unreported PK molecules by exploring the substrate promiscuity of the wild-type enzyme and all mutants using unnatural substrates. These structures were specific to STSs and cannot be formed by their closely related CHS-like counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of grapevine leaves extracts (Vitis labrusca in liver of Wistar rats

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    THAYS K. SCHAFFER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotection of organic and conventional grapevine leaves extract (Vitis labrusca. The total polyphenol content and the isolate polyphenols by HPLC were evaluate. The animals received intraperitoneal injections of saline or extracts (conventional or organic - 30 mg/kg for 14 days. On day 15, the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 or mineral oil (i.p.. After 4h, the animals were euthanized. The analysis of the liver enzymes activity (AST, ALT, GGT was performed using serum, obtained by blood and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were analyzed in the liver. The results showed that the organic extract is richer in polyphenol and resveratrol than the conventional one. Both extracts prevent lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation generated by CCl4. Moreover, the extracts demonstrated ability to modulate the activity of SOD and CAT, as well as to establish a balance in the ratio of SOD/CAT. We also found that the CCl4 increased the levels of AST and GGT, and that both extracts prevent this. These results indicate that grapevine leaves extracts, both, organic and conventional, can prevent liver disorders.

  17. Treatment strategies for high resveratrol induction in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension culture

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    Thu V. Vuong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioprocesses capable of producing large scales of resveratrol at nutraceutical grade are in demand. This study herein investigated treatment strategies to induce the production of resveratrol in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures. Among seven investigated elicitors, jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid, β-glucan (GLU, and chitosan enhanced the production of intracellular resveratrol manyfold. The combined treatment of JA and GLU increased extracellular resveratrol production by up to tenfold. The application of Amberlite XAD-7 resin for in situ removal and artificial storage of secreted resveratrol further increased resveratrol production by up to four orders of magnitude. The level of resveratrol produced in response to the combined treatment with 200 g/L XAD-7, 10 μM JA and 1 mg/mL GLU was approximately 2400 mg/L, allowing the production of resveratrol at an industrial scale. The high yield of resveratrol is due to the involvement of a number of mechanisms working in concert.

  18. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing.

  19. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar; Saxena, S.; Gautam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated and compared in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property of the grape extracts of four different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (p<0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly among extracts of any cultivar. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. DNA damage was evaluated in acellular system using pBR322 plasmid relaxation. Grape extract was able to effectively scavenge free radicals in vitro. It could significantly prevent radiation-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract and type of the cultivars. (author)

  20. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Vitis Cv. Monastrell suspension-cultured cells: Determination of critical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mingyu; Quiñonero, Carmen; Akdemir, Hülya; Alburquerque, Nuria; Pedreño, María Ángeles; Burgos, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    Although some works have explored the transformation of differentiated, embryogenic suspension-cultured cells (SCC) to produce transgenic grapevine plants, to our knowledge this is one of the first reports on the efficient transformation of dedifferentiated Vitis vinifera cv Monastrell SCC. This protocol has been developed using the sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT) method. A construct harboring the selectable nptII and the eyfp/IV2 marker genes was used in the study and transformation efficiencies reached over 50 independent transformed SCC per gram of infected cells. Best results were obtained when cells were infected at the exponential phase. A high density plating (500 mg/dish) gave significantly better results. As selective agent, kanamycin was inefficient for the selection of Monastrell transformed SCC since wild type cells were almost insensitive to this antibiotic whereas application of paromomycin resulted in very effective selection. Selected eyfp-expressing microcalli were grown until enough tissue was available to scale up a new transgenic SCC. These transgenic SCC lines were evaluated molecularly and phenotypically demonstrating the presence and integration of both transgenes, the absence of Agrobacterium contamination and the ability of the transformed SCC to grow in highly selective liquid medium. The methodology described here opens the possibility of improving the production of valuable metabolites. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:725-734, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

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    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  2. Characterization of iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine (Vitis spp.) leaves by reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustioni, Laura; Grossi, Daniele; Brancadoro, Lucio; Failla, Osvaldo

    2017-09-01

    The work aims at the description of the iron deficiency symptoms in grapevine leaves by reflectance spectroscopy at the plant and leaf levels. 5 genotypes of Vitis spp. were selected and grown in hydroponic conditions with and without iron supply. 450 spectra were collected among basal, young and apical leaves, as well as veins and interveinal areas. Iron deficiency produced significant and characteristic modifications in the pigment accumulation, proportion and distribution in plants. Basal leaves resulted to have higher concentrations of photosynthetic pigments in stressed plants with respect to the control, probably due to compensation effects. Iron deficient plants had lower chlorophyll concentrations in young and apical leaves. In the apical zone, also the relative composition of pigments appeared to be modified, explaining the reddish-yellowish apex appearance of iron deficient vines. Finally, the pigment distribution along the shoot characterized the symptoms, as well as the spectral variations among veins and interveinal areas. These results could support future applications in vineyard management (e.g.: symptom identification and detection; precision fertilization) as well as breeding programs for new rootstock selections (e.g.: fast screenings of seedlings). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. De novo transcriptome characterization of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina unveils varietal diversity

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    Venturini Luca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants such as grapevine (Vitis spp. display significant inter-cultivar genetic and phenotypic variation. The genetic components underlying phenotypic diversity in grapevine must be understood in order to disentangle genetic and environmental factors. Results We have shown that cDNA sequencing by RNA-seq is a robust approach for the characterization of varietal diversity between a local grapevine cultivar (Corvina and the PN40024 reference genome. We detected 15,161 known genes including 9463 with novel splice isoforms, and identified 2321 potentially novel protein-coding genes in non-annotated or unassembled regions of the reference genome. We also discovered 180 apparent private genes in the Corvina genome which were missing from the reference genome. Conclusions The de novo assembly approach allowed a substantial amount of the Corvina transcriptome to be reconstructed, improving known gene annotations by robustly defining gene structures, annotating splice isoforms and detecting genes without annotations. The private genes we discovered are likely to be nonessential but could influence certain cultivar-specific characteristics. Therefore, the application of de novo transcriptome assembly should not be restricted to species lacking a reference genome because it can also improve existing reference genome annotations and identify novel, cultivar-specific genes.

  4. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  5. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution of rare earth elements in soil and grape berries of Vitis vinifera cv. "Glera".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Sansone, Luigi; Chicca, Milvia; Marrocchino, Elena; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    The renowned Vitis vinifera L. cultivar "Glera" (Magnoliopsida Vitaceae) has been grown for hundreds of years in the Italian regions of Veneto and Friuli to produce the sparkling Prosecco wine, with controlled designation of origin (DOC). We evaluated the relationship among the concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) in soil and in "Glera" grape berries in vineyards belonging to five different localities in the Veneto alluvial plain, all included in the DOC area of Prosecco. The concentration of REE in samples of soil and juice or solid residues of grape berries was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the index of bioaccumulation was calculated to define the specific assimilation of these elements from soil to grape berries. The concentration of REE in soil samples allowed an identification of each locality examined, and REE were mostly detected in solid grape berry residues in comparison to juice. These data may be useful to associate REE distribution in soil and grape berries to a specific geographical origin, in order to prevent fraudulent use of wine denomination labels.

  7. Identification and localization of the bilitranslocase homologue in white grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Alberto; Peresson, Carlo; Petrussa, Elisa; Braidot, Enrico; Passamonti, Sabina; Macrì, Francesco; Vianello, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    A homologue of the mammalian bilirubin transporter bilitranslocase (BTL) (TCDB 2.A.65.1.1), able to perform an apparent secondary active transport of flavonoids, has previously been found in carnation petals and red grape berries. In the present work, a BTL homologue was also shown in white berries from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tocai/Friulano, using anti-sequence antibodies specific for rat liver BTL. This transporter, similarly to what found in red grape, was localized in the first layers of the epidermal tissue and in the vascular bundle cells of the mesocarp. In addition, a strong immunochemical reaction was detected in the placental tissue and particularly in peripheral integuments of the seed. The protein was expressed during the last maturation stages in both skin and pulp tissues and exhibited an apparent molecular mass of c. 31 kDa. Furthermore, the transport activity of such a carrier, measured as bromosulphophthalein (BSP) uptake, was detected in berry pulp microsomes, where it was inhibited by specific anti-BTL antibodies. The BTL homologue activity exhibited higher values, for both K(m) and V(max), than those found in the red cultivar. Moreover, two non-pigmented flavonoids, such as quercetin (a flavonol) and eriodictyol (a flavanone), inhibited the uptake of BSP in an uncompetitive manner. Such results strengthen the hypothesis that this BTL homologue acts as a carrier involved also in the membrane transport of colourless flavonoids and demonstrate the presence of such a carrier in different organs and tissues.

  8. Development of Milk Fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus Fortified with Vitis vinifera Marc Flour

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    Davide Frumento

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some by-products of wine industry still contain nutrients and functional compounds that make them potential ingredients to formulate new high value-added food products. The aim of this study is to develop milk fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with marc flour of different cultivars of Vitis vinifera from wine production and to evaluate their influence on fermentation kinetics, probiotic counts, phenolic compounds, sugar content and antioxidant activity. The acidification time was significantly shortened by these enrichments (by up to 2.7 h, and the bacterial count during cold storage resulted in stronger fortification of samples (up to 4.13 % when compared to control tests. Fermented milk containing grape marc showed considerable amounts of phenolic compounds with notable antioxidant activity, as well as significant amounts of total sugars. The most important aspect of this paper is the feasibility of using winery by-products, rich in phenolic compounds, as natural supplements to fortify probiotic-fermented milk.

  9. Whole-genome sequencing and SNV genotyping of 'Nebbiolo' (Vitis vinifera L.) clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Giorgio; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Boccacci, Paolo; Minio, Andrea; Chitarra, Walter; Avanzato, Carla Giuseppina; Tononi, Paola; Perrone, Irene; Raimondi, Stefano; Schneider, Anna; Pezzotti, Mario; Mannini, Franco; Gribaudo, Ivana; Delledonne, Massimo

    2017-12-11

    'Nebbiolo' (Vitis vinifera) is among the most ancient and prestigious wine grape varieties characterised by a wide genetic variability exhibited by a high number of clones (vegetatively propagated lines of selected mother plants). However, limited information is available for this cultivar at the molecular and genomic levels. The whole-genomes of three 'Nebbiolo' clones (CVT 71, CVT 185 and CVT 423) were re-sequenced and a de novo transcriptome assembly was produced. Important remarks about the genetic peculiarities of 'Nebbiolo' and its intra-varietal variability useful for clonal identification were reported. In particular, several varietal transcripts identified for the first time in 'Nebbiolo' were disease resistance genes and single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) identified in 'Nebbiolo', but not in other cultivars, were associated with genes involved in the stress response. Ten newly discovered SNVs were successfully employed to identify some periclinal chimeras and to classify 98 'Nebbiolo' clones in seven main genotypes, which resulted to be linked to the geographical origin of accessions. In addition, for the first time it was possible to discriminate some 'Nebbiolo' clones from the others.

  10. Impact of wine technology on the variability of resveratrol and piceids in Saperavi (Vitis vinifera L.

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    M.A. Surguladze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active stilbenoids-resveratrol and its glucosides were identified in the dry bulk wines of different types made with red-grape vintage variety of Saperavi (Vitis vinifera L.: cis-resveratrol, trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid. Red and pink wines were made by different technology: I – dry, pink, of a European type; alcoholic fermentation with natural microflora; II – dry, pink, of a European type; alcoholic fermentation with dry yeast “B2000”. III – red, dry; alcoholic fermentation with no-stem pomace and aging on it for 5 months; IV – dry, red, of a Kakhetian type; alcoholic fermentation with stem pomace with natural microflora and aging on it for 5 months; V – dry, red, of a Kakhetian type, with preliminary fermentation of cluster stems, then, alcoholic fermentation with natural microflora and aging on it for 5 months. The impact of the wine-making technology on the variability of the concentrations of these substances is proved. Kakhetian bulk wines (IV and V also differ from one another. Bulk wine-V made by the fermentation of grappa fermented in advance contains little concentration of study stilbenoids as a result of the oxidation transformations caused by the preliminary treatment. The role of grape juice, stem and seed in the localization of resveratrols and piceids in the bulk wines is identified.

  11. Low-night temperature (LNT) induced changes of photosynthesis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertamini, M; Muthuchelian, K; Rubinigg, M; Zorer, R; Nedunchezhian, N

    2005-07-01

    Changes of leaf pigments, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and photosynthetic efficiency were examined in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) plants grown under ambient irradiation (maximum daily PAR = 1500 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) for 7 days to low night temperature (LNT) of 5 degrees C (daily from 18:00 to 06:00). The contents of chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoids (Car) per fresh mass were lower in LNT leaves than in control leaves. The contents of alpha + beta carotene and lutein-5,6-epoxide remained unaffected, but the de-epoxidation state involving the components of xanthophyll cycle increased. RuBPC activity and soluble proteins were also significantly reduced in LNT leaves. In isolated thylakoids, a marked inhibition of whole chain (PS I + PS II) and PS II activity were observed in LNT leaves. Smaller inhibition of PS I activity was observed in LNT leaves. The artificial exogenous electron donors, MnCl2, DPC and NH2OH did not restored the loss of PS II activity in LNT leaves. The same results were obtained when F(v)/F(m) was evaluated by Chl fluorescence measurements. The marked loss of PS II activity in LNT leaves was due to the marked loss of D1 protein which was determined by immunological studies.

  12. Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir pomace and lees as potential sources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Gabriel M; Faccin, Henrique; Viana, Carine; Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos da; de Carvalho, Leandro M

    2016-11-01

    Food and agricultural industries generate substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities of two by-products (pomace and lees) from Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot noir. We found a different distribution of phenolic classes (flavanols, flavonols, phenolic acids and stilbenes) and singular scavenging activity against free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and peroxyl radicals). The major class of phenolics in pomace was flavanols and in lees was flavonols, with catechin (117.9 ± 2.5 μg g(-1)) and quercetin (42.4 ± 1.2 μg g(-1)) being the most abundant individual compounds. We also found high potential on scavenging activity against superoxide radicals in pomace (80% of scavenging activity) and radical peroxyl (67% scavenging activity). These results show the possibility of using Pinot noir by-products as promising additives or as a source for the development of new products in different segments of the food and cosmetic industries.

  13. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota ofVitis viniferacv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novello, Giorgia; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Boatti, Lara; Mignone, Flavio; Massa, Nadia; Cesaro, Patrizia; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time) were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant.

  14. Stable MSAP markers for the distinction of Vitis vinifera cv Pinot noir clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, Juan; Walter, Bernard; Schellenbaum, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Grapevine is one of the most economically important fruit crops. Molecular markers have been used to study grapevine diversity. For instance, simple sequence repeats are a powerful tool for identification of grapevine cultivars, while amplified fragment length polymorphisms have shown their usefulness in intra-varietal diversity studies. Other techniques such as sequence-specific amplified polymorphism are based on the presence of mobile elements in the genome, but their detection lies upon their activity. Relevant attention has been drawn toward epigenetic sources of variation. In this study, a set of Vitis vinifera cv Pinot noir clones were analyzed using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique with isoschizomers MspI and HpaII. Nine out of fourteen selective primer combinations were informative and generated two types of polymorphic fragments which were categorized as "stable" and "unstable." In total, 23 stable fragments were detected and they discriminated 92.5 % of the studied clones. Detected stable polymorphisms were either common to several clones, restricted to a few clones or unique to a single clone. The identification of these stable epigenetic markers will be useful in clonal diversity studies. We highlight the relevance of stable epigenetic variation in V. vinifera clones and analyze at which level these markers could be applicable for the development of forthright techniques for clonal distinction.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase from Vitis bellula

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    Yue Zhu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitis bellula is a new grape crop in southern China. Berries of this species are rich in antioxidative anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. This study reports cloning and functional characterization of a cDNA encoding a V. bellula dihydroflavonol reductase (VbDFR involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. A cDNA including 1014 bp was cloned from young leaves and its open reading frame (ORF was deduced encoding 337 amino acids, highly similar to V. vinifera DFR (VvDFR. Green florescence protein fusion and confocal microscopy analysis determined the cytosolic localization of VbDFR in plant cells. A soluble recombinant VbDFR was induced and purified from E. coli for enzyme assay. In the presence of NADPH, the recombinant enzyme catalyzed dihydrokaempferol (DHK and dihydroquercetin (DHQ to their corresponding leucoanthocyanidins. The VbDFR cDNA was introduced into tobacco plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of VbDFR increased anthocyanin production in flowers. Anthocyanin hydrolysis and chromatographic analysis revealed that transgenic flowers produced pelargonidin and delphinidin, which were not detected in control flowers. These data demonstrated that the overexpression of VbDFR produced new tobacco anthocyanidins. In summary, all data demonstrate that VbDFR is a useful gene to provide three types of substrates for metabolic engineering of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in grape crops and other crops.

  16. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Physiological behaviors and recovery responses of four galician grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars under water stress

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    Islam M. T.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of four pot grown Galician grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Albariño, Brancellao, Godello and Treixadura were examined under different levels of water stress in greenhouse. After extreme stress, gas exchange recovery responses were evaluated. Average ΨPD for control and stressed plants were -0.4MPa and -1.45MPa respectively. All varieties showed gradual declining of all gas exchange parameters (gs, E and A with increasing of stress periods. Under stressed conditions, Albariño and Godello showed higher CO2 assimilation rate. At the end of stress period leaf defoliation was found in Albariño and Brancellao. Gas exchange recovery was higher for both Godello and Treixadura. A better response of auxiliary bud recovery was present in Albariño than in Brancellao. Close correlations between water stress and gas exchange parameters were found and it varies on genotype. Albariño, Godello and Treixadura followed same diurnal patterns of gas exchange rate for control and stressed plant respectively. Diurnal pattern of CO2 assimilation rate of all tested varieties followed gs and E. Only Brancellao showed treatment effect on mid-day Fv/Fm. Among four varieties photoinhibition was only found in Brancellao. At stressed condition physiological responses of grapevines were genotype depended.

  18. Characterization of Erysiphe necator-Responsive Genes in Chinese Wild Vitis quinquangularis

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    Min Gao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by fungus Erysiphe necator, is one of the most devastating diseases of grapevine. To better understand grapevine-PM interaction and provide candidate resources for grapevine breeding, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library was constructed from E. necator-infected leaves of a resistant Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis clone “Shang-24”. A total of 492 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs were obtained and assembled into 266 unigenes. Gene ontology (GO analysis indicated that 188 unigenes could be assigned with at least one GO term in the biological process category, and 176 in the molecular function category. Sequence analysis showed that a large number of these genes were homologous to those involved in defense responses. Genes involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction were also enriched in the library. Expression analysis of 13 selected genes by qRT-PCR revealed that most were induced more quickly and intensely in the resistant material “Shang-24” than in the sensitive V. pseudoreticulata clone “Hunan-1” by E. necator infection. The ESTs reported here provide new clues to understand the disease-resistance mechanism in Chinese wild grapevine species and may enable us to investigate E. necator-responsive genes involved in PM resistance in grapevine germplasm.

  19. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe; Baldan, Barbara; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine

  20. Quality of life in patients with vitiligo: a cross-sectional study based on Vitiligo Quality of Life index (VitiQoL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, Kosar; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Ghiasi, Maryam; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Fakour, Yousef; Akbari, Zahra; Ghayoumi, Afsaneh; Ghandi, Narges

    2016-06-07

    Vitiligo is a multi-factorial pigmentary skin disorder. Recently, the importance of emotional and psychological issues is proposed in incidence, progression, relapse and remission of vitiligo. There are limited studies conducted in developing countries, which assess life quality of patients with vitiligo. The aim of this study was the application and evaluation of a disease-specific quality of life index in Iranian patients, for the first time. This cross-sectional biphasic study was conducted on 25 patients as a pilot and another 173 patients as the main study group, in Razi Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2013-2014. Persian version of Vitiligo Quality of Life index (VitiQoL) was developed with backward-forward method. Based on the pilot study, the validity and reliability were assessed. The Vitiligo Area and Score Index (VASI), VitiQoL, and their relationship, demographic and clinical characteristic of patients were measured. The Mean and standard deviation of the VitiQoL score was 30.5 ± 14.5 (range 0-60 in Persian version). There was a significant relationship between VASI score and VitiQoL (p = 0.015, r = 0.187). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed three important factors within VitiQoL: participation limitation, stigma, and behavior. In subscale analysis based on behavior factor, female patients had poorer quality of life (p = 0.02). Concomitant psychiatric problems, e.g. anxiety and depression, were not associated with QOL; however, they were near to being meaningful (p = 0.06, r = 0.14). VitiQoL is a valid index in estimating life quality of vitiligo patients and has proper relation to disease severity. Focusing on patient's life quality is an important entity in the management of vitiligo patients; relevant supportive group-based consultations and therapies are also important arms when approaching vitiligo.

  1. Defence signalling triggered by Flg22 and Harpin is integrated into a different stilbene output in Vitis cells.

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    Xiaoli Chang

    Full Text Available Plants can activate defence to pathogen attack by two layers of innate immunity: basal immunity triggered by pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity (ETI linked with programmed cell death. Flg22 and Harpin are evolutionary distinct bacterial PAMPs. We have previously shown that Harpin triggers hypersensitive cell death mimicking ETI in Vitis rupestris, but not in the Vitis vinifera cultivar 'Pinot Noir'. In contrast, the bacterial PAMP flg22 activating PTI does not trigger cell death. To get insight into the defence signalling triggered by flg22 and Harpin, we compared cellular responses upon flg22 and Harpin treatment in the two Vitis cell lines. We found that extracellular alkalinisation was blocked by inhibition of calcium influx, and modulated by pharmacological manipulation of the cytoskeleton and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity with quantitative differences between cell lines and type of PAMPs. In addition, an oxidative burst was detected that was much stronger and faster in response to Harpin as compared to flg22. In V. rupestris, both flg22 and Harpin induced transcripts of defence-related genes including stilbene synthase, microtubule disintegration and actin bundling in a similar way, whereas they differed in V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir'. In contrast to Harpin, flg22 failed to trigger significant levels of the stilbene trans-resveratrol, and did not induce hypersensitive cell death even in the highly responsive V. rupestris. We discuss these data in a model, where flg22- and Harpin-triggered defence shares a part of early signal components, but differs in perception, oxidative burst, and integration into a qualitatively different stilbene output, such that for flg22 a basal PTI is elicited in both cell lines, while Harpin induces cell death mimicking an ETI-like pattern of defence.

  2. Distribution of 14C-photosynthetate in the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon: Pt. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.J.; Visser, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of partial defoliation of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon on the distribution of photosynthetates, originating in leaves in different positions on the shoot at berry set, pea size, veraison and ripeness stages, was investigated. Partial defoliation (33% and 66%) resulted in a higher apparent photosynthetic effectivity for all the remaining leaves on the shoot. The pattern of distribution of photosynthetates would seem to stay the same between the defoliation treatments. The control vines were found to carry excess foliage. Optimal photosynthetic activity of all the leaves on the vine was therefore not reached

  3. Sequencing and assembly of highly heterozygous genome of Vitis vinifera L. cv Pinot Noir: problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkikh, Andrey; Troggio, Michela; Pruss, Dmitry; Cestaro, Alessandro; Eldrdge, Glenn; Pindo, Massimo; Mitchell, Jeff T; Vezzulli, Silvia; Bhatnagar, Satish; Fontana, Paolo; Viola, Roberto; Gutin, Alexander; Salamini, Francesco; Skolnick, Mark; Velasco, Riccardo

    2008-08-31

    A new approach to sequencing and assembling a highly heterozygous genome, that of grape, species Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir, is described. The combining of genome shotgun of paired reads produced by Sanger sequencing and sequencing by synthesis of unpaired reads was shown to be an efficient procedure for decoding a complex genome. About 2 million SNPs and more than a million heterozygous gaps have been identified in the 500 Mb genome of grape. More than 91% of the sequence assembled into 58,611 contigs is now anchored to the 19 linkage groups of V. vinifera.

  4. Evaluación sensorial del vino artesanal de uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.

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    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de vino en Colombia se ha incrementado durante los últimos años, en especial el de los vinos tinto. A pesar de las pocas características vínicas de la uva Isabella (Vitis labrusca L., su bajo contenido de azúcares y su alta concentración de ácidos le otorgan el potencial para la elaboración de un vino que presenta sabores y aromas intensos. La combinación de color, aroma y sabor provoca la denominada textura del vino. El análisis sensorial de los vinos, a través de catas, da origen a una escala entre los vinos y a una descripción que genera cierto impacto en el posicionamiento de este licor en el mercado. Esta investigación buscó evaluar la calidad organoléptica del vino artesanal de uva Isabella, mediante una cata a ciegas. Se evaluaron tres tipos de vino; dos producidos en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (semiseco y semidulce y uno procedente del municipio de Cerrito, Valle del Cauca. El panel conformado por 20 catadores evaluó los vinos de acuerdo con los parámetros establecidos por el Concurso Internacional de Vinos y Espirituosos (CINVE. Los resultados presentaron diferencias significativas entre el vino Portal del Paraíso® y los vinos Uptc. Los vinos Uptc obtuvieron la menor puntuación, catalogándolos, de acuerdo con el CINVE, como los mejores sensorialmente.

  5. Wild Grape-Associated Yeasts as Promising Biocontrol Agents against Vitis vinifera Fungal Pathogens

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    Gustavo Cordero-Bueso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing level of hazardous residues in the environment and food chains has led the European Union to restrict the use of chemical fungicides. Thus, exploiting new natural antagonistic microorganisms against fungal diseases could serve the agricultural production to reduce pre- and post-harvest losses, to boost safer practices for workers and to protect the consumers' health. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epiphytic yeasts against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Penicillium expansum pathogen species. In particular, yeast isolation was carried out from grape berries of Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris populations, of the Eurasian area, and V. vinifera ssp vinifera cultivars from three different farming systems (organic, biodynamic, and conventional. Strains able to inhibit or slow the growth of pathogens were selected by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The most effective antagonist yeast strains were subsequently assayed for their capability to colonize the grape berries. Finally, possible modes of action, such as nutrients and space competition, iron depletion, cell wall degrading enzymes, diffusible and volatile antimicrobial compounds, and biofilm formation, were investigated as well. Two hundred and thirty-one yeast strains belonging to 26 different species were isolated; 20 of them, ascribed to eight species, showed antagonistic action against all molds. Yeasts isolated from V. vinifera ssp sylvestris were more effective (up to 50% against B. cinerea rather than those isolated from V. vinifera ssp vinifera. Six strains, all isolated from wild vines, belonging to four species (Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora clermontiae, and Pichia kluyveri revealed one or more phenotypical characteristics associated to the analyzed modes of antagonistic action.

  6. The combined effect of deuterium depleted water and magnetic nano particles on Vitis vinifera (L) organogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Dobrei, Alin; Boleman, Alexandra; Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Costinel, Diana

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of Deuterium Depleted Water (DDW) associated with Magnetic Nano Particles (MNPs) on organogenesis evolution of the Vitis vinifera (L) was investigated. A total of 10 cuttings of first year shoots belonging to three varieties were put into liquid medium (500 cm 3 / jar) in three experimental groups and one control (C) each in four replications. The experiment was one year long being divided in two parts, laboratory and greenhouse conditions respectively. During the laboratory experiment, no nutrients were added in experimental solutions. The number of roots, sprouts and leafs were determined periodically. The capacity to perform organogenesis depended on genotype. Each of them pointed out a particular behaviour. In lab conditions the shoot number significantly differs in each variety/liquid composition (P≤0.001). In greenhouse condition on Burgund variety the shoot growth was very fast. In 90 pottings the shoots length varied from 7.36±1.88 to 14.39±4.53 cm in DDW and Negative Control (NC). The number of leafs after 3 months varied from 3.75±0.41 to 7.59±0.45 on Silvania NC and Socodor TW and MNPs respectively. The largest leaves area was 20.32±0.04 cm 2 on Burgund variety in DDW conditions. The DDW and MNPs repressed the organogenesis on Silvania and Burgund varieties. The association DDW and MNPs enhanced the leaves area. Generally, the single action of DDW enhanced the plantlet traits and improved the chlorophyll content. The single action of DDW or in association with MNPs had a favourable influence in organogenesis, growth and synthesis of chlorophyll involved in metabolic activity. The deuterium amount decreased in leave juice if the plantlets grew in DDW presence. (authors)

  7. The combined effect of deuterium depleted water and magnetic nano particles on Vitis vinifera (L) organogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Dobrei, Alin; Boleman, Alexandra; Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe; Costinel, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The combined effect of Deuterium Depleted Water (DDW) associated with Magnetic Nano Particles (MNPs) on organogenesis evolution of the Vitis vinifera (L) was investigated. A total of 10 cuttings of first year shoots belonging to three varieties were put into liquid medium (500 cm 3 / jar) in three experimental groups and one control (C) each in four replications. The experiment was one year long being divided in two parts, laboratory and greenhouse conditions respectively. During the laboratory experiment, no nutrients were added in experimental solutions. The number of roots, sprouts and leafs were determined periodically. The capacity to perform organogenesis depended on genotype. Each of them pointed out a particular behaviour. In lab conditions the shoot number significantly differs in each variety/liquid composition (P≤0.001). In greenhouse condition on Burgund variety the shoot growth was very fast. In 90 pottings the shoots length varied from 7.36±1.88 to 14.39±4.53 cm in DDW and Negative Control (NC). The number of leafs after 3 months varied from 3.75±0.41 to 7.59±0.45 on Silvania NC and Socodor TW and MNPs respectively. The largest leaves area was 20.32±0.04 cm 2 on Burgund variety in DDW conditions. The DDW and MNPs repressed the organogenesis on Silvania and Burgund varieties. The association DDW and MNPs enhanced the leaves area. Generally, the single action of DDW enhanced the plantlet traits and improved the chlorophyll content. The single action of DDW or in association with MNPs had a favourable influence in organogenesis, growth and synthesis of chlorophyll involved in metabolic activity. The deuterium amount decreased in leave juice if the plantlets grew in DDW presence. (authors)

  8. Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and European cranberry (Vaccinium microcarpon) proanthocyanidins: isolation, identification, and bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylli, Petri; Nohynek, Liisa; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Westerlund-Wikström, Benita; Leppänen, Tiina; Welling, Jukka; Moilanen, Eeva; Heinonen, Marina

    2011-04-13

    European, small-fruited cranberries (Vaccinium microcarpon) and lingonberries (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were characterized for their phenolic compounds and tested for antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiadhesive, and antiinflammatory effects. The main phenolic compounds in both lingonberries and cranberries were proanthocyanidins comprising 63-71% of the total phenolic content, but anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and flavonols were also found. Proanthocyanidins are polymeric phenolic compounds consisting mainly of catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, and epigallocatechin units. In the present study, proanthocyanidins were divided into three groups: dimers and trimers, oligomers (mDP 4-10), and polymers (mDP > 10). Catechin, epicatechin, A-type dimers and trimers were found to be the terminal units of isolated proanthocyanidin fractions. Inhibitions of lipid oxidation in liposomes were over 70% and in emulsions over 85%, and in most cases the oligomeric or polymeric fraction was the most effective. Polymeric proanthocyanidin extracts of lingonberries and cranberries were strongly antimicrobial against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas they had no effect on other bacterial strains such as Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Escherichia coli. Polymeric fraction of cranberries and oligomeric fractions of both lingonberries and cranberries showed an inhibitory effect on hemagglutination of E. coli, which expresses the M hemagglutin. Cranberry phenolic extract inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner, but it had no major effect on iNOS of COX-2 expression. At a concentration of 100 μg/mL cranberry phenolic extract inhibited LPS-induced IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α production. Lingonberry phenolics had no significant effect on IL-1β production but inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α production at a concentration of 100 μg/mL similarly to cranberry phenolic extract. In conclusion the phenolics, notably

  9. Genetic analysis and QTL mapping for fruit skin anthocyanidin in grape (vitis vinifera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Xue, R.; Lin, H.; Su, K.; Zhao, Y.; Zhendong, L.; Shi, G.; Niu, Z.; Li, K.; Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an F1 population was created by the cross 87-1*9-22. The female parent 87-1 was a black purple cultivar and the male parent was an excellent breeding line with green pericarp. the skin color separation of population and distribution, and determined the content of each individual fruit peel pigment. On the basis of the genetic map of Vitis vinifera L. We carried out the grape skin pigment content quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. The results show that the fruit color performance for continuous variation and the inheritance of fruit skin anthocyanidin content was a quantitative inheritance. The color of offspring ranges from green and black-blue and existing distribution. Using SSR and SRAP molecular markers to construct 188 female parent maps,175 male parent maps and 251 consensus maps, and the total map distance is 1047.5 cM,1100.2 cM and 1264.2 cM respectively. The result of QTL showed that there were more QTLs exist in the linkage group of 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 13, 14, 16 and 19 and in the linkage group of 3, 4, 13 and 14, we detected QTLs in the similar position with the result of the study in the year of 2011 and 2012, and based on this we will conduct the fine QTL location in the future, this result will lay a good foundation for the grape in the department of molecular assistant breeding in the future. (author)

  10. Epiphytic fungal community in Vitis vinifera of the Portuguese wine regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Arenas, M; Lage, O; Cunha, M; Amorim, M I

    2018-01-01

    In this work, fungi present in the grapevine's phyllosphere collected from the main demarcated wine regions of Portugal were identified, and their phylogenetic relationships were analysed. A total of 46 vine samples (leaves and berries) were collected from different parts of the country, being isolated a total of 117 fungal colonies that were identified to the genus level and sequenced in the following genetic regions: internal transcribed spacer region and 18S rRNA and β-tubulin gene. Next, a phylogenetic tree reconstruction for each genetic region was built. The isolates retrieved from environmental samples belonged to the genera Alternaria (31%), Cladosporium (21%), Penicillium (19%), Aspergillus (7%) and Epicoccum (3%). No genetic signatures of exchange of genetic material were detected, and consequently, the reconstructed phylogenetic trees allowed to distinguish between these different species/genera. In the fungal composition of the Vitis vinifera phyllosphere, several potential pathogens were identified that can be associated with decreases in crop productivity. Knowledge of fungi identification and genetic diversity is pivotal for the development of more adequate crop management strategies. Furthermore, this information will provide guidelines for a more specific and wiser use of fungicides. The knowledge on the composition of the phyllosphere microbial community is still limited, especially when fungi are concerned. These micro-organisms not only play a crucial role in crop health and productivity but also interact with the winemaking process, determining the safety and quality of grape and grape-derived products. The elucidation of the micro-organisms present in the phyllosphere will have a notorious impact on plant breeding and protection programmes and disease management strategies, allowing a better control of pesticide applications. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Effect of salicylic acid and aloe vera gel on postharvest quality of table grapes ( Vitis Vinifera

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    H. Peyro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of salicylic acid dipping and Aloe vera gel coating on shelf life and post harvest quality of table grapes (Vitis vinifera of the cultivar Shahroudi, a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of randomized complete blocks design with three factors and three replicates in agricultural faculty of Islamic Azad University in 2014. The treatments were dipping in Salicylic acid (three levels of 0, 1 and 2 mmmol-1 for 15 minutes and coating with Aloe vera gel (four levels of 0, 10%, 15% and 20% w/v and measurement of traits in 1st day, 30th day and 60th day after treatment of berries. The results showed that the interaction effect of salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel application was significant on all of traits except for pH value in a way that the best and the minimum weight loss (0.09g was obtained by application of 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 20% Aloe vera gel in 1st day after treatment. The greatest amount of total soluble solids (428.43 g.100g-1 fruit juice was found in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 60th day. The highest Catalase enzyme activity (0.0013 Ua.mg-1Pro was attained in 2 mmol-1 Salicylic acid and 15% Aloe vera gel in 30th day. These results demonstrated that treatment of grape berries by salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel had positive effect on shelf life of table grapes and their postharvest quality

  12. A forensic perspective on the genetic identification of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties using STR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Oliveira, Manuela; Amorim, António; van Asch, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera) is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. A long interest in the historical origins of ancient and cultivated current grapevines, as well as the need to establish phylogenetic relationships and parentage, solve homonymies and synonymies, fingerprint cultivars and clones, and assess the authenticity of plants and wines has encouraged the development of genetic identification methods. STR analysis is currently the most commonly used method for these purposes. A large dataset of grapevines genotypes for many cultivars worldwide has been produced in the last decade using a common set of recommended dinucleotide nuclear STRs. This type of marker has been replaced by long core-repeat loci in standardized state-of-the-art human forensic genotyping. The first steps toward harmonized grapevine genotyping have already been taken to bring the genetic identification methods closer to human forensic STR standards by previous authors. In this context, we bring forward a set of basic suggestions that reinforce the need to (i) guarantee trueness-to-type of the sample; (ii) use the long core-repeat markers; (iii) verify the specificity and amplification consistency of PCR primers; (iv) sequence frequent alleles and use these standardized allele ladders; (v) consider mutation rates when evaluating results of STR-based parentage and pedigree analysis; (vi) genotype large and representative samples in order to obtain allele frequency databases; (vii) standardize genotype data by establishing allele nomenclature based on repeat number to facilitate information exchange and data compilation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A candidate gene association study on muscat flavor in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

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    Boursiquot Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sweet, floral flavor typical of Muscat varieties (Muscats, due to high levels of monoterpenoids (geraniol, linalool and nerol, is highly distinct and has been greatly appreciated both in table grapes and in wine since ancient times. Muscat flavor determination in grape (Vitis vinifera L. has up to now been studied by evaluating monoterpenoid levels through QTL analysis. These studies have revealed co-localization of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS with the major QTL positioned on chromosome 5. Results We resequenced VvDXS in an ad hoc association population of 148 grape varieties, which included muscat-flavored, aromatic and neutral accessions as well as muscat-like aromatic mutants and non-aromatic offsprings of Muscats. Gene nucleotide diversity and intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD were evaluated. Structured association analysis revealed three SNPs in moderate LD to be significantly associated with muscat-flavored varieties. We identified a putative causal SNP responsible for a predicted non-neutral substitution and we discuss its possible implications for flavor metabolism. Network analysis revealed a major star-shaped cluster of reconstructed haplotypes unique to muscat-flavored varieties. Moreover, muscat-like aromatic mutants displayed unique non-synonymous mutations near the mutated site of Muscat genotypes. Conclusions This study is a crucial step forward in understanding the genetic regulation of muscat flavor in grapevine and it also sheds light on the domestication history of Muscats. VvDXS appears to be a possible human-selected locus in grapevine domestication and post-domestication. The putative causal SNP identified in Muscat varieties as well as the unique mutations identifying the muscat-like aromatic mutants under study may be immediately applied in marker-assisted breeding programs aimed at enhancing fragrance and aroma complexity respectively in table grape and wine cultivars.

  14. Regulated deficit irrigation as a water management strategy in Vitis vinifera production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wample, R.L.; Smithyman, R.

    2002-01-01

    An initial six-year study in a commercial vineyard located in the Columbia River Valley of Washington State, United States of America, examined the management practices and potential benefits of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on Vitis vinifera cv. Sauvignon blanc. The objective of the treatments was to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation prior to, compared with after, veraison. Each of four irrigation treatments was applied to 1.6 ha and replicated four times for a total 27.0 ha. Irrigation treatments were based on desired soil moisture levels in the top metre of the profile where most of the root system is found. Soil moisture was monitored using a neutron probe and the information was combined with calculations of evaporative demand to determine the irrigation required on a weekly basis. Vine growth, yield, fruit quality and cold hardiness were monitored throughout the study. The results indicated that RDI prior to veraison was effective in controlling shoot growth, as determined by shoot length and elongation rate, as well as pruning weights. Sixteen wine lots, each of approximately 12,000 litres, were prepared each season. Although there was some effect on berry weight, yield was not always significantly reduced. Full irrigation prior to veraison resulted in excessive shoot growth. RDI applied after veraison to vines with large canopies resulted in greater water deficit stress. Fruit quality was increased by pre-veraison RDI compared to postveraison RDI based on wines made. Regulated deficit irrigation applied at anytime resulted in better early-season lignification of canes and cold hardening of buds. There was a slight improvement in mid-winter cold hardiness of vines subjected to RDI. However, this effect was inconsistent. Studies on Cabernet Sauvignon and White Riesling are underway to confirm these results and to investigate the impact of RDI on fruit quality and winemaking practices. (author)

  15. Flowers regulate the growth and vascular development of the inflorescence rachis in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourieroux, Aude M; McCully, Margaret E; Holzapfel, Bruno P; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2016-11-01

    The rachis, the structural framework of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence (and subsequent bunch), consists of a main axis and one or more orders of lateral branches with the flower-bearing pedicels at their fine tips. The rachis is crucial both for support, and transport from the shoot. Earlier suggestions that the flowers per se affect normal rachis development are investigated further in this study. Different percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 or 100) of flowers were removed manually one week before anthesis on field-grown vines. Treatment effects on subsequent rachis development (curvature, vitality, anatomy, starch deposit) were assessed. Sections, both fixed and embedded, and fresh hand-cut were observed by fluorescence and bright-field optics after appropriate staining. Emphasis was on measurement of changes in cross-sectional area of secondary xylem and phloem, and on maturation of fibres and periderm. Specific defects in rachis development were dependent on the percent and location of flower removal one week prior to anthesis. The rachises curved inwards where most of the flowers were removed. When fully de-flowered, they became progressively necrotic from the laterals back to the primary axes and from the distal to the proximal end of those axes, with a concurrent disorganisation of their anatomy. A few remaining groups of flowers prevented desiccation and abscission of the rachis axes proximal to the group, but not distally. Flower removal (50%) reduced rachis elongation, while 75% removal reduced xylem and phloem area and delayed phloem fibre and periderm development. 75% flower removal did not affect starch present in the rachis during berry development. Developing flowers affect the growth and vitality of the rachis and the development of its vascular and support structures. The extent of these effects depends on the cultivar and the number and position of flowers remaining after some are removed one week before anthesis. Copyright © 2016

  16. Regulation of resveratrol production in Vitis amurensis cell cultures by calcium-dependent protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleynova, O A; Dubrovina, A S; Manyakhin, A Y; Karetin, Y A; Kiselev, K V

    2015-02-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring plant stilbene that exhibits a wide range of valuable biological and pharmacological properties. Although the beneficial effects of trans-resveratrol to human health and plant protection against fungal pathogens are well-established, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating stilbene biosynthesis in plant cells. It has been recently shown that overexpression of the calcium-dependent protein kinase VaCPK20 gene considerably increased resveratrol accumulation in cell cultures of Vitis amurensis. It is possible that calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play an important role in the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis. In the present work, we investigated the effects of overexpression of other members of the CDPK multigene family (VaCPK9, VaCPK13, VaCPK21, and VaCPK29) on resveratrol accumulation and growth parameters of grape cell cultures. The obtained data show that overexpression of VaCPK29 increased resveratrol content 1.6-2.4-fold and fresh biomass accumulation 1.1-1.4-fold in the four independently transformed cell lines of V. amurensis compared with that in the empty vector-transformed calli. However, overexpression of the VaCPK9, VaCPK13, and VaCPK21 genes did not considerably affect resveratrol content and fresh/dry biomass accumulation in the independently transformed cell lines of V. amurensis. VaCPK29-transformed calli were capable of producing between 1.02 and 1.39 mg/l of resveratrol, while the control calli produced 0.48 to 0.79 mg/l of resveratrol. The data indicate that the VaCPK9, VaCPK13, and VaCPK21 genes are not involved in the regulation of stilbene biosynthesis in grape cells, while the VaCPK29 and VaCPK20 genes are implicated in resveratrol biosynthesis as positive regulators.

  17. The Modulatory Role of Vitis vinifera in Oxidative Stress and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Tahawy, N.A.; Salama, S.F.; Ashry, O.M.

    2008-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins are naturally occurring antioxidants found in grape seed extract (GSPE) of Vitis vinifera. The present study aims at assessing the protective effects of GSPI against free radicals induced by ionizing radiation on the antioxidant status, the process of carbohydrate metabolism, and some hematological parameters in adult rats. Catalase (CAT) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration along with lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined in liver and muscle tissues, The activity of glucose-6)-phosphatase was determined in liver tissues and glucose level in serum. Erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb) and haematocrit value (Hct %) were also determined. Rats received daily GSPE by gavage in concentration of 100 mg/Kg body weight for 15 consecutive days before exposure to 5 Gy dose of whole body gamma irradiation. The experimental investigations were carried out on the second and third weeks post irradiation.The results indicate that ingestion of GSPE is safe and had no significant effect on the levels of the parameters studied. Exposure to radiation produced a significant decrease in CAT activity and GSH content along with significant increase of TEARS levels in liver and muscle tissues. Liver glucose-6-phosphatase activity increased 2 and 3 weeks post irradiation concomitant with a significant increase of serum glucose level. Blood RBCs, Hb and Hct levels were significantly depressed. Administration of GSPE ameliorated the severity of changes in all the parameters measured. It could be concluded that proanthocyanidins might play a considerable role in ameliorating the radiation induced changes in antioxidant status and carbohydrate metabolites

  18. Proteome and transcript analysis of Vitis vinifera cell cultures subjected to Botrytis cinerea infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadakova, K; Havelkova, M; Kurkova, B; Tlolkova, I; Kasparovsky, T; Zdrahal, Z; Lochman, J

    2015-04-24

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important diseases of grapevine resulting in significant reductions in yield and fruit quality. In order to examine the molecular mechanisms that characterize the interaction between B. cinerea and the host plant, the grapevine cytoplasmic proteome was analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The interaction between Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay cells and B. cinerea was characterized by the increase in spot abundance of 30 proteins, of which 21 were successfully identified. The majority of these proteins were related to defence and stress responses and to cell wall modifications. Some of the modulated proteins have been previously found to be affected by other pathogens when they infect V. vinifera but interestingly, the proteins related to cell wall modification that were influenced by B. cinerea have not been shown to be modulated by any other pathogen studied to date. Transcript analysis using the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction additionally revealed the up-regulation of several acidic, probably extracellular, chitinases. The results indicate that cell wall strengthening, accumulation of PR proteins and excretion of lytic enzymes are likely to be important mechanisms in the defence of grapevine against B. cinerea. Although gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important diseases of grapevine, little information is available about proteomic changes in this pathosystem. These results suggest that cell wall strengthening, accumulation of PR proteins and excretion of lytic enzymes are important molecular mechanisms in the defence of grapevine against B. cinerea. Surprisingly, the proteins related to cell wall modification that were modulated by B. cinerea have not been shown to be affected by any other pathogen studied to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  20. Anthocyanins profile of grape berries of Vitis amurensis, its hybrids and their wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quan; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2010-05-21

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of grapes and wine, an important attribute of their quality. Many authors have used anthocyanins profile to classify the grape cultivars and wine authenticity. The anthocyanin profiles of grape berries of Vitis amurensis, its hybrids and their wines were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results identified 17 anthocyanins in these grape cultivars, including 11 anthocyanin monoglucosides (five pyranoanthocyanin monoglucosides and one acylated pyranoanthocyanin monoglucoside) and six anthocyanin diglucosides. Likewise, 15 kinds of anthocyanins were detected in wines, including six diglucosides and nine monoglucosides of anthocyanidins, in which four pyranoanthocyanin monoglucosides (Petunidin-3-O-glucoside-4-acetaldehyde, Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-4-pyruvic acid, Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-acetaldehyde and Peonidin-3-O-glucoside-4-pyruvic acid) were detected. In addition, a total of 14 kinds of anthocyanins including six diglucosides and eight monoglucosides of anthocyanidins were identified in skins, in which two pyranoanthocyanin monoglucosides (Peonidin-3-O-glucoside-4-pyruvic acid, Malvidin-3-O-glucoside-4-vinylphenol) and one acylated pyranoanthocyanin monoglucoside (Malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside-4-vinylphenol) were detected. The anthocyanins profile of grape skin of V. amurensis and its hybrids consist of the anthocyanin monoglucosides, diglucosides and pyranoanthocyanins. The wines produced resulted in a slightly different anthocyanin distribution. Pelargonidin-3,5-diglucosides was first found in the skins and wines, however, no acetyl was detected in wines. The principal component analysis results suggest that the anthocyanin profiles were helpful to classify these cultivars of V. amurensis.

  1. Insight in the phenolic composition and antioxidative properties of Vitis vinifera leaves extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Generalić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, leaf ethanolic extracts of Vitis vinifera were assayed for their polyphenolic composition and antioxidative properties. The leaves were collected during lush vegetation period (May leaves and after the harvest (September leaves. Air dried plant material was homogenized and the polyphenolic constituents were extracted using conventional solvent extraction procedure. Total phenolics, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, catechins and flavanols were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Both extracts were very rich in phenolic compounds. The concentration of total phenols in September leaves extract was about 30 % higher compared to May leaves extract, due to the increase of flavonoid (catechin fraction. Non-flavonoid compound content was almost equal in both extracts. The amount of flavanols, determined with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde method, was taken as indicator of flavan-3-ol monomers, while high catechin content determined by vanillin method, indicated the presence of polymeric fraction. The total catechin content in September leaves extract was more than 3 folds higher in comparison to May leaves extract. Principal phenolic compounds were separated by high pressure liquid chromatography on reverse phase. Antioxidant properties, determined as: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate radical cation scavenging ability, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, Fe2+ chelating activity, and using β-carotene bleaching assay, were total phenol concentration dependent. September leaves extract had better free radical scavenging capacity, higher reducing power, and was more efficient in protecting the oxidation of emulsified linoleic acid, in comparison with May leaves extract which showed better chelating ability. The presence of active phenolic compounds: phenolic acids (3-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, vanillin acid, flavonoids ((+-catechin, (--epicatechin

  2. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  3. Genomic DNA-based absolute quantification of gene expression in Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Gregory A; McElrone, Andrew J; Matthews, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Many studies in which gene expression is quantified by polymerase chain reaction represent the expression of a gene of interest (GOI) relative to that of a reference gene (RG). Relative expression is founded on the assumptions that RG expression is stable across samples, treatments, organs, etc., and that reaction efficiencies of the GOI and RG are equal; assumptions which are often faulty. The true variability in RG expression and actual reaction efficiencies are seldom determined experimentally. Here we present a rapid and robust method for absolute quantification of expression in Vitis where varying concentrations of genomic DNA were used to construct GOI standard curves. This methodology was utilized to absolutely quantify and determine the variability of the previously validated RG ubiquitin (VvUbi) across three test studies in three different tissues (roots, leaves and berries). In addition, in each study a GOI was absolutely quantified. Data sets resulting from relative and absolute methods of quantification were compared and the differences were striking. VvUbi expression was significantly different in magnitude between test studies and variable among individual samples. Absolute quantification consistently reduced the coefficients of variation of the GOIs by more than half, often resulting in differences in statistical significance and in some cases even changing the fundamental nature of the result. Utilizing genomic DNA-based absolute quantification is fast and efficient. Through eliminating error introduced by assuming RG stability and equal reaction efficiencies between the RG and GOI this methodology produces less variation, increased accuracy and greater statistical power. © 2012 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisserant, Leo-Paul; Aziz, Aziz; Jullian, Nathalie; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Courot, Eric; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2016-12-10

    Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MCDs) improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW) in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.

  5. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of two FAD2 genes from American grape (Vitis labrusca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Sun Hee; Go, Young-Sam; Jung, Sung Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum; Suh, Mi-Chung; Lee, Sukchan; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2012-11-10

    The synthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), the most abundant fatty acids in plants, begins with a reaction catalyzed by fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2; EC 1.3.1.35), also called microsomal oleate Δ12-desaturase. Since the FAD2 gene was first identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, FAD2 research has gained wide interest as the essential enzyme for synthesizing PUFA. Grapes are one of the most frequently cultivated fruits in the world, with most commercial growers cultivating Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca. Grapeseed oil contains a high proportion, 60-70% of linoleic acid (18:2). We cloned two putative FAD2 genes from V. labrusca cv. Campbell Early based on V. vinifera genome sequences. Deduced amino acid sequences of two putative genes showed that VlFAD2s show high similarity to Arabidopsis FAD2 and commonly contain six transmembrane domain, three histidine boxes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval motif representing the characteristics of fatty acid desaturase. Phylogenetic analyses of various plant FAD2s showed that VlFAD2-1 and VlFAD2-2 are separately grouped with constitutive and seed-type FAD2s, respectively. Southern blot showed that one or two bands are found in each lane. Because Campbell Early is a hybrid cultivar, FAD2-1 and FAD2-2 genes may exist as one copy in V. labrusca. Expression analysis in different tissues indicated that VlFAD2-1 is a constitutive gene but VlFAD2-2 is a seed-type gene. Complementation experiments of fad2-1 mutant Arabidopsis with VlFAD2-1 or VlFAD2-2 demonstrated that VlFAD2-1 and VlFAD2-2 can restore low PUFA proportion of fad2 to normal PUFA proportion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A candidate-gene association study for berry colour and anthocyanin content in Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Cardoso

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin content is a trait of major interest in Vitis vinifera L. These compounds affect grape and wine quality, and have beneficial effects on human health. A candidate-gene approach was used to identify genetic variants associated with anthocyanin content in grape berries. A total of 445 polymorphisms were identified in 5 genes encoding transcription factors and 10 genes involved in either the biosynthetic pathway or transport of anthocyanins. A total of 124 SNPs were selected to examine association with a wide range of phenotypes based on RP-HPLC analysis and visual characterization. The phenotypes were total skin anthocyanin (TSA concentration but also specific types of anthocyanins and relative abundance. The visual assessment was based on OIV (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin descriptors for berry and skin colour. The genes encoding the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B were significantly associated with TSA concentration. UFGT and MRP were associated with several different types of anthocyanins. Skin and pulp colour were associated with nine genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, UFGT, MRP, DFR, LDOX, CHI and GST. Pulp colour was associated with a similar group of 11 genes (MYB11, MYBCC, MYC(B, MYC(A, UFGT, MRP, GST, DFR, LDOX, CHI and CHS(A. Statistical interactions were observed between SNPs within the transcription factors MYB11, MYBCC and MYC(B. SNPs within LDOX interacted with MYB11 and MYC(B, while SNPs within CHI interacted with MYB11 only. Together, these findings suggest the involvement of these genes in anthocyanin content and on the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. This work forms a benchmark for replication and functional studies.

  7. Enhanced Stilbene Production and Excretion in Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir Hairy Root Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo-Paul Tisserant

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes are defense molecules produced by grapevine in response to stresses including various elicitors and signal molecules. Together with their prominent role in planta, stilbenes have been the center of much attention in recent decades due to their pharmaceutical properties. With the aim of setting up a cost-effective and high purity production of resveratrol derivatives, hairy root lines were established from Vitis vinifera cv Pinot Noir 40024 to study the organ-specific production of various stilbenes. Biomass increase and stilbene production by roots were monitored during flask experiments. Although there was a constitutive production of stilbenes in roots, an induction of stilbene synthesis by methyl jasmonate (MeJA after 18 days of growth led to further accumulation of ε-viniferin, δ-viniferin, resveratrol and piceid. The use of 100 µM MeJA after 18 days of culture in the presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MCDs improved production levels, which reached 1034µg/g fresh weight (FW in roots and 165 mg/L in the extracellular medium, corresponding to five-and 570-foldincrease in comparison to control. Whereas a low level of stilbene excretion was measured in controls, addition of MeJA induced excretion of up to 37% of total stilbenes. The use of MCDs increased the excretion phenomenon even more, reaching up to 98%. Our results demonstrate the ability of grapevine hairy roots to produce various stilbenes. This production was significantly improved in response to elicitation by methyl jasmonate and/or MCDs. This supports the interest of using hairy roots as a potentially valuable system for producing resveratrol derivatives.

  8. Cloning, Sequencing, Purification, and Crystal Structure of Grenache (Vitis vinifera) Polyphenol Oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virador, V.; Reyes Grajeda, J; Blanco-Labra, A; Mendiola-Olaya, E; Smith, G; Moreno, A; Whitaker, J

    2010-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence (P93622{_}VITVI) of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) cDNA from grape Vitis vinifera L., cv Grenache, was found to encode a translated protein of 607 amino acids with an expected molecular weight of ca. 67 kDa and a predicted pI of 6.83. The translated amino acid sequence was 99%, identical to that of a white grape berry PPO (1) (5 out of 607 amino acid potential sequence differences). The protein was purified from Grenache grape berries by using traditional methods, and it was crystallized with ammonium acetate by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were orthorhombic, space group C2221. The structure was obtained at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution using synchrotron radiation using the 39 kDa isozyme of sweet potato PPO (PDB code: 1BT1) as a phase donor. The basic symmetry of the cell parameters (a, b, and c and {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) as well as in the number of asymmetric units in the unit cell of the crystals of PPO, differed between the two proteins. The structures of the two enzymes are quite similar in overall fold, the location of the helix bundles at the core, and the active site in which three histidines bind each of the two catalytic copper ions, and one of the histidines is engaged in a thioether linkage with a cysteine residue. The possibility that the formation of the Cys-His thioether linkage constitutes the activation step is proposed. No evidence of phosphorylation or glycoslyation was found in the electron density map. The mass of the crystallized protein appears to be only 38.4 kDa, and the processing that occurs in the grape berry that leads to this smaller size is discussed.

  9. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported...

  10. A dense single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic linkage map of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) anchoring Pinot Noir bacterial artificial chromosome contigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troggio, Michela; Malacarne, Giulia; Coppola, Giuseppina; Segala, Cinzia; Cartwright, Dustin A; Pindo, Massimo; Stefanini, Marco; Mank, Rolf; Moroldo, Marco; Morgante, Michele; Grando, M Stella; Velasco, Riccardo

    2007-08-01

    The construction of a dense genetic map for Vitis vinifera and its anchoring to a BAC-based physical map is described: it includes 994 loci mapped onto 19 linkage groups, corresponding to the basic chromosome number of Vitis. Spanning 1245 cM with an average distance of 1.3 cM between adjacent markers, the map was generated from the segregation of 483 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic markers, 132 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 379 AFLP markers in a mapping population of 94 F(1) individuals derived from a V. vinifera cross of the cultivars Syrah and Pinot Noir. Of these markers, 623 were anchored to 367 contigs that are included in a physical map produced from the same clone of Pinot Noir and covering 352 Mbp. On the basis of contigs containing two or more genetically mapped markers, region-dependent estimations of physical and recombinational distances are presented. The markers used in this study include 118 SSRs common to an integrated map derived from five segregating populations of V. vinifera. The positions of these SSR markers in the two maps are conserved across all Vitis linkage groups. The addition of SNP-based markers introduces polymorphisms that are easy to database, are useful for evolutionary studies, and significantly increase the density of the map. The map provides the most comprehensive view of the Vitis genome reported to date and will be relevant for future studies on structural and functional genomics and genetic improvement.

  11. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of the UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase from Concord grape (Vitis labrusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn; Yuan, Xiao Xin; Murata, Jun; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2012-02-01

    Glucosylation of anthocyanidin substrates at the 3-O-position is crucial for the red pigmentation of grape berries and wine. The gene that encodes the enzyme involved in this reaction has been cloned from Vitis labrusca cv. Concord, heterologously expressed, and the recombinant enzyme (rVL3GT) was characterized. VL3GT has 96% amino acid sequence identity with Vitis vinifera VV3GT and groups phylogenetically with several other flavonoid 3-O-glycosyltransferases. In vitro substrate specificity studies and kinetic analyses of rVL3GT indicate that this enzyme preferentially glucosylates cyanidin as compared with quercetin. Crude protein extracts from several Concord grape tissues were assayed for glucosyltransferase activity with cyanidin and quercetin as acceptor substrates. A comparison of the VL3GT activities toward with these substrates showed that the 3GT enzyme activity is consistent with the expression of VL3GT in these tissues and is coincident with the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in both location and developmental stages. Enzyme activities in grape mesocarp, pre-veraison exocarp, leaf, flower bud, and flower tissues glucosylated quercetin but not cyanidin at high rates, suggesting the presence of additional enzymes which are able to glucosylate the 3-O-position of flavonols with higher specificity than anthocyanidins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistent history of the bird-dispersed arctic-alpine plant Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hajime; Yoneta, Yusuke; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Barkalov, Viachenslav; Yakubov, Valentin; Brochmann, Christian; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-05-01

    Arctic-alpine plants have expanded and contracted their ranges in response to the Pleistocene climate oscillations. Today, many arctic-alpine plants have vast distributions in the circumarctic region as well as marginal, isolated occurrences in high mountains at lower latitudes. These marginal populations may represent relict, long-standing populations that have persisted for several cycles of cold and warm climate during the Pleistocene, or recent occurrences that either result from southward step-wise migration during the last glacial period or from recent long-distance dispersal. In light of these hypotheses, we investigated the biogeographic history of the marginal Japanese populations of the widespread arctic-alpine plant Vaccinium vitis-idaea (Ericaceae), which is bird-dispersed, potentially over long distances. We sequenced three nuclear loci and one plastid DNA region in 130 individuals from 65 localities covering its entire geographic range, with a focus on its marginal populations in Japan. We found a homogenous genetic pattern across its enormous range based on the loci analysed, in contrast to the geographically structured variation found in a previous study of amplified fragment length polymorphisms in this species. However, we found several unique haplotypes in the Japanese populations, excluding the possibility that these marginal populations result from recent southward migration. Thus, even though V. vitis-idaea is efficiently dispersed via berries, our study suggests that its isolated populations in Japan have persisted during several cycles of cold and warm climate during the Pleistocene.

  13. Crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and preliminary structure determination of the polygalacturonase PehA from Agrobacterium vitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vordtriede, Paul B.; Yoder, Marilyn D.

    2008-01-01

    The acidic polygalacturonase PehA from A. vitis has been crystallized. A molecular-replacement solution indicated a right-handed parallel β-helix fold. Polygalacturonases are pectate-degrading enzymes that belong to glycoside hydrolase family 28 and hydrolyze the α-1,4 glycosidic bond between neighboring galacturonasyl residues of the homogalacturonan substrate. The acidic polygalacturonase PehA from Agrobacterium vitis was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, where it accumulated in the periplasmic fraction. It was purified to homogeneity via a two-step chromatography procedure and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. PehA crystals belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 52.387, b = 62.738, c = 149.165 Å, β = 89.98°. Crystals diffracted to 1.59 Å resolution and contained two molecules per asymmetric unit. An initial structure determination by molecular replacement indicated a right-handed parallel β-helix fold

  14. Essential oils of Origanum compactum and Thymus vulgaris exert a protective effect against the phytopathogen Allorhizobium vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbadi, Khaoula; Meyer, Thibault; Vial, Ludovic; Gaillard, Vincent; Benkirane, Rachid; Benbouazza, Abdellatif; Kerzaon, Isabelle; Achbani, El Hassan; Lavire, Céline

    2017-12-29

    Allorhizobium (Agrobacterium) vitis is a host-specific pathogenic bacterium that causes grapevine crown gall disease, affecting vine growth and production worldwide. The antibacterial activities of different aromatic plant essential oils were tested in vitro and in planta against A. vitis. Among the essential oils tested, those of Origanum compactum and Thymus vulgaris showed the most significant in vitro antibacterial activities, with a MIC of 0.156 and 0.312 mg/mL, respectively. A synergistic effect of these two essential oils (1:1) was observed and confirmed by the checkerboard test. Carvacrol (61.8%) and thymol (47.8%) are, respectively, the major compounds in the essential oils of O. compactum and T. vulgaris and they have been shown to be largely responsible for the antibacterial activities of their corresponding essential oils. Results obtained in vitro were reinforced by an in planta pathogenicity test. A mixture of O. compactum and T. vulgaris essential oils (1:1), inoculated into the injured stem of a tomato plant and a grapevine at 0.312 mg/mL as a preventive treatment, reduced both the number of plants developing gall symptoms and the size of the tumors.

  15. Yeast biodiversity from Vitis vinifera L., subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi to face up the oenological consequences of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig-Pujol Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change in the viticulture is affecting the quality of grapes and their wines. As consequence, climatic variations are producing a mismatch between technological and phenolic maturity and are affecting the microbiota's ecology, biodiversity and their metabolism in vineyard, grape, must and wine. However, there are natural resources that can help to mitigate the effects of global warming. It has been noticed that grapes from female plants of wild vines (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris have very appropriate characteristics to face up this problem: later maturing, high acidity, high polyphenol content,…A molecular study of 819 strains isolated at the end of spontaneous fermentations of grapes of Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris grapevines from 30 locations in northern of Spain revealed 8 different genera and 18 different species. 71,5% of the yeasts were classified as non-Saccharomycesand 28,5% were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This latter specie was characterized at strain level, classifying 30 different groups, 6 of which as the majority from 2 up to 4 different locations. These findings demonstrate a wide diversity of yeast microbiota in wild grapes that will allow a yeast selection for the wine industry in a scenario of climate change.

  16. Resistance evaluation of Chinese wild Vitis genotypes against Botrytis cinerea and different responses of resistant and susceptible hosts to the infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ran; Hou, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianhang; Qu, Jingwu; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide. A screen of 41 Vitis genotypes for leaf resistance to B. cinerea suggested species independent variation and revealed 18 resistant Chinese wild Vitis genotypes, while most investigated V. vinifera, or its hybrids, were susceptible. A particularly resistant Chinese wild Vitis, “Pingli-5” (V. sp. [Qinling grape]) and a very susceptible V. vinifera cultivar, “Red Globe” were selected for further study. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that B. cinerea growth was limited during early infection on “Pingli-5” before 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) but not on Red Globe. It was found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidative system were associated with fungal growth. O2- accumulated similarly in B. cinerea 4 hpi on both Vitis genotypes. Lower levels of O2- (not H2O2) were detected 4 hpi and ROS (H2O2 and O2-) accumulation from 8 hpi onwards was also lower in “Pingli-5” leaves than in “Red Globe” leaves. B. cinerea triggered sustained ROS production in “Red Globe” but not in “Pingli-5” with subsequent infection progresses. Red Globe displayed little change in antioxidative activities in response to B. cinerea infection, instead, antioxidative activities were highly and timely elevated in resistant “Pingli-5” which correlated with its minimal ROS increases and its high resistance. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis species to B. cinerea, but also lay the foundation for breeding B. cinerea resistant grapes in the future. PMID:26579134

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves during and after recovery from heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Tian; Wang, Jun-Fang; Cramer, Grant; Dai, Zhan-Wu; Duan, Wei; Xu, Hong-Guo; Wu, Ben-Hong; Fan, Pei-Ge; Wang, Li-Jun; Li, Shao-Hua

    2012-09-28

    Grapes are a major fruit crop around the world. Heat stress can significantly reduce grape yield and quality. Changes at the molecular level in response to heat stress and subsequent recovery are poorly understood. To elucidate the effect of heat stress and subsequent recovery on expression of genes by grape leaves representing the classic heat stress response and thermotolerance mechanisms, transcript abundance of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves was quantified using the Affymetrix Grape Genome oligonucleotide microarray (15,700 transcripts), followed by quantitative Real-Time PCR validation for some transcript profiles. We found that about 8% of the total probe sets were responsive to heat stress and/or to subsequent recovery in grape leaves. The heat stress and recovery responses were characterized by different transcriptional changes. The number of heat stress-regulated genes was almost twice the number of recovery-regulated genes. The responsive genes identified in this study belong to a large number of important traits and biological pathways, including cell rescue (i.e., antioxidant enzymes), protein fate (i.e., HSPs), primary and secondary metabolism, transcription factors, signal transduction, and development. We have identified some common genes and heat shock factors (HSFs) that were modulated differentially by heat stress and recovery. Most HSP genes were upregulated by heat stress but were downregulated by the recovery. On the other hand, some specific HSP genes or HSFs were uniquely responsive to heat stress or recovery. The effect of heat stress and recovery on grape appears to be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms including stress-related genes, transcription factors, and metabolism. Heat stress and recovery elicited common up- or downregulated genes as well as unique sets of responsive genes. Moreover, some genes were regulated in opposite directions by heat stress and recovery. The results indicated HSPs, especially small HSPs

  18. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22762349

  19. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunea Claudiu-Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional. Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC. Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  20. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

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    Cook Douglas R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million. Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed

  1. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iandolino, Alberto; Nobuta, Kan; da Silva, Francisco Goes; Cook, Douglas R; Meyers, Blake C

    2008-05-12

    Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was approximately 49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million). Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed evidence of antisense expression not

  2. Capacidade de enraizamento de estacas de quatro cultivares de Vitis L. (Vitaceae relacionada com os aspectos anatômicos Rooting ability of four Vitis L. (Vitaceae cultivar cuttings related to anatomy

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    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A estaquia é o método de propagação vegetativa mais utilizado e apresenta como ponto crítico o início do desenvolvimento de um sistema radicular funcional. A estrutura anatômica da estaca pode interferir no processo de enraizamento de algumas espécies, todavia em videira não há informações a respeito. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de enraizamento de estacas de cultivares de Vitis, com ênfase aos aspectos anatômicos. Os quatro cultivares estudados foram: Vitis labrusca L. cv. Bordô, V. rotundifolia Michx. cv. Topsail e os porta-enxertos híbridos entre V. berlandieri Planch. × V. riparia Michx., 'Kobber 5BB' e 'SO4'. Destes cultivares apenas 'Topsail' apresentou dificuldade de enraizamento. Após 77 dias do plantio das estacas, foi observada uma baixa capacidade de enraizamento do cv. Topsail em relação aos outros três cultivares analisados. Também observou-se uma alta porcentagem de estacas vivas, porém não enraizadas, e a ausência de calos neste cultivar. Esses dados podem indicar a existência de fatores endógenos do cv. Topsail que dificultam o enraizamento das estacas. As características anatômicas da base das estacas do cv. Topsail diferiram das demais por manter as calotas de fibras no floema primário, pela presença de floema secundário reduzido com faixas radiais de fibras. Desse modo, a dificuldade de enraizamento desse cultivar pode estar relacionada a barreiras anatômicas.Cutting is the most common method of vegetative propagation. A critical step in this process is the initial development of a functional root system. The anatomical structure of the cutting has been shown to affect the rooting ability of some species, but for grapevines this has not yet been investigated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the rooting ability of Vitis cuttings, with emphasis on the anatomical aspects. The four cultivars studied were: Vitis labrusca L. cv. Bordô, V. rotundifolia Michx. cv. Topsail

  3. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and ecophysiological responses to heavy metal stress in selected populations of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela; Ciepał, Ryszard

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Mn) in soil, and their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. organs. Analysis also concerned the physiological responses of these plants from three polluted sites (immediate vicinity of a zinc smelter in Miasteczko Śląskie, ArcelorMittal Poland S.A. iron smelter in Dąbrowa Górnicza-Łosień, and Jaworzno III power plant in Jaworzno) and one pseudo-control site (Pazurek nature reserve in Jaroszowiec Olkuski). All of the sites are situated in the southern parts of Poland in the Śląskie or Małopolskie provinces. The contents of proline, non-protein thiols, glutathione, ascorbic acid, and the activity of superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase in the leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. were measured. In soil, the highest levels of Cd, Pb, and Zn (HNO 3 extracted and CaCl 2 extracted) were detected at the Miasteczko Śląskie site. At all sites a several times lower concentration of the examined metals was determined in the fraction of soil extracted with CaCl 2 . Much higher Cd, Pb, Zn and Fe concentrations were found in V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea grown at the most polluted site (located near the zinc smelter) in comparison with cleaner areas; definitely higher bioaccumulation of these metals was found in lingonberry organs. Additionally, we observed a large capability of bilberry to accumulate Mn. Antioxidant response to heavy metal stress also differed between V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea. In V. myrtillus we found a positive correlation between the level of non-protein thiols and Cd and Zn concentrations, and also between proline and these metals. In V. vitis-idaea leaves an upward trend in ascorbic acid content and superoxide dismutase activity accompanied an increase in Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations. At the same time, the increased levels of all tested metals in the leaves

  4. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo; Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P.; Carvalho, Raimundo S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  5. Physical, Rheological, Functional, and Film Properties of a Novel Emulsifier: Frost Grape Polysaccharide from Vitis riparia Michx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, William T; Vaughn, Steven F; Byars, Jeffrey A; Selling, Gordon W; Holthaus, Derek M; Price, Neil P J

    2017-10-04

    A novel emulsifier, Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), isolated from natural exudate of the species Vitis riparia Michx, was physically and rheologically characterized. The determination of the physical, structural, thermodynamic, emulsification, film, and rheological properties of FGP provide essential details for the commercial adoption of this novel plant polysaccharide. FGP is capable of producing exceptionally stable emulsions when compared with the industrially ubiquitous gum arabic (GA). The FGP isolate contained a negligible amount of nitrogen (0.03%), indicating that it does not contain an associated glycoprotein, unlike GA. Solutions of FGP have a high degree of thermostability, displaying no loss in viscosity with temperature cycling and no thermal degradation when held at 90 °C. FGP is an excellent film former, producing high tensile strength films which remain intact at temperatures up to 200 °C. This work identified a number of potential food and pharmaceutical applications where FGP is significantly superior to GA.

  6. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of 14C-photosynthetate in the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon: Pt. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.J.; Visser, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of photosynthetates, originating in leaves of different parts of the shoot of Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon at berry set, pea size, veraison and ripeness stages, was investigated. Specific photosynthetic activity of the 14 CO 2 -treated leaves gradually decreased during the season. Photosynthetates were hoarded in the leaves at berry set, but were increasingly diverted to the bunches after that. The apical leaves displayed the highest photosynthesis. The leaves opposite and below the bunches accumulated very little photosynthetates, especially from veraison to ripeness. Redistribution of photosynthetates among the basal, middle and apical leaves was generally very restricted at all stages. Multidirectional distribution from the site of application of 14 CO 2 occurred at berry set stage, while from pea size to ripeness photosynthetates were mainly translocated basipetally. Highest accumulation in the bunches occurred at veraison, while the basal leaves were primarily used to nourish the bunch

  8. Relationship between Agronomic Parameters, Phenolic Composition of Grape Skin, and Texture Properties of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Andrés-García, Paula; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; Giacosa, Simone; Rolle, Luca; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-09-09

    The relationship between the agronomic parameters of grapevine and the phenolic composition of skin of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grapes was assessed. The physical and mechanical properties of berries and their skins were also determined and correlated to the chemical composition. Results showed a significant negative correlation between grapevine vigor-related parameters (such as leaf area and bunch weight) and anthocyanin composition, whereas the percentage (w/w) of seeds was negatively correlated with the amount of flavanols of grape skins. Texture properties of grape skins also showed an important relationship with chemical composition. Berry hardness showed a negative correlation with the coumaroyl-anthocyanin derivatives, but it was positively correlated to skin flavanic composition. Moreover, significant regressions with high coefficients of determination were found between phenolic composition and grapevine vigor-related and texture variables, thus pointing out that these parameters might be useful for estimating the phenolic composition of grape skins.

  9. Isolation and functional characterization of a transcription factor VpNAC1 from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziguo; Shi, Jiangli; He, Mingyang; Cao, Jiangling; Wang, Yuejin

    2012-07-01

    NAC (for NAM, ATAF1, 2, and CUC2) family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant development regulation and in abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the function of NAC genes in grapevines is not clear. A novel NAC transcription factor, designated as VpNAC1, was isolated from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata. It belongs to the TERN subgroup and is a nuclear-targeting protein and functions as a transcriptional activator. Moreover, VpNAC1 was induced by the fungus Erysiphe necator and the exogenous hormones, particularly salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and ethylene. Over-expression of VpNAC1 in tobacco plants enhanced their resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum and Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae Tucker. These results suggest that VpNAC1 acts as a positive regulator in biotic stresses.

  10. Transgenic peas (Pisum sativum) expressing polygalacturonase inhibiting protein from raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and stilbene synthase from grape (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, A; Jacobsen, H-J; de Kathen, A; de Lorenzo, G; Briviba, K; Hain, R; Ramsay, G; Kiesecker, H

    2006-11-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum L.) varieties Baroness (United Kingdome) and Baccara (France) were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer with pGPTV binary vectors containing the bar gene in combination with two different antifungal genes coding for polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) from raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) driven by a double 35S promoter, or the stilbene synthase (Vst1) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) driven by its own elicitor-inducible promoter. Transgenic lines were established and transgenes combined via conventional crossing. Resveratrol, produced by Vst1 transgenic plants, was detected using HPLC and the PGIP expression was determined in functional inhibition assays against fungal polygalacturonases. Stable inheritance of the antifungal genes in the transgenic plants was demonstrated.

  11. Infestation of grape Vitis vinifera by Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sub-medium Sao Francisco valley, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibe, Tuffi C.; Viana, Rodrigo E.; Damasceno, Itala Cruz; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil). Distrito Industrial do Sao Francisco; Nascimento, Antonio S., E-mail: antnasc@cnpmf.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Paranhos, Beatriz A.J.; Haji, Francisca Nemaura P., E-mail: bjodao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Carvalho, Raimundo S. [Agencia de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the infestation level in grapes, Vitis vinifera, by the medfly,Ceratitis capitata in the Sao Francisco River Valley. The adult population was monitored with Jackson trap baited with trimedlure. Samples of grapes for larval infestation assessment were taken along three months, with a total of 116 kg. The average FTD (flies/trap/day) for medfly males was 0.26. The number of pupae obtained from the fruit samples was 471; 287 adults emerged (60.4%), all Ceratitis capitata. The infestation level was 4.0 pupa/kg of fresh fruit. We conclude that grape is a medfly host in SFV, occasionally causing high damage to production. (author)

  12. Ácidos grasos y parámetros de calidad del aceite de semilla de uva silvestre (Vitis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Franco-Mora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available México es centro de origen de varias especies de Vitis. La gran mayoría de ellas no son empleadas en la agricultura e industrias derivadas. Como parte de la exploración de su potencial agroindustrial se identificó y cuantificó a los ácidos grasos del aceite de semilla de vid silvestre (Vitis spp. de frutos de Temascaltepec, México y de la accesión E-201, cultivada en Zumpahuacán, México. El contenido promedio de aceite en la semilla fue de 16,7%, encontrando ácido linoleico (71,5%, oleico (17,2%, palmítico (6,6% y esteárico (4,3%. En el aceite obtenido en vides de Temascaltepec se determinó índice de yodo (57,9 g/100 g, índice de saponificación (170,7 mg/g e índice de peroxidos (30 mEq/kg, valores relacionados posiblemente al contenido de ácidos grasos insaturados. Sin embargo, ese mismo grado de insaturación no concordó con el punto de humeo observado (211 °C, lo cual posiblemente está relacionado con el contenido de ácidos palmítico y esteárico. El aceite de semilla de vid silvestre cumple parcialmente con los estándares establecidos para el aceite de semilla de V. vinifera, lo cual implica su potencial culinario, agroindustrial y cosmetológico.

  13. Historical introgression of the downy mildew resistance gene Rpv12 from the Asian species Vitis amurensis into grapevine varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Venuti

    Full Text Available The Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. thrives naturally in cool climates of Northeast Asia. Resistance against the introduced pathogen Plasmopara viticola is common among wild ecotypes that were propagated from Manchuria into Chinese vineyards or collected by Soviet botanists in Siberia, and used for the introgression of resistance into wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.. A QTL analysis revealed a dominant gene Rpv12 that explained 79% of the phenotypic variance for downy mildew resistance and was inherited independently of other resistance genes. A Mendelian component of resistance-a hypersensitive response in leaves challenged with P. viticola-was mapped in an interval of 0.2 cM containing an array of coiled-coil NB-LRR genes on chromosome 14. We sequenced 10-kb genic regions in the Rpv12(+ haplotype and identified polymorphisms in 12 varieties of V. vinifera using next-generation sequencing. The combination of two SNPs in single-copy genes flanking the NB-LRR cluster distinguished the resistant haplotype from all others found in 200 accessions of V. vinifera, V. amurensis, and V. amurensis x V. vinifera crosses. The Rpv12(+ haplotype is shared by 15 varieties, the most ancestral of which are the century-old 'Zarja severa' and 'Michurinets'. Before this knowledge, the chromosome segment around Rpv12(+ became introgressed, shortened, and pyramided with another downy mildew resistance gene from North American grapevines (Rpv3 only by phenotypic selection. Rpv12(+ has an additive effect with Rpv3(+ to protect vines against natural infections, and confers foliar resistance to strains that are virulent on Rpv3(+ plants.

  14. Vitis labruscana leaf extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced impairments with activation of Akt, ERK and CREB in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyar, Ramesh; Yoon, Chi-Su; Svay, Thida; Kim, Dae-Sung; Cho, Hyoung-Kwon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Jaehyo; Lee, Ho-Sub; Seo, Jungwon

    2017-12-01

    Grapes are among the most widely consumed plants and are used as a folk medicine. Vitis species have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and memory-enhancing agents, but, their biological activities of discarded grape leaves are not completely understood. We investigated the effects of alcoholic aqueous leaf extract of Vitis labruscana (LEVL) in a mouse model of memory impairment and tried to ascertain its mechanism. We also evaluated its effects in SH-SY5Y cells. LEVL (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) was administered to ICR mice once daily for 7 days. Memory impairment was induced with intraperitoneal scopolamine injections (1 mg/kg) and measured with the Y-maze test and a passive avoidance task. LEVL-induced signaling was evaluated in SH-SY5Y cells and mouse hippocampi. We first identified quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as LEVL's major component. We then showed that LEVL promoted phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells. Oral LEVL administration (100 mg/kg) for 7 days significantly reversed scopolamine-induced reductions of spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze test and scopolamine-induced shortening of latency times in the passive avoidance task's retention trial. Consistent with the cell experiment results, LEVL restored scopolamine-decreased phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and CREB and scopolamine-reduced expression of brain-derived neuroprotective factor expression in mouse hippocampi. Our results suggest that LEVL promotes phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, and CREB in the hippocampus and ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. EXPRESSION OF CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE (CDPK GENES IN VITIS AMURENSIS UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

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    Dubrovina A.S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, such as extreme temperatures, soil salinity, or water deficit, are one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity worldwide. Examination of molecular and genetic mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants is of great interest to plant biologists. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which are the most important Ca2+ sensors in plants, are known to play one of the key roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. CDPK is a multigene family of enzymes. Analysis of CDPK gene expression under various abiotic stress conditions would help identify those CDPKs that might play important roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. We focused on studying CDPK gene expression under osmotic, water deficit, and temperature stress conditions in a wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rurp., which is native to the Russian Far East and is known to possess high adaptive potential and high level of resistance against adverse environmental conditions. Healthy V. amurensis cuttings (excised young stems with one healthy leaf were used for the treatments. For the non-stress treatment, we placed the cuttings in distilled water for 12 h at room temperature. For the water-deficit stress, detached cuttings were laid on a paper towel for 12 h at room temperature. For osmotic stress treatments, the cuttings were placed in 0.4 М NaCl and 0.4 М mannitol solutions for 12 h at room temperature. To examine temperature stress tolerance, the V. amurensis cuttings were placed in a growth chamber at +10oC and +37oC for 12 h. The total expression of VaCDPK genes was examined by semiquantitative RT-PCR with degenerate primers designed to the CDPK kinase domain. The total level of CDPK gene expression increased under salt and decreased under low temperature stress conditions. We sequenced 300 clones of the amplified part of different CDPK transcripts obtained from the analyzed cDNA probes. Analysis of the cDNA sequences identified 8 different

  16. Effects of climate variability on irrigation scheduling in white varieties of Vitis vinifera of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Emma M.; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Fandiño, María; Rey, Benjamín J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.; Cancela, Javier J.

    2014-05-01

    Inter-annual climate variability, in particular the temporal distribution of rainfall is regarded as a critical factor to obtain an optimal irrigation management on crops, being more marked their relevance in Atlantic climates. The presence of precision irrigation systems in Vitis vinifera (L.) has created the need to understand the physiological effects on plant, and vineyard soils, together with production and quality parameters, to achieve and adequate irrigation management. This trial was performed on two relevant white grapevine varieties from Galicia (NW-Spain), cv. `Albariño` (D.O. Rías Baixas and Ribeiro) and cv. `Godello` (D.O. Valdeorras and D.O. Monterrei) during the 2012 and 2013 seasons. Two treatments were established following a completely randomized block design with four replications (7 plants each). The treatments were rainfed (R) and surface drip irrigation (DI), these last one was not applied in DO Monterrei during 2012. Irrigation was initiated when an average value of 400 cumulative degree days was reached, ending 15 days before the harvest. Different bioclimatic indices were calculated to characterize each season and location: Cool night index (CI); Heliothermal index (HI), which corresponds to Huglin's heliothermal index; and Winkler index. To assess the water status of the vines leaf (Ψmid) and stem (Ψstem) water potentials were measured at noon. Finally, production and qualitative data were collected for each treatment. No differences between DOs were observed for 'Godello' cultivar in bioclimatic indices within the Geoviticulture MCC system (Tonietto and Carboneau, 2004), indicating temperate warm-temperate (HI) and very cool nights (CI). For the Winkler index, cv. Godello is within the region I, near the region II in the case of D.O. Valdeorras in both years. In the case of 'Albariño', warmer nights were observed in DO Rías Baixas compared with DO Ribeiro, whereas the opposite was found for the thermal index. Leaf water potential

  17. Facteurs de résistance à l'oïdium (Erysiphe necator Schwein.) chez la vigne (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Schnee, Sylvain; Viret, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    L'oïdium est une maladie fongique ubiquiste de la vigne (Vitis vinifera), dépréciant la récolte. L'agent responsable, Erysiphe necator, est un pathogène biotrophe obligatoire ectophyte, envoyant des structures infectieuses spécialisées dans les cellules épidermiques de l'hôte afin d'assurer le prélèvement de nutriments et assurer la croissance fongique. L'existence d'espèces résistantes au sein des Vitis a permis d'étudier les différents compartiments cellulaires, responsables de la manifesta...

  18. European Ethnopharmaceuticals for Self-Medication in Japan: Review Experience of Vitis vinifera L., Folium Extract and Vitex agnus-castus L., Fructus Extract as OTC Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Hoshino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of “Application Guideline for Western Traditional Herbal Medicines as OTC Drugs” in 2007, only two European ethnopharmaceuticals, Vitis vinifera L., folium extract (Antistax and Vitex agnus-castus L., fructus extract (Prefemin, have been approved as OTC drugs in Japan. In this review, we describe the current regulation of Western ethnopharmaceuticals in Japan, summarize our regulatory experiences and discuss the scientific and regulatory issues involved.

  19. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expressio...... resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the grape infection....

  20. Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Hengbo; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Am...

  1. European Ethnopharmaceuticals for Self-Medication in Japan: Review Experience of Vitis vinifera L., Folium Extract and Vitex agnus-castus L., Fructus Extract as OTC Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tatsuro; Muto, Nanami; Tsukada, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Maegawa, Hikoichiro

    2018-01-06

    Since the publication of "Application Guideline for Western Traditional Herbal Medicines as OTC Drugs" in 2007, only two European ethnopharmaceuticals, Vitis vinifera L., folium extract (Antistax) and Vitex agnus-castus L., fructus extract (Prefemin), have been approved as OTC drugs in Japan. In this review, we describe the current regulation of Western ethnopharmaceuticals in Japan, summarize our regulatory experiences and discuss the scientific and regulatory issues involved.

  2. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera) berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Cook Douglas R; da Silva Francisco; Nobuta Kan; Iandolino Alberto; Meyers Blake C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera) is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data. These tag-based technologies, which do not req...

  3. GRAPE’S LEATHER AND SEED EXTRACT (VITIS VINIFERA) IMPROVING THE FUNCTION OF WISTAR RATS’ MOTOR (RATTUS NORVEGICUS) ISCHEMIC STROKE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rasjad Indra; Zanella Yolanda Lie

    2017-01-01

    Background. Grape peel and seed extract (Vitis vinifera), that has resveratrol, is one of many antioxidants that can pass through blood brain barrier and can induce release neurotrophic factor that contribute in ERK 1/2 pathway mechanism in post stroke. Objective. To prove that grape peel and seed extract can regenerate neuron in brain functional Methods. True experimental design with five groups in this research. The five groups are negative control, positive control, grape peel and s...

  4. BRAIN NEURON REGENERATION IN POST-STROKE REHABILITATION TREATMENT USING GRAPE PEEL AND SEED EXTRACT (Vitis vinifera) IN INDUCING ERK1 / 2 PATHWAY

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella Yolanda Lie; Meliantha Tandiono; Lucy Pricillia; Astrid Nandikasari Lukito; Cakra Parindra Gasmara

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims. Ischemic stroke can cause hypoxia in brain tissue and damage the neuron. The defense ability and plasticity is activated by ERK1/2 pathway. Grape peel and seed extract (Vitis vinifera can induce release neurotrophic factor that contribute in ERK1/2 pathway mechanism. This research aiming to prove that grape peel and seed extract can regenerate neuron in anatomical and functional view. Method. This research use true experimental design with sample in this research is 20...

  5. Aroma Compounds Prevision using Artificial Neural Networks Influence of Newly Indigenous Saccharomyces SPP in White Wine Produced with Vitis Vinifera Cv Siria

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, A. Teresa; Martins, M. Rosário; Cabrita, Maria João; Ambrósio, Cristina; Arteiro, José; Neves, José; Vicente, Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Commercial yeasts strains of Saccharomyces cerevisae are frequently used in white wine production as starters in fermentation process, however, these strains can affect the wine characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three strains of Saccharomyces spp. (var. 1, 2 and 3) on wine aroma compounds produced in microvinification assays. Microvinification assays were carried out with Vitis vinifera cv Síria grapes using the strains in study as starters. Aroma compounds ...

  6. A host-specific biological control of grape crown gall by Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5: its regulation and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewnum, Supaporn; Zheng, Desen; Reid, Cheryl L; Johnson, Kameka L; Gee, Jodi C; Burr, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    Nontumorigenic Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 is able to prevent crown gall caused by tumorigenic A. vitis on grape but not on other plant species such as tobacco. Mutations in a quorum-sensing transcription factor, aviR, and in caseinolytic protease (clp) component genes clpA and clpP1 resulted in reduced or loss of biological control. All mutants were complemented; however, restoration of biological control by complemented clpA and clpP1 mutants was dependent on the copy number of vector that was used as well as timing of application of the complemented mutants to grape wounds in relation to inoculation with pathogen. Mutations in other quorum-sensing and clp genes and in a gene associated with polyketide synthesis did not affect biological control. It was determined that, although F2/5 inhibits transformation by tumorigenic A. vitis strains on grape, it does not affect growth of the pathogen in wounded grape tissue over time.

  7. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  8. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-08-28

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower(®), firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone's camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower(®) has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application's efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market's spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play.

  9. Method validation for determination of metals in Vitis labrusca L. grapevine leaf extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIANE V.V. BOKOWSKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vitis labrusca L. is the main species used for wine and juice production in Brazil. The grapevine leaves can be used both as functional foods and as cheapest sources for the extraction of phenolic compounds. Besides the antioxidant activity, grapevine leaves exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine the metals selenium (96Se, chromium (53Cr, nickel (62Ni, cadmium (111Cd and lead (206Pb in 30 samples of grapevine leaf extracts (Vitis labrusca, Bordo cultivar using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. To obtain the grapevine leaf extracts the samples were milled, weighed and digested in microwave oven with nitric acid. The method showed linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of quantification and detection acceptable for INMETRO protocol validation of analytical methods. Therefore, the method using ICP-MS was developed and validated to determine metals concentrations in grapevine leaves of Vitis labrusca L. and the proposed method could be applied in routine analytical laboratory.

  10. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower®, firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone’s camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower® has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application’s efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market’s spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play. PMID:26343664

  11. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Aquino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower®, firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone’s camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower® has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application’s efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market’s spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play.

  12. Extração, secagem por atomização e microencapsulamento de antocianinas do bagaço da uva "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca Extraction, spray drying and microencapsulating of 'Isabel' grape (Vitis labrusca bagasse anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se obter neste trabalho um corante natural (antocianina, na forma de pó a partir do bagaço de uva da cultivar "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca, onde foram realizados estudos de extração e encapsulamento. Empregou-se o método de extração por imersão mediante técnica de planejamento experimental, onde as variáveis avaliadas foram pH da solução de extração (1-2, volume de etanol (100-250 mL, tempo de extração (3-7 h e temperatura de extração (15-35ºC. A concentração máxima de antocianinas totais obtidas foi de 300 mg/100 g de bagaço de uva (umidade 5% nos níveis inferiores de pH (1,0 e tempo (3 horas e superiores de temperatura (35ºC e volume de etanol (250 mL. Os extratos foram secos por atomização. A melhor condição para o encapsulamento e a secagem foi quando utilizaram-se proporções iguais de maltodextrina e goma arábica.This work had the aim of obtaining a natural pigment (anthocyanin at powder form from 'Isabel' grape bagasse (Vitis labrusca, studying the extraction and encapsulating steps one applied the method of extraction by immersion by experimental design technique, when the factors investigated were pH of the extraction solution (1-2, volume of ethanol (100-250 mL, extraction time (3-7 h and extraction temperature (15-35 °C. The maximum concentration of total anthocyanin was 300 mg/100g of grape bagasse (5% moisture at the lower levels of pH (1.0 and time (3 h, and at upper levels of temperature (35ºC and amount of ethanol (250 mL. The extracts were dried by a spray process. The best condition for encapsulating and drying was obtained when equal amounts of maltodextrin and Arabic gum were used.

  13. Ühendkuningriigi parlamendi Alamkoja väliskomisjoni liikme pr. Gisela Stuarti ettekanne / Gisela Stuart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stuart, Gisela

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Proceedings of the 8th International conference Estonia and the European Union : Estonia on its way to a changing Europe : October 31-November 2, 2001. - Tallinn, lk., lk. 88-91. Selleks, et kujundada kaitsepoliitikat, peame kõigepealt kindlalt teadma, mis see täpselt on, mille tarvis me seda kaitsepoliitikat loome

  14. Iiri parlamendi Euroopa asjade ühiskomisjoni liikme hr. Bernard Durkani ettekanne / Bernard Durkan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Durkan, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Proceedings of the 8th International conference Estonia and the European Union : Estonia on its way to a changing Europe : October 31-November 2, 2001. - Tallinn, lk. 69-73. EL institutsioonid peaksid enam aitama riike probleemsituatsioonide lahendamisel

  15. Missugust Euroopat me soovime? : Saksa Liitvabariigi kaitseministri hr. Rudolf Scharping'u ettekanne / Rudolf Scharping

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Scharping, Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Proceedings of the 8th International conference Estonia and the European Union : Estonia on its way to a changing Europe : October 31-November 2, 2001. - Tallinn, lk., lk. 42-48. Seitse teesi Euroopa tuleviku rolli kohta

  16. Tšehhi parlamendi Eurointegratsioonikomisjoni liikme pr. Helena Rögnerova ettekanne / Helena Rögnerova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rögnerova, Helena

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Proceedings of the 8th International conference Estonia and the European Union : Estonia on its way to a changing Europe : October 31-November 2, 2001. - Tallinn, lk., lk. 80-82. Euroopa integratsioon on positiivne reageering globaliseerumise väljakutsetele

  17. Application of fungistatics in soil reduces N uptake by an arctic ericoid shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.F.; Johnson, L.; Simpson, N.B.; Bill, M.; Jumpponen, A.

    2009-11-01

    In arctic tundra soil N is highly limiting, N mineralization is slow and organic N greatly exceeds inorganic N. We studied the effects of fungistatics (azoxystrobin [Quadris{reg_sign}] or propiconazole [Tilt{reg_sign}]) on the fungi isolated from ericaceous plant roots in vitro. In addition to testing the phytotoxicity of the two fungistatics we also tested their effects on growth and nitrogen uptake of an ericaceous plant (Vaccinium uliginosum) in a closed Petri plate system without root-associated fungi. Finally, to evaluate the fungistatic effects in an in vivo experiment we applied fungistatics and nitrogen isotopes to intact tundra soil cores from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and examined the ammonium-N and glycine-N use by Vaccinium vitis-idaea with and without fungistatics. The experiments on fungal pure cultures showed that Tilt{reg_sign} was more effective in reducing fungal colony growth in vitro than Quadris{reg_sign}, which was highly variable among the fungal strains. Laboratory experiments aiming to test the fungistatic effects on plant performance in vitro showed that neither Quadris{reg_sign} nor Tilt{reg_sign} affected V. uliginosum growth or N uptake. In this experiment V. uliginosum assimilated more than an order of magnitude more ammonium-N than glycine-N. The intact tundra core experiment provided contrasting results. After 10 wk of fungistatic application in the growth chamber V. vitis-idaea leaf %N was 10% lower and the amount of leaf {sup 15}N acquired was reduced from labeled ammonium (33%) and glycine (40%) during the 4 d isotope treatment. In contrast to the in vitro experiment leaf {sup 15}N assimilation from glycine was three times higher than from {sup 15}NH{sub 4} in the treatments that received no-fungistatics. We conclude that the function of the fungal communities is essential to the acquisition of N from organic sources and speculate that N acquisition from inorganic sources is mainly inhibited by competition with complex soil microbial

  18. Molecular Characteristics and Biochemical Functions of VpPR10s from Vitis pseudoreticulata Associated with Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapes are one of the world’s oldest and most important fruit crops. They are of high economic value in many countries, but the susceptibility of the dominant winegrape species Vitis vinifera to fungal disease is a significant problem. The Chinese wild grape species are a rich source of disease-resistance genes and these can be used to discover how disease resistance in V. vinifera grapevines might be enhanced. Pathogenesis-related (PR 10 proteins are involved in the disease-response. Here, we use the genomic DNA of the Chinese wild species Vitis pseudoreticulata accession “Baihe-35-1” as the template to design specific primers based on VvPR10s sequences. We used overlap extension PCR to obtain the sequences: VpPR10.4, VpPR10.6, VpPR10.7 and VpPR10.9. The coding sequences of the VpPR10s were then cloned into the pGEX-4T-1 vector. The purified proteins VpPR10.4, VpPR10.6, VpPR10.7 and VpPR10.9 were used to analyse nuclease activity. Meanwhile, functional analysis of VpPR10s under different biotic and abiotic stresses was carried out to further clarify the disease-resistance mechanisms of the Chinese wild grapevine VpPR10 genes. The analysis of protein structure indicates that VpPR10.4 and VpPR10.7 had the P-loop domain and the Bet v 1 motif, which are a consistent feature of plant PR10. However, there was no P-loop domain or Bet v 1 motif in VpPR10.9 and we could not find the Bet v 1 motif in VpPR10.6. The results of the nuclease activity assay and of the functional analyses of VpPR10s under different biotic and abiotic stresses also confirm that VpPR10.4 and VpPR10.7 proteins have marked RNase, DNase, anti-fungal activities and respond to abiotic stresses. The VpPR10.6 and VpPR10.9 proteins do not have these activities and functions.

  19. Vine vigor and cluster uniformity on Vitis vinifera L. seed procyanidin composition in a warm Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Edo-Roca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed procyanidin composition of Vitis vinifera L. var. ˈCarignanˈ and ˈGrenacheˈ was analyzed to assess the impact of vintage climatology, plant vigor and bunch variability on the quality of grapes. This study was carried out over 2007 and 2008 vintages in Terra Alta denomination of origin (DO. This region is located in northeastern Spain and characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a continental tendency. Procyanidin composition of seeds from four vineyards was analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC-DAD-TOF/MS. Vintage, vigor and ripeness uniformity had an influence on the procyanidin concentration in seeds. Flavan-3-ol polymerization increased during the warm year, together with a notable dependence on the variety and vine vigor. In warmer years and low vigor, ˈGrenacheˈ seed composition is likely to be more vulnerable than ˈCarignanˈ. High levels of flavan-3-ol monomers and low polymerization characterized the seeds of the temperate year.

  20. Influence of vineyard altitude on Glera grape ripening (Vitis vinifera L.): effects on aroma evolution and wine sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Gaiotti, Federica; Belfiore, Nicola; Matarese, Fabiola; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Environmental factors have been acknowledged to greatly influence grape and wine aromas. Among them, the effect of altitude on grape aroma compounds has scarcely been debated in literature available to date. In the present study, we investigated the influence of altitude on grape composition and aroma evolution during ripening of Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Glera grown in Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG area (Italy). The site at highest altitude (380 m above sea level) was warmer than the lowest site (200 m above sea level) and, even with differences in temperature in the range 1.5-2 °C, the impact of the cultivation site on grape ripening and aroma accumulation and preservation was significant. The lowest site demonstrated slower grape ripening, and grapes at harvest accumulated lower amounts of all of the main classes of aroma compounds typical of the Glera variety. Wines produced from the highest site were preferred in tasting trials for their more patent floral notes and elegance. Altitude strongly influences grape ripening evolution and flavour accumulation in the Glera grape, and this result accounts for the different styles in the sparkling wines subsequently produced. Moreover, the present study shows that aroma compound biosynthesis, particularly that of benzenoides, starts before véraison in Glera. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyduran, Sadiye Peral; Akin, Meleksen; Ercisli, Sezai; Eyduran, Ecevit; Maghradze, David

    2015-01-13

    The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  2. Antioxidant activity of selected stilbenoids and their bioproduction in hairy root cultures of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopo-Olazabal, Cesar; Hubstenberger, John; Nopo-Olazabal, Luis; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio

    2013-12-04

    Stilbenoids are polyphenolic phytoalexins with health-related properties in humans. Muscadine grape ( Vitis rotundifolia ) hairy root cultures were established via Agrobacterium rhizogenes -mediated transformation, and the effects of growth regulators (3-indolebutyric acid and 6-benzylaminopurine) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on stilbenoid production were studied. Twenty-one-day-old hairy root cultures were treated with 100 μM MeJA for 24 h, and then the stilbenoids were extracted from the medium and tissue with ethyl acetate and analyzed by HPLC. Resveratrol, piceid, and ε-viniferin were observed preferentially in tissue, whereas piceatannol was observed only in medium. Growth regulators did not affect the yield of stilbenoids, whereas higher levels were found upon treatment with MeJA. Stilbenoids identified in the hairy root cultures were analyzed for their radical scavenging capacity showing piceatannol and ε-viniferin as the strongest antioxidants. Muscadine grape hairy root cultures were demonstrated to be amenable systems to study stilbenoid biosynthesis and a sustainable source of these bioactive compounds.

  3. Aplikasi Ekstrak Hasil Fermentasi Biji Jagung dan Rebung untuk Meningkatkan Mutu Buah Anggur Bali (Vitis vinifera L. var. Alphonso Lavallee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN GEDE ASTAWA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Extracts of Fermented Immature Corn Seed and BambooSprout For Improvement of Table grape Quality of Vitis vinifera L. var.Alphonso Lavallee. The objective of the research was to determine the effect ofapplication of extracts of fermented immature corn seed and bamboo sprout for improvementof table grape quality. The research was designed as Completely Randomized Block Design,with five treatments and ten replications. The treatments were K0 (control, J50 (extract offermented immature seed of corn with concentration of 50%, J100 (extract of fermentedimmature seed of corn with concentration of 100%, R50 (extract of fermented bamboo sproutwith concentration of 50% and R100 (extract of fermented bamboo sprout with concentrationof 100%. The results showed that all of the treatments improved sugar content of the fruit.However, the treatment of J100 resulted in the greatest increase of berry number per-bunchand the lowest number of seed per-berry. In conclusion, for improvement of the table grapequality, the treatment of J100 was the most appropriate among other treatments used in thecurrent research.

  4. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of grape berries (Vitis labruscana) during cold storage upon postharvest salicylic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Han; Yuan, Xiaozhuan; Pan, Jiaojiao; Li, Huan; Wu, Ziming; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-15

    Salicylic acid (SA) treatment has been widely used to maintain fruit quality during postharvest storage. To elucidate the molecular mechanism related to this treatment, the effect of SA treatment on fruit quality as well as protein expression profiles of grape berries (Vitis labruscana cv. Kyoho) during the subsequent cold storage was evaluated. As expected, SA treatment inhibited postharvest loss and chilling damage by reducing fruit softening and membrane damage and slowing weight loss. A gel-based proteomic approach was designed to screen for differentially expressed proteins in SA-treated and control grape berries. A total of 69 differentially accumulated proteins were successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, which can be functionally classified into eight categories. Among these proteins, antioxidant enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase, oxidoreductase, and glutathione S-transferase were induced, and the abundances of several defense-related proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP) and temperature-induced lipocalin, were up-regulated by SA treatment. In addition, proteins involved in carbohydrate catabolism and energy production were also induced by SA treatment. Interpretation of the data for differential accumulation of proteins revealed that the effect of SA on reducing postharvest losses and chilling damage of grape berries during cold storage may be due to activated defense responses and carbohydrate metabolism and higher levels of energy status.

  5. Evaluation of Anti-Candida Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seed Extracts Obtained from Wine and Table Cultivars

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    Giovanna Simonetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, grape seed extracts (GSEs, obtained from wine and table cultivars of Vitis vinifera L., cultured in experimental fields of Lazio and Puglia regions of Italy and grown in different agronomic conditions, have been tested on 43 Candida species strains. We demonstrated a significant correlation between the content of the flavan-3-ols in GSEs extracts, with a polymerization degree ≥4, and anti-Candida activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that GSEs, obtained from plants cultured with reduced irrigation, showed a content of polymeric flavan-3-ols >250 mg/g with geometric mean MIC values between 5.7 and 20.2 mg/L against Candida albicans reference strains. GSE, showing 573 mg/g of polymeric flavan-3-ols, has been tested in an experimental murine model of vaginal candidiasis by using noninvasive in vivo imaging technique. The results pointed out a significant inhibition of Candida albicans load 5 days after challenge. These findings indicate that GSEs with high content of polymeric flavan-3-ols can be used in mucosal infection as vaginal candidiasis.

  6. Endophytic colonization of Vitis vinifera L. by Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN: from the rhizosphere to inflorescence tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant, Stéphane; Kaplan, Hervé; Sessitsch, Angela; Nowak, Jerzy; Ait Barka, Essaïd; Clément, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    The colonization pattern of Vitis vinifera L. by Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN was determined using grapevine fruiting cuttings with emphasis on putative inflorescence colonization under nonsterile conditions. Two-week-old rooted plants harbouring flower bud initials, grown in nonsterile soil, were inoculated with PsJN:gfp2x. Plant colonization was subsequently monitored at various times after inoculation with plate counts and epifluorescence and/or confocal microscopy. Strain PsJN was chronologically detected on the root surfaces, in the endorhiza, inside grape inflorescence stalks, not inside preflower buds and flowers but rather as an endophyte inside young berries. Data demonstrated low endophytic populations of strain PsJN in inflorescence organs, i.e. grape stalks and immature berries with inconsistency among plants for bacterial colonization of inflorescences. Nevertheless, endophytic colonization of inflorescences by strain PsJN was substantial for some plants. Microscopic analysis revealed PsJN as a thriving endophyte in inflorescence organs after the colonization process. Strain PsJN was visualized colonizing the root surface, entering the endorhiza and spreading to grape inflorescence stalks, pedicels and then to immature berries through xylem vessels. In parallel to these observations, a natural microbial communities was also detected on and inside plants, demonstrating the colonization of grapevine by strain PsJN in the presence of other microorganisms.

  7. Bioarchaeological Insights into the Process of Domestication of Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) during Roman Times in Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouby, Laurent; Figueiral, Isabel; Bouchette, Anne; Rovira, Nuria; Ivorra, Sarah; Lacombe, Thierry; Pastor, Thierry; Picq, Sandrine; Marinval, Philippe; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), one of the most important fruit species in the Classical Mediterranean world, is thought to have been domesticated first in South-Western Asia, during the Neolithic. However, the domestication process remains largely unknown. Crucial unanswered questions concern the duration of the process (rapid or slow?) and the related geographical area (single or multiple-origins?). Seeds from domesticated grapevine and from its wild ancestor are reported to differ according to shape. Our work aims, first, to confirm this difference and secondly to identify the extent of domestication in the grapes cultivated by Romans in Southern France during the period 50 BCE–500 CE. We had the opportunity to analyze uncharred waterlogged grape pips from 17 archaeological sites. Based on an extended reference sample of modern wild grapevines and cultivars our work shows that both subspecies can be discriminated using simple measurements. The elongation gradient of the pip’s body and stalk may be regarded as an indicator of the strength of the selection pressures undergone by domesticated grapes. Grapevines cultivated during the Roman period included a mix of morphotypes comprising wild, intermediate and moderately selected domesticated forms. Our data point to a relative shift towards more selected types during the Roman period. Domestication of the grapevine appears to have been a slow process. This could result from the recurrent incorporation into cultivation of plants originating from sexual reproduction, when grape cultivation essentially relies on vegetative propagation. PMID:23690998

  8. Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles uptake by Vitis vinifera and grapevine-pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Palocci, Cleofe; Baldan, Barbara; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Poly(lactic- co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based NPs are currently considered among the most promising drug carriers, nevertheless their use in plants has never been investigated. In this work, for the first time, we demonstrated the ability of PLGA NPs to cross the plant cell wall and membrane of Vitis vinifera cell cultures and grapevine-pathogenic fungi. By means of fluorescence microscopy, we established that PLGA NPs can enter in grapevine leaf tissues through stomata openings and that they can be absorbed by the roots and transported to the shoot through vascular tissues. TEM analysis on cultured cells showed that NPs ≤ 50 nm could enter cells, while bigger ones remained attached to the cell wall. Viability tests demonstrated that PLGA NPs were not cytotoxic for V. vinifera-cultured cells. The cellular uptake of PLGA NPs by some important grapevine-pathogenic fungi has also been observed, thus suggesting that PLGA NPs could be used to deliver antifungal compounds within fungal cells. Overall the results reported suggest that such NPs may play a key role in future developments of agrobiotechnologies, as it is currently happening in biomedicine.

  9. Leaf blade and petiole nutritional evolution and variability throughout the crop season for Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, N.; García-Escudero, N.; Romero, I.; Benito, A.; Martín, I.

    2015-07-01

    An adequate nutritional state of a crop can be kept by means of a well-designed fertilization plan based on the assessment of the nutrient availability throughout the growing season. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of leaf blade and petiole diagnosis and the period of validity of their references at both flowering and veraison by means of systematic monitoring throughout the complete growing season. The study was carried out in two plots planted with Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano within the AOC Rioja (Spain). Blades and petioles were collected throughout a growing season (2006) and total N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and B concentrations were analyzed in both tissues. Results suggest, in general, that petioles have higher variability and lower analysis reproducibility than blades. Therefore, blade could be a more appropriate tissue to evaluate N, P, K, Ca, and Mg at both flowering and veraison in this variety. Micronutrients in blade and petiole showed different variability behaviour in each of the vineyards studied, therefore, based on our results, it was difficult to determine which one could be the best tissue for the nutritional diagnosis of the ‘Graciano’ variety. Seasonal changes of nutrient concentration in both tissues also confirmed the need for reference values for each tissue and each phenological stage. (Author)

  10. NMR-based phytochemical analysis of Vitis vinifera cv Falanghina leaves. Characterization of a previously undescribed biflavonoid with antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglione, Luciana; Gambuti, Angelita; De Cicco, Paola; Ercolano, Giuseppe; Ianaro, Angela; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Moio, Luigi; Forino, Martino

    2018-03-01

    Vitis vinifera cv Falanghina is an ancient grape variety of Southern Italy. A thorough phytochemical analysis of the Falanghina leaves was conducted to investigate its specialised metabolite content. Along with already known molecules, such as caftaric acid, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucuronide, a previously undescribed biflavonoid was identified. For this last compound, a moderate bioactivity against metastatic melanoma cells proliferation was discovered. This datum can be of some interest to researchers studying human melanoma. The high content in antioxidant glycosylated flavonoids supports the exploitation of grape vine leaves as an inexpensive source of natural products for the food industry and for both pharmaceutical and nutraceutical companies. Additionally, this study offers important insights into the plant physiology, thus prompting possible technological researches of genetic selection based on the vine adaptation to specific pedo-climatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of γ-radiation on the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Batrinou, Anthimia; Aravantinos, Athanasios; Markaki, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy on the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) inoculated by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) and on AFB1 in contaminated samples, was investigated. Values of the amount of aflatoxin B1 produced on the 12th day of incubation, after irradiation, showed that gamma radiation exposure at 10 kGy decreased AFB1 production at 65% compared with the non-irradiated sample, on the same day. The application of 10 kGy gamma radiation directly on 100 ng of AFB1 which were spiked in raisins resulted in ~29% reduction of AFB1. According to the risk assessment analysis the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1.0 ng AFB1 kg-1bw, indicates that consumers are less exposed to AFB1 from the irradiated raisins.

  12. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eDomingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid (TCA metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways.

  13. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines ( Vitis vinifera ) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di ( o -hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3- O -glucoside, delphinidin-3- O -glucoside, and cyanidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O -methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  14. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbao Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  15. Phenological behavior of the grapevine (vitis vinifera l., cv cabernet sauvignon in Sutamarchán - Boyacá.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Vargas Herrera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical cold weather, the grapevine presents phenological disorders, difficult agronomic disfavoring vintage quality. With the purpose of establishing phenological cycles determined the duration of the different phases of the development cycle of the grapevine, cv "Cabernet Sauvignon" (Vitis vinifera L. in the vineyard Ain-Karim (5º39` N, 73º95' W, 2110 masl. We determined the average duration of sprouting (SP, flowering (FL, veraison (VE and vintage (VI periods from pruning, and the total cycle of growth, according to the phenological scale Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt Chemise (BBCH. To set the average of the process was considered when the plants reached 50% of each event. Determining growing degree days (GDD support the temperature record by a datalogger. Phenological data were subjected to a descriptive analysis as means and standard deviation. The duration of the period between pruning (PR and vintage (VI, with average temperature of 17.87 ° C, had a duration of 183 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating growing degree days 1458.1 (GDD. Flowering occurred at 50 days after pruning (DAP, accumulating 397.7 GDD. Veraison 122 was presented to the accumulation of 578.2 DAP with GDD. While from veraison to maturity 478.9 GDD accumulated in 62 days. Under Sutamarchán agro-climatic conditions, during the investigation, collects, on average, 7.98 degrees daily growth, which implies that for the Cabernet Sauvignon, the total duration of the phenological cycle is 184 days, accumulating 1458.1 GDD.

  16. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (red blood cell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar; Gautam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated and compared in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property of the grape extracts of four different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (p<0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly among extracts of any cultivar. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy γ-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. (author)

  18. Nonspecific lipid-transfer protein genes expression in grape (Vitis sp.) cells in response to fungal elicitor treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomès, Eric; Sagot, Emeric; Gaillard, Cécile; Laquitaine, Laurent; Poinssot, Benoit; Sanejouand, Yves-Henri; Delrot, Serge; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre

    2003-05-01

    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic cystein-rich proteins believed to be involved in plant defense mechanisms. Three cDNAs coding nsLTPs from grape (Vitis vinifera sp.) were cloned by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and PCR. The expression of nsLTP genes was investigated in 41B-rootstock grape cell suspension, in response to various defense-related signal molecules. Ergosterol (a fungi-specific sterol) and a proteinaceous elicitor purified from Botrytis cinerea strongly and rapidly induced the accumulation of nsLTP mRNAs. Jasmonic acid, cholesterol, and sitosterol also promoted nsLTPs mRNA accumulation, although to a lesser extent, whereas salicylic acid had no effect. High performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the amounts of three LTP isoforms (previously named P1, P2, and P4) were increased by ergosterol. None of the four isoforms displayed any significant antifungal properties, with the exception of the P4 isoform, which reduced Botrytis mycelium growth in vitro, but only in calcium-free medium. The results are discussed in the context of plant-pathogen interactions.

  19. Evidence for a putative flavonoid translocator similar to mammalian bilitranslocase in grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidot, E; Petrussa, E; Bertolini, A; Peresson, C; Ermacora, P; Loi, N; Terdoslavich, M; Passamonti, S; Macrì, F; Vianello, A

    2008-06-01

    During maturation, Vitis vinifera berries accumulate a large amount of several anthocyanins in the epidermal tissue, whereas their precursors and intermediates are ubiquitously synthesized within the fruit. Up to date, several mechanisms of flavonoid transport at subcellular level have been hypothesized, but it is not possible to identify a general model applicable in every plant tissue and organ. Recently, a putative anthocyanin carrier, homologue to mammalian bilitranslocase (BTL) (TC 2.A.65.1.1), was found in Dianthus caryophyllus petal microsomes. In the present paper, an immunohistochemical and immunochemical analysis, using an antibody raised against a BTL epitope, evidences the expression and function of such a transporter in V. vinifera berries (cv. Merlot). Specific localisations of the putative carrier within berry tissues together with expression changes during different developmental stages are shown. Water stress induces an increase in protein expression in both skin and pulp samples. A bromosulfalein (BSP) uptake activity, inhibitable by the BTL antibody, is detected in berry mesocarp microsomes, with K (m) = 2.39 microM BSP and V (max) = 0.29 micromol BSP min(-1) mg(-1) protein. This BSP uptake is also competitively inhibited by quercetin (K (i) = 4 microM). A putative role for this carrier is discussed in relation to the membrane transport of secondary metabolites.

  20. Effects of UV exclusion on the physiology and phenolic composition of leaves and berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Diago, María P; Monforte, Laura; Tardaguila, Javier; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces adaptive responses that can be used for plant production improvement. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of solar UV exclusion on the physiology and phenolic compounds of leaves and berry skins of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Graciano under field conditions. Phenolic compounds were analyzed globally and individually in both the vacuolar fraction and, for the first time in grapevine, the cell wall-bound fraction. These different locations may represent diverse modalities of phenolic response to and protection against UV. UV exclusion led to a decrease in Fv /Fm in leaves, revealing that solar UV is needed for adequate photoprotection. Only p-caffeoyl-tartaric acid from the soluble fraction of leaves and myricetin-3-O-glucoside from the soluble fraction of berry skins were significantly higher in the presence of UV radiation, and thus they could play a role in UV protection. Other hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, flavanols and stilbenes did not respond to UV exclusion. UV exclusion led to subtle changes in leaves and berry skins of Graciano cultivar, which would be well adapted to current UV levels. This may help support decision-making on viticultural practices modifying UV exposure of leaves and berries, which could improve grape and wine quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Comparative anatomy and morphology of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae) somatic embryos from solid- and liquid-culture-derived proembryogenic masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasankar, S; Bondada, Bhaskar R; Li, Zhijian; Gray, D J

    2003-07-01

    Ontogeny of somatic embryos of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) produced from solid- and liquid-culture-derived proembryogenic masses (PEM) was compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Somatic embryos produced from solid-medium-derived PEM (SPEM) had large cotyledons, little or no visible suspensor structure, and a relatively undeveloped concave shoot apical meristem, whereas those from liquid-medium-derived PEM (LPEM) had smaller cotyledons, a distinct suspensor, and a flat-to-convex shoot apical meristem. The convex shoot apical meristem in LPEM-derived somatic embryos formed as early as the heart stage of development; it was 4-6 cell layers deep and rich in protein. Suspensors persisted in fully developed and mature LPEM-derived somatic embryos. The SPEM-derived somatic embryos exhibited dormancy, as do mature zygotic embryos, which also have a rudimentary suspensor, whereas LPEM-derived embryos were not dormant. We hypothesize that the presence of a persistent suspensor in LPEM-derived somatic embryos modulates development, ultimately resulting in rapid germination and a high plant-regeneration rate.

  2. Evaluation of five protocols for DNA extraction from leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubakirova, K; Omasheva, M; Ryabushkina, N; Tazhibaev, T; Kampitova, G; Galiakparov, N

    2014-02-27

    Leaves of Malus sieversii, Vitis vinifera, and Armeniaca vulgaris contain substantial amounts of secondary metabolites, which limit the high-quality DNA extraction performance. In this study, five extraction protocols were compared for their ability to produce good quality DNA from fresh and dried (with silica gel) leaves of these species. The modified protocol of Dellaporta et al., using polyvinylpyrrolidone to bind the phenolic compounds and a high molar concentration of potassium acetate to inhibit co-precipitation of polysaccharides with DNA, produced the best DNA quality for all species tested. DNA extracted by this method had a 1.77-1.96 A260/280 nm ratio and successful amplification of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. DNA concentrations of dried leaves were lower than those obtained from fresh leaves, which was likely due to aspects of the drying procedure. All five methods for grapevine produced DNA of obvious better quality from green canes compared to leaves, due to the relatively low content of secondary metabolites in the former. For grapevine and apricot, three methods can be equally used to obtain DNA of good quality: the Doyle and Doyle modified method using CTAB and high concentration of NaCl, the Jobes et al. modified method, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate mini preparation method of Edwards et al. The protocol of Jobes et al. using LiCl for RNA removal showed the best results for most of the M. sieversii samples examined.

  3. Evaluation of phenolic compounds content and in vitro antioxidant activity of red wines produced from Vitis labrusca grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Braga de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in the northern Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, specifically the communes of Colombo and Almirante Tamandaré, is based mainly on the utilization of Vitis labrusca grapes var. Bordô (Ives. Total sugar content, pH, and total acidity were analyzed in red wine samples from 2007 and 2008 vintages following official methods of analysis. Moreover, total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents were analyzed by colorimetric methodologies and the antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical methodology. Phenolic compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic content of wine samples presented concentrations varying between 1582.35 and 2896.08 mg gallic acid.L-1 since the major part corresponds to flavonoid content. In these compounds' concentration range, a direct relationship between phenolic compounds content and levels of antioxidant activity was not observed. Among the identified phenolic compounds, chlorogenic, caffeic, and syringic acids were found to be the major components. Using three principal components, it was possible to explain 81.36% of total variance of the studied samples. Principal Components Analysis does not differentiate between vintages.

  4. In vitro cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay synthesize the phytoalexin nerolidol upon infection by Phaeoacremonium parasiticum

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    Georgina ESCORIAZA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated terpene synthase (TPS activity and terpene antifungal metabolites in calluses and cell suspension cultures of Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay infected with Phaecremonium parasiticum, one of the fungi associated with the grapevine diseases known as “hoja de malvón” and young vine decline. The highest TPS activity, assessed as tritiated farnesyl pyrophosphate ([1-3H]-FPP transformed into hexane-soluble radioactive products, was observed in both inoculated calluses and cell suspension cultures (CSC. When tested in inoculated cell suspension cultures the TPS activity was maximal at 8 h after [1-3H]-FPP application and then declined; this was associated with a temporary increase of the sesquiterpene nerolidol. Grape calluses produced: α-pinene, nerolidol and squalene whether or not they were inoculated with Pm. parasiticum. As fungal amount raised the relative concentration of α-pinene and nerolidol increased in respect to squalene in calluses. The TPS activity and nerolidol and α-pinene accumulation was correlated with the increase in the amount of inoculated fungus. Of the mentioned metabolites mainly squalene was identified from extracts of fungal cultures. The results suggest that the response of grapevine tissues to Pm. parasiticum is dependent on the pathogen concentration and is characterized by increasing TPS activity through de novo synthesis.

  5. Comparative Study of the Leaf Volatiles of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L. Spreng. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae

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    Radosav Palić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The first GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils hydrodistilled from dry leaves of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea enabled the identification of 338 components in total (90.4 and 91.7% of the total GC peak areas, respectively. Terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid- and carotenoid derived compounds were predominant in the two samples. Both oils were characterized by high relative percentages of α-terpineol and linalool (4.7-17.0%. Compositional data on the volatiles of the presently analyzed and some other Ericaceae taxa (literature data were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. This was done in order to determine, based on the essential oil profiles, possible mutual relationships of the taxa within the family, especially that of species from the genera Arctostaphylos and Vaccinium. Results of the chemical and statistical analyses pointed to a strong relation between the genera Vaccinium and Arctostaphylos.

  6. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin concentration and composition in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting fruit anthocyanin accumulation and composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved assigning vigor zones in two vineyard sites based upon differences in vine growth. Fruits and wines were analyzed by HPLC from designated vigor zones in 2003 and 2004. Average berry weight (grams), average dry skin weight (milligrams), degrees Brix, and pH were higher and titratable acidity (grams per liter) was lower in 2003 compared to 2004. In 2003, only the highest and lowest vigor zones had differences in berry weight, whereas there were no differences in 2004. In both years, high vigor zones had lower degrees Brix and higher titratable acidity (milligrams per liter). Accumulation of anthocyanins (milligrams per berry) was greater in 2003 compared to 2004. There was a trend for lower anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per berry) in high vigor zones in both years. In 2004 compared to 2003, there was a higher proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and lower proportions of the other four anthocyanins (delphinidin-, cyanidin-, petunidin-, and peonidin-3-O-glucosides) found in Pinot Noir. In both years, site A had proportionally higher peonidin-3-O-glucoside and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside than site B. Some of these differences may be related to the higher exposure and temperatures found in site B compared to site A and also in the low vigor zones.

  7. Effects of Bois noir on carbon assimilation, transpiration, stomatal conductance of leaves and yield of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cv. Chardonnay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeshaw, Solomon T; Murolo, Sergio; Romanazz, Gianfranco; Neri, Davide

    2012-06-01

    Bois noir (BN) is one of the main phytoplasma diseases of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). It is widespread, and can cause severe losses in European vineyards. The infective agent colonizes phloem elements and induces visible symptoms of leaf yellowing or reddening after a relatively long incubation period. As the most sensitive cultivars to BN, Chardonnay plants were grouped as healthy or symptomatic in spring, based on the records from the previous year. Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence were measured weekly from July to September in healthy plants, and in symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves from symptomatic plants. The midday relative water content (mRWC) was measured once per month. The detection of phytoplasma DNA by nested-polymerase chain reaction revealed BN infection in symptomatic leaf samples at the end of September. A significant decrease in pigment content and maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) of these symptomatic leaves was detected from July to September, although in the asymptomatic leaves of the symptomatic plants the net photosynthesis (Pn) decrease was not significant. In the leaves from the healthy plants, Pn and transpiration were relatively stable. Of note, in July, an initially healthy plant showed a strong Pn reduction that was followed by visible leaf yellowing symptoms only in August. The phytoplasma infection also stimulated significant reductions in mRWC of the symptomatic leaves, with a final large decrease in yield.

  8. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

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    Chiara Di Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases.

  9. Comparison of the triterpenoid content of berries and leaves of lingonberry Vaccinium vitis-idaea from Finland and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Pączkowski, Cezary; Koivuniemi, Heini; Huttunen, Satu

    2012-05-16

    Triterpenoid compounds extracted from fruits and leaves of lingonberry ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) collected in Finland and Poland were identified and quantitated by GC-MS/FID. The main lingonberry triterpenoid profile consisted of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, betulin, campesterol, cycloartanol, erythrodiol, fern-7-en-3β-ol, friedelin, lupeol, sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, swert-9(11)-en-3β-ol, taraxasterol, urs-12-en-29-al, uvaol, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first thorough description of triterpenoid compounds in this species. Ursolic acid was identified as a principal triterpene in lingonberry fruit. The influence of geographical origin on the level of individual triterpenoid compounds was examined, and considerable variations in triterpenoid profile between berries and leaves obtained from the two locations were observed. The most striking difference concerned the occurrence of fernenol and taraxasterol, which were found to be the major triterpenol in lingonberry leaves of Finnish and Polish origin, respectively.

  10. Cutting stems before relaxing xylem tension induces artefacts in Vitis coignetiae, as evidenced by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasa, Mayumi Y; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Miki, Naoko H; Yazaki, Kenichi; Fukuda, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    It was recently reported that cutting artefacts occur in some species when branches under tension are cut, even under water. We used non-destructive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the change in xylem water distribution at the cellular level in Vitis coignetiae standing stems before and after relaxing tension. Less than 3% of vessels were cavitated when stems under tension were cut under water at a position shorter than the maximum vessel length (MVL) from the MRI point, in three of four plants. The vessel contents remained at their original status, and cutting artefact vessel cavitation declined to <1% when stems were cut at a position farther than the MVL from the MRI point. Water infiltration into the originally cavitated vessels after cutting the stem, i.e. vessel refilling, was found in <1% of vessels independent of cutting position on three of nine plants. The results indicate that both vessel cavitation and refilling occur in xylem tissue under tension following stem cutting, but its frequency is quite small, and artefacts can be minimized altogether if the distance between the monitoring position and the cutting point is longer than the MVL. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice

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    Tao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT and total flavonoids (VTF from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG- plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced immunological liver injury (ILI in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO, and malondialdehyde (MDA content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2 in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10. Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant.

  12. Exogenous Applications of Brassinosteroids Improve Color of Red Table Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. “Redglobe” Berries

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    Alexis E. Vergara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Color and other quality parameters of “Redglobe” grape (Vitis vinifera L. berries were evaluated after treatment with brassinosteroid (BR analogs. Three BRs analogs (24-epibrassinolide, Triol, or Lactone were applied at three concentrations (0.0, 0.4, or 0.8 mg⋅L-1, at the onset of veraison. A commercial formulation (B-2000® was also applied, at a recommended rate of 0.06 mg⋅L-1. The tested BR analogs were effective improving berry color (evaluated as color index for red grapes, CIRG, increasing the levels of soluble solids and anthocyanins, and changing the types of anthocyanins present without altering other quality and yield parameters. The effects of BR analogs on color enhancement could be explained by an increase in soluble solids content and/or anthocyanin content. Treatment with 24-epibrassinolide (at 0.4 mg⋅L-1 or the commercial formulation tended to favor the production of dihydroxylated anthocyanins, which are responsible for the red and pink colors of grape berries. Results indicate that the use of BRs constitutes a potential tool in the production of table grapes. This is the first report of this enhancement effect in a productive context.

  13. An Sfp-type PPTase and associated polyketide and nonribosomal peptide synthases in Agrobacterium vitis are essential for induction of tobacco hypersensitive response and grape necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2013-07-01

    An Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase) encoding gene F-avi5813 in Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 was found to be required for the induction of a tobacco hypersensitive response (HR) and grape necrosis. Sfp-type PPTases are post-translation modification enzymes that activate acyl-carry protein (ACP) domains in polyketide synthases (PKS) and peptidyl-carrier protein (PCP) domains of nonribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS). Mutagenesis of PKS and NRPS genes in A. vitis led to the identification of a PKS gene (F-avi4330) and NRPS gene (F-avi3342) that are both required for HR and necrosis. The gene immediately downstream of F-avi4330 (F-avi4329) encoding a predicted aminotransferase was also found to be required for HR and necrosis. Regulation of F-avi4330 and F-avi3342 by quorum-sensing genes avhR, aviR, and avsR and by a lysR-type regulator, lhnR, was investigated. It was determined that F-avi4330 expression is positively regulated by avhR, aviR, and lhnR and negatively regulated by avsR. F-avi3342 was found to be positively regulated by avhR, aviR, and avsR and negatively regulated by lhnR. Our results suggest that a putative hybrid peptide-polyketide metabolite synthesized by F-avi4330 and F-avi3342 is associated with induction of tobacco HR and grape necrosis. This is the first report that demonstrates that NRPS and PKS play essential roles in conferring the unique ability of A. vitis to elicit a non-host-specific HR and host-specific necrosis.

  14. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

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    Gainza-Cortés Felipe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient

  15. Resistência induzida em frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis Labrusca e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade pós-colheita Induced resistance in fruits of 'Isabel' vine (Vitis labrusca and its effects on post-harvest quality

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    Kedma Maria Silva Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A indução de resistência tem sido apontada como alternativa sustentável para o manejo de doenças, mas pouco se sabe sobre a interferência de tais produtos na qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a produção e a maturação de frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca, oriundos de plantas tratadas com elicitores de resistência, em Natuba-PB. Os experimentos foram realizados nos períodos de setembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 (safra 1 e de fevereiro a junho de 2010 (safra 2. Foram utilizados oito tratamentos (Testemunha; Fungicida (Metiram + Piraclostrobina; Fosfito de potássio; Agro-Mós®; Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio; Fungicida + Agro-Mós®; Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e quatro repetições de 5 plantas. As aplicações foram realizadas a cada 10 dias, iniciando-se 20 dias após a poda, totalizando 12 aplicações. As coletas de frutos foram realizadas aos 45; 60;90 e 120 dias após a poda. As variáveis analisadas foram: massa dos cachos, comprimento e diâmetro dos cachos, rendimento de polpa, sólidos solúveis (SS, pH, acidez titulável (AT e relação SS/AT. O tratamento com fosfito de potássio promoveu o aumento de 24% no comprimento dos cachos, em relação à testemunha, na primeira safra. O rendimento de polpa e a relação SS/AT não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, e o teor de sólidos solúveis foi influenciado positivamente pela aplicação de fosfito de potássio, com incrementos superiores a 60%, em ambas as safras avaliadas.Induction of resistance has been identified as a sustainable alternative for disease management, but little information is known about the interference of such products in the postharvest fruit. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the production and ripening of grapes 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca from plants treated with resistance elicitors in Natuba-PB, Brazil. The experiments

  16. Cytologic Investigations on Identification of Induced Mutation Effects in Sultani Çekirdeksiz ve Kalecik Karası Grape cvs. (Vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karataş, Dilek Değİrmencİ; Kunter, Birhan

    2012-01-01

    The effects of induced mutation applied by 5 different doses of gamma irradiation (20, 25, 30, 40 ve 50 Gy) were cytologic investigated on Vitis vinifera L. cultivars, Sultani Çekirdeksiz (SÇ) ve Kalecik karası (KK). Mutant candidates were selected through the morphological observations of the mutation-induced phenotypic changes in the first (M1V1), second (M1V2) and third (M1V3) vegetations. In cytological studies, diploid cells (2n=38) were observed for both cultivars. Cells showing ploidy level other than diploidy were found only in the individual SÇ 30 Gy 34. (author) [tr

  17. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Han, Jian; Liu, Chonghuai; Kibet, Korir Nicholas; Kayesh, Emrul; Shangguan, Lingfei; Li, Xiaoying; Fang, Jinggui

    2012-03-29

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs) from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species. A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism. Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72 new potential miRNAs and 34 known but non-conserved mi

  18. Expression of Vitis amurensis VaERF20 in Arabidopsis thaliana Improves Resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000

    OpenAIRE

    Mengnan Wang; Yanxun Zhu; Rui Han; Wuchen Yin; Chunlei Guo; Zhi Li; Xiping Wang

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors play important roles in regulating immune responses in plants. In our study, we characterized a member of the ERF transcription factor family, VaERF20, from the Chinese wild Vitis genotype, V. amurensis Rupr “Shuangyou”. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that VaERF20 belongs to group IXc of the ERF family, in which many members are known to contribute to fighting pathogen infection. Consistent with this, expression of VaERF20 was induced by t...

  19. Identifikation von „Qualitäts“-Chromosomen in Vitis zur Frühdiagnose von Weinqualität

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    Im 19. Jh. wurden die heute im Weinbau wichtigsten Pathogene von Nordamerika nach Europa eingeschleppt. Zu ihrer Bekämpfung werden in der Rebenzüchtung amerikanische und asiatische Wildarten als Donoren für Resistenzen genutzt. Sie werden mit der europäischen Kulturrebe Vitis vinifera gekreuzt, um Resistenzen und hohe Qualität zu kombinieren. Die Rebenzüchtung wird erheblich durch die lange Generationsdauer, mehrere Kreuzungen mit wechselnden Qualitätssorten, sowie einer arbeitsaufwändigen Ev...

  20. Identification of microRNAs from Amur grape (vitis amurensis Rupr. by deep sequencing and analysis of microRNA variations with bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA is a class of functional non-coding small RNA with 19-25 nucleotides in length while Amur grape (Vitis amurensis Rupr. is an important wild fruit crop with the strongest cold resistance among the Vitis species, is used as an excellent breeding parent for grapevine, and has elicited growing interest in wine production. To date, there is a relatively large number of grapevine miRNAs (vv-miRNAs from cultivated grapevine varieties such as Vitis vinifera L. and hybrids of V. vinifera and V. labrusca, but there is no report on miRNAs from Vitis amurensis Rupr, a wild grapevine species. Results A small RNA library from Amur grape was constructed and Solexa technology used to perform deep sequencing of the library followed by subsequent bioinformatics analysis to identify new miRNAs. In total, 126 conserved miRNAs belonging to 27 miRNA families were identified, and 34 known but non-conserved miRNAs were also found. Significantly, 72 new potential Amur grape-specific miRNAs were discovered. The sequences of these new potential va-miRNAs were further validated through miR-RACE, and accumulation of 18 new va-miRNAs in seven tissues of grapevines confirmed by real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis. The expression levels of va-miRNAs in flowers and berries were found to be basically consistent in identity to those from deep sequenced sRNAs libraries of combined corresponding tissues. We also describe the conservation and variation of va-miRNAs using miR-SNPs and miR-LDs during plant evolution based on comparison of orthologous sequences, and further reveal that the number and sites of miR-SNP in diverse miRNA families exhibit distinct divergence. Finally, 346 target genes for the new miRNAs were predicted and they include a number of Amur grape stress tolerance genes and many genes regulating anthocyanin synthesis and sugar metabolism. Conclusions Deep sequencing of short RNAs from Amur grape flowers and berries identified 72

  1. Hepatoprotección antioxidante de la cáscara y semilla de Vitis vinifera L. (uva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sandoval

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la capacidad hepatoprotectora antioxidante, inducida por las semillas y cáscaras de la uva Vitis vinifera L., en animales de experimentación con agresión alcohólica, mediante la prueba del TBARS (sustancias reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición Alberto Guzmán Barrón, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Ratones albinos, machos, adultos y cáscaras y semillas de Vitis vinifera L. (uva. Métodos: Las cáscaras y semillas de uva fueron del valle de Cañete; se las separó manualmente, se las exprimió en gasa y fueron desecadas con aire circulante, a 40º C, por 24 horas; luego, fueron trituradas, y la mezcla de cáscaras y semillas (cas-sem fue administrada ad libitum en la dieta. Se utilizó 104 ratones albinos machos adultos, separados en grupos, a los que se administró: (A cas-sem al 20%; (B alcohol al 5%; (C cas-sem con alcohol; (D silimarina 50 mg/100 g de alimento; (E silimarina con alcohol; y, (F grupo control. Bajo anestesia con éter y mediante laparotomía, se extrajo los hígados, fueron pesados y analizados por lipoperoxidación, mediante TBARS, y se evaluó la hepatomegalia, por peso a las 24, 48 y 72 horas, y a los 4, 5 y 7 días de tratamiento. Principales medidas de resultados: Lipoperoxidación hepática y hepatomegalia. Resultados: La hepatomegalia se presentó desde las 24 horas (36,68% de incremento de masa hepática, en el grupo alcohol, y fue menor en el grupo cas-sem. La prueba TBARS fue mayor en el grupo alcohol (63,91 a 67,07 nmol/g-tejido y fue menor en el grupo cas-sem (40,85 a 47,46 nmol/g-tejido; en el grupo cas-sem con alcohol, fue 43 a 63 nmol/g-tejido y la protección se observó hasta el quinto día (44 nmol/g-tejido. Conclusiones: El cas-sem administrado en la dieta, al 20% en peso, protege al tejido hepático, hasta el quinto d

  2. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2013-12-23

    Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated concentrations of ethylene prior to the

  3. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mei-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE) film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’5’-hydroxylase (F3’5’H) pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3’-hydroxylase (F3’H) pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases. PMID:27218245

  4. Spatio-temporal relief from hypoxia and production of reactive oxygen species during bud burst in grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitha, Karlia; Konnerup, Dennis; Colmer, Timothy D; Considine, John A; Foyer, Christine H; Considine, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Plants regulate cellular oxygen partial pressures (pO2), together with reduction/oxidation (redox) state in order to manage rapid developmental transitions such as bud burst after a period of quiescence. However, our understanding of pO2 regulation in complex meristematic organs such as buds is incomplete and, in particular, lacks spatial resolution. The gradients in pO2 from the outer scales to the primary meristem complex were measured in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) buds, together with respiratory CO2 production rates and the accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, from ecodormancy through the first 72 h preceding bud burst, triggered by the transition from low to ambient temperatures. Steep internal pO2 gradients were measured in dormant buds with values as low as 2·5 kPa found in the core of the bud prior to bud burst. Respiratory CO2 production rates increased soon after the transition from low to ambient temperatures and the bud tissues gradually became oxygenated in a patterned process. Within 3 h of the transition to ambient temperatures, superoxide accumulation was observed in the cambial meristem, co-localizing with lignified cellulose associated with pro-vascular tissues. Thereafter, superoxide accumulated in other areas subtending the apical meristem complex, in the absence of significant hydrogen peroxide accumulation, except in the cambial meristem. By 72 h, the internal pO2 gradient showed a biphasic profile, where the minimum pO2 was external to the core of the bud complex. Spatial and temporal control of the tissue oxygen environment occurs within quiescent buds, and the transition from quiescence to bud burst is accompanied by a regulated relaxation of the hypoxic state and accumulation of reactive oxygen species within the developing cambium and vascular tissues of the heterotrophic grapevine buds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  5. Linkage of cold acclimation and disease resistance through plant-pathogen interaction pathway in Vitis amurensis grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiao; Zhang, Yali; Yin, Ling; Qu, Junjie; Lu, Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Low temperatures cause severe damage to none cold hardy grapevines. A preliminary survey with Solexa sequencing technology was used to analyze gene expression profiles of cold hardy Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshan-1' after cold acclimation at 4 °C for 48 h. A total of 16,750 and 18,068 putative genes were annotated for 4 °C-treated and control library, respectively. Among them, 393 genes were upregulated for at least 20-fold, while 69 genes were downregulated for at least 20-fold under the 4 °C treatment for 48 h. A subset of 101 genes from this survey was investigated further using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Genes associated with signaling events in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), including generation of calcium signals (CNGC, CMLs), jasmonic acid signal (JAZ1), oxidative burst (Rboh), and phosphorylation (FLS2, BAK, MEKK1, MKKs) cascades, were upregulated after cold acclimation. Disease resistance genes (RPM1, RPS5, RIN4, PBS1) in the process of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) were also upregulated in the current condition. Defense-related genes (WRKYs, PR1, MIN7) involved in both PTI and ETI processes were abundantly expressed after cold acclimation. Our results indicated that plant-pathogen interaction pathways were linked to the cold acclimation in V. amurensis grapevine. Other biotic- and abiotic-related genes, such as defense (protein phosphatase 2C, U-box domain proteins, NCED1, stilbene synthase), transcription (DREBs, MYBs, ERFs, ZFPs), signal transduction (kinase, calcium, and auxin signaling), transport (ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, auxin:hydrogen symporter), and various metabolism, were also abundantly expressed in the cold acclimation of V. Amurensis 'Zuoshan-1' grapevine. This study revealed a series of critical genes and pathways to delineate important biological processes affected by low temperature in 'Zuoshan-1'.

  6. Jasmonates are induced by the PAMP flg22 but not the cell death-inducing elicitor Harpin in Vitis rupestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoli; Seo, Mitsunori; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Kamiya, Yuji; Riemann, Michael; Nick, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Plants employ two layers of defence that differ with respect to cell death: pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). In our previous work, we have comparatively mapped the molecular events in a cell system derived from the wild American grape Vitis rupestris, where cell death-independent defence can be triggered by PAMP flg22, whereas the elicitor Harpin activates a cell death-related ETI-like response. Both defence responses overlapped with respect to early events, such as calcium influx, apoplastic alkalinisation, oxidative burst, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, activation of defence-related genes and accumulation of phytoalexins. However, timing and amplitude of early signals differed. In the current study, we address the role of jasmonates (JAs) as key signalling compounds in hypersensitive cell death. We find, in V. rupestris, that jasmonic acid and its bioactive conjugate jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) rapidly accumulate in response to flg22 but not in response to Harpin. However, Harpin can induce programmed cell death, whereas exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) fails to do so, although both signals induce a similar response of defence genes. Also in a second cell line from V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir', where Harpin cannot activate cell death and where flg22 fails to induce JA and JA-Ile, defence genes are activated in a similar manner. These findings indicate that the signal pathway culminating in cell death must act independently from the events culminating in the accumulation of toxic stilbenes.

  7. Rain-Shelter Cultivation Modifies Carbon Allocation in the Polyphenolic and Volatile Metabolism of Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay Grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the biosynthesis of flavonoids and volatiles in grapes, with an aim of determining whether rain-shelter application could help to improve the sensory attributes and quality of grapes. Vitis vinifera L. Chardonnay grapes, grown in the Huaizhuo basin region of northern China, were selected within two consecutive years. A rain-shelter roof was constructed using a colorless polyethylene (PE film with a light transmittance of 80%. Results showed that rain-shelter treatment did not affect the accumulation of soluble solids during grape maturation. However, the allocation of assimilated carbon in phenolic and volatile biosynthetic pathways varied significantly, leading to alterations in polyphenolic and volatile profiles. The rain-shelter cultivation enhanced the concentration of flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H pathway, but reduced the level of flavonols and flavan-3-ols via the flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H pathway. In addition, the rain-shelter cultivation significantly enhanced the synthesis of fatty acid-derived volatiles, isoprene-derived terpenoids and amino acid-derived branched-chain aliphatics, but led to a decrease in the accumulation of isoprene-derived norisoprenoids and amino acid-derived benzenoids. Principal component analysis revealed some key compounds that differentiated the grapes cultivated under open-field and rain-shelter conditions. Moreover, the effect of the rain-shelter application on the accumulation of these compounds appeared to be vintage dependent. The alteration of their profiles caused by the rain-shelter treatment was significant in the vintage that received higher rainfall, which usually took place in the first rapid growth and veraison phases.

  8. Dynamics and Reversibility of the DNA Methylation Landscape of Grapevine Plants (Vitis vinifera Stressed by In Vitro Cultivation and Thermotherapy.

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    Miroslav Baránek

    Full Text Available There is relatively little information concerning long-term alterations in DNA methylation following exposure of plants to environmental stress. As little is known about the ratio of non-heritable changes in DNA methylation and mitotically-inherited methylation changes, dynamics and reversibility of the DNA methylation states were investigated in grapevine plants (Vitis vinifera stressed by in vitro cultivation. It was observed that significant part of induced epigenetic changes could be repeatedly established by exposure to particular planting and stress conditions. However, once stress conditions were discontinued, many methylation changes gradually reverted and plants returned to epigenetic states similar to those of maternal plants. In fact, in the period of one to three years after in vitro cultivation it was difficult to distinguish the epigenetic states of somaclones and maternal plants. Forty percent of the observed epigenetic changes disappeared within a year subsequent to termination of stress conditions ending and these probably reflect changes caused by transient and reversible stress-responsive acclimation mechanisms. However, sixty percent of DNA methylation diversity remained after 1 year and probably represents mitotically-inherited epimutations. Sequencing of regions remaining variable between maternal and regenerant plants revealed that 29.3% of sequences corresponded to non-coding regions of grapevine genome. Eight sequences (19.5% corresponded to previously identified genes and the remaining ones (51.2% were annotated as "hypothetical proteins" based on their similarity to genes described in other species, including genes likely to undergo methylation changes following exposure to stress (V. vinifera gypsy-type retrotransposon Gret1, auxin-responsive transcription factor 6-like, SAM-dependent carboxyl methyltransferase.

  9. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims

  10. Fruit-localized photoreceptors increase phenolic compounds in berry skins of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Carina Verónica; Fanzone, Martín Leandro; Cortés, Leandro Emanuel; Bottini, Rubén; Lijavetzky, Diego Claudio; Ballaré, Carlos Luis; Boccalandro, Hernán Esteban

    2015-02-01

    Sunlight exposure has multiple effect on fruits, as it affects the light climate perceived by fruit photoreceptors and fruit tissue temperature. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), light exposure can have a strong effect on fruit quality and commercial value; however, the mechanisms of light action are not well understood. The role of fruit-localized photoreceptors in the control of berry quality traits was evaluated under field conditions in a commercial vineyard in Mendoza (Argentina). Characterization of the diurnal dynamics of the fruit light environment in a vertical trellis system indicated that clusters were shaded by leaves during most of the photoperiod. Supplementation of the fruit light environment from 20 days before veraison until technological harvest showed that red (R, 660 nm) and blue (B, 470 nm) light strongly increased total phenolic compound levels at harvest in the berry skins without affecting sugar content, acidity or berry size. Far-red (FR, 730 nm) and green (G, 560 nm) light supplementation had relatively small effects. The stimulation of berry phytochromes and cryptochromes favored accumulation of flavonoid and non-flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, phenolic acids and stilbenes. These results demonstrate that the chemical composition of grape berries is modulated by the light quality received by the clusters under field conditions, and that fruit photoreceptors are not saturated even in areas of high insolation and under management systems that are considered to result in a relatively high exposure of fruits to solar radiation. Therefore, manipulation of the light environment or the light sensitivity of fruits could have significant effects on critical grape quality traits. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The vacuolar channel VvALMT9 mediates malate and tartrate accumulation in berries of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angeli, Alexis; Baetz, Ulrike; Francisco, Rita; Zhang, Jingbo; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Regalado, Ana

    2013-08-01

    Vitis vinifera L. represents an economically important fruit species. Grape and wine flavour is made from a complex set of compounds. The acidity of berries is a major parameter in determining grape berry quality for wine making and fruit consumption. Despite the importance of malic and tartaric acid (TA) storage and transport for grape berry acidity, no vacuolar transporter for malate or tartrate has been identified so far. Some members of the aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) anion channel family from Arabidopsis thaliana have been shown to be involved in mediating malate fluxes across the tonoplast. Therefore, we hypothesised that a homologue of these channels could have a similar role in V. vinifera grape berries. We identified homologues of the Arabidopsis vacuolar anion channel AtALMT9 through a TBLASTX search on the V. vinifera genome database. We cloned the closest homologue of AtALMT9 from grape berry cDNA and designated it VvALMT9. The expression profile revealed that VvALMT9 is constitutively expressed in berry mesocarp tissue and that its transcription level increases during fruit maturation. Moreover, we found that VvALMT9 is targeted to the vacuolar membrane. Using patch-clamp analysis, we could show that, besides malate, VvALMT9 mediates tartrate currents which are higher than in its Arabidopsis homologue. In summary, in the present study we provide evidence that VvALMT9 is a vacuolar malate channel expressed in grape berries. Interestingly, in V. vinifera, a tartrate-producing plant, the permeability of the channel is apparently adjusted to TA.

  12. Evidence for substantial maintenance of membrane integrity and cell viability in normally developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries throughout development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Matthews, Mark; Shackel, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used as a vital stain to assay membrane integrity (cell viability) in mesocarp tissue of the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry in order to test the hypothesis that there is a substantial loss of compartmentation in these cells during ripening. This technique was also used to determine whether loss of viability was associated with symptoms of a ripening disorder known as berry shrivel. FDA fluorescence of berry cells was rapid, bright, and stable for over 1 h at room temperature. Confocal microscopy detected FDA staining through two to three intact surface cell layers (300-400 mum) of bisected berries, and showed that the fluorescence was confined to the cytoplasm, indicating the maintenance of integrity in both cytoplasmic as well as vacuolar membranes, and the presence of active cytoplasmic esterases. FDA clearly discriminated between living cells and freeze-killed cells, and exhibited little, if any, non-specific staining. Propidium iodide and DAPI, both widely used to assess cell viability, were unable to discriminate between living and freeze-killed cells, and did not specifically stain the nuclei of dead cells. For normally developing berries under field conditions there was no evidence of viability loss until about 40 d after veraison, and the majority (80%) of mesocarp cells remained viable past commercial harvest (26 degrees Brix). These results are inconsistent with current models of grape berry development which hypothesize that veraison is associated with a general loss of compartmentation in mesocarp cells. The observed viability loss was primarily in the locule area around the seeds, suggesting that a localized loss of viability and compartmentation may occur as part of normal fruit development. The cell viability of berry shrivel-affected berries was similar to that of normally developing berries until the onset of visible symptoms (i.e. shrivelling), at which time viability declined in visibly shrivelled

  13. Isolation and characterization of two hydroperoxide lyase genes from grape berries : HPL isogenes in Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Yu-Wen; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2012-07-01

    C6 compounds are the major fraction of the volatile profiles of grape berries, contributing the typical 'green' aroma to the grape and wine. Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) catalyzes the cleavage of fatty acid hydroperoxides to produce C6 compounds. Two hypothetical genes, VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 were cloned from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by these two genes both belong to subfamily of cytochrome P450 and contain typical conserved domains of HPLs, and have high identity with HPLs from other plants. Prokaryotically-expressed VvHPL1 and VvHPL2 with thioredoxin-6xHis-fusion partner were confirmed to have enzymatic activity. VvHPL1 is specific for 13-HPOD (T) producing C6 aldehydes with relatively higher activity and VvHPL2 catalyzes the cleavage of both 9- and 13-hydroperoxides producing C6 aldehydes and C9 aldehydes respectively. Analysis of real time-PCR showed that VvHPL2 was highly expressed in the leaves and the flowers of the grapes, while relatively low transcript abundance was detected in the berries, tendril and stems; VvHPL1 had high expression in all detected tissues. During grape berry development, the expression of these two isogenes presented similar trends with a rapid increase after veraison and a decrease at full-ripen stage, which roughly corresponded to the accumulation of their volatile products. These data lay an essential foundation for further study on the accumulation and control of C6 volatiles in grape berries.

  14. Brassinosteroids are involved in controlling sugar unloading in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' berries during véraison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Cheng-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-09-01

    Sugar unloading in grape berries is a crucial step in the long-distance transport of carbohydrates from grapevine leaves to berries. Brassinosteroids (BRs) mediate many physiological processes in plants including carbohydrate metabolism. Here, 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries cultivated in clay loam fields were treated with an exogenous BR (24-epibrassinolide; EBR), a BR synthesis inhibitor (brassinazole; Brz), Brz + EBR (sprayed with EBR 24 h after a Brz treatment), and deionized water (control) at the onset of véraison. The EBR treatment sharply increased the soluble sugars content in the berries, but decreased it in the skins. The EBR and Brz + EBR treatments significantly promoted the activities of both invertases (acidic and neutral) and sucrose synthase (sucrolytic) at various stages of ripening. The mRNA levels of genes encoding sucrose metabolic invertase (VvcwINV), and monosaccharide (VvHT3, 4, 5 and 6) and disaccharide (VvSUC12 and 27) transporters were increased by the EBR and/or Brz + EBR treatments. Generally, the effects of the Brz treatment on the measured targets contrasted with the effects of the EBR treatments. The EBR and Brz treatments inhibited the biosynthesis of the endogenous BRs 6-deoxocastastarone and castasterone. Both EBR and Brz + EBR treatments increased the brassinolide contents, down-regulated the expression of genes encoding BRs biosynthetic enzymes BRASSINOSTEROID-6-OXIDASE and DWARF1, (VvBR6OX1 and VvDWF1) and induced BR receptor gene BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (VvBRI1) expression in deseeded berries. Together, these results show that BRs are involved in controlling sugar unloading in grape berries during véraison. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-19

    The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of grape fruits and

  16. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed: an experimental study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppula Sushruta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6 were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic, antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and

  17. Modeling cold curing of Pierce's disease in Vitis vinifera 'Pinot Noir' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieth, J H; Meyer, M M; Yeo, K-H; Kirkpatrick, B C

    2011-12-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) of Vitis vinifera grapevines is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, a pathogen with a wide plant host range. Exposure of X. fastidiosa-infected plant tissue to cold temperatures has been shown to be effective at eliminating the pathogen from some plant hosts such as grapevines. This "cold curing" phenomenon suggests itself as a potential method for disease management and perhaps control. We investigated cold therapy of PD-affected 'Pinot Noir' and 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine. In the fall, inoculated plants and controls of each cultivar were transported to each of four field sites in California (Foresthill, McLaughlin, Hopland, and Davis) that differed in the magnitude of cold winter temperatures. A model for progression of the elimination of plant disease in relation to temperature was conceptualized to be a temperature-duration effect, where temperatures below a particular threshold kill X. fastidiosa with increasing efficacy as the temperature decreases to some value Noir and T(0) = 6°C, N(100) = 302 h, N(10) = 170 h, and K(x) = 0.41 for Cabernet Sauvignon. With the parameter estimates optimized by model calibration, the simulation model was effective at predicting cold curing in four locations during the experiment, although there were some differences between Hopland for Pinot Noir and Davis for Cabernet Sauvignon. Using historical temperature data, the model accurately predicted the known severity of PD in other grape-growing regions of California, suggesting that it may have utility in assessing the relative risk of developing PD in proposed new vineyard sites.

  18. Reduction of Platelet Aggregation From Ingestion of Oleic and Linoleic Acids Found in Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazán-Salinas, Irma Leticia; Matías-Pérez, Diana; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Laura; García-Montalvo, Iván Antonio

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of seed oils from Vitis vinifera and Arachis hypogaea in platelet aggregation. The initial hypothesis suggested that subjects who have consumed these seed oils undergo modified platelet aggregation. This study was performed using a pre-post test design, with a control group, and double blind. The effects of the consumption of grape seed and peanut oils were measured for platelet aggregation in clinical and laboratory tests in 30 healthy subjects. In addition to this group, a control group of 4 health subjects received no treatment with oils, just 500 mg oral administration acetylsalicylic acid for 7 days. Platelet aggregation was assessed by the Born turbidimetric method, using 3 different concentrations of adenosine diphosphate as agonists (2, 54; 1, 17; and 0, 58 μM). The study subjects had very similar results; both oils were shown to have a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Grape seed oil showed a decrease of 8.4 ± 1% in aggregation, compared with peanut oil, which decreased aggregation by 10.4 ± 1%. The control group, taking 500 mg OD aspirin for 7 days, showed a significant decrease in platelet aggregation, similar to that of oil ingestion. Each of the oils was analyzed for fatty acids, to determine which particular acids were presents in greater levels, which could explain the reduction in platelet aggregation. The oil found to be most abundant in grape seeds was linoleic acid (omega-6), and in peanuts, it was oleic acid (omega-9). However, in fact, both acids reduced platelet aggregation. Consumption of plant oils from grape seeds and peanuts had a lowering effect on platelet aggregation, in addition to containing a high content of unsaturated fatty acids. However, omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were not specifically responsible for the reductions mentioned above.

  19. Distribution of triterpene acids and their derivatives in organs of cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakiel, Anna; Mroczek, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    Wild berries of the genus Vaccinium have become increasingly popular in human health promotion due to their nutritional and medicinal properties. Some striking divergence of opinion about the content of triterpenoids in these plants still exists, meanwhile, this very large class of natural isoprenoids exhibits a wide range of biological activities and hence is of growing research interest. An investigation of triterpenoidal constituents from the cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) plant led to the isolation of two isomeric acids: oleanolic and ursolic and the occurrence of their derivatives in this plant was demonstrated for the first time. Free triterpene acids as well as small amounts of their bound forms (presumable glycosides and glycoside esters) occur in fruits and the vegetative part of the plant, however, in various amounts and different ratios. The total content of both acids was the highest in organs regarded as traditional herbal resources, namely fruits and leaves (1 and 0.6% of dry mass, respectively), whereas it was markedly lower in stems and rhizomes. However, the rhizomes were in turn the plant organ containing relatively the highest amount of the bound forms of both acids (0.01% of dry mass). Ursolic acid was dominant in the whole plant, but the ratio of oleanolic to ursolic acid was significantly different in individual organs, decreasing from the upper (fruits 1:2.4, leaves 1:2) to the lower (stems 1:3.5, rhizomes 1:5.2) parts of the plant. This pattern of distribution of triterpenoids in the plant may have an important physiological and ecological meaning.

  20. Comparisons of large (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) and small (Vaccinium oxycoccos L., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) cranberry in British Columbia by phytochemical determination, antioxidant potential, and metabolomic profiling with chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paula N; Turi, Christina E; Shipley, Paul R; Murch, Susan J

    2012-04-01

    There is a long history of use and modern commercial importance of large and small cranberries in North America. The central objective of the current research was to characterize and compare the chemical composition of 2 west coast small cranberry species traditionally used (Vaccinium oxycoccos L. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.) with the commercially cultivated large cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) indigenous to the east coast of North America. V. oxycoccos and V. macrocarpon contained the 5 major anthocyanins known in cranberry; however, the ratio of glycosylated peonidins to cyanidins varied, and V. vitis-idaea did not contain measurable amounts of glycosylated peonidins. Extracts of all three berries were found to contain serotonin, melatonin, and ascorbic acid. Antioxidant activity was not found to correlate with indolamine levels while anthocyanin content showed a negative correlation, and vitamin C content positively correlated. From the metabolomics profiles, 4624 compounds were found conserved across V. macrocarpon, V. oxycoccoS, and V. vitis-idaea with a total of approximately 8000-10 000 phytochemicals detected in each species. From significance analysis, it was found that 2 compounds in V. macrocarpoN, 3 in V. oxycoccos, and 5 in V. vitis-idaea were key to the characterization and differentiation of these cranberry metabolomes. Through multivariate modeling, differentiation of the species was observed, and univariate statistical analysis was employed to provide a quality assessment of the models developed for the metabolomics data. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles exhibit chemopreventive potential, antioxidant activity and induce apoptosis through mutant p53, Bcl-2 and pan cytokeratin down-regulation in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, J Grace; Narendhirakannan, R T

    2017-05-01

    Several studies suggest surface modifications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by capping agents or surface coatings could play an important role in biological systems, and site directed delivery. The present study was carried out to assess the antioxidant and apoptotic activities of the Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles in experimentally induced cancer in Swiss albino mice. 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) (single application) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (thrice a week) were applied on the dorsal area of the skin to induce skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice for 16 weeks. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized using Vitis vinifera peel and seed aqueous extracts and characterized by Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses. On topical application, peel and seed gold nanoparticles demonstrated chemopreventive potential by significantly (pgold nanoparticles treated mice. The down-regulated expression of mutant p53, Bcl-2 and the levels of pan-cytokeratins might have facilitated the process of apoptosis in the chemical carcinogenesis process. The results were supported by the histopathological evaluation which exhibited mild dysplasia and acanthosis in the skin tissues of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs treated mice. Based on the present study, the chemopreventive action of Vitis vinifera peel and seed AuNPs is probably due to its ability to stimulate the antioxidant enzymes within the cells and suppressed abnormal skin cell proliferation that occurred during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN MENGGUNAKAN RADIKAL 1,1-DIFENIL-2- PIKRILHIDRAZIL DAN PENETAPAN KANDUNGAN FENOLIK TOTAL FRAKSI ETIL ASETAT EKSTRAK ETANOL BUAH ANGGUR BALI (Vitis vinifera L.

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    Mikhael Gustandy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetat fraction of extract of Balinesse grape (Vitis vinifera L. using free radical and determine the total phenolic content. Balinesse grape was extracted with ethanol and then fractionated using ethyl acetate. Free radical scavenging activity was tested by measuring the DPPH radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method measured the concentration of phenolic content in gallic acid total equivalents using unit's mg/g. The mean IC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetat fraction of ethanolic extract of Balinesse grape was found to be 36.55 ± 0.09 µg/mL. The phenolic content was ranging from 3.23 ± 0.02 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of ethyl acetat fraction of ethanolic extract of Balinesse grape. Keywords: antioxidants, Balinesse grape (Vitis vinifera L., fraction of ethyl acetat, DPPH, total phenolic content.

  3. Expression patterns and promoter characteristics of the Vitis quinquangularis VqSTS36 gene involved in abiotic and biotic stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiangjing; Huang, Li; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Hao; Li, Zhi; Wang, Xiping

    2017-11-01

    Resveratrol is a stilbene compound that is synthesized by plants in response to biotic stress and has been linked to health benefits associated with the consumption of certain foods and food products, such as grapes and wine. The final step in the biosynthesis of resveratrol is catalyzed by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS). Here, we assessed the expression of two STS genes (VqSTS36 and VpSTS36) from the wild grape species Vitis quinquangularis (accession 'Shang-24'; powdery mildew (PM) resistant) and Vitis pseudoreticulata (accession 'Hunan-1'; PM susceptible) following infection by Uncinula necator (Schw.) Burr, the causal agent of PM disease. Some correlation was observed between the relative levels of STS36 transcript and disease resistance. We also cloned the 5' upstream sequence of both VpSTS36 and VqSTS36 and generated a series of 5' VqSTS36 promoter deletions fused to the GUS reporter gene in order to analyze expression in response to wounding, the application of exogenous stress-associated hormones, and biotic stress in tobacco leaves. The promoter was shown to be induced by the hormone salicylic acid (SA), inoculation with the fungal pathogen Erysiphe cichoracearum, and by wounding. These results suggest that VqSTS36 is regulated by biotic stresses and that it plays an important role in mediating disease resistance in grape.

  4. Factors affecting distribution and mobility of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn) in a perennial grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in the Champagne region of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopin, E.I.B.; Marin, B.; Mkoungafoko, R.; Rigaux, A.; Hopgood, M.J.; Delannoy, E.; Cances, B.; Laurain, M.

    2008-01-01

    Soil and Vitis vinifera L. (coarse and fine roots, leaves, berries) concentration and geochemical partitioning of Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in a contaminated calcareous Champagne plot to assess their mobility and transfer. Accumulation ratios in roots remained low (0.1-0.4 for Cu and Zn, <0.05 for Pb). Differences between elements resulted from vegetation uptake strategy and soil partitioning. Copper, significantly associated with the oxidisable fraction (27.8%), and Zn with the acid soluble fraction (33.3%), could be mobilised by rhizosphere acidification and oxidisation, unlike Pb, essentially contained in the reducible fraction (72.4%). Roots should not be considered as a whole since the more reactive fine roots showed higher accumulation ratios than coarse ones. More sensitive response of fine roots, lack of correlation between chemical extraction results and vegetation concentrations, and very limited translocation to aerial parts showed that fine root concentrations should be used when assessing bioavailability. - Soil Cu, Pb and Zn concentration and partitioning were combined to accumulation ratio to study the transfer of trace element from soil to Vitis vinifera L. roots and aerial parts in a contaminated vineyard plot

  5. A reliable protocol for the stable transformation of non-embryogenic cells cultures of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. and Taxus x media

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    Ascensión Martínez-Márquez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major intent of metabolic engineering in cell culture systems is to increase yields of secondary metabolites. Efficient transformation methods are a priority to successfully apply metabolic engineering to cell cultures of plants that produce bioactive or therapeutic compounds, such as Vitis vinifera and Taxus x media. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable method to transform non-embryogenic cell cultures of these species. The V. vinifera cv. Gamay/cv. Monastrell cell lines and Taxus x media were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the Gateway-compatible Agrobacterium sp. binary vector system for fast reliable DNA cloning. The Taxus x media and Vitis cell lines were maintained in culture for more than 4 and 15 months, respectively, with no loss of reporter gene expression or antibiotic resistance. The introduced genes had no discernible effect on cell growth, or led to extracellular accumulation of phytoalexin trans-Resveratrol (t-R in response to elicitation with methylated cyclodextrins (MBCD and methyl jasmonate (MeJA in the grapevine transgenic cell lines compared to the parental control. The method described herein provides an excellent tool to exploit exponentially growing genomic resources to enhance, optimize or diversify the production of bioactive compounds generated by grapevine and yew cell cultures, and offers a better understanding of many grapevine and yew biology areas.

  6. Study of Leaf Metabolome Modifications Induced by UV-C Radiations in Representative Vitis, Cissus and Cannabis Species by LC-MS Based Metabolomics and Antioxidant Assays

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    Guillaume Marti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available UV-C radiation is known to induce metabolic modifications in plants, particularly to secondary metabolite biosynthesis. To assess these modifications from a global and untargeted perspective, the effects of the UV-C radiation of the leaves of three different model plant species, Cissus antarctica Vent. (Vitaceae, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae and Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae, were evaluated by an LC-HRMS-based metabolomic approach. The approach enabled the detection of significant metabolite modifications in the three species studied. For all species, clear modifications of phenylpropanoid metabolism were detected that led to an increased level of stilbene derivatives. Interestingly, resveratrol and piceid levels were strongly induced by the UV-C treatment of C. antarctica leaves. In contrast, both flavonoids and stilbene polymers were upregulated in UV-C-treated Vitis leaves. In Cannabis, important changes in cinnamic acid amides and stilbene-related compounds were also detected. Overall, our results highlighted phytoalexin induction upon UV-C radiation. To evaluate whether UV-C stress radiation could enhance the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant activity of extracts from control and UV-C-treated leaves was measured. The results showed increased antioxidant activity in UV-C-treated V. vinifera extracts.

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 680) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA...... has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds. The Panel considers that OPCs from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds are sufficiently characterised...... conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OPCs from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark....

  8. Transcriptome analysis of genes involved in anthocyanins biosynthesis and transport in berries of black and white spine grapes (Vitis davidii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Fan, Xiucai; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Jianfu; Sun, Haisheng; Liu, Chonghuai

    2016-01-01

    The color of berry skin is an important economic trait for grape and is essentially determined by the components and content of anthocyanins. The fruit color of Chinese wild grapes is generally black, and the profile of anthocyanins in Chinese wild grapes is significantly different from that of Vitis vinifera . However, V. davidii is the only species that possesses white berry varieties among Chinese wild grape species. Thus, we performed a transcriptomic analysis to compare the difference of transcriptional level in black and white V. davidii , in order to find some key genes that are related to anthocyanins accumulation in V. davidii . The results of anthocyanins detection revealed that 3,5- O -diglucoside anthocyanins is the predominant anthocyanins in V. davidii . It showed obvious differences from V. vinifera in the profile of the composition of anthocyanins. The transcriptome sequencing by Illumina mRNA-Seq technology generated an average of 57 million 100-base pair clean reads from each sample. Differential gene expression analysis revealed thousands of differential expression genes (DEGs) in the pairwise comparison of different fruit developmental stages between and within black and white V. davidii . After the analysis of functional category enrichment and differential expression patterns of DEGs, 46 genes were selected as the candidate genes. Some genes have been reported as being related to anthocyanins accumulation, and some genes were newly found in our study as probably being related to anthocyanins accumulation. We inferred that 3AT (VIT_03s0017g00870) played an important role in anthocyanin acylation, GST4 (VIT_04s0079g00690) and AM2 (VIT_16s0050g00910) played important roles in anthocyanins transport in V. davidii . The expression of some selected DEGs was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The present study investigated the transcriptomic profiles of berry skin from black and white spine grapes at three fruit developmental

  9. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L. from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey

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    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless, 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. RESULTS: Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01. Among the cultivars investigated, 'Miskali' showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l while 'Kirmizi Kismis' produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l. The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g and fructose (15.55 g/100 g contents were provided with 'Beyaz Kismis'. 'Kirmizi Kismis' cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l, o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l, and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l, and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l contents were observed with 'Beyaz Kismis' cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g-1 from 'Inek Emcegi' in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assay. 'Hacabas' cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g. CONCLUSIONS: Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of

  10. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  11. Performance of a New Model for Predicting End of Flowering Date (bbch 69) of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    The end of flowering date (BBCH 69) is an important phenological stage for grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.), in fact up to this date the growth is focused on the plant and gradually passes on the berries through fruit set. The aim of this study is to perform a model to predict the date of the end of flowering (BBCH69) for some grapevine varieties. This research carried out using three cultivars of grapevine (Maceratino, Montepulciano, Sangiovese) in three different locations (Macerata, Morrovalle and Potenza Picena), places of an equal number of wine farms for the time interval between 2006 and 2013. In order to have reliable temperatures for each location, the data of 6 weather stations near these farms have been interpolated using cokriging methods with elevation as independent variable. The procedure to predict the end of flowering date starts with an investigation of cardinal temperatures typical of each grapevine cultivar. In fact the analysis is characterized by four temperature thresholds (cardinals): minimum activity temperature (TCmin = below this temperature there is no growth for the plant), lower optimal temperature (TLopt = above this temperature there is maximum growth), upper optimal temperature (TUopt = below this temperature there is maximum growth) and maximum activity temperature (TC max = above this temperature there is no growth). Thus this model take into consideration maximum, mean and minimum daily temperatures of each location, relating them with the four above mentioned cultivar temperature thresholds. In this way it has been obtained some possible cases (32) corresponding to as many equations, depending on the position of temperatures compared with the thresholds, in order to calculate the amount of growing degree units (GDU) for each day. Several iterative tests (about 1000 for each cultivar) have been performed, changing the values of temperature thresholds and GDU in order to find the best possible combination which minimizes error

  12. Actividades económicas primarias predominantes en la Reserva Paisajística Nor Yauyos Cochas, Perú. Caso: distritos de Huancaya, Alis y Vitis

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    Wilfredo Bulege Gutiérrez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar las actividades económicas primarias predominantes en los distritos de Huancaya, Alis y Vitis de la provincia de Yauyos, región Lima, ubicados en la zona de aprovechamiento directo de la Reserva Paisajística Nor Yauyos Cochas. Métodos: Es una investigación de tipo básica, alcance descriptiva, diseño transversal, en el proceso de recolección de datos se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra no probabilística de 79 personas con edades mayores a 18 años entre varones y mujeres de los distritos de Huancaya, Alis y Vitis, quienes participaron en un evento académico sobre “Econegocios para el desarrollo” organizado por Grupo de Proyección Social “Eco-negocios” de la Universidad Continental, este mismo instrumento se aplicó a personas ubicadas circunstancialmente en la vía pública de los mencionados distritos hasta completar el tamaño muestral de 79. Resultados: El 42% manifiesta que se dedica principalmente a la agricultura; 37%, a la ganadería; 5%, a la acuicultura; 5%, a la artesanía y un 11% a otras actividades entre las cuales se puede identificar el comercio, servicios turísticos, minería, etc. Las personas cuya actividad principal es la agricultura manifestaron que el 44% de su producción es maíz; 28%, papa; 23%, trigo y 5% otros productos. Las personas dedicadas a la ganadería manifestaron que el 41%, cría camélidos; 28%, vacunos; 14%, ovinos y un 17%, otros. Conclusiones: La población de los distritos de Huancaya, Alis y Vitis dedican como una de sus actividades económicas de mayor predominancia a la agricultura, luego la ganadería, siendo este un indicador importanteque caracteriza a estos distritos como zonas con una economía basada en actividades primarias, es decir extractiva de recursos naturales y aprovechada prioritariamente para autoconsumo y su comercialización.

  13. Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae) based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Robert K; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Alverson, Andrew J; Daniell, Henry

    2006-04-09

    The Vitaceae (grape) is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade. However, maximum likelihood analyses place

  14. Phylogenetic analyses of Vitis (Vitaceae based on complete chloroplast genome sequences: effects of taxon sampling and phylogenetic methods on resolving relationships among rosids

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    Alverson Andrew J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vitaceae (grape is an economically important family of angiosperms whose phylogenetic placement is currently unresolved. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on one to several genes have suggested several alternative placements of this family, including sister to Caryophyllales, asterids, Saxifragales, Dilleniaceae or to rest of rosids, though support for these different results has been weak. There has been a recent interest in using complete chloroplast genome sequences for resolving phylogenetic relationships among angiosperms. These studies have clarified relationships among several major lineages but they have also emphasized the importance of taxon sampling and the effects of different phylogenetic methods for obtaining accurate phylogenies. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of Vitis vinifera and used these data to assess relationships among 27 angiosperms, including nine taxa of rosids. Results The Vitis vinifera chloroplast genome is 160,928 bp in length, including a pair of inverted repeats of 26,358 bp that are separated by small and large single copy regions of 19,065 bp and 89,147 bp, respectively. The gene content and order of Vitis is identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including tobacco. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood were performed on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes for two datasets with 28 or 29 taxa, including eight or nine taxa from four of the seven currently recognized major clades of rosids. Parsimony and likelihood phylogenies of both data sets provide strong support for the placement of Vitaceae as sister to the remaining rosids. However, the position of the Myrtales and support for the monophyly of the eurosid I clade differs between the two data sets and the two methods of analysis. In parsimony analyses, the inclusion of Gossypium is necessary to obtain trees that support the monophyly of the eurosid I clade

  15. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  17. Histopathological study of response of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to bark and wood injury with and without inoculation by Phaeomoniella chlamydospora

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    Jérôme POUZOULET

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch is one of the main causal agents of tracheomycosis in grapevine. We characterize how this fungus affects the response of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon to bark and xylem-tissue wounding after six weeks post-treatment. A histological investigation shows that, in xylem tissue, cell-wall modifications in response to wounding are related to suberin deposits rather than to lignin-induced wall thickening. The xylem response does not appear to be disturbed by Pch infection. Therefore, cell-wall modification strongly inhibits the development of wound-closure tissue (WCT but does not prevent the differentiation of the necro-phylactic periderm. Hyphae localization in tissue surrounding the wound or inoculation sites indicates that Pch colonizes all cell types, such as vascular tissues, paratracheal parenchyma cells, fibers and rays. The results also suggest that efficient compartmentalization separating fascicular xylem portions is assured by thick suberized cell walls bordering the ray parenchyma.

  18. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma Del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitis vinifera L. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection with High-Resolution Melting Analysis Based on the UDP-Glucose:Flavonoid 3-O-Glucosyltransferase Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Leonor; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2015-10-21

    Vitis vinifera L. is a species with a large number of varieties, which differ in terms of anthocyanin content. The genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway have a direct effect in the anthocyanin profile of each variety, being potentially interesting for varietal identification. The current study aimed at the design of an assay suitable for the discrimination of the largest number of grapevine varieties. Two genes of the anthocyanin pathway, chalcone isomerase (CHI) and UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), were sequenced in 22 grapevine varieties. The CHI gene presented 5 SNPs within the sequence. A total of 58 SNPs and 1 INDEL were found among the UFGT gene, allowing the discrimination of 18 different genotypes within the 22 grapevine varieties. A HRM assay designed for UFGT, containing 704 bp, produced differentiated melting curves for each of the 18 haplotypes. The developed HRM assay is efficient in grapevine varietal discrimination.

  20. Molecular Characterization and Overexpression of VpRPW8s from Vitis pseudoreticulata Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongti Lai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available RPW8 genes are atypical broad-spectrum genes that provide resistance to powdery mildew, downy mildew, the cauliflower mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana, and powdery mildew in tobacco. They play important roles in basal plant pathogen defense. They also provide insights into a novel disease resistance mechanism. In this study, we report on homologous RPW8 genes in Vitis pseudoreticulata. Five VpRPW8 genes were cloned; their Open Reading Frame (ORF sequences ranged from 1994 base pairs to 2478 base pairs. They were comprised of five exons and four introns and shared 78.66% identity. Their proteins had typical conserved RPW8 and NB-LRR (the nucleotide-binding site and the leucine-rich repeats domains (except VpRPW8-d, which lacked LRR domains. Prokaryotic expression results were consistent with predicted molecular weights. All five RPW8 genes were located in the cytoplasm. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis showed that VpRPW8s in V. pseudoreticulata were induced by Plasmopara viticola, but nearly only VvRPW8-d genes were induced in Vitis vinifera. Furthermore, a VpRPW8 transgenic tobacco system was established. Overexpressed VpRPW8s enhanced resistance to Phytophthora capsici and VpRPW8s conferred varying degrees of resistance to Ph. capsici in Nicotiana benthamiana. Our study presents novel members of the plant RPW8 family and suggests that VpRPW8s are involved in enhanced resistance to P. viticola and Ph. capsici.

  1. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  2. Morphology and Hydraulic Architecture of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah and Torrontés Riojano Plants Are Unaffected by Variations in Red to Far-Red Ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Verónica González

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1, whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1.1 are sensed in the presence of plant shade or neighboring plants, respectively. Grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. To date, studies on grapevine response to light focused on different Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR levels; however, limited data exist about its response to light quality. In this study we aimed to investigate morphological, biochemical, and hydraulic responses of Vitis vinifera to variations in R:FR. Therefore, we irradiated Syrah and Torrontés Riojano plants, grown in a glasshouse, with lateral FR light (low lateral R:FR treatment, while others, that were kept as controls, were not irradiated (ambient lateral R:FR treatment. In response to the low lateral R:FR treatment, grapevine plants did not display any of the SAS morphological markers (i.e. stem length, petiole length and angle, number of lateral shoots in any of the cultivars assessed, despite an increase in gibberelins and auxin concentrations in leaf tissues. Low lateral R:FR did not affect dry matter partitioning, water-related traits (stomata density and index, wood anatomy, or water-related physiology (plant conductance, transpiration rate, stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance. None of the Vitis vinifera varieties assessed displayed the classical morphological and hydraulic responses associated to SAS induced by phytochromes. We discuss these results in the context of natural grapevine environment and

  3. Phenolic compounds and properties of antioxidants in grapevine roots (Vitis vinifera L. under low-temperature stress followed by recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has been performed on roots of Vitis vinifera, cv. Himrod, obtained from seedlings grown under chill stress conditions (+10oC in the day and +7oC at night, under optimum conditions (+25oC in the day and +18oC at night and from seedling which underwent a recover period after the chill stress treatment. The purpose of the study has been to determine quantitative and qualitative changes in phenolic compounds as well as to demonstrate changes in antiradical properties of extracts from grapevine roots, which appeared as a result of chill stress and during recovery under the optimum conditions following the stress. Phenolic compounds from grapevine roots were extracted using 80% acetone. The total content of phenolics was determined by colorimetry. The content of tannins was tested by precipitation with bovine serum albumin. The reducing power as well as DPPH• free radical and ABTS+• cation radical scavenging activity of the extracts were also tested. In order to identify phenolic compounds present in the extracts the RP-HPLC technique was employed. The tested material was found to contain tannins and three identified phenolic acids: ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric ones. The latter occurred in the highest concentrations (from 4.46 to 6.28 µg/g fresh matter. Ferulic acid appeared in smaller amounts (from 1.68 to 2.65 µg/g fresh matter, followed by caffeic acid (from 0.87 to 1.55 µg/g fresh matter. Significantly less total phenolic compounds occurred in roots of seedlings subjected to chill stress. However, the total content of these compounds increased significantly in roots of plants which underwent recovery after chill stress. Concentration of tannins was determined by two methods. The content of condensed tannins was depressed in roots as a result of low temperature stress, whereas the content of condensed and hydrolysing tannins (determined via the BSA method rose under chill stress conditions. A significant increase in tannins

  4. Variability in the content of trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin in grape cane of seven Vitis vinifera L. varieties during a three-year study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Balík, J.; Soural, I.; Sotolář, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 928. ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : stilbenes * Vitis vinifera L * grape cane * Moravian wine region Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  5. Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Gang Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs are fundamental nutritional metabolites in different types of grape products consumed by human beings. Although the biosynthesis of PAs in berry of Vitis vinifera has gained intensive investigations, the understanding of PAs in other Vitis species is limited. In this study, we report PA formation and characterization of gene expression involved in PA biosynthesis in leaves of V. bellula, a wild edible grape species native to south and south-west China. Leaves are collected at five developmental stages defined by sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 cm in length. Analyses of thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD show the formation of (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, (+-gallocatechin and (−-epigallocatechin during the entire development of leaves. Analyses of butanol-HCl boiling cleavage coupled with spectrometry measurement at 550 nm show a temporal trend of extractable PA levels, which is characterized by an increase from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm long leaves followed by a decrease in late stages. TLC and HPLC-PAD analyses identify cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin produced from the cleavage of PAs in the butanol-HCl boiling, showing that the foliage PAs of V. bellula include three different types of extension units. Four cDNAs, which encode VbANR, VbDFR, VbLAR1 and VbLAR2, respectively, are cloned from young leaves. The expression patterns of VbANR and VbLAR2 but not VbLAR1 and VbDFR follow a similar trend as the accumulation patterns of PAs. Two cDNAs encoding VbMYBPA1 and VbMYB5a, the homologs of which have been demonstrated to regulate the expression of both ANR and LAR in V. vinifera, are also cloned and their expression profiles are similar to those of VbANR and VbLAR2. In contrast, the expression profiles of MYBA1 and 2 homologs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis are different from those of VbANR and VbLAR2. Our data show that both ANR and LAR branches are

  6. Transcriptome analysis at four developmental stages of grape berry (Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) provides insights into regulated and coordinated gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitis vinifera berry development is characterised by an initial phase where the fruit is small, hard and acidic, followed by a lag phase known as veraison. In the final phase, berries become larger, softer and sweeter and accumulate an array of organoleptic compounds. Since the physiological and biochemical makeup of grape berries at harvest has a profound impact on the characteristics of wine, there is great interest in characterising the molecular and biophysical changes that occur from flowering through veraison and ripening, including the coordination and temporal regulation of metabolic gene pathways. Advances in deep-sequencing technologies, combined with the availability of increasingly accurate V. vinifera genomic and transcriptomic data, have enabled us to carry out RNA-transcript expression analysis on a global scale at key points during berry development. Results A total of 162 million 100-base pair reads were generated from pooled Vitis vinifera (cv. Shiraz) berries sampled at 3-weeks post-anthesis, 10- and 11-weeks post-anthesis (corresponding to early and late veraison) and at 17-weeks post-anthesis (harvest). Mapping reads from each developmental stage (36-45 million) onto the NCBI RefSeq transcriptome of 23,720 V. vinifera mRNAs revealed that at least 75% of these transcripts were detected in each sample. RNA-Seq analysis uncovered 4,185 transcripts that were significantly upregulated at a single developmental stage, including 161 transcription factors. Clustering transcripts according to distinct patterns of transcription revealed coordination in metabolic pathways such as organic acid, stilbene and terpenoid metabolism. From the phenylpropanoid/stilbene biosynthetic pathway at least 46 transcripts were upregulated in ripe berries when compared to veraison and immature berries, and 12 terpene synthases were predominantly detected only in a single sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate the expression pattern of 12

  7. Characterization of Flavan-3-ols and Expression of MYB and Late Pathway Genes Involved in Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis in Foliage of Vitis bellula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Peng, Qing-Zhong; Du, Ci; Li, Ke-Gang; Xie, De-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are fundamental nutritional metabolites in different types of grape products consumed by human beings. Although the biosynthesis of PAs in berry of Vitis vinifera has gained intensive investigations, the understanding of PAs in other Vitis species is limited. In this study, we report PA formation and characterization of gene expression involved in PA biosynthesis in leaves of V. bellula, a wild edible grape species native to south and south-west China. Leaves are collected at five developmental stages defined by sizes ranging from 0.5 to 5 cm in length. Analyses of thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) show the formation of (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin and (−)-epigallocatechin during the entire development of leaves. Analyses of butanol-HCl boiling cleavage coupled with spectrometry measurement at 550 nm show a temporal trend of extractable PA levels, which is characterized by an increase from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm long leaves followed by a decrease in late stages. TLC and HPLC-PAD analyses identify cyanidin, delphinidin and pelargonidin produced from the cleavage of PAs in the butanol-HCl boiling, showing that the foliage PAs of V. bellula include three different types of extension units. Four cDNAs, which encode VbANR, VbDFR, VbLAR1 and VbLAR2, respectively, are cloned from young leaves. The expression patterns of VbANR and VbLAR2 but not VbLAR1 and VbDFR follow a similar trend as the accumulation patterns of PAs. Two cDNAs encoding VbMYBPA1 and VbMYB5a, the homologs of which have been demonstrated to regulate the expression of both ANR and LAR in V. vinifera, are also cloned and their expression profiles are similar to those of VbANR and VbLAR2. In contrast, the expression profiles of MYBA1 and 2 homologs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis are different from those of VbANR and VbLAR2. Our data show that both ANR and LAR branches are involved in

  8. George C. Marshalli Keskuse NATO ja Euroopa kaitsepoliitika uuringute professori hr. Richard Cohen'i ettekanne / Richard Cohen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cohen, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Proceedings of the 8th International conference Estonia and the European Union : Estonia on its way to a changing Europe : October 31-November 2, 2001. - Tallinn, lk. 93-97. Parlament on kõige parem töövahend tegelemaks küsimustega, mis on seotud Euroopa julgeoleku- ja kaitsepoliitikaga laiemas mõttes

  9. Eesti majandus ja rahvuslik julgeolek : ettekanne teaduskonverentsil "Eesti püsimajäämine" / Juhan Sillaste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sillaste, Juhan, 1943-

    1994-01-01

    Diagrammid: Majandusarengu jooned Eestis (juuli 1992-oktoober 1993). Sisemajanduse koguprodukt 1980-1994; Kuhu kulus ja kust tuli raha Eesti perele 1992 ja 1993.a.? Elukallidus ja palgad 1990-93; Palga ostujõud (mõõdetud Big-Mac-indeksiga)

  10. Chemical composition and sensory properties of non-wooded and wooded Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) wine as affected by vineyard row orientation and grape ripeness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jacobus J; Volschenk, Cornelis G

    2018-05-01

    The study aimed to unravel vineyard row orientation (NS, EW, NE-SW, NW-SE) and grape ripeness level (23, 25, 27 °Balling) implications for grape and wine composition and sensory properties/style (non-wooded/wooded wines) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz (rootstock 101-14 Mgt). Soluble solid/titratable acidity ratios were lowest for EW, whereas warmer canopy sides (NW, N, NE) advanced grape ripening. Skin anthocyanins and phenolics generally decreased with ripening. NW-SE rows and S, SE, E and NE canopy sides showed highest skin total anthocyanins and phenolics. Wine total anthocyanins and phenolics increased with grape ripening; EW had lower values. Wine phenolic contents differed between canopy sides; N, NE, E and SE tended higher. Wine sensory profiles increased with grape ripening. For non-wooded wines, NW-SE and NE-SW row orientations generally resulted in highest scores, followed by NS. For EW rows, the N side presented better wines. Wood addition enhanced specific sensory descriptor perceptions. A large collection of wine styles surfaced in the same vineyard and terroir, increasing options to contribute positively to sustainable products. The study generated globally applicable, novel information vital for unlocking and valorising terroir/site potential for grape and wine chemical composition and wine sensory/style properties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Parámetros biológicos y poblacionales de Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae sobre dos cultivares de Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA. F. GONZALEZ LUNA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La cochinilla harinosa Planococcus ficus Signoret causa severos da- ños en viñedos argentinos. El objetivo de este trabajo es comparar los parámetros biológicos y poblacionales de P. ficus sobre los cultivares de Vitis vinifera Chardon- nay y Malbec, así como evaluar el efecto de las temperatura sobre tales parámet- ros y obtener las respectivas curvas estimadas de crecimiento poblacional. Con temperaturas constantes de 15, 25 y 37 °C, 46 % de H.R. y fotoperíodo de 16:8 h (Luz: Oscuridad, diariamente se registraron el número de individuos de cada estadio, la ecdisis y la descendencia. A 25 °C, el período ninfal fue similar en am- bos cultivares. La fecundidad, la tasa intrínseca de incremento natural ( r m , la tasa finita de incremento ( λ y la tasa neta de reproducción ( R 0 sobre Malbec fueron superiores a Chardonnay. El tiempo generacional ( T y el tiempo de duplicación ( D fueron menores en Malbec. A 15 °C las cochinillas criadas sobre Malbec lograron reproducirse, no se obtuvieron diferencias significativas en los cultivares ensaya- dos. No se verificó el cumplimiento del ciclo completo a 37 °C. Se demostró que la capacidad reproductiva de P. ficus fue mayor sobre Malbec.

  12. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldina Castro Sousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82, moisture (3.33g/100g, acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g, and ash (4.65 g/100g. The amount of total dietary fiber (46.17g/100g stood out quantitatively compared to the content of carbohydrate (29.2g/100 g, protein (8.49g/100g, and lipids (8.16g/100g. The total energy was 224Kcal/100g. With regard to the compounds with functional properties, higher values of insoluble fiber 79% (36.4 g/100 g; vitamin C (26.25 mg of acid ascorbic/100g, and anthocyanins (131mg/100g were found. The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations. There were no significant copper values. The results showed that the grape residues are an important source of nutrients and compounds with functional properties suggesting that they can be incorporated as an ingredient in the diet and/or used as a dietary supplement aiming at health benefits. The residues did not show microbiological contamination and were considered nontoxic.

  13. Effect of Rain-Shelter Cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the Phenolic Profile of Berry Skins and the Incidence of Grape Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fei Xu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of “Cabernet Gernischet” grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  14. Protein identification and quantification from riverbank grape, Vitis riparia: Comparing SDS-PAGE and FASP-GPF techniques for shotgun proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Iniga S; Fennell, Anne Y; Haynes, Paul A

    2015-09-01

    Protein sample preparation optimisation is critical for establishing reproducible high throughput proteomic analysis. In this study, two different fractionation sample preparation techniques (in-gel digestion and in-solution digestion) for shotgun proteomics were used to quantitatively compare proteins identified in Vitis riparia leaf samples. The total number of proteins and peptides identified were compared between filter aided sample preparation (FASP) coupled with gas phase fractionation (GPF) and SDS-PAGE methods. There was a 24% increase in the total number of reproducibly identified proteins when FASP-GPF was used. FASP-GPF is more reproducible, less expensive and a better method than SDS-PAGE for shotgun proteomics of grapevine samples as it significantly increases protein identification across biological replicates. Total peptide and protein information from the two fractionation techniques is available in PRIDE with the identifier PXD001399 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001399). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Foliar applications of iron promote flavonoids accumulation in grape berry of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot grown in the iron deficiency soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Song, Changzheng; Chen, Haiju; Duan, Bingbing; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei

    2018-07-01

    Flavonoids are important compounds for grape and wine quality. Foliar fertilization with iron compounds has been reported to have a substantial impact on grape composition in the grapevines growing in calcareous soil. However, much less is known about its real impact on flavonoid composition. In the present study, Ferric ethylenediamine di (O-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) was foliar applied to Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines growing in calcareous soil over two consecutive vintages in order to study its effect on grape flavonoid composition. Fe-EDDHA foliar supply tended to increase grape sugar, anthocyanin and flavonol content, decrease acid content and enhance the juice pH when compared to the control. Principal component analysis showed that the vintage also had influence on grape quality. The results suggested that Fe-EDDHA foliar application had an enhancement effect on grape secondary metabolism, and the effect increased the nutritional value of the consequent grapes and wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in either gluconeogenesis or other processes in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Moscatello, Stefano; Ferradini, Nicoletta; Gardi, Tiziano; Battistelli, Alberto; Walker, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    It is uncertain whether the enzymes pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) or isocitrate lyase (ICL) are present in the pericarp of grape, in which they could function in gluconeogenesis. The occurrence of these and other enzymes was investigated in the pericarp of three cultivars of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In particular, the abundance of the enzymes aldolase, glutamine synthase (GS), acid invertase, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), PPDK and ICL were determined during the development of the pericarp of the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Zibibbo. PPDK and ICL were not detected at any stage of development. Each of the other enzymes showed different changes in abundance during development. However, for a given enzyme its changes in abundance were similar in each cultivar. In the ripe pericarp of Cabernet Sauvignon, PEPC, cytosolic GS and aldolase were equally distributed between the vasculature and parenchyma cells of the flesh and skin. The absence or very low abundance of PPDK provides strong evidence that any gluconeogenesis from malate utilises phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The absence or very low abundance of ICL in the pericarp precludes any gluconeogenesis from ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel green synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell recyclable nanoparticles using Vitis vinifera stem extract and its enhanced antibacterial performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prathima, B. [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anitha, K. [Department of Chemistry, S.K. University, Anantapur-515003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Jyothi, N.V.V., E-mail: nvvjyothi01@gmail.com [Analytical and inorganic Division of Chemistry, S.V. University, Tirupati-517502, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2015-01-15

    We described a novel and eco-friendly method for preparing Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag core shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with high magnetism and potent antibacterial activity. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs were obtained using waste material of Vitis vinifera (grape) stem extract as the green solvent, reducing and capping agent. The result recorded from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectrum, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) supports the biosynthesis and characterization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the size of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag nanoparticles was measured below 50 nm; high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) indicates the core shell structure; and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) has revealed polycrystalline nature. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows the ferromagnetic nature of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 15.74 emu/g. Further, these biogenic nanoparticles were highly hazardous to microorganisms. The antibacterial activity of biogenic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Ag CSNPs showed potent inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. These nanoparticles may also be reusable because of its excellent ferromagnetic property.

  18. Effect of rain-shelter cultivation of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet on the phenolic profile of berry skins and the incidence of grape diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Ning, Peng-Fei; Xu, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2012-12-27

    Rain-shelter cultivation is an effective cultural method to prevent rainfall damage during grape harvest and widely applied in the Chinese rainy regions. In this study we investigated the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on grape diseases and phenolic composition in the skins of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet grape berries through the comparison with open-field cultivation at two vintages (2010 and 2011). The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation reduced the incidence of grape diseases significantly and delayed the maturation of Cabernet Gernischet fruits. With regards to most of the phenolic compounds identified in this study, their content in grape samples under rain-shelter cultivation was decreased compared to those under open-field cultivation. However, rain-shelter cultivation stimulated the accumulation of dihydroquercetin-3-O-rhamnoside in grape skins during grape maturation. These were related with micrometeorological alterations in vineyards by using plastic covering under rain-shelter cultivation. It suggests the rain-shelter cultivation makes possible the cultivation of "Cabernet Gernischet" grapes in an organic production system, for providing a decrease in the incidence of diseases and the dependence on chemical pesticides in the grape and wine industry.

  19. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  20. Influence of processing and storage of integral grape juice (Vitis labrusca L.) on its physical and chemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsman, E; Almeida, I V; Pinto, E P; Lucchetta, L; Vicentini, V E P

    2017-05-31

    Integral grape juice is extracted from the grape through processes that allow the retention of their natural composition. However, due to the severity of some processes, fruit juices can undergo changes in their quality. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of integral grape juice by a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro. Vitis labrusca L. (variety Concord) were produced organically and by a conventional system, and their juice was extracted by a hot extraction process. The organic grapes were subjected to ultraviolet-type C radiation (UV-C). Experiments were performed after production and after 6 months in storage. Physicochemical analyses revealed that UV-C irradiation of organic grapes, the juice production process, and storage resulted in nutraceutical alterations. However, none of the juice concentrations were cytotoxic to HTC cells by the cytokinesis-blocked proliferation index results or were mutagenic, because the formation of micronucleated cells was not induced. In general, juice induced cell proliferation, possibly due to the presence of vitamins and sugar content (total soluble solid). The data increased the understanding of food technology and confirmed the quality and safety consumption of these juices.

  1. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an Emulsion-Forming Arabinogalactan Gum from the Stems of Native North American Grape Species Vitis riparia Michx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Neil P J; Vermillion, Karl E; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-08-19

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of l-arabinofuranose (l-Araf, 55.2%) and d-galactopyranose (d-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of d-xylose (11.2%), d-mannose (3.5%), and glucuronic acid (GlcA, ∼2%), the latter linked via a galactosyl residue. Permethylation identified 3-linked Galp residues, some substituted at the 2-position with Galp or Manp, terminal Araf and Xylp, and an internal 3-substituted Araf. NMR (HSQC, TOCSY, HMBC, DOSY) identified βGalp and three αAraf spin systems, in an Araf-α1,3-Araf-α1,2-Araf-α1,2-Galp structural motif. Diffusion-ordered NMR showed that the FGP has a molecular weight of 1-10 MDa. Unlike gum arabic, the FGP does not contain a hydroxyproline-rich protein (HPRP). FGP forms stable gels at >15% w/v and at 1-12% solutions are viscous and are excellent emulsifiers of flavoring oils (grapefruit, clove, and lemongrass), giving stable emulsions for ≥72 h. Lower concentrations (0.1% w/v) were less viscous, yet still gave stable grapefruit oil/water emulsions. Hence, FGP is a β1,3-linked arabinogalactan with potential as a gum arabic replacement in the food and beverage industries.

  2. Berry ripening, pre-processing and thermal treatments affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Giuseppe; Tosetti, Roberta; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-30

    Grape juice is an important dietary source of health-promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre-processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated, considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red-skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 min) juices were produced using a water bath. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre-processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol content in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Assessment of (poly)phenols in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) stems by using food/pharma industry compatible solvents and Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Perles, R; Teixeira, A I; Rosa, E; Barros, A I

    2014-12-01

    A Box-Behnken design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted to analyse the effect of time (10-30 min), temperature (25-95°C), and solvents concentration (5-90%) on the extraction of total phenolics, flavonoids, ortho-diphenols, and anthocyanins as well as to assess the ABTS(+) scavenging capacity, which were considered as response variables. Values coefficients of determination (R(2)), ranging from 0.903 to 0.996, fitted for describing efficient extraction of bioactive (poly)phenols and antioxidant activity. The recorded data allowed to establish the optimal extraction conditions at 23.0 min, 95.0°C, and 57.9% of food-quality ethanol/water for Vitis vinifera L. var. 'Viosinho' (white variety), and 23.4 min, 84.2°C, and 63.8% for var. 'Touriga Nacional' (red variety). The achievement of optimal extraction conditions of phenolics from grape stems using solvents compatible with further uses in food/pharma industries demonstrated that RSM constitutes a powerful tool for deriving optimal conditions for extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from grape stems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Malbec grape (Vitis vinifera L.) responses to the environment: Berry phenolics as influenced by solar UV-B, water deficit and sprayed abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Berli, Federico J; Fontana, Ariel; Piccoli, Patricia; Bottini, Rubén

    2016-12-01

    High-altitude vineyards receive elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) levels so producing high quality berries for winemaking because of induction in the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Water deficit (D) after veraison, is a commonly used tool to regulate berry polyphenols concentration in red wine cultivars. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in the acclimation to environmental factors/signals (including UV-B and D). The aim of the present study was to evaluate independent and interactive effects of high-altitude solar UV-B, moderate water deficit and ABA applications on Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec berries. The experiment was conducted during two growing seasons with two treatments of UV-B (+UV-B and -UV-B), watering (+D and -D) and ABA (+ABA and -ABA), in a factorial design. Berry fresh weight, sugar content, fruit yield, phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant capacity (ORAC) were analyzed at harvest. Previous incidence of high UV-B prevented deleterious effects of water deficit, i.e. berry weight reduction and diminution of sugar accumulation. High UV-B increased total phenols (mainly astilbin, quercetin and kaempferol) and ORAC, irrespectively of the combination with other factors. Fruit yield was reduced by combining water deficit and high UV-B or water deficit and ABA. Two applications of ABA were enough to induced biochemical changes increasing total anthocyanins, especially those with higher antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding the Constitutive and Induced Biosynthesis of Mono- and Sesquiterpenes in Grapes (Vitis vinifera): A Key to Unlocking the Biochemical Secrets of Unique Grape Aroma Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wilfried; Wüst, Matthias

    2015-12-16

    The present review integrates current knowledge on mono- and sesquiterpenes in grapes with a special focus on biochemical and physiological aspects. Recent research has impressively shown the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine (Vitis sp). The 69 putatively functional mono- and sesquiterpene synthases that were identified by the analysis of the updated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome deliver the scaffolds for structural diversity and display a surprising expansion of the terpene synthase (TPS) gene family in grapevine when compared to other plants like Arabidopsis thaliana (32 TPS). While monoterpenes occur as highly functionalized compounds and are stored as their corresponding glycoconjugates in berry tissues, sesquiterpenes are mainly present as unsaturated hydrocarbons and accumulate in the epicuticular wax layer of intact berries. Interestingly, both groups of terpenes appear to be involved as volatile organic compounds in plant defense and their biosynthesis is enhanced via the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. These novel aspects will help to understand how environmental cues affect the genes and enzymes of various metabolic pathways of relevant wine aroma compounds with numerous links to enology and wine flavor chemistry.

  6. Diversidad genética de levaduras aisladas a partir de uvas de Vitis vinifera ssp. Sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi en el área Euroasiática

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    Cordero-Bueso Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis vinifera L. ssp. Sylvestris(Gmelin Hegi is recognized as the dioecious parental generation of today's cultivars. Climatic change and the arrival in Europe of pathogens and pests have led it to be included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 1997. At best of our knowledge, no studies on microbial populations of grape-berry surfaces have been done. The present work has been focused on the study of yeast occurrence and diversity on grape-berries collected from wild vines. Final outputs have allowed: ito obtain precise information about yeast communities; ii to provide an objective framework for the classification of the broadest range of species according to their extinction risk; iii to select attractive yeast strains for their biotechnological potential, offering new opportunities to winemakers. Sampling plan was performed in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Italy, Romania and Spain. In all, 3180 yeast colonies were isolated and identified as belonging to 50 species, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by 26S rDNA D1/D2 domains and ITS region sequencing. Isolates of S. cerevisiaewere also analysed by SSR-PCR obtaining 163 different genotypes. This study highlights the biodiversity potential of pristine environments that still represent a fascinating source to face common problems in winemaking.

  7. Acute consumption of organic and conventional tropical grape juices (Vitis labrusca L.) increases antioxidants in plasma and erythrocytes, but not glucose and uric acid levels, in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive polyphenols in grapes are influenced by grape variety and cultivation conditions. The Vitis labrusca L. varieties are cultivated in tropical regions and used for grape juice production. We hypothesized that polyphenols from tropical grape juices would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the effects of acute consumption of organic and conventional grape juices from V labrusca L. on antioxidants biomarkers were investigated in healthy individuals. In a controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 24 individuals were assigned to drink 400 mL of conventional juice, organic juice, or water. Each intervention was followed by a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were obtained before and 1 hour after acute intake and analyzed for erythrocyte reduced glutathione, serum total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes, and glucose and uric acid in serum. The ingestion of both grape juices resulted in elevated levels of reduced glutathione (Pgrape juices (PGrape juice polyphenols were associated with increased antioxidants, and the chemical differences between organic and conventional juices were not predictive of the observed responses. The results suggest a bioactive potential of V labrusca L. juices to improve redox homeostasis, which is involved in defense against oxidative stress in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stabilization of erythrocytes against oxidative and hypotonic stress by tannins isolated from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchowik, Ewa; Lotkowski, Karol; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Abdullajanova, Nodira; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Erythrocytes are constantly exposed to ROS due to their function in the organism. High tension of oxygen, presence of hemoglobin iron and high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane make erythrocytes especially susceptible to oxidative stress. A comparison of the antioxidant activities of polyphenol-rich plant extracts containing hydrolysable tannins from sumac leaves (Rhus typhina L.) and condensed tannins from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera L.) showed that at the 5-50 μg/ml concentration range they reduced to the same extent hemolysis and glutathione, lipid and hemoglobin oxidation induced by erythrocyte treatment with 400 μM ONOO(-) or 1 mM HClO. However, extract (condensed tannins) from grape seeds in comparison with extract (hydrolysable tannins) from sumac leaves stabilized erythrocytes in hypotonic NaCl solutions weakly. Our data indicate that both hydrolysable and condensed tannins significantly decrease the fluidity of the surface of erythrocyte membranes but the effect of hydrolysable ones was more profound. In conclusion, our results indicate that extracts from sumac leaves (hydrolysable tannins) and grape seeds (condensed tannins) are very effective protectors against oxidative damage in erythrocytes.

  9. Expression of Vitis amurensis VaERF20 in Arabidopsis thaliana Improves Resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhu, Yanxun; Han, Rui; Yin, Wuchen; Guo, Chunlei; Li, Zhi; Wang, Xiping

    2018-03-01

    Ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors play important roles in regulating immune responses in plants. In our study, we characterized a member of the ERF transcription factor family, VaERF20 , from the Chinese wild Vitis genotype, V. amurensis Rupr "Shuangyou". Phylogenetic analysis indicated that VaERF20 belongs to group IXc of the ERF family, in which many members are known to contribute to fighting pathogen infection. Consistent with this, expression of VaERF20 was induced by treatment with the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea ) in "Shuangyou" and V. vinifera "Red Globe". Arabidopsis thaliana plants over-expressing VaERF20 displayed enhanced resistance to B. cinerea and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato ( Pst ) DC3000. Patterns of pathogen-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were entirely distinct in B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 inoculated plants. Examples of both salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) responsive defense genes were up-regulated after B. cinerea and Pst DC3000 inoculation of the VaERF20 -overexpressing transgenic A. thaliana plants. Evidence of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), callose accumulation and stomatal defense, together with increased expression of PTI genes, was also greater in the transgenic lines. These data indicate that VaERF20 participates in various signal transduction pathways and acts as an inducer of immune responses.

  10. Analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) thaumatin-like protein (TLP) gene family and demonstration that TLP29 contributes to disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoxiao; Qiao, Hengbo; Zhang, Xiuming; Guo, Chunlei; Wang, Mengnan; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2017-06-27

    Thaumatin-like protein (TLP) is present as a large family in plants, and individual members play different roles in various responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we studied the role of 33 putative grape (Vitis vinifera L.) TLP genes (VvTLP) in grape disease resistance. Heat maps analysis compared the expression profiles of 33 genes in disease resistant and susceptible grape species infected with anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) or Botrytis cinerea. Among these 33 genes, the expression level of TLP29 increased following the three pathogens inoculations, and its homolog from the disease resistant Chinese wild grape V. quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', was focused for functional studies. Over-expression of TLP29 from grape 'Shang-24' (VqTLP29) in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced its resistance to powdery mildew and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but decreased resistance to B. cinerea. Moreover, the stomatal closure immunity response to pathogen associated molecular patterns was strengthened in the transgenic lines. A comparison of the expression profiles of various resistance-related genes after infection with different pathogens indicated that VqTLP29 may be involved in the salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling pathways.

  11. Expression of Vitis amurensis VaERF20 in Arabidopsis thaliana Improves Resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factors play important roles in regulating immune responses in plants. In our study, we characterized a member of the ERF transcription factor family, VaERF20, from the Chinese wild Vitis genotype, V. amurensis Rupr “Shuangyou”. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that VaERF20 belongs to group IXc of the ERF family, in which many members are known to contribute to fighting pathogen infection. Consistent with this, expression of VaERF20 was induced by treatment with the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea in “Shuangyou” and V. vinifera “Red Globe”. Arabidopsis thaliana plants over-expressing VaERF20 displayed enhanced resistance to B. cinerea and the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000. Patterns of pathogen-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation were entirely distinct in B. cinerea and PstDC3000 inoculated plants. Examples of both salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET responsive defense genes were up-regulated after B. cinerea and PstDC3000 inoculation of the VaERF20-overexpressing transgenic A. thaliana plants. Evidence of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI, callose accumulation and stomatal defense, together with increased expression of PTI genes, was also greater in the transgenic lines. These data indicate that VaERF20 participates in various signal transduction pathways and acts as an inducer of immune responses.

  12. Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues.

  13. Characterization of a bifunctional O- and N-glucosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera in glucosylating phenolic compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline in Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Zhi-Sheng Xu

    Full Text Available 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 3-methylcatechol, phenol, hydroquinone, catechol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline are present in the environment and are risky to humans and animals because of their wide applications in many industries. In this study, a putative uridine diphosphate glucose-dependent glycosyltransferase from Vitis vinifera (VvUGT72B1 displayed high O-glucosyltransferase or N-glucosyltransferase activity toward all these xenbiotics and was able to enhance the resistance of P. pastoris to them. Compared with wild-type Arabidopsis plants, VvUGT72B1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed higher resistance to all the xenobiotics except for phenol and exhibited higher removal efficiencies against all xenobiotics. Glucosides of 3-methylcatechol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, phenol, and 3,4-dichloroaniline were exported to the surrounding media by Arabidopsis plants while transgenic Arabidopsis plants exported more glucosides than wild-type Arabidopsis plants. Our findings have the potential to provide a broader spectrum remediation strategy for the phytoremoval and degradation of phenolic compounds and 3,4-dichloroaniline than previous works.

  14. Effects of whole-wheat flour and bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L. on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies

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    Ariadne Roberto KARNOPP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace, which is derived from the skin and seeds, is the residue from the production of grape juice and wine. It corresponds to up to 20% of the total volume and it contains a high level of dietary fibers and bioactive compounds. In the Brazilian market, there is no product containing grape pomace as a replacement for conventional wheat flour. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effects of whole-wheat flour and organic Bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L. on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies using response surface methodology (RSM. The regression models indicated that the addition of whole-wheat and organic grape pomace decreased (p 65% of explained data variability, except for brittleness. The sensory evaluation results revealed that no significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed for the cookie samples, implying that the addition of grape pomace and whole-wheat flour did not negatively affect the preference of cookies.

  15. Comparison of a pectinolytic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus and a commercial enzyme preparation in the production of Ives (Vitis labrusca) grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemolini-Barreto, Luciani Tatsch; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses the effect of the crude enzymatic extract produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus (EEB) in the maceration and clarification of juice produced from Ives (Vitis labrusca) grapes compared to the commercial enzyme preparation Pectinex(®)Ultra Color (PEC). Treatments were conducted with a total pectinolytic activity of 1 U/mL of fruit juice, at 40 °C, for 60 min. After the enzymatic treatment, the juices were evaluated with respect to yield, viscosity, and degree of clarification, as well as the effect of the enzymes on polyphenol concentration, anthocyanins, and juice color. The results showed that both EEB and PEC increase yield, reduce viscosity and contribute to the clarification of grape juice. After enzyme treatment with the EEB preparation, the extraction yield increased 28.02 % and decreased 50.70 % in viscosity during the maceration of the pulp. During the juice production process clarification increased 11.91 %. With PEC, higher values for these parameters: 42.36, 63.20, and 26.81 % respectively, were achieved. The addition of EEB resulted in grape juice with better color intensity and extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Considering all comparison criteria, the enzymatic extract of K. marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 can potentially be used in the production of juice.

  16. Effects of exogenous growth regulators on cell suspension culture of yin-hong grape (vitis vinifera l.) and establishment of the optimum medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.; Feng, J.C.; Yan, W.Y.; Xiao, Y.; Jun, Y.Y

    2015-01-01

    Callus induced by stem of Yin-hong grape (Vitis vinifera L.) was used as materials and B5 medium as basic medium. The major growth parameters of cell suspension cultures with various levels of 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 6-Benzyl aminopurine (6-BA) were investigated to provide a basis for the optimum medium of suspension cell cultures of Yin-hong grape regarding cell number, packed cell volume (PCV), dry cell weight (DCW), cell viability, and morphology. All data were analysed by of two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the treatment of 6-BA and NAA would effect the cell growth dynamics, probably causing logarithmic phase in advance at higher levels of 6-BA. Different concentration of 6-BA and NAA had significant effects on cells number, PCV, DCW and viability (p<0.05), while no-significant effect was observed on the cells morphology. The optimum medium for suspension cell cultures of Yin-hong grape was identified as B5+1.5 mg/L6-BA+1.5 mg/LNAA+ 250 mg/L casein hydrolysate + 30 g/L sucrose. With the optimum medium, the maximum number of suspension cells after the logarithmic growth phase was 34.78 * 108 / mL, the highest cell viability reached 86.45%.; DCW reached 3.84 g/L and PCV reached 0.092 mL/mL after eight days cultivating. (author)

  17. Effect of maceration duration on physicochemical characteristics, organic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine from Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabey, N; Yilmaztekin, M; Hayaloglu, A A

    2016-09-01

    Effects of different maceration times (5, 10 and 15 days) on composition, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of red wines made from the Vitis vinifera L. Karaoglan grown in Malatya were investigated. Maceration duration changed some chemical constituents and color of Karaoglan red wines. A linear relationship was observed between antioxidant activity of wine and maceration duration. Major organic acid was tartaric acid which was at the highest concentration in wine macerated for 10 days. A total of 25 phenolic compounds was determined in wine samples. Within these phenolics; procyanidin B2, trans -caftaric acid, gallic acid, trans -caffeic acid, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin and quercetin-3- O -glucoside were the most abundant phenolics regardless of maceration duration. In general, extended maceration duration resulted in increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds, reflecting the antioxidant activities of wine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of total and individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant activities were found in wines macerated for 15 days.

  18. The bouquet of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) flowers arises from the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles in pollen grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane M.; Toub, Omid; Chiang, Angela; Lo, Bernard C.; Ohse, Sebastian; Lund, Steven T.; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Terpenoid volatiles are important information molecules that enable pollinators to locate flowers and may protect reproductive tissues against pathogens or herbivores. Inflorescences of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) are composed of tiny green flowers that produce an abundance of sesquiterpenoid volatiles. We demonstrate that male flower parts of grapevines are responsible for sesquiterpenoid floral scent formation. We describe temporal and spatial patterns of biosynthesis and release of floral volatiles throughout the blooming of V. vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. The biosynthesis of sesquiterpene volatiles, which are emitted with a light-dependent diurnal pattern early in the morning at prebloom and bloom, is localized to anthers and, more specifically, within the developing pollen grains. Valencene synthase (VvValCS) enzyme activity, which produces the major sesquiterpene volatiles of grapevine flowers, is present in anthers. VvValCS transcripts are most abundant in flowers at prebloom stages. Western blot analysis identified VvValCS protein in anthers, and in situ immunolabeling located VvValCS protein in pollen grains during bloom. Histochemical staining, as well as immunolabeling analysis by fluorescent microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, indicated that VvValCS localizes close to lipid bodies within the maturing microspore. PMID:19359488

  19. Mass spectrometric and enzymatic evidence confirm the existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ran-Ran; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yang, Zhe; Duan, Chang-Qing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted that anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides do not exist in Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berries. However, our anthocyanin analyses using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS detected the existence of a low level of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucosides in the Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in China. The authenticity of these samples was confirmed with microsatellite markers. The existence of anthocyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside was further verified by the enzymatic evidence for the first time. Four putative 5-O-glucosyltransferase (5GT) genes were isolated from the Cabernet Sauvignon berries. The enzymatic analysis showed that a recombinant protein (designated as Vv5GT3) glucosylated the 3-O- and 5-O-positions of anthocyanidins and flavonols. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this bifunctional enzyme belongs to the 5GT subfamily of UDP-glycosyltransferases. This finding brought a new understanding of the anthocyanins' profile and their biosynthesis in V. vinifera and would be helpful for further investigations of the mechanism of accumulation of anthocyanidin diglucosides in Cabernet Sauvignon berries in China's wine-producing regions.

  20. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  1. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators.

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    Sun, Run-Ze; Cheng, Guo; Li, Qiang; He, Yan-Nan; Wang, Yu; Lan, Yi-Bin; Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Song, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xue; Cui, Xiao-Di; Chen, Wu; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Light environments have long been known to influence grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs). Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  2. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 2. Wine sensory properties and consumer preference.

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    Bindon, Keren; Holt, Helen; Williamson, Patricia O; Varela, Cristian; Herderich, Markus; Francis, I Leigh

    2014-07-01

    A series of five Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from sequentially-harvested grape parcels, with alcohol concentrations between 12% v/v and 15.5% v/v. A multidisciplinary approach, combining sensory analysis, consumer testing and detailed chemical analysis was used to better define the relationship between grape maturity, wine composition and sensory quality. The sensory attribute ratings for dark fruit, hotness and viscosity increased in wines produced from riper grapes, while the ratings for the attributes red fruit and fresh green decreased. Consumer testing of the wines revealed that the lowest-alcohol wines (12% v/v) were the least preferred and wines with ethanol concentration between 13% v/v and 15.5% v/v were equally liked by consumers. Partial least squares regression identified that many sensory attributes were strongly associated with the compositional data, providing evidence of wine chemical components which are important to wine sensory properties and consumer preferences, and which change as the grapes used for winemaking ripen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of a Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 3',5'-O-methyltransferase showing strong preference for anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonols.

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    Lücker, Joost; Martens, Stefan; Lund, Steven T

    2010-09-01

    At ripening initiation in red grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berries, the exocarp turns color from green to red and then to purple due to the accumulation and extent of methylation of anthocyanins. The accumulation of transcripts encoding an O-methyltransferase was recently shown to be closely correlated with the onset of ripening and the degree of blue/purple pigmentation in grapevine berries; however, the biochemical function of this gene has remained uncharacterized. In this study, an O-methyltransferase cDNA that showed a distinct expression pattern when compared to closely related sequences was expressed in Escherichia coli and enzyme assays were carried out with a broad array of anthocyanin and other flavonoid substrates. We demonstrate that this enzyme carries out 3',5'-O-methylation of anthocyanins and flavonol compounds in vitro, which are known to be present in grape berries, with a preference for glycosylated substrates. The highest relative specific activity for the enzyme was found with delphinidin 3-O-glucoside as substrate. The enzyme is not able to methylate flavan type skeletons with chiral centers, such as either catechins or dihydroquercetin. The enzyme showed negligible specific activity for caffeoyl-CoA, compared to flavonol and anthocyanin substrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the O-methyltransferase suggests that it may be a member of a distinct subclass of Type 2 bivalent metal-dependent S-adenosyl-methionine O-methyltransferases. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-atherogenic effects of a phenol-rich fraction from Brazilian red wine (Vitis labrusca L.) in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.

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    Hort, Mariana Appel; Schuldt, Elke Zuleika; Bet, Angela Cristina; DalBó, Silvia; Siqueira, Jarbas Mota; Ianssen, Carla; Abatepaulo, Fátima; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; Veleirinho, Beatriz; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    Moderate wine intake (i.e., 1-2 glasses of wine a day) is associated with a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-atherosclerotic effects of a nonalcoholic ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) from a South Brazilian red wine obtained from Vitis labrusca grapes. Experiments were carried out on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout (LDLr⁻/⁻) mice, which were subjected to a hypercholesterolemic diet and treated with doses of EAF (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the level of plasma lipids, the vascular reactivity, and the atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with EAF at 3 mg/kg significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL plus very low-density lipoprotein levels compared with control hypercholesterolemic mice. The treatment of mice with EAF at 3 mg/kg also preserved the vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine on isolated thoracic aorta from hypercholesterolemic LDLr⁻/⁻ mice. This result is in agreement with the degree of lipid deposit on arteries. Taken together, the results show for the first time that the lowest concentration of an EAF obtained from a red wine produced in southern Brazil significantly reduced the progression of atherosclerosis in mice.

  5. Purification, molecular cloning, and characterization of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from pigmented Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension cultures as putative anthocyanin transport proteins

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    Conn, Simon; Curtin, Chris; Bézier, Annie; Franco, Chris; Zhang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The ligandin activity of specific glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is necessary for the transport of anthocyanins from the cytosol to the plant vacuole. Five GSTs were purified from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Gamay Fréaux cell suspension cultures by glutathione affinity chromatography. These proteins underwent Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry fingerprinting, with the resultant fragments aligned with predicted GSTs within public databases. The corresponding coding sequences were cloned, with heterologous expression in Escherichia coli used to confirm GST activity. Transcriptional profiling of these candidate GST genes and key anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (PAL, CHS, DFR, and UFGT) in cell suspensions and grape berries against anthocyanin accumulation demonstrated strong positive correlation with two sequences, VvGST1 and VvGST4, respectively. The ability of VvGST1 and VvGST4 to transport anthocyanins was confirmed in the heterologous maize bronze-2 complementation model, providing further evidence for their function as anthocyanin transport proteins in grape cells. Furthermore, the differential induction of VvGST1 and VvGST4 in suspension cells and grape berries suggests functional differences between these two proteins. Further investigation of these candidate ligandins may identify a mechanism for manipulating anthocyanin accumulation in planta and in vitro suspension cells. PMID:18836188

  6. VaCPK20 gene overexpression significantly increased resveratrol content and expression of stilbene synthase genes in cell cultures of Vitis amurensis Rupr.

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    Aleynova-Shumakova, O A; Dubrovina, A S; Manyakhin, A Y; Karetin, Y A; Kiselev, K V

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol, a naturally occurring plant phenol, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of valuable biological and pharmacological properties. In the present investigation, we show that transformation of a Vitis amurensis Rupr. cell suspension with the gene VaCPK20 for a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) under the control of double CaMV 35S promoter increased resveratrol production in five independently transformed cell lines in 9-68 times compared with control cells. The VaCPK20-transformed calli were capable of producing 0.04-0.42 % dry wt. of resveratrol, while the control calli produced up to 0.008 % dry wt. of resveratrol Also, we characterized expression of stilbene synthase (STS) genes in the five VaCPK20-transgenic cell lines of V. amurensis. In all VaCPK20-transgenic cell lines, expression of VaSTS7 increased; while expression of VaSTS1 decreased. We suggest that transformation of V. amurensis calli with the VaCPK20 gene induced resveratrol accumulation via enhancement of expression of the VaSTS7 gene involved in resveratrol biosynthesis. The obtained data first demonstrate that overexpression of a CDPK gene resulted in increased accumulation of a stilbenoid phytoalexine in transgenic plant cells. We propose that the VaCPK20 gene could play an important role in the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis in grape cells.

  7. Volatile organic compounds characterized from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec) berries increase at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B radiation.

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    Gil, Mariana; Bottini, Rubén; Berli, Federico; Pontin, Mariela; Silva, María Fernanda; Piccoli, Patricia

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet-B solar radiation (UV-B) is an environmental signal with biological effects in plant tissues. Recent investigations have assigned a protective role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in plant tissues submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study investigated VOCs in berries at three developmental stages (veraison, pre-harvest and harvest) of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Malbec exposed (or not) to UV-B both, in in vitro and field experiments. By Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-EIMS) analysis, 10 VOCs were identified at all developmental stages: four monoterpenes, three aldehydes, two alcohols and one ketone. Monoterpenes increased at pre-harvest and in response to UV-B in both, in vitro and field conditions. UV-B also augmented levels of some aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. These results along with others from the literature suggest that UV-B induce grape berries to produce VOCs (mainly monoterpenes) that protect the tissues from UV-B itself and other abiotic and biotic stresses, and could affect the wine flavor. Higher emission of monoterpenes was observed in the field experiments as compared in vitro, suggesting the UV-B/PAR ratio is not a signal in itself. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Induction of Noble Rot (Botrytis cinerea Infection during Postharvest Withering Changes the Metabolome of Grapevine Berries (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Garganega

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    Stefano Negri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural or induced development of noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea during the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening is used in some traditional viticulture areas to produce high-quality wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji. In this research, we wanted to verify if by changing the environmental conditions during post-harvest withering we could induce the noble rot development on harvested berries in order to positively change the wine produced from withered Garganega berries. Therefore, we exposed the berries to postharvest withering under normal or artificially humid conditions, the latter to induce noble rot. The presence of noble rot symptoms was associated with the development of B. cinerea in the berries maintained under humid conditions. The composition of infected and non-infected berries was investigated by untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We also explored the effects of the two withering methods on the abundance of volatile organic compounds in wine by yeast-inoculated micro-fermentation followed by targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed significant metabolic differences between berries withered under normal and humid conditions, indicating that noble rot affects berry metabolism and composition. As well as well-known botrytization markers, we detected two novel lipids that have not been observed before in berries infected with noble rot. Unraveling the specific metabolic profile of berries infected with noble rot may help to determine the compounds responsible for the organoleptic quality traits of botrytized Garganega wines.

  9. Functionalization of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite with copper(II) compounds as pesticide: in situ TEM and ESEM observations of treated Vitis vinifera L. leaves.

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    Battiston, Enrico; Salvatici, Maria C; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Gatti, Antonietta; Di Marco, Stefano; Mugnai, Laura

    2018-02-19

    The present study evaluates a biocompatible material for plant protection to reduce the amount of active substance applied. We used a synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) that has been studied extensively due its bioactivity and biocompatibility. Aggregation between HA nanoparticles and four copper(II) compounds applied in Vitis vinifera L. leaves as pesticide was studied. Formulations were characterised by XRD, DLS, electron microscopy and applied in planta to verify the particle aggregation and efficiency in controlling the pathogen, Plasmopara viticola. XRD showed a different interaction between HA and the copper(II) compounds, DLS showed a granular distribution ranging out of the nanometer range and in all formulations, TEM and ESEM microscopy showed large aggregates which were partially nanostructured and were recognised as stable in their micrometric dimension. Such particles did not show phytotoxic effects after their application in planta. A formulation based on HA and the soluble copper(II) compound showed promising results in the control of the fungal pathogen, confirming the potential role of HA an as innovative delivery system of Cu(II) ions. The present work indicates the possibility to improve the biological activity of a bioactive substance by modifying its structure through an achievable formulation with a biocompatible material. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L..

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    Xu Liu

    Full Text Available Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.. The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate.

  11. Leaf blade and petiole nutritional diagnosis for Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Tempranillo' by deviation from optimum percentage method

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    Romero, I.; Benito, A.; Dominguez, N.; Garcia-Escudero, E.

    2014-06-01

    Deviation from optimum percentage (DOP) is a diagnosis methodology for leaf analyses which expresses the deviation for each element with respect to its optimal concentration. This deviation is an individual index for each nutrient and allows the sorting of all the analyzed nutrients according to their limitations. A nutritional survey was undertaken over eleven years in La Rioja (Spain), to establish reference concentrations for the nutritional diagnosis of Vitis vinifera L., cv. 'Tempranillo' grafted on Richter-110. Reference concentrations for DOP methodology are proposed, and sensibility for the nutritional diagnosis was evaluated for blade and petiole analysis of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B at flowering and veraison phenological stages by comparison between DOP and sufficiency ranges (SR) methods. Results suggest that petiole has lower sensibility than blade to detect deficiencies or excesses of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Mn at veraison. In addition, petiole is a better tissue than blade to detect Fe and B deficiencies or excesses. Therefore, our results make possible the right choice between tissues, leaf blade or petiole, for a general nutritional diagnosis of 'Tempranillo' grapevines. On the other hand, it is possible to evaluate the status of each nutrient in each phonological stage analyzing both tissues and comparing the nutrient status to its references, DOP or SR, in the most adequate tissue. (Author)

  12. Gene expression analyses in individual grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries during ripening initiation reveal that pigmentation intensity is a valid indicator of developmental staging within the cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Steven T; Peng, Fred Y; Nayar, Tarun; Reid, Karen E; Schlosser, James

    2008-10-01

    Asynchronous ripening of individual grape berries within clusters can lead to inconsistent organoleptic characteristics for wine making. Ripening initiation in grape berries is non-climacteric and not well understood at the molecular level. Evidence is lacking for a single master switch controlling this process, such as the established role for ethylene in climacteric fruit ripening. We used Affymetrix microarray analyses of 32 individual Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries sampled from two clusters at 50% ripening initiation. By delineating four developmental stages of ripening initiation, we demonstrate that pigmentation is a statistically significant indicator of transcriptional state during ripening initiation. We report on clustered gene expression patterns which were mined for genes annotated with signal transduction functions in order to advance regulatory network modeling of ripening initiation in grape berries. Abscisic acid has previously been demonstrated to be an important signaling component regulating ripening initiation in grapevine. We demonstrate via real-time RT-PCR analyses that up-regulation of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid gene family member, VvNCED2, in grape seed and pericarp and a putative ortholog to a reported abscisic acid receptor, VvGCR2, are correlated with ripening initiation. Our results suggest a role for these genes in abscisic acid signaling during ripening initiation.

  13. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  14. Promoting effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on accumulation of sugar and phenolics in berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on zinc deficient soil.

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    Song, Chang-Zheng; Liu, Mei-Ying; Meng, Jiang-Fei; Chi, Ming; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-02-02

    The effect of foliage sprayed zinc sulfate on berry development of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot growing on arid zone Zn-deficient soils was investigated over two consecutive seasons, 2013 and 2014. Initial zinc concentration in soil and vines, photosynthesis at three berry developmental stages, berry weight, content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, phenolics and expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout the stages were measured. Foliage sprayed zinc sulfate showed promoting effects on photosynthesis and berry development of vines and the promotion mainly occurred from veraison to maturation. Zn treatments enhanced the accumulation of total soluble solids, total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and anthocyanins in berry skin, decreasing the concentration of titratable acidity. Furthermore, foliage sprayed zinc sulfate could significantly influence the expression of phenolics biosynthetic pathway genes throughout berry development, and the results of expression analysis supported the promotion of Zn treatments on phenolics accumulation. This research is the first comprehensive and detailed study about the effect of foliage sprayed Zn fertilizer on grape berry development, phenolics accumulation and gene expression in berry skin, providing a basis for improving the quality of grape and wine in Zn-deficient areas.

  15. Ectopic Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of an NB-ARC Encoding Putative Disease Resistance Gene from Wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata Enhances Resistance to Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria.

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    Wen, Zhifeng; Yao, Liping; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Liu, Chonghuai; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Plant resistance proteins mediate pathogen recognition and activate innate immune responses to restrict pathogen proliferation. One common feature of these proteins is an NB-ARC domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a protein with an NB-ARC domain from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession "Baihe-35-1," which was identified in a transcriptome analysis of the leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator (Schw.), a causal agent of powdery mildew. Transcript levels of this gene, designated VpCN (GenBank accession number KT265084), increased strongly after challenge of grapevine leaves with E. necator. The deduced amino acid sequence was predicted to contain an NB-ARC domain in the C-terminus and an RxCC-like domain similar to CC domain of Rx protein in the N-terminus. Ectopic expression of VpCN in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type phenotype or a dwarf phenotype. The phenotypically normal transgenic A. thaliana showed enhance resistance to A. thaliana powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Moreover, promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase) analysis revealed that powdery mildew infection induced the promoter activity of VpCN in grapevine leaves. Finally, a promoter deletion analysis showed that TC rich repeat elements likely play an important role in the response to E. necator infection. Taken together, our results suggest that VpCN contribute to powdery mildew disease resistant in grapevine.

  16. Expression and functional analysis of two genes encoding transcription factors, VpWRKY1 and VpWRKY2, isolated from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata.

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    Li, Huie; Xu, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Zhu, Ziguo; Xie, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Heqing; Wang, Yuejin

    2010-11-01

    In this study, two WRKY genes were isolated from Erysiphe necator-resistant Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata W. T. Wang 'Baihe-35-1', and designated as VpWRKY1 (GenBank accession no. GQ884198) and VpWRKY2 (GenBank accession no. GU565706). Nuclear localization of the two proteins was demonstrated in onion epidermal cells, while trans-activation function was confirmed in the leaves of 'Baihe-35-1'. Expression of VpWRKY1 and VpWRKY2 was induced rapidly by salicylic acid treatment in 'Baihe-35-1'. Expression of VpWRKY1 and VpWRKY2 was also induced rapidly by E. necator infection in 11 grapevine genotypes; the maximum induction of VpWRKY1 was greater in E. necator-resistant grapevine genotypes than in susceptible ones post E. necator inoculation. Furthermore, ectopic expression of VpWRKY1 or VpWRKY2 in Arabidopsis enhanced resistance to powdery mildew Erysiphe cichoracearum, and enhanced salt tolerance of transgenic plants. VpWRKY2 also enhanced cold tolerance of transgenic plants. In addition, the two proteins were shown to regulate the expression of some defense marker genes in Arabidopsis and grapevine. The data suggest that VpWRKY1 and VpWRKY2 may underlie the resistance in transgenic grapevine to E. necator and tolerance to salt and cold stresses.

  17. Colonization of Vitis vinifera by a green fluorescence protein-labeled, gfp-marked strain of Xylophilus ampelinus, the causal agent of bacterial necrosis of grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, Sophie; Manceau, Charles

    2003-04-01

    The dynamics of Xylophilus ampelinus were studied in Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc using gfp-marked bacterial strains to evaluate the relative importance of epiphytic and endophytic phases of plant colonization in disease development. Currently, bacterial necrosis of grapevine is of economic importance in vineyards in three regions in France: the Cognac, Armagnac, and Die areas. This disease is responsible for progressive destruction of vine shoots, leading to their death. We constructed gfp-marked strains of the CFBP2098 strain of X. ampelinus for histological studies. We studied the colonization of young plants of V. vinifera cv. Ugni blanc by X. ampelinus after three types of artificial contamination in a growth chamber and in a greenhouse. (i) After wounding of the stem and inoculation, the bacteria progressed down to the crown through the xylem vessels, where they organized into biofilms. (ii) When the bacteria were forced into woody cuttings, they rarely colonized the emerging plantlets. Xylem vessels could play a key role in the multiplication and conservation of the bacteria, rather than being a route for plant colonization. (iii) When bacterial suspensions were sprayed onto the plants, bacteria progressed in two directions: both in emerging organs and down to the crown, thus displaying the importance of epiphytic colonization in disease development.

  18. Genome-Wide Assessment of Polygalacturonases-Like (PGL) Genes of Medicago truncatula, Sorghum bicolor, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa Using Comparative Genomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Gautam; Yadav, Sangeeta; Tanveer, Aiman; Nasim, Jeya; Singh, Nitish K; Dubey, Amit K; Yadav, Dinesh

    2017-12-14

    The polygalacturonases (PG) is one of the important members of pectin-degrading glycoside hydrolases of the family GH28. In plants, PG represents multigene families associated with diverse processes. In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the diversity of PG genes among monocots and dicots with respect to phylogeny, gene duplication and subcellular localization to get an insight into the evolutionary and functional attributes. The genome-wide assessment of Medicago truncatula, Vitis vinifera Sorghum bicolor, and Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica genomes revealed 53, 49, 38 and 35 PG-like (PGL) genes, respectively. The predominance of glyco_hydro_28 domain, hydrophilic nature and genes with multiple introns were uniformly observed. The subcellular localization showed the presence of signal sequences targeting the secretory pathways. The phylogenetic tree constructed marked uniformity with three distinct clusters for each plant irrespective of the variability in the genome sizes. The site-specific selection pressure analysis based on K a /K s values showed predominance of purifying selection pressures among different groups identified in these plants. The functional divergence analysis revealed significant site-specific selective constraints. Results of site-specific selective pressure analysis throw light on the functional diversity of PGs in various plant processes and hence its constitutive nature. These findings are further strengthened by functional divergence analysis which reveals functionally diverse groups in all the four species representing monocots and dicots. The outcome of the present work could be utilized for deciphering the novel functions of PGs in plants.

  19. GRAPE’S LEATHER AND SEED EXTRACT (VITIS VINIFERA IMPROVING THE FUNCTION OF WISTAR RATS’ MOTOR (RATTUS NORVEGICUS ISCHEMIC STROKE MODEL

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    M. Rasjad Indra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Grape peel and seed extract (Vitis vinifera, that has resveratrol, is one of many antioxidants that can pass through blood brain barrier and can induce release neurotrophic factor that contribute in ERK 1/2 pathway mechanism in post stroke. Objective. To prove that grape peel and seed extract can regenerate neuron in brain functional Methods. True experimental design with five groups in this research. The five groups are negative control, positive control, grape peel and seed extract 50mg/KgBW, 100mg/KgBW, and 200mg/KgBW. rats are given grape peel and seed extract in variable dose to know how extract’s effect in neuron repairment. The repairment is monitored from ladder rung walking test score. Results. Range average score ladder rung walking test post stroke dan post treatment group N, K, Ra, Rb, dan Rc, were 0 ± 0, 0.001028933 ± 0.011664445, 0.123214286 ± 0.019834983, 0.064744427 ± 0.024296721, 0.03781401 ± 0.006888803. Statistical test used Annova significantly p;0,001.Dose 50mg/KgBW is effective in repairing neuron. Conclusion. Grape’s leather and Seed extract 50 mg/kgBW can improve neuron regeneration on animal model.

  20. Anti-Dermatophyte and Anti-Malassezia Activity of Extracts Rich in Polymeric Flavan-3-ols Obtained from Vitis vinifera Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Giovanna; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Mulinacci, Nadia; Innocenti, Marzia; Antonacci, Donato; Angiolella, Letizia; Santamaria, Anna Rita; Valletta, Alessio; Donati, Livia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several human skin diseases are associated with fungi as dermatophytes and Malassezia. Skin mycoses are increasing and new alternatives to conventional treatments with improved efficacy and/or safety profiles are desirable. For the first time, the anti-dermatophytes and the anti-Malassezia activities of Vitis vinifera seed extracts obtained from different table and wine cultivars have been evaluated. Geometric minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 20 to 97 µg/mL for dermatophytes and from 32 to 161 µg/mL for Malassezia furfur. Dried grape seed extracts analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS showed different quali-quantitative compositions in terms of monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and for M. furfur were inversely correlated with the amount of the polymeric fraction (r = -0.7639 and r = -0.7228, respectively). Differently, the antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes was not correlated to the content of flavan-3-ol monomers (r = 0.2920) and only weakly correlated for M. furfur (r = -0.53604). These results suggest that extracts rich in polymeric flavan-3-ols, recovered from V.  vinifera seeds, could be used for the treatment of skin fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. BRAIN NEURON REGENERATION IN POST-STROKE REHABILITATION TREATMENT USING GRAPE PEEL AND SEED EXTRACT (Vitis vinifera IN INDUCING ERK1 / 2 PATHWAY

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    Zanella Yolanda Lie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Ischemic stroke can cause hypoxia in brain tissue and damage the neuron. The defense ability and plasticity is activated by ERK1/2 pathway. Grape peel and seed extract (Vitis vinifera can induce release neurotrophic factor that contribute in ERK1/2 pathway mechanism. This research aiming to prove that grape peel and seed extract can regenerate neuron in anatomical and functional view. Method. This research use true experimental design with sample in this research is 20 male 8-10 weeks old wistar strain rats which are induced stroke by internal and external carotid artery occlusion method. There are five groups in this research, negative control, positive control, grape peel and seed extract 50mg/KgBW, 100mg/KgBW, and 200mg/KgBW. After reassurement that rat suffer from stroke with MMP9, cylinder test and ladder rung walking test, rats are given grape peel and seed extract in variable dose to know how extract’s effect in neuron repairment. Results. The repairment is monitored from four parameters, namely cylinder test score, ladder rung walking test score, extensive infarct volume, and number of damaged neuron. Conclusion. The result is 50mg/KgBW is effective in repairing neuron. It is seen from the result of improvement in four parameters explained above.

  2. Quantitative prediction of cell wall polysaccharide composition in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and apple (Malus domestica) skins from acid hydrolysis monosaccharide profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S

    2009-05-13

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported for the quantitative allocation of plant cell wall monomers into relevant structural polysaccharide elements. By this method the relative molar distribution (mol %) of the different polysaccharides in the red wine grape skins was estimated as 57-62 mol % homogalacturonan, 6.0-14 mol % cellulose, 10-11 mol % xyloglucan, 7 mol % arabinan, 4.5-5.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan I, 3.5-4.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan II, 3 mol % arabinogalactan, and 0.5-1.0 mol % mannans; the ranges indicate minor variations in the skin composition of the three different cultivars. These cell wall polysaccharides made up approximately 43-47% by weight of the skins (dry matter), the rest mainly being lignin. The predicted relative molar levels of the polysaccharide elements in the apple skins, which made up approximately 49-64% by weight of the skins (dry matter), appeared to be similar to those of the grape skins. The apple skins were estimated to be relatively richer than grape skins in arabinan, total levels 10-13 mol %, and relatively lower in mannan content, total levels contents of structural pectin elements in the plant cell wall substrates.

  3. Teores de Elementos Minerais e Caracterização Física da Uva Isabel (Vitis labrusca L. Produzida em Boa Vista/RR

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    Magda Márcia Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Roraima viticulture began in 2003 with the creation of the Vale do Rio Branco project, in which the cultivation of grapes was enlarged for a commercial production. However, no information has been found in literature  about the mineral content of grapes produced. Considering the essentiality and importance of this information for human nutrition, quantification of species K by flame photometry and Ca, Fe and Zn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in pulps of grapes of the Isabel, Vitis labrusca L. variety, cultivated in Boa Vista/RR has been realized, as well as determination of the physical characteristics of the grape bunches and berries. The determinations´ results indicate that K had the highest concentration, followed by Ca, Fe and Zn, being similar to the data, described in other literature sources, except for Ca, which showed smaller, indicating an intervention demand of culture methods employed to optimize the absorption of this species by vines. The consumption of Isabel grape can contribute to the achievement of the adequate intake recommendations of mineral elements. The results of the physical characterization let us classify Isabel grape bunches to very small, loose and green stalks. Overall, this study reveals new data about the physical characteristics and mineral composition present in Isabel grape grown in Boa Vista/RR.

  4. Efecto del tiempo de fermentación con orujos del mosto de uva negra criolla (Vitis vinífera L.) en el contenido de antocianos totales del vino tinto de Magollo

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Cabrera, Norman Tomás

    2017-01-01

    El trabajo de investigación tuvo por finalidad evaluar el tiempo de fermentación para la extracción de antocianos en orujos del mosto de uva Negra Criolla (Vitis vinífera L) durante la fermentación del vino tinto de Magollo. Durante la fermentación del mosto con orujos de la uva Negra Criolla se realizó por triplicado y se extrajeron nueve muestras donde se determinó en un tiempo de fermentación de 192 h; el contenido de antocianos totales, índice de polifenoles totales, pH, acidez volátil y ...

  5. Efecto genotipo sobre la evolución de los fenoles y azúcares en cinco clones de variedades de Vitis vinifera para diferentes estadios fenológicos.

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixandre-Tudó, José Luis; Rosario Farré; Aleixandre Benavent, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Este trabajo estudia la composición de algunos polifenoles y azúcares, en diferentes estadios fenológicos y en diferentes clones de Vitis vinifera, con objeto de caracterizar a los clones individualmente y también de compararlos entre sí. Las condiciones de cultivo son homogéneas para todos los clones: arena (condiciones sanitarias conocidas), ausencia de déficit hídrico (goteo y capa freática a 1 m) y selección clonal. Se utilizan cinco clones de variedades ti...

  6. Identification of shared single copy nuclear genes in Arabidopsis, Populus, Vitis and Oryza and their phylogenetic utility across various taxonomic levels

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    Ma Hong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the overwhelming majority of genes found in angiosperms are members of gene families, and both gene- and genome-duplication are pervasive forces in plant genomes, some genes are sufficiently distinct from all other genes in a genome that they can be operationally defined as 'single copy'. Using the gene clustering algorithm MCL-tribe, we have identified a set of 959 single copy genes that are shared single copy genes in the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa. To characterize these genes, we have performed a number of analyses examining GO annotations, coding sequence length, number of exons, number of domains, presence in distant lineages, such as Selaginella and Physcomitrella, and phylogenetic analysis to estimate copy number in other seed plants and to demonstrate their phylogenetic utility. We then provide examples of how these genes may be used in phylogenetic analyses to reconstruct organismal history, both by using extant coverage in EST databases for seed plants and de novo amplification via RT-PCR in the family Brassicaceae. Results There are 959 single copy nuclear genes shared in Arabidopsis, Populus, Vitis and Oryza ["APVO SSC genes"]. The majority of these genes are also present in the Selaginella and Physcomitrella genomes. Public EST sets for 197 species suggest that most of these genes are present across a diverse collection of seed plants, and appear to exist as single or very low copy genes, though exceptions are seen in recently polyploid taxa and in lineages where there is significant evidence for a shared large-scale duplication event. Genes encoding proteins localized in organelles are more commonly single copy than expected by chance, but the evolutionary forces responsible for this bias are unknown. Regardless of the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the large number of shared single copy genes in diverse flowering plant lineages, these

  7. Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels are rate-limiting factors in production of health promoting metabolites in Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension

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    Neta eManela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses such as high light intensity and temperature cause induction of the shikimate pathway, aromatic amino acids (AAA pathways, and of pathways downstream from AAAs. The induction leads to production of specialized metabolites that protect the cells from oxidative damage. The regulation of the diverse AAA derived pathways is still not well understood. To gain insight on that regulation, we increased AAA production in red grape Vitis vinifera cv. Gamay Red cell suspension, without inducing external stress on the cells, and characterized the metabolic effect of this induction. Increased AAA production was achieved by expressing a feedback-insensitive bacterial form of 3-deoxy- D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase enzyme (AroG* of the shikimate pathway under a constitutive promoter. The presence of AroG* protein led to elevated levels of primary metabolites in the shikimate and AAA pathways including phenylalanine and tyrosine, and to a dramatic increase in phenylpropanoids. The AroG* transformed lines accumulated up to 20 and 150 fold higher levels of resveratrol and dihydroquercetin, respectively. Quercetin, formed from dihydroquercetin, and resveratrol, are health promoting metabolites that are induced due to environmental stresses. Testing the expression level of key genes along the stilbenoids, benzenoids and phenylpropanoid pathways showed that transcription was not affected by AroG*. This suggests that concentrations of AAAs, and of phenylalanine in particular, are rate-limiting in production of these metabolites. In contrast, increased phenylalanine production did not lead to elevated concentrations of anthocyanins, even though they are also phenylpropanoid metabolites. This suggests a control mechanism of this pathway that is independent of AAA concentration. Interestingly, total anthocyanin concentrations were slightly lower in AroG* cells, and the relative frequencies of the different anthocyanins changed as

  8. Tracing phenolic biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera via in situ C-13 labeling and liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassy, Alexander W.; Adams, Douglas O. [Department of Viticulture and Enology, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Laurie, V. Felipe [School of Agricultural Sciences, Universidad de Talca, Talca (Chile); Waterhouse, Andrew L., E-mail: alwaterhouse@ucdavis.edu [Department of Viticulture and Enology, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-10-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Phenyl-{sup 13}C{sub 6}-alanine was incorporated into grape berries, intact on the vine, at two stages of maturity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Labeled anthocyanins were synthesized by the berry and quantified by LC-UV/Vis-MS/MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extremely tight regulation of phenylpropanoid pathways was observed. - Abstract: Phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera contribute important flavor, functionality, and health qualities to both table and wine grapes. The plant phenolic metabolic pathway has been well characterized, however many important questions remain regarding the influence of environmental conditions on pathway regulation. As a diagnostic for this pathway's regulation, we present a technique to incorporate a stable-isotopic tracer, L-phenyl-{sup 13}C{sub 6}-alanine (Phe{sup 13}), into grape berries in situ and the accompanying high throughput analytical method based on LC-DAD-MS/MS to quantify and track the label into phenylalanine metabolites. Clusters of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, either near the onset of ripening or 4 weeks later, were exposed to Phe{sup 13} in the vineyard. Phe{sup 13} was present in berries 9 days afterwards as well as labeled flavonols and anthocyanins, all of which possessed a molecular ion shift of 6 amu. However, nearly all the label was found in anthocyanins, indicating tight regulation of phenolic biosynthesis at this stage of maturity. This method provides a framework for examining the regulation of phenolic metabolism at different stages of maturity or under different environmental conditions. Additionally, this technique could serve as a tool to further probe the metabolism/catabolism of grape phenolics.

  9. Effects of chilling and ABA on [3H]gibberellin A4 metabolism in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.; Rajasekaran, K.; Mullins, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that changes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism may be involved in chilling-induced release from dormancy in somatic embryos of grape (Vitis vinifera L. x V. rupestris Scheele). The authors have chilled somatic embryos of grape for 2, 4, or 8 weeks, then incubated them with [ 3 H]GA 4 (of high specific activity, 4.81 x 10 19 becquerel per millimole) for 48 hours at 26 0 C. Chilling had little effect on the total amount of free [ 3 H]GA-like metabolites formed during incubation at 26 0 C, but did change the relative proportions of individual metabolites. The amount of highly water-soluble [ 3 H] metabolites formed at 26 0 C decreased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. The concentration of endogeneous GA precursors (e.g., GA 12 aldehyde-, kaurene, and kaurenoic acid-like substances) increased in embryos chilled for 4 or 8 weeks. Treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) (known to inhibit germination in grape embryos) concurrent with [ 3 H]GA 4 treatment at 26 0 C, reduced the uptake of [ 3 H] GA 4 but had little effect on the qualitative spectrum of metabolites. However, in the embryos chilled for 8 weeks and then treated with ABA for 48 hours at 26 0 C, there was a higher concentration of GA precursors than in untreated control embryos. Chilled embryos thus have an enhanced potential for an increase in free GAs through synthesis from increased amounts of GA precursors, or through a reduced ability to form highly water-soluble GA metabolites (i.e., GA conjugates or polyhydroxylated free GAs)

  10. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Lopez, L M; McGlynn, W; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A

    2014-04-15

    Phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols and stilbenes (PAFFS) were isolated from whole grapes, juice, or pomace and purified using enzymatic hydrolysis. Only anthocyanin mono-glucosides and a few of the oligomers from Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) were analysed. Flavonoid-anthocyanin mono-glucosides (FA) were isolated using methanol/0.1% hydrochloric acid extraction. In addition, crude extractions of phenolic compounds from Cynthiana grape using 50% methanol, 70% methanol, 50% acetone, 0.01% pectinase, or petroleum ether were also evaluated. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to identify phenolic compounds. A method was developed for simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of both PAFFS and FA. Quantification was performed by the internal standard method using a five points regression graph of the UV-visible absorption data collected at the wavelength of maximum absorbance for each analyte. From whole grape samples nine phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The individual phenolic compounds content varied from 3 to 875 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For juice, twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. The content varied from 0.07 to 910 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For pomace, a total of fifteen phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The content varied from 2 mg kg⁻¹ to 198 mg kg⁻¹ dry matter. Results from HPLC analysis of the samples showed that gallic acid and (+)-catechin hydrate were the major phenolic compounds in both whole grapes and pomace. Cyanidin and petunidin 3-O-glucoside were the major anthocyanin glucosides in the juice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  12. Protective effect of Öküzgözü (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape juice against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirinççioğlu, Mihdiye; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Murat; Özdemir, Gültekin; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, M Aydın

    2012-06-01

    The consumption of fruits plays an important role as a health protecting factor. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are believed to have health benefits due to their antioxidant activity. Öküzgözü is the largest among the grape varieties grown in Turkey. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) causes free radical generation in many tissues such as the liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, brain and blood. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only drug to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of Öküzgözü grape juice or UDCA against tissue damage induced by CCl₄ in rats. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were found to be 1208.00 +/- 43.00 μg ml⁻¹ as the gallic acid equivalent and 5.2 +/- 0.19 μg ml⁻¹ as the quercitin equivalent in Öküzgözü grape juice, respectively. In vivo administration of CCl₄ caused a significant increase of various biochemical parameters such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and a decrease in albumin (ALB) levels in serum or an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the tissues when compared to a control. Administration of CCl₄ along with Öküzgözü grape juice or ursodeoxycolic acid (UDCA) significantly reduces these changes. Histopathalogical studies also support the protective effect of the extract. This study demonstrates the protective activity of Öküzgözü grape juice and thus scientifically supports the usage of this fruit in various traditional medicines for the treatment of tissue disorders. The effect of Öküzgözü grape juice was comparable with that of UDCA.

  13. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  14. Functional annotation, genome organization and phylogeny of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) terpene synthase gene family based on genome assembly, FLcDNA cloning, and enzyme assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane M; Aubourg, Sébastien; Schouwey, Marina B; Daviet, Laurent; Schalk, Michel; Toub, Omid; Lund, Steven T; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-10-21

    Terpenoids are among the most important constituents of grape flavour and wine bouquet, and serve as useful metabolite markers in viticulture and enology. Based on the initial 8-fold sequencing of a nearly homozygous Pinot noir inbred line, 89 putative terpenoid synthase genes (VvTPS) were predicted by in silico analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome assembly 1. The finding of this very large VvTPS family, combined with the importance of terpenoid metabolism for the organoleptic properties of grapevine berries and finished wines, prompted a detailed examination of this gene family at the genomic level as well as an investigation into VvTPS biochemical functions. We present findings from the analysis of the up-dated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome that place the number of predicted VvTPS genes at 69 putatively functional VvTPS, 20 partial VvTPS, and 63 VvTPS probable pseudogenes. Gene discovery and annotation included information about gene architecture and chromosomal location. A dense cluster of 45 VvTPS is localized on chromosome 18. Extensive FLcDNA cloning, gene synthesis, and protein expression enabled functional characterization of 39 VvTPS; this is the largest number of functionally characterized TPS for any species reported to date. Of these enzymes, 23 have unique functions and/or phylogenetic locations within the plant TPS gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of the TPS gene family showed that while most VvTPS form species-specific gene clusters, there are several examples of gene orthology with TPS of other plant species, representing perhaps more ancient VvTPS, which have maintained functions independent of speciation. The highly expanded VvTPS gene family underpins the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine. We provide a detailed experimental functional annotation of 39 members of this important gene family in grapevine and comprehensive information about gene structure and phylogeny for the entire currently

  15. Assessment of polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and anticancer activity of Vitis vinifera stem extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Anna; Stagos, Dimitrios; Galitsiou, Elissavet; Spyrou, Argiris; Haroutounian, Serko; Portesis, Nikolaos; Trizoglou, Ioanna; Wallace Hayes, A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2013-11-01

    Grape extracts and wine have been studied widely due to their beneficial effects on human health. However, there are only few studies from grape stems extracts. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was the assessment in stem extracts from Greek Vitis vinifera varieties of the total polyphenolic content (TPC), the identification of the polyphenols present in them, and the evaluation of their antioxidant activity, protection against ROS-induced DNA damage and inhibition of liver (HepG2) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell growth. The range of the TPC in grape stem extracts was from 345 to 584 mg GAE/g dry weight. Moreover, stem extracts contained different classes of polyphenols as flavonols, flavanols, procyanidins, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In DPPH and ABTS assays, the IC50 values of the stem extracts had an average of 7.8 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.6 μg/mL respectively. Also, all stem extracts inhibited OH- and ROO-induced DNA damage dose dependent with average IC50 values of 478 ± 217 and 1.15 ± 0.85 μg/mL respectively. Furthermore, stem extracts inhibited at low concentrations the growth of HepG2 and HeLa cancer cells with average IC50 values of 50 ± 12 and 32 ± 16 μg/mL respectively. The above activities of grape stem extracts were comparable to those of seed extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences between sympatric populations of Eotetranychus carpini collected from Vitis vinifera and Carpinus betulus: insights from host-switch experiments and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnini, Valeria; Navajas, Maria; Migeon, Alain; Duso, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Eotetranychus carpini (Oudemans) is an important pest of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in southern Europe. This mite is also found on a number of different plants, including Carpinus betulus L., which commonly occurs in stands and hedgerows bordering vineyards, where it may serve as a potential mite reservoir. The economic importance of this pest has motivated a number of studies aimed at investigating whether the mites found on V. vinifera and C. betulus are conspecific. The results obtained to date have been inconclusive. In this study, we used biological and molecular approaches to investigate this issue. First, we conducted host-switch experiments to test the ability of E. carpini to develop on an alternative host plant, using mite populations originally collected on either C. betulus or V. vinifera plants from the same area. Second, we investigated DNA-based differentiation using nucleotide sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA of individual E. carpini from the populations examined in our host-plant experiments. We also analyzed sequences of individuals collected in other regions (Italy and Slovenia) to estimate species variation. The results from our host-switch experiments suggest the differentiation of mites collected on the two hosts. Mites collected from C. betulus did not survive and reproduce on V. vinifera and vice versa. Our molecular work revealed significant genetic differentiation between the mites collected from the two hosts, but no evidence of genetic variation among specimens collected from the same host species. Our results indicate the existence of host races of E. carpini.

  17. Impact of post-harvest ozone treatments on the skin phenolic extractability of red winegrapes cv Barbera and Nebbiolo (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paissoni, Maria Alessandra; Río Segade, Susana; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Cravero, Francesco; Englezos, Vasileios; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Carboni, Cristian; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Rolle, Luca

    2017-08-01

    Recently the use of ozone as sanitizing agent has been proposed on winegrapes in order to control mycobiota after harvest. The aim of this work was to investigate possible indirect physico-chemical effects of ozone treatment on berry skin phenolic composition and extractability. Vitis vinifera L. cv Nebbiolo and Barbera, chosen for their different anthocyanin profiles, were post-harvest treated for 24 and 72h with gaseous ozone (30μL/L). Skin anthocyanin and flavanol extractability was assessed during maceration (6, 24, 48, 96, 168 and 240h) using a wine-like solution. In our experimental conditions, ozone did not affect significantly the final extraction yield of anthocyanins (TA), proanthocyanidins (PRO), and flavanols reactive to vanillin (FRV) in Barbera, although TA and FRV extractabilities were higher in control samples than in ozone-treated samples during the first stages of maceration. In Nebbiolo, the final TA extraction yield was positively influenced by the ozone treatment (68.6, 64.2, and 59.9% for 24h ozone-treated berries, 72h ozone-treated berries and control samples, respectively). Final PRO and FRV extractability also increased in both ozone-treated samples compared to the control (+8.6-9.1% for PRO and +7.3-11.7% for FRV). No significant differences were found among treatments for individual anthocyanins in both cultivars at the end of maceration. Therefore, the use of ozone as sanitizing agent in red varieties prior to winemaking process can be considered because it did not negatively affect the extractability of skin anthocyanins and flavanols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Grape Crown Gall by Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 Requires Two Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and One Polyketide Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Agrobacterium vitis nontumorigenic strain F2/5 is able to inhibit crown gall disease on grapevines. The mechanism of grape tumor inhibition (GTI) by F2/5 has not been fully determined. In this study, we demonstrate that two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes (F-avi3342 and F-avi5730) and one polyketide synthase gene (F-avi4330) are required for GTI. Knockout of any one of them resulted in F/25 losing GTI capacity. We previously reported that F-avi3342 and F-avi4330 but not F-avi5730 are required for induction of grape tissue necrosis and tobacco hypersensitive response. F-avi5730 is predicted to encode a single modular NRPS. It is located in a cluster that is homologous to the siderophore vicibactin biosynthesis locus in Rhizobium species. Individual disruption of F-avi5730 and two immediate downstream genes, F-avi5731 and F-avi5732, all resulted in reduced siderophore production; however, only F-avi5730 was found to be required for GTI. Complemented F-avi5730 mutant (ΔF-avi5730(+)) restored a wild-type level of GTI activity. It was determined that, over time, populations of ΔF-avi4330, ΔF-avi3342, and ΔF-avi5730 at inoculated wound sites on grapevine did not differ from those of ΔF-avi5730(+) indicating that loss of GTI was not due to reduced colonization of wound sites by mutants.

  19. Effect of processing, post-harvest irradiation, and production system on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. juices in HTC cells.

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    Elisângela Düsman

    Full Text Available The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L. are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90°C of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m² for 10 minutes. Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI, and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and

  20. Impact of water stress and nutrition on Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Albariño’: Soil-plant water relationships, cumulative effects and productivity

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    Martínez, E.M.; Rey, B.J.; Fandiño, M.; Cancela, J.J.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to apply different systems of fertigation (rainfed, R; surface drip irrigation, DI, and subsurface drip irrigation, SDI) in Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. ‘Albariño’ to evaluate the cumulative effect of water stress (water stress integral) on yield parameters and to establish the relationship between indices and production. The study was conducted over four years (2010-2013) in a commercial vineyard (Galicia, NW Spain). The volumetric soil water content (θ) (with TDR) and predawn (ψp), midday (ψm) and stem (ψstem) leaf-water potential were determined with a water activity meter during the growing stages (flowering-harvest) from 2010-2013. The number of clusters, their weight and yield/vine were determined at harvest. Must composition was studied to evaluate nutrition treatments. Ψp is presented as the best indicator of the water status of the plant, and the sole use of θ is not recommended as a reference. The soil-plant water status variables were strongly correlated, especially between foliar variables (0.91

  1. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

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    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  2. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries at ripening initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Laszczak, Mario; Smith, Derek; Lund, Steven T

    2009-01-01

    Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison') in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening initiation and may be further

  3. Tracing phenolic biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera via in situ C-13 labeling and liquid chromatography–diode-array detector–mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassy, Alexander W.; Adams, Douglas O.; Laurie, V. Felipe; Waterhouse, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► L-Phenyl- 13 C 6 -alanine was incorporated into grape berries, intact on the vine, at two stages of maturity. ► Labeled anthocyanins were synthesized by the berry and quantified by LC–UV/Vis–MS/MS. ► Extremely tight regulation of phenylpropanoid pathways was observed. - Abstract: Phenolic compounds in Vitis vinifera contribute important flavor, functionality, and health qualities to both table and wine grapes. The plant phenolic metabolic pathway has been well characterized, however many important questions remain regarding the influence of environmental conditions on pathway regulation. As a diagnostic for this pathway's regulation, we present a technique to incorporate a stable-isotopic tracer, L-phenyl- 13 C 6 -alanine (Phe 13 ), into grape berries in situ and the accompanying high throughput analytical method based on LC–DAD–MS/MS to quantify and track the label into phenylalanine metabolites. Clusters of V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, either near the onset of ripening or 4 weeks later, were exposed to Phe 13 in the vineyard. Phe 13 was present in berries 9 days afterwards as well as labeled flavonols and anthocyanins, all of which possessed a molecular ion shift of 6 amu. However, nearly all the label was found in anthocyanins, indicating tight regulation of phenolic biosynthesis at this stage of maturity. This method provides a framework for examining the regulation of phenolic metabolism at different stages of maturity or under different environmental conditions. Additionally, this technique could serve as a tool to further probe the metabolism/catabolism of grape phenolics.

  4. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: light intensity before and not during ripening determines the concentration of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alfredo; Ebeler, Susan E; Williams, Larry E; Matthews, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The roles of light and temperature in the accumulation of the vegetal impact compound 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries were determined. Individual clusters were exposed to various light intensities using neutral density shade cloth before ripening, during ripening or throughout the season in three growing seasons. A recently developed method using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode was employed to measure MIBP in berries. Berry MIBP concentration increased subsequent to berry set, reached a maximum prior to onset of ripening, and then decreased thereafter until harvest. Complete shading of clusters increased the concentration of MIBP more than 100% compared to unshaded controls in 2 out of 3 years. Light increasingly inhibited MIBP concentrations up to 25-50% of ambient light intensities (1500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). However, only changes in light intensity before ripening had any effect on MIBP accumulation or final MIBP concentration. Analyses of weather data showed that the 1 year in which shading was ineffective was unusually warm, warm early in the season, and had more hot days and higher early season degree days than the other 2 years. In controlled environment experiments, warm growth conditions reduced MIBP concentrations in fruit about as much as light exposure reduced MIBP concentrations in the field experiments. The results indicate that both light and temperature significantly affect MIBP in harvested fruit, but that the light environment during ripening does not significantly affect MIBP concentrations in the berries at harvest. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  5. Light-induced Variation in Phenolic Compounds in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Involves Extensive Transcriptome Reprogramming of Biosynthetic Enzymes, Transcription Factors, and Phytohormonal Regulators

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    Jun Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Light environments have long been known to influence grape (Vitis vinifera L. berry development and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, and ultimately affect wine quality. Here, the accumulation and compositional changes of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs and flavonoids, as well as global gene expression were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries under sunlight exposure treatments at different phenological stages. Sunlight exposure did not consistently affect the accumulation of berry skin flavan-3-ol or anthocyanin among different seasons due to climatic variations, but increased HCA content significantly at véraison and harvest, and enhanced flavonol accumulation dramatically with its timing and severity degree trend. As in sunlight exposed berries, a highly significant correlation was observed between the expression of genes coding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate: CoA ligase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase family members and corresponding metabolite accumulation in the phenolic biosynthesis pathway, which may positively or negatively be regulated by MYB, bHLH, WRKY, AP2/EREBP, C2C2, NAC, and C2H2 transcription factors (TFs. Furthermore, some candidate genes required for auxin, ethylene and abscisic acid signal transductions were also identified which are probably involved in berry development and flavonoid biosynthesis in response to enhanced sunlight irradiation. Taken together, this study provides a valuable overview of the light-induced phenolic metabolism and transcriptome changes, especially the dynamic responses of TFs and signaling components of phytohormones, and contributes to the further understanding of sunlight-responsive phenolic biosynthesis regulation in grape berries.

  6. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Ying; Chi, Ming; Tang, Yong-Hong; Song, Chang-Zheng; Xi, Zhu-Mei; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2015-10-19

    Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG), Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP), and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK), on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant) analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3'5'-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl)-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3'5'-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3'5'/3'-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of China and potentially in

  7. Responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera to Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 and PEG-induced drought stress

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    Zhenhua eCui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStresses caused by viral diseases and drought have long threatened sustainable production of grapevine. These two stresses frequently occur simultaneously in many of grapevine growing regions of the world. We studied responses of in vitro-grown plantlets (Vitis vinifera to Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3 and PEG-induced drought stress. Results showed that stress induced by either virus infection or drought had negative effects on vegetative growth, caused significant decreases and increases in total soluble protein and free proline, respectively, induced obvious cell membrane damage and cell death, and markedly increased accumulations of O2- and H2O2. Co-stress by virus and drought had much severer effects than single stress on the said parameters. Virus infection alone did not cause significant alternations in activities of POD, ROS and SOD, and contents of MDA, which, however, markedly increased in the plantlets when grown under single drought stress and co-stress by the virus and drought. Levels of ABA increased, while those of IAA decreased in the plantlets stressed by virus infection or drought. Simultaneous stresses by the virus and drought had co-effects on the levels of ABA and IAA. Up-regulation of expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and down-regulation of expressions of IAA biosynthesis genes were responsible for the alternations of ABA and IAA levels induced by either the virus infection or drought stress and co-stress by them. Experimental strategies established in the present study using in vitro system facilitate investigations on ‘pure’ biotic and abiotic stress on plants. The results obtained here provide new insights into adverse effects of stress induced by virus and drought, in single and particularly their combination, on plants, and allow us to re-orientate agricultural managements towards sustainable development of the agriculture.

  8. Impact of water stress and nutrition on Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Albariño’: Soil-plant water relationships, cumulative effects and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M. Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to apply different systems of fertigation (rainfed, R; surface drip irrigation, DI, and subsurface drip irrigation, SDI in Vitis vinifera (L. cv. ‘Albariño’ to evaluate the cumulative effect of water stress (water stress integral on yield parameters and to establish the relationship between indices and production. The study was conducted over four years (2010-2013 in a commercial vineyard (Galicia, NW Spain. The volumetric soil water content (θ (with TDR and predawn (ψp, midday (ψm and stem (ψstem leaf-water potential were determined with a water activity meter during the growing stages (flowering-harvest from 2010-2013. The number of clusters, their weight and yield/vine were determined at harvest. Must composition was studied to evaluate nutrition treatments. Ψp is presented as the best indicator of the water status of the plant, and the sole use of θ is not recommended as a reference. The soil-plant water status variables were strongly correlated, especially between foliar variables (0.91

  9. VaCPK20, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene of wild grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr., mediates cold and drought stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovina, Alexandra S; Kiselev, Konstantin V; Khristenko, Valeriya S; Aleynova, Olga A

    2015-08-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, cold and heat, are major environmental factors that limit crop productivity. Vitis amurensis Rupr. is a wild grapevine species displaying a high level of abiotic and biotic stress resistance. Protein kinases, including Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), are known to mediate plant acclimation to various environmental changes. However, the functions of most grape CDPKs have not been clarified. A recent CDPK gene expression analysis revealed that 10 CDPK genes of V. amurensis were up-regulated under different abiotic stress treatments. The expression of the VaCPK20 gene was significantly up-regulated under low and high temperature stress in V. amurensis. In the current study, the effects of overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene in callus cell lines of V. amurensis and transgenic plants of A. thaliana on their responses to abiotic stresses were investigated. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene showed higher tolerance to freezing and drought stresses, and transgenic grape cell cultures overexpressing the VaCPK20 gene showed higher resistance to cold stress in comparison with the controls transformed by the "empty" vector. Heat and salt stress resistance of the transgenic V. amurensis calli and A. thaliana was comparable to that of the wild type and vector controls. Overexpression of the VaCPK20 gene increased the expression of stress-responsive genes, such as COR47, NHX1, KIN1, or ABF3, in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants under non-stress conditions, after freezing, and under drought stress. The results imply that VaCPK20 may act as a regulatory factor involved in cold and drought stress response pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitis labrusca extract effects on cellular dynamics and redox modulations in a SH-SY5Y neuronal cell model: a similar role to lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, Gustavo; Laliberte, Victoria Louise Marina; Kim, Helena Kyunghee; Pinguelo, Arsene; Salvador, Mirian; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress and calcium imbalance are consistently reported in bipolar disorder (BD). Polymorphism of voltage-dependent calcium channel, L type, alpha 1C subunit (CACNA1c), which is responsible for the regulation of calcium influx, was also shown to have a strong association with BD. These alterations can lead to a number of different consequences in the cell including production of reactive species causing oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Lithium is the most frequent medication used for the treatment of BD. Despite lithium's effects, long-term use can result in many negative side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of drugs that may have similar biological effects as lithium without the negative consequences. Moreover, polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants that present multi-faceted molecular abilities, such as regulation of cellular responses. Vitis labrusca extract (VLE), a complex mixture of polyphenols obtained from seeds of winery wastes of V. labrusca, was previously characterized by our group. This extract presented powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, the ability of VLE to ameliorate the consequences of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced redox alterations to cell viability, intracellular calcium levels and the relative levels of the calcium channel CACNA1c in comparison to lithium's effects were evaluated using a neuroblastoma cell model. H2O2 treatment increased cell mortality through apoptotic and necrotic pathways leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and alterations to relative CACNA1c levels. VLE and lithium were found to similarly ameliorate cell mortality through regulation of the apoptotic/necrotic pathways, decreasing intracellular calcium levels and preventing alterations to the relative levels of CACNA1c. The findings of this study suggest that VLE exhibits protective properties against oxidative stress-induced alterations similar to that of lithium

  11. Low level of pollen-mediated gene flow from cultivated to wild grapevine: consequences for the evolution of the endangered subspecies Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vecchi-Staraz, Manuel; Laucou, Valérie; Bruno, Gérard; Lacombe, Thierry; Gerber, Sophie; Bourse, Thibaut; Boselli, Maurizio; This, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    A parentage and a paternity-based approach were tested for estimation of pollen-mediated gene flow in wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris), a wind-pollinated species occurring in Mediterranean Europe and southwestern Asia. For this purpose, 305 seedlings collected in 2 years at 2 locations in France from 4 wild female individuals and 417 wild individuals prospected from France and Italy were analyzed using 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. Their profiles were compared with a database consisting of 3203 accessions from the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Vassal collection including cultivars, rootstocks, interspecific hybrids, and other wild individuals. Paternity was assigned for 202 (66.2%) of the 305 seedlings, confirming the feasibility of the method. Most of the fertilizing pollen could be assigned to wild males growing nearby. Estimates of pollen immigration from the cultivated compartment (i.e., the totality of cultivars) ranged from 4.2% to 26% from nearby vineyards and from hidden pollinators such as cultivars and rootstocks that had escaped from farms. In an open landscape, the pollen flow was correlated to the distance between individuals, the main pollinator being the closest wild male (accounting for 51.4-86.2% of the pollen flow). In a closed landscape, more complex pollination occurred. Analysis of the parentage of the 417 wild individuals also revealed relationships between nearby wild individuals, but in the case of 12 individuals (3%), analysis revealed pollen immigration from vineyards, confirming the fitness of the hybrid seedlings. These pollen fluxes may have a significant effect on the evolution of wild populations: on the one hand, the low level of pollen-mediated gene flow from cultivated to wild grapevine could contribute to a risk of extinction of the wild compartment (i.e., the totality of the wild individuals). On the other hand, pollen dispersal within the wild populations may induce inbreeding

  12. Oviposition preference and larval performance of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) infected berries of Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Z M; Raman, Anantanarayanan; Wheatley, Warwick M; Cook, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we tested the behavior of gravid Epiphyas postvittana in selecting the most-appropriate site for oviposition thus benefitting offspring performance. Our hypothesis was built on Jaenike's preference-performance hypothesis (also referred to as the "mother-knows-the-best" hypothesis). To test this, we used the interacting Epiphyas postvittana, its host Vitis vinifera, and the pathogenic microbe Botrytis cinerea system. Populations of E. postvittana and B. cinerea often exist concurrently on V. vinifera in Australasia and their interaction and mutual influence are currently being explored, although the suggestion presently is that the relationship between E. postvittana and B. cinerea is mutualistic. We tested the effect of volatiles from B. cinerea-infected berries and uninfected (control) berries of V. vinifera on the oviposition behavior of E. postvittana. We also characterized the effects of B. cinerea infection on the berries of V. vinifera on the growth and development of E. postvittana. Contrary to the preference-performance hypothesis, oviposition choices made by gravid E. postvittana did not result in the best offspring survival, development, and performance. The preference for oviposition by E. postvittana was strongly influenced by the olfactory and tactile cues. She laid fewer eggs on B. cinerea-infected berries compared to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae of E. postvittana showed no preference to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. The larvae fed on B. cinerea-infected berries of V. vinifera showing greater survival rate, shorter time to pupation, greater pupal mass, and on becoming adults they laid more numbers of eggs than the larvae that were enabled to feed on uninfected berries. The larvae of E. postvittana transport the conidia of B. cinerea and transmit grey-mould disease to uninfected berries of V. vinifera. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  14. Ectopic Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of an NB-ARC Encoding Putative Disease Resistance Gene from Wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata Enhances Resistance to Phytopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng eWen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant resistance proteins mediate pathogen recognition and activate innate immune responses to restrict pathogen proliferation. One common feature of these proteins is an NB-ARC domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a protein with an NB-ARC domain from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession Baihe-35-1, which was identified in a transcriptome analysis of the leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator (Schw., a causal agent of powdery mildew. Transcript levels of this gene, designated VpCN (GenBank accession number KT265084, increased strongly after challenge of grapevine leaves with E. necator. The deduced amino acid sequence was predicted to contain an NB-ARC domain in the C-terminus and an RxCC-like domain similar to CC domain of Rx protein in the N-terminus. Ectopic expression of VpCN in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type phenotype or a dwarf phenotype. The phenotypically normal transgenic A. thaliana showed enhance resistance to A. thaliana powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Moreover, promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase analysis revealed that powdery mildew infection induced the promoter activity of VpCN in grapevine leaves. Finally, a promoter deletion analysis showed that TC rich repeat elements likely play an important role in the response to E. necator infection. Taken together, our results suggest that VpCN contribute to powdery mildew disease resistant in grapevine.

  15. Neuroprotection of the leaf and stem of Vitis amurensis and their active compounds against ischemic brain damage in rats and excitotoxicity in cultured neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Youn; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Kim, SeungHwan; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Bae, KiHwan; Seong, Yeon Hee

    2012-01-15

    Vitis amurensis (Vitaceae) has been reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study investigated a methanol extract from the leaf and stem of V. amurensis for neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemic damage in rats and on excitotoxicity induced by glutamate in cultured rat cortical neurons. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 2h middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24h reperfusion (MCAO/reperfusion) in rats. Orally administered V. amurensis (25-100 mg/kg) reduced MCAO/reperfusion-induced infarct and edema formation, neurological deficits, and neuronal death. Depletion of glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation induced by MCAO/reperfusion was inhibited by administration of V. amurensis. The increase of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and pro-apoptotic proteins and the decrease of anti-apoptotic protein in MCAO/reperfusion rats were significantly inhibited by treatment with V. amurensis. Exposure of cultured cortical neurons to 500 μM glutamate for 12h induced neuronal cell death. V. amurensis (1-50 μg/ml) and (+)-ampelopsin A, γ-2-viniferin, and trans-ε-viniferin isolated from the leaf and stem of V. amurensis inhibited glutamate-induced neuronal death, the elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and changes of apoptosis-related proteins in cultured cortical neurons, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of V. amurensis may be partially attributed to these compounds. These results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of V. amurensis against focal cerebral ischemic injury might be due to its anti-apoptotic effect, resulting from anti-excitotoxic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects and that the leaf and stem of V. amurensis have possible therapeutic roles for preventing neurodegeneration in stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Supplementation with Vitis vinifera L. skin extract improves insulin resistance and prevents hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice.

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    Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Carvalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; da Rocha, Ana Paula Machado; da Costa, Gisele França; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro

    2017-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. The Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract (ACH09) is an important source of polyphenols, which are related to its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities. We hypothesized that ACH09 could also exert beneficial effects on metabolic disorders associated with obesity and evaluated ACH09's influence on high-fat (HF) diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were fed a standard diet (10% fat, control) or an HF diet (60% fat, HF) with or without ACH09 (200mg/[kg d]) for 12weeks. Our results showed that ACH09 reduced HF diet-induced body weight gain, prevented hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects of ACH09 may involve the activation of hepatic insulin-signaling pathway because the expression of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phosphorylated Akt serine/threonine kinase 1, and glucose transporter 2 was increased by ACH09 and correlated with improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. ACH09 reduced the expression of the lipogenic factor sterol regulatory-element binding protein-1c in the liver and upregulated the lipolytic pathway (phosphorylated liver kinase B1/phosphorylated adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase), which was associated with normal hepatic levels of triglyceride and cholesterol and prevention of steatosis. ACH09 prevented the hepatic oxidative damage in HF diet-fed mice probably by restoration of antioxidant activity. In conclusion, ACH09 protected mice from HF diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. The regulation of hepatic insulin signaling pathway, lipogenesis, and oxidative stress may contribute to ACH09's protective effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of the application of a coating composed of chitosan and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil to control Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger in grapes (Vitis labrusca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Nereide Serafim Timóteo; Athayde Aguiar, Ana Júlia Alves; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Veríssimo de Sales, Camila; de Melo E Silva, Silvanda; Sousa da Silva, Rosana; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combined application of chitosan (CHI) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OV) in the inhibition of Rhizopus stolonifer URM 3728 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 on laboratory media and on grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) and its influence on the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the fruits during storage (25 °C, 12 days and 12 °C, 24 days). The application of mixtures of different CHI and OV concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungi. The application of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations (CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/4 MIC; CHI 1/2 MIC + OV 1/2 MIC) inhibited spore germination and caused morphological changes in fungal spores and mycelia, in addition to inhibiting the growth of the assayed fungi strains in artificially infected grapes as well as the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperature. In general, the application of a coating composed of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical and physicochemical attributes, while some of their sensory attributes improved throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of CHI and OV at sub-inhibitory concentrations to control post-harvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, in particular, R. stolonifer and A. niger in grapes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effect of shading on accumulation of flavonoid compounds in (Vitis vinifera L.) pinot noir fruit and extraction in a model system.

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    Cortell, Jessica M; Kennedy, James A

    2006-11-01

    Accumulation and compositional changes of flavonols, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins were measured in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir in shaded and exposed treatments. In addition, extraction of these compounds into a model wine solution was measured. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard within a uniform zone of relatively low vigor vines. Light exclusion boxes were installed on pairs of clusters on the same shoot (shaded treatment), and a second set of clusters on an adjacent shoot were labeled as the exposed treatment. Fruit samples were harvested at the onset of ripening (véraison) and at commercial harvest. Cluster shading resulted in a substantial decrease in mg/berry accumulation of flavonols and skin proanthocyanidins and minimal differences in anthocyanins. In analyzing seed proanthocyanidins by phloroglucinolysis, shaded and exposed treatments were similar at véraison; however, by harvest, the shaded treatment had higher extension and terminal subunits (nmol/seed) as compared to the exposed treatment. For skin proanthocyanidins, shaded fruit was lower for all subunits (nmol/berry) at both véraison and harvest. Shading caused an increase in the proportion of (-)-epicatechin and a decrease in (-)-epigallocatechin at harvest in skin extension subunits. Seed proanthocyanidins in shaded fruit contained a lower proportion of (+)-catechin and a higher proportion of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate in extension subunits and a lower proportion of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate and a higher proportion of (-)-epicatechin in terminal subunits. For anthocyanins, the shaded treatment had a proportional reduction in delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin and a large increase in peonidin glucosides. The model extractions from the two treatments paralleled differences in the fruit with a lower concentration of flavonols, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins in the shaded treatment. The skin proanthocyanidin percent extraction was found

  20. The contribution of flowering time and seed content to uneven ripening initiation among fruits within Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir clusters.

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    Vondras, Amanda M; Gouthu, Satyanarayana; Schmidt, Joseph A; Petersen, Anna-Rose; Deluc, Laurent G

    2016-05-01

    Ripening initiation-associated hormonal changes and sugar accumulation for individual fruits differed by seed content and did not depend heavily on flowering time or duration from anthesis to clusters' onset of ripening. For Vitis vinifera, the ripening initiation of individual fruits in a cluster occurs unevenly. This developmental period is called véraison. Why individual fruits initiate ripening at different times is not well studied, though differences in seed content and unequal developmental durations that arise from asynchronous flowering within a cluster have been proposed. This study examined how much both variables contribute to individual fruits' ripening progress by mid-véraison, when half of berries in a cluster have initiated ripening, and whether either or both factors affect the timing of characteristic, ripening-initiation associated changes in abscisic acid and auxin before, at, and after véraison. Overall, developmental duration and flowering time did not sufficiently explain how far berries had progressed into the ripening stage because fruits did not require a fixed amount of time to initiate ripening. Fruits from early and late flowers but of similar seed content were able to initiate ripening at the same time despite differences in chronological age. This suggests either an early developmental enhancement occurred for late-initiated fruits or that flowering time is an inappropriate "day zero". Ultimately, only seed content was linked to the timing and magnitude of ripening-related hormone changes, supporting that seeds have a comparatively larger influence than flowering time on the ripening initiation of individual berries. More specifically, if the fraction of berry weight occupied by seed was high, then the initiation of ripening for that berry and its associated hormone changes were delayed relative to berries with less seed weight versus total berry weight.

  1. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

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    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  2. Expressão transiente do gene gus, sob regulação de quatro promotores, em diferentes tecidos de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e videira (Vitis sp. Transient expression of the gus gene, under the regulation of four promoters, on different tissues of papaya (Carica papaya l. and grape (Vitis sp.

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    Adelar Almeida Pinto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. e a videira (Vitis vinifera L. destacam-se entre as fruteiras produzidas no Brasil por serem plantadas em quase todo o território nacional e apresentarem importância econômica e social. A tecnologia de produção de organismos geneticamente modificados, também conhecidos como "transgênicos", tem grande potencial de uso no desenvolvimento de fruteiras melhoradas. Porém, questões de propriedade intelectual limitam o uso da engenharia genética por países em desenvolvimento, que normalmente não detêm direitos sobre processos ou produtos necessários ao uso desta. Neste contexto, o presente estudo buscou avaliar promotores de expressão gênica alternativos ao CaMV 35S, que é o mais utilizado no desenvolvimento de transgênicos, mas é patenteado. Para tanto, construções gênicas com o gene gus sob a regulação de diferentes promotores foram testadas para expressão transiente em diversos tecidos de mamoeiro e videira. Expressão transiente foi avaliada em embriões somáticos, folhas, caules, raízes e frutos. O promotor do gene UBQ3, que é constitutivo e se encontra em domínio publico, mostrou ser uma alternativa promissora para futuros trabalhos de transformação genética de mamoeiro, mas não de videira.Papaya (Carica papaya L. and grapes (Vitis vinifera L. are among the most important fruit crops produced in Brazil, and are cultivated in several regions around the country being of economical and social importance. Genetic engineering has great potential on the development of genetically improved fruit crops. However, intellectual property issues constantly limit the commercial use of this technology in developing countries. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate gene promoters as alternatives to the 35S CaMV, which is the most used so far in the development of transgenic plants, but it is patented. In order to do that, the expression of the gus gene under the regulation of distinct promoters was

  3. Efecto de la concentración de sacarosa en la producción de antocianinas a partir de cultivos celulares de Vitis vinifera L. var. red globe

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    Antonieta Miñano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de Vitis vinifera «vid» constituye una de las actividades agrícolas de mayor importancia en nuestra alimentación y en la medicina por presentar unos compuestos bioactivos llamados antocianinas conocidas por tener propiedades antioxidantes, anticancerígenas y cardiotónicas. Con la finalidad de aportar con una alternativa diferente a su extracción tradicional se estableció un sistema de cultivos celulares en suspensión con el propósito de determinar la concentración óptima de sacarosa para obtener mayor producción de antocianinas a partir de cultivos celulares de Vitis vinifera «vid» var. red globe. Se adicionaron diferentes concentraciones de sacarosa (0 mM, 58 mM, 132 mM y 175 mM al medio de cultivo basal (MB suplementado con concentraciones separadas de ácido naftalenacético y kinetina como medio inductor (MI. El contenido de antocianinas aumentó a medida que se incrementó la concentración de sacarosa (132 mM en el medio de cultivo, encontrándose diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos.

  4. The Chinese wild grapevine (Vitis pseudoreticulata) E3 ubiquitin ligase Erysiphe necator-induced RING finger protein 1 (EIRP1) activates plant defense responses by inducing proteolysis of the VpWRKY11 transcription factor.

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    Yu, Yihe; Xu, Weirong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Lei; Yao, Wenkong; Yang, Yazhou; Xu, Yan; Ma, Fuli; Du, Yangjian; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-11-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated regulation responds rapidly to specific stimuli; this rapidity is particularly important for defense responses to pathogen attack. Here, we investigated the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Erysiphe necator-induced RING finger protein 1 (EIRP1) in the defense response of Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata. The regulatory function of E3 ubiquitin ligase EIRP1 was investigated using molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches. EIRP1 encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting New Gene (RING) finger protein that harbors E3 ligase activity. This activity requires the conserved RING domain, and VpWRKY11 also interacts with EIRP1 through the RING domain. VpWRKY11 localizes to the nucleus and activates W-box-dependent transcription in planta. EIRP1 targeted VpWRKY11 in vivo, resulting in VpWRKY11 degradation. The expression of EIRP1 and VpWRKY11 responds rapidly to powdery mildew in Vitis pseudoreticulata grapevine; also, overexpression of EIRP1 in Arabidopsis confers enhanced resistance to the pathogens Golovinomyces cichoracearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Our data suggest that the EIRP1 E3 ligase positively regulates plant disease resistance by mediating proteolysis of the negative regulator VpWRKY11 via degradation by the 26S proteasome. © 2013 College of Horticulture. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Changes in transcription of cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries are associated with the ripening-related increase in isopentenyladenine.

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    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-09-16

    Cytokinins are known to play an important role in fruit set and early fruit growth, but their involvement in later stages of fruit development is less well understood. Recent reports of greatly increased cytokinin concentrations in the flesh of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson) and grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) have suggested that these hormones are implicated in the control of ripening-related processes. A similar pattern of isopentenyladenine (iP) accumulation was observed in the ripening fruit of several grapevine cultivars, strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), suggesting a common, ripening-related role for this cytokinin. Significant differences in maximal iP concentrations between grapevine cultivars and between fruit species might reflect varying degrees of relevance or functional adaptations of this hormone in the ripening process. Grapevine orthologues of five Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) gene families involved in cytokinin metabolism and signalling were identified and analysed for their expression in developing grape berries and a range of other grapevine tissues. Members of each gene family were characterised by distinct expression profiles during berry development and in different grapevine organs, suggesting a complex regulation of cellular cytokinin activities throughout the plant. The post-veraison-specific expression of a set of biosynthesis, activation, perception and signalling genes together with a lack of expression of degradation-related genes during the ripening phase were indicative of a local control of berry iP concentrations leading to the observed accumulation of iP in ripening grapes. The transcriptional analysis of grapevine genes involved in cytokinin production, degradation and response has provided a possible explanation for the ripening-associated accumulation of iP in grapes and other fruit. The pre- and post-veraison-specific expression of

  6. Functional Annotation, Genome Organization and Phylogeny of the Grapevine (Vitis vinifera Terpene Synthase Gene Family Based on Genome Assembly, FLcDNA Cloning, and Enzyme Assays

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    Toub Omid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Terpenoids are among the most important constituents of grape flavour and wine bouquet, and serve as useful metabolite markers in viticulture and enology. Based on the initial 8-fold sequencing of a nearly homozygous Pinot noir inbred line, 89 putative terpenoid synthase genes (VvTPS were predicted by in silico analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome assembly 1. The finding of this very large VvTPS family, combined with the importance of terpenoid metabolism for the organoleptic properties of grapevine berries and finished wines, prompted a detailed examination of this gene family at the genomic level as well as an investigation into VvTPS biochemical functions. Results We present findings from the analysis of the up-dated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome that place the number of predicted VvTPS genes at 69 putatively functional VvTPS, 20 partial VvTPS, and 63 VvTPS probable pseudogenes. Gene discovery and annotation included information about gene architecture and chromosomal location. A dense cluster of 45 VvTPS is localized on chromosome 18. Extensive FLcDNA cloning, gene synthesis, and protein expression enabled functional characterization of 39 VvTPS; this is the largest number of functionally characterized TPS for any species reported to date. Of these enzymes, 23 have unique functions and/or phylogenetic locations within the plant TPS gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of the TPS gene family showed that while most VvTPS form species-specific gene clusters, there are several examples of gene orthology with TPS of other plant species, representing perhaps more ancient VvTPS, which have maintained functions independent of speciation. Conclusions The highly expanded VvTPS gene family underpins the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine. We provide a detailed experimental functional annotation of 39 members of this important gene family in grapevine and comprehensive information

  7. Comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir and Japanese indigenous V. vinifera L. cv. Koshu grape berries

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    Arita, Kayo; Honma, Taro

    2017-01-01

    Vitis vinifera cv. Koshu is an indigenous grape cultivar that has been cultivated for more than a thousand years in Japan and one of the most important cultivars in white winemaking. To improve Koshu wine quality, it is necessary to identify the metabolites in Koshu berry. We conducted a comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Koshu and Pinot Noir berries cultivated in the same location in Japan using GC-MS/MS for fatty acids and LC-MS for glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. Koshu skins and juices contained 22 and 19 fatty acids, respectively, whereas 23 and 20 fatty acids were detected in Pinot Noir skins and juices. C22:6n3 and C24:0 contents in Koshu skins were two and three times higher than those in Pinot Noir skins. C24:0 content in Koshu juices was also higher than that in Pinot Noir juices. Forty-nine lipid components (six digalactosyldiacylglycerols, one monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, 10 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines, and 20 triglycerides) were detected in Pinot Noir and Koshu skins. Strong peaks were observed for MGDG 36:6, DGDG 36:6, PC 34:2, PC 36:5, TG 54:6, TG 54:7, and TG 54:8 in Koshu skins. The contents of 36 of the 49 lipid components were significantly higher in Pinot Noir skins than Koshu skins. Pinot Noir skins contained more lipids whose alkyl chains have more than 18 carbons than Koshu skins. Further analysis of both lipid profiles revealed that the number of double bonds in a fatty acid molecule in Pinot Noir skins and juices was significantly larger than that in Koshu skins and juices. A strong relationship exists between the heat requirement of grapevine cultivars and the level of fatty acid desaturation. C18-fatty acids were the major components in Koshu and Pinot Noir berries. The expression levels of C18-fatty acid desaturases regulated the accumulation of C18-unsaturated fatty acids in berry skins. The loss of C18:3 in Koshu berries at the end of ripening was observed. Koshu might effectively convert

  8. Solid phase microextraction as a reliable alternative to conventional extraction techniques to evaluate the pattern of hydrolytically released components in Vitis vinifera L. grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S

    2012-06-15

    In present research, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-qMS), was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the commonly used liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique for the establishment of the pattern of hydrolytically released components of 7 Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties, commonly used to produce the world-famous Madeira wine. Since there is no data available on their glycosidic fractions, at a first step, two hydrolyse procedures, acid and enzymatic, were carried out using Boal grapes as matrix. Several parameters susceptible of influencing the hydrolytic process were studied. The best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified components and reproducibility, were obtained using ProZym M with b-glucosidase activity at 35°C for 42h. For the extraction of hydrolytically released components, HS-SPME technique was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the conventional extraction technique, LLE (ethyl acetate). HS-SPME using DVB/CAR/PDMS as coating fiber displayed an extraction capacity two fold higher than LLE (ethyl acetate). The hydrolyzed fraction was mainly characterized by the occurrence of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, followed by acids, esters, carbonyl compounds, terpenoids, and volatile phenols. Concerning to terpenoids its contribution to the total hydrolyzed fraction is highest for Malvasia Cândida (23%) and Malvasia Roxa (13%), and their presence according previous studies, even at low concentration, is important from a sensorial point of view (can impart floral notes to the wines), due to their low odor threshold (μg/L). According to the obtained data by principal component analysis (PCA), the sensorial properties of Madeira wines produced by Malvasia Cândida and Malvasia Roxa could be improved by hydrolysis procedure, since their hydrolyzed fraction is mainly characterized by terpenoids (e.g. linalool, geraniol) which are responsible

  9. Resistência induzida em frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis Labrusca e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade pós-colheita

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    Kedma Maria Silva Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A indução de resistência tem sido apontada como alternativa sustentável para o manejo de doenças, mas pouco se sabe sobre a interferência de tais produtos na qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a produção e a maturação de frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca, oriundos de plantas tratadas com elicitores de resistência, em Natuba-PB. Os experimentos foram realizados nos períodos de setembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 (safra 1 e de fevereiro a junho de 2010 (safra 2. Foram utilizados oito tratamentos (Testemunha; Fungicida (Metiram + Piraclostrobina; Fosfito de potássio; Agro-Mós®; Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio; Fungicida + Agro-Mós®; Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e quatro repetições de 5 plantas. As aplicações foram realizadas a cada 10 dias, iniciando-se 20 dias após a poda, totalizando 12 aplicações. As coletas de frutos foram realizadas aos 45; 60;90 e 120 dias após a poda. As variáveis analisadas foram: massa dos cachos, comprimento e diâmetro dos cachos, rendimento de polpa, sólidos solúveis (SS, pH, acidez titulável (AT e relação SS/AT. O tratamento com fosfito de potássio promoveu o aumento de 24% no comprimento dos cachos, em relação à testemunha, na primeira safra. O rendimento de polpa e a relação SS/AT não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, e o teor de sólidos solúveis foi influenciado positivamente pela aplicação de fosfito de potássio, com incrementos superiores a 60%, em ambas as safras avaliadas.

  10. Effect of Three Training Systems on Grapes in a Wet Region of China: Yield, Incidence of Disease and Anthocyanin Compositions of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

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    Mei-Ying Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine training systems determine the suitability for grape varieties in a specific growing region. We evaluated the influence of three training systems, Single Guyot (SG, Spur-pruned Vertical Shoot-Positioned (VSP, and Four-Arm Kniffin (4AK, on the performance of grapes and vines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons in a wet region of central China. 4AK was the most productive system in comparison to SG and VSP. SG and VSP had lower disease infections of leaves and berries, especially in the mid- and final stage of berry ripening. Three training systems had no impact on berry maturity. PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis showed that the relatively dry vintage could well discriminate three training systems, but the wet vintage was not. A wet vintage of 2013 had more accumulation of 3′5′-substituted and acylated anthocyanins, including malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-(cis-6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, etc. With regard to the effect of training systems, 4AK grapes had the lowest concentrations of total anthocyanins and individual anthocyanins, SG and VSP differed according to the different vintages, and showed highest concentration of total individual anthocyanins in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Generally, VSP benefited the most, contributing to significantly highest levels of total individual anthocyanins, and major anthocyanin, including malvidin-3-O-glucoside and malvidin-3-O-(6-O-acetyl-glucoside, and the grapes obtained from VSP presented significantly highest proportion of 3′5′-substituted anthocyanins. With regard to the ratios of 3′5′/3′-substituted, methoxylated/non-methoxylated and acylated/non-acylated anthocyanins, the significantly higher levels were also shown in VSP system. In summary, VSP was the best training system for Cabernet Sauvignon to accumulate relatively stable individual anthocyanins in this wet region of

  11. Somatic embryogenesis from seeds in a broad range of Vitis vinifera L. varieties: rescue of true-to-type virus-free plants.

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    San Pedro, Tània; Gammoudi, Najet; Peiró, Rosa; Olmos, Antonio; Gisbert, Carmina

    2017-11-29

    Somatic embryogenesis is the preferred method for cell to plant regeneration in Vitis vinifera L. However, low frequencies of plant embryo conversion are commonly found. In a previous work we obtained from cut-seeds of a grapevine infected with the Grapevine leafroll associated viruses 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3), high rates of direct regeneration, embryo plant conversion and sanitation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of this procedure for regeneration of other grapevine varieties which include some infected with one to three common grapevine viruses (GLRaV-3, Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV)). As grapevine is highly heterozygous, it was necessary to select from among the virus-free plants those that regenerated from mother tissues around the embryo, (true-to-type). Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration were achieved in a first experiment, using cut-seeds from the 14 grapevine varieties Airén, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Mencía, Merlot, Monastrell, Petit Verdot, Pinot Blanc (infected by GFLV and GFkV), Pinot Gris, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Tempranillo (infected by GFLV), and Verdil. All regenerated plants were confirmed to be free of GFkV whereas at least 68% sanitation was obtained for GFLV. The SSR profiles of the virus-free plants showed, in both varieties, around 10% regeneration from mother tissue (the same genetic make-up as the mother plant). In a second experiment, this procedure was used to sanitize the varieties Cabernet Franc, Godello, Merlot and Valencí Blanc infected by GLRaV-3, GFkV and/or GFLV. Cut-seeds can be used as explants for embryogenesis induction and plant conversion in a broad range of grapevine varieties. The high regeneration rates obtained with this procedure facilitate the posterior selection of true-to-type virus-free plants. A sanitation rate of 100% was obtained for GFkV as this virus is not seed-transmitted. However, the presence of GLRaV-3 and GFLV in

  12. Effect of osmotic stress and post-stress recovery on the content of phenolics and properties of antioxidants in germinating seeds of grapevine Vitis californica

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    Stanisław Weidner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The tested material consisted of grapevine Vitis californica stratified seeds germinated under optimum conditions (+25°C in water, under osmotic stress (-0.2 MPa in PEG solution and submitted to recovery after stress (+25°C in water. The germinating seeds were determined to contain tannins, catechins and the following phenolic acids: gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic. The acids occurred in free, ester- and glycoside-bound forms. The dominant form of phenolic acids was the ester-bound fraction. Gallic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid in germinating seeds, while ferulic acid appeared in the smallest amounts. Our analysis of tannins demonstrated that osmotic stress depressed their concentration. Presence of catechin group compounds such as catechin and epicatechin was also determined. In each sample epicatechin was dominant. The total concentration of catechin increased under stress conditions and declined during post-stress recovery. Catechins are a constituent of tannins and their increase under osmotic stress is most probably caused by the breakdown of some tannins in seeds germinating under stress conditions. Samples submitted to osmotic stress were also found to contain less of total phenolic compounds, whereas in samples which underwent post-stress recovery the total level of phenolic compounds increased. Compared to extracts from seeds germinating under optimum conditions, osmotic stress depressed the capacity of extract to scavenge DPPH● (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ABTS●+ – 2,2-Azino-bis (3-etylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals, but the antioxidant activity rose in seeds submitted to recovery after stress. Positive correlation was therefore demonstrated between the total content of phenolic acids in germinating grapevine seeds and the reducing power of extracts obtained from these seeds and their free radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that osmotic stress inhibits the activity of

  13. Different exogenous sugars affect the hormone signal pathway and sugar metabolism in "Red Globe" (Vitis vinifera L.) plantlets grown in vitro as shown by transcriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Juan; Li, Wenfang; Mi, Baoqin; Dawuda, Mohammed Mujitaba; Calderón-Urrea, Alejandro; Ma, Zonghuan; Zhang, Yongmei; Chen, Baihong

    2017-09-01

    Exogenously applied 2% fructose is the most appropriate carbon source that enhances photosynthesis and growth of grape plantlets compared with the same concentrations of sucrose and glucose. The role of the sugars was regulated by the expression of key candidate genes related to hormones, key metabolic enzymes, and sugar metabolism of grape plantlets ( Vitis vinifera L.) grown in vitro. The addition of sugars including sucrose, glucose, and fructose is known to be very helpful for the development of grape (V. vinifera L.) plantlets in vitro. However, the mechanisms by which these sugars regulate plant development and sugar metabolism are poorly understood. In grape plantlets, sugar metabolism and hormone synthesis undergo special regulation. In the present study, transcriptomic analyses were performed on grape (V. vinifera L., cv. Red Globe) plantlets in an in vitro system, in which the plantlets were grown in 2% each of sucrose (S20), glucose (G20), and fructose (F20). The sugar metabolism and hormone synthesis of the plantlets were analyzed. In addition, 95.72-97.29% high-quality 125 bp reads were further analyzed out of which 52.65-60.80% were mapped to exonic regions, 13.13-28.38% to intronic regions, and 11.59-28.99% to intergenic regions. The F20, G20, and S20 displayed elevated sucrose synthase (SS) activities; relative chlorophyll contents; Rubisco activity; and IAA and zeatin (ZT) contents. We found F20 improved the growth and development of the plantlets better than G20 and S20. Sugar metabolism was a complex process, which depended on the balanced expression of key potential candidate genes related to hormones (TCP15, LOG3, IPT3, ETR1, HK2, HK3, CKX7, SPY, GH3s, MYBH, AGB1, MKK2, PP2C, PYL, ABF, SnRK, etc.), key metabolic enzymes (SUS, SPS, A/V-INV, and G6PDH), and sugar metabolism (BETAFRUCT4 and AMY). Moreover, sugar and starch metabolism controls the generation of plant hormone transduction pathway signaling molecules. Our dataset advances our

  14. [Biology, thermal requirements and fertility life table of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Italia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rodrigo C F; de Oliveira, José V; Haji, Francisca N P; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2006-01-01

    The mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) constitutes one of the main pest of grape crop at the Submédio São Francisco Valley. The objective of this work was to study the biology of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), to determine its thermal requirements and its fertility life table in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Italy. Acclimatized chambers (BOD) were used, adjusted to the temperatures of 18, 22, 25, 28 and 32 degrees C, relative humidity of 65 +/- 10% and alternated light of 12h. Egg-adult period was 3.4 and 6.8 days for males and 3.5 and 7.4 days for females, respectively at 32 degrees C and 18 degrees C. At the temperatures of 18, 25 and 32 degrees C, each female deposited, respectively, 16.5, 44.3 and 13.3 eggs. The stages of egg, larva and pupa and egg-adult period presented, respectively, thermal thresholds of 11.23, 9.45, 12.19, and 9.71 degrees C and thermal constant of 28.51, 14.59, 8.33, and 62.73 degrees-day. The mean duration of one generation (T) was 25.6, 10.8 and 8.2 days, respectively, at the temperatures of 18, 25 and 32 degrees C. The net reproductive rate (R0) at the temperature of 25 degrees C was the highest, corresponding to an increase of 30.12 times at each generation. The intrinsic rate of population increase (rm) was 0.10 (18 degrees C), 0.31 (25 degrees C) and 0.12 (32 degrees C) and the finite ratio of population increase (lambda) was 1.10 (18 degrees C), 1.36 (25 degrees C) and 1.13 (32 degrees C). According to the mean temperature values, P. latus can have 95 and 99 generations/year, respectively, for the municipal districts of Petrolina, PE and Juazeiro, BA.

  15. Comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir and Japanese indigenous V. vinifera L. cv. Koshu grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Kayo; Honma, Taro; Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-01-01

    Vitis vinifera cv. Koshu is an indigenous grape cultivar that has been cultivated for more than a thousand years in Japan and one of the most important cultivars in white winemaking. To improve Koshu wine quality, it is necessary to identify the metabolites in Koshu berry. We conducted a comprehensive and comparative lipidome analysis of Koshu and Pinot Noir berries cultivated in the same location in Japan using GC-MS/MS for fatty acids and LC-MS for glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. Koshu skins and juices contained 22 and 19 fatty acids, respectively, whereas 23 and 20 fatty acids were detected in Pinot Noir skins and juices. C22:6n3 and C24:0 contents in Koshu skins were two and three times higher than those in Pinot Noir skins. C24:0 content in Koshu juices was also higher than that in Pinot Noir juices. Forty-nine lipid components (six digalactosyldiacylglycerols, one monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, 10 phosphatidylcholines, 12 phosphatidylethanolamines, and 20 triglycerides) were detected in Pinot Noir and Koshu skins. Strong peaks were observed for MGDG 36:6, DGDG 36:6, PC 34:2, PC 36:5, TG 54:6, TG 54:7, and TG 54:8 in Koshu skins. The contents of 36 of the 49 lipid components were significantly higher in Pinot Noir skins than Koshu skins. Pinot Noir skins contained more lipids whose alkyl chains have more than 18 carbons than Koshu skins. Further analysis of both lipid profiles revealed that the number of double bonds in a fatty acid molecule in Pinot Noir skins and juices was significantly larger than that in Koshu skins and juices. A strong relationship exists between the heat requirement of grapevine cultivars and the level of fatty acid desaturation. C18-fatty acids were the major components in Koshu and Pinot Noir berries. The expression levels of C18-fatty acid desaturases regulated the accumulation of C18-unsaturated fatty acids in berry skins. The loss of C18:3 in Koshu berries at the end of ripening was observed. Koshu might effectively convert

  16. Differential roles for VviGST1, VviGST3 and VviGST4 in proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin transport in Vitis vinífera

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    Ricardo Pérez-Díaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In plant cells, flavonoids are synthesized in the cytosol and then are transported and accumulated in the vacuole. Glutathione S-transferase-mediated transport has been proposed as a mechanism involved in flavonoid transport however whether binding of flavonoids to GST or their transport is glutathione-dependent is not well understood. Glutathione S-transferases from Vitis vinífera (VviGSTs have been associated with the transport of anthocyanins, however their ability to transport other flavonoids such as proanthocyanidins (PAs has not been established. Following bioinformatics approaches, we analyzed the capability of VviGST1, VviGST3, VviGST4 and Arabidopsis TT19 to bind different flavonoids. Analyses of protein-ligand interactions indicate that these GSTs can bind glutathione and monomers of anthocyanin, PAs and flavonols. A total or partial overlap of the binding sites for glutathione and flavonoids was found in VviGST1, and a similar condition was observed in VviGST3 using anthocyanin and flavonols as ligands, whereas VviGST4 and TT19 have both sites for GSH and flavonoids separated. To validate the bioinformatics predictions, functional complementation assays using the Arabidopsis tt19 mutant were performed. Overexpression of VviGST3 in tt19-1 specifically rescued the dark seed coat phenotype associated to correct PA transport, which correlated with higher binding affinity for PA precursors. VviGST4, originally characterized as an anthocyanin-related GST, complemented both the anthocyanin and PA deposition, resembling the function of TT19. By contrast, VviGST1 only partially rescued the normal seed color. Furthermore the expression pattern of these VviGSTs showed that each of these genes could be associated with the accumulation of different flavonoids in specific tissues during grapevine fruit development. These results provide new insights into GST-mediated PA transport in grapevine and suggest that VviGSTs present different

  17. Differential Roles for VviGST1, VviGST3, and VviGST4 in Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Transport in Vitis vinífera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Ricardo; Madrid-Espinoza, José; Salinas-Cornejo, Josselyn; González-Villanueva, Enrique; Ruiz-Lara, Simón

    2016-01-01

    In plant cells, flavonoids are synthesized in the cytosol and then are transported and accumulated in the vacuole. Glutathione S-transferase-mediated transport has been proposed as a mechanism involved in flavonoid transport, however, whether binding of flavonoids to glutathione S-transferase (GST) or their transport is glutathione-dependent is not well understood. Glutathione S-transferases from Vitis vinífera (VviGSTs) have been associated with the transport of anthocyanins, however, their ability to transport other flavonoids such as proanthocyanidins (PAs) has not been established. Following bioinformatics approaches, we analyzed the capability of VviGST1, VviGST3, VviGST4, and Arabidopsis TT19 to bind different flavonoids. Analyses of protein-ligand interactions indicate that these GSTs can bind glutathione and monomers of anthocyanin, PAs and flavonols. A total or partial overlap of the binding sites for glutathione and flavonoids was found in VviGST1, and a similar condition was observed in VviGST3 using anthocyanin and flavonols as ligands, whereas VviGST4 and TT19 have both sites for GSH and flavonoids separated. To validate the bioinformatics predictions, functional complementation assays using the Arabidopsis tt19 mutant were performed. Overexpression of VviGST3 in tt19-1 specifically rescued the dark seed coat phenotype associated to correct PA transport, which correlated with higher binding affinity for PA precursors. VviGST4, originally characterized as an anthocyanin-related GST, complemented both the anthocyanin and PA deposition, resembling the function of TT19. By contrast, VviGST1 only partially rescued the normal seed color. Furthermore the expression pattern of these VviGSTs showed that each of these genes could be associated with the accumulation of different flavonoids in specific tissues during grapevine fruit development. These results provide new insights into GST-mediated PA transport in grapevine and suggest that VviGSTs present

  18. A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Clinical Trial on Effects of a Vitis vinifera Extract on Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Adults

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    Gioacchino Calapai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gradual population aging is creating a new set of needs in the general population. Memory capacity decreases with age, and memory deficits are considered an early symptom of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, one of the most prevalent cognitive disorders in older people. Numerous studies have shown that grape polyphenolic compounds (GPs are able to attenuate cognitive impairment and reduce brain lesions in experimental AD animal models. These GP effects are associated with improvement in brain antioxidant status and prevention of free radical-induced neuronal damage. We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to investigate the potential beneficial effects of a Vitis vinifera-based dietary supplement on cognitive function and neuropsychological status in healthy older adults.Methods: One-hundred eleven subjects were recruited and randomly divided in two groups: one group received the V. vinifera-based dietary supplement Cognigrape® for 12 weeks (250 mg/day and the second group received placebo over the same period of time. Before and after the end of the supplementation period, cognitive function and neuropsychological status were evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS, and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS evaluations.Results: MMSE scores were significantly improved after supplementation with Cognigrape® in comparison with baseline levels (p < 0.0001 and placebo (r = 0.59, 0.95% CI 0.11, 1.22; p < 0.0001. Cognigrape® supplementation produced a significant reduction in BDI (-15.8% and HARS (-24.9% scores with respect to baseline levels (p < 0.0001 and placebo (p < 0.0001 for BDI and p < 0.05 for HARS. RBANS total score was significantly improved by Cognigrape® with respect to baseline levels and placebo (r = 0.55, 0.95% CI 0.48, 6.07; p < 0.0001. The comparison with the placebo

  19. Commercial Digital Camera to Estimate Postharvest Leaf Area Index in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon on a Vertical Trellis Uso de una Cámara Digital Comercial para Estimar el Índice de Área Foliar en Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon en Poscosecha Conducida en Espaldera Vertical

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    Miguel Espinosa L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The leaf area index (LAI of a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon located in the commune of Cauquenes, Maule Region in Chile, was estimated from digital images obtained with a commercial camera using two indirect methods: Leaf Area Gap and Brightness (LAGB and -Photogrammetric Leaf Area Quantification System (PLAQS. The latter requires deleafing of the grapevine. In a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI map, three points of vine vigor were selected: high, medium, and low for which horizontal and vertical images were obtained. Images were filtered with the Arc View GIS 3.1 program to provide only leaf images and corresponding pixel numbers. Image area and square meters per linear meter were calculated. The best models were selected from  three linear regression adjustments: i LAI of LAGB vertical images of with LAI of PLAQS, ii LAI of PLAQS horizontal images with and, iii LAI of both types of images with PLAQS. The parameters in all models were significant. Adjustment between the LAGB and PLAQS vertical images provides greater simplicity and easy calculation since it requires only a vertical image to estimate LAI. Images thus obtained can accurately estimate LAI in this type of cultivar.En un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon ubicado en la comuna de Cauquenes, Región del Maule, se estimó el índice de área foliar (LAI mediante imagen digital obtenida de una cámara fotográfica comercial, a partir de dos métodos indirectos: Espacio y Brillo Área Foliar (LAGB y Sistema Cuantificador de Área Foliar por Fotogrametría (PLAQS. Este último, requiere el deshoje de la parra. En un mapa de índice vegetativo diferencial normalizado (NDVI, se seleccionaron tres puntos de vigor de las vides: alto, medio y bajo, en cada uno de los cuales se obtuvo una imagen horizontal y vertical. Las imágenes se filtraron con el programa Arc View GIS 3.1, dejando sólo las hojas y el número de píxeles correspondientes. Se

  20. Concentrações de cloreto de cálcio e tempos de armazenamento nos teores de açúcares redutores de uvas cv red globe (Vitis vinifera L Calcium chloride concentrations and storage time on reducing sugar contents of grape cv red globe (Vitis vinifera L

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    Geny Lopes de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a ação do cloreto de cálcio na doçura pós-colheita de uvas 'Red Globe' (Vitis vinifera L cultivadas em Jales, noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, foram adotados os procedimentos: os cachos foram tratados por imersão durante 10 minutos em soluções CaCl2 0, 1, 2 e 3% e deixados por 30, 60 e 90 dias a uma temperatura de 0ºC a 3ºC, 90+ 3% de UR e 0,2 0,3 m/s de velocidade do ar, após os quais foram deixados em temperatura ambiente (20 a 25ºC, para avaliações aos 0, 3 e 6 dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 x 3 (concentrações de CaCl2 x tempo de armazenamento refrigerado x tempo de armazenamento em temperatura ambiente com três repetições. Foram feitas avaliações de açúcares redutores totais (g 100g -1, frutose (g 100g -1 e glicose (g 100g -1. Os teores de açúcares redutores totais, frutose e glicose dos frutos variaram com a aplicação de CaCl2, tempos de armazenamento a frio e em temperatura ambiente. Destaca-se a frutose cujos teores em todas as concentrações de CaCl2 (1, 2 e 3%, aos 30 e 60 dias de armazenamento refrigerado e 3 e 6 dias em temperatura ambiente, foram superiores aos teores dos frutos controle. Conclui-se que tratamentos com CaCl2 propicia às uvas melhor sabor, sendo indicada a concentração de CaCl2 2% e o armazenamento a frio por 60 dias e em temperatura ambiente até seis dias.This work was carried out with the aim of evaluating the calcium chloride influence on both post harvest sweetness of grapes 'Red Globe' (Vitis vinifera L grown in Jales, in the northwest of São Paulo State. The procedures adopted were as follows: banches were treated in a CaCla2 1%, 2%, and 3% immersion for 10 minutes and then left at na 0º C tempereture, 90 + 3% relative humidity, and 0,2-0,3 m/s air speed for 30, 60, and 90 days after which they were left at room temperature (20 to 25º C for evaluation. A ramdomized block design with a 4 x 3 x 3 (Ca

  1. Influência das condições climáticas sobre a eficácia de fungicidas empregados para o controle do míldio em Vitis vinifera Effect of environmental conditions on efficacy of fungicides to downy mildew control in Vitis vinifera

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    Ana Beatriz Costa Czermainski

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Um dos fatores a serem manejados para a máxima produtividade de um vinhedo é o míldio, doença causada por Plasmopara viticola, que afeta regiões produtoras de uva do mundo inteiro. No Brasil, são necessárias diversas aplicações de fungicida para seu controle. Diferentes princípios ativos são encontrados no mercado. Com base em resultados de ensaios de fungicidas para controle do míldio em Vitis vinifera conduzidos em 1995 e 1996, foi analisada a influência dos fatores climáticos temperatura do ar, precipitação e umidade relativa do ar sobre a eficácia dos produtos disponíveis. Os experimentos foram instalados na Embrapa Uva e Vinho, sobre a cv. Tannat, conduzida no sistema espaldeira. A análise dos fatores ambientais apontou períodos de infecções primárias e secundárias. A maior ocorrência de chuvas e alta umidade relativa do ar foram determinantes da maior severidade do míldio no ano de 1996. A análise da incidência e do índice de intensidade de doença em folhas e em cachos, indicou maior eficácia dos fungicidas cymoxanil + mancozeb, metalaxil + mancozeb e dithianona, nos dois anos. Os princípios ativos cúpricos - oxicloreto de cobre, isolado ou combinado com mancozeb, e sulfato de cobre - não foram eficazes para controlar o míldio nos cachos sob condições climáticas favoráveis à doença.One of the factors to be managed for maximum vineyard productivity is the downy mildew, disease caused by Plasmopara viticola that affects grape production in many parts of the world. In Brazil, several fungicide applications for its control are necessary. Different active ingredients are available on the market. The influence of climatic factors (air temperature, rainfall and relative humidity on fungicide efficacy in Vitis vinifera was analyzed using results of fungicide trials for downy mildew control as a base. The experiments were carried out at Embrapa Uva e Vinho with the cv. Tannat conducted on vertical trellis

  2. Evaluación de la influencia del contenido de borras y azúcares reductores del vino base de uva italia (Vitis vinífera L.) para la obtención del pisco mosto verde

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro Montoya, Efren Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como finalidad evaluar la influencia del contenido de borras y azúcares reductores del vino base de uva Italia (Vitis vinífera L.) para la obtención de pisco Mosto Verde. La muestra de uva Italia fue de Magollo -Tacna, la fermentación del mosto se inició con una acidez tartárica de 7,0 g/L; 14,0 grados Baumé (239 g/L de azúcares reductores, considerado como 100 % de azúcares reductores) y un pH=3,6. Se utilizó un diseño central compuesto con tres repe...

  3. Structure and expression profiling of a novel calcium-dependent protein kinase gene, CDPK3a, in leaves, stems, grapes, and cell cultures of wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, K V; Dubrovina, A S; Shumakova, O A; Karetin, Y A; Manyakhin, A Y

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : VaCDPK3a is actively expressed in leaves, stems, inflorescences, and berries of Vitis amurensis and may act as a positive growth regulator, but is not involved in the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are known to play important roles in plant development and defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. It has previously been shown that CDPK3a is the predominant CDPK transcript in cell cultures of wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr., which is known to possess high resistance against environmental stresses and to produce resveratrol, a polyphenol with valuable pharmacological effects. In this study, we aimed to define the full cDNA sequence of VaCDPK3a and analyze its organ-specific expression, responses to plant hormones, temperature stress and exogenous NaCl, and the effects of VaCDPK3a overexpression on biomass accumulation and resveratrol content in V. amurensis calli. VaCDPK3a was actively expressed in all analyzed V. amurensis organs and tissues and was not transcriptionally regulated by salt and temperature stresses. The highest VaCDPK3a expression was detected in young leaves and the lowest in stems. A reduction in the VaCDPK3a expression correlated with a lower rate of biomass accumulation and higher resveratrol content in calli of V. amurensis under different growth conditions. Overexpression of the VaCDPK3a gene in the V. amurensis calli significantly increased cell growth for a short period of time but did not have an effect on resveratrol production. Further subculturing of the transformed calli resulted in cell death and a decrease in expression of the endogenous VaCDPK3a. The data suggest that while VaCDPK3a acts as a positive regulator of V. amurensis cell growth, it is not involved in the signaling pathway regulating resveratrol biosynthesis and resistance to salt and temperature stresses.

  4. Efectividad del cepillo iónico basado en dióxido de titanio en comparación con el cepillo vitis junior en la eliminación de placa bacteriana en niños de 8 a 10 años del Colegio Weberbauer Schule

    OpenAIRE

    Conte Pujalt, Giacomo; Olivares Espinoza, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar la efectividad del cepillo iónico basado en dióxido de titanio comparándolo con el cepillo Vitis Junior en la remoción de placa bacteriana en niños de 8 a 10 años del colegio Weberbauer Schule. Material y método. El estudio se realizó en un grupo de 30 niños, los cuales se comportaron como grupo control y experimental, ya que se trabajó con ellos en dos oportunidades diferentes. En la primera se realizó el cepillado con el cepillo Vitis Junior mediante la técnica...

  5. Exploración del efecto protector frente a radicales libres de derivados de la uva (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Tannat en Saccharomyces cerevisiae Analysis of a putative protection against free radicals by grape derivatives (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Tannat in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    N. Bracesco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se exploró un posible efecto protector del genoma por parte de un derivado de la uva (vino Tannat. Se utilizaron poblaciones celulares haploides y diploides de Saccharomyces cerevisiae como modelo eucariota. Muestras celulares se expusieron a H2O2 en medio nutriente. El ADN se analizó por densitometría láser, luego de su aislamiento y separación por electroforesis con campos pulsados. Se aplicó la distribución de Poisson para la determinación de roturas dobles. El número de roturas dobles del ADN y la frecuencia mutagénica aumentaron en función de la dosis de H2O2, disminuyendo la probabilidad de sobrevida. La combinación de H2O2 con vino Tannat aumentó significa-tivamente la probabilidad de sobrevida y disminuyó el número de roturas dobles. No se observó efecto mutagénico por el vino Tannat. Estos efectos pudieron simularse utilizando altas concentraciones de α-tocoferol. Los resultados indican que un derivado de Vitis vinifera puede, en ciertas condiciones, disminuir las dobles roturas de ADN producidas por el H2O2 e incrementar las probabilidades de sobrevida celular. Los blancos involucrados podrían ser, entre otros, componentes intracelulares de las cascadas redox y/o enzimas de reparación del ADN.The aim of this work was to analyse a possible genome protection provided by a grape derivative (Tannat wine in yeast cell populations exposed to H2O2. Haploid and diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as eukaryotic model. Cell samples were exposed to H2O2 in a nutrient medium. Chromosomal DNA was analysed after isolation and separation by pulsed field electrophoresis. Double strand breaks were determined by laser densitometry and application of Poisson distribution. Both haploid and diploid cells showed H2O2 dose dependent DNA fractionation, as well as an increase of lethal -and mutation- events. Upon combination of the Tannat wine and H2O2 a significant decrease of double strand breaks was observed, in

  6. Caracterização fenológica e produtiva das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná Phenological and productive characterization out of season of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapevines in the north of Paraná

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    Bruno da Silva Jubileu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a fenologia e a produção das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná, para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, em Maringá-PR. As videiras foram conduzidas em latada sobre o 'IAC 766 Campinas'. As avaliações tiveram início a partir das podas de frutificação para a produção fora de época, durante dois anos consecutivos, realizadas no fim de janeiro de 2007 e 2008, onde foram utilizadas 20 plantas representativas de cada variedade. Avaliou-se a duração, em dias, das principais fases fenológicas das videiras, bem como estimadas a produção por planta e a produtividade de cada variedade. A evolução de maturação das uvas foi determinada pela análise semanal do teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT e índice de maturação (SST/AT. A duração média do ciclo da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' foi de 128 dias, enquanto da 'Alicante' foi de 131 dias, sendo consideradas tardias ambas as variedades para a região norte do Paraná. As estimativas da produção por planta e produtividade foram de 12,4 kg e 22,3 t.ha-1 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 11,9 kg e 19,8 t.ha-1 para a 'Alicante'. Os teores médios de SST, AT e SST/AT foram de 19,2 °Brix, 1,8% de ácido tartárico e 11,6 para a uva 'Cabernet Sauvignon', e 19,1 °Brix, 1,3% de ácido tartárico e 14,1, para a 'Alicante'. Ambas as variedades apresentam elevadas produtividades e matéria-prima adequada para processamento quando produzidas fora de época no norte do Paraná.This study aimed to characterize the phenology and the production of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapes produced out of season in the north of Paraná State for red wine elaboration. The experimental area was located in a commercial property belonging to the

  7. The Beneficial Effect of Anthocyanidin-Rich Vitis vinifera L. Grape Skin Extract on Metabolic Changes Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice Involves Antiinflammatory and Antioxidant Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Gisele França; Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Carvalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; Resende, Angela Castro; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich extract from Vitis vinifera L. grape skin (GSE) may exert beneficial effects on obesity and related metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). C57/BL6 mice were fed a standard diet (10% fat, control, and GSE groups) or an HFD (60% fat, high fat (HF), and HF + GSE) with or without GSE (200 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. GSE prevented weight gain; dyslipidemia; insulin resistance; the alterations in plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin; and the deregulation of leptin and adiponectin expression in adipose tissue. These beneficial effects of GSE may be related to a positive modulation of insulin signaling proteins (IR, pIRS, PI3K, pAKT), pAMPK/AMPK ratio, and GLUT4 expression in muscle and adipose tissue. In addition, GSE prevented the oxidative damage, evidenced by the restoration of antioxidant activity and decrease of malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels in muscle and adipose tissue. Finally, GSE showed an anti-inflammatory action, evidenced by the reduced plasma and adipose tissue inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6). Our results suggest that GSE prevented the obesity and related metabolic disorders in HF-fed mice by regulating insulin sensitivity and GLUT4 expression as well as by preventing the oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Variability in the Content of Trans-Resveratrol, Trans-ε-Viniferin and R2-Viniferin in Grape Cane of Seven Vitis vinifera L. Varieties during a Three-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Balík, Josef; Soural, Ivo; Sotolář, Radek

    2017-06-03

    Grape canes are a waste product from viticulture that show potential as an industrially extractable source of stilbenes, which are valuable for medical and other purposes. In this work, grape canes collected in three consecutive years (2014-2016) at six different places in South Moravia, Czech Republic were extracted, and the contents of trans -resveratrol, trans -ε-viniferin, and r2-viniferin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The study included three blue grape varieties of Vitis vinifera L. (Cabernet Moravia, Blaufränkisch, and Piwi variety Laurot) and four white grape varieties (Chardonnay, Green Veltliner, Piwi variety Hibernal, and Piwi variety Malverina). From the viewpoint of producing extracts with high stilbenes content, the Hibernal variety is clearly the best. The mean amounts of the stilbenes for this variety at all localities and for all three years were 4.99 g/kg for trans -resveratrol, 3.24 g/kg for trans -ε-viniferin, and 1.73 g/kg for r2-viniferin. The influence of vintage, locality, and variety on the amounts of stilbenes was studied using PCA analysis. In contrast to expectations, there was no strong impact of locality on stilbenes content. The differences were varietal for most varieties, regardless of the area of cultivation. Laurot and Hibernal varieties did differ significantly in that respect, however, as they exhibited clear dependence on location.

  9. Thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases, the haze-forming proteins of wine, accumulate during ripening of grape (Vitis vinifera) berries and drought stress does not affect the final levels per berry at maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, K F; Hayasaka, Y; McCarthy, M G; Waters, E J

    2000-05-01

    Thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases, which are pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, were the major soluble protein components of grapes from five cultivars of Vitis vinifera. This dominance of PR proteins was apparent at berry softening (véraison) and then throughout berry development for the Muscat of Alexandria, Sultana, and Shiraz cultivars and in the berries of the Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir cultivars examined at commercial maturity. The M(r) of the major thaumatin-like protein from Muscat of Alexandria grapes was 21 272, and those of the three major chitinases from this cultivar, ChitB, ChitC, and ChitD, were 25 588, 25 410, and 25 457, respectively. The vines in the study were irrigated and showed no obvious signs of disease. Shiraz vines that had not been irrigated throughout the season were clearly water stressed, but had levels of PR proteins in the berry similar to vines that had been fully irrigated. It appears that the production of PR proteins that cause protein instability in wines by grapes may be little influenced by environmental conditions.

  10. The Evolution of Total Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activities during Ripening of Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Tempranillo Grown in Semiarid Region: Effects of Cluster Thinning and Water Deficit

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    Inmaculada Garrido

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of how water status (rainfed vs. irrigated and crop load (no cluster thinning vs. cluster thinning can together affect the grapes of Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo vines growing in a semiarid zone of Extremadura (Spain. The grapes were monitored at different stages of ripening, measuring the peroxidase (POX and superoxide dismutase (SOD antioxidant activities and the phenolic content (flavonoids and phenylpropanoids, together with other parameters. The irrigation regime was adjusted to provide 100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc. The findings confirmed previous results that both thinning and water deficit advance ripening, while irrigation and high crop load (no thinning lengthen the growth cycle. The SOD activity remained practically constant throughout ripening in the thinned treatments and was always lower than in the unthinned treatments, an aspect which could have been the cause of the observed greater level of lipid peroxidation in the water deficit, thinned treatment. The nonspecific peroxidase activity was very low, especially in the thinned treatments. The effect of thinning was enhanced when combined with water deficit, inducing increases in phenylpropanoids and, above all, flavonoids at the harvest stage of ripening, while leaving the polyphenol oxidase activity (PPO unaffected.

  11. Molecular characterization and technological properties of wine yeasts isolated during spontaneous fermentation of Vitis vinifera L.cv. Narince grape must grown in ancient wine making area Tokat, Anatolia

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    Çelik Zeynep Dilan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera L grown in Tokat and produces rich and balanced wines often with a greenish yellow tint and delicate fruity flavour. Fermentation by indigenous yeasts may produce wines with complex oenological properties that are unique to specific region. In this study yeast population during alcoholic fermentation of Narince was investigated. Yeasts were identified by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 5.8 ITS rRNA region and sequence information for the D1/D2 domains of the 26S gene. Eight different species belonging to nine genera were identified as: Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hansenispora guilliermondii, Pichia kluyveri, Metschnikowiaspp., Pichia occidentalis, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida zemplinina, Lachancea thermotolerance and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Metschnikowiaspp., Pichia occidentalis and Pichia kluyveri were identified only in the early stage of fermentation. Selected yeasts tested for their physiological traits, ethanol, SO2, temperature, pH tolerance, H2S production, killer and enzymatic activity, fermentation rate, flocculation characteristic, foam, volatile acid and volatile compounds production. Among the yeasts, one,Lachancea thermotolerance and four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain showed remarkable technological properties and results were compared with those obtained by using commercial starter culture.

  12. Vitis vinifera terpenoid cyclases: functional identification of two sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs encoding (+)-valencene synthase and (-)-germacrene D synthase and expression of mono- and sesquiterpene synthases in grapevine flowers and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Bowen, Pat; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-10-01

    Valencene is a volatile sesquiterpene emitted from flowers of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. A full-length cDNA from the cultivar Gewürztraminer was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and found to encode valencene synthase (VvVal). The two major products formed by recombinant VvVal enzyme activity with farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) as substrate are (+)-valencene and (-)-7-epi-alpha-selinene. Grapevine valencene synthase is closely related to a second sesquiterpene synthase from this species, (-)-germacrene D synthase (VvGerD). VvVal and VvGerD cDNA probes revealed strong signals in Northern hybridizations with RNA isolated from grapevine flower buds. Transcript levels were lower in open pre-anthesis flowers, flowers after anthesis, or at early onset of fruit development. Similar results were obtained using a third probe, (-)-alpha-terpineol synthase, a monoterpenol synthase. Sesquiterpene synthase and monoterpene synthase transcripts were not detected in the mesocarp and exocarp during early stages of fruit development, but transcripts hybridizing with VvVal appeared during late ripening of the berries. Sesquiterpene synthase transcripts were also detected in young seeds.

  13. Piiratud tegevusulatusega laienenud EL : Euroopa Parlamendi liikme, EL-Eesti Parlamentide Ühendkomitee kaasesimehe hr. Per Stenmarcki ettekanne / Per Stenmarck

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stenmarck, Per

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Proceedings of the 8th International conference Estonia and the European Union : Estonia on its way to a changing Europe : October 31-November 2, 2001. - Tallinn, lk., lk. 48-51. Laienenud EL peaks koondama oma tähelepanu reaalsetele Euroopa probleemidele, jättes muud küsimused maade endi lahendada

  14. Akadeemiline Raamatukogu lugejate pilgu läbi : ettekanne lugejapäeval "Raamatukogu tõmbetuultes" 24. oktoobril 2000 / Mare Horma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Horma, Mare

    2001-01-01

    Küsitleti, mida arvab lugeja Kultuuriministeeriumi projekist "Raamatukogude arenduskava 2000-2002" ja TTÜRi poolt tehtud ettepanekust Eesti Akadeemilise Raamatukogu ühendamisest Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Raamatukoguga

  15. Estudio comparativo de la respuesta agronómica y enológica de los cultivares tintos de vid (Vitis vinifera L.) Mencía, Pinot noir y Tempranillo en dos situaciones de alimentación hídrica

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Cidoncha, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido conocer la adaptación agronómica y la aptitud enológica de tres cultivares tintos de vid (Vitis vinifera L.) Mencía, Pinot noir y Tempranillo en dos situaciones de alimentación hídrica. Para una viticultura sostenible en ambientes de menor oferta hídrica es necesario identificar cultivares con caracteres de tolerancia y de adaptación a la sequia. Para ello, se ha evaluado el desarrollo vegetativo, la fisiología, el rendimiento y sus componentes, l...

  16. Efeito do sistema de condução em algumas características ecofisiológicas da videira (Vitis labrusca L. Effect of the conduction system in some ecophysiological features of vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Márcio Norberto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da interação entre a forma do dossel vegetativo e os fatores ambientais locais resultam no microclima que determinará alterações em alguns aspectos fisiológicos da videira, podendo afetar significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, a produtividade do vinhedo, bem como a qualidade da uva e do vinho. Objetivando-se avaliar o efeito do sistema de condução, sobre algumas características ecofisiológicas da videira (Vitis labrusca L. foi desenvolvido experimento no Núcleo Tecnológico Epamig Uva e Vinho, na fazenda experimental "Retiro" no município de Caldas, MG, durante as safras 2003, 2004 e 2005. As variedades utilizadas no experimento foram Niágara Rosada para mesa e Folha de Figo, para produção de vinhos. Como porta - enxerto utilizou-se o "420-A". O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4x2, e os sistemas de condução adotados foram: cordão simples, latada, espaldeira e lira. Determinaram-se as seguintes variáveis: superfície foliar exposta, potencial hídrico e trocas gasosas. Verificou-se que tanto o sistema espaldeira quanto o cordão simples conferiram a menor superfície foliar exposta, em ambas as variedades e os sistemas lira e latada os maiores valores de (SFE. Verificou-se também que os sistemas cordão simples e latada conferiram os maiores valores de potencial hídrico para as duas variedades, nas diferentes fases fenológicas. Em ambas as variedades e fases fenológicas estudadas, verificou-se um comportamento semelhante entre os tratamentos em que os resultados da taxa de assimilação fotossintética das folhas, não permite evidenciar o efeito dos sistemas de condução, sobre as trocas gasosas das plantas estudadas.The effects of the interaction between the form of the canopy and the local environmental factors result in the microclimate that will determine some physiologic aspects of the grapevine, which could significantly affect the vegetative growth of the vine

  17. Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis Seeds Regulate ARE-Mediated Enzyme Expression via Nrf2 Coupled with p38 and PI3K/Akt Pathway in HepG2 Cells

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    Woo-Sik Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins, polymers of flavan-3-ol units, have been reported to exhibit many beneficial health effects such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis seeds in particular their roles in inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes as well as in modulating the upstream kinases. Ethanolic extract of V. amurensis seeds was fractionated with a series of organic solvents and finally separated into six fractions, F1–F6. Chemical properties of the procyanidins were analyzed by vanillin assay, BuOH-HCl test, and depolymerization with phloroglucinol followed by LC/MS analysis. The F5 had the highest procyanidin content among all the fractions and strongly induced the reporter activity of antioxidant response element as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2 in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The procyanidin-rich F5 also strongly induced the expression of the phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes such as NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase1 and hemeoxygenase1. Phosphorylations of the upstream kinases such as MAPKs and PI3K/Akt were significantly increased by treatment with procyanidin fraction. In addition, the procyanidin-mediated Nrf2 expression was partly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and almost completely by p38 inhibitor SB202190, but neither by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, the procyanidins from wild grape seeds could be used as a potential natural chemopreventive agent through Nrf2/ARE-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes induction via p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway.

  18. Procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds regulate ARE-mediated enzyme expression via Nrf2 coupled with p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Min-Ji; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Procyanidins, polymers of flavan-3-ol units, have been reported to exhibit many beneficial health effects such as antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of procyanidins from wild grape (Vitis amurensis) seeds in particular their roles in inducing phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes as well as in modulating the upstream kinases. Ethanolic extract of V. amurensis seeds was fractionated with a series of organic solvents and finally separated into six fractions, F1-F6. Chemical properties of the procyanidins were analyzed by vanillin assay, BuOH-HCl test, and depolymerization with phloroglucinol followed by LC/MS analysis. The F5 had the highest procyanidin content among all the fractions and strongly induced the reporter activity of antioxidant response element as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) in HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells. The procyanidin-rich F5 also strongly induced the expression of the phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 and hemeoxygenase1. Phosphorylations of the upstream kinases such as MAPKs and PI3K/Akt were significantly increased by treatment with procyanidin fraction. In addition, the procyanidin-mediated Nrf2 expression was partly attenuated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and almost completely by p38 inhibitor SB202190, but neither by JNK inhibitor SP600125 nor by MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, the procyanidins from wild grape seeds could be used as a potential natural chemopreventive agent through Nrf2/ARE-mediated phase II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes induction via p38 and PI3K/Akt pathway.

  19. Acyl substrate preferences of an IAA-amido synthetase account for variations in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening caused by different auxinic compounds indicating the importance of auxin conjugation in plant development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Boss, Paul K.; Davies, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Nine Gretchen Hagen (GH3) genes were identified in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and six of these were predicted on the basis of protein sequence similarity to act as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-amido synthetases. The activity of these enzymes is thought to be important in controlling free IAA levels and one auxin-inducible grapevine GH3 protein, GH3-1, has previously been implicated in the berry ripening process. Ex planta assays showed that the expression of only one other GH3 gene, GH3-2, increased following the treatment of grape berries with auxinic compounds. One of these was the naturally occurring IAA and the other two were synthetic, α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzothiazole-2-oxyacetic acid (BTOA). The determination of steady-state kinetic parameters for the recombinant GH3-1 and GH3-2 proteins revealed that both enzymes efficiently conjugated aspartic acid (Asp) to IAA and less well to NAA, while BTOA was a poor substrate. GH3-2 gene expression was induced by IAA treatment of pre-ripening berries with an associated increase in levels of IAA-Asp and a decrease in free IAA levels. This indicates that GH3-2 responded to excess auxin to maintain low levels of free IAA. Grape berry ripening was not affected by IAA application prior to veraison (ripening onset) but was considerably delayed by NAA and even more so by BTOA. The differential effects of the three auxinic compounds on berry ripening can therefore be explained by the induction and acyl substrate specificity of GH3-2. These results further indicate an important role for GH3 proteins in controlling auxin-related plant developmental processes. PMID:21543520

  20. Colour variation in red grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.): genomic organisation, expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes and related metabolite profiling of red cyanidin-/blue delphinidin-based anthocyanins in berry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, Simone D; Di Gaspero, Gabriele; Marconi, Raffaella; Nonis, Alberto; Peterlunger, Enrico; Paillard, Sophie; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Francoise; Testolin, Raffaele

    2006-01-24

    Structural genes of the phenyl-propanoid pathway which encode flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases (F3'H and F3'5'H) have long been invoked to explain the biosynthesis of cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyanin pigments in the so-called red cultivars of grapevine. The relative proportion of the two types of anthocyanins is largely under genetic control and determines the colour variation among red/purple/blue berry grape varieties and their corresponding wines. Gene fragments of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H, that were isolated from Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' using degenerate primers designed on plant homologous genes, translated into 313 and 239 amino acid protein fragments, respectively, with up to 76% and 82% identity to plant CYP75 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Putative function was assigned on the basis of sequence homology, expression profiling and its correlation with metabolite accumulation at ten different ripening stages. At the onset of colour transition, transcriptional induction of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H was temporally coordinated with the beginning of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the expression being 2-fold and 50-fold higher, respectively, in red berries versus green berries. The peak of VvF3'5'H expression was observed two weeks later concomitantly with the increase of the ratio of delphinidin-/cyanidin-derivatives. The analysis of structural genomics revealed that two copies of VvF3'H are physically linked on linkage group no. 17 and several copies of VvF3'5'H are tightly clustered and embedded into a segmental duplication on linkage group no. 6, unveiling a high complexity when compared to other plant flavonoid hydroxylase genes known so far, mostly in ornamentals. We have shown that genes encoding flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases are expressed in any tissues of the grape plant that accumulate flavonoids and, particularly, in skin of ripening red berries that synthesise mostly anthocyanins. The correlation between transcript profiles and the

  1. Colour variation in red grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.: genomic organisation, expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes and related metabolite profiling of red cyanidin-/blue delphinidin-based anthocyanins in berry skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paillard Sophie

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural genes of the phenyl-propanoid pathway which encode flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases (F3'H and F3'5'H have long been invoked to explain the biosynthesis of cyanidin- and delphinidin-based anthocyanin pigments in the so-called red cultivars of grapevine. The relative proportion of the two types of anthocyanins is largely under genetic control and determines the colour variation among red/purple/blue berry grape varieties and their corresponding wines. Results Gene fragments of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H, that were isolated from Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' using degenerate primers designed on plant homologous genes, translated into 313 and 239 amino acid protein fragments, respectively, with up to 76% and 82% identity to plant CYP75 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Putative function was assigned on the basis of sequence homology, expression profiling and its correlation with metabolite accumulation at ten different ripening stages. At the onset of colour transition, transcriptional induction of VvF3'H and VvF3'5'H was temporally coordinated with the beginning of anthocyanin biosynthesis, the expression being 2-fold and 50-fold higher, respectively, in red berries versus green berries. The peak of VvF3'5'H expression was observed two weeks later concomitantly with the increase of the ratio of delphinidin-/cyanidin-derivatives. The analysis of structural genomics revealed that two copies of VvF3'H are physically linked on linkage group no. 17 and several copies of VvF3'5'H are tightly clustered and embedded into a segmental duplication on linkage group no. 6, unveiling a high complexity when compared to other plant flavonoid hydroxylase genes known so far, mostly in ornamentals. Conclusion We have shown that genes encoding flavonoid 3'- and 3',5'-hydroxylases are expressed in any tissues of the grape plant that accumulate flavonoids and, particularly, in skin of ripening red berries that synthesise mostly

  2. Constitutive heterologous overexpression of a TIR-NB-ARC-LRR gene encoding a putative disease resistance protein from wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata in Arabidopsis and tobacco enhances resistance to phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifeng; Yao, Liping; Singer, Stacy D; Muhammad, Hanif; Li, Zhi; Wang, Xiping

    2017-03-01

    Plants use resistance (R) proteins to detect pathogen effector proteins and activate their innate immune response against the pathogen. The majority of these proteins contain an NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, R proteins, and CED-4) domain along with a leucine-rich repeat (LRR), and some also bear a toll interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a TIR-NB-ARC-LRR R protein (VpTNL1) (GenBank accession number KX649890) from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession "Baihe-35-1", which was identified previously from a transcriptomic analysis of leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (PM; Erysiphe necator (Schw.)). The VpTNL1 transcript was found to be highly induced in V. pseudoreticulata following inoculation with E. necator, as well as treatment with salicylic acid (SA). Sequence analysis demonstrated that the deduced amino acid sequence contained a TIR domain at the N-terminus, along with an NB-ARC and four LRRs domains within the C-terminus. Constitutive expression of VpTNL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type or dwarf phenotype. Intriguingly, the phenotypically normal transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to Arabidopsis PM, Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Similarly, constitutive expression of VpTNL1 in Nicotiana tabacum was found to confer enhanced resistance to tobacco PM, Erysiphe cichoacearum DC. Subsequent isolation of the VpTNL1 promoter and deletion analysis indicated that TC-rich repeats and TCA elements likely play an important role in its response to E. necator and SA treatment, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that VpTNL1 contributes to PM resistance in grapevine and provide an interesting gene target for the future amelioration of grape via breeding and/or biotechnology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health cla...... and maintenance of normal venous blood flow. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...... related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow. The Panel considers that the food constituent, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal venous blood flow, is a beneficial physiological effect....... The applicant identified two human intervention studies as pertinent to the health claim. Owing to the very limited information provided in relation to one study, and that the second study was conducted with a food not complying with the characterisation of the food which is the subject of the health claim...

  4. Ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extraction of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana induced G0 /G1 phase arrest via inhibition of cyclins D and E and induction of apoptosis through caspase-dependent and -independent pathways in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hsin; Chan, Hsiao-Sung; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng; Funayama, Shinji; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2018-01-01

    Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT) is a wild grape native to Taiwan, belonging to the Vitaceae family and Vitis genus, and widely used as folk herbal medicine. It is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea, hypertension, neuroprotection, jaundice, and arthritis. We used the wild-collected VTT and sterilized them to establish the plant tissue culture, and then took the leaves for DNA sequencing to determine its original base. We use methanol to extract VTT in four different solvents: 1-butanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water. These four preliminary extracts were used to treat human prostate cancer DU145 cells in vitro. We use the flow cytometry to check the cell survival situation. Finally, we found the ethyl acetate layer roughing product (referred VTEA) in human prostate cancer apoptotic effects of cell line DU-145. In the present studies, we use the crude extract of VTT to examine whether or not it can induce apoptosis of DU145 cells in vitro. Viability assays for extracts of VTT treatment showed that it had dose-dependent effect on human prostate cancer DU145 cells. We also found that the extract of VTT induces time-dependent mitochondrial and intrinsic-dependent apoptosis pathways. The in vitro cytotoxic effects were investigated by cell cycle analysis and the determination of apoptotic DNA fragmentation in DU145 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed that extracts of VTT induced a significant increase in the number of cells in G 0 /G 1 phase. The extract of VTT induced chromatin changes and apoptosis of DU145 cells also were confirmed by DAPI and PI staining that were measured by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. Finally, the expression of relevant proteins was analyzed by Western blot analysis. These results promoted us to further evaluate apoptosis associated proteins and elucidate the possible signal pathway in DU-145 cells after treated with the extract of VTT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. HTP Nutraceutical Screening for Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Effects of HDACis on Tumor-suppressing miRNAs by Trichostatin A and Grapeseed (Vitis vinifera) in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2017-01-02

    Aggressive tumor malignancies are a consequence of delayed diagnosis, epigenetic/phenotype changes and chemo-radiation resistance. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a major epigenetic regulator of transcriptional repression, which are highly overexpressed in advanced malignancy. While original chemotherapy drugs were modeled after phytochemicals elucidated by botanical screenings, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) such as apicidin, trichostatin A (TSA) and butyrate were discovered as products of fungus and microbes, in particular, gut microbiota. Therefore, a persistent question remains as to the inherent existence of HDACis in raw undigested dietary plant material. In this study, we conduct a high-throughput (HTP) screening of ~1,600 non-fermented commonly used nutraceuticals (spices, herbs, teas, vegetables, fruits, seeds, rinds etc.) at (HTP screening was then conducted, followed by a study comparing biological effects of HDACis in HeLa cells, including analysis of whole-transcriptome non-coding RNAs using Affymetrix miRNA 4.1-panel arrays. The HTP screening results confirmed 44/1600 as potential HDACis to which 31 were further eliminated as false-positives. Methodological challenges/concerns are addressed regarding plant product false-positives that arise from the signal reduction of commercial lysine development reagents. Only 13 HDACis were found having an IC 50 under <200 μg/ml: Grapeseed extract (Vitis vinifera), Great burnet root (Sanguisorba Officinalis), Babul (Acacia arabica), Chinese gallnut (Melaphis chinensis), Konaberry extract (Coffea arabica), Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos uva ursi), Green tea (Camellia sinensis), Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria), Sassafras (Sassafras officinale), Turkey rhubarb (Rheum palmatum), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), gossypol and gallic acid. Next, we investigate the biological consequence of HDACi panel drugs in HeLa cells, where the data suggest predominant effects are anti-mitotic rather than cytotoxic. Lastly, differential

  6. Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navacchi Oriano

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Results Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. Conclusions The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars.

  7. Grape (Vitis spp.)- Grapevine red blotch disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and elsewhere in the United States The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negative for...

  8. Produção antecipada de mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ (Vitis vinifera através de enxertia verde Anticipation of ‘Rubi’ grapevine nursery trees production through green grafting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ruffo Roberto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a viabilidade da produção de mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ (Vitis vinifera através de enxertia verde nos porta-enxertos ‘Campinas’ (IAC 766 e ‘Jales’ (IAC 572 propagados por estaquia herbácea. O preparo das estacas livre de vírus dos porta-enxertos consistiu em deixar apenas uma folha na parte superior da estaca e um nó na base, ficando as mesmas com 20cm de comprimento e 0,5cm de diâmetro. Para o enraizamento, as estacas foram então dispostas em caixas plásticas perfuradas contendo o substrato casca de arroz carbonizada em câmara de nebulização. Após quatro semanas, os porta-enxertos foram transplantados para sacos de polietileno com substrato a base de terra e mantidos em casa de vegetação. Avaliou-se a enxertia da videira ‘Rubi’ livre de vírus realizada em três épocas após o transplantio dos porta-enxertos (30, 60 e 90 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com 6 tratamentos e 5 repetições, sendo cada parcela composta por 10 mudas, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3. Aos 80 dias após cada época de enxertia, foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: porcentagem de enxertos brotados, comprimento e diâmetro dos brotos, matérias seca e fresca das raízes por muda e quantificação do sistema radicular (área de raízes e comprimento total de raízes por estaca através da análise de imagem no programa SIARCS®. Com base nos principais resultados, pôde-se concluir que: a a obtenção antecipada de mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ é possível realizando-se a enxertia verde em estacas herbáceas dos porta-enxertos ‘Campinas’ e ‘Jales’ 90 dias após o seu enraizamento e b o emprego da enxertia verde sobre a produção antecipada de mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ reduz em 5-6 meses o tempo necessário para a produção de mudas em casa de vegetação e c mudas de videira ‘Rubi’ produzidas por enxertia verde em estacas herbáceas dos porta

  9. FSA Panel on Di etetic Products, Nutrition and Allergie s (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to drain the body in case of water accumulation” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health cla...... for the scientific substantiation of this claim was already considered in the previous submission. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...... related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to drain the body in case of water accumulation”. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “helps to drain the body in case...... of water accumulation”. Upon EFSA’s request for clarification on the specific physiological function that is the subject of the health claim, together with the outcome measures which could be used for the scientific evaluation of that function, the applicant indicated that “increase of body drainage...

  10. Mõisakülast maailma ja tagasi : Eesti Muinsuskaitse Seltsi auesimehe Trivimi Velliste ettekanne Jüri Kuke mälestuskonverentsil Tartu Ülikooli aulas 27. märtsil 2005 / Trivimi Velliste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Velliste, Trivimi, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    27. märtsil 1981 Vologdas märtrisurma surnud Jüri Kukk on pärit Lõuna-Eestist Mõisakülast. Autori arvates peavad nii Mõisaküla kui ka Jüri Kukk muutuma mõisteks, mida teatakse kogu maailmas, ennekõike aga Eestis

  11. Oxidative stress homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can maintain growth and reproductive success by sensing changes in the environment and reacting through mechanisms at molecular, cellular, physiological and developmental levels. Each stress condition prompts a unique response although some overlap between the reactions to abiotic stress (drought, heat, cold, salt or high light and to biotic stress (pathogens does occur. A common feature in the response to all stresses is the onset of oxidative stress, through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. As hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are involved in stress signaling, a tight control in ROS homeostasis requires a delicate balance of systems involved in their generation and degradation. If the plant lacks the capacity to generate scavenging potential, this can ultimately lead to death. In grapevine, antioxidant homeostasis can be considered at whole plant levels and during the development cycle. The most striking example lies in berries and their derivatives, such as wine, with nutraceutical properties associated with their antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant homeostasis is tightly regulated in leaves, assuring a positive balance between photosynthesis and respiration, explaining the tolerance of many grapevine varieties to extreme environments.In this review we will focus on antioxidant metabolites, antioxidant enzymes, transcriptional regulation and cross-talk with hormones prompted by abiotic stress conditions. We will also discuss three situations that require specific homeostasis balance: biotic stress, the oxidative burst in berries at veraison and in vitro systems. The genetic plasticity of the antioxidant homeostasis response put in evidence by the different levels of tolerance to stress presented by grapevine varieties will be addressed. The gathered information is relevant to foster varietal adaptation to impending climate changes, to assist breeders in choosing the more adapted varieties and to suitable viticulture practices.

  12. Partial dehydration of 'Niagara Rosada' GRAPES ( Vitis labrusca L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial dehydration of grapes after harvest and aimed wine-making, has been shown to be a process that brings increased concentration of sugar and phenolic compounds in the must, which results in the quality of the wines produced. However, the works developed so far studied the process for temperatures up to a ...

  13. Antimicrobial activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry assays. GPP have ...

  14. UV screening by phenolics in berries of grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolb, Ch.; Kopecký, Jiří; Riederer, M.; Pfundel, E. E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 30, - (2003), s. 1177-1186 ISSN 1445-4408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : acclimation * caffeic acid * flavonoid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.747, year: 2003

  15. Nitrogen nutrition of the grape-vine (Vitis vinifera spp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    A thorough knowledge concerning the nitrogen relationship in the grape-vine is essential in order to appreciate how different patterns of uptake, assimilation, storage and utilisation of nitrogen might be advantageous in particular environmental situations. The 15 N-isotope technique has been used to determine the uptake and distribution of nitrogen absorbed during early spring, early summer and autumn. Apart from the total N fraction, protein N and soluble N were determined as well. The utilisation of labelled N applied in the field, was determined for vineyards on heavier and lighter soils

  16. Rööviti Leonardo da Vinci maal / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    "Madonna kedervarrega" ("Madonna with the Yarnwinder") varastati Drumlanringi lossist Kagu-Šotimaalt 27. augustil 2003. a. Eksperdid on Šoti aadlisuguvõsa valduses olnud maali väärtuseks hinnanud 25-50 miljonit naela

  17. Antimicrobial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-01

    Jul 1, 2015 ... Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against. Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry ...

  18. Kihnu rahvamaja arhitektidele hüvitis / Anu Saare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saare, Anu, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Kohus mõistis Kihnu vallalt Kihnu rahvamaja projekteerijatele Leonhard Lapinile ja Toomas Reinule moraalse kahju hüvitamiseks kummalegi 25000 krooni. Vald ei tellinud tööjooniseid arhitektidelt, vaid odavama pakkumise teinud firmalt. 2000. a. valminud rahvamaja erines arhitektide projektist

  19. Production Charachteristics of Some Introduced Grape Cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jasminka Karoglan Kontić; Edi Maletić; Nikola Mirošević; Bernard Kozina; Jasmina Marić

    2000-01-01

    In order to expand the number of red grape cultivars suitable for Northern Dalmatia subregion experimental vineyard has been planted on the farm 'Bastica' PK Zadar. The large number of red grape cultivar has been introducted. Seven of them are spread in central and southern Italy (Montepulciano, Sangiovese, Malvasia nera di Lecce, Ciliegiolo, Aglianico, Cabernet sauvignon, Moscato rosa), which have similar ecological conditions as the area of Ravni Kotari. During the five years period agrobio...

  20. Compostos fenólicos e capacidade antioxidante de cultivares de uvas Vitis labrusca L. e Vitis vinifera L. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Vitis labrusca and Vitis vinifera cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tiemi Abe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O conteúdo de compostos fenólicos, incluindo resveratrol, antocianinas e outros flavonóides, e a capacidade antioxidante de cinco cultivares de uvas produzidas em Minas Gerais foram determinados. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais, determinado através do método de Folin-Ciocalteau variou significativamente, entre 65 ± 1 e 390 ± 30 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico.100 g -1 de amostra base úmida (b.u.. O conteúdo de antocianinas totais quantificado por CLAE variou entre 6,7 ± 0,2 e 154 ± 4 mg equivalentes de cianidina.100 g -1 (b.u.. Outros flavonóides encontrados foram catequina, epicatequina, quercetina, caempferol além dos ácidos hidroxicinâmicos. O resveratrol foi encontrado em três cultivares, variando entre 0,022 ± 0,001 e 0,60 ± 0,03 mg.100 g -1 (b.u.. A capacidade antioxidante foi analisada usando o método de seqüestro de radicais livres do DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazila, que variou entre 2,7 ± 0,1 e 19 ± 2 µmoles equivalentes de Trolox.g -1 de amostra (b.u., mostrando boa correlação com o conteúdo de fenólicos totais. As uvas tintas de coloração mais escura apresentaram maior conteúdo de antocianinas, e conseqüentemente maior teor de fenólicos totais e capacidade antioxidante.Phenolic compounds including resveratrol, anthocyanins and other flavonoids and antioxidant capacity were evaluated for five grape cultivars cultivated in Minas Gerais (Brazil. The content of total phenolic determined by the Folin Ciocalteau method varied significantly, from 65 ± 1 to 390 ± 30 mg gallic acid equivalents.100 g -1 of FW (Fresh Weight. The content of total anthocyanins quantified by HPLC varied from 6.7 ± 0.2 to 154 ± 4 mg of cyanidin equivalents.100 g -1 FW. Resveratrol was found in three cultivars, in contents from 0.022 ± 0.001 to 0.60 ± 0.03 mg.100 g¹ of FW. In addition to hydroxicynnamic acids, other flavonoids such as catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and kaempferol were also present. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method and varied from 2.7 ± 0.1 to 19 ± 2 µmol trolox equivalents.g -1 FW, showing good correlation with the content of total phenolics. The darker red grapes presented higher anthocyanin contents and consequently higher total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity.

  1. Profile of bioactive compounds from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L F; Ribani, R H; Francisco, T M G; Soares, A A; Pontarolo, R; Haminiuk, C W I

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize grape pomace (GP) from winemaking byproducts of different grape samples (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS; Merlot-ME; Mix composed of 65% Bordeaux, 25% Isabel and 10% BRS Violet-MI and Terci-TE) with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of bioactive compounds and an alternative to the reuse of waste. Bioactive compounds such as individual phenolic compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were identified and quantified by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses. The sample of MI had the highest concentrations for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, while TE had the highest content for total monomeric anthocyanins. For all samples it was possible to identify 13 different anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the GP samples showed phenolic acids; flavan-3-ols such as catechin; flavonols such as quercetin, rutin and kaempferol; and stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol. Therefore, grape pomace can be considered a source for the recovery of phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity as well as a rich source of PUFA. Thus it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new food products, since it is suitable for human consumption, and a viable alternative both to adding nutritional value to food and to reduce environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Agraareliidist Baltikumis 19. sajandil : ülevaade uurimiseisust / Tiit Rosenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosenberg, Tiit, 1946-

    2013-01-01

    Ettekanne konverentsil "Bauern und Adel im Prozess der Modernisierung Agrarische Elitern om Ostelbischen Deutschland, Nordosteuropa im 19. Jahrhundert" Marburgis J. G. Herderi Instituudis 16. 07. 1999

  3. Between copyright and privacy : The experience of ethnographic research ethics in the 20th century Lithuania / Irena Regina Merkienė ; tõlk. Miranda Navickienė

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merkienė, Irena Regina

    2002-01-01

    Eetilistest pro