WorldWideScience

Sample records for ett bra alternativ

  1. Veganism: Ett hållbart alternativ för framtiden : Konsumentundersökning

    OpenAIRE

    Wessman, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Internationella mattrender som veganismen har ökat under de senaste åren med hjälp av en ökande efterfrågan. Trots att vegan kosten nått internationell publicitet och ett växande utbud i livsmedelsaffärer och restauranger, är veganerna fortfarande en minoritet i Finland. För många handlar vegan kosten om djurens väl, men för andra också om att nå en hälsosammare livsstil eller för att bli mer klimatsmart, eftersom mat står för största andelen av vår påverkan på miljön. Enligt en under...

  2. En alternativ sundhedsstrategi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Lene

    2016-01-01

    Hvis vi som samfund ønsker at ændre på den nuværende situation med ulighed i sundhed, må vi gøre noget anderledes og lede efter supplementer og alternativer til de nuværende sundhedsstrategier. En community health-tilgang er ét alternativ...

  3. Swedish methane gas project: a proposal with three alternatives. Svenskt metangasprojekt: ett foerslag med tre alternativ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    A proposal concerning a BIOGAS project is given. The proposal includes: (a) microbiological research on, e.g., needs for additives to optimize the process, influence of the content of dry substance, high rate digesters, one- or two-stage processing, temperature tolerance, pH regulation, pressure dependence, methods for process regulation, hygienics, foam-quenching; (b) construction of a test plant equipped with instruments for analysis and supervision; and (c) construction of prototype plants at a swine farm and at a slaughterhouse. Detailed budgets and schedules are given for the project at three different possible total costs.

  4. Hybrid vehicles - an alternative for the Swedish market; Hybridfordon - ett alternativ foer den svenska bilparken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, Karl-Erik; Bucksch, S

    2000-06-01

    The object of this report is to assemble information on and describe the situation for the development of hybrid vehicles and various alternatives within this field of development. In the report the description is concentrated mainly on the combination of combustion engine and electric battery, which is the most common combination in present day hybrid vehicles. In order to take a glimpse into the future even the combination of fuel cells and electric battery is described. The light duty electric hybrid vehicles which have been developed up to now are mainly parallel hybrids. If the development of hybrid systems takes place it will most certainly concern light duty vehicles which will come to be parallel hybrids equipped with an Otto or a diesel engine, depending on what the manufacturers wish to back. In the report the use of series hybrid vehicles is estimated to be limited to heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. Hybrids will not be likely to be relevant for heavy-duty vehicles, with the exception of those lorries which operate in city centres, i.e. lorries which are used to distribute goods to shops, garbage vehicles and certain types of working vehicle for service purposes. Continued development of the hybrid system for buses seems uncertain for various reasons. If there is a technical breakthrough in the manufacture of batteries and simultaneously the manufacturers increase their efforts to develop hybrid vehicles, the situation can be changed so that there is a speedier introduction of hybrid vehicles for heavy-duty vehicles.

  5. Et eksempel på alternativ videoproduktion: Maxambomba i Brasilien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius Ceccon

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Claudius Ceccon beskriver et konkret eksempel på alternativ video- produktion, nemlig det brasilianske selskab CECIP, senere omdøbt til TV Maxambomba. Han giver et rids af de sociale og politiske for- hold i det lokalområde i Rio de Janeiro, Nova Iguacu, hvor selskabet holder til, og vanskelighederne ved denne form for produktion. Idéen bag de alternative videoproduktioner er at skabe en modvægt til de alt- dominerende brasilianske TV-stationer, som efter forfatterens mening ikke fremstiller alle sider af den brasilianske virkelighed. Artiklen er skrevet til MedieKultur.

  6. Får - ett miljövänligt alternativ som ogräsbekämpning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Mette Dahl; Sintorn, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Erfarenhetsutbyte omkring fårbete som ogräsbekämpning var bland annat på dagordningen då svenska och danska greenkeepers som helt eller delvis sköter sina banor pesticidfritt möttes på Furesö Golfklubb den 4 maj i år.......Erfarenhetsutbyte omkring fårbete som ogräsbekämpning var bland annat på dagordningen då svenska och danska greenkeepers som helt eller delvis sköter sina banor pesticidfritt möttes på Furesö Golfklubb den 4 maj i år....

  7. Corrado Pettenati acting head of ETT

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following the departure of Juan Antonio Rubio, Corrado Pettenati has been appointed as the acting head of the ETT unit with effect from 1 August. He joined CERN in 1995 as head librarian, reorganizing and modernizing the library before becoming deputy leader of ETT from June 2000 to April 2004. Previously, he worked at the European University Institute in Florence from 1976, developing automated library systems and becoming head of the computer centre in 1985. He has also been a software analyst and a telecommunications specialist. In 2003 he was appointed as member of the steering committee of the Cellule de Coordination Documentaire Nationale pour les Mathématiques de Grenoble, and in 2004 became a member of the EULER - European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences - Scientific Advisory Board, based in Germany. He was born in 1946 and graduated with a degree in Electrical Engineering from the Polytechnic in Milan in 1969.

  8. Multilingualism and the ethnic identity of the Ette people | Egenti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to their diverse nature, the classification of indigenous languages in Nigeria ranks some of them as major, main and small group languages. The Ette people speak two main, and one major, Nigerian languages namely: Idoma, Igala and Igbo respectively. This paper sets out to examine the Ette people in the light of their ...

  9. Preface - BraMat 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The main goal of the BraMat 2017 Conference was, as for the previous editions, to stimulate an international exchange of information in the field of materials science and engineering and to establish future research directions. The main topics of this edition included: ​Metallic materials (Section I), Biomaterials (Section II), Ceramics, polymers and composite materials (Section III), Surface engineering (Section IV), Nanomaterials (Section V), Welding engineering (Section VI), Safety engineering (Section VII), and Magnesium science and engineering (Section VIII).

  10. Physical characteristics related to bra fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Man; LaBat, Karen; Bye, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    Producing well-fitting garments has been a challenge for retailers and manufacturers since mass production began. Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. Because body contours are important factors affecting bra fit, this study analyses the relationship of physical characteristics to bra-fit problems. This study has used 3-D body-scanning technology to extract upper body angles from a sample of 103 college women; these data were used to categorise physical characteristics into shoulder slope, bust prominence, back curvature and acromion placement. Relationships between these physical categories and bra-fit problems were then analysed. Results show that significant main effects and two-way interactions of the physical categories exist in the fit problems of poor bra support and bra-motion restriction. The findings are valuable in helping the apparel industry create better-fitting bras. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Poorly fitted bras can cause discomfort or pain and result in lost sales for retailers. The findings regarding body-shape classification provide researchers with a statistics method to quantify physical characteristics and the findings regarding the relationship analysis between physical characteristics and bra fit offer bra companies valuable information about bra-fit perceptions attributable to women with figure variations.

  11. Effect of sports bra type and gait speed on breast discomfort, bra discomfort and perceived breast movement in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaona; Gho, Sheridan A; Wang, Jianping; Steele, Julie R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of sports bra type (encapsulation versus compression) and gait speed on perceptions of breast discomfort, bra discomfort and breast movement reported by Chinese women. Visual analogue scales were used to evaluate breast discomfort, bra component discomfort and perceived breast movement of 21 Chinese participants when they wore an encapsulation or a compression sports bra, while static and while exercising at three different gait speeds. Participants perceived less breast discomfort and breast movement when wearing a compression bra compared to an encapsulation bra at a high gait speed, suggesting that compression bras are likely to provide the most effective support for Chinese women. However, significantly higher bra discomfort was perceived in the compression bra compared to the encapsulation bra when static and at the lower gait speed, implying that ways to modify the design of sports bras, particularly the straps, should be investigated to provide adequate and comfortable breast support. The compression sports bra provided more comfortable support than the encapsulation sports bra for these Chinese women when running on a treadmill. However, these women perceived higher bra discomfort when wearing the compression bra when stationary. Further research is needed to modify the design of sports bras, particularly the straps, to provide adequate and comfortable breast support.

  12. Den spelifierade arbetsplatsen : ett medarbetarperspektiv på motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Max; Harry, Elin

    2017-01-01

    Denna studie syftar till att bidra med kunskap om hur anställda upplever motivation i samband med användandet av ett spelifieringsprogram. Detta har konkretiserats med hjälp av frågeställningarna ”På vilket sätt påverkar spelifieringen de anställdas motivation?” och ”Vilka konsekvenser upplever anställda att spelifieringen har för deras arbetssituation?” För att behandla frågeställningarna har åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer med anställda genomförts hos ett företag som använder sig av ett s...

  13. population analysis of emergent timber trees species (etts) in iko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ekwueme

    The death of ETTs as a result of lightening, wind, insects and diseases attacks, and old age has ... needed as a base-line data which could be used to effectively plan for the ... Bole straight and clear of branches reaching up to. 3m high or more ...

  14. Care Of Haus - Ett varumärke, en uppfattning?

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Marcus; Axelsson, Johan; Selvanayagam, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Level: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration/Marketing Title: Care Of Haus, "Kan Reklam. Förstår Annat". Ett Varumärke, En uppfattning? Problem: When it comes to building a strong brand it is important that their brand identity, which means how they want to be perceived coincide with how their customers sees them (Melin 1999). Purpose: The purpose of this thesis has been to find out if and how these two aspects coincide with each other. Method: To fulfill the purpose of the thes...

  15. Adaptive bra designs for the individuals with special needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, A.; Drean, E.; Schacher, L.; Adolphe, D.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the numbers of disabled and elderly people is increasing, and the development of adaptive clothing for these people is in demand. The purpose of this study is to add features in bra design, to make it “Easy on, Easy off", to encourage the hemiplegic females to begin to dress themselves and to make dressing easier and more protective for them. This adaptive bra design will offer benefits to the wearer that include independence, conformity to culture, concealment of the disability, comfort, psychological contentment, safety, and durability. Our adaptive bra will promote harmony between functionality and aesthetics. Our e-bra enables continuous, real-time monitoring to identify any pathophysiological changes by monitoring blood pressure, body temperature, respiratory rate, oxygen consumption, some neural activity.

  16. Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Coiled Brine Recovery Assembly (CoBRA) project will result in a proof-of-concept demonstration for a lightweight, compact, affordable, regenerable and disposable...

  17. President Medvedev: Putiniga võistlemist on raske ette kujutada / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2011-01-01

    Venemaa presidendi Dmitri Medvedevi intervjuust ajalehele Financial Times. Medvedevi sõnul esindavad tema ja Vladimir Putrin suuresti sama poliitilist jõudu ning on raske ette kujutada Putiniga koos kandideerimist

  18. Pealekaebamine või avalikkuse ette toomine? / Ilvi Jõe-Cannon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõe-Cannon, Ilvi, 1937-

    2006-01-01

    Õiguskantsler Allar Jõks saatis Riigikokku ettepaneku erakonnaseaduse kooskõlastamiseks Eesti põhiseadusega. See aitab korrastada erakondade finantseerimist ja vältida korruptsiooni. Eestis vajavad seaduslikku kaitset inimesed, kes korruptsioonijuhtumeid avalikkuse ette toovad

  19. Litteraturarbete i ett svenska som andraspråksklassrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Economou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis article considers the role of reading fiction in Swedish as a second language instruction. The study examines how a group of advanced second language learners in a Swedish upper secondary school read, interpret and discuss a contemporary Swedish novel, how they interact with the text and with each other in relation to the text. Furthermore, it analyses which forms of reading the students use. It is a qualitative, empirical study based on field studies, transcriptions of tape recorded interaction and of written texts. The results indicate that second language learners in this context have a positive attitude towards reading and discussing what they read using several forms of reading. They often compare the content of the text to their own lives. One conclusion is that literature teaching and literature can be integrated into one Swedish subject in order to create even more meaningful interactions between students from different backgrounds. Another is that literature can be a means of language development as well as personal development.Keywords: Second language learners, literature pedagogy and didactics, forms of reading, democracy. SammandragDenna artikel handlar om skönlitteraturens roll i skolämnet svenska som andraspråk. Studien undersöker hur en grupp avancerade andraspråksinlärare i en svensk gymnasieskola läser, tolkar och diskuterar en modern svensk roman och hur de interagerar med texten och med varandra i relation till texten. Dessutom analyseras vilka läsarter som eleverna använde sig av. Den är en kvalitativ, empirisk studie som baseras på fältstudier, transkriptioner av inspelade boksamtal och elevtexter. Resultaten visar att andraspråkseleverna hade en positiv attityd till boksamtal och de använde sig av flera läsarter. De jämförde ofta texten till sina egna liv och erfarenheter.  En slutsats är att litteraturundervisning och litteraturarbete skulle kunna integreras i ett gemensamt ämne så att

  20. Starinsko odijevanje žena otoka Brača

    OpenAIRE

    Ivančić, Sanja

    2003-01-01

    Zbog svojih zasebnih osobina tradicijsko ruho otoka Brača, kao i ono u mnogim drugim mjestima i gradovima srednje dalmatinskih otoka i priobalnog kopnenog zaleđa, nije smatrano narodnom nošnjom. Razlog je tomu što je zadugo narodnom, tradicijskom odjećom držana samo ona u cijelosti rađena bilo u obiteljskoj ili obrtničkoj domaćoj radinosti. Suprotno tomu, kako u nedostatku domaćih tekstilnih proizvoda, tako i zbog trajnih pomorsko - trgovačkih veza sa svijetom, na otoku Braču bila je sve učes...

  1. A multidimensonal Examination of Prefomences of the Future advanced Transport Systems: The ETT (Evacuated Tube Transport) TRM (Transrapid MAGLEV) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Multidimensional examination of performances of the future advanced ETT Evacuated Tube Transport) system operated by TRM (TransRapidMaglev); assessment of the ETT TRM system contribution to sustainability of the future transport sector through its completion with APT (Air Passenger Transport) system

  2. Skapandet av en handbok för ett franchiseföretag : Case: Pub Niska

    OpenAIRE

    Juvonen, Jenni

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att skapa en franchisehandbok för franchiserestaurangen Pub Niska. En franchisehandbok innehåller mer detaljerad information om ett företag, dess riktlinjer och vardagliga rutiner. En franchisehandboks viktigaste uppgift är att säkra kvaliteten i ett koncept. Franchisehandboken för Pub Niska innehåller information om företaget i allmänhet och beskriver hur företaget är uppbyggt samt presenterar riktlinjer för marknadsföring, inredning och ekonomi. Dessuto...

  3. Arbetsmöbel för ungdomar : Beskrivning av designprocessen i ett samarbete med IKEA

    OpenAIRE

    Leckström, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Rapporten beskriver ett designprojekt, utfört som en del av examensarbetet på 15 HP, jag utfört som avgångsstudent på möbeldesignprogrammet vid Carl Malmsten Centrum för Träteknik & Design. Från Ronnie Runesson, produktutvecklare på IKEA of Sweden, fick jag ett uppdrag, ett reellt projekt att arbeta med. Projektet handlade om att ta fram ett koncept på en ny typ av arbetsmöbel för ungdomar i åldersgruppen 12 – 18 år. Målet med projektet var att, förutom att leverera ett fungerande koncept...

  4. Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is widely distributed in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Liu, X; Xu, X; Zhao, Y; Yang, D; Han, X; Tian, M; Ding, C; Peng, D; Yu, S

    2016-10-01

    Pathogens utilize type III secretion systems to deliver effector proteins, which facilitate bacterial infections. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) which plays a crucial role in bacterial virulence, is present in the majority of E. coli strains, although ETT2 has undergone widespread mutational attrition. We investigated the distribution and characteristics of ETT2 in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) isolates and identified five different ETT2 isoforms, including intact ETT2, in 57·6% (141/245) of the isolates. The ETT2 locus was present in the predominant APEC serotypes O78, O2 and O1. All of the ETT2 loci in the serotype O78 isolates were degenerate, whereas an intact ETT2 locus was mostly present in O1 and O2 serotype strains, which belong to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, respectively. Interestingly, a putative second type III secretion-associated locus (eip locus) was present only in the isolates with an intact ETT2. Moreover, ETT2 was more widely distributed in APEC isolates and exhibited more isoforms compared to ETT2 in human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, suggesting that APEC might be a potential risk to human health. However, there was no distinct correlation between ETT2 and other virulence factors in APEC.

  5. Kohtu ette jõudis Amigo peksuvideo hävitamine / Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagge, Rasmus, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Ööklubi Amigo peksmisskandaali uurinud prokurör Saskia Kask saatis kohtu ette lokaali vahetuse vanema ja turvatehnika hooldaja, keda süüdistatakse jõhkra videosalvestise kui kaaluka süütõendi hävitamises. Lisa: Skandaali kronoloogia

  6. Acute changes in clinical breast measurements following bra removal: Implications for surgical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Scurr

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Internipple distance and breast projection can be measured first following bra removal, followed by sternal notch to nipple distance, any measures associated with the vertical nipple position should be made more than 6 min after bra removal. These guidelines have implications for breast surgery, particularly for unilateral reconstruction based on the residual breast position.

  7. The World Congress on Controversies in Breast Cancer (CoBRA in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Rabinoff-Sofer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Congress on Controversies in Breast Cancer (CoBRA will take place October 22-24, 2015 in Melbourne, Australia.CoBRA is a concept congress dealing with controversial topics in breast cancer in the format of debates and discussions, allowing ample time for speaker-participant interaction.CLICK HERE for more information

  8. Influence Factors of Sports Bra Evaluation and Design Based on Large Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lingxi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to find the main influence factors of sports bra evaluation by the subjective assessment of different styles commercial sports bra, and to summarize the design elements of sports bra for large size. 10 women in large size (>C80 were chosen to evaluate 9 different sports bras. The main influence factors were extracted by factor analysis and all the product samples were classified by Q-cluster analysis. The conclusions show that breast stability, wearing comfort and bust modelling are the three key factors for sports bra evaluation. And a classification-positioning model of sports bra products was established. The findings can provide theoretical basis and guidance for the research and design of sports bras both for academic and sports or underwear enterprises, and also provide reference value for women customers.

  9. Säker lyftteknik inom akutvården : Ett produktutvecklingsarbete

    OpenAIRE

    Kullberg, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Det här examensarbetet är ett utvecklingsarbete beställt av APSLC. Examensarbetets slutprodukt är en Power Point-fil som presenterar teori om säkra lyfttekni-ker samt visar modellutföranden för grunderna i säkra lyfttekniker. Avsikten för själva examensarbetet är att producera ett självstudiematerial av så hög kvalitét att det kan användas av akutvårdslinjen vid Arcada. Målet med slutprodukten är att öka akutvårdsstuderandes kunskaper om säkra lyfttekniker, så att studerande genom propriocept...

  10. Ramverk för en drift- och underhållsstrategi ur ett regelstyrt infrastrukturperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Espling, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    Att förvalta statens järnvägar är en komplex uppgift där hänsyn måste tas till interna och externa faktorer och processer samtidigt som krav på effektivitet ställs från ägare, kunder och slutkunder. Banverket bildade 1988 genom att det affärsdrivande verket Statens Järnvägar delades i ett infrastrukturverk, Banverket, och ett trafikutövningsverk SJ. Vid tidpunkten för delningen var infrastrukturanläggningarna i stort behov av upprustning och förnyelse. Till att börja med tillämpades regelstyr...

  11. Från yrkesvalslärare till karriärvägledare : Studie- och yrkesvägledaryrket i ett professionaliseringsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Holmsten, Nina; Lehninger, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    I Sverige finns det idag ett stort antal yrken och en del av dessa är i en professionaliseringsprocess. Studie- och yrkesvägledaryrket är ett exempel på ett yrke i denna process. Syftet är att beskriva utvalda aktörers syn på studie- och yrkesvägledaryrkets avgränsningar, kompetens samt eventuella auktorisation i ett professionaliseringsperspektiv. En kvalitativ metod har använts och fem elitintervjuer har genomförts med representanter från Lärarförbundet, Lärarnas Riksförbund, Sveriges vägle...

  12. The movement continues : En kvalitativ textanalys av Donald Trump ur ett propagandaperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Segerström, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Den 20 januari 2017 tillträdde Donald Trump som USA:s 45e president. Redan under valkampanjen, som Trump gick in i som en politisk outsider, såg vi en ny kommunikationsstil träda i kraft som enligt Enli (2017) bättre kan beskrivas som amatörism. Språket var rakt, direkt och ofiltrerat och tog ett stort kliv ifrån den traditionella politiska kommunikationen. Trumps huvudsakliga kommunikationsplattform är den sociala mediesajten Twitter där han kommunicerar frekvent och monologiskt med sin publ...

  13. Bokföringsbrott : Ett resultat av oaktsamhet i bokföring?

    OpenAIRE

    Abdlwafa, Lezan; Balci, Anita; Safari, Awat

    2013-01-01

    Datum: 29 maj, 2013 Nivå: Kandidatuppsats i företagsekonomi, 15 hp Institution: Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, ESTMälardalens Högskola Författare: Lezan Abdlwafa, Anita Balci & Awat Safari Titel: Bokföringsbrott – Ett resultat av oaktsamhet i bokföring? Handledare: Ulla Pettersson Nyckelord: Bokföringsbrott, oaktsamhet, bokföringsskyldighet, god redovisningssed, Ekobrottsmyndigheten, Skatteverket, konkursförvaltare Frågeställning: På vilket sätt leder näringsidkarens oaktsamhe...

  14. Export eller joint venture? : Ett litet företags internationella expansion.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Tobias; Tenne, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    För små till medelstora företag (SMEs) vars kännetecken är bristande resurser kan konsekvensen av ett felaktigt etableringssätt vid internationell expansion vara skillnaden mellan överlevnad och konkurs (Kuo & Li 2003). Etableringar på utländska marknader kan genomföras via en rad olika etableringssätt. Två av dessa kommer att behandlas i denna uppsats; export och joint venture. Det amerikanska SME-företaget Pro Spot tillverkar svetsar till bilverkstäder och önskar expandera på den europe...

  15. Ett omusikaliskt genombrott : Mottagandet av Elvis Presley i svensk press under rockmusikens etableringsfas 1956-58

    OpenAIRE

    Klang, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Kent Klang: Ett omusikaliskt genombrott: Mottagandet av Elvis Presley i svensk press under rockmusikens etableringsfas 1956-1958. Uppsala Universitet: Institutionen för musikvetenskap, uppsats för 60p. 2007 När Elvis Presley gjorde sitt stora genombrott i USA i mitten på 1950-talet kom han att angripas hårt i bland annat amerikansk press. Upprördheten hade sin grund i Elvis sexuellt utmanande kroppsrörelser och rhythm and blues betonade musik. De här artistiska stildragen avslöjade o...

  16. Strindberg på färöiska : En analys av Ett halvt ark papper

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Karl

    2007-01-01

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en insikt i hur den färöiska översättningen av Strindbergs novell Ett halvt ark papper förhåller sig till originalet i fråga om syntax och ordbildning ur ett såväl grammatiskt som semantiskt perspektiv. Metoden som tillämpas är en kvalitativ-komparativ metod som har sitt ursprung i en kombination av kopplingsanalys och komponentanalys. Resultatet av materialet visar att måltextens syntax överlag överensstämmer med syntaxen i källtexten med ett fåtal konsekve...

  17. Pharmacological characterization of BR-A-657, a highly potent nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yong Ha; Lee, Joo Han; Kim, Je Hak; Tan, Hyun Kwang; Kim, Sang Lin; Lee, Jae Yeol; Rim, Hong-Kun; Paik, Soo Heui; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacological profile of BR-A-657, 2-n-butyl-5-dimethylamino-thiocarbonyl-methyl-6-methyl-3-{[2-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-pyrimidin-4(3H)-one, a new nonpeptide AT1-selective angiotensin receptor antagonist, has been investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In the present study, BR-A-657 displaced [(125)I][Sar(1)-Ile(8)]angiotensin II (Ang II) from its specific binding sites to AT1 subtype receptors in membrane fractions of HEK-293 cells with an IC50 of 0.16 nM. In a functional assay using isolated rabbit thoracic aorta, BR-A-657 inhibited the contractile response to Ang II (pD'2: 9.15) with a significant reduction in the maximum. In conscious rats, BR-A-657 (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg; intravenously (i.v.)) dose-dependently antagonized Ang II-induced pressor responses. In addition, BR-A-657 dose-dependently decreased mean arterial pressure in furosemide-treated rats and renal hypertensive rats. Moreover, BR-A-657 given orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg reduced blood pressure in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that BR-A-657 is a potent and specific antagonist of Ang II at the AT1 receptor subtype, and reveal the molecular basis responsible for the marked lowering of blood pressure in conscious rats.

  18. ETT Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Monday 4 March, at 10h00 - SL Auditorium, Prévessin, bldg. 864 Radioisotopes in Medicine: Requirements, Production and Application by Gerd-J.BEYER / University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology (see details at page 7 of the Weekly Bulletin nr 10/2002).  

  19. Tre lampor och ett ben : produktserie för Gotlands Lampfabrik

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Gotlands Lampfabrik är en nystartad verksamhet (2009) som drivs av Jonas Kling och Jane Odell centralt på Gotland. De producerar stilrena lampskärmar i ett ljust polymermaterial med papp på båda sidorna. Produktionen är liten och görs för hand på plats i den egna fabriken i Väskinde. Sortimentet består av 33 lampskärmar och i nuläget producerar inte Gotlands Lampfabrik sina egna lampben eller upphängningar utan köper in dem från fristående parter vilket medför att sortimentet kan uppfattas so...

  20. First green kit : ett inredningsprojekt för det offentliga uterummet

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, Ida

    2008-01-01

    Projektet omfattas av ett parkprojekt med analyser och gestaltning av grönstrukturer i Nynäshamns stad. Inriktningen är utformning av allmänna utrymmen i det offentliga uterummet med fokus att öka tillgängligheten och tillgången av grönytor och parker. Projektet syftar i att skapa värdefulla platser för ökad trygghet och trivsel. Målsättningen är också att visualisera en vision om rum för upplevelser och aktiviteter. Rum i vilka allmänheten frivilligt vistas om den fysiska miljön är god. Stad...

  1. Employer Branding : Ett gränsöverskridande varumärkesarbete

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Åsa; Granstig, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Bakgrund: Denna uppsats handlar om hur företag ska kunna attrahera framtida kompetens med en ny varumärkesstrategi. ”Employer Branding” är namnet på denna strategi och beskrivs av konsulter som ett medel för företag att via en genomtänkt varumärkesstrategi profilera företaget på kompetensmarknaden. Grunderna i en Employer Branding-strategi innefattar följande aspekter: att kunna attrahera och behålla den bästa kompetensen samt att ena företaget kring sin vision och kultur. Vi har i denna upps...

  2. Opportunity of Constructing a Cargo Terminal – Case Study Brașov International Airport, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Air transport and especially air cargo transport became ever more important during the last 25 years, with a signifi cant impact upon economic development. Air cargo transport supports regional economic development, provided there is suffi cient local demand for its services. In our study, we have identifi ed signifi cant elements of the impact a cargo terminal at the International Brașov-Ghimbav Airport would have upon local economic development. For this purpose, we have conducted a quantitative market research. We have reached the conclusion that constructing a cargo terminal at the Brașov-Ghimbav Airport is a necessary investment in the current economic context, with an important contribution to the economic development of its surrounding counties. The positive results registered in our study could contribute to improving the economic and fi nancial prospects of Brașov-Ghimbav Airport and attract investors in this project.

  3. Opinions of traveling agencies’ managers regarding the traveling behavior of people from Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untaru, E.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of tourism businesses to the needs of the consumers they address to by means of their offer cannot be achieved without in-depth knowledge of consumer and purchase behaviour. Acknowledgement of consumer behaviour involves identifying, anticipating and meeting consumers’ needs in a profitable manner. This article represents a qualitative survey conducted by the semi-directive in-depth interview method among travel agencies in the city of Braşov, with the purpose of revealing managers' views regarding the opinions of people in Braşov towards tourist trips. The results of the qualitative research will form the starting point in the achievement of a quantitative research among people in Braşov, with focus on their opinions, attitudes and behaviours towards travelling, in general.

  4. Jämnt Lärande : Ett illustrerat hjälpmedel till normkritisk granskning av läromedel

    OpenAIRE

    Denninger, Johan

    2017-01-01

    I detta examensarbete undersöks normbildande och reproducering av normer i samband med bilder i läromedel som används av modersmålslärare i Eskilstuna Kommun. Arbetet bygger på problematiken att stereotyper och reproducering av normer är vanligt förkommande i läromedlen samt att lärarnas brist på tid och möjlighet att granska läromedlen normkritiskt. Syftet med arbetet är att formge ett gestaltningsförslag till ett illustrerat hjälpmedel för normkritisk granskning av läromed...

  5. Förskolechefens anavar och uppdrag i ett kommunalt förvaltningsperspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eriksson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The revision of the Swedish Education Act and of the Pre-School Curriculum of 2010 involved a demand for improved pedagogical quality and for an alteration and clarification of roles and responsibilities within the pre-school sector. In the revision the responsibilities, authorizations and rights to make decisions of the Heads of Preschool were articulated and clarified. This article describes and discusses how the new responsibilities and tasks of the Heads of Preschool have been interpreted and how the response to the revisions has manifested itself within a framework of municipal public administration. The data used consists of a questionnaire answered by 48 administrative officials with responsibility for education government in different municipalities. The result shows that the Heads of Preschool in a majority of municipalities are faced with increasing responsibilities and a new accountability structure. In order to meet the demands for improved pedagogical quality they are also expected to provide competence development opportunities for preschool staff.2010-års revideringen av skollagen och förskolans läroplan innebar dels ökade krav på pedagogisk kvalitet och dels på en förändrad och förtydligad ansvarsstruktur i förskolan. För förskolechefens del explicitgjordes och förtydligades både ansvar, befogenhet och beslutsrätt. I artikeln beskrivs och problematiseras hur förskolechefens ansvar och uppdrag tolkas och kommer till uttryck i ett övergripande kommunalt förvaltningsperspektiv i samband med dessa revideringar. Data utgörs av en enkätundersökning besvarad av 48 förvaltningstjänstemän anställda i olika kommuner. Resultatet visar att förskolechefen i flertalet kommuner har tilldelats ett stort ansvar när det gäller att tolka och initiera den förtydligade ansvarsstrukturen och skapa förutsättningar i form av kompetensutvecklingsinsatser för förskolepersonalen för att möta de ökade kraven p

  6. Modeling of Flexible Polyurethane Foam Shrinkage for Bra Cup Moulding Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, moulding technology has become a remarkable manufacturing process in the intimate apparel industry. Polyurethane (PU foam sheets are used to mould three-dimensional (3D seamless bra cups of various softness and shapes, which eliminate bulky seams and reduce production costs. However, it has been challenging to accurately and effectively control the moulding process and bra cup thickness. In this study, the theoretical mechanism of heat transfer and the thermal conductivity of PU foams are first examined. Experimental studies are carried out to investigate the changes in foam materials at various moulding conditions (viz., temperatures, and lengths of dwell time in terms of surface morphology and thickness by using electron and optical microscopy. Based on the theoretical and experimental investigations of the thermal conductivity of the foam materials, empirical equations of shrinkage ratio and thermal conduction of foam materials were established. A regression model to predict flexible PU foam shrinkage during the bra cup moulding process was formulated by using the Levenberg-Marquardt method of nonlinear least squares algorithm and verified for accuracy. This study therefore provides an effective approach that optimizes control of the bra cup moulding process and assures the ultimate quality and thickness of moulded foam cups.

  7. Regulation of notochord-specific expression of Ci-Bra downstream genes in Ciona intestinalis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Hotta, Kohji; Takagi, Chiyo; Ueno, Naoto; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2010-02-01

    Brachyury, a T-box transcription factor, is expressed in ascidian embryos exclusively in primordial notochord cells and plays a pivotal role in differentiation of notochord cells. Previously, we identified approximately 450 genes downstream of Ciona intestinalis Brachyury (Ci-Bra), and characterized the expression profiles of 45 of these in differentiating notochord cells. In this study, we looked for cisregulatory sequences in minimal enhancers of 20 Ci-Bra downstream genes by electroporating region within approximately 3 kb upstream of each gene fused with lacZ. Eight of the 20 reporters were expressed in notochord cells. The minimal enchancer for each of these eight genes was narrowed to a region approximately 0.5-1.0-kb long. We also explored the genome-wide and coordinate regulation of 43 Ci-Bra-downstream genes. When we determined their chromosomal localization, it became evident that they are not clustered in a given region of the genome, but rather distributed evenly over 13 of the 14 pairs of chromosomes, suggesting that gene clustering does not contribute to coordinate control of the Ci-Bra downstream gene expression. Our results might provide Insights Into the molecular mechanisms underlying notochord formation in chordates.

  8. Charitable activities of the Stroesku’s family in Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tănase

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the eighties, the Bessarabian nobleman Mihail Stroesku's attempts to support the Romanian Bessarabian education were rejected by the Russian authorities, so his philanthropic activities was conducted in the Kingdom of Romania, especially in Transylvania. "Association for Supporting Apprentices and Journeymen of Romanian Craftsmen of Braşov" was founded in 1869 by a group of Braşov intellectuals and merchants on the initiative of the priest Bartolomeu Baiulescu. The purpose of this organization was to help the apprentices and journeymen and to support craft activities in Braşov. The customs war, which broke out between Romania and Austria-Hungary in mid-1886, had serious consequences for the economy of Transylvania. The economic disorders provoked the migration of a significant part of manufacturers and workshop owners from Transylvania outside the Carpathian arc that worsened the financial problems of the craftsmen association from Braşov. On November 22, Mihail Stroesku and his wife Eliza donated the association 25,000 Austrian florins (50,000 lei. Over the years, the "Eliza and Mihail Stroescu Foundation" was one of the main sources of its funding. This money has been spent on manuals, materials, awards, scholarships, rent, material assistance, current expenditure etc.

  9. Alternativer til bande-exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2016-01-01

    interesse-fællesskaber omkring bl.a. malerkunst, åndedrætsøvelser, meditation, yoga, boksning og oplæg om ændringer i eget liv. Med god støtte fra mentor-relationer (som bliver til venskaber), bliver de del af og er samtidig med til at skabe nye meningsfulde fællesskaber, hvor de sammen med andre...

  10. KOMMUNIKATIVT LEDARSKAP ett ledarskap för moderna organisationer : Kvalitativ studie med ansats att definiera begreppet

    OpenAIRE

    Axäll, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    AbstractTitle: Communicative leadership – a leadership for modern organizationsQualitative research attempting to define the concept.(Kommunikativt ledarskap – ett ledarskap för moderna organisationerKvalitativ studie med ansats att definiera begreppet.)Author: Jenny AxällAim: The aim of this essay is to try to find the essence of and a definition of the communicative leadership. Questions asked are: How can communicative leadership be described? How can it be practiced? What does it demand o...

  11. Hanteringen när medarbetares privata problem inverkar negativt på arbetsplatsen : En studie ur ett ledarskapsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Maria; Larsson Norlund, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Uppsatsens syfte var att undersöka hur ledare hanterar situationer där medarbetares privata problem inverkar negativt på arbetet för både arbetsgivare och övriga medarbetare. För att få svar på det har vi inspirerats av vinjettstudie som utgår från diskussioner av fiktiva fall. Vi har genomfört studien med fyra enskilda semistrukturerade intervjuer och en fokusgruppsintervju där vi först introducerade respondenterna med vinjetterna. Deltagarna till undersökningen valdes ut genom ett subjektiv...

  12. Hur fungerar datorer? : En fallstudie av att utveckla pedagogisk multimedia för ett datorhistoriskt museum.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahl, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Få människor vet hur datorer fungerar, vilka komponenter de är uppbyggda av och hur dessa samverkar. I detta examensarbete har en prototyp till en multimediepresentation utvecklats. Presentationen kommer att placeras på ett datorhistoriskt museum och dess syfte kommer där att vara att hjälpa människor förstå hur datorer fungerar. Prototypen är baserad på bilder och enklare animationer som förklarar samverkan och funktion hos de olika datorkomponenterna, bland annat genom att visa scenarier so...

  13. Överensstämmelsen mellan ett företags önskade employer brand och den faktiska uppfattningen bland de anställda.

    OpenAIRE

    Leander, Kajsa; Johannesson, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Employer branding (som kan ses som ett företags arbetsgivarvarumärke) är ett begrepp som det under det senaste decenniet riktats mycket uppmärksamhet mot och i denna uppsats undersöks hur ett företags önskade interna employer brand överensstämmer med uppfattningen de anställda har om företaget i fråga. För att undersöka den interna uppfattningen har en kvantitativ undersökning genomförts i form av enkäter som sedan kompletterats med en kvalitativ undersökning bestående av intervjuer för att p...

  14. Rehabilitering efter dekompression och diskoperation - framställandet av en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning : Ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Examensarbetet är ett praktiskt inriktat examensarbete med fokus på rehabiliteringen efter en dekompressions- och diskoperation. Det är ett beställningsarbete av Tölö sjukhus med syftet att framställa en fysioterapeutisk patientanvisning. Önskemål från uppdragsgivare var att utforma en tydlig patientanvisning för ryggopererade bestående av skriftliga instruktioner angående postoperativ rehabilitering i form av vardagliga aktiviteter, fysisk aktivitet, ryggens viloställningar, vi...

  15. CoBra - a global tool for braking system development; CoBra - ein Tool fuer den globalen Einsatz in der Bremssystementwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, U. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    When Robert Bosch GmbH took over the braking system activities of Allied Signal in 1996, they became able to develop complete braking systems for passenger cars. Braking systes for the different markets are now produced in three sites in Germany, France and the USA. Braking system development with its interfaces to component development and to car producers is a new development challenge, and the department K1 (ABS and braking systems) is cooperating with internal and external partners in developing a globally standardized program for design, simulation and analysis of passenger car braking systems. This contribution presents parts of the development project CoBra (Computation of Braking Systems). [German] Mit dem Kauf der Bremsenaktivitaeten der Firma Allied Signal im Jahre 1996 ist die Robert Bosch GmbH in der Lage, komplette Pkw-Bremssysteme zu entwickeln. Nunmehr werden an drei Entwicklungsstandorten in Deutschland, Frankreich und den USA Bremssysteme fuer die verschiedenen Maerkte entwickelt. Die Bremssystementwicklung, insbesondere die damit verbundenen Schnittstellen zu der Komponentenentwicklung und zum Automobilhersteller, stellt technisch und vom Entwicklungsprozess aus gesehen eine neue Herausforderung dar. Um ihr zu begegnen, wird im Geschaeftsbereich K1 (ABS and Braking Systems) derzeit in Zusammenarbeit mit internen und externen Partnern ein global einheitliches Programm zur Auslegung, Simulation und Analyse von Pkw-Bremssystemen entwickelt. Dieser Beitrag stellt Teile des Entwicklungsprojekts CoBra (Computation of Braking Systems) vor. (orig.)

  16. Nudge; en knuff i rätt riktning? : Ett beteendeekonomiskt experiment om svenskars attityder till nudge

    OpenAIRE

    Öqvist, Johanna; Bergfelt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Beteendeinterventioner – så kallade nudge – syftar till att få individer att ta beslut som är gynnsamma både för individ och samhälle genom att göra subtila förändringar i den miljö inom vilken individer tar beslut. Beslutsfattare världen över har börjat använda nudge som ytterligare ett policy-verktyg. Nudge har emellertid kritiserats för dess tvivelaktiga etiska principer och debatten om nudge har i stort sett fortskridit utan inflytande från allmänheten. För i vilken utsträckning anses nud...

  17. Vad vill kvinnor ha? : En undersökning av en lokaltidnings bilaga i form av ett livsstilsmagasin.

    OpenAIRE

    Heurling, Åsa; Lovisa, Lesse

    2011-01-01

    Folkbladet är en dagstidning i Norrköping med en stark lokal prägel vars prenumeranter till största delen är sportintresserade män. För att försöka bredda sin läsekrets har man sedan 2009 gett ut en tidning kallad Trend, som vänder sig till kvinnor i åldern 20 - 50 år. Denna tidning med lokal prägel, i form av ett livsstilsmagasin för kvinnor, handlar om mode, skönhet, heminredning och resor. Maga- sinet ges ut i fyra nummer per år och delas ut gratis till alla hushåll i Norrköping med omnejd...

  18. Bilderboken ur ett genusperspektiv : En bilderboksanalys av tre svenska böcker som utmanar stereotypa könsroller

    OpenAIRE

    Malmqvist, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie är att se hur några bilderböcker utmanar de stereotypa könsrollerna. Jag kommer att granska hur pojkar och flickor framställs ur ett genusperspektiv och även titta på hur text och bild kompletterar varandra, med hjälp av Nikolajevas (2000) analysmodell för bilderböcker. Jag har valt att analysera tre stycken böcker och två av dessa har pojkar som huvudkaraktärer och en har en flicka som huvudkaraktär. Med den medvetenhet man har idag kring genus så kan dessa böcker var...

  19. Fizičke i senzorske karakteristike funkcionalnih prehrambenih namaza na bazi celuloznih hidrokoloida i brašna pogače uljane tikve

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Osnovni cilj ovog istraživanja je utvrđivanje mogućnosti proizvodnje funkcionalnog niskoenergetskog prehrambenog namaza na bazi brašna od semena tikve golice i hidrokoloida ugljenohidratnog porekla.Utvrđivanju ove mogućnosti prethodilo je potpuno karakterisanje i definisanje sastavnih komponenti namaza. To su brašno od semena tikve golice i prehrambeni hidrokoloidi na bazi vlakana. Brašno od semena tikve golice analizirano je radi određivanja njegovih fizičko–hemijs...

  20. PLATON V2.0 and BRA V1.0 system for teletherapy and brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artes, C.; Coscia, G.; Luongo, A.

    1996-01-01

    A locally designed fully automatic Radiation Field Analyser (RFA) was constructed. The system is controlled by a PC and includes a graphic system ionisation chambers and an electrometer. The system is capable of reading doses instantly in any point inside a water phantom and provide graphs of the dose distributions (isodose curves) of any therapeutic unit. The information is automatically stored in the PC and can be transferred to Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) such as the PLATON and BRA developed in Latin America. (author)

  1. PLATON V2.0 and BRA V1.0 system for teletherapy and brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artes, C; Coscia, G; Luongo, A [Ministerio de Salud Publica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Inst. de Oncologia

    1996-08-01

    A locally designed fully automatic Radiation Field Analyser (RFA) was constructed. The system is controlled by a PC and includes a graphic system ionisation chambers and an electrometer. The system is capable of reading doses instantly in any point inside a water phantom and provide graphs of the dose distributions (isodose curves) of any therapeutic unit. The information is automatically stored in the PC and can be transferred to Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) such as the PLATON and BRA developed in Latin America. (author).

  2. Evaluation of the perturbation of the mesh Bra Breast TiLoop in the planning process-radiotherapy; Evaluacion de la perturbacion de la malla mamaria TiLoop Bra en el proceso de planificacion-tratamiento radioterapico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, C.; Pujades, M. C.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Lliso, F.; Carmona, V.; Richart, J.; Ballester, F.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the dosimetric impact TiLoop Mesh Bra breast radiotherapy treatments, and their influence on both the quality and the disruption of the gray levels of the radiographic image required for treatment planning.

  3. Evaluation of the perturbation of the mesh Bra Breast TiLoop in the planning process-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, C.; Pujades, M. C.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Lliso, F.; Carmona, V.; Richart, J.; Ballester, F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the dosimetric impact TiLoop Mesh Bra breast radiotherapy treatments, and their influence on both the quality and the disruption of the gray levels of the radiographic image required for treatment planning.

  4. Orkesten onder druk? : Op zoek naar trends & ontwikkelingen in de HaFaBra-sector in Noord-Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Linda; Bisschop Boele, Evert

    2015-01-01

    In de HaFaBra-sector wordt al langere tijd gesproken over ‘de problematiek’ in de sector maar uit datzelfde veld komen verschillende berichten over de stand van zaken. Veel muziekverenigingen kennen dalende ledenaantallen, maar er zijn ook orkesten die het heel goed doen. Wat is er nu precies aan de

  5. [Determination of residual toluene diisocyanate in sponge bra by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aixia; Ye, Ping; Huang, Nan; Chen, Yan; Li, Xinggen

    2017-06-08

    A gas chromatography (GC) with internal standard method was developed for the determination of residual toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in sponge bra. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate dehydrated, and cleaned up with 0.22 μm microfiltration membrane. The residual toluene diisocyanate was separated on a DB-624 capillary column using temperature programming. The flame ionization detector (FID) was used at 250 ℃. The inlet temperature was 180 ℃ with nitrogen as carrier gas. The linear range was 10-200 mg/L ( R 2 =0.9989) for TDI. The average recovery ranged from 80.5% to 91.6% with RSD not more than 7.9%( n =6). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 10 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The developed method was then utilized to analyse the 100 batches of sponge bra samples from the manufacturing enterprises, the entity shops and electric business platforms. The method is simple, time-saving and environment friendly with high sensitivity and good reproducibility, and has practical application value due to its low-cost and short-circle.

  6. Demographic Development of the Island of Brač and the Islanders’ Tendency to Emigrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Nakićen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the basic demographic indicators of the Island of Brač and its settlements. Particular focus is on emigration from the island and its effect on demographic development of the island. The paper also presents the results of the survey conducted on the island in 2014. The aim of the survey was to investigate the level of satisfaction related to life on the island, and the respondents’ attitude toward emigration. Since the survey encompassed 151 permanent residents of the Island of Brač, the sample cannot be regarded as representative, so the survey results were not analysed separately, but rather incorporated in the demographic analysis. Throughout most of the 20th century, the Croatian insular area was characterised by intensive depopulation. Peak population on the islands was recorded in 1921, and it was followed by a long period of population decline, which lasted until 1991. However, the peak population on the Island of Brač was recorded in 1900, and it was also followed by a long period of depopulation, which ended in 1981. Official census data indicate that from 1981 until the present day Brač has recorded population increase, but that increase is actually fictitious (it was actually caused by “administrative immigration” – people increasingly registered their residence on the island in order to gain certain benefits regardless of their actual place of living or residence. Analysis of the population trends on the Island of Brač shows that in the period from 1857 to 1900, all the settlements on the island had population increase due to very favourable economic situation on the island brought by the vine-growing expansion. Economic prosperity of the island and high birth rates in the first phase of demographic transition resulted in rapid population growth. However, after the Wine Clause had been signed in 1891, and particularly after 1910, when phylloxera devastated the local vineyards, the insular economy

  7. Volkswagen - Ett globalt fusk : En deskriptiv studie om biljättens utsläppsskandal och dess påverkan

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Erik; de Bourgh, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Genom åren har ett flertal bolag världen över involverats i olika slags skandaler, en del som rena brott och andra som skylls på misstag eller olyckshändelser. Några av det större slaget är t.ex. BP-skandalen där miljontals fat med olja läckte ut i mexikanska golfen, detta skylldes på en olyckshändelse. Andra exempel är Enron som gjorde ett rent bedrägeri i form av bokföringsbrott eller Stora Enso som sysslade med barnarbete i utvecklingsländer, vilket blossade upp som en skandal i form av bo...

  8. 1+1=3? : en studie om co-branding och dess påverkan på ett varumärkes värde

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Ida; Andersson, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Co-branding, vilket är en typ av varumärkessamarbete, har på senare tid blivit en populär strategi i strävan efter att skapa ett högre värde för konsumenten samt nå fördelar så som ökade intäkter samt möjligheten att skapa och attrahera lojala kunder. Dock finns det siffror som pekar på att många co-brandingsamarbeten misslyckas. Mot denna bakgrund har syftet med denna studie varit att, utifrån lojala kunders perspektiv, undersöka vilken påverkan ett varumärkessamarbete av typen co-branding k...

  9. “Who you know affects what you know” : En kvalitativ studie om det sociala kapitalets roll i ett familjeföretag

    OpenAIRE

    Fatrous, Joelle; Bergdahl, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Vi har noterat att forskningen om socialt kapital inom familjeföretag är begränsad. Syftet med uppsatsen är att bidra till att utöka den forskning som sedan tidigare existerar om ämnet socialt kapital. Därför har vi valt att studera hur det sociala kapitalet nyttjas vid ett ägarskifte mellan två generationer inom ett familjeföretag. Studien behandlar också hur företaget nyttjar familjens och de anställdas sociala kapital när behovet av arbetskraft uppstår, samt hur det sociala...

  10. Adapting the European tourism indicators system to Braşov – tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The industry of tourism contributes mainly to the social and economic development of a destination. However this development has to be made in a sustainable manner, with an emphasis on preserving the area where it is practiced. In order to evaluate the sustainable development of a destination, the European Commission developed an Indicators System that measures and monitors, at a local level, the processes of sustainable development and communicates to the interested parties its progress and its future performances. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify the set of indicators from European Tourism Indicators System that are relevant in evaluating the sustainable development of tourism in Braşov. In order to achieve this objective 3 focus Groups were conducted among 30 specialists in this field. The results can serve as a guid

  11. Motivation and benefits of voluntary activities. Case study: EYOF 2013 Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary activities have become natural concerns among an increasing number of European citizens. Romania, as a member state of the EU, has a low number of participations in voluntary activities, situation partly justified by the lack of presence of our country on the map of large scale events organization which is based to a high extent, on volunteers’ involvement. The present paper presents the results of a quantitative marketing research organized among volunteers who participated at EYOF 2013 Braşov and highlights the participation’s motivations and benefits felt by volunteers at the end of the event. The authors of the article highlight the differences reported between volunteers’ expectations and their opinions after the event, the results obtained being considered useful for planning the voluntary activities in organizing future events hosted in our country.

  12. Distributed Denial of Service Attack Source Detection Using Efficient Traceback Technique (ETT) in Cloud-Assisted Healthcare Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rabia; Abbas, Haider; Latif, Seemab; Masood, Ashraf

    2016-07-01

    Security and privacy are the first and foremost concerns that should be given special attention when dealing with Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). As WBAN sensors operate in an unattended environment and carry critical patient health information, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is one of the major attacks in WBAN environment that not only exhausts the available resources but also influence the reliability of information being transmitted. This research work is an extension of our previous work in which a machine learning based attack detection algorithm is proposed to detect DDoS attack in WBAN environment. However, in order to avoid complexity, no consideration was given to the traceback mechanism. During traceback, the challenge lies in reconstructing the attack path leading to identify the attack source. Among existing traceback techniques, Probabilistic Packet Marking (PPM) approach is the most commonly used technique in conventional IP- based networks. However, since marking probability assignment has significant effect on both the convergence time and performance of a scheme, it is not directly applicable in WBAN environment due to high convergence time and overhead on intermediate nodes. Therefore, in this paper we have proposed a new scheme called Efficient Traceback Technique (ETT) based on Dynamic Probability Packet Marking (DPPM) approach and uses MAC header in place of IP header. Instead of using fixed marking probability, the proposed scheme uses variable marking probability based on the number of hops travelled by a packet to reach the target node. Finally, path reconstruction algorithms are proposed to traceback an attacker. Evaluation and simulation results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms fixed PPM in terms of convergence time and computational overhead on nodes.

  13. Främja medarbetarnas engagemang : Ett ledarskapsverktyg för att öka engagemang och undvika utbrändhet

    OpenAIRE

    Järnström, Ida

    2016-01-01

    De senaste åren har engagemang varit ett mycket omtalat ämne, då forskning har visat att engagemang har en positiv inverkan på organisationens framgång. Dagens turbulenta värld tvingar dock organisationerna att kräva högre prestationer av sina medarbetare trots färre resurser, vilket kan resultera i oengagemang och utbrändhet. Detta bekräftas utgående från gallupundersökningar, vilka visar att en endast en liten del av medarbetarna verkligen är engagerade på sina arbetsplatser. Syftet med...

  14. Tunaweza - Vi kan! : Om att använda drama som metod för att stärka unga flickors självkänsla i ett utvecklingsland

    OpenAIRE

    Åman, Julia

    2016-01-01

    I detta examensarbete behandlar jag hur man kan använda drama som metod för att stärka unga flickors självkänsla i ett utvecklingsland. Arbetet kretsar kring de erfarenheter jag fick när jag gjorde mitt konstnärliga examensarbete som dramainstruktör på en grundskola i Tanzania. I kapitel ett, två och tre redogör jag för hur kvinnors situation ser ut i Tanzania, lyfter fram hur fysisk bestraffning påverkar ett barns självkänsla, och framhäver att åsikterna gällande effekt...

  15. Luhmanns masmedieteori och Internet som ett artificiellt intelligent semiotiskt system Luhmanns massmedieteori och Internet som ett artificiellt intelligent semiotiskt system [Luhmann’s mass-media theory and Internet as an artificial intelligent semiotic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kåhre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln diskuterar hur en modern form av AI-programmering, som kallas Konnektionism i en design som kallas Distribuerad AI (DAI, påverkar den uppfattning Luhmann har om massmediernas roll för den andra ordningens observationer. DAI använder noder för att skapa aktivitet i systemen och inte de koder som styr processerna i den klassiska eller symboliska formen av AI. Luhmanns teori kan utvecklas genom att ersätta systemens koder med noder som förändras beroende på i vilken relation de står till andra noder. På så sätt kan kommunikationsbegreppet utvecklas så att det också omfattar systemens interaktioner med omvärlden. Det skapar en bättre förutsättning för att observationsmöjligheter direkt uppstår genom systemens relationer till omvärlden. Internet och AI-programmerade söksystem och robotar kan då fungera som ett artificiellt semiotiskt system som skapar möjligheter att göra observationer.The article discusses how a modern form of AI programming, known as Connectionism in a design known as Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI, affects the perception Luhmann has on mass media's role concerning second-order observations. DAI uses nodes to create activity in the systems and not the codes used by the Classic or Symbolic form of AI. Luhmann’s theory can be developed by replacing the systems codes with nodes that change depending on their relations to other nodes. In this way, we can reformulate the concept of communication, so that it includes the systems interactions with the environment. It creates better conditions so that observing opportunities may arise directly from these interactions. Internet and AI-programmed search systems and robots can then act as an artificial semiotic system that creates opportunities for making observations.

  16. Traditionel og alternativ behandling af sklerosepatienter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Knudsen, L

    1989-01-01

    The medicine consumption and the employment of alternative treatment were investigated in a material of 117 patients with disseminated sclerosis (DS) considered to be a representative sample of the patients with DS in the County of Funen. This investigation revealed that the preparations most com...... in social classes 4 and 5 and in women. In addition, is was found that there was no difference in social class, sex and age among the patients who employ alternative methods of treatment. The patients themselves have not experienced any effect from alternative treatment....

  17. Usefulness of a thermoplastic breast bra for breast cancer radiotherapy. A prospective analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piroth, Marc D.; Holy, Richard [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany); HELIOS University Hospital Wuppertal, Witten/Herdecke University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuppertal (Germany); Petz, Dalma; Pinkawa, Michael; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Despite modern techniques, in some patients receiving whole breast radiotherapy (WBI) parts of the heart and the lung might receive doses which are nowadays considered relevant for the development of late morbidity. Our aim was to analyze the usefulness of a thermoplastic breast brassiere to reduce lung and heart doses. A total of 29 patients with left-sided and 16 patients with right-sided breast cancer treated with breast conserving surgery and WBI between 2012 and 2013 were included in a prospective study analyzing the effectiveness of a thermoplastic breast bra. WBI was performed using 3D tangential fields up to 50.4 Gy. Treatment planning was performed with and without bra. Several dosimetrical parameters were analyzed comparatively focusing on the heart and ipsilateral lung. For heart dose comparisons, subvolumes like the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and a defined apical region, so-called ''apical myocardial territory'' (AMT), were defined. By using the bra, the mean lung dose was reduced by 30.6 % (left-sided cancer) and 29.5 % (right-sided; p < 0.001). The V{sub 20Gy} for the left lung was reduced by 39.5 % (4.9 vs. 8.1 % of volume; p < 0.001). The mean and maximum heart doses were significantly lower (1.6 vs. 2.1 Gy and 30.7 vs. 39.3 Gy; p = 0.01 and p < 0.001), which also applies to the mean and maximum dose for the AMT (2.5 vs. 4.4 Gy and 31.0 vs. 47.2 Gy; p < 0.01 and p < 0.001). The mean and maximum dose for LAD was lower without reaching significance. No acute skin toxicities > grade 2 were observed. By using a thermoplastic breast bra, radiation doses to the heart and especially parts of the heart apex and ipsilateral lung can be significantly lowered without additional skin toxicity. (orig.) [German] Trotz moderner Techniken koennen bei manchen Patientinnen bei der Ganzbrustbestrahlung Areale des Herzens und der Lunge Dosen erhalten, die heute als relevant fuer Spaettoxizitaeten gelten. Ziel war es, den Nutzen eines

  18. Bara ett tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders; Mølgaard, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Kom ihåg att fråga en historiker innan du bygger ditt varumärke på dess förflutna. Det glömde Coca-Cola i Tyskland.......Kom ihåg att fråga en historiker innan du bygger ditt varumärke på dess förflutna. Det glömde Coca-Cola i Tyskland....

  19. Comparison of different modalities in diagnosis of coronary artery disease (ECG, ETT, Angiography, Rest and Stress Echo. and 99m Tc-MIBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zein, A.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to compare the most important five investigation modalities commonly used to investigate coronary artery disease, these were ECG, Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT), Echocardiography, SPECT imaging using 99m Tc-Sestamibi, and Angiography. The three test modalities, ECG, Echo, and 99m Tc-MIBI were conducted in both rest and stress conditions. All patients were referred to the hospital (NORI) from cardiology departments of different hospitals for stress/rest 99mTc-MIBI cardiac perfusion study. The decision to proceed with coronary angiography was made by the cardiologist to confirm or exclude diagnosis of CAD, to determine the potential surgical candidates and to assess complications if any. 17 patients were included in the study, 16 males and one female. All of them underwent the five test modalities mentioned, 80% of them were smokers, 47% were hypertensives, 20% were diabetics. The sensitivity of ECG, ETT, and Echocardiography were found to be 60.0%, 73.3%, and 82.4% respectively. Both angiography and 99mTc-Sestamibi were found to be 100% sensitive for detection of CAD. Specificity for all modalities tested was found to be 1, which is unrealistically high due to the small number of normal patients (only two). The predictive value of positive test came to be 1 for all test modalities, where as the predictive value of negative test was calculated to be 0.25, 0.33, and 0.67 for the tests, ECG, ETT, and Echocardiography respectively, but in case of 99mTc-Sestamibi, and coronary angiography it was found to be 1 for both of them. The localization ability of the different test modalities for ischemic and/or infarcted areas was investigated taking coronary angiography as the gold standard. All the three modalities, ECG, Echo, and 99mTc-Sestamibi showed good results in detection of areas supplied by left anterior descending artery, and on the other hand poor results in detection of left circumflex hypoperfused tributaries. The differential

  20. A controlled clinical trial of implantretained mandibular overdentures : 10 years’ results of clinical aspects and aftercare of IMZ implants and Bra°nemark implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Henny J.A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Van’t Hof, Martin A.; Visser, Anita

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical outcomes and prosthetic aftercare of edentulous patients with a mandibular overdenture retained by two IMZ implants or two Bra°nemark implants during a 10-year period. Patients were allocated to the IMZ

  1. Lessons we are learning: using participatory action research to integrate palliative care, health promotion and public health through the DöBra research program in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Public health and health promotion approaches to end-of-life (EoL) research and care are still rare in Sweden. People remain generally ill-prepared for encounters with death and unable to advocate for quality EoL care; this may be reflected in Sweden's low scores for community engagement in the 2015 Quality of Death index. We have consolidated our endeavours into a cohesive national transdisciplinary research program, DöBra (a pun meaning both 'dying well' and 'awesome' in Swedish). In DöBra, we investigate how culture, the environment and conversation can promote constructive change and support better quality of life and death among the general population, in specific subgroups and in interventions directed to staff caring for dying individuals, their friends and families. DöBra uses ideas from new public health and the Ottawa Charter as umbrella theoretical frameworks and participatory action research as an overarching methodological approach. In DöBra we aim to achieve change in communities in a broad sense. In this interactive workshop, we therefore focus on the particular challenges we encounter in conducting stringent research when trying to catalyse, rather than control, change processes. We will share our ideas, experiences, reflections, tools and approaches as well as results, related to using a variety of strategies to bring together a broad range of stakeholders to co-create experience-based evidence through innovative approaches. We begin by linking theory, research and practice through discussion of the overarching ideas and individual projects, with the second part of the session based on audience engagement with various tools used in DöBra.

  2. Music close to one's heart: heart rate variability with music, diagnostic with e-bra and smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shantala; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Rai, Pratyush; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Music is a powerful elicitor of emotions. Emotions evoked by music, through autonomic correlates have been shown to cause significant modulation of parameters like heart rate and blood pressure. Consequently, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis can be a powerful tool to explore evidence based therapeutic functions of music and conduct empirical studies on effect of musical emotion on heart function. However, there are limitations with current studies. HRV analysis has produced variable results to different emotions evoked via music, owing to variability in the methodology and the nature of music chosen. Therefore, a pragmatic understanding of HRV correlates of musical emotion in individuals listening to specifically chosen music whilst carrying out day to day routine activities is needed. In the present study, we aim to study HRV as a single case study, using an e-bra with nano-sensors to record heart rate in real time. The e-bra developed previously, has several salient features that make it conducive for this study- fully integrated garment, dry electrodes for easy use and unrestricted mobility. The study considers two experimental conditions:- First, HRV will be recorded when there is no music in the background and second, when music chosen by the researcher and by the subject is playing in the background.

  3. Evidensgraderingssystemet GRADE : Ett sätt att granska vetenskaplig kunskap om metoder och arbetssätt i hälso- och sjukvården

    OpenAIRE

    Roback, Kerstin; Carlsson, Per

    2009-01-01

    Beslut om införande av nya behandlingsmetoder och arbetssätt i sjukvården präglas alltid av en viss grad av osäkerhet. De studier som gjorts av metodens för- och nackdelar kan vara av olika god kvalitet och därmed ge mer eller mindre säkra resultat. Efter att användningen av systematiska litteraturstudier vid medicinsk teknologiutvärdering tog fart på 1980-talet började man efterfråga ett beslutsunderlag som även tar hänsyn till olika studiers kvalitet. Detta initierade utvecklingen av flera ...

  4. E-shop 'til you drop : En studie över e-handlares anpassning av den fysiska köpprocessen till ett virtuellt sammanhang

    OpenAIRE

    Alcazar, Alexander; Kastås, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Denna magisteruppsats behandlar e-handlares anpassning av en fysisk köpprocess till en virtuell. Med detta syftar vi mer specifikt på e-handlare av modekläder som i högre grad är beroende av en fysisk köpprocess. Vår frågeställning var således: Hur gör e-handlare inom klädbranschen för att anpassa den fysiska köpprocessen till ett virtuellt sammanhang? För att undersöka detta använde vi oss av Overbys artikel "Process Virtualization Theory and the Impact of Information Technology" från 2008 d...

  5. Läget i berggrummet : En kvalitativ undersökning av inverkande faktorer i arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats i ett bergrum

    OpenAIRE

    Miladi, Lubna

    2014-01-01

    Strävan efter att minska risker för arbetsskador och uppnå en god arbetsmiljö är betydelsefull idag inte minst på byggarbetsplatser.   Syftet med examensarbetet var att, utifrån kartläggning av arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats, belysa några faktorer som har inverkan på arbetsmiljön. Magisteruppsatsen har begränsats till att undersöka arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats i ett bergrum. Några organisatoriska faktorer som säkerhetskultur, attityder, kunskap samt fysiska faktorer som belysning, b...

  6. Control concepts for integration of alternative supply generation systems in local energy supply grids taking specially into account systems stability; Regelungstechnische Konzepte zur Integration alternativer Erzeugungsanlagen in lokale Energieversorgungsnetze unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Systemstabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Seta, P.

    2007-03-26

    synchronous generators and a wind power farm consisting of two wind turbines. The simulation results demonstrate the flexibility of the entire control system and the efficiency of the new stabilisation method. [German] Bei der Entwicklung zukuenftiger Elektroenergiesysteme werden lokale, alternative Energieerzeugungsanlagen eine entscheidende Rolle spielen. Die Nutzung von erneuerbaren Primaerenergiequellen fuer die Erzeugung elektrischer und thermischer Energie hat als spezifische Vorteile die Verringerung oder Beseitigung der Brennstoffkosten und der Kosten fuer die CO{sub 2}-Emission. Aufgrund hoher spezifischer Investitionskosten ist jedoch der Preis einer Kilowattstunde aus alternativer Erzeugung noch sehr hoch [41]. Deshalb ist die Erzeugung elektrischer Energie aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen im Vergleich zur Nutzung traditionellen Energiequellen noch nicht im vollen Umfang wettbewerbsfaehig, dies wird sich jedoch sehr bald aendern. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde dazu eine vollstaendige Regelung fuer eine doppelt gespeiste ASM entworfen, die eine Verbesserung der dynamischen und transienten Stabilitaet gewaehrleistet. Sie beruht auf den Maschinengleichungen und besteht aus verschiedenen Regelkreisen, die die Arbeitsbedingungen anhand externer Kenngroessen bestimmen. Dabei wird als optimale Regelstrategie die Erzeugung der jeweils maximal erlaubten Leistung aus dem Wind zu Grunde gelegt, nicht der optimale Arbeitspunkt des gesamten Netzes. Die Gewaehrleitung der transienten Stabilitaet der doppelt gespeisten ASM war ein Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit. Es konnte ein neues Verfahren zur Verbesserung der transienten Stabilitaet entwickelt werden, dass in dieser Arbeit vorgestellt wurde [29]. Dieses besteht in der Stuetzung der Spannung am Zwischenkreis des Rotorumrichters waehrend und kurz nach dem Kurzschlusse durch eine am Zwischenkreis angeschlossene externe Spannungsquelle. Eine Untersuchung basierend auf der stationaeren Drehmoment-Schlupf-Kennlinie vor dem

  7. "Kukaan ei ole kysynyt pitkään aikaan, että mitä mulle kuuluu" : Elämän Eväspaketti -kurssin vaikutukset nuorten aikuisten elämään

    OpenAIRE

    Viiltola, Pieta

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyö on tehty Jokilaaksojen Tiimi ry:n Elämän Eväspaketti –projektille. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli kuvata kaikkien Elämän Eväspaketti –projektin kursseilla mukana olleiden nuorten aikuisten kokemuksia kurssin vaikuttavuudesta heidän elämäänsä. Tavoitteena oli selvittää, että onko projekti päässyt tavoitteisiinsa tämän kokeilu –ja kehittämishankkeensa aikana. Tutkimuksessa on tuotu esille se, että mitä hyötyä tuosta projektista oli. Tutkimusongelmina oli selvittää, mikä kunkin ...

  8. Bra.Di.P.O. and P.I.G.R.O.: Innovative Devices for Motor Learning Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two mechatronics prototypes, useful for robotic neurotreatments and new clinical trainings, are here presented. P.I.G.R.O. (pneumatic interactive gait rehabilitation orthosis is an active exoskeleton with an electropneumatic control. It imposes movements on lower limbs in order to produce in the patient’s brain proper motor cortex activation. Bra.Di.P.O. (brain discovery pneumatic orthosis is an MR-compatible device, designed to improve fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis. The two devices are presented together because both are involved in the study of new robotic treatments of patients affected by ictus or brain stroke or in some motor learning experimental investigations carried out on healthy subjects.

  9. Kompleksinis UV-B spinduliuotės ir temperatūros poveikis braškių fiziologiniams rodikliams

    OpenAIRE

    Urbonavičiūtė, Akvilė; Samuolienė, Giedrė; Sakalauskaitė, Jurga; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Brazaitytė, Aušra; Šikšnianienė, Jūratė Bronė; Šabajevienė, Gintarė; Baranauskis, Kęstutis; Sakalauskienė, Sandra; Uselis, Nobertas; Gelvonauskis, Bronislovas

    2006-01-01

    2005–2006 metais Lietuvos sodininkystės ir daržininkystės institute fitotrono komplekse atliktų tyrimų tikslas – įvertinti kompleksinį UV-B spinduliuotės ir temperatūros poveikį braškių fiziologiniams rodikliams. Tirta, kaip 9 dienų trukmės švitinimas 0, 2 ir 4 kJ UV-B spinduliuotės dozėmis veikia braškių augimą, pigmentų ir cukrų biosintezę esant 21/14°C ir 25/16°C aplinkos temperatūrai. Chlorofilų ir karotinoidų koncentracija nustatyta spektrofotometriniu, cukrų – chromatografiniu metodu. T...

  10. Forecast the Impact of Bucharest – Braşov Highway on the Economic and Functional Structure of Human Settlements in Ilfov County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRONELA NOVĂCESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most publicized issues concerning the infrastructure of Romania is the Bucharest-Braşov highway. The long-awaited project aims to streamline the traffic between the Capital and the central part of the country, representing the central area of the Pan - European Road Corridor IV. The length of the highway on the territory of Ilfov County is 31 km, representing 17% of the total length of Bucharest- Braşov highway. The start of the highway will have strong effects on economic structure and on the way the Bucharest Metropolitan Area will work. We can expect an increase in the disparities between the settlements of Ilfov County. This pattern is also observable on the Bucharest-Ploieşti corridor where, in recent years, much of the Ilfov county's economic activities have migrated to the north, especially along that corridor. Besides economic migration, intense residential migration followed the Bucharest – Ploieşti corridor, residents of the Bucharest itself moving out to the north of Ilfov County. Probably, the future Bucharest – Braşov highway will lead to an increased suburbanization and periurbanization, this in turn giving way to the crowding of the area by businesses eager to have access to the highway. This project will likely increase the gap between north and south of Ilfov County. In addition to changes that may occur at the county level, changes will also have an impact on the localities themselves since the areas located near the highway will have an economic and demographic growth rate superior to more remote areas. In this sense, we conducted a comparative analysis between eight settlements of Ilfov county crossed by the Bucharest-Braşov highway in order to assess the impact. This analysis was based on the information obtained from site and statistical indicators that were processed to obtain a clear picture of the situation in the examined territory.

  11. BraLTP1, a lipid transfer protein gene involved in epicuticular wax deposition, cell proliferation and flower development in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs constitute large multigene families that possess complex physiological functions, many of which remain unclear. This study isolated and characterized the function of a lipid transfer protein gene, BraLTP1 from Brassica rapa, in the important oilseed crops Brassica napus. BraLTP1 encodes a predicted secretory protein, in the little known VI Class of nsLTP families. Overexpression of BnaLTP1 in B. napus caused abnormal green coloration and reduced wax deposition on leaves and detailed wax analysis revealed 17-80% reduction in various major wax components, which resulted in significant water-loss relative to wild type. BnaLTP1 overexpressing leaves exhibited morphological disfiguration and abaxially curled leaf edges, and leaf cross-sections revealed cell overproliferation that was correlated to increased cytokinin levels (tZ, tZR, iP, and iPR in leaves and high expression of the cytokinin biosynthsis gene IPT3. BnaLTP1-overexpressing plants also displayed morphological disfiguration of flowers, with early-onset and elongated carpel development and outwardly curled stamen. This was consistent with altered expression of a a number of ABC model genes related to flower development. Together, these results suggest that BraLTP1 is a new nsLTP gene involved in wax production or deposition, with additional direct or indirect effects on cell division and flower development.

  12. Exploração de alguns conceitos do eletromagnetismo no movimento do braço de um disco rígido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Catelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2011v28n2p476 As forças magnéticas responsáveis pelo movimento do braço de leitura/gravação de um disco rígido de computador (HD são exploradas a partir de conceitos elementares da física do eletromagnetismo, presentes nos currículos dos terceiros anos da disciplina de Física em Nível Médio. É descrita a confecção de um aparato simples para a visualização e para o estudo das forças magnéticas envolvidas; para isso, a desmontagem do HD e a localização do ímã e do braço de leitura / gravação são devidamente explanadas. Por fim, o movimento do braço é explanado a partir dos conceitos investigados.

  13. Public-Private Partnerships For A Sustainable Tourism Development of Urban Destinations. The Case of Braşov, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina CANDREA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that there are few success chances for isolated businesses, public-private partnerships represent the basis of tourism businesses’ sustainable development, aiming to attract increasing numbers of visitors in tourism destinations. Within this context, the main aim of the present paper is to identify tourism stakeholders’ intentions to participate in public-private partnerships for a sustainable tourism development of urban destinations. Focused on the increased importance of partnerships between tourism stakeholders, with the common goal of sustainable tourism development, a survey was conducted among the tourism service providers from the Romanian urban destination, Braşov. The research results outline the defi ciencies in the analyzed destination, which lead to a low notoriety of the destination’s management and marketing organization among local tourism stakeholders. In addition, the results show a low level of involvement of tourism operators in supporting the collaboration efforts of this organization. Based on the research results, a theoretical model was proposed for the identifi cation of the signifi cant factors which infl uence local stakeholders’ intentions to participate in public-private partnerships for a sustainable tourism development.

  14. Sueño, Realidad Y Conocimiento: Noción Del Sueño Y Fenomenología Del Soñar Entre Los Ette Del Norte De Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Niño Vargas.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paperfocuseson the waythe ette, an indigenous group of north Colombia, conceive and experience dreams. For this purpose, some aspects of the concept of person, the notion of dreaming and the phenomenology of dream experience are described and analyzed. The article concludes that Indians conceive dreams as real events, based on a type of noncorporal activity in which the person begins to participate of an alternative mode of existence and perception. These characteristics allow to dreamers to take advantage of their experience to acquire culturally legitimated knowledge. In the same way, the paper allows to note the importance of dreams in the course of the reproduction of social life.

  15. TU-AB-BRA-11: Evaluation of Fully Automatic Volumetric GBM Segmentation in the TCGA-GBM Dataset: Prognosis and Correlation with VASARI Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Velazquez, E; Meier, R; Dunn, W; Gutman, D; Alexander, B; Wiest, R; Reyes, M; Bauer, S; Aerts, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Reproducible definition and quantification of imaging biomarkers is essential. We evaluated a fully automatic MR-based segmentation method by comparing it to manually defined sub-volumes by experienced radiologists in the TCGA-GBM dataset, in terms of sub-volume prognosis and association with VASARI features. Methods: MRI sets of 67 GBM patients were downloaded from the Cancer Imaging archive. GBM sub-compartments were defined manually and automatically using the Brain Tumor Image Analysis (BraTumIA), including necrosis, edema, contrast enhancing and non-enhancing tumor. Spearman’s correlation was used to evaluate the agreement with VASARI features. Prognostic significance was assessed using the C-index. Results: Auto-segmented sub-volumes showed high agreement with manually delineated volumes (range (r): 0.65 – 0.91). Also showed higher correlation with VASARI features (auto r = 0.35, 0.60 and 0.59; manual r = 0.29, 0.50, 0.43, for contrast-enhancing, necrosis and edema, respectively). The contrast-enhancing volume and post-contrast abnormal volume showed the highest C-index (0.73 and 0.72), comparable to manually defined volumes (p = 0.22 and p = 0.07, respectively). The non-enhancing region defined by BraTumIA showed a significantly higher prognostic value (CI = 0.71) than the edema (CI = 0.60), both of which could not be distinguished by manual delineation. Conclusion: BraTumIA tumor sub-compartments showed higher correlation with VASARI data, and equivalent performance in terms of prognosis compared to manual sub-volumes. This method can enable more reproducible definition and quantification of imaging based biomarkers and has a large potential in high-throughput medical imaging research

  16. Adherence to best practice consensus guidelines for implant-based breast reconstruction: Results from the iBRA national practice questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylvaganam, Senthurun; Conroy, Elizabeth J; Williamson, Paula R; Barnes, Nicola L P; Cutress, Ramsey I; Gardiner, Matthew D; Jain, Abhilash; Skillman, Joanna M; Thrush, Steven; Whisker, Lisa J; Blazeby, Jane M; Potter, Shelley; Holcombe, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    The 2008 National Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction Audit demonstrated marked variation in the practice and outcomes of breast reconstruction in the UK. To standardise practice and improve outcomes for patients, the British professional associations developed best-practice guidelines with specific guidance for newer mesh-assisted implant-based techniques. We explored the degree of uptake of best-practice guidelines within units performing implant-based reconstruction (IBBR) as the first phase of the implant Breast Reconstruction Evaluation (iBRA) study. A questionnaire developed by the iBRA Steering Group was completed by trainee and consultant leads at breast and plastic surgical units across the UK. Simple summary statistics were calculated for each survey item to assess compliance with current best-practice guidelines. 81 units from 79 NHS Trusts completed the questionnaire. Marked variation was observed in adherence to guidelines, especially those relating to clinical governance and infection prevention strategies. Less than half (n = 28, 47%) of units obtained local clinical governance board approval prior to offering new mesh-based techniques and prospective audit of the clinical, cosmetic and patient-reported outcomes of surgery was infrequent. Most units screened for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus prior to surgery but fewer than 1 in 3 screened for methicillin-sensitive strains. Laminar-flow theatres (recommended for IBBR) were not widely-available with less than 1 in 5 units having regular access. Peri-operative antibiotics were widely-used, but the type and duration were highly-variable. The iBRA national practice questionnaire has demonstrated variation in reported practice and adherence to IBBR guidelines. High-quality evidence is urgently required to inform best practice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. TU-AB-BRA-11: Evaluation of Fully Automatic Volumetric GBM Segmentation in the TCGA-GBM Dataset: Prognosis and Correlation with VASARI Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios Velazquez, E [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Meier, R [Institute for Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, Bern, NA (Switzerland); Dunn, W; Gutman, D [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States); Alexander, B [Dana- Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Harvard Medic, Boston, MA (United States); Wiest, R; Reyes, M [Institute for Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, University of Bern, Bern, NA (Switzerland); Bauer, S [Institute for Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, Support Center for Adva, Bern, NA (Switzerland); Aerts, H [Dana-Farber/Brigham Womens Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Reproducible definition and quantification of imaging biomarkers is essential. We evaluated a fully automatic MR-based segmentation method by comparing it to manually defined sub-volumes by experienced radiologists in the TCGA-GBM dataset, in terms of sub-volume prognosis and association with VASARI features. Methods: MRI sets of 67 GBM patients were downloaded from the Cancer Imaging archive. GBM sub-compartments were defined manually and automatically using the Brain Tumor Image Analysis (BraTumIA), including necrosis, edema, contrast enhancing and non-enhancing tumor. Spearman’s correlation was used to evaluate the agreement with VASARI features. Prognostic significance was assessed using the C-index. Results: Auto-segmented sub-volumes showed high agreement with manually delineated volumes (range (r): 0.65 – 0.91). Also showed higher correlation with VASARI features (auto r = 0.35, 0.60 and 0.59; manual r = 0.29, 0.50, 0.43, for contrast-enhancing, necrosis and edema, respectively). The contrast-enhancing volume and post-contrast abnormal volume showed the highest C-index (0.73 and 0.72), comparable to manually defined volumes (p = 0.22 and p = 0.07, respectively). The non-enhancing region defined by BraTumIA showed a significantly higher prognostic value (CI = 0.71) than the edema (CI = 0.60), both of which could not be distinguished by manual delineation. Conclusion: BraTumIA tumor sub-compartments showed higher correlation with VASARI data, and equivalent performance in terms of prognosis compared to manual sub-volumes. This method can enable more reproducible definition and quantification of imaging based biomarkers and has a large potential in high-throughput medical imaging research.

  18. Braškių 'Senga Sengana' prisitaikymas prie diferencijuoto ir kompleksinio UV-B spinduliuotės ir ozono poveikio

    OpenAIRE

    Brazaitytė, Aušra; Sakalauskaitė, Jurga; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Šikšnianienė, Jūratė Bronė; Samuolienė, Giedrė; Ulinskaitė, Raimonda; Baranauskis, Kęstutis; Urbonavičiūtė, Akvilė; Šabajevienė, Gintarė; Gelvonauskis, Bronislovas; Uselis, Nobertas; Vagusevičienė, Ilona

    2007-01-01

    2005 m. Lietuvos sodininkystės ir daržininkystės instituto fitotrono komplekse nustatytas diferencijuotas ir kompleksinis UV-B spinduliuotės bei ozono poveikis braškių augimui ir fotosintezės pigmentų pokyčiams bei jų prisitaikymo prie šių stresorių galimybės. Poveikis stresą sukeliančiais veiksniais buvo skirstomas į du laikotarpius: adaptacijos ir pagrindinį. Ozono koncentracija adaptacijos laikotarpiu buvo 80 µg m-3, o pagrindinio poveikio – 240 µg m-3. Tokia koncentracija buvo palaikoma 7...

  19. Hollywood kohtu ette / Allan Espenberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Espenberg, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Uruguay plaanib kohtusse kaevata mängufilmi "Sügavuses" ("Submerged") tegijad, kuna linalugu loob sellest Lõuna-Ameerika riigist väära ning mõnitava pildi. Režissöör Anthony Hickox, peaosas Steven Seagal : USA 2005

  20. Musikpedagogik i ett kulturhistoriskt perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddholm, Mats

    2004-01-01

    and psychological ideas could contribute to music pedagogical discourse in Scandinavia. The overall conclusion was that Vygotsky’s theory could be a big opportunity considering problemizing music pedagogy. In the thesis postulates that music can describes as a sort of language that characterizes by its “synthesis......This article is a follow-up of a thesis from September 2003, where the subject was how music education could be understood from a “culture historical” point of view. The purpose of the this research was to find out if, and in that case in what way, Lev Semonëvic Vygotsky’s pedagogical...... of rhythm and meaning”. To understand the cultural meaning in music, the man has to transforms “musical ability” to “higher psychological processes”, through internalization of “music” A primary bond does not connect thought and music. A connection originates, changes, and grows in the course...

  1. Ömsesidiga överenskommelser enligt skatteavtal

    OpenAIRE

    Sallander, Ann-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Ömsesidiga överenskommelser (eng. mutual agreement procedures) återfinns huvudsakligen i artikel 25 OECD:s modellavtal. Syftet med sådana överenskommelser är att undvika internationell dubbelbeskattning. Överenskommelserna kan antingen utgöra ett rättsmedel, som är ett alternativ till domstolsförfarande, eller verka som ett medel för att få skatteavtalen att fungera bättre mellan de avtalsslutande staterna. De rättsliga svårigheter som uppkommer i samband med överenskommelserna beror huvudsak...

  2. När David förlorade mot Goliat : En studie om hur ett varumärke påverkas vid förlusten av en tvist

    OpenAIRE

    Ekberg, Emma; Blomqvist, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    I november 2015 avgjordes en tvist mellan havredrycksproducenten Oatly och branschorganisationen Svensk Mjölk i Marknadsdomstolen. Svensk Mjölk stämde Oatly eftersom de ansåg att deras marknadsföring var vilseledande. Stämningen ledde till att Oatly dömdes till förbud för marknadsföring som antyder att havremjölk är ett bättre val än komjölk. Denna studies syfte är att undersöka hur tvisten påverkat Oatlys lojala kunders varumärkesuppfattning utifrån begreppet brand image. För att undersöka d...

  3. ”… alla vill vi väl ha ett förhållande” : En studie om hur kvinnor i övre medelåldern upplever livet som singel

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Sverige är ett av världens mest individualistiska länder. Befolkningen utgörs till 46 procent av singlar och den största gruppen singlar är kvinnor i åldersgrupperna övre medelålder och äldre (Statistiska centralbyrån, 2012). Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att öka kunskapen kring hur svenska heterosexuella kvinnor i gruppen övre medelålder upplever singellivet. Jag använde mig utav välkända teorier och begrepp inom sociologin. De tillämpade teorierna och teoretiska begreppen var individualis...

  4. Face to Face : Marknadsföring på Facebook - en studie av åsikter från ett inifrån- och utifrånperspektiv.

    OpenAIRE

    Christensson, Annika; Hedborn, Jenny; Källberg, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Sociala nätverk, eller så kallade communityn är ett fenomen som fått större betydelse idag och snabbt spridit sig runt om i världen. Communityn Facebook har blivit känd för att den samlar många användare och har en god målgruppskännedom, vilket gör Facebook till en attraktiv marknadsföringsplats som har uppmärksammats av en rad olika företag och organisationer. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka möjligheter och begränsningar Facebook har som marknadsföringskanal, samt undersöka s...

  5. Förändrat omhändertagande av patienter med uretärsten : - Lärdomar från ett förbättringsarbete

    OpenAIRE

    Khatami, Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Bakgrund: Omkring 10-15 % av befolkningen, oftast i arbetsför ålder, riskerar att någon gång drabbas av njursten. Nationella riktlinjer för njurstensbehandling saknas, men studier stödjer behandling inom 48 timmar för snabb symtomlindring och minskade besvär för patienten. Inom studerad verksamhet var tiden från diagnos till behandling lång och återinläggningarna var många, varför ett förbättringsarbete initierades. Syfte: Syftet med förbättringsarbetet var att halvera tiden från diagnos till...

  6. Finansiell Bootstrapping i SME : en kvantitativ studie om hur ett starkt socialt och affärsmässigt nätverk påverkar valet av bootstrappingmetoder

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Ida; Sacic, Zehra

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med denna kandidatuppsats är se hur ett starkt socialt och affärsmässigt nätverk påverkar valet av bootstrappingmetoder i små och medelstora företag (SME). Detta eftersom SME står för 99,9 procent av samtliga företag på den svenska marknaden och därmed är betydelsefulla för landets ekonomiska tillväxt och sysselsättning. Däremot möter SME svårigheter vid extern finansiering av sin verksamhet. SME kompenserar detta genom att engagera sig i olika ”bootstrappingaktiviteter”. Bootstrapping...

  7. Mycobacterium massiliense BRA100 strain recovered from postsurgical infections: resistance to high concentrations of glutaraldehyde and alternative solutions for high level disinfection Mycobacterium massiliense clone BRA100 associado a infecções pós-cirúrgicas: resistência a altas concentrações de glutaraldeído e produtos alternativos para desinfecção de alto nível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Suely de Oliveira Lorena

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of GTA against these microorganisms and alternative disinfectants for high-level disinfection (HLD. METHODS: Reference mycobacteria and clinical M. massiliense strains were included in this study. Active cultures were submitted to susceptibility qualitative tests with GTA dilutions (ranging from 1.5% to 8%, and commercial orthophthaldehyde (OPA and peracetic acid (PA - based solutions, during the period of exposure as recommended by National Agency of Sanitary Surveillance for HLD. RESULTS: All reference and M. massiliense non-BRA100 strains, recovered from sputum, were susceptible to any GTA concentration, OPA and PA solutions. M. massiliense BRA100 strains presented MIC of 8% GTA and were susceptible to OPA and PA. CONCLUSION: M. massiliense BRA100 strain is resistant to high GTA concentrations (up to 7%, which proves that this product is non-effective against specific rapidly growing mycobacteria and should be substituted by OPA or PA - based solutions for HLD.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a concentração mínima inibitória (CMI de GTA frente a M. massiliense e a susceptibilidade a produtos alternativos para desinfecção de alto nível (DAN. MÉTODOS: Cepas de M. massiliense de origem clínica e de referência foram incluídas no estudo. As culturas ativadas foram submetidas a testes qualitativos com diluições de GTA (de 1,5% a 8% e com soluções comerciais de ortoftaldeído (OPA ou ácido peracético (PA, utilizando os tempos de exposição recomendados pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária para DAN. RESULTADOS: Todas as cepas de referência e M. massiliense não-BRA100, obtida de escarro, foram susceptíveis às concentrações de GTA, e soluções de OPA e PA. As cepas de M. massiliense BRA100 apresentaram CMI de 8% para GTA e foram susceptíveis a OPA e PA. CONCLUSÃO: M. massiliense BRA100 é resistente a altas concentrações de GTA (até 7%, o que demonstra que esse

  8. An alternative compressor. A study; Alternativ kompressor. En udredning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Jensen, F.; Danig, P.O.; Ritchie, E.; Kierkegaard, P.

    1997-10-01

    A linear compressor would be suitable for refrigerating systems with small effect. A computerized control system can be used to control the speed of a linear engine. A new compressor/engine with much improved energy efficiency can be designed to operate oil-free. The novel design of a compressor with smaller piston displacement is smaller than the existing models and thus more suitable for the future refrigerators. (EG) EFP-97. 71 refs.

  9. Learning design som systematisk alternativ til one-hit wonders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel; Hansen, Janne Saltoft

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 an ambitious policy for educational IT was issued at Aarhus University (AU). The policy includes a number of focus areas of which particularly the acquisition and implementation of a common e‐learning platform, training of educators, and the development of teaching are of the highest...... priority (Aarhus Universitet, 2011). Due to limited funds there has been a need for an extraordinary systematic and effective way to manage the work of implementation and development. This meant that Faculty of Science and Technology (ST) in 2013 developed a learning design framework, STREAM (Godsk, 2013...... of coherent teaching (Conole & Fill, 2005; Fink, 2013). This operationalisation meant that the learning design approach could also be used to pedagogically qualify the implementation and deployment of the university's new e­‐learning platform, Blackboard Learn. In the article we describe our learning design...

  10. Hvordan skabes et alternativ? Om det radikale demokratis mulighedsbetingelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jannick

    2017-01-01

    Den belgiske politiske filosof Chantal Mouffe har over flere årtier udarbejdet en model for såkaldt radikalt demokrati. Hendes demokratiske model lægger vægt på konflikt, affekt og konstruktionen af kollektive identiteter som bærende elementer i et levende demokrati, og fungerer derved som et...... korrektiv til den eksisterende neoliberale orden. I denne artikel foretages en kritisk læsning af denne model ved at trække på begreber hentet fra den argentinske filosof Ernesto Laclaus del af diskursteorien. Derigennem problematiseres de underliggende mulighedsbetingelser som Mouffe baserer sin model på...

  11. Et bedre alternativ til rygmærket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2015-01-01

    DEBAT: For at kunne forebygge bandekonflikter og radikalisering, skal vi blive klogere på fænomenet "border jumping", hvor tidligere bande- og rockermedlemmer hopper til en anden voldelig gruppering, skriver Line Lerche Mørck, forsker ved Aarhus Universitet....

  12. Gastrisk aspirationsbehandling er et muligt alternativ til behandling af fedme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Møller; Jorsal, Tina; Naver, Lars Peter Skat

    2017-01-01

    Aspiration therapy with AspireAssist is a novel endoscopic obesity treatment. Patients aspirate approximately 30% of an ingested meal through a draining system connected to a percutanous endoscopic gastrostomy tube. AspireAssist was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration...

  13. Simulador de chuva tipo empuxo com braços movidos hidraulicamente: fabricação e calibração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de simuladores de chuva é fundamental em estudos de erosão hídrica pluvial. Com eles é possível controlar as condições experimentais, principalmente as características da chuva, e compreender melhor o processo erosivo do solo. Vários tipos de simulador de chuva foram desenvolvidos desde 1930 no mundo. Atualmente, o tipo Swanson é o mais utilizado. No entanto, um pequeno número desses simuladores está em pleno funcionamento no Brasil, devido ao alto grau de desgaste e às dificuldades de manutenção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um novo modelo de simulador de chuva, construído predominantemente em alumínio, desprovido de motor para rotação dos braços e movido hidraulicamente por empuxo. O simulador de chuva movido hidraulicamente por empuxo mantém em geral as características do modelo Swanson, sobretudo aquelas relacionadas às características de chuva produzida, tendo sido minimizados seu excesso de peso e a necessidade de uso de um motor a gasolina para movimento dos braços, denominado "Tipo Empuxo". Essas características tornaram o novo modelo mais leve, econômico, silencioso e de fácil manejo na área experimental do que o modelo Swanson, sendo possível deslocá-lo com apenas quatro pessoas. A intensidade da chuva correlacionou-se linear e positivamente com a pressão da água no manômetro.

  14. Leishmania mexicana: aspectos taxonómicos y rareza de la infección humana en Três Braços, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Cuba Cuba

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Del estúdio de 51 stocks de Leishmania aislados de pacientes humanos de leishmaniasis cutaneomucosa en Três Braços, Bahia, Brasil, los autores describen, en detalle, el análisis de los dos únicos stocks de L. mexicana, identificando uno de ellos como L. mexicana amazonensis. El otro aislado permanece en posición taxonómica no definida pues considerándosele como un miembro de L. mexicana, encuéntranse dificultades para su identificación subespecífica. Evaluan también los parâmetros biológicos e isoenzimáticos y discuten el papel de los anticuerpos monoclonales en la tipificación de éstos stocks. Los autores remarcan la rareza de la transmisión de parásitos del complejo L. mexicana en esta región, aun cuando estudien epidemiológicamente por mais de 8 anos la infección humana.In a study of 51 stocks of Leishmania isolated from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Três Braços, Bahia, Brazil 49 were characterized as L. braziliensis braziliensis. Only two L. mexicana stocks were identified. One was subspeciated as L. mexicana amazonensis. The other differed from this species and to date remains unspeciated. The biological parameters, isoenzyme analysis and monoclonal antibody findings relating to these two strains are discussed. Transmission of parasites of the mexicana complex to man have been rare in this region during the 8 years of study of the human infection.

  15. Difficulties and Challenges in Applying the European Tourism Indicators System (ETIS for Sustainable Tourist Destinations: The Case of Braşov County in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Marian Tudorache

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourist destinations are increasingly coming across multiple social, economic, cultural, and environmental challenges corroborated with a great urgency for sustainable development. In this context, the European Commission has launched in 2013 a unitary system of indicators for sustainable management of tourism destinations, called The European Tourism Indicators System (ETIS. More specifically, ETIS was configured initially with a total of 27 core indicators and 40 additional (optional indicators. The purpose of this paper is to present the difficulties and challenges encountered in the application of ETIS, having as a case study, the county of Braşov, located almost entirely in the Romanian Carpathians. In this regard, a testing technique has been designed through an innovative Group Decision Support System (GDSS that is applied to our destination. The results show that the selection of ETIS indicators is a flexible process that must be adequate with the particularities of each destination taking into account both the needs of the stakeholders, the information that is useful to them, and the existence and periodicity of the data available. Also, in some cases, when the available indicators are insufficient, additional indicators have to be introduced, and they must be subsequently adapted to the needs and specifics of the destination.

  16. Leishmania mexicana: aspectos taxonómicos y rareza de la infección humana en Três Braços, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Cuba Cuba

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Del estúdio de 51 stocks de Leishmania aislados de pacientes humanos de leishmaniasis cutaneomucosa en Três Braços, Bahia, Brasil, los autores describen, en detalle, el análisis de los dos únicos stocks de L. mexicana, identificando uno de ellos como L. mexicana amazonensis. El otro aislado permanece en posición taxonómica no definida pues considerándosele como un miembro de L. mexicana, encuéntranse dificultades para su identificación subespecífica. Evaluan también los parâmetros biológicos e isoenzimáticos y discuten el papel de los anticuerpos monoclonales en la tipificación de éstos stocks. Los autores remarcan la rareza de la transmisión de parásitos del complejo L. mexicana en esta región, aun cuando estudien epidemiológicamente por mais de 8 anos la infección humana.

  17. Expressão eficiente do gene reporter beta-glucuronidase nos tecidos vasculares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizando de um promotor específico (BRA3 de Agrobacterium rhizogenes Efficient expression of beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in vascular tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing a specific promoter (BRA3 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotores tecido-específico controlam a transcrição de genes em diferentes tecidos vegetais bem como em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, levando à indução de distintos níveis de atividade transiente e/ou estável do gene. Tais promotores podem ser empregados para a expressão seletiva de genes de interesse. O promotor rol A de Agrobacterium rhizogenes, por exemplo, é floema-específico, sugerindo que possa ser empregado em estratégias de defesa de plantas que são infectadas por vírus com replicação restrita ao floema. A expressão do gene marcador da ß-glucuronidase (gus dirigido pelo promotor rol A (pBRA3 foi observada em plantas transgênicas de batata (cvs. Macaca e Baronesa. Entrenós e secções de folhas foram submetidos ao cocultivo com A. tumefaciens. A atividade do gene gus avaliada em brotações resistentes à canamicina não se restringiu ao floema (alto nível de expressão do gene, mas também se manifestou no xilema dos caules. As expressões transiente e estável são, no entanto, tecido-específicas, localizadas sobretudo no sistema vascular de entrenós e ausente em raízes e folhas. As plantas gus positivas foram micropropagadas, plantadas em casa de vegetação e avaliadas por PCR, utilizando-se 'primers' específicos para o gene npt II. Nenhuma alteração fenotípica foi observada em plantas transgênicas, em relação às não transformadas.Tissue-especific promoters allow the modulation of gene transcription in different tissue types as well as in different stages of plant development, leading different levels of transient and stable activity of the gene product. These promoters have been employed for selective gene expression. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol A gene promoter (BRA3 controls phloem-specific expression indicating that this promoter might have an important role in plant defense strategies against virus which replicated only in the phloem. The expression of

  18. Índice tornozelo-braço em pacientes hemodialíticos Ankle-brachial index in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Torres Uchôa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Apesar da elevada mortalidade dos pacientes em hemodiálise devido às doenças cardiovasculares, é incomum a realização de exames diagnósticos para doença arterial obstrutiva periférica e artérias pouco compressíveis. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a prevalência de doença arterial obstrutiva periférica e artérias pouco compressíveis em hemodialisados, comparando-os com o Grupo Controle. MÉTODOS: Tratou-se de um estudo transversal, com 78 hemodialisados e 88 pacientes que não faziam hemodiálise com, pelo menos, dois fatores de risco para doença arterial obstrutiva periférica (Grupo Controle. Para aferição da pressão arterial sistólica, utilizou-se Doppler vascular portátil e esfigmomanômetro. Esta foi aferida somente nos membros que não possuíam fístula arteriovenosa. O índice tornozelo-braço foi calculado utilizando cada artéria do membro inferior. Foram considerados normais os valores de 0,9 a 1,3. RESULTADOS: Diagnosticou-se doença arterial obstrutiva periférica e artérias pouco compressíveis em 26,9 e 30,8%, dos hemodialisados, e em 33 e 22,7%, do Grupo Controle. Nos hemodialisados, verificou-se o índice tornozelo-braço alterado em 75% dos sintomáticos (p=0,005, em 67,3% dos homens e 31% das mulheres (pINTRODUCTION: Despite the high mortality in hemodialysis patients due to cardiovascular diseases, it is unusual performing diagnostic tests for peripheral arterial disease and poorly compressible arteries. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and poorly compressible arteries in hemodialysis patients, by comparing them to the Control Group. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional study with 78 hemodialysis patients and 88 non-hemodialysis patients with at least two risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (Control Group. To evaluate blood pressure, portable vascular Doppler and sphygmomanometer were used. The pressure was measured from the limb without arteriovenous fistula

  19. Fraturas supracondilares tipo III do úmero em crianças: tratamento com braço reto Type III supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children: straight-arm treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamish Gandhi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As fraturas supracondilares de Gartland tipo III são as lesões comuns em crianças. Apresentamos um método de redução manipulativa, imobilização e fixação usando gesso-de-Paris, com o cotovelo em extensão total (braço reto. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo analisando todos os pacientes com fraturas supracondilares de Gartland tipo III no Wellington Public Hospital, durante o período de fevereiro de 1999 a março de 2007. Os sete pacientes foram tratados pela técnica do braço reto, e os desfechos clínicos foram revisados neste estudo. RESULTADO: Todos os pais ficaram satisfeitos com os resultados. Usando os critérios de Flynn,6 seis pacientes atingiram excelentes resultados e um teve resultado bom quando se analisou o ângulo de alinhamento. Ao verificar a amplitude de movimento, quatro pacientes tiveram resultados bons, um moderado e dois, ruim. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com braço reto das fraturas supracondilares de Gartland tipo III parece ser uma alternativa não-invasiva e segura da fixação com fio K.OBJECTIVE: Gartland type III supracondylar fractures are a common injury in children. We present a method of manipulative reduction, immobilization and fixation using Plaster of Paris with the elbow in full extension (straight-arm. METHOD: Retrospective study analyzing all patients with Gartland type III supracondylar fractures at the Wellington Public Hospital during the period from February 1999 to March 2007. The seven patients had been treated with the straight-arm technique, and the clinical outcomes are reviewed in this study. RESULT: All the parents were satisfied with the results. Using the Flynn criteria6, six patients achieved excellent results and one good, in relation to the carrying angle. With regard to the range of motion, four patients had good results, one fair, and two poor. CONCLUSION: Straight-arm treatment of Gartland type III supracondylar fractures appears to be a non-invasive and safe

  20. Implementation av ett interface till Emotiv Epoc

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Nicklas

    2011-01-01

    The eld of Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) concerns linking together an external device with the brain of a human or an animal. By doing this the conventional use of a mouse or keyboard can be circumvented, which can greatly benefit people with different types of diseases that cause paralysis or other loss of motor control, such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A BCI can also be used for cognitive training of either healthy or mentally impaired subjects to increase cognitive capabiliti...

  1. Ugala toob publiku ette kaks suvelavastust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    5. juunil esietendub Viljandi Kaevumäel Taago Tubina lavastatud Walter Brandon-Thomase motiividel kirjutatud Mati Undi näidend "Charley tädi" ja 19. juunil Ugala tiigi kaldal Kalju Komissarovi lavastatud Bertolt Brechti "Härra Punttila ja tema sulane Matti"

  2. Kollisioner igång till hösten

    CERN Multimedia

    Hellman, STen

    2009-01-01

    "Der började så bra. Den 10 september var utannonserad som dagen då CERNs nya accelerator LHC för första gången skulle ta emot protoner och losta dem ett helt varv runt den 27 km långa acceleratorringen" (3 pages)

  3. Bračani, iseljeničko novinstvo u Čileu i list „Domovina“- od kraja 19. stoljeća do početka Prvog svjetskog rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Krpan Smiljanec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cilj je rada postaviti ishodišta za proučavanje povijesti hrvatskog iseljeničkog novinstva u Čileu od najranijeg razdoblja doseljenja Hrvata do kraja 1914. godine, među kojima je brojčano dominantnu grupaciju činilo stanovništvo s Brača. Radilo se prvenstveno o ekonomskoj migraciji uzrokovanoj ekonomskim promjenama u društvu općenito, ali i ekonomskim promjenama kao posljedicama političkih kretanja. U novu domovinu donose tradicionalnu potrebu organiziranja u razna društva, ali i svijest o vlastitoj nacionalnoj pripadnosti s vlastitim jezikom. Neobično brza asimilacija (već u prvoj generaciji dovodi u pitanje opstojnost te potrebu očuvanja baštine. Iseljeničke novine u kojima surađuju, uređuju ih i pokreću Bračani – novinari, među kojima se ističu Ivan Krstulović i Luka Bonačić s novinama „Domovina“ iz Punta Arenasa, u dosadašnjoj literaturi sagledavane su gotovo isključivo s aspekta političke orijentacije i borbe. Cilj je rada kroz primjer rubrike „Iz mjesta i okolice“, koja je održala kontinuitet tijekom cijelog razdoblja izlaženja lista „Domovina“ i čijim je sastavnim dijelom bila, prikazati, s aspekta socijalne povijesti, da su lokalne novine odražavale i bilježile pojave i događanja značajna za svakodnevni život zajednice sa svrhom očuvanja njezina identiteta.

  4. Utveckling av riktningsanalys exergiberäkningar i Luleå och Strängnäs kommuner eller Hur kan man veta om man hushållar med resurserna på ett hållbart sätt?

    OpenAIRE

    Delin, Staffan; Gundelius, Eva

    1998-01-01

    Bakgrunden till projektet är den riktningsanalys som utvecklades av Eva Grundelius år 1991. Riktningsanalysen som är uppbyggd kring sex frågor fungerar som en checklista för hållbar utveckling. Den kan användas i många slag av beslutssituationer. För att göra riktningsanalysen mer operativ och kvantifierbar har den i detta projekt kopplats samman med en exergianalys. Exergi är ett fysiskt mått på resursers värde. Denna analys görs med utgångspunkt från det livsuppehållande systemet, ekosystem...

  5. La femme écrivain hébraïque narre aux enfants Israeli Women Writing for Children: Devora Omer an Author of Young Literature ספרות נוער כתובה על ידי נשים : דבורה עומר

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Shilo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs de la littérature israélienne pour enfants. Dans la première partie de l'article, j'explore les premiers jours de la littérature hébraïque pour enfants (XIXe siècle. Je tiens à souligner que ce sont les auteurs masculins qui ont régné sur ce genre littéraire et qu’à travers le XXe siècle un phénomène intriguant apparaît: les femmes commencent à écrire des oeuvres littéraires pour les enfants, et deviennent professionnelles dans ce domaine.La deuxième partie de l'article est dédiée à Devora Omer (né en 1932 qui est l'une des romancières les plus populaires et appréciées chez les enfants dans la littérature israélienne contemporaine. En particulier, j'examine le protagoniste féminin, Zohara, dans son œuvre Le’eov ad mavet (Aimer jusqu'à la mort, 1980, par rapport à la représentation de son apparence physique et à son monologue intérieur. Je suggère que même si elle est intégrée dans l'armée et donc « égale » aux hommes, le personnage principal du roman entretient la conception de l'auteur de la féminité, c'est-à-dire être physiquement attractive, même dans la bataille, pendant qu’elle est obligée d'accomplir les tâches ménagères, traditionnellement considérées comme le travail des femmes. En conclusion, la représentation de Zohara renvoie aux conflits entre les sexes dans la société israélienne contemporaine.In the first part of the article, I explore the early days of Hebrew children’s literature (19th century. I emphasize that it was male authors who ruled this literary genre and throughout the 20th century an intriguing phenomenon appears: women start writing literary works for children, becoming professionals in the domain. The second part of the article is dedicated to Devora Omer (born 1932 who is one of the most popular and well-appreciated children’s novelists in contemporary Israeli literature. In particular, I examine the female protagonist, Zohara, in

  6. Avaliação das condições de trabalho dos servidores braçais de instituição pública Working conditions of municipal employees: risk factors and measurement of morbidity, 1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora E.R. Tolosa

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se as condições de trabalho dos servidores braçais da Prefeitura Municipal de Botucatu (PMB, Brasil, procurando identificar as condições mais freqüentes e mais graves de riscos ocupacionais. Foi analisada a morbidade registrada no ambulatório dos servidores municipais, no período de 17 de julho a 4 de dezembro de 1987; foram analisados os acidentes de trabalho sofridos e registrados pelos servidores municipais nos anos de 1984, 1985,1986 e 1987. A descrição dos setores braçais revelou que as tarefas executadas na PMB são, majoritariamente, executadas manualmente, sem tecnologia, evidenciando condições potenciais para gerar "acidentes de trabalho" e "posições antiergonômicas" como as condições de risco mais freqüentes. Os coeficientes de gravidade desses mesmos acidentes elevaram-se desde 1984, sendo o de 1987, 1,85 vezes maior que o de 1984. A análise da causa externa e natureza da lesão decorrentes dos ATs validam a descrição do processo de trabalho e das condições de risco ocupacionais observadas. Os agravos mais freqüentes registrados no ambulatório foram: hipertensão arterial, outras circunstâncias familiares não especificadas ("problemas pessoais", lombalgia, gripe, alcoolismo crônico e gastroenterocolite aguda, sendo que todas essas doenças (exceto "problemas pessoais" foram mais freqüentes nos servidores braçais do que nos administrativos. Propõe-se a implantação de um programa de saúde ocupacional voltado aos servidores municipais da PMB.The working conditions of municipal employees of Botucatu (State of S. Paulo, Brazil are described with a view to identifying the most frequent and serious occupational risks. Office workers (clerks were not encluded in this study. The morbidities registered in the municipal outpatient service (from July 17 through December 4, 1987 and in the occupational accident register for the period 1984-1987 were evaluated. The activities of the majority of the

  7. Ceratose pilar e ulerythema ophryogenes em mulher com monossomia do braço curto do cromosomo 18 Keratosis pilaris and ulerythema ophryogenes in a woman with monosomy of the short arm of chromosome 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles André Carvalho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A monossomia parcial do braço curto do cromosomo 18 (síndrome do 18p caracteriza-se, principalmente, por atraso na aquisição da fala, retardo mental leve a moderado e baixa estatura. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com esta síndrome associada à ceratose pilar extensa e ulerythema ophryogenes. Este é o quarto relato de caso que descreve tal associação, que desperta considerável interesse porque pode revelar uma região candidata a sede de genes responsáveis pela queratinização folicularPartial monosomy of the short arm of chromosome 18 (18p- syndrome is characterized mainly by speech delay, mild to moderate mental retardation and short stature. We describe a patient with the 18psyndrome and widespread severe keratosis pilaris and ulerythema ophryogenes. This is the fourth case in which such an association has been reported. This association is of considerable interest because it may uncover a candidate genomic region and help to identify the gene responsible for follicular keratinization

  8. Komplementær og alternativ medicin bruges på danske rehabiliterings- og rusmiddelinstitutioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Lasse; la Cour, Søren; Kristensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The study has investigated the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) at Danish rehabilitation institutions and drug centres. Questionnaires were sent to 147 centre leaders at 52 rehabilitation institutions and 95 drug centres. CAM is offered at 37.5% of the rehabilitation institutio...... and at 61.1% of the drug centres. Twenty-one different CAM modalities were used. Acupuncture and NADA-acupuncture had the highest prevalence. Motives for offering CAM were most often experienced effects within the institution and inspiration from other institutions....

  9. Brug af alternativ isolering i forbindelse med renovering af ældre etageejendomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af rapport om praktiske erfaringer med brug af alternative isoleringsmaterialer i en renoveringsopgave, udarbejdet af Byfornyelse København m.fl. under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  10. Alternativ behandling i Danmark--brug, brugere og årsager til brug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønroth, Helle Langhoff; Ekholm, Ola

    2006-01-01

    : The survey revealed that 40.2% had ever used CAM and 20.1% had used CAM within the last year. Of those reporting having used CAM ever, reflexology (22.7%), massage/osteopathy/other manipulative techniques (16.5%) and acupuncture (16.2%) were the most frequently used. The use of CAM was more common among...

  11. Environmental assessment of waste incineration and alternatives; Miljoevurdering af affaldsforbraending og alternativer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, J.; Fruergaard, T.; Riber, C.; Astrup, T.; Hoejlund Christensen, T.

    2008-06-15

    Life cycle environmental assessment of waste combustion and alternatives were made using the LCA model EASEWASTE. Possible environmental effects for nine effect categories and the resource consumption of fossil fuels through treating 1 ton combustible waste were defined for several waste systems, including waste-only incineration, co-combustion in a fossil-fueled cogeneration plant, and combined biogas and compost production from household waste. The main conclusions of the analyses are: 1) with an optimum location, i.e. in the vicinity to a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration, co-combustion , and combined biogas and compost production are all equal environmentally viable alternatives . 2) Regarding potential toxic impacts in the area of a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration and combined biogas and compost production will result in slightly less net emissions compared to co-combustion because of better flue gas cleaning of heavy metals in incinerators than in power plants. 3) Siting the incinerator in a decentralized natural gas cogeneration area, co-combustion in a cogeneration plant is a better solution. 4) Combined biogas and compost production and waste-only combustion are environmentally equal treatments in all power plant areas. (ln)

  12. Et Patientperspektivistisk Studie i Brug af Alternativ Behandling hos Danske Patienter med Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    clients, however, are positioned as user of both complementary and alternative medicine and conventional treatments, such as biological, homeopathic, and traditional Chinese medicine. The main factors that drive them to this are the aim, the hope, the belief, and knowledge how to cure diabetes. Conclusion......: The study shows that the decisive difference of how diabetics are positioned as to complementary and alternative self-care is the way in which they have the strength and hope, believe and knowledge of how to cure disease which by people in general is regarded as chronic.......Background and objectives: There have not earlier been studies focusing on experiences of Danish diabetic patients using Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) – considered from the patients’ point of view. The existing studies mostly based on quantitative methods of patients with diabetes...

  13. Exanatid--et alternativ til insulin i behandlingen af type 2-diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Rasmus; Sandbaek, Annelli

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and drawbacks of exenatide as an alternative to insulin in the treatment of poorly regulated type 2 diabetes are reviewed. Exenatide and insulin have equal effects on HbA1c but exenatide causes weight-loss and improved postprandial glucose control. Nausea is reported by nearly half o...

  14. Simulador de chuva tipo empuxo com braços movidos hidraulicamente: fabricação e calibração Rainfall simulator thrust type with hydraulically moved arms: fabrication and calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de simuladores de chuva é fundamental em estudos de erosão hídrica pluvial. Com eles é possível controlar as condições experimentais, principalmente as características da chuva, e compreender melhor o processo erosivo do solo. Vários tipos de simulador de chuva foram desenvolvidos desde 1930 no mundo. Atualmente, o tipo Swanson é o mais utilizado. No entanto, um pequeno número desses simuladores está em pleno funcionamento no Brasil, devido ao alto grau de desgaste e às dificuldades de manutenção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um novo modelo de simulador de chuva, construído predominantemente em alumínio, desprovido de motor para rotação dos braços e movido hidraulicamente por empuxo. O simulador de chuva movido hidraulicamente por empuxo mantém em geral as características do modelo Swanson, sobretudo aquelas relacionadas às características de chuva produzida, tendo sido minimizados seu excesso de peso e a necessidade de uso de um motor a gasolina para movimento dos braços, denominado "Tipo Empuxo". Essas características tornaram o novo modelo mais leve, econômico, silencioso e de fácil manejo na área experimental do que o modelo Swanson, sendo possível deslocá-lo com apenas quatro pessoas. A intensidade da chuva correlacionou-se linear e positivamente com a pressão da água no manômetro.The use of rain simulators is fundamental to study rainfall erosion. They are used to monitor the experimental conditions, particularly the rain characteristics and to understand the soil erosion process better. Several types of rainfall simulators have been developed since 1930 around the world. Currently, the Swanson model is the most commonly used. However, a small number of these simulators is fully operational in Brazil, due to the high degree of wear and difficulties of maintenance. The purpose of this study was to develop a new rainfall simulator model, made mostly of aluminum, with no motor to rotate the

  15. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  16. Anatomy of the arteries of the arm of Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000 monkeys = Anatomia das artérias do braço do macaco Cebus libidinosus (Rylands et al., 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário de Souza Lima-e-Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cebus monkey displays a high capacity for adaptation to urbanenvironments, and its high level of encephalization has generated great interest by scientific community to study it. The study of the vascularization of the arm of Cebus is important because of its arboreal habits. Twenty-four animals donated by Ibama (Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources from the city of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and housed in the anatomy collections of the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU and the Federal University of Goiás (UFG were used. The arterialsystem of these animals was injected with coloring latex, after which the arteries were dissected using stereoscopic microscope or the naked eye. In general terms, the findings on the brachial vessels of the Cebus monkey are identical to those found in humans and inother primates. In specific terms, the most outstanding variation was the small size or the absence of the brachial artery in Cebus. The arterial model of Cebus corroborates its arboreal behavior and constant use of its thoracic limbs.O macaco Cebus possui alta capacidade de adaptação em ambientes urbanos e o seu elevado índice de encefalização tem gerado grande interesse por parte da comunidade científica em estudá-lo. A importância do estudo da vascularização do braço desses animais éem virtude do seu hábito arbóreo. Foram usados 24 animais doados pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente (Ibama de Sete Lagoas, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, depositados nas coleções anatômicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU e Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG. O sistema arterial dos espécimes foi injetado com látex corado e, posteriormente, as artérias foram dissecadas com o auxílio de microscópico estereoscópico ou a olhos desarmados. Em termos gerais, os achados em Cebus acerca de vasos braquiais são idênticos aos encontrados em humanos e outros primatas. Em termos

  17. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences

  18. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences related to the

  19. Falência ovariana precoce associada a deleção no braço longo do cromossomo: relato de dois casos e revisão da literatura Premature ovarian failure with a deletion in the long arm of chromosome: report of two cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Badalotti

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Falência ovariana prematura pode ser idiopática ou estar associada a várias distúrbios auto-imunes ou genéticos, como as deleções do cromossomo X. Relatamos dois novos casos de deleções do braço longo do cromossomo X, em pacientes nuligrávidas apresentando amenorréia secundária e infertilidade. Nenhuma paciente referia história familiar de falência ovariana prematura e relatavam desenvolvimento puberal normal. A avaliação genética mostrou deleção distal no braço longo do cromossomo X, sendo os resultados 46,X,del(Xq22 e 46,X,del(Xq13q28, respectivamente. Após o diagnóstico as pacientes optaram por fertilização in vitro com óvulos doados.Premature ovarian failure may be idiopathic or associated with several autoimmune and genetic disorders as X chromosome deletions. We report two cases of preamture ovarian failure associated with a deletion in the long arm of X chromosome. Both patients were nulligravidas presenting secondary amenorrhea and complaints of infertility, without family history of premature ovarian failure and reporting normal puberal development. Their karyotypes showed deletions of the distal long arm of all X chromosomes and were 46,X, del(Xq22 and 46,X, del(Xq13q28, respectively. After the diagnosis the patients decided to be submitted to an in vitro fertilization with egg donation.

  20. Ett Oskarpt Beslut : om Oskarp Logik i speldesign

    OpenAIRE

    Hedenström, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines possible applications of fuzzy logic on the field of artificial intelligence in digital games. It describes fuzzy logic in contrast to crisp logic. The paper will give several examples of possible applications of fuzzy logic-based decision making for game AI. These examples include the choosing of weapons for AI agents and the gas-break decision of an AI-controlled car. The paper will also analyze the impacts of game AI which makes decisions based on many factors. It will ...

  1. multilingualism and the ethnic identity of the ette people

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chy

    Bilingualism/multilingualism will be discussed in section four; while section ... In the past, our ancestors moved from one place to the other in search of ... The concept of ethnicity, however, encompasses a lot of meaning so that its definition is.

  2. Om didaktikens möjligheter – ett pragmatiskt perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Öhman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of didactics – a pragmatist perspective. In this inaugural speech I develop my view on the concept of didactics, didactic research and the importance of didactics in the current educational policy context. I claim that the subject of Education can play an important role in the development of didactics due to its long history of didactic concerns and its comprehensive theories about teaching and learning. I particularly emphasize the opportunities that I believe lie in a didactic perspective grounded in Dewey’s pragmatic philosophy. In my opinion Dewey’s work is still highly relevant and can offer a basis for political arguments, pedagogic guidance, methodological alternatives and a way to resolve essential philosophical problems. Furthermore, I highlight environmental and sustainability issues as a new political moral dimension of education which puts education in a genuine and long-term perspective for the future. I argue that this dimension, along with Dewey’s approach to education, is an important corrective to the educational policy tendencies that want to reduce education to a short-term issue of knowledge transfer, individual success and competitiveness of the business sector.

  3. Mobiilside kasumlikkus annab silmad ette / Silva Männik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Männik, Silva, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Mobiilside operaatorfirmade 2003. aasta majandustulemuste põhjal on mobiilsideäri Eestis hetkel kõige kasumlikum. Diagrammid: Vähim võtab kliendilt raha Tele2; Telekomifirmadel erakordselt hea rentaablus

  4. Naturkunskapens sexualitets- och relationsundervisning analyserad ur ett heteronormativitetsperspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylwa Li Hast

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Title: Teaching about sexuality and relation within science education analysed from the perspective of heteronormativityIn Sweden, a new subject syllabus for Science Studies (Naturkunskap in upper secondary school was introduced in 2011. In this syllabus knowledge about norms concerning sexualities and relations was brought to the fore as a core content. The aim of this paper is to explore how norms concerning sexuality guide the teaching, through a case study where three upper secondary school teachers were observed and their teaching was analysed from the perspective of companion meanings. All three observed teachers did teach about homosexuality, bisexuality, and transgender identities, often using genetics or evolution as their explanatory model. The teaching most often assumed that all students in the class were heterosexual, positioning LGBT-people as the Other, and did at no times take power perspectives into account.

  5. Medborgarskapande för ett nytt millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Dahlstedt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Citizenship in the making for a new millenium – education and citizen formation in 21st century Sweden. The aim of this article is to analyse citizenship formation in Swedish education. In highlighting trends regarding the assignment of the educational system to provide for democratic citizenship there are certain depictions of citizenship prevailing. The first stresses an inward-looking and inward-feeling citizenship, characterizing the citizen as deliberative and emotional. The second stresses an inward-looking and outward-making citizenship, characterizing the citizen as entrepreneurial and willing. Here, democracy is portrayed as already achieved. This, we argue, is hazardous as society risk being pictured as apolitical and democratically ‘saturated’. This situation does not open up for democratic change to come into question as desirable or even possible. Put differently, it leaves us with the notion that things have to be as they are, as we are living in the best of worlds.

  6. Kaffekvalité - Ett hett ämne

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, My; Eidman, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Intresset för hälsa har lett till att konsumenter efterfrågar högre kvalité där fokus inte längre enbart är pris. Allt eftersom kvalité hamnar i centrum är det intressant att undersöka hur kvalité skapas. En produkt som tydligt följer denna trend är kaffe. Denna uppsats ämnar undersöka hur svenska kafferosterier skapar kvalité på kaffe genom en studie av sex rosterier av varierande storlek i Sverige. Studien följer en kvalitativ struktur som utformats efter en av de dominerande teorierna inom...

  7. Sõda vangidega : iraaklaste piinajad astusid kohtu ette / ref. Virgo Kruve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    USA sõjatribunal mõistis Abu Ghraibi vanglas Iraagi vange ahistanud sõjaväelase Jeremy Sivitsi aastaks vangi. Teistest kohtualustest. Väljavõtteid USA Senatile tutvustatud salaraportist, mis keskendus Abu Ghraibi vanglale ja sõjaväepolitsei tegevusele

  8. Intraoperative management of ETT and LMA cufi pressures: a survey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-16

    Jul 16, 2008 ... A study done by Stein et al. highlighted the inability of advanced life support ... Conclusion. There is increasing importance placed on quality assurance ... pressures – the worrying reality: a comparative audit of intra-operative.

  9. The IT problems / the year; Norne: Erfaringer etter ett aar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staerkebye, Jon

    1998-07-01

    This presentation discusses the year 2000 problem as dealt with by Saga. The project ''Year 2000 in Saga Petroleum'' was formally established in December 1997. Its mandate was to identify risk areas and systems related to the date problem and to establish the necessary action to reduce or eliminate the Y2K problems. The target was (1) To be ''Year 2000 Compliant'' for the most critical systems within 1.4.1999, (2) To ensure the continuity of Saga's operational and business management affairs, (3) Priority to health, environment and safety, (4) Authorities and partners should be satisfied with the way Saga carries out the Y2K project work. Few serious problems were detected, but Y2K compliance information was more difficult to obtain than expected. Major suppliers take the problem seriously, but surprisingly many have started late.

  10. "Sõrmuste isandale" müüdi ette tuhandeid pileteid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Peter Jacksoni teine film "Sõrmuste isand : Kaks kantsi" ("The Lord of the Rings : The Two Towers") ja selle publiku-menust võrreldes ka teise Harry Potteri filmiga. Sama sõnum ka Linnaleht : Tartu, Pärnu

  11. Nargen Opera toob vaataja ette uue eesti kammerooperi / Priit Pruul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruul, Priit

    2006-01-01

    20. apr. esietendub Von Krahli Teatris Peeter Jalaka lavastuses Tõnu Kõrvitsa kammerooper "Mu luiged, mu mõtted", mille aluseks on luuletaja Marie Heibergi saatus. Libreto autor on Maarja Kangro. Kammerooper tuleb lavale Von Krahli Teatri ja Nargen Opera koostöös. Esitavad Kädy Plaas, Helen Lokuta, Nargen Opera koor ja Tallinna Kammerorkester, dirigent Tõnu Kaljuste

  12. Raamat, milleta ma oma eriala ette ei kujuta / Tõnu Kollo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollo, Tõnu, 1948-

    2014-01-01

    Raamatututvustus: Perelman, Jakov. Elav matemaatika : lugusid matemaatikast ja nuputamisülesandeid. Tallinn, 1989. Anderson, Theodore W. An Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis. Wiley, 2003

  13. Papper! : En studie om materialet papper ur ett konsthantverksperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdemark, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Denna studie syftar till att belysa papper som konsthantverksmaterial. Studien aktualiserar hur konsthantverkare som arbetar i papper beskriver sin relation till materialet och hur konsthantverkare som arbetar i papper upplever att deras val av material påverkar deras arbetssituation. Uppsatsen bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med sex konsthantverkare som arbetar professionellt i Sverige med att på olika sätt skapa objekt i papper eller på olika sätt skapa materialet papper. Resultatet visar ...

  14. multilingualism and the ethnic identity of the ette people

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chy

    Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies, Volume 4, 2015. 1. MULTILINGUALISM AND ..... Tukano of the northwest Amazon because of their customs which forbids marriage among themselves rather they ... everyday life whether it is in the church, meetings, market, family etc. whereas Igala and Igbo languages are also used ...

  15. "Paabel" kuulutab meile ette hävingut / Marianne Kõrver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõrver, Marianne, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Mängufilm "Paabel" ("Babel") : stsenarist Guillermo Arriaga : režissöör Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu : operaator Rodrigo Prieto : peaosades Cate Blanchett, Brad Pitt, Gael Garcia Bernal, Koji Yokusho : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Mehhiko, 2006

  16. W3C Geolocation API ur ett utvecklarperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate the W3C Geolocation API from a developer’s perspective, focused on whether it makes development of location-based applications more accessible to developers. This has been investigated by looking at available ways to locate, possible uses, the functionality offered, the necessary level of prior knowledge needed for a developer and requirements on developer tools. This has been achieved through studies in relevant areas, a thorough introduction to W3C ...

  17. Euroopa Liit valmistab ette uutmoodi Venemaa-poliitikat / Ahto Lobjakas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    EL-i järgmine eesistujariik Saksamaa pakub täielikku paradigma muutust EL-i ja Venemaa suhetes, autori sõnul asenduks senine rõhk "ühistel väärtustel" huvide kaine kalkulatsiooniga. Autor esitab oma seisukoha, kuidas peaks toimima Eesti: probleemid Venemaaga on vaja viia miinimumini ning EL-is tuleb toetada ühiseid valikuid vetoõiguse ja erahuvide vastu

  18. BOSTADENS NÄRMILJÖ I ETT HÅLLBARHETSPERSPEKTIV

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A majority of Sweden’s population, about 80 %, lives in urban environments, and a majority of them live in residential complexes with shared residential yards. People spend a large part of their time in or around their home, which is why the outside environment and the green space in the area play an important part in a person’s well being. The green yard offers space for children’s activities, recreation, solitude, relaxation and gardening and gives the opportunity to learn and understand na...

  19. Appi! Mida ette võtta? / Siret Seeder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seeder, Siret

    2009-01-01

    Harmooniaõpetus feng shui on Hiina filosoofia haru, mille kohaselt on võimalik inimest ümbritsevate ja temas toimivale energiate harmoniseerimise abil luua selline elutee nagu soovime. Ühe abivahendina kasutatakse ruumi. Spetsialist Siret Seeder tutvustab intuitiivse e vormikoolkonna bagua 8 tsooni teooriat

  20. "Alla barn har ett språk" : Ett examensarbete om svenska som andraspråk i skolan

    OpenAIRE

    Rönning, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about multilingualism in school and how teachers work with pupils who haveanother native language then Swedish. The aim of the study is to find out how teachers workwith Swedish as second language and what they found functional in their classroom. Theresearch questions are about how teachers defines Swedish as second language, how teacherswork and which work procedures that they think give a positive effect on the pupil’sknowledge. From the interviews with teachers from two diff...

  1. Att bygga en brandbook : ett projekt i att ena ett företag och dess verksamheter

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Jenny; Sahlberg, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a visual identity and a brand book for the company Yakobs Ram & Reklam (Yakobs Frame and Advertising). To answer the question of how a brand book should be designed for a company that manage several businesses within one brand a qualitative approach including a case study has been conducted.This qualitative method included research on brand building, logotypes, colour, design and typography and interviews with the company Yakobs Ram & Reklam an...

  2. SU-B-BRA-09: Panel Member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willcut, V.

    2016-01-01

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  3. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemayor, V.

    2016-01-01

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can be used to deepen a student’s understanding of radiation physics and dosimetry.

  4. SU-A-BRA-01: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemayor, V.

    2016-01-01

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can be used to deepen a student’s understanding of radiation physics and dosimetry.

  5. SU-A-BRA-01: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montemayor, V. [Germantown Academy (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can be used to deepen a student’s understanding of radiation physics and dosimetry.

  6. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montemayor, V. [Germantown Academy (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can be used to deepen a student’s understanding of radiation physics and dosimetry.

  7. Nyhedsbrev for KoBra no 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Indholdsfortegnelse Fra vores egen verden • Nyt fokus og nyt navn til videncenteret? • Ny videncenterleder • Nye ansatte i videncenteret • Britta Kusk Nørgaard goes Ph.d • Formidling i nyhedsbrevet • Udvikling af tværprofessionelle kompetencer • Hvordan kan man som bachelorstuderende være med til...

  8. SU-B-BRA-01: Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherouse, G. [Landauer Medical Physics Glenwood, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  9. SU-B-BRA-08: Panel Member

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazle, J. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  10. SU-B-BRA-06: Panel Member

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, J. [Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  11. SU-B-BRA-05: Panel Member

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavord, D. [Health Quest (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  12. SU-B-BRA-07: Panel Member

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, P. [Lahey Clinic, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  13. SU-B-BRA-09: Panel Member

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcut, V. [Elekta, Inc, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  14. Den orättvisaste orättvisan. Heroism och alternativ maskulinitet i Hans Erik Engqvists ungdomsroman Tredagarskriget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhe, Olle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ”Wicked Wrongfulness. Heroism and Alternative Versions of Masculinity in Hans Erik Engqvist’s Young Adult Novel Three Days War”. This article examines the re-evaluation of modern masculinity in the YA novel Three Days War by the Swedish author Hans Erik Engqvist (b. 1934. The central argument is that the fictional representation of Children Playing War in the novel is intertwined with the imagining of competing masculinities as well as opposing ideologies in post-war Sweden. Thus, the expression of institutionalized middle-class masculinity is contrasted to the representation of an alternative left wing working-class masculinity in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality. Through different allusions to heroic men and heroic behaviour in 19th century literature and American Western films the novel invites the reader to evoke hegemonic masculinity as a schema shaping both the understanding of the young characters and their play. But the novel also interrogates this institutionalized myth of hegemonic masculinity and sets the main character, as well as the reader, in search of an alternative version of the heroic male.

  15. Den orättvisaste orättvisan. Heroism och alternativ maskulinitet i Hans Erik Engqvists ungdomsroman Tredagarskriget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Widhe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ”Wicked Wrongfulness. Heroism and Alternative Versions of Masculinity in Hans Erik Engqvist’s Young Adult Novel Three Days War”. This article examines the re-evaluation of modern masculinity in the YA novel Three Days War by the Swedish author Hans Erik Engqvist (b. 1934. The central argument is that the fictional representation of Children Playing War in the novel is intertwined with the imagining of competing masculinities as well as opposing ideologies in post-war Sweden. Thus, the expression of institutionalized middle-class masculinity is contrasted to the representation of an alternative left wing working-class masculinity in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality. Through different allusions to heroic men and heroic behaviour in 19th century literature and American Western films the novel invites the reader to evoke hegemonic masculinity as a schema shaping both the understanding of the young characters and their play. But the novel also interrogates this institutionalized myth of hegemonic masculinity and sets the main character, as well as the reader, in search of an alternative version of the heroic male.

  16. EL CONFLICTO: UNA ALTERNATIvA DE FORMACIÓN EN LA CLASE DE EDUCACIÓN FÍSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Haney Aguirre-Loaiza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La clase de educación física es un escenario provisto para el encuentro y el desencuentro, donde confluyen acuerdos, disensos y conflictos, que se sitúan en distintas dimensiones del ser humano y convergen en el espacio escolar. El presente artículo aborda aspectos teóricos relacionados con la Educación, que también están asociados a la Psicología Educativa y a la manera como el conflicto entrama diversos factores y subrayando los elementos socio-culturales que se aproximan al fenómeno del conflicto en la clase de Educación Física. De este modo, los conflictos son nutridos y sustentados a partir de los factores socio-culturales y las relaciones que tienen lugar en el mundo cotidiano, como aquellos dados en el entorno familiar, los medios de comunicación, el grupo de pares y los modelos sociales que se visualizan en el desarrollo del aprendizaje social. También se destaca la oportunidad de recalcar el conflicto como abanico expresado en alternativas formativas dentro de la clase de educación física..

  17. The future of clean energy, from vision to a real alternative; Fremtidens rene energisystem, fra visjon til reelt alternativ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Research on environment-protecting and renewable energy has been a high national priority in recent years. Research in this field for the first time were brought together in one program when RENERGI was established in 2004. For nearly 10 years, RENERGI has been central to the public funding of energy research and, not least, helped a good structuring of competence building.(eb)

  18. Comparação entre a utilização de saliva e sangue para determinação do lactato mínimo em cicloergômetro e ergômetro de braço em mesa-tenistas Comparacion entre la utilizacion de saliva y sangre para la determinacion del lactato mínimo en cicloergómetro y ergómetro de brazo en tenistas de mesa Comparison between the use of saliva and blood for the minimum lactate determination in arm ergometer and cycle ergometer in table tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moura Zagatto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a possibilidade de determinar o teste de lactato mínimo (TLM com concentrações de sódio (Na+, potássio (K+ e lactato (LAC na saliva em ergômetro de braço e cicloergômetro. Foram participantes deste estudo oito mesa-tenistas de nível internacional. Como estímulo anaeróbio no TLM em ambos os ergômetros foram utilizados testes máximos de 30 segundos. No ergômetro de braço isocinético (Cybex Ube 2432 foi aplicada a força máxima com rotação fixa em 102rpm e no cicloergômetro, aplicada a carga de 7,5% do peso corporal (Kp. Após o estímulo anaeróbio no ergômetro de braço, foi iniciado um teste incremental com rotações na manivela constante a 60rpm, iniciado a 49 watts com aumento de 16 watts a cada estágio de três minutos de exercício. A intensidade correspondente ao TLM foi determinado com amostras de sangue e saliva (LACmin braço; Na+min braço-saliva e K+min braço-saliva, respectivamente. Para o cicloergômetro, a carga inicial foi de 85 watts e aumento de 17 watts com rotação do pedal constante a 70rpm. Cada estágio de exercício também teve a duração de três minutos. O LACmin foi determinado utilizando amostras de sangue e saliva (LACmin ciclo; Na+min ciclo-saliva, K+min ciclo-saliva e LACmin ciclo-saliva, respectivamente. Em ambos os ergômetros, as intensidades obtidas no TLM foram correspondentes à derivada zero do ajuste polinomial entre metabólito versus intensidade. Foram utilizados, como procedimentos estatísticos, o teste ANOVA One Way, teste t de Student pareado e teste de correlação de Pearson com níveis de significância de 5%. Os LACmin determinados com amostras de sangue e de saliva, tanto para o ergômetro de braço (LACmin braço 91,71 ± 12,43; Na+min braço-saliva 71,99 ± 23,42; K+min braço-saliva 79,67 ± 17,72, quanto para cicloergômetro (LACmin ciclo 157,68 ± 13,48; LACmin ciclo-saliva 135,49 ± 33,2; Na+min ciclo-saliva 121,81 ± 51,31; K

  19. To use the full potential of electric metering - a step towards a more energy effective Sweden; Att utnyttja elmaetarnas potential - ett steg mot ett energieffektivare Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonter, Gina; Wiberg, Maria (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    In line with national and international targets, the electricity market will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy, an increased share of electric plug-in vehicles, engaged consumers, who are conscious of their electricity use and produce their own electricity, and by smarter electricity distribution systems. This will put higher demands for stricter requirements on the available transmission capacity and on the security of supply. Elaborate metering systems is one condition for meeting the challenges facing the electricity market. Electricity metering is also relevant for a range of applications such as remote reading, management of customer relations, demand management and value added services. Utilizing meter data to provide feedback enables use of the electricity metering systems in order to obtain electricity conservation. As of July 2009 the Swedish electricity distributors are required to read and report the electricity use on a monthly basis for all customers with a safety fuse of up to 63 amps. Remote electricity reading is the main function in the current system, which means that the distribution system operator (DSO) is provided with metering data without the need for manual reading and that the customers are charged on a monthly basis for their actual electricity use (rather than an estimate). One reason for the introduction of monthly billing, based on actual electricity use, was to visualize the electricity use to the households. For the electricity use to become visual and controllable, it is important that customers receive feedback on their electricity use. The introduction of monthly billing implied an improvement of the feedback, but it can be further improved in order to allow greater savings. Improved feedback can be given by synthesizing high-resolution data to information presented in new ways, for example by means of in-home-displays, and web-based interfaces combined with counselling. Research shows that the electricity consumption can be reduced by up to 15 percent by using feedback. As a safeguard against future legislative demands over 50 percent of the household have been provided with meters that can handle hourly metering. However, hourly metering is not used to a great extent due to a lack of incentives for the distributors to make use of the hourly metering values. Furthermore not all meters have communication infrastructure that can manage daily collection of values. By changing the current demand of daily collection of values it is possible to employ hourly metering for 74 percent of the households. In addition, propositions of introducing a new metering standard speaks against further investments in the existing metering systems. The metering systems' ability to reflect the short term electricity balance for the consumers is a prerequisite for normal price mechanisms to maintain the security of supply. For that reason, there is a need of metering values with higher resolution in order to indirectly, i.e. by more dynamic tariffs, influence the customer to use less electricity during high load periods. By using hourly metering to the extent made possible with the existing metering systems, this type of service could be offered to a part of the Swedish households. Currently, only the electricity distributors have access to the metering values in the metering systems. This situation limits the business potential that arises from the development of metering services. The business potential is also limited by the fact that the possible savings from electricity conservation are small. Innovation and investments in metering services world be promoted by making metering data accessible to more stakeholders. The development would also be positively affected by higher electricity prices, institutional means of control that promote energy services, and an increasing awareness among consumers. A number of functions that will be important to address the changes facing the electricity market are often referred to in connection to smart grids; the charging of plug-in vehicles, virtual power plants, distributed generation and management of the electricity net. The development of electricity meters, and associated systems is an important prerequisite in the quest towards a smarter grid. These functions are not fully applicable with the existing electricity metering system. Enabling of these functions would probably require major investments in the network, more advanced meters and more advanced communications infrastructure

  20. Complicações e intercorrências associadas ao edema de braço nos três primeiros meses pós mastectomia Complicaciones e intercurrencias asociadas al edema de brazo en los tres primeros meses después de la mastectomía Complications and intercurrences associated with arm edema in the first three months following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marislei Sanches Panobianco

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo buscou identificar complicações, intercorrências e aparecimento de edema pós cirurgia por câncer de mama, e fatores que poderiam estar predispondo ao linfedema do braço do lado operado. É um estudo descritivo, prospectivo e de abordagem quantitativa. A população constou de 17 mulheres submetidas à cirurgia unilateral por câncer de mama, em um hospital-escola. A coleta de dados deu-se por meio do acompanhamento semanal dos sujeitos, nos três meses pós-cirurgia. O edema apareceu em 11 mulheres, sendo, em nove, de grau leve, e, em duas de grau moderado. É importante lembrar que o edema leve poderá tornar-se grave se não tratado, devidamente. Observou-se, entre as mulheres com edema, complicações, intercorrências, e outras variáveis. Os resultados revelam a importância do acompanhamento de enfermagem no pós-operatório, e a necessidade de um melhor preparo dos profissionais para a orientação de pacientes, com o objetivo de prevenir o linfedema.Este estudio buscó identificar complicaciones, intercurrencias y el aparecimiento del edema después de la cirugía por cáncer de mama y factores que pueden estar facilitando el aparecimiento del linfodema del brazo del lado operado. Es un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y de abordaje cuantitativa. La población fue formada por 17 mujeres sometidas a cirugía unilateral por cáncer de mama en un hospital escuela. La recolección de datos ocurrió a través del seguimiento semanal de los sujetos, en los tres meses después de la cirugía. El edema apareció en 11 mujeres, siendo en nueve de grado leve y en dos de grado moderado. Es importante recordar que el edema leve podrá tornarse grave si no es tratado. Se observó entre las mujeres con edema, complicaciones, intercurrencias y otras variables. Los resultados revelan la importancia del seguimiento de enfermería en la fase posquirúrgica y la necesidad de una mejor preparación de los profesionales para la orientaci

  1. 1972-IJBCS-Article-Yvette Nguessan Bra Fofie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    percentage inhibition of 63.66 ± 0.54% for 1 mg/mL of extract and an IC50 of 0.031 ± 0.001 µg/mL .A 200 ... °C and relative humidity was 45-55%. ... and 200 µl of DPPH) and a blank sample (100 .... presence of alcohol (Moussaid et al., 2012).

  2. TU-EF-BRA-00: MR Basics I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI (f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions

  3. TU-EF-BRA-00: MR Basics I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI (f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions.

  4. Úvodem k hudebním alternativám v "normalizačním" Československu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2011), s. 305-309 ISSN 1210-7050 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800630604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : contemporary history * music alternative * normalisation Subject RIV: AB - History

  5. Alternativ Kroppsøving i den vidaregåande skulen. Ein kvalitativ studie av elevane sine erfaringar med motivasjon i kroppsøvingsfaget

    OpenAIRE

    Sævig, Gro Lillian Almeland

    2015-01-01

    My own experience, statistics and research findings suggest that many pupils struggle with motivation in Physical Education (PE). Alternative PE is a training offer that is created with the purpose of getting more pupils to complete PE. The aim of this study is to develop knowledge of, and insight into motivation factors in PE among pupils in Alternative PE. The study is based on pupils´ subjective experiences, and central to the study is to find answers to what experiences the pupils in Alte...

  6. Untersuchung alternativer Elektrolyte und Membranen für die Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batterie sowie die Kopplung der Batterie mit der photoelektrochemischen Wasserspaltung

    OpenAIRE

    Schley (geb. Baumgarten), Julia

    2017-01-01

    Für die Leistung einer Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batterie (VRFB) sind die Funktionskomponenten Elektrode, Separator und Elektrolyt von entscheidender Bedeutung. In der konventionellen VRFB wird als Elektrolyt meist ein Vanadiumsulfatsalz, das in Schwefelsäure gelöst ist, verwendet. Da dieses aber nur eine begrenzte Löslichkeit aufweist, ist die Energiedichte der Batterie ebenfalls begrenzt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde deshalb ein HCl-Elektrolytsystem untersucht, das eine erhöhte Löslichkeit fü...

  7. Modular pump-turbine concept supporting the integration of renewable energy sources in a decentralised grid; Modulare Pumpturbine als Unterstuetzung bei der Einbindung alternativer Energien ins dezentrale Stromnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doujak, Eduard; Unterberger, Philipp; Bauer, Christian [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Energietechnik und Thermodynamik

    2012-11-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems in Europe leads to several challenges in the energy market. Energy storage for stable grid operation has become a necessity. Pumped storage is the only technology available today that is able to store large amounts of energy efficiently and with low specific storage costs. The Vienna University of Technology is currently investigating how existing artificial lakes for snow production could be integrated in pumped storage production systems. A new modular pump turbine concept and its application prospects are presented. (orig.)

  8. Remifentanil kan i særlige tilfælde anvendes som alternativ til epiduralanalgesi til fødende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Toke; Afshari, Arash

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia remains the gold standard during labour, but is contraindicated in several clinical settings due to increased risk of serious complications. There are few effective alternatives to epidural analgesia. However, there is an increasing interest for the use of remifentanil...... as a labour analgesic. In this focused review, we describe the effect, dose and safety of remifentanil for the mother and fetus/neonate. Remifentanil appears to have a potential as labour analgesic. Careful monitoring of the parturient and the newborn is advised....

  9. Avaliação eletromiográfica de músculos da cintura escapular e braço durante a realização de exercícios com extremidade fixa e carga axial Electromyographic assessment of scapular girdle and arm muscles during exercises with fixed boundary and axial load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pereira Cardoso de Brum

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a atividade eletromiográfica de músculos da cintura escapular e braço entre os exercícios wall-press 90°, wall-press 45°, bench-press e push-up, realizados com a extremidade distal do segmento fixa sobre uma superfície estável e em esforço isométrico máximo. Participaram desta pesquisa 20 voluntários do sexo masculino, sedentários e sem história de trauma ou doenças na extremidade superior. A atividade elétrica da cabeça longa do músculo bíceps braquial, da porção anterior do músculo deltóide, da porção clavicular do músculo peitoral maior e do músculo serrátil anterior foi registrada por eletromiografia de superfície. O teste modelo estatístico ANOVA e o teste post-hoc de Tukey foram utilizados para determinar diferenças entre os valores de RMS de cada músculo e em cada exercício, normalizados pela contração isométrica voluntária máxima. Os resultados do presente estudo demonstram que o músculo bíceps braquial apresentou a menor atividade eletromiográfica em comparação com os demais músculos avaliados em todos os exercícios, enquanto a porção anterior do músculo deltóide e o serrátil anterior mostraram maior atividade eletromiográfica em relação aos demais músculos nos exercícios bench-press e push-up. Esses achados demonstram que não houve semelhança na atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos avaliados durante os exercícios, porém, houve coativação muscular, visto que os exercícios ativaram todos os músculos, mesmo que em diferentes níveis. Os exercícios estudados não são indicados para ativar o músculo bíceps braquial, mas os exercícios bench-press e push-up o são para ativar a porção anterior do músculo deltóide e o serrátil anterior; o wall-press 90° e o wall-press 45° são indicados para ativar a porção anterior do músculo trapézio.The objective of this study was to compare the electromyography activity of scapular and

  10. Existe déficit bilateral na realização de 10RM em exercícios de braços e pernas? ¿Hay déficit bilateral al realizar 10RM en ejercicios de brazos y piernas? Is there bilateral deficit in the practice of 10RM in arm and leg exercises?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walace David Monteiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os exercícios resistidos (ER podem ser realizados de forma uni e bilateral. Dependendo da forma pela qual o movimento é conduzido, verifica-se a presença do déficit bilateral. Os estudos de déficit bilateral concentraram seus esforços na investigação do fenômeno em exercícios realizados com uma repetição máxima e pouco se sabe sobre o seu comportamento em exercícios com várias repetições. O presente estudo teve como objetivos: a comparar a carga obtida em 10 repetições máximas (10RM nos diferentes dimídios corporais em exercícios de braços e pernas; b comparar a soma das ações unilaterais com os resultados obtidos bilateralmente nos mesmos exercícios. Foram avaliadas 20 mulheres treinadas com idade entre 18 e 30 anos (24 ± 6 anos no teste de 10RM de forma uni e bilateral nos exercícios selecionados. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste t de Student pareado, para verificar a existência de diferença entre os membros, bem como no somatório dos dois membros separadamente em relação ao trabalho realizado bilateralmente. Para todos os procedimentos considerou-se um nível de significância de p Los ejercicios resistidos (ER pueden ser realizados de forma unilateral y bilateral. Dependiendo de la forma como el movimiento es conducido, se verifica la presencia de déficit bilateral. Los estudios de déficit bilateral concentraron sus esfuerzos en la investigación del fenómeno en ejercicios realizados con repetición máxima y poco se sabe sobre su comportamiento en ejercicios con varias repeticiones. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos: a comparar la carga obtenida en 10 repeticiones máximas (10RM en los diferentes segmentos corporales en ejercicios de brazos y piernas; b comparar la suma de las acciones unilaterales con los resultados obtenidos bilateralmente en los mismos ejercicios. Fueron evaluadas 20 mujeres preparadas con edades entre 18 y 30 años (24 ± 6 años en el test de 10RM de forma uni e

  11. Eesti sajandilõpu kunst jõuab rahva ette / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2002-01-01

    Eesti Kunstimuuseumi Rüütekonna hoones ja Rotermanni soolalaos näitus "Kapital" aastail 1995-2002 muuseumile ostetud eesti kunstnike teostest. Ostetud 505 tööst on eksponeeritud kolm neljandikku. Kujundas Marko Laimre, kureeris Eha Komissarov

  12. Drink! : En analys av The Coca-Cola Company's marknadsföringshistoria ur ett moderniseringsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Hedblom, Karin; Forsgren, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    Drink! The Marketing History of The Coca-Cola Company: A Modernization Perspective examines the development of The Coca-Cola Company’s marketing history, from the founding of the company in 1886 until today. The Coca-Cola Company has been superior on the market for over a century. It has also developed along with the urbanisation of its society, which is interesting in a modernization perspective. The essay investigates the marketing strategies of the company, with focus on three themes: gend...

  13. Prostitutsiooni vastu võitlejad võtavad ette sõdurid ja taksojuhid / Helen Eelrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eelrand, Helen, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti Naisuurimuse Teabekeskuse direktori asetäitja Ilvi Jõe-Cannon projektist Coalition Against Trafficking in Women, mille käigus antakse NATO riikide sõduritele koolitust prostitutsiooni varjukülgedega seonduvast ning kavast hakata karistama prostituute vahendavaid taksojuhte

  14. Health effects of a warmer climate - a knowledge review; Haelsopaaverkan av ett varmare klimat - en kunskapsoeversikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockloev, Joacim; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Forsberg, Bertil [Umeaa Univ. (SE). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine

    2008-01-15

    Global warming has caused changes that can already be seen and that motivates considerations of the possible adaptation measures needed to protect people and public health. Expert bodies such as the United Nations International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) now conduct model simulations on how the world's climate is expected to change depending on, for example, the emission of greenhouse gases. The Swedish SMHI has provided scenarios for how the future climate in Sweden may develop. These assume an increase in the winter temperature of 3-8 deg C in winter and 1-5 deg C during summer, compared to the period 1961-1990. In addition, these scenarios indicate increased precipitation especially in northern Sweden, a greater risk of drought in Skaane during summer, as well as an increased risk of extreme events such as storms, heavy rainfall and heat waves. The climate change may affect health and its determinants in a number of different ways. The effects may be direct, as in extreme weather conditions, and also indirect, such as the influence of changes in climate and the environment on the spread of infectious diseases as well as the far-reaching effects of changes in other parts of the world. The aim of this overview report is to briefly present our current understanding of how health risks and public health may be affected. The presentations of potential consequences are partly built using knowledge of the associations between climate and health in various regions to draw analogies for areas expected to undergo changes that will make their climate more similar to current conditions in other regions. Distribution of vector-borne diseases can be determined by the type of climate a certain mosquito can survive. In the future we may face outbreaks of diseases that are new to us. Another way of making predictions is to use the observations of how health effects relate to weather variations in one place, for example, temperature fluctuations. In this regard we already have information on the associations observed in Sweden with our current climate conditions. In some cases we can even build our analyses on changes in risk factors and health that have already been observed and linked to climate change, such as the spread of ticks in Northern Sweden and the already longer pollen season

  15. Läroplanen och föreställningen om ett kosmopolitiskt arv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ancient idea of cosmopolitanism is a topic of renewed interest today. Scholars and practitioners in many fields are examining what it means to conceive all human beings as linked by their membership in a shared cosmos. Some people focus on political cosmopolitanism, others on moral, cultural, or economic cosmopolitanism. This paper examines educational cosmopolitanism by elucidating the idea of curriculum as a cosmopolitan inheritance. It argues that curriculum can generate a cosmopolitan sensibility, by which one means an outlook that regards life experience as universally educational. It suggests that a cosmopolitan sensibility can assist people in working through some of the tensions that accompany global and local change in our time. It can position them to reconstruct creatively cultural and individual values rather than abandon them in the face of the ceaseless pressure of globalization. A cosmopolitan ensibilityedifies human beings by helping them perceive why all persons, in principle, can be creative guardians and practitioners of creativity itself.

  16. Pre-study - Straw ash in a nutrient loop; Foerstudie - Halmaska i ett kretslopp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter; Bjurstroem, Henrik; Johansson, Christina; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Mattsson, Jan Erik

    2009-03-15

    A sustainable production of energy crops requires that the loss of mineral nutrients when removing biomass is compensated naturally or by an addition of plant nutrients. Recycling ash is a natural way to satisfy this need arising after combustion of energy crops. In this pre-study, the prerequisites for recycling straw ash have been investigated. The Danish experience with spreading ash to fields and information in literature on the composition of ash have been collected and presented. Analysis of straw samples taken from four different places in Scania yielded information on cadmium and nutrient concentration in straw and in ash. A balance between removal of nutrient and cadmium with wheat straw and restoring them by recycling straw ash has been computed. Straw ash is a potassium fertiliser with some phosphorus and some liming effect. It is technically difficult to spread the small quantities of ash in solid form, ca 250 kg per hectare and year in average, which a pure recycling would require. It is easier to spread larger quantities, e.g. ca 1 ton per hectare every fourth year, which corresponds to spreading once in a four year crop rotation, but then one provides too much potassium if one considers the actual needs of the coming crops at that occasion, which could lead to potassium being leached out on light soils. Alternatively, one could spread only bottom ash, but this would lead to half of the potassium content not being recycled to agricultural soil and lost with the fly ash that is disposed of. If one spreads about 500 kg bottom ash per hectare every other year, which could be a suitable strategy to avoid overloading soils with potassium, the dose brought to 1 ha may be computed as: 4 - 10 kg phosphorus, 50 - 100 kg potassium, 5 - 15 kg sulphur, 4 - 8 kg magnesium, 0.1 - 0.3 kg manganese and 20 - 40 kg CaO. These basis of these calculations is the results from the analyses performed in this study. The cadmium concentration was significantly higher in wheat straw from soils with higher cadmium content. To avoid that a farm with a low cadmium concentration in the straw receives ash with a high content, one could combust area-wise and recycle area-wise, or choose not to fetch straw from farms with high cadmium contents in soils, or spread only bottom ash. However, if fly ash is not utilised, a large part of the potassium is lost. The conclusion is that recycling of straw ash to fields is feasible and development work should continue after this pre-study. The pre-study need to be developed in the following areas: Means to spread a small quantity of ash to fields, with as small a negative effect as possible. Machines for spreading straw ash have been studied in some Swedish investigations, and before proceeding further one should gather additional information, a.o. on foreign machinery for spreading straw ash Test lime spreading techniques, pipe model, for agglomerated ash (wet, cured, crushed and sieved straw ash) As ash is a fertiliser, a method to calculate doses should be developed. This implies a.o. an analysis of potassium and phosphorus available to plants The availability of cadmium to plants should be studied in order to determine in which phase of a crop rotation ash should be returned in order to minimize the risk that plants take up cadmium If one chooses to recycle only bottom ash, one should continue to investigate means to extract potassium from fly ash, as ca 50 % of the potassium content is in the fly ash

  17. Res Publica aukohus heidab juhtidele ette eetikavääratust / Toomas Mattson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mattson, Toomas, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik ; Severnoje Poberezhje 22. november lk. 3;4. Res Publica aukohus arvab, et Res Publica juhid on rikkunud erakonna põhikirja, sisekorda ja eetikakoodeksit Kohtla-Järve juhtumi lahendamisel. Kohtla-Järvel sai linnapeaks riisumiskahtlusega uurimise all olev Valeri Korb tänu Keskerakonna ja Res Publica koalitsioonileppele. Kommenteerib Juhan Kivirähk

  18. Rolf Edberg : En studie av ett miljöfilosofiskt författarskap

    OpenAIRE

    Wettström, Rune

    2008-01-01

    In this essay I have tried to present the ideas and thoughts of the Swedish author Rolf Edberg (1912-1997), journalist, ambassador and county governor. By many regarded as an environment philosopher and the introducer of deep ecology into Sweden. The essay emphasizes Edberg as a modern renaissance man of important knowledge with a rhetorical force to present and generalize the problems the planet Earth is meeting. The paper compares him with Henry Thoreau but also finds a close but perhaps un...

  19. Ameerika diplomaat käis Ida-Virus suursaadiku visiiti ette valmistamas / Argo Soolep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soolep, Argo, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje, 24. sept. 2004, lk. 3. Ameerika saatkonna esimene sekretär poliitika ja majanduse küsimuses Stuart A. Dweyer saabus Ida-Virumaale kahepäevasele visiidile. Saatkonna eesmärgiks on külastada kõiki Eesti linnu

  20. Ett företag utifrån en kundsynvinkel - Team Kitchen Ab

    OpenAIRE

    Dristig, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Uppdragsgivaren för detta examensarbete är företaget Team Kitchen Ab vars huvudsakliga verksamhetsområde är ordnandet av matlagningskurser för både privata samt företagskunder. Syftet med arbetet är att redogöra för och mäta kundtillfredställelse och tjänstekvalitet hos uppdragsgivaren samt att redogöra för förbättrings-, och utvecklingsmöjligheter inom företagets tjänster och verksamhet. Teorier som behandlas i detta arbete är kvalitet och processer av bl.a. Lecklin och Edvardsson, SERVQUAL ...

  1. Medstops positionering : En fallstudie om ett nytt apoteks positionering utifrån konkurrenskraft

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Lovisa; Broms Seving, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is, from a business perspective, to examine how the pharmacy chain Medstop is working with their positioning in order to achieve competitiveness in the re-regulated pharmacy market. This is studied through a theoretical framework that demonstrates five forces that affects the competitiveness in an industry, the five-force model by Michael Porter. The thesis is a qualitative case study where data collection was done through interviews, literature, articles, websites and ...

  2. Consequences of increased extraction of forest fuel; Konsekvenser av ett oekat uttag av skogsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency research program 'Sustainable supply and processing of biofuels', also known as Fuel program, ran from 2007-01-01 to 2011-06-30. The results of the program are reported in synthesis reports for the different sub-areas. The purpose of the synthesis reports is to compile knowledge in various areas, to identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed further, and to place and discuss the aggregated research results in a larger energy and societal perspective, including environmental quality goals and forest policy environmental and production goals. This report covers sub area 'Forest fuel and environmental impacts' conducted in 2007-2011. Biomass from forests, e.g. logging residues, has become an increasingly more important energy resource over the last decades. There is a strong ambition from the society (the Swedish parliament, European Union etc.) to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy system and decrease the use of fossil fuel. However, by increasing biomass extraction from our forests a number of environmental services, as well as future forest production will be affected. In this report we discuss if it is possible to increase biomass harvesting, how to combine biomass extraction with sustainable forestry including conservation of environmental services, and if there are any threshold values for avoiding negative impact. The report mainly covers consequences of extracting logging residues, such as branches and tops (in Swedish this is summarised as grot), and stumps. Connected to this we also discuss effects of ash recycling. We also discuss intensive forestry including plantations with short rotation and nutrient optimisation. At present this is only carried out in a small scale for research purpose, but might be a possibility in the future. Finally, we analyse consequences of peat extraction, but only consequences for biodiversity. At the moment peat harvesting is of limited importance in Sweden, but it might increase and it is often mixed with other solid biofuel at the plants. The review is based on a large number of scientific reports. It focuses mainly on Swedish conditions, consequently studies from northern Europe dominates, but we refer also to a large number of studies from other parts of the world. In Sweden, most of the relevant studies have been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. Therefore, we have analysed all projects within the research programmes funded by the Swedish Energy Agency. This means not only reading scientific papers, but also all kinds of reports, as well as interviews with project leaders. Our result has been examined and discussed at a number of seminars and workshops. Connected to our work we had a reference group with members representing authorities, forestry companies and NGOs. To be able to evaluate the consequences of increased biomass extraction we have related our result to environmental objectives, and goals for forest production, set up by the society (the Swedish parliament). In Sweden we have adopted 16 environmental objectives (http://www.miljomal.nu/Environmental-Objectives-Portal/, in English). Of these especially five objectives are most relevant for our analysis: Reduced climate impact, Natural acidification only, A non-toxic environment, Zero eutrophication and Sustainable forests. The forest production goal is described in the forestry policy (Government proposition 1992/92: 226, in Swedish)

  3. Jämställdhet nästa! Samhällsplanering ur ett genusperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Anita; Jalakas, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The book develops ideas and tools to meet the Swedish government’s aim to mainstream the policy of equal opportunities into all policy areas. To apply the gender perspective at the level of strategic planning, instead of at a detailed level, is stressed. To start, concepts such as equal opportunities and gender perspective are elaborated in relation to the field of planning. Through applying gender theory it is shown how conventional planning may contribute to gender inequality by neglecting ...

  4. Flerspråkighet inom lärarutbildningen - ett perspektiv som saknas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Carlson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilingualism in teacher education – a missing perspective.This article is based on fieldwork within teacher education. Questions were asked about how student teachers are prepared for work/employment in an educational system characterized by pluralism in terms of multilingualism and a second-language perspective. Is a multilingual perspective presented in teacher education as a competence for some or for all? The answers can be seen as fairly meagre, but this also tells something more general about how issues about language and pluralism are regarded. Perspectives on multilingualism and second language acquisition (if and when they arementioned are often related in various ways to “the Others” and to a“deficiency perspective”. These topics are dealt with in the first part of the article. In next section discussing multilingualism, also seen as an asset, we encounter actors mostly within the field of linguistics. Didactic aspects as well as questions of identity are highlighted. The article ends with a morecomprehensive discussion on multilingualism, second-language perspective and governance/policy documents. Teacher education appears to be fairly national(ist, in spite of recurring talk about increasing globalization, and internationalization.

  5. Consequences of increased extraction of forest fuel; Konsekvenser av ett oekat uttag av skogsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency research program 'Sustainable supply and processing of biofuels', also known as Fuel program, ran from 2007-01-01 to 2011-06-30. The results of the program are reported in synthesis reports for the different sub-areas. The purpose of the synthesis reports is to compile knowledge in various areas, to identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed further, and to place and discuss the aggregated research results in a larger energy and societal perspective, including environmental quality goals and forest policy environmental and production goals. This report covers sub area 'Forest fuel and environmental impacts' conducted in 2007-2011. Biomass from forests, e.g. logging residues, has become an increasingly more important energy resource over the last decades. There is a strong ambition from the society (the Swedish parliament, European Union etc.) to increase the proportion of renewable energy in the energy system and decrease the use of fossil fuel. However, by increasing biomass extraction from our forests a number of environmental services, as well as future forest production will be affected. In this report we discuss if it is possible to increase biomass harvesting, how to combine biomass extraction with sustainable forestry including conservation of environmental services, and if there are any threshold values for avoiding negative impact. The report mainly covers consequences of extracting logging residues, such as branches and tops (in Swedish this is summarised as grot), and stumps. Connected to this we also discuss effects of ash recycling. We also discuss intensive forestry including plantations with short rotation and nutrient optimisation. At present this is only carried out in a small scale for research purpose, but might be a possibility in the future. Finally, we analyse consequences of peat extraction, but only consequences for biodiversity. At the moment peat harvesting is of limited importance in Sweden, but it might increase and it is often mixed with other solid biofuel at the plants. The review is based on a large number of scientific reports. It focuses mainly on Swedish conditions, consequently studies from northern Europe dominates, but we refer also to a large number of studies from other parts of the world. In Sweden, most of the relevant studies have been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. Therefore, we have analysed all projects within the research programmes funded by the Swedish Energy Agency. This means not only reading scientific papers, but also all kinds of reports, as well as interviews with project leaders. Our result has been examined and discussed at a number of seminars and workshops. Connected to our work we had a reference group with members representing authorities, forestry companies and NGOs. To be able to evaluate the consequences of increased biomass extraction we have related our result to environmental objectives, and goals for forest production, set up by the society (the Swedish parliament). In Sweden we have adopted 16 environmental objectives (http://www.miljomal.nu/Environmental-Objectives-Portal/, in English). Of these especially five objectives are most relevant for our analysis: Reduced climate impact, Natural acidification only, A non-toxic environment, Zero eutrophication and Sustainable forests. The forest production goal is described in the forestry policy (Government proposition 1992/92: 226, in Swedish)

  6. Får vi lov? : IKEA:s etablering i Karlstad sett ur ett resursberoendeperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    IKEA is probably one of the most well known Swedish companies in the world. During thepast decades millions of people all across the globe have decorated their homes according tothe style of IKEA. But just exactly how big and influential are they? Many, if not to say all,municipalities in Sweden wants IKEA to establish and build their famous stores in one oftheir towns. But at what cost? When deciding on a municipality to establish in, IKEAnormally tends to have an advantage when it comes to ...

  7. Vastased tähistavad ette Saakashvili põrmustumist / Triin Oppi, Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oppi, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Gruusias toimunud meeleavalduste mahasurumisest, president Mihheil Saakashvili poolt väljakuulutatud eriolukorrast ja erakorralistest valimistest ning läänemaailma suhtumisest. Kaart: Gruusia. Kommenteerivad Riigikogu Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson ja Thbilisi kaitseuuringute keskuse politoloog Bidzina Lebanidze. Vt. samas: Ilves ja Paet veensid grusiine rahu otsima. Välisminister Urmas Paet ja president Toomas Hendrik Ilves helistasid oma Gruusia kolleegidele, et neilt toimuva kohta aru pärida. President T.H. Ilves rõhutas Gruusia ametivennale vajadust kõiki pooli vaos hoida

  8. Jäneda viimane mõisaproua ilmus eestlase ette / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2011-01-01

    Jänedal Pulli tallis 1. juulil esietendunud Hendrik Toompere noorema lavastusest "Pärast surma Jendalis" (MTÜ R.A.A.A.M). Autor: Urmas Lennuk, osades: Merle Palmiste, Rain Simmul, Sulev Teppart, Marta Laan, Hendrik Toompere noorim

  9. A climate-friendly agriculture in 2050; Ett klimatvaenligt jordbruk 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerpe, Karin

    2012-07-01

    Board of Agriculture has developed a basis for the role of agriculture in a road map towards a Sweden without a net greenhouse gas emissions in 2050. One possible reference scenario of how the development would be of no action is taken is presented in the report. Measures that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture is discussed as well as instruments that could make the measures came about. Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture depends largely on what is produced, and are therefore governed by what is consumed. Production can be made more efficient but not without any emission of greenhouse gases. According to the Swedish climate report 7.9 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} equivalent was released in the form of methane and nitrous oxide from livestock keeping and crop production in the agricultural sector in 2010. The report's reference scenario for agriculture is based on the assumption that the Swedish agricultural production in 2050 should be the same as today. The efficiency and productivity is expected to increase - productivity by 0.5 percent per year - which means that emissions of greenhouse gases decreases compared to 2010. The estimated emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from agriculture in 2050 amounts to 7.23 million tonnes CO{sub 2}-equivalent. In the national climate change reporting, the climate impact of agriculture also includes other flows of greenhouse gases than those in the agricultural sector. This applies to uptake and carbon dioxide emissions from land use, greenhouse gas emissions in direct energy use (energy use in stationary machines and fuel use in mobile machines), and greenhouse gas emissions from the production of imported input goods. When these flows are included in total emissions in the reference scenario in 2050, 9.49 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents will be emitted. Relevant measures the farmers themselves can take have been analyzed in terms of the effect they can make as well as cost-effectiveness and appropriate policy instruments to bring about measures. In total, the measures can reduce agricultural emissions in 2050 by nearly 20 percent. The substitution effect of replacing fossil fuels with bioenergy produced in agriculture implies that agriculture can contribute so that greenhouse gas emissions from other sectors also decreases, although increased production of crops for energy purposes means that emissions from agriculture thus increases, compared to the reference scenario.

  10. Tur och Retur : en kvalitativ studie om resan genom ett narkotikaberoende

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Annette; Nyhlén, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to, through the life stories of four women and their experiences, thoughts and feelings according to a life in drug dependency reach an increased knowledge about how a dependency can arise, continue and be brought to an end. The question at issue were: How do a small amount of women describe and comprehend their experiences, thoughts and feelings according to their drug addiction seen through a process perspective. In order to answer that question three themes we...

  11. Sociala mediers påverkan på värde ur ett konsumentperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Johanna; Singh, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Syfte - Syftet med uppsatsen är att öka förståelsen för hur sociala medier påverkar värde kring kläder för en konsument. Metod - För att få en djupare förståelse av syftet tillämpades en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer.   Resultat - Resultatet av studien är att konsumenter skapar värde genom upplevelser/erfarenheter och förväntningar, vilket påverkas av individuella och sociala kontexter. Värde baseras på de sociala banden mellan individer på sociala medier. För att bygga re...

  12. Description and modelling of the solar-hydrogen-biogas-fuel cell system in GlashusEtt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, L.; Wallmark, C.; Alvfors, P.; Rissanen, M.; Stridh, B.; Ekman, J.

    The need to reduce pollutant emissions and utilise the world's available energy resources more efficiently has led to increased attention towards e.g. fuel cells, but also to other alternative energy solutions. In order to further understand and evaluate the prerequisites for sustainable and energy-saving systems, ABB and Fortum have equipped an environmental information centre, located in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden, with an alternative energy system. The system is being used to demonstrate and evaluate how a system based on fuel cells and solar cells can function as a complement to existing electricity and heat production. The stationary energy system is situated on the top level of a three-floor glass building and is open to the public. The alternative energy system consists of a fuel cell system, a photovoltaic (PV) cell array, an electrolyser, hydrogen storage tanks, a biogas burner, dc/ac inverters, heat exchangers and an accumulator tank. The fuel cell system includes a reformer and a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) with a maximum rated electrical output of 4 kW el and a maximum thermal output of 6.5 kW th. The fuel cell stack can be operated with reformed biogas, or directly using hydrogen produced by the electrolyser. The cell stack in the electrolyser consists of proton exchange membrane (PEM) cells. To evaluate different automatic control strategies for the system, a simplified dynamic model has been developed in MATLAB Simulink. The model based on measurement data taken from the actual system. The evaluation is based on demand curves, investment costs, electricity prices and irradiation. Evaluation criteria included in the model are electrical and total efficiencies as well as economic parameters.

  13. Programmerad eller Inte : programmering i skolan från ett lärarperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Rolandsson, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    In the intersection of technology, curriculum and intentions, a specific issue of interest is found in the gap between teachers’ intentions and implementations of curriculum. Instead of approaching curriculum and technology as something fait accompli, teachers are considered crucial in the re-discovery of what and how to teach. The thesis depicts the mind-set of teachers and their beliefs in relation to computing curriculum. Three perspectives are covered in the thesis. Based on original docu...

  14. Food truck som ett nytt fenomen i Skåne

    OpenAIRE

    Fromell, Hilda; Winter, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Food truck is a mobile restaurant business which originates from the United States, and can now be seen also in Sweden. There are specific guidelines regarding the food that are served from the food trucks rolling the streets of Skåne from 2013. For example the food should be ecological, which is in keeping with the other municipal goals regarding food and meal. The concept is communicated and marketed through social media, which makes it possible to effectively reach many people. Four food t...

  15. Tšetšeenia uus rahukava ei näe alistumist ette / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Eksiilis viibiv tšetšeenide välisminister Ahmed Zakajev saatis G8 tippkohtumisele läkituse, milles teatab, et läbirääkimised Venemaaga peavad algama eeltingimusteta. FSB ülem teatas, et tšetšeeni võitlejatel on aega 1. augustini, kui nad soovivad relvad maha panna ja amnestiat paluda

  16. Valgevene lavastaja toob tudengitega Tartus vaatajate ette naljaka Tshehhovi / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Minski lavastaja Sergei Turban toob 7. dets. Athena pööningusaalis lavale komöödia "Naljad armastusest", mis põhineb Anton Tshehhovi lühinäidenditel "Juubel" ja "Abieluettepanek". Mängivad Tartu Üliõpilasteatri näitlejad

  17. Valmib valus lavalugu perest : Athenas jõuab vaatajate ette Mart Kivastiku suhtedraama / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    SA Eesti Teatri Festival esietendab 4. mail Athena keskuses Margus Kasterpalu lavastuses Mart Kivastiku näidendit "Meie isa, kes sa oled ..." Mängivad Vanemuise näitlejad Marika Aidla, Hannes Kaljujärv, Tanel Jonas ning Leino Rei

  18. Finansiellt incitamentssystem i offentlig organisation : en fallstudie på ett svenskt sjukhus

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Philip; Andersson, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    Under många år har finansiellt incitamentsystem inom den privata sektorn diskuterats då verkställande direktörers kompensationer ska kopplas samman med företaget prestation med syfte att värdemaximera för aktieägarna. På senare år har finansiellt incitamentsystem fått mer och mer inflytande i offentliga organisationer med mål att effektivisera och förbättra kvalitén. Tidigare forskning antar skilda uppfattningar i hur finansiellt incitamentsystem lämpar sig för offentlig sek...

  19. Policy Instruments for an Increased Supply of Energy Crops; Styrmedel foer ett utoekat utbud av biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Widmark, Annika; Wiklund, Sven-Erik; Liljeblad, Anna

    2009-05-15

    At present, energy crops are not commonly used as fuel for heat and power production in Sweden, but as a result of increased competition for biomass, the interest for agricultural fuels such as willow, straw, reed canary grass and hemp increases. The purpose of this study is through a qualitative study that includes a literature study as well as case studies carried out by interviews, with respondents in the agriculture- and energy sectors highlight the conditions for increased production and use of energy crops. The main objective is to propose relevant policy instruments that could increase the production and use of energy crops. The purpose with the proposed policy instruments is that they should serve as a basis for discussions with politicians and authorities regarding the supply of bio fuels through the use of energy crops. The result of the study indicates that the main obstacle for increasing the production and use of energy crops is that the cultivation of energy crops today is unprofitable. To reduce the production costs it is necessary to improve the competitiveness of energy crops, primarily in relation to wood chips. The study shows that there is a potential for reduction of production costs through development of the logistics chain. Policy measures promoting the use of bio fuels exists today, but are not fully used to increase the share of energy crops in the bio fuel energy mix. The reason for this is that they are generally not as cost efficient as alternative bio fuels. It is important that competition issues are addressed, both regarding competition issues between different bio fuels, but also competition issues between various energy crops that exists today. Further obstacles to accelerate the introduction of energy crops at the market are high investment costs for establishment of some of the energy crops. From the analysis in this study, the following policy instruments are suggested in order to increase the production and the use of energy crops within the power and heat sector 1. Financing of practical research and development of the logistics chain including harvesting, bundling, compression, preparation, feeding in (to the power plant), storage and transportation of energy crops 2. Investment support to farmers cultivating energy crops with high investment costs 3. Introduction of a national program for development of regional projects supporting cooperation between actors on the energy crop bio fuel market. 1. Financing of Practical Research and Development of the Logistics Chain To reduce the production costs in order to increase the profitability, support for practical research and development of the logistics chain, which includes harvesting, bundling, compression, preparation, feeding in (to the power plant), storage and transportation of energy crops, is suggested. For the success of practical research, it is important that the research is performed in close cooperation between farmers, entrepreneurs within the logistics chain dealing with harvesting, storage and transport of energy crops and energy companies. One way to achieve such cooperation is that the energy companies take the initiative for common research efforts, since neither the farmers nor the contractors on the market for energy crops normally take part in research projects. Neither do they normally have experience of applying for research funds. Common research efforts are also important to find cost-effective solutions for the entire logistics chain. This means that the financing for the research could be a combination of public support and support from the heat and power sector. 2. Investment Support to Farmers Cultivating Energy Crops with High Investment Costs In order to initially increase the interest in energy crops, contribute to establish a market for production of energy crops and manage high initial investment costs, problem that farmers face at the transition from traditional production of grain to energy crops, a development of the existing investment support scheme to include an additional number of energy crops are suggested. One of the purposes by including an additional number of energy crops within the scheme is that the energy crops with the best condition with respect to the farmer's competence, the logistics entrepreneur's technical preconditions, different quality of the soils and the suitability of different energy crops in different geographical areas can be used in order to increase production and use of energy crops. 3. Introduction of a National Program for Development of Regional Projects Supporting Cooperation between Actors on the Energy Crop Bio Fuel Market. Experiences from bio energy projects both in Sweden and in Finland shows that regional cooperation projects between energy companies, farmers, entrepreneurs within the logistics chain and other actors may by cooperation achieve increased production and use of energy crops.

  20. Kelle emotsioonile anda teksti ette lugedes hääl? Vaatlus mitmest perspektiivist / Ene Vainik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vainik, Ene, 1964-

    2014-01-01

    Püütakse esile tuua, milliste inimloomusest tulenevate tõsiasjadega peab arvestama, kui hakata sünteeskõnele emotsioone matkivat prosoodiat lisama. Koondatud on lähenemised erinevatest teadusharudest

  1. Etiska Fonder : - Ett steg mot en mer hållbar värld?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamrin, Lisa; Orehag, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Today, there is no uniform definition of what an ethical fund is. Fund management companies choose themselves what they believe is ethical and not. The lack of the definition makes it difficult for consumers to understand why these funds are special compared to other funds. The purpose of this study is to examine three Swedish companies; KPA Pension, Swedbank Robur and Folksam, to obtain a clearer picture of the concept ethical funds and its definition. The study describes each company's view...

  2. Textrörlighet - ett begrepp I rörelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper; Liberg, Caroline; Geijerstam, Åsa af

    2012-01-01

    and developed within a project where students' reading in three different topic areas was studied: mother tongue (Swedish), social science, and science. Following this presentation, we show how the concept, in combination with other analytical concepts, is used to capture students' domain-specific literacy...... constructed by students when talking about what has been read but also in their writing, in comparison with the norms and values underlying the preferred content in perspective of the school as an institution....

  3. Health effects of a warmer climate - a knowledge review; Haelsopaaverkan av ett varmare klimat - en kunskapsoeversikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockloev, Joacim; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Forsberg, Bertil (Umeaa Univ. (SE). Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine)

    2008-01-15

    Global warming has caused changes that can already be seen and that motivates considerations of the possible adaptation measures needed to protect people and public health. Expert bodies such as the United Nations International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) now conduct model simulations on how the world's climate is expected to change depending on, for example, the emission of greenhouse gases. The Swedish SMHI has provided scenarios for how the future climate in Sweden may develop. These assume an increase in the winter temperature of 3-8 deg C in winter and 1-5 deg C during summer, compared to the period 1961-1990. In addition, these scenarios indicate increased precipitation especially in northern Sweden, a greater risk of drought in Skaane during summer, as well as an increased risk of extreme events such as storms, heavy rainfall and heat waves. The climate change may affect health and its determinants in a number of different ways. The effects may be direct, as in extreme weather conditions, and also indirect, such as the influence of changes in climate and the environment on the spread of infectious diseases as well as the far-reaching effects of changes in other parts of the world. The aim of this overview report is to briefly present our current understanding of how health risks and public health may be affected. The presentations of potential consequences are partly built using knowledge of the associations between climate and health in various regions to draw analogies for areas expected to undergo changes that will make their climate more similar to current conditions in other regions. Distribution of vector-borne diseases can be determined by the type of climate a certain mosquito can survive. In the future we may face outbreaks of diseases that are new to us. Another way of making predictions is to use the observations of how health effects relate to weather variations in one place, for example, temperature fluctuations. In this regard we already have information on the associations observed in Sweden with our current climate conditions. In some cases we can even build our analyses on changes in risk factors and health that have already been observed and linked to climate change, such as the spread of ticks in Northern Sweden and the already longer pollen season

  4. Balans mellan arbete och familjeliv : Ett vinnande koncept för alla

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Viktor; Ajena, David

    2012-01-01

    Under de senaste årtionden har en stor förändring skett hos familjers olika sätt att förhålla sig till arbetslivet. Den traditionella arbetsdagen på 8-timmar är inte längre normen, och den framväxande informations- och kommunikations teknologin gör att en anställd kan få tillgång till allt arbete 24/7. En följd av dessa förändringar är att efterfrågan på familjerelaterande- och hushållsnäratjänster har ökat både för män och kvinnor. Rapporten har visat forskning och studier som påvisar att de...

  5. En retorisk analys av Fahrenheit 9/11 ur ett dokumentärhistoriskt perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Häll, Karin

    2006-01-01

    The history of rhetorics in documentary film is a long one. The French brothers Louise and Auguste Lumiére were among the first persons who produced a documentary and their work has had a big impression in the history of documentary during the 1900 century. John Grierson has been called “the father” of documentary film. He produced films in the English speaking part of the world and he is the founder of the concept “documentary film”. Propaganda filming has a big part in the history of docume...

  6. Fostran till frihet - Skolans demokratiska värdegrund ur ett habermasianskt perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Carleheden

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Education has never only been about teaching facts about the world. It has also always been about passing on values to pupils. This aspect of teaching is not fulfilled if pupils only learn the meaning of the favoured values. A teacher should also be able to make his or her pupils believe in those values and to act according to them. Thus, teaching is also a kind of political socialisation. The values taught change historically and this change is related to the political history of a society. The empirical point of departure of this article is the fact that it is currently possible to observe signs of such a value transformation. We are not anymore to become good national patriots, atomistic possessors of negative rights or loyal cogs in the welfare state machinery, but democratic citizens in a radical sense. This article takes Jürgen Habermas’ Faktizität und Geltung as its theoretical point of departure. With the help of Habermas, the above mentioned value transformation will be interpreted. The aim of the article is to use Habermas’ theory to give a general idea of the possibility and meaning of a normative education of democratic citizens.

  7. Avaliação eletromiográfica de músculos da cintura escapular e braço durante exercícios com carga axial e rotacional Evaluación electromiográfica de músculos de la cintura escapular y brazos durante ejercicios con cargas axial y rotacional Electromyographic assessment of the shoulder girdle and arm muscles during exercises with axial and rotational loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Siriani de Oliveira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da atividade eletromiográfica produzida durante a realização de exercícios para o ombro pode auxiliar na determinação de sua aplicabilidade clínica. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a influência da direção da carga e condição da extremidade na atividade elétrica de músculos da cintura escapular e membro superior durante a realização de exercícios com a extremidade distal fixa e carga externa axial (EFCA e extremidade livre com carga externa rotacional (ELCR. Foram selecionadas 20 voluntárias (23,2 anos ± 0,9 sedentárias. Foram avaliados os mm. tríceps do braço, bíceps do braço, peitoral maior, trapézio e deltóide. Foi realizado o registro eletromiográfico de superfície, durante a realização de dois exercícios com EFCA e dois com ELCR, utilizando 100% da resistência máxima previamente estabelecida. Os valores de RMS normalizados pela contração voluntária máxima foram comparados por meio de um modelo de efeitos mistos com nível de significância de 5%. Nessas condições experimentais, os resultados do presente estudo mostraram que exercícios semelhantes, classificados pela condição da extremidade e a direção da carga aplicada ao membro superior, promovem níveis semelhantes de atividade eletromiográfica em apenas parte dos músculos estudados. Esses achados questionam a capacidade do sistema de classificação utilizado neste estudo de predizer o tipo de resposta muscular esperada na realização de diferentes tarefas de mesma classificação.El conocimiento de la actividad electromiográfica producida durante los ejercicios para el hombro puede ayudar en la determinación de la pertinencia clínica. El objetivo de esta investigación era evaluar sus influencias de la dirección de la carga y condición de la extremidad en la actividad eléctrica de músculos de la cintura escapular y miembro superior durante ejercicios con la extremidad distal fija y carga externa axial (EFCA y

  8. Scapular and rotator cuff muscle activity during arm elevation: a review of normal function and alterations with shoulder impingement Atividade dos músculos escapulares e do manguito rotator durante a elevação do braço: uma revisão da função normal e das alterações na síndrome do impacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Phadke

    2009-02-01

    ção posterior e rotação externa na escápula. O trapézio superior produz elevação e retração da clavícula. O trapézio médio é principalmente um estabilizador medial da escápula. O trapézio inferior auxilia na estabilização medial e rotação para cima da escápula. O músculo peitoral menor está alinhado para resistir às rotações normais da escápula durante a elevação do braço. O manguito rotador é crucial para a estabilização e prevenção do excesso de translação superior da cabeça do úmero, assim como para a produção de rotação externa na glenoumeral durante a elevação do braço. Foram identificadas alterações na amplitude ou no tempo de ativação em diversas investigações que compararam sujeitos portadores de síndrome do impacto com controles saudáveis. As alterações incluem ativação reduzida do músculo serrátil anterior médio ou inferior e do manguito rotador, ativação retardada do trapézio médio e inferior, assim como maior ativação do trapézio superior e do deltóide médio em sujeitos com síndrome do impacto. Além disso, sujeitos com o músculo peitoral menor com curto comprimento de repouso apresentam padrões alterados de cinemática escapular semelhantes aos encontrados em pessoas com síndrome do impacto. CONCLUSÃO: Estas capacidades musculares funcionais normais e alterações nas populações de pacientes devem ser consideradas no planejamento de programas de exercícios para a reabilitação destes pacientes.

  9. Áreas de secção transversa do braço: implicações técnicas e aplicações para avaliação da composição corporal e da força dinâmica máxima Area de sección transversa del brazo: implicaciones técnicas y aplicaciones para avaliación de la composición corporal y de la fuerza dinámica máxima Arm cross-section areas: technical implications and applications for body composition and maximal dynamic strength evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A.M.S. Pompeu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As áreas do tecido muscular (A MB e do anel de gordura do braço (A GB, podem ser estimadas por medidas antropométricas. OBJETIVO: Investigar a validade e o erro intertestador da antropometria para inferência A MB e do A GB. Secundariamente, estudou-se a previsão da força dos membros superiores e tronco através da A MB. MÉTODOS: Foram voluntários para este estudo 40 adultos masculinos jovens (25 ± 6 anos; 72,6 ± 9,4kg, divididos aleatoriamente nos grupos de validade interna (VI, n = 30 e validade externa (VE, n = 10. Determinou-se para VI, através de conceitos geométricos, a área total do braço (A TB, A MB, A GB e área percentual de gordura do braço. O somatório de oito dobras cutâneas (S DC8 foi empregado como índice da adiposidade corporal. A força dos membros superiores e do tronco foi medida através da carga máxima alcançada no exercício supino reto livre (1-RM. As medidas antropométricas foram realizadas por dois avaliadores independentes. Os dados foram tratados por meio da análise de regressão, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (ICC e teste t de Student pareado (a Las áreas del tejido muscular (A MB y del de grosor del brazo (A GB, pueden ser estimadas por medidas antropométricas. OBJETIVO: Investigar la validación de el error inter-testeo de la antropometría para inferencia del A MB y del A GB. Secundariamente, se estudió la previsión de la fuerza de los miembros superiores y del tronco a través de la A MB. METODOS: Fueron voluntarios para este estudio 40 jóvenes masculinos (25 ± 6 años; 72,6 ± 9,4 kg, divididos aleatoriamente en los grupos de validación interna (VI, n = 30 y de validación externa (VE, n = 10. Se determinó para VI, a través de conceptos geométricos, el área total del brazo (A TB, A MB, A GB y el área porcentual de gordura de el brazo. La sumatoria de ocho pliegues cutáneos (S DC8 fue empleado como índice de la adiposidad corporal. La fuerza de los miembros superiores y

  10. Associação do índice tornozelo-braço com inflamação e alterações minerais ósseas em pacientes em hemodiálise Asociación del índice Tobillo-Brazo con la inflamación y trastornos minerales óseos en pacientes en hemodiálisis Association of ankle-arm index with inflammation and mineral bone disorder in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair B. Miguel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O índice tornozelo-braço (ITB reduzido, inflamação e distúrbio mineral ósseo (DMO estão associados com aumento no risco de morte e complicações cardiovasculares em pacientes em hemodiálise (HD, mas a relação entre esses fatores necessita ser elucidada. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre ITB anormal e DMO com inflamação em pacientes em HD. MÉTODOS: Esta análise transversal avaliou 478 pacientes em HD por pelo menos 1 ano. O ITB foi avaliado através de um Doppler portátil e manômetro de coluna de mercúrio. Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos, de acordo com o ITB (baixo: 1,3. As medidas de proteína C-reativa foram utilizadas como marcador inflamatório, enquanto a DMO foi avaliada através dos níveis de cálcio, fósforo e hormônio paratireoidiano intacto (iPTH. RESULTADOS: Os participantes tinham 54 (18 a 75 anos, 56% eram do sexo masculino, 17% eram diabéticos e estavam em HM por 5 (1 a 35 anos. A prevalência de ITB baixo, normal e alto AAI foi 26,8%, 64,6% e 8,6%, respectivamente. Usando um modelo de regressão logística condicional com procedimento backward, idade (p6 mg/L (p= 0,006 estavam associados com a presença de ITB baixo, enquanto o sexo masculino (pFUNDAMENTO: El índice tobillo-brazo (ITB reducido, la inflamación y el trastorno mineral óseo (TMO se asocian con mayor riesgo de muerte y complicaciones cardiovasculares en pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis (HD, pero la relación entre estos factores debe ser aclarada. Objetivos: Evaluar la asociación entre el ITB anormal la TMO con inflamación en paciente en HD. MÉTODOS: Este análisis transversal evaluó a 478 pacientes en HD durante al menos 1 año. El ITB se midió con un Doppler portátil y manómetro de columna de mercurio. Los pacientes fueron divididos en tres grupos, de acuerdo al ITB (bajo: 1,3. Las mediciones de proteína C-reactiva se utilizaron como marcador inflamatorio, mientras que la TMO se evaluó a través de los

  11. Svensk yttrandefrihet i ett EU-perspektiv : - Hur svenska medborgare kan komma att få ett svagare meddelarskydd och ensamansvar ioch med EG-rättens konflikt med svensk grundlag vid grundlagsregleringen 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Boode, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    AbstractTitle: Swedish freedom of speech compared to european freedom of speechNumber of pages: 57Author: Gabriella BoodeTutor: Göran SvenssonCourse: Media and Communication Studies CPeriod: Spring 2009University: Division of Media and Communication, Department of Information Science,Uppsala UniversityPurpose/Aim: The purpose with the dissertation is to see if there has been a limitation inSwedish freedom of speech since parts of the European union laws is superiour to theSwedish constitution...

  12. Index viktat efter omsättning : Presterar ett index viktat efter omsättning bättre än ett index viktat efter börsvärde?

    OpenAIRE

    Walljaeger, Christoffer; Uhrdin, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    Om den effektiva marknadshypotesen inte gäller skulle varje aktie handlas över eller under aktiens verkliga värde. Om så är fallet skulle alla index som är viktade efter börsvärde automatiskt överexponeras när en aktie handlas över dess verkliga värde och underexponera när en aktie handlas under dess verkliga värde. Det här betyder att kapitalviktade index är fundamentalt och strukturellt bristfälliga och kommer kontinuerligt övervikta alla aktier som handlas över verkligt värde och undervikt...

  13. Sjöfarten som ett socialt system:om handelssjöfart, risk och säkerhet

    OpenAIRE

    Mårtensson, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    In spite of intensive international work on safety regulations the world has repeatedly witnessed major shipping accidents. The work that has been and is being carried out, both in practical and research terms, to increase safety at sea has mainly been focused on technical improvements and an effort to minimize different types of human errors. This, however, does not appear to lead to a decrease in the number of accidents and incidents. Very few studies of the safety problems for shipping exi...

  14. Management of polluted waters from a repository at Forsmark; Omhaendertagande av foerorenade vattenfloeden fraan ett slutfoervar i Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridderstolpe, Peter; Straae, Daniel (WRS Uppsala AB, Uppsala (SE)). e-mail: info@wrs.se

    2007-05-15

    During both the construction and the deposition phase of the final repository, several kinds of polluted waters will occur that must be handled. The waters under consideration in this report are (1) sanitary wastewater, (2) drainage water from the repository, (3) leachate from the rock stockpile and (4) storm water. The aim of this report has been to produce an overview of the different flows of polluted waters and their properties, as well as to propose adequate strategies for their treatment. The report is part of SKB's environmental impact assessment work, but is also meant to be a usable tool in further planning. The sanitary wastewater clearly is the polluted water that possesses the greatest potential risk to human health and the environment. On the other hand it is fully treatable, which means that nuisance and negative environmental impact can be avoided. It is during the construction phase that the largest amounts of both water and pollutants are to be expected. Therefore, the prevailing conditions during construction phase are proposed to be used for dimensioning of technical solutions as well as for environmental impact assessments. The study of different techniques for treatment of sanitary wastewater has included a method called 'open wastewater planning'. The method helps its users to consider the local physical conditions and the prerequisites of the planned activities, as well as the legislative, practical and economical demands. The work comprises three different technical solutions that have been outlined on system level, all of which responds to the national environmental legislation as well as what has been considered as reasonable practical and economical demands. Before the final decision is made, it is recommended that the alternatives are evaluated from a broad perspective by SKB, taking into consideration the value of recycling and goodwill. Discharged leachate from the rock stockpile is expected to contain the greatest amount of nitrogen, at most 6 tonnes a year. Drainage water from the repository will also contain nitrogen and will in addition be slightly saline, but still rather clean. The local physical conditions for construction of outdoor, biological treatment steps for treatment of drainage water and leachate have been found to be good. A total nitrogen reduction of 50 percent in leachate and drainage water is considered reasonable from an environmental, practical and economical point of view. The proposed steps taken, the discharge to the recipient 'kylvattenkanalen' (the cooling water intake channel) is estimated to be restricted to a maximum of three tonnes of nitrogen a year. There is no expected impact on the cooling water quality of relevance to the operation of the nuclear power plant. The possibilities for local storm water control are considered to be good. As long as a thorough planning is carried out, the risks for floods and negative local environmental impact resulting from unwanted substances in storm water will be minimized. It is also the authors' opinion that the proposed ways of resolving the problem locally will save money, considering both the investment and the maintenance costs. The authors' conclusive assessment of the environmental impact of the different polluted waters is that it will be small as long as the suggested measures are taken. Locally, there will be an impact on the small forest lake 'Tjaernpussen'. The water of the lake will be slightly saline, and in the case of a combined tertiary treatment of wastewater with treatment of leachate and drainage water, or a new local treatment facility for wastewater, the nutrient levels of the lake water will increase. This will increase the growth of macrophytes, as well as micro algae. The water will get a greenish colour and decreased clarity, but there is no risk for oxygen depletion or bad smell. Costs for treatment of the polluted waters have been estimated and found reasonable. Investments for treatment of sanitary water will not exceed 2.5 million SEK. Operation and maintenance costs included, the annual cost will approximately reach a 200,000 SEK a year. Costs for treatment of drainage water and leachate are of the same magnitude. Expressed per kg reduced nitrogen, the treatment cost will be about 70 SEK per kg

  15. Management of polluted waters from a repository at Oskarshamn; Omhaendertagande av foerorenade vattenfloeden fraan ett slutfoervar i Oskarshamn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridderstolpe, Peter; Straae, Daniel (WRS Uppsala AB, Uppsala (SE)). e-mail: info@wrs.se

    2007-05-15

    During both the construction and the deposition phase of the final repository, several kinds of polluted waters will occur that must be handled. The waters under consideration in this report are (1) sanitary wastewater, (2) drainage water from the repository, (3) leachate from the rock stockpile and (4) storm water. The aim of this report has been to produce an overview of the different flows of polluted waters and their properties, as well as to propose adequate strategies for their treatment. Several different alternatives of action have been investigated and compared in terms of environmental impact, economy and technical aspects. The report is part of SKB's environmental impact assessment work, but is also meant to be a usable tool in further planning. It is during the construction phase that the largest amounts of both water and pollutants are to be expected. Therefore, the conditions during the construction phase are proposed to be used for dimensioning of technical solutions as well as for environmental impact assessments. The study of different techniques for treatment of sanitary wastewater has included a method called ''open wastewater planning''. The work comprises six different technical solutions that have been outlined on system level, all of which responds to the national environmental legislation, as well as what has been considered as reasonable practical and economical demands. A urine diverting system combined with a local system for treatment of wastewater has been found to be the most interesting solution. The least attractive alternative in relation to the claimed demands is a traditional system for mixed wastewater connected to the existing wastewater treatment plant at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. This is mostly due to the high estimated cost for the connection pipe. Discharged leachate from the rock stockpile is expected to contain the greatest amount of nitrogen, at most 6 tonnes a year. Drainage water from the repository will also contain nitrogen and will in addition be slightly saline, but still rather clean. The local physical conditions for construction of outdoor, biological treatment steps as overland flow areas and wetlands for treatment of drainage water and leachate have been found to be good. A total nitrogen reduction of 50 percent in leachate and drainage water is considered reasonable from an environmental, practical and economical point of view. The proposed steps taken, the discharge to the recipient Ekerumsviken (the Baltic Sea) is estimated to be restricted to a maximum of three tonnes of nitrogen a year. The possibilities for local storm water control are considered to be good. As long as a thorough planning is carried out, risks for floods and negative local environmental impact resulting from unwanted substances in storm water will be minimised. It is also the authors opinion that the proposed ways of resolving the problem locally will save money, considering both the investment and the maintenance costs. The authors conclusive assessment of the environmental impact from the different polluted waters is that it will be small as long as the suggested measures are taken. Locally, the creek Oxhagsdiket will change its character in terms of a higher and more even flow. Today the creek is periodically dry; in the future it will lead 20-30 litres/second all year around. The water will be slightly saline and spiked with nutrients, especially in the upper part. This change of character is not necessarily negative; with the proposed ponds and wetlands an interesting water body is expected in terms of biodiversity and aesthetics. There will be no health risks for humans or animals. During summer time, the salinity in the lower part of Laxemaraan may equal that of Ekerumsviken. Situations like these are assessed not to have any negative impact on the water body, neither in the wetland upstream nor downstream of road 743. The annual content of phosphorous in the discharged treated sanitary wastewater has been estimated to a maximum of 25 kg a year. The treated wastewater will be diluted directly after discharge with the drainage water also discharged into Oxhagsdiket. The remaining phosphorous will stimulate biotic growth, but can not lead to algal bloom or other adverse situations in the recipients. Where the tributary Oxhagsdiket meets the stream Laxemaraan, the concentrations of phosphorous will be equal or lower than the ones of the stream water. Considering sampling results from the recipient control program, the primary production in Ekerumsviken is not restricted by nitrogen. Therefore, the discharged amount of nitrogen resulting from the activities of the final repository will not lead to increased algal production. Furthermore, the retention time in the bay is short and the concentration of ammonium is low, which means that the level of dissolved oxygen won't be reduced. Investments for treatment of sanitary wastewater will not exceed 4 million SEK.

  16. Du kan, men du gör inget. : En studie av utvecklingssamtal på ett gymnasium.

    OpenAIRE

    Måhl, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Mitt syfte med denna uppsats är att studera tre elevvårdskonferenser för att först se om deras innehåll överensstämmer med vad Cilla Lindblom Larsson skriver om utvecklings-samtal på grundskolan, att de handlar om pojkarnas skolbeteende och de råd och anvis-ningar pojkarna får där är moraliserande och tillrättavisande, och sedan undersöka hur samtalsstrukturen ser ut i dessa konferenser. I arbetets första del undersöker jag vad dessa elevvårdskonferenser handlar om och kommer fram till att de...

  17. Erfarenhetsåterföring : Diskussionsforum ett nytt verktyg för erfarenhetsåterföringen

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchnak, Micke Amir

    2009-01-01

      Abstract This is a bachelor’s thesis within the program society development on the collage Mälardalens högskola. The subject that will be handled is knowledge recycling, this intervenes very well with the program I am undergoing, and this is because Construction Company’s does in general do the same mistakes over and over again. In the long run this will mean higher end prices for the end user. Knowledge recycle is a subject that haven’t been researched a lot, and therefore the choice of th...

  18. Konflikter, ogräs eller frön? : Arbetsplatskonflikter utifrån ett ledarskapsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Aarvaag, Evalinda; Lindroth, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Det gemensamma intresset för konflikter grundade idén att studera väl ansedda ledares perspektiv på arbetsplatskonflikter och hur dessa ledare löser konflikter konstruktivt. I grunden finns en undran om väl ansedda ledare har förmågor som gör att de löser konflikter mer konstruktivt. Konflikter utgör en stor del av en ledares arbetstid. Konflikter kan förmodligen inte undvikas men hur konflikter hanteras är avgörande för att en organisation och dess anställda skall mogna och utvecklas. Det ha...

  19. Responsibility for safe management of spent nuclear fuel - a legal perspective; Ansvarstagande i kaernbraenslecykelns slutsteg - ett raettsligt perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Per; Stendahl, Sara; Erhag, Thomas (Dept. of Law, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-10-15

    This study analyzes, based on Section 10 of the Swedish Nuclear Activities Act, the legal structures surrounding the issue of responsibility for safe management and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose is to shed light on the legal aspects that must be considered in the future licensing process and thereby contribute to a better understanding of the importance of the legal structures for the decisions about final disposal that lie ahead of us. The overall question is thus future-oriented: What interpretation is it reasonable to assume will be given to the requirements of the Nuclear Activities Act on 'safe management and final disposal' of the spent nuclear fuel in the coming licensing process? The approach we take to this question is in part traditionally jurisprudential and based on a study of the travaux preparatoires (drafting history) of the Act and other legal sources. In addition, a study of legal practice is included where previous licensing processes are studied. One conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that the Swedish regulation of nuclear activities creates a legal basis for exacting far-reaching industrial responsibility from the reactor owners, but also for an extensive and interventionist state influence over the activities. Of central importance in the model for division of responsibility that was established via the Nuclear Activities Act in 1984 is the RDandD programme (Research, Development and Demonstration). The RDandD programme reflects the political will that the requirement of 'safe management' should be met through research. The statutory forms for how the programme is to be organized reflect an ambition to place great responsibility for execution and financing on the industry, but also, and not least, an ambition to retain instruments of control and influence in the hands of the state. It is difficult to judge whether the hopes of the 1980s regarding the influence of the public over this process have been fulfilled. However, this regulatory framework gives the Government great leeway in imposing requirements on the industry with regard to different alternatives for managing the spent nuclear fuel. Based on the general formulation of the regulations, the answer to the question regarding the interpretation of the requirements in Section 10 of the Nuclear Activities Act is that this interpretation is in the hands of the political majority at the time of the licensing process. In other words, the question of what is safe according to the Nuclear Activities Act is a political one, and the legal interpretation is ultimately made by the Government and not by a court. If at the time of the decision there is a political majority that opposes granting a licence, legal argumentation may be offered, but hardly otherwise. This is a conclusion that is confirmed by the review of previous licensing decisions. Responsibility for management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is regulated in Sweden by several different laws and regulatory complexes, which means that the regulatory frameworks overlap each other. It has been noted that a permit and licence for a final repository have to be applied for under both the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code. This study describes in general terms the parallel regulation of environmental, nuclear safety and radiation protection matters on the national and European levels. Examples are given of regulatory responsibility for waste management and for provision of information in connection with licence applications for final disposal within the framework of Euratom and the EU Treaty. Finally, the consequences of this type of parallel regulation for the Swedish licensing process are discussed. The study shows that due to parallel regulation at a national level, there are certain risks of overlap and contradiction, not least as regards conditions governing environmental responsibility as well as nuclear safety and radiation protection. Perhaps the greatest challenge for the development of civilian nuclear energy production is the need to create a regulatory framework that effectively prevents civilian nuclear activities from contributing to an increased proliferation of nuclear weapons. The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze how responsibility for upholding international commitments regarding non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is concretized in connection with the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. In the concluding chapter of the report, we present the investigation's overall conclusions regarding the regulation of responsibility in for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

  20. Tantsupäev toob publiku ette säravaid balletitähti / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    29. apr. esinevad Vanemuises rahvusvaheliselt tuntud tantsijad - Tamara Rojo, Jan-Erik Wikström, Inaki Urlezaga, Anna Valev, Olga Volobujeva, Priit Kripson, Diana Cuni ja Kristoffer Sakurai -, et tähistada rahvusvahelist tantsupäeva

  1. Ett vackert hem börjar med golvet” : Linoleummattan i Sverige under tidigt 1900- tal

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Frida

    2013-01-01

    Denna uppsats handlar hur samhällsströmningar i samhället under tidigt 1900-tal påverkade användningen av linoleum i hemmen och i arkitekturen i Sverige. Även utseendet på linoleummattor och tillverkningssätt undersöks. Undersökningen omfattar också den svenska linoleumtillverkaren Forshaga linoleum och andra typer av golvmattor som har tillverkats av dem.
 
 Linoleum uppfanns av Fredrick Walton på 1860-talet och hade sin storhetstid under de kommande 100 åren. Linoleum är tillv...

  2. Om rättssäkerheten i instans- och processordningen : ur ett svenskt asylrättsligt perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslén, Kristofer

    2007-01-01

    Den 1 Mars 2006 ersattes den gamla UtlL (1989:529) av en ny UtlL (2005:716) med stora förändringar i instans- och processordningen. De grundläggande kraven på denna var att öppenheten i asylprocessen skulle öka, att de sökande skulle ges ökade möjligheter till muntlig förhandling vid överklagande av asyl- och medborgarskapsärenden, att processen skulle bestå av en tvåpartsprocess och att instans- och processordningen skulle utformas så att kraven på skyndsam handläggning uppfylldes. I denna u...

  3. Vem gynnas av föräldraskap? : Ett vinjettexperiment vid Linköpings universitet

    OpenAIRE

    Fahlström, Zara; Askestad, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Tidigare forskning indikerar att föräldraskap är av betydelse för en individs karriärsutveckling. Stöd finns för löneskillnader, i både Sverige och USA, mellan personer som har barn och personer som inte har barn. Mammor har en lägre löneutveckling än kvinnor utan barn, medan det inte är tydligt om pappor får en bättre eller sämre karriärutveckling än män utan barn. Forskning indikerar att det orsakas av individers attityd, uppfattning och beteende gentemot individer med fa...

  4. Process and sensor diagnostic: Data reconciliation for a flue gas channel; Process- och sensordiagnostik: Dataaaterfoerening foer ett roekgastaag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Christer; Dahlquist, Erik [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden). Dept. of Public Technology

    2003-10-01

    The project has shown that model-based data reconciliation can be used in heat and power plants, but it needs support of soft sensors. Generally power plants are not equipped with more sensors than required by control systems, environment and financial reports. Soft sensors are needed to compensate for lack of redundancy in mass-flow sensors. Redundancy makes it possible to isolate gross errors. The smallest error needed to be determined sets the requirement on the process model accuracy. Tools available today from this project are; classification of different process sections with redundancy analysis and gross error detection. Quantification of the errors with the mass balance model has not been successful and this part needs further development. Theoretical comparison of the three different methods presented resulted in favour of data reconciliation based on a mass balance model. The mass balance model has a structure based on physical reality. The searches for gross errors are transparent to the user. It can handle sensor failure. The statistical linear model is preferred for smaller process sections when transparency is not needed and focus is on fast, simple and cheap implementation. Data reconciliation based on steady-state energy balance has the same origin as the mass balance model. Data reconciliation based on energy balance is harder to compute and its sensors difficult to classify. The drawback is complexity, but the strength is that the large number of temperature sensors can be used in the data reconciliation. Large gross errors are detected and quantified for most process mass flows with acceptable accuracy. Performances for small errors are not as good. Performance of the data reconciliation is strongly dependent on precision in the process models. This conclusion is drawn from comparison with other studies that show good performance for laboratory simulations. There are still many parts to develop further as: Soft sensors, tests for identification of gross errors, computation of covariance matrix, quantification of gross errors.

  5. Behovsstudie för implementering av ett informationshanteringssystem i el-utvecklingen på Volvo Car Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Malvius, Diana

    2007-01-01

    VSEM project and the need for a more efficient way of handling requirements and information are highly apparent. The overall objective of this thesis is divided into two parts: 1. To identify criteria/factors leading to a successful introduction of an information management system. 2. To develop an implementation process for a requirement management system – the first step towards a PLM system in EE development at VCC. This will be done through interviews with employees, a literature review a...

  6. Transport energy supply. An outlook with a European perspective; Transportsektorns energifoersoerjning. En utblick med ett europeiskt perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt; Jonsson, Daniel K.

    2009-03-15

    Climate change, energy security and competitiveness are prime priorities within EU energy policy. Energy supply is today dominated by fossil fuels and renewable energy only contributes with a limited amount. This situation is even more accentuated within the transport sector. In the climate and energy package, decided in December 2008, there are several parts that will affect transport energy supply. Existing business-as-usual scenarios indicate an increased energy use within the EU transport sector during the next decades. The fraction of transportation energy used for aviation is expected to increase. In the scenarios, biofuels are expected to increase to 7-10% of total energy demand within the transportation sector. In policy scenarios, assuming actions to reduce emissions and increase the use of renewable energy this fraction will increase to 10-20% of total transportation fuel use. Petroleum products will in most of the studied scenarios continue to dominate transport energy supply until 2030. Alternative transportation fuels will not dominate transport fuel before 2050. Four development paths for transport energy supply are discussed in this report (fossil fuels, biofuels, hydrogen and electricity). Similarities exist especially between systems based on liquid fossil fuels and systems based on biofuels, and between systems based on hydrogen and electricity. Biofuels and fossil can utilise existing vehicle technologies and systems for fuel distribution. The use of fossil fuels is restricted due to its impact on climate change whereas there are limitations in the natural resources available for biofuel production. Hydrogen and electricity could be produced from a variety of energy resources and used with low or even negative CO{sub 2} emissions seen over the total life-cycle. Heavy and costly storage of the fuels is, however, a negative aspect for these fuels compared to liquid fossil fuels and biofuels. Even though the hydrogen and electricity systems have many similarities there is a significant difference in the fact that there already exists a well-developed distribution system for electricity. Energy demand reductions are central for obtaining a robust and environmentally acceptable energy supply for the transport sector. There still exist large potentials for reducing the specific energy consumption (MJ/km) of motor vehicles with technical measures. The scenarios studied in this report show that the transition to new transport fuel systems will take a long time. A fundamental decision problem for this transition will be the major uncertainties regarding future technology development. These uncertainties and the long time perspectives involved will require much from the decision makers as they will have to decide on long-term investments while preserving enough flexibility to handle the existing uncertainties around different energy supply solutions

  7. Meelis Lao astub kohtu ette McDonald's Eesti ründamise eest / Martin Hanson, Peeter Raidla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Martin, 1984-

    2005-01-01

    Prokuratuur süüdistab Meelis Laod McDonald'si omavolilises sulgemises rendivaidluse tõttu. Skeem: Meelis Laoga seotud firmad. Vt. samas: Omakohus kohut ei mõjutanud; Mõis: Lao tegutseb efektiivselt

  8. Muusikamaailm : Hooaja algus Kuninglikus Ooperis. Gian Carlo Menotti Helsingis. Messiaeni ooper heliplaadil. Salzburgi festivali ette Ruzicka / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Londoni Royal Opera House avati 1. dets. galaõhtuga pärast 2 aastat kestnud ümberehitusi. Seoses oma ooperi "Konsul" uuslavastusega Soome Rahvusooperis viibis Helsingis C. G. Menotti. O. Messiaeni ainus ooper "Püha Franciscus Assisist" jõudis heliplaadile. Salzburgi festivali kunstiliseks juhiks aastast 2001 valiti P. Ruzicka

  9. Foreign materials in a deep repository for spent nuclear fuels; Fraemmande material i ett djupfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Christiansson, Aa.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The effects of foreign substances introduced into a spent-fuel repository are reviewed. Possible impacts on processes and barrier-functions are examined, and the following areas are identified: Corrosion of the spent-fuel canister through the presence of sulfur and substances that favor microbial growth; impacts on the bentonite properties through the presence of cations as calcium, potassium and iron; radionuclide transport through the presence of complex-formers and surface-active substances.

  10. One goal, several means? - Combinations of policy instruments in climate policy; Ett maal flera medel? - Styrmedelskombinationer i klimatpolitiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederholm, Patrik

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this report is, based on previous theoretical and empirical research, to analyze the conditions under which a combination of policy instruments can improve the effectiveness of climate policy and which the most important general lessons are, for the design of various policy instruments and combinations thereof. The focus of the report is based primarily on the achievement of long-term climate goals, especially an adaptation to radically lower emissions levels by 2050. This entails that we pay special attention to how policies can be designed to promote technological development on climate change, and how the relationship between an effective, legitimate and politically viable climate policy can be designed (including the need for so-called second-best solutions). The analysis assumes that the instruments are introduced to promote economic efficiency. An economically efficient climate policy means: A policy that ensures that a given reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases can be done at the lowest possible economic cost (known as cost-effectiveness) and that the reduction is driven to the point where the cost of further reduction is as high as the value of the marginal damage. A central task of an effective policy is to identify situations which means that economically efficient measures will not be implemented spontaneously by the market players. In a market economy the outcomes is determined of the millions of decisions by individual actors (households and companies) do in everyday life, and the central question is therefore whether these actors face incentives to ensure efficient choices. If not, it may be the result of a so-called market failure and the role of politics will be to correct for this failure. The analysis is based on a number of important limitations. The report consists of a literature synthesis. We don't make any assessment of the empirical importance of different motifs that may be the basis for the introduction of different combinations of policy instruments. We don't discuss explicitly Swedish conditions and the report should not be read as a review of the existing climate policy in Sweden. Another important distinction is that the focus of the analysis is on the need for policy instruments combinations, to achieve long-term climate goals. We don't analyze the question of how individual policy instruments can contribute to the achievement of other political objectives (eg security of supply of energy supplies). We argue that the establishment of a price on carbondioxide should be the 'engine' in a climate policy. That policy instrument addresses directly the market failure which is linked to greenhouse gases. It is such a price that basically generates carbondioxide-reducing measures of various kinds, and make it more profitable to invest in research and development (RandD) as well as in infrastructure aimed at developing new or improved climate-saving technology. The report discusses briefly the choice between carbon dioxide tax and emissions trading, and the conditions under which one instrument is more effective than the other. In a situation where there is uncertainty about the future (marginal) cost for reduction, the efficient choice between a tax on emissions or an emissions trading system, will depend on how the damage caused by emissions vary with changes in emissions levels. The harm caused by climate change is not due to the flow of emissions but on the cumulative amount of emissions over a long period. Under those circumstances, a tax may be preferable to a trading system

  11. Examensarbete ”Nuodå” Ett samarbete med AB O.H. Sjögrens

    OpenAIRE

    Leósdóttir Löfgren, Kolbrún

    2005-01-01

    The ambition of this project is to make an overview of the Swedish upholstery industry and to make a suitable complement to the Carl Malmsten upholstery collection. The Swedish furniture industry employs about 20 000 people in 815 companies. Totally the branch had a turnover of 17,5 billion Swedish krona in the year 2000. Of these 815 companies most of them are small family driven companies with low-tech industry. 10 % of the 815 companies stand for 60% of the production. These are large-scal...

  12. Konceptutveckling av ett nytt utomhusgym med träningsredskap för offentlig utemiljö

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Madeleine; Hammargren, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    I dagsläget är en stillasittande livsstil med inget eller endast litet inslag av fysisk aktivitet vanligt förekommande. Med sin slogan – Inspiring all generations – vill HAGS Aneby AB bjuda in alla generationer till fysisk aktivitet genom sina produkter inom lek, sport och fitness. Genom att styrka idén om utomhusgym kan den fysiska aktiviteten ökas – användare ska vilja använda utomhusgym och kunder ska vilja köpa in utomhusgym. Önskemålet är att skapa attraktiva platser som stödjer fysisk a...

  13. Kreml võttis ette järjekordse lääne energiakompanii / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2008-01-01

    Venemaal vahistati Briti kodanikud Ilja ja Aleksandr Zaslavski, FSB väitel kogusid nad ebaseaduslikult infot välismaiste nafta- ja gaasikompaniide jaoks. Korraldati läbiotsimine ettevõtetes BP ja TNK-BP, kus FSB väitel leiti spionaazhile viitavaid asitõendeid. Vaatlejate arvamusi

  14. En socialpsykologisk analys av samkönat partnervåld ur ett makt- och normativitetsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Thérèse

    2009-01-01

    Uppsatsens syfte var att nå en större teoretisk förståelse av samkönat partnervåld, genom att analysera olika forskningsartiklars narrativa konstruktioner av våldet. De två frågeställningarna var: 1. Hur diskuterar forskningslitteraturen samkönat partnervåld med fokus på temana relationsdynamik, karaktär hos parterna, kön, genus och sexualitet samt betydelsen av social kontext? 2. Hur diskuterar forskningslitteraturen det professionella bemötandet av samkönat partnervåld? De 21 valda primärdo...

  15. Mot en ämnesintegrativ helhetssyn – ett digitalt utvecklingsprojekt i finländsk lärarutbildning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårten Björkgren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The school teaching in Finland is traditionally divided into different subject lessons. Although several curricula for decades have stressed the importance of integrating subjects to each other, the didactical development of subject integrated teaching has been quite week. The authors of this article are all involved in the training of subject teachers for the Swedish schools in Finland. The article stresses the importance of integrating subject content knowledge into value education. With the theoretical discussion as a starting point, the authors describe their subject integrated project for student teachers in history, social science, religion, philosophy and literature. During the working process it was obvious that the student teachers used their own subject content knowledge, but as they worked in mixed subject groups, they also realized how to co-operate and ask questions to persons with other kinds of subject content knowledge and perspectives. It was challenging for the student teachers to combine new subject integrated perspectives with new digital methods, but considering the ambitions of the curricula, these kinds of integrated processes seems to be important in teacher training

  16. Spel som ett berättande medium : Att kartlägga narrativets utveckling inom Tv-spel

    OpenAIRE

    Kedfors, Fredrik; Berg, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    This essay is about the use of narrative in video games, and the discussion surrounding it. For years ludologists (game researchers) and narratologists (narrativity researchers) have been arguing about how to analyze narrativity in games. While ludologists have chosen to see games as a product by itself, and therefore something to be analyzed separately, narratologists instead see games as a narrative medium alongside film, theater and books. This essay starts by taking a look at the argument...

  17. Ekspressiv skriving som egenterapeutisk verktøy ett år etter brystkreftdiagnosen - resultater fra en norsk pilotstudie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Haga Gripsrud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Expressive writing as a self-help tool one year after the breast cancer diagnosis – results from a Norwegian pilot study The article presents findings from a pilot study on expressive writing, a therapeutic method undescribed in a Norwegian scientific context. Objective: 1. Gain qualitative data on breast cancer women’s experiences with expressive writing. 2. Evaluate the intervention’s feasibility, based on participants’ experiences of the instruction, procedure, and circumstances for writing. Method & design: The study has an exploratory descriptive design. Data collection was achieved through in-depth interviews, followed by experiential thematic analysis of transcripts. Results: Two women enrolled, participating in writing/interviews. Analysis revealed three themes: "The experience of the writing process", "Writing as working through and work to clear the mind", "Strength and vulnerability in relation to others". Conclusion: Findings reveal that expressive writing was experienced as achievable for two breast cancer women, one year after diagnosis. Writing provided an opportunity to work through, and sort out, feelings and thoughts connected to participants’ lives and illness experiences. The instruction was evaluated as easy to understand and inspiring. The women became absorbed in electronic writing in their own homes. They both recommended expressive writing for other women with breast cancer, especially in the period after initial diagnosis.

  18. Wave Propagation in the Effective Model of Alternating Porous and Impermeable Solid Layers Propagation des ondes dans un modèle effectif constitué de couches solides alternativement poreuses et imperméables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molotkov L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Elastic properties of finely layered media are of great interest for seismic exploration. Theoretical models give a dependence of overall properties on constituent parameters. On the one hand they help geophysicists to estimate possible ranges of anisotropy and on the other hand they provide a basis for interpretation of measured anisotropic parameters in terms of microstructure. Last forty years such models with elastic constituents have been extensively used. Recently they have been updated for describing fractured rocks (Hsu and Schoenberg, 1993. In this case thin, and soft elastic layer models fracture. However reservoir rocks are porous and permeable. Porosity and permeability are taken into account by well-known Biot model. Finely layered porous sequences have some distinctive properties which are the topic of modern research (Schoenberg, 1996. Therefore it is important to update developed concepts to porous medium. Bakulin and Molotkov (1998, 1997 who generalized Backus averaging on poroelastic medium have done first step. Here we pay attention to one special case when there is only one preferential direction of fluid flow in porous rock. This may be caused by presence of impermeable barriers or lenses, which are modeled as set of solid layers intersecting porous medium. Such model corresponds to highly hydraulically anisotropic rock, which has very strong anisotropy of pore space structure and permeability. Les propriétés élastiques des milieux finement stratifiés présentent un grand intérêt pour l'exploration sismique. Les modèles théoriques donnent les propriétés générales en fonction des paramètres des constituants. D'une part, ils aident les géophysiciens à évaluer les gammes d'anisotropie possibles, et d'autre part, ils offrent une base pour l'interprétation des paramètres d'anisotropie mesurés en termes de microstructure. De tels modèles, élastiques, ont été largement utilisés ces quarante dernières années. Ils ont été récemment remis à jour pour la description des roches fracturées (Hsu et Schoenberg, 1993. Dans ce cas, il s'agit de modèles stratifiés élastiques à fractures. Toutefois, les roches-réservoirs sont poreuses et perméables. La porosité et la perméabilité sont prises en compte dans le modèle bien connu de Biot. Les séquences poreuses finement stratifiées ont certaines propriétés distinctes qui font l'objet de recherches actuelles (Schoenberg, 1996. Il est donc devenu important de remettre à jour les concepts développés sur les milieux poreux. Bakulin et Molotkov (1998, 1997 ont effectué la première étape en généralisant aux milieux poroélastiques la technique d'homogénéisation de Backus. Nous nous concentrons ici sur un cas particulier où il n'y a qu'une direction préférentielle de l'écoulement du fluide dans les roches poreuses. Ceci peut être provoqué par la présence de barrières imperméables ou de formes lenticulaires, qui sont modélisées comme un ensemble de couches solides croisant des milieux poreux. Un tel modèle correspond à des roches fortement anisotropes vis-à-vis des propriétés hydrauliques, et présente une très forte anisotropie de structure de son espace poreux.

  19. Comparative evaluation of alternative technical equipment of residential buildings and analysis of its influence on building and operating costs. Vergleichende Betrachtung alternativer technischer Wohngebaeudeausstattungen und Analyse ihres Einflusses auf Gebaeude- und Betriebskosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    In this study energy conservation measures and operating experience in the housing sector are discussed. Five areas are investigated: 1. Water (water-saving fittings and flushings, cold water meters, rain water systems), 2. sewage (grey water plants, compost toilets, plant sewage treatment works), 3. electric power (block heat and power plants, photovoltaic stations, wind turbines, battery storage, energy-saving lamps), 4. heating/hot water (heat pumps, solar collectors, thermal insulation, condensing boilers, stoves, heating systems), 5. ventilation (ventilation control, dust extraction systems). (HW).

  20. Who should foot the bill? A discussion of alternative organizational models to finance dismantling and radioactive waste disposal; Wer soll die Zeche zahlen? Diskussion alternativer Organisationsmodelle zur Finanzierung von Rueckbau und Endlagerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaensch, Elisabeth; Hirschhausen, Christian von; Moeckel, Christian [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Infrastrukturpolitik; Brunnengraeber, Achim [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik (FFU)

    2017-09-01

    Based on the costs-by-cause principle everybody has to be responsible for the environmental damage produced. Accordingly the electricity supply companies should have to pay for the dismantling of nuclear power plants and the radioactive waste disposal. The implementation of a fond under public law seems to be an adequate solution. Critical arguments concerning the costs-by-cause principle shows that instead of a constrained enforcement of this principle a solution in the sense of the society as a whole should be in the focus.

  1. SU-D-BRA-06: Duodenal Interfraction Motion with Abdominal Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witztum, A; Holyoake, D; Warren, S; Partridge, M; Hawkins, M [CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of abdominal compression on duodenal motion during pancreatic radiotherapy. Methods: Seven patients treated for pancreatic cancer were selected for analysis. Four patients were treated with abdominal compression and three without. The duodenum was contoured by the same physician on each CBCT (five CBCTs for patients with compression, four for non-compression patients). CBCTs were rigidly registered using a soft tissue match and contours were copied to the delivered plans which were all radical (BED > 50 Gy). The distance between the duodenum on the planning CT and each CBCT was quantified by calculating the root mean square (RMS) distance. The DVHs of each abdominal compression patient was converted to an EQD2 DVH (alpha/beta = 10) using an in-house tool and volumes receiving at least 25, 35, 45, and 50 Gy were recorded. Results: The maximum variation in duodenal volumes on the CBCTs for the four abdominal compression patients were 19.1 cm{sup 3} (32.8%), 19.1 cm{sup 3} (20.6%), 19.9 cm{sup 3} (14.3%), and 12.9 cm{sup 3} (27.3%) compared to 15.2 cm{sup 3} (17.6%), 34.7 cm{sup 3} (83.4%), and 56 cm{sup 3} (60.2%) for non-compression patients. The average RMS distance between the duodenum on the planning CT and each CBCT for all abdominal compression patients was 0.3 cm compared to 0.7 cm for non-compressed patients. The largest (and average) difference between the planning CT and CBCTs in volume of duodenum receiving more than 25, 35, 45 and 50 Gy for abdominal compression patients was 11% (5%), 9% (3%), 9% (2%), and 6% (1%). Conclusion: Abdominal compression reduces variation in volume and absolute position of the duodenum throughout treatment. This is seen as an improvement but does not eliminate the need to consider dosimetric effects of motion. Abdominal compression is particularly useful in SBRT when only a few fractions are delivered. Alon Witztum is supported by an MRC/Gray Institute DPhil Studentship. Daniel Holyoake is supported by a CRUK/Nuffield Clinical Research Fellowship. Sam Warren and Mike Partridge are supported by CRUK grant C5255/A15935. Maria Hawkins received an MRC Fellowship MC-PC-12001/2.

  2. WE-G-BRA-04: Common Errors and Deficiencies in Radiation Oncology Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dosimetric errors in radiotherapy dose delivery lead to suboptimal treatments and outcomes. This work reviews the frequency and severity of dosimetric and programmatic errors identified by on-site audits performed by the IROC Houston QA center. Methods: IROC Houston on-site audits evaluate absolute beam calibration, relative dosimetry data compared to the treatment planning system data, and processes such as machine QA. Audits conducted from 2000-present were abstracted for recommendations, including type of recommendation and magnitude of error when applicable. Dosimetric recommendations corresponded to absolute dose errors >3% and relative dosimetry errors >2%. On-site audits of 1020 accelerators at 409 institutions were reviewed. Results: A total of 1280 recommendations were made (average 3.1/institution). The most common recommendation was for inadequate QA procedures per TG-40 and/or TG-142 (82% of institutions) with the most commonly noted deficiency being x-ray and electron off-axis constancy versus gantry angle. Dosimetrically, the most common errors in relative dosimetry were in small-field output factors (59% of institutions), wedge factors (33% of institutions), off-axis factors (21% of institutions), and photon PDD (18% of institutions). Errors in calibration were also problematic: 20% of institutions had an error in electron beam calibration, 8% had an error in photon beam calibration, and 7% had an error in brachytherapy source calibration. Almost all types of data reviewed included errors up to 7% although 20 institutions had errors in excess of 10%, and 5 had errors in excess of 20%. The frequency of electron calibration errors decreased significantly with time, but all other errors show non-significant changes. Conclusion: There are many common and often serious errors made during the establishment and maintenance of a radiotherapy program that can be identified through independent peer review. Physicists should be cautious, particularly in areas highlighted herein that show a tendency for errors.

  3. MO-DE-BRA-06: 3D Image Acquisition and Reconstruction Explained with Online Animations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Understanding the principles of 3D imaging and image reconstruction is fundamental to the field of medical imaging. Clinicians, technologists, physicists, patients, students, and inquisitive minds all stand to benefit from greater comprehension of the supporting technologies. To help explain the basic principles of 3D imaging, we developed multi-frame animations that convey the concepts of tomographic imaging. The series of free (gif) animations are accessible online, and provide a multimedia introduction to the main concepts of image reconstruction. Methods: Text and animations were created to convey the principles of analytic tomography in CT, PET, and SPECT. Specific topics covered included: principles of sinograms/image data storage, forward projection, principles of PET acquisitions, and filtered backprojection. A total of 8 animations were created and presented for CT, PET, and digital phantom formats. In addition, a free executable is also provided to allow users to create their own tomographic animations – providing an opportunity for interaction and personalization to help foster user interest. Results: Tutorial text and animations have been posted online, freely available to view or download. The animations are in first position in a google search of “image reconstruction animations”. The website currently receives approximately 200 hits/month, from all over the world, and the usage is growing. Positive feedback has been collected from users. Conclusion: We identified a need for improved teaching tools to help visualize the (temporally variant) concepts of image reconstruction, and have shown that animations can be a useful tool for this aspect of education. Furthermore, posting animations freely on the web has shown to be a good way to maximize their impact in the community. In future endeavors, we hope to expand this animated content, to cover principles of iterative reconstruction, as well as other phenomena relating to imaging.

  4. SU-D-BRA-05: Toward Understanding the Robustness of Radiomics Features in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackin, D; Zhang, L; Yang, J; Jones, A; Court, L [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Fave, X; Fried, D [UTH-GSBS, Houston, TX (United States); Taylor, B [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Rodriguez-Rivera, E [Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Dodge, C [Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To gauge the impact of inter-scanner variability on radiomics features in computed tomography (CT). Methods: We compared the radiomics features calculated for 17 scans of the specially designed Credence Cartridge Radiomics (CCR) phantom with those calculated for 20 scans of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. The scans were acquired at four medical centers using General Electric, Philips, Siemens, and Toshiba CT scanners. Each center used its own routine thoracic imaging protocol. To produce a large dynamic range of radiomics feature values, the CCR phantom has 10 cartridges comprising different materials. The features studied were derived from the neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix or image intensity histogram. To quantify the significance of the inter-scanner variability, we introduced the metric “feature noise”, which compares the ratio of inter-scanner variability and inter-patient variability in decibels, positive values indicating substantial noise. We performed hierarchical clustering based to look for dependence of the features on the scan acquisition parameters. Results: For 5 of the 10 features studied, the inter-scanner variability was larger than the inter-patient variability. Of the 10 materials in the phantom, shredded rubber seemed to produce feature values most similar to those of the NSCLC tumors. The feature busyness had the greatest feature noise (14.3 dB), whereas texture strength had the least (−14.6 dB). Hierarchical clustering indicated that the features depended in part on the scanner manufacturer, image slice thickness, and pixel size. Conclusion: The variability in the values of radiomics features calculated for CT images of a radiomics phantom can be substantial relative to the variability in the values of these features calculated for CT images of NSCLC tumors. These inter-scanner differences and their effects should be carefully considered in future radiomics studies.

  5. MO-FG-BRA-03: A Novel Method for Characterizing Gating Response Time in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, R; McCabe, B; Belcher, A; Jenson, P [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Smith, B [University Illinois at Chicago, Orland Park, IL (United States); Aydogan, B [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); University Illinois at Chicago, Orland Park, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Low temporal latency between a gating ON/OFF signal and the LINAC beam ON/OFF during respiratory gating is critical for patient safety. Current film based methods to assess gating response have poor temporal resolution and are highly qualitative. We describe a novel method to precisely measure gating lag times at high temporal resolutions and use it to characterize the temporal response of several gating systems. Methods: A respiratory gating simulator with an oscillating platform was modified to include a linear potentiometer for position measurement. A photon diode was placed at linear accelerator isocenter for beam output measurement. The output signals of the potentiometer and diode were recorded simultaneously at 2500 Hz (0.4 millisecond (ms) sampling interval) with an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). The techniques was used on three commercial respiratory gating systems. The ON and OFF of the beam signal were located and compared to the expected gating window for both phase and position based gating and the temporal lag times extracted using a polynomial fit method. Results: A Varian RPM system with a monoscopic IR camera was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 98.2 ms and 89.6 ms, respectively. A Varian RPM system with a stereoscopic IR camera was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 86.0 ms and 44.0 ms, respectively. A Calypso magnetic fiducial tracking system was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 209.0 ms and 60.0 ms, respectively. Conclusions: A novel method allowed for quantitative determination of gating timing accuracy for several clinically used gating systems. All gating systems met the 100 ms TG-142 criteria for mean beam OFF times. For beam ON response, the Calypso system exceeded the recommended response time.

  6. TU-E-BRA-05: Reverse Geometry Imaging with MV Detector for Improved Image Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, A; Abel, E; Sun, M; Fahrig, R; Virshup, G; Star-Lack, J

    2012-06-01

    Thick pixilated scintillators can offer significant improvements in quantum efficiency over phosphor screen megavoltage (MV) detectors. However spatial resolution can be compromised due to the spreading of light across pixels within septa. Of particular interest are the lower energy x-ray photons and associated light photons that produce higher image contrast but are stopped near the scintillator entrance surface. They suffer the most scattering in the scintillator prior to detection in the photodiodes. Reversing the detector geometry, so that the incident x-ray beam passes through the photodiode array into the scintillator, allows the light to scatter less prior to detection. This also reduces the Swank noise since now higher and lower energy x-ray photons tend to produce similar electronic signals. In this work, we present simulations and measurements of detector MTF for the conventional/forward and reverse geometries to demonstrate this phenomenon. A tabletop system consisting of a Varian CX1 1MeV linear accelerator and a modified Varian Paxscan4030 with the readout electronics moved away from the incident the beam was used. A special holder was used to press a 2.5W×5.0L×2.0Hcm 3 pixellated Cesium Iodide (CsI:Tl) scintillator array on to the detector glass. The CsI array had a pitch of 0.784mm with plastic septa between pixels and the photodiode array pitch was 0.192 mm. The MTF in the forward and reverse geometries was measured using a 0.5mm thick Tantalum slanted edge. Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations were performed for comparison. The measured and simulated MTFs matched to within 3.4(±3.7)% in the forward and 4.4(±1.5)% in reverse geometries. The reverse geometry MTF was higher than the forward geometry MTF at all spatial frequencies and doubled to .25 at 0.3lp/mm. A novel method of improving the image resolution at MV energies was demonstrated. The improvements should be more pronounced with increased scintillator thickness. Funding support provided by NIH (grant number NIH R01 CA138426). © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. 'Bra, Sɛn, Yɛnkↄ... That is All I Know in Akan': How Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What strategies do these migrants resort to in coping with the linguistic challenges they face in their new (host) communities? ... Finally, we attempt to evaluate the level of competence the migrants have in the selected language for business and explore why migrants choose to do business in the particular language (s) ...

  8. MO-AB-BRA-01: A Global Level Set Based Formulation for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D; Lyu, Q; Ruan, D; O’Connor, D; Low, D; Sheng, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The current clinical Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) optimization is formulated as a non-convex problem and various greedy heuristics have been employed for an empirical solution, jeopardizing plan consistency and quality. We introduce a novel global direct aperture optimization method for VMAT to overcome these limitations. Methods: The global VMAT (gVMAT) planning was formulated as an optimization problem with an L2-norm fidelity term and an anisotropic total variation term. A level set function was used to describe the aperture shapes and adjacent aperture shapes were penalized to control MLC motion range. An alternating optimization strategy was implemented to solve the fluence intensity and aperture shapes simultaneously. Single arc gVMAT plans, utilizing 180 beams with 2° angular resolution, were generated for a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), lung (LNG), and 2 head and neck cases—one with 3 PTVs (H&N3PTV) and one with 4 PTVs (H&N4PTV). The plans were compared against the clinical VMAT (cVMAT) plans utilizing two overlapping coplanar arcs. Results: The optimization of the gVMAT plans had converged within 600 iterations. gVMAT reduced the average max and mean OAR dose by 6.59% and 7.45% of the prescription dose. Reductions in max dose and mean dose were as high as 14.5 Gy in the LNG case and 15.3 Gy in the H&N3PTV case. PTV coverages (D95, D98, D99) were within 0.25% of the prescription dose. By globally considering all beams, the gVMAT optimizer allowed some beams to deliver higher intensities, yielding a dose distribution that resembles a static beam IMRT plan with beam orientation optimization. Conclusions: The novel VMAT approach allows for the search of an optimal plan in the global solution space and generates deliverable apertures directly. The single arc VMAT approach fully utilizes the digital linacs’ capability in dose rate and gantry rotation speed modulation. Varian Medical Systems, NIH grant R01CA188300, NIH grant R43CA183390.

  9. TH-CD-BRA-07: MRI-Linac Dosimetry: Parameters That Change in a Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Brien, D. J.; Sawakuchi, G. O.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In MRI-linac integrated systems, the presence of the magnetic (B-)field has a large impact of the dose-distribution and the dose-responses of detectors; yet established protocols and previous experience may lead to assumptions about the commissioning process that are no longer valid. This study quantifies parameters that change when performing dosimetry with an MRI-linac including beam quality specifiers and the effective-point-of-measurement (EPOM) of ionization chambers. Methods: We used the Geant4 Monte Carlo code for this work with physics parameters that pass the Fano cavity test to within 0.1% for the simulated conditions with and without a 1.5 T B-field. A point source model with the energy distribution of an MRI-linac beam was used with and without the B-field to calculate the beam quality specifiers %dd(10)× and TPR 20 10 , the variation of chamber response with orientation and the how the B-field affects the EPOM of ionization chambers by comparing depth-dose curves calculated in water to those generated by a model PTW30013 Farmer chamber. Results: The %dd(10)× changes by over 2% in the presence of the B-field while the TPR 20 10 is unaffected. Ionization chamber dose-response is known to depend on the orientation w.r.t. the B-field, but two alternative perpendicular orientations (anti-parallel to each other) also differ in dose-response by over 1%. The B-field shifts the EPOM downstream (closer to the chamber center) but it is also shifted laterally by 0.27 times the chamber’s cavity radius. Conclusion: The EPOM is affected by the B-field and it even shifts laterally. The relationship between %dd(10)× and the Spencer-Attix stopping powers is also changed. Care must be taken when using chambers perpendicular to the field as the dose-response changes depending on which perpendicular orientation is used. All of these effects must be considered when performing dosimetry in B-fields and should be accounted for in future dosimetry protocols. This project was partially funded by Elekta Ltd.

  10. TH-CD-BRA-07: MRI-Linac Dosimetry: Parameters That Change in a Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Brien, D. J.; Sawakuchi, G. O. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In MRI-linac integrated systems, the presence of the magnetic (B-)field has a large impact of the dose-distribution and the dose-responses of detectors; yet established protocols and previous experience may lead to assumptions about the commissioning process that are no longer valid. This study quantifies parameters that change when performing dosimetry with an MRI-linac including beam quality specifiers and the effective-point-of-measurement (EPOM) of ionization chambers. Methods: We used the Geant4 Monte Carlo code for this work with physics parameters that pass the Fano cavity test to within 0.1% for the simulated conditions with and without a 1.5 T B-field. A point source model with the energy distribution of an MRI-linac beam was used with and without the B-field to calculate the beam quality specifiers %dd(10)× and TPR{sup 20}{sub 10}, the variation of chamber response with orientation and the how the B-field affects the EPOM of ionization chambers by comparing depth-dose curves calculated in water to those generated by a model PTW30013 Farmer chamber. Results: The %dd(10)× changes by over 2% in the presence of the B-field while the TPR{sup 20}{sub 10} is unaffected. Ionization chamber dose-response is known to depend on the orientation w.r.t. the B-field, but two alternative perpendicular orientations (anti-parallel to each other) also differ in dose-response by over 1%. The B-field shifts the EPOM downstream (closer to the chamber center) but it is also shifted laterally by 0.27 times the chamber’s cavity radius. Conclusion: The EPOM is affected by the B-field and it even shifts laterally. The relationship between %dd(10)× and the Spencer-Attix stopping powers is also changed. Care must be taken when using chambers perpendicular to the field as the dose-response changes depending on which perpendicular orientation is used. All of these effects must be considered when performing dosimetry in B-fields and should be accounted for in future dosimetry protocols. This project was partially funded by Elekta Ltd.

  11. WE-G-BRA-08: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y; Bhatnagar, J; Bednarz, G; Flickinger, J; Arai, Y; Huq, M Saiful; Vacsulka, J; Monaco, E; Niranjan, A; Lunsford, L Dade; Feng, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) study for Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery processes at our institution based on our experience with the treatment of more than 13,000 patients. Methods: A team consisting of medical physicists, nurses, radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and an external physicist expert was formed for the FMEA study. A process tree and a failure mode table were created for the GK procedures using the Leksell GK Perfexion and 4C units. Three scores for the probability of occurrence (O), the severity (S), and the probability of no detection (D) for failure modes were assigned to each failure mode by each professional on a scale from 1 to 10. The risk priority number (RPN) for each failure mode was then calculated (RPN = OxSxD) as the average scores from all data sets collected. Results: The established process tree for GK radiosurgery consists of 10 sub-processes and 53 steps, including a sub-process for frame placement and 11 steps that are directly related to the frame-based nature of the GK radiosurgery. Out of the 86 failure modes identified, 40 failure modes are GK specific, caused by the potential for inappropriate use of the radiosurgery head frame, the imaging fiducial boxes, the GK helmets and plugs, and the GammaPlan treatment planning system. The other 46 failure modes are associated with the registration, imaging, image transfer, contouring processes that are common for all radiation therapy techniques. The failure modes with the highest hazard scores are related to imperfect frame adaptor attachment, bad fiducial box assembly, overlooked target areas, inaccurate previous treatment information and excessive patient movement during MRI scan. Conclusion: The implementation of the FMEA approach for Gamma Knife radiosurgery enabled deeper understanding of the overall process among all professionals involved in the care of the patient and helped identify potential weaknesses in the overall process

  12. SU-D-BRA-01: Feasibility Study for Swallowing Prediction Using Pressure Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, K; Shin, D; Noh, Y; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a swallowing prediction system (SPS) using force sensing sensors and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: The SPS developed consists of force sensing sensor units, a thermoplastic mask, a signal transport device and a control PC installed with an in-house software. The SPS is designed to predict the pharyngeal stage of swallowing because it is known that internal organ movement occurs in pharyngeal stage. To detect prediction signal in the SPS, the force sensing sensor units were attached on both the submental muscle region and thyroid cartilage region of the thermoplastic mask. While the signal from the thyroid cartilage region informs the action of swallowing, the signal from the submental muscle region is utilized as a precursor for swallowing. Since the duration of swallowing is relatively short, using such precursor (or warning) signals for machine control is considered more beneficial. A volunteer study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the system. In this volunteer study, we intended to verify that the system could predict the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing. We measured time gaps between obtaining the warning signals in the SPS and starting points of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing. Results: The measured data was examined whether the time gaps were in reasonable order to be easily utilized. The mean and standard deviation values of these time gaps were 0.550 s ± 0.183 s. in 8 volunteers. Conclusion: The proposed method was able to predict the on-set of swallowing of human subjects inside the thermoplastic mask, which has never been possible with other monitoring systems such as camera-based monitoring system. With the prediction ability of swallowing incorporated into the machine control mechanism (in the future), beam delivery can be controlled to skip swallowing periods and significant dosimetric gain is expected in head & neck cancer treatments. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2015M2A2A7038291) and by the Mid-career Researcher Program (2014R1A2A1A10050270) through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT&Future Planning.

  13. MO-DE-BRA-05: Developing Effective Medical Physics Knowledge Structures: Models and Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprawls, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Develop a method and supporting online resources to be used by medical physics educators for teaching medical imaging professionals and trainees so they develop highly-effective physics knowledge structures that can contribute to improved diagnostic image quality on a global basis. Methods: The different types of mental knowledge structures were analyzed and modeled with respect to both the learning and teaching process for their development and the functions or tasks that can be performed with the knowledge. While symbolic verbal and mathematical knowledge structures are very important in medical physics for many purposes, the tasks of applying physics in clinical imaging--especially to optimize image quality and diagnostic accuracy--requires a sensory conceptual knowledge structure, specifically, an interconnected network of visually based concepts. This type of knowledge supports tasks such as analysis, evaluation, problem solving, interacting, and creating solutions. Traditional educational methods including lectures, online modules, and many texts are serial procedures and limited with respect to developing interconnected conceptual networks. A method consisting of the synergistic combination of on-site medical physics teachers and the online resource, CONET (Concept network developer), has been developed and made available for the topic Radiographic Image Quality. This was selected as the inaugural topic, others to follow, because it can be used by medical physicists teaching the large population of medical imaging professionals, such as radiology residents, who can apply the knowledge. Results: Tutorials for medical physics educators on developing effective knowledge structures are being presented and published and CONET is available with open access for all to use. Conclusion: An adjunct to traditional medical physics educational methods with the added focus on sensory concept development provides opportunities for medical physics teachers to share their knowledge and experience at a higher cognitive level and produce medical professionals with the enhanced ability to apply physics to clinical procedures

  14. MO-FG-BRA-05: Next Generation Radiotherapy Biomaterials Loaded With Gold Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifter, G; Ngwa, W [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Sajo, E [Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Korideck, H; Cormack, R; Makrigiorgos, G [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kumar, R [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Sridhar, S [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: It has been proposed that routinely used inert radiotherapy (RT) biomaterials (e.g. fiducials, spacers) can be upgraded to smarter ones by coating/loading them with radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs), for sustained in-situ release after implantation to enhance RT. In this work, we developed prototypes of such RT biomaterials and investigated the sustained release of GNPs from the biomaterials as a function of design parameters. Methods: Prototype smart biomaterials were produced by incorporating the GNPs in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer millirods during the gel phase of production. For comparison, commercially available spacers were also coated with a polymer film loaded with fluorescent GNP. Optical/spectroscopy methods were used to monitor in vitro release of GNPs over time as a function of different design parameters: polymer weighting, type, and initial (loading) GNP concentrations. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed to verify GNP release. Results: Results showed that gold nanoparticles could be successfully loaded in the new RT biomaterial prototypes. Burst release of GNPs could be achieved within 1 to 25 days depending on the preparation approach. Burst release was followed by sustained release profile over time. The amount of released GNP increased with increasing loading concentration as expected. The release profiles could also be customized as a function of polymer weighting, or preparation approaches. Conclusion: Considered together, our results highlight potential for the development of next generation RT biomaterials loaded with GNPs customizable to different RT schedules. Such biomaterials could be employed as needed instead of currently used inert spacers/fiducials at no additional inconvenience to patients, to enhance RT.

  15. SU-D-BRA-06: Duodenal Interfraction Motion with Abdominal Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witztum, A; Holyoake, D; Warren, S; Partridge, M; Hawkins, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of abdominal compression on duodenal motion during pancreatic radiotherapy. Methods: Seven patients treated for pancreatic cancer were selected for analysis. Four patients were treated with abdominal compression and three without. The duodenum was contoured by the same physician on each CBCT (five CBCTs for patients with compression, four for non-compression patients). CBCTs were rigidly registered using a soft tissue match and contours were copied to the delivered plans which were all radical (BED > 50 Gy). The distance between the duodenum on the planning CT and each CBCT was quantified by calculating the root mean square (RMS) distance. The DVHs of each abdominal compression patient was converted to an EQD2 DVH (alpha/beta = 10) using an in-house tool and volumes receiving at least 25, 35, 45, and 50 Gy were recorded. Results: The maximum variation in duodenal volumes on the CBCTs for the four abdominal compression patients were 19.1 cm 3 (32.8%), 19.1 cm 3 (20.6%), 19.9 cm 3 (14.3%), and 12.9 cm 3 (27.3%) compared to 15.2 cm 3 (17.6%), 34.7 cm 3 (83.4%), and 56 cm 3 (60.2%) for non-compression patients. The average RMS distance between the duodenum on the planning CT and each CBCT for all abdominal compression patients was 0.3 cm compared to 0.7 cm for non-compressed patients. The largest (and average) difference between the planning CT and CBCTs in volume of duodenum receiving more than 25, 35, 45 and 50 Gy for abdominal compression patients was 11% (5%), 9% (3%), 9% (2%), and 6% (1%). Conclusion: Abdominal compression reduces variation in volume and absolute position of the duodenum throughout treatment. This is seen as an improvement but does not eliminate the need to consider dosimetric effects of motion. Abdominal compression is particularly useful in SBRT when only a few fractions are delivered. Alon Witztum is supported by an MRC/Gray Institute DPhil Studentship. Daniel Holyoake is supported by a CRUK/Nuffield Clinical Research Fellowship. Sam Warren and Mike Partridge are supported by CRUK grant C5255/A15935. Maria Hawkins received an MRC Fellowship MC_PC_12001/2.

  16. WE-G-BRA-02: SafetyNet: Automating Radiotherapy QA with An Event Driven Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S; Kessler, M [The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Litzenberg, D [Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, C; Irrer, J; Chen, X; Acosta, E; Weyburne, G; Lam, K; Younge, K; Matuszak, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keranen, W [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Covington, E [University of Michigan Hospital and Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Moran, J [Univ Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quality assurance is an essential task in radiotherapy that often requires many manual tasks. We investigate the use of an event driven framework in conjunction with software agents to automate QA and eliminate wait times. Methods: An in house developed subscription-publication service, EventNet, was added to the Aria OIS to be a message broker for critical events occurring in the OIS and software agents. Software agents operate without user intervention and perform critical QA steps. The results of the QA are documented and the resulting event is generated and passed back to EventNet. Users can subscribe to those events and receive messages based on custom filters designed to send passing or failing results to physicists or dosimetrists. Agents were developed to expedite the following QA tasks: Plan Revision, Plan 2nd Check, SRS Winston-Lutz isocenter, Treatment History Audit, Treatment Machine Configuration. Results: Plan approval in the Aria OIS was used as the event trigger for plan revision QA and Plan 2nd check agents. The agents pulled the plan data, executed the prescribed QA, stored the results and updated EventNet for publication. The Winston Lutz agent reduced QA time from 20 minutes to 4 minutes and provided a more accurate quantitative estimate of radiation isocenter. The Treatment Machine Configuration agent automatically reports any changes to the Treatment machine or HDR unit configuration. The agents are reliable, act immediately, and execute each task identically every time. Conclusion: An event driven framework has inverted the data chase in our radiotherapy QA process. Rather than have dosimetrists and physicists push data to QA software and pull results back into the OIS, the software agents perform these steps immediately upon receiving the sentinel events from EventNet. Mr Keranen is an employee of Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Moran’s institution receives research support for her effort for a linear accelerator QA project from Varian Medical Systems. Other quality projects involving her effort are funded by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, Breast Cancer Research Foundation, and the NIH.

  17. SU-B-BRA-00: The Medical Physicist Value Proposition for Tomorrow and Today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherouse, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  18. TU-CD-BRA-11: Application of Bone Suppression Technique to Inspiratory/expiratory Chest Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, R; Sanada, S [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sakuta, K; Kawashima, H [Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Kishitani, Y [TOYO Corporation, Chuoh-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The bone suppression technique based on advanced image processing can suppress the conspicuity of bones on chest radiographs, creating soft tissue images normally obtained by the dual-energy subtraction technique. This study was performed to investigate the usefulness of bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of pulmonary function in inspiratory/expiratory chest radiography. Methods: Commercial bone suppression image processing software (ClearRead; Riverain Technologies) was applied to paired inspiratory/expiratory chest radiographs of 107 patients (normal, 33; abnormal, 74) to create corresponding bone suppression images. The abnormal subjects had been diagnosed with pulmonary diseases, such as pneumothorax, pneumonia, emphysema, asthma, and lung cancer. After recognition of the lung area, the vectors of respiratory displacement were measured in all local lung areas using a cross-correlation technique. The measured displacement in each area was visualized as displacement color maps. The distribution pattern of respiratory displacement was assessed by comparison with the findings of lung scintigraphy. Results: Respiratory displacement of pulmonary markings (soft tissues) was able to be quantified separately from the rib movements on bone suppression images. The resulting displacement map showed a left-right symmetric distribution increasing from the lung apex to the bottom region of the lung in many cases. However, patients with ventilatory impairments showed a nonuniform distribution caused by decreased displacement of pulmonary markings, which were confirmed to correspond to area with ventilatory impairments found on the lung scintigrams. Conclusion: The bone suppression technique was useful for quantitative analysis of respiratory displacement of pulmonary markings without any interruption of the rib shadows. Abnormal areas could be detected as decreased displacement of pulmonary markings. Inspiratory/expiratory chest radiography combined with the bone suppression technique has potential for predicting local lung function on the basis of dynamic analysis of pulmonary markings. This work was partially supported by Nakatani Foundation, Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research (C) of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN (Grant number : 24601007), and Nakatani Foundation, Mitsubishi Foundation, and the he Mitani Foundation for Research and Development. Yasushi Kishitani is a staff of TOYO corporation.

  19. MO-AB-BRA-04: Radiation Measurements with a DNA Double-Strand-Break Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obeidat, M; Cline, K; Stathakis, S; Papanikolaou, N; Rasmussen, K; Gutierrez, A; Ha, CS; Lee, SE; Shim, EY; Kirby, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Many types of dosimeters are used to measure radiation, but none of them directly measures the biological effect of this dose. The purpose here is to create a dosimeter that can measure the probability of double-strand breaks (DSB) for DNA, which is directly related to the biological effect of radiation. Methods: The dosimeter has DNA strands, which are labeled on one end with biotin and on the other with fluorescein. The biotin attaches these strands to magnetic beads. We suspended the DNA dosimeter in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as it matches the internal environment of the body. We placed small volumes (50µL) of the DNA dosimeter into tubes and irradiated these samples in a water-equivalent plastic phantom with several doses (three samples per dose). After irradiating the samples, a magnet was placed against the tubes. The fluorescein attached to broken DNA strands was extracted (called the supernatant) and placed into a different tube. The fluorescein on the unbroken strands remained attached to the beads in the tube and was re-suspended with 50µL of PBS. A fluorescence reader was used to measure the fluorescence for both the re-suspended beads and supernatant. To prove that we are measuring DSB, we tested dosimeter response with two different lengths of attached DNA strands (1 and 4 kilo-base pair). Results: The probability of DSB at the dose levels of 5, 10, 25, and 50 Gy were 0.05, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.19, respectively, while the coefficients of variation were 0.14, 0.07, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively. The 4 kilo-base-pair dosimeter produced 5.3 times the response of the 1 kilo-base-pair dosimeter. Conclusion: The DNA dosimeter yields a measurable response to dose that scales with the DNA strand length. The goal now is to refine the dosimeter fabrication to reproducibly create a low coefficient of variation for the lower doses. This work was supported in part by Yarmouk University (Irbid, Jordan) and CPRIT (RP140105)

  20. The Development of Boutique Hotels in Brașov City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruța Adina Băltescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boutique hotels are hotel businesses dedicated to addressing a well-defined segment ofcustomers. The development of the concept is an ongoing process, these accommodation units arealready well known on the hotel market, thus reflecting their attraction among the guests. Thepaper highlights the main features of the boutique hotels, the specificity of the offer and analyzesthe major global hotel groups in order to highlight their concerns in the direction of developingtheir own chains of boutique hotels. Aiming to identify the development of this hotel concept in ourcountry, the paper also analyzes the units that fall into this category of establishments whichoperate in Brasov city.

  1. MO-DE-BRA-06: MrRSCAL: A Radiological Simulation Tool for Resident Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W; Yanasak, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this project was to create a readily accessible, comprehensive-yet-flexible interactive MRI simulation tool for use in training and education of radiology residents in particular. This tool was developed to take the place of an MR scanner in laboratory activities, as magnet time has become scarce while hospitals are optimizing clinical scheduling for improved throughput. Methods: MrRSCAL (Magnetic resonance Resident Simulation Console for Active Learning) was programmed and coded using Matlab on a Mac workstation utilizing OS X platform. MR-based brain images were obtained from one of the co-authors and processed to generate parametric maps. Scanner sounds are also generated via mp3 convolution of a single MR gradient slew with a time-profile of gradient waveforms. Results: MrRSCAL facilitates the simulation of multiple MR sequences with the ability to alter MR parameters via an intuitive GUI control panel. The application allows the user to gain real-time understanding of image transformation when varying these said parameters by examining the resulting images. Lab procedures can be loaded and displayed for more directed study. The panel is also configurable, providing a simple interface for elementary labs or a full array of controls for the expert user. Conclusion: Our introduction of MrRSCAL, which is readily available to users with a current laptop or workstation, allows for individual or group study of MR image acquisition with immediate educational feedback as the MR parameters are manipulated. MrRSCAL can be used at any time and any place once installed, offering a new tool for reviewing relaxometric and artifact principles when studying for boards or investigating properties of a pulse sequence. This tool promises to be extremely useful in conveying traditionally difficult and abstract concepts involved with MR to the radiology resident and other medical professionals at large

  2. TU-EF-BRA-02: Longitudinal Proton Spin Relaxation and T1-Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemen, L.

    2015-01-01

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI ( f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions

  3. TU-EF-BRA-01: NMR and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolbarst, A.

    2015-01-01

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI ( f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions

  4. TU-EF-BRA-03: Free Induction Decay (without the Decay) and Spin-Echo Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.

    2015-01-01

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI ( f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions

  5. WE-EF-BRA-11: Precision Partial-Tumor Irradiation of Dorsal Rodent Mammary Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm, J [Duke Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham, NC (United States); Boss, K [Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University (United States); Dewhirst, M [Dpt of Radiation and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Oldham, M [Dpt of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To introduce a pre-clinical treatment technique on a micro-irradiator to treat specific volumes of dorsal mammary tumors in BALB/c mice while sparing lungs and spine. This technique facilitates pre-clinical investigation of tumor response to sub-optimal radiation treatments in which a portion of the tumor is unirradiated, known as a “marginal miss”. In-vitro data suggests that partial tumor radiations trigger a more aggressive phenotype in non-irradiated, regional tumor cells via bystander effects. As the lung tissue is spared, the impact of marginal miss on the development of pulmonary metastasis may be assessed. Methods: End to end test was performed on three BALB/c mice as proof of concept for larger studies. 1Gy was delivered on the micro-irradiator employing previously unexplored lateral parallel-opposed diamond and/or triangle-shaped beams. The margins of the treatment beam were defined using a combination of tumor palpation, barium fiducial markers, and real-time fluoroscopic images. The dose distribution was independently verified with kilovoltage beam Monte Carlo dose calculations with 7% statistical uncertainty and double exposure images. As a final step, the technique was used in a larger pre-clinical study (15Gy, 36 BALB/c mice) and lung metastasis in response to tumor irradiation of 100%, 50% and 0% was quantified. Results: For the Monte-Carlo dose calculations, the dose volume histograms established a maximum dose within the un-irradiated and radiated portions of the mammary tumor of 0.3Gy and 1.5Gy respectively, with a sharp gradient at the boundary. 100% of the lung volume received less than 0.5Gy. This technique proved suitable for a pre-clinical marginal miss study with 50% more lung metastases in partially-radiated mouse models compared to completely. Conclusion: We have developed a novel treatment technique for partial or full irradiation of dorsal mammary tumors incorporating lung sparing.The technique will be useful for exploring the phenomena of aggressive tumor phenotype that may arise from miss-irradiation.

  6. TU-AB-BRA-01: Abdominal Synthetic CT Generation in Support of Liver SBRT Dose Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredfeldt, JS; Liu, L; Feng, M [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Cao, Y [The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Balter, J [University Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate and validate a technique for generating MRI-derived synthetic CT volumes (MRCTs) in support of adaptive liver SBRT. Methods: Under IRB approval, ten hepatocellular carcinoma patients were scanned using a single MR sequence (T1 Dixon-VIBE), yielding inherently-registered water, fat, and T1-weighted images. Air-containing voxels were identified by intensity thresholding. The envelope of the anterior vertebral bodies was segmented from the fat image by fitting a shape model to vertebral body candidate voxels, then using level sets to expand the contour outward. Fuzzy-C-Means (FCM) was then used to classify each non-air voxel in the image as fat, water, bone, or marrow. Bone and marrow only were classified within the vertebral body envelope. The MRCT was created by integrating the product of the FCM class probability with the assigned class density for each voxel. The resulting MRCTs were deformably aligned with planning CTs and 2-ARC SBRT VMAT plans were optimized on the MRCT density maps. Fluence was copied onto the CT density grids and dose recalculated. Results: The MRCTs faithfully reproduced most of the features visible in the corresponding CT image volumes, with exceptions of ribs and posterior spinous processes. The liver, vertebral bodies, kidneys, spleen and cord all had median HU differences of less than 75 between MRCT and CT images. PTV D99% values had an average 0.2% difference (standard deviation: 0.46%) between calculations on MRCT and CT density grids. The maximum difference in dose to 0.1cc of the PTV was 0.25% (std:0.49%). OAR dose differences were similarly small (mean:0.03Gy, std:0.26Gy). The largest normal tissue complication percentage (NTCP) difference was 1.48% (mean:0.06%, std:0.54%). Conclusions: MRCTs from a single abdominal imaging sequence are promising for use in SBRT dose calculation. Future work will focus on extending models to better define bones in the upper abdomen. Supported by NIHR01EB016079 and NIH1L30CA199594-01.

  7. WE-FG-BRA-03: Oxygen Interplay in Hypofractionated Radiotherapy: A Hidden Opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kissick, M; Campos, D; Desai, V; Che Fru, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Local oxygen during a radiotherapy fraction has been shown to change over a full range of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) during the same time scale as the treatment fraction. Interplay with local oxygen is then likely a concern, especially for hypofractionation. Our experiments that show a strong role for metabolic dynamics suggesting one could manipulate this interplay for more efficacious treatments. Methods: Two published experiments are presented with the same human head and neck cancer cell line (UM-SCC-22B). One is a cell-specific in vitro prompt response to a 10 Gy dose of orthovotage radiation using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), benchmarked with a Seahorse assay. The other in vivo study uses autocorrelation analysis with blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-BOLD) on xenografts. In vivo results are verified with diffuse optics using spectra fitting and photoacoustic measurements. All these measurements are at high time resolution: sampling is one per minute. Results: Interplay happens when the radiosensitivity modulates at the same time scale as the radiation. These results show dynamics at these time scales. 1. The dominant time scale of the acute hypoxia in cell line xenografts is shown to be on the order of minutes to tens of minutes: similar to a metabolic oscillation known as the ‘glycolytic oscillator.’ 2. The radiation dose itself alters metabolism within minutes to tens of minutes also. Conclusion: These results vary with cell type. There is a possibility that special timing and dose levels could be used for radiation. Gating could be used for maximal oxygen during treatment. There is an analogy to the interplay discussions with tumor motion, except that an oxygen interplay could more likely be patient-specific at a more fundamental level.

  8. WE-FG-BRA-03: Oxygen Interplay in Hypofractionated Radiotherapy: A Hidden Opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissick, M; Campos, D; Desai, V; Che Fru, L [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Local oxygen during a radiotherapy fraction has been shown to change over a full range of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) during the same time scale as the treatment fraction. Interplay with local oxygen is then likely a concern, especially for hypofractionation. Our experiments that show a strong role for metabolic dynamics suggesting one could manipulate this interplay for more efficacious treatments. Methods: Two published experiments are presented with the same human head and neck cancer cell line (UM-SCC-22B). One is a cell-specific in vitro prompt response to a 10 Gy dose of orthovotage radiation using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM), benchmarked with a Seahorse assay. The other in vivo study uses autocorrelation analysis with blood oxygen level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-BOLD) on xenografts. In vivo results are verified with diffuse optics using spectra fitting and photoacoustic measurements. All these measurements are at high time resolution: sampling is one per minute. Results: Interplay happens when the radiosensitivity modulates at the same time scale as the radiation. These results show dynamics at these time scales. 1. The dominant time scale of the acute hypoxia in cell line xenografts is shown to be on the order of minutes to tens of minutes: similar to a metabolic oscillation known as the ‘glycolytic oscillator.’ 2. The radiation dose itself alters metabolism within minutes to tens of minutes also. Conclusion: These results vary with cell type. There is a possibility that special timing and dose levels could be used for radiation. Gating could be used for maximal oxygen during treatment. There is an analogy to the interplay discussions with tumor motion, except that an oxygen interplay could more likely be patient-specific at a more fundamental level.

  9. WE-DE-BRA-07: Megavoltage Spectral Imaging with a Layered Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myronakis, M; Rottmann, J; Berbeco, R [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Hu, Y [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Wang, A; Shedlock, D; Star-Lack, J [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Morf, D [Varian Medical Systems, Dattwil, Aargau (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of the current work is to investigate the feasibility of megavoltage spectral imaging using a multiple layered detector for enhancement of low contrast detectability through material segmentation and discrimination (such as bone, markers and metal implants). Potentially the technique can be applied to improve detection and reduce dose in Megavoltage Cone Beam Computed Tomography (MV-CBCT). Methods: Experiments were performed with a prototype multi-layer imager (MLI) which has higher detective efficiency and lower noise characteristics than conventional Electronic Portal Imaging Devices (EPIDs). Images of a solid water phantom were acquired at 2.5 MV, 6MV and 6MV without flattening filter (FFF). The following materials were placed within a stack of solid water: aluminum, copper and gold. Material separation was assessed based on Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) of the weighted image, formed by a weighted subtraction of the images from two layers of the MLI. A range of weighting factors were investigated for material separation. Results: CNR can be minimized for each material by appropriate selection of the subtraction weighting factor. This is equivalent to a selective subtraction of specific materials from the image. Using multiple layers simultaneously also decreases the dose requirement and removes any registration errors. The minimum CNR for aluminum, copper and gold at the weighted image formed with 2.5MV was obtained at weighting factors equal to 0.92, 0.76 and 0.64 respectively. The corresponding values at 6MVFFF were 0.99, 0.92 and 0.78 respectively. Conclusion: In the current work, an MV spectral imaging feasibility study was attempted using a novel multi-layer prototype EPID imager. Initial results suggest that material separation based on spectral differences between different layers is possible. This spectral imaging technique has potential advantages in MV-CBCT for real-time target tracking, patient set-up imaging and adaptive radiotherapy. The project was supported, partially, by a grant from Varian Medical Systems, Inc., and Award No. R01CA188446-01 from the National Cancer Institute. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Cancer Institute or the National Institutes of Health.

  10. WE-DE-BRA-05: Monte Carlo Simulation of a Novel Multi-Layer MV Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myronakis, M; Rottmann, J; Berbeco, R [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Hu, Y [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Wang, A; Shedlock, D; Star-Lack, J [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Morf, D [Varian Medical Systems, Dattwil, Aargau (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a Monte Carlo (MC) model of a novel multi-layer imager (MLI) for megavolt (MV) energy beams. The MC model will enable performance optimization of the MLI design for clinical applications including patient setup verification, tumor tracking and MVCBCT. Methods: The MLI is composed of four layers of converter, scintillator and light detector, each layer similar to the current clinical AS1200 detector (Varian Medical Systems, Inc). The MLI model was constructed using the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE v7.1) and includes interactions for x-ray photons, charged particles and optical photons. Computational experiments were performed to assess Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and Noise Power Spectrum normalized by photon fluence and average detector signal (qNNPS). Results were compared with experimental measurements. The current work incorporates, in one model, the complete chain of events occurring in the imager; i.e. starting from x-ray interaction to charged particle transport and energy deposition to subsequent generation, interactions and detection of optical photons. Results: There is good agreement between measured and simulated MTF, qNNPS and DQE values. Normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE) between measured and simulated values over all four layers was 2.18%, 2.43% and 6.05% for MTF, qNNPS and DQE respectively. The relative difference between simulated and measured values for qNNPS(0) was 1.68% and 1.57% for DQE(0). Current results were obtained using a 6MV Varian Truebeam™ spectrum. Conclusion: A comprehensive Monte Carlo model of the MLI prototype was developed to allow optimization of detector components. The model was assessed in terms of imaging performance using standard metrics (i.e. MTF, qNNPS, DQE). Good agreement was found between simulated and measured values. The model will be used to assess alternative detector constructions to facilitate advanced clinical imaging applications including MV-CBCT and tumor tracking. The project was supported, partially, by a grant from Varian Medical Systems, Inc., and Award No. R01CA188446-01 from the National Cancer Institute. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Cancer Institute or the National Institutes of Health.

  11. BraX-Ray: an X-ray of the Brazilian computer science graduate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiampietri, Luciano A; Mena-Chalco, Jesús P; Vaz de Melo, Pedro O S; Malheiro, Ana P R; Meira, Dânia N O; Franco, Laryssa F; Oliveira, Leonardo B

    2014-01-01

    Research productivity assessment is increasingly relevant for allocation of research funds. On one hand, this assessment is challenging because it involves both qualitative and quantitative analysis of several characteristics, most of them subjective in nature. On the other hand, current tools and academic social networks make bibliometric data web-available to everyone for free. Those tools, especially when combined with other data, are able to create a rich environment from which information on research productivity can be extracted. In this context, our work aims at characterizing the Brazilian Computer Science graduate programs and the relationship among themselves. We (i) present views of the programs from different perspectives, (ii) rank the programs according to each perspective and a combination of them, (iii) show correlation between assessment metrics, (iv) discuss how programs relate to another, and (v) infer aspects that boost programs' research productivity. The results indicate that programs with a higher insertion in the coauthorship network topology also possess a higher research productivity between 2004 and 2009.

  12. SU-D-BRA-01: Feasibility Study for Swallowing Prediction Using Pressure Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, K; Shin, D; Noh, Y; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a swallowing prediction system (SPS) using force sensing sensors and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: The SPS developed consists of force sensing sensor units, a thermoplastic mask, a signal transport device and a control PC installed with an in-house software. The SPS is designed to predict the pharyngeal stage of swallowing because it is known that internal organ movement occurs in pharyngeal stage. To detect prediction signal in the SPS, the force sensing sensor units were attached on both the submental muscle region and thyroid cartilage region of the thermoplastic mask. While the signal from the thyroid cartilage region informs the action of swallowing, the signal from the submental muscle region is utilized as a precursor for swallowing. Since the duration of swallowing is relatively short, using such precursor (or warning) signals for machine control is considered more beneficial. A volunteer study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the system. In this volunteer study, we intended to verify that the system could predict the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing. We measured time gaps between obtaining the warning signals in the SPS and starting points of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing. Results: The measured data was examined whether the time gaps were in reasonable order to be easily utilized. The mean and standard deviation values of these time gaps were 0.550 s ± 0.183 s. in 8 volunteers. Conclusion: The proposed method was able to predict the on-set of swallowing of human subjects inside the thermoplastic mask, which has never been possible with other monitoring systems such as camera-based monitoring system. With the prediction ability of swallowing incorporated into the machine control mechanism (in the future), beam delivery can be controlled to skip swallowing periods and significant dosimetric gain is expected in head & neck cancer treatments. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2015M2A2A7038291) and by the Mid-career Researcher Program (2014R1A2A1A10050270) through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT&Future Planning.

  13. ITT - Fonds d'activités du BRA : l'IPS | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) du Sri Lanka, bénéficiaire de l'Initiative Think Tank, de réaliser des recherches de qualité, axées sur les politiques, sur la migration économique. La recherche sera centrée sur des questions soulevées par la National Human Resources and Employment Policy ...

  14. WE-FG-BRA-08: Potential Role of the Glycolytic Oscillator in Acute Hypoxia in Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Fru, L; Adamson, E; Campos, D; Song, C; Kimple, R; Fain, S; Kissick, M; Jacques, S; Kogel, A van der; Nickel, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Oscillatory dynamics in acute hypoxia have been observed, but poorly understood. They have mostly been attributed to vascular perturbations, but no link has yet been made to metabolic causes. We set out to determine the fundamental frequencies and test for coherence in tumor oxygen dynamics and spatial properties. Methods: Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were inoculated onto bilateral flanks with human derived head and neck carcinoma (UW-SCC22) cell line xenografts. Oxygen dynamics were monitored in the tumor every minute for an hour using three modalities: blood oxygen level dependent - magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI), hemoglobin oxygen saturation photoacoustic, and locally manufactured optical probes for spectral fitting. A statistical test was used to separate fluctuating from non-fluctuating voxels and pixels in BOLD-MRI and photoacoustic data respectively. The power spectrum density (PSD) and the autocorrelation functions were calculated for the time series of each voxel, pixel and region, of the BOLD-MRI, photoacoustic or fiber optic data respectively. Results: Using all three techniques, intermittent oxygen dynamics with both coherent and incoherent signatures was observed in the tumors. Upon averaging the PSDs of fluctuating voxels and pixels, it was found that these oscillations occurred with periods of minutes to tens of minutes from all three approaches. Observations from the BOLD-MRI and photoacoustic data showed that clusters of voxels oscillated in a synchronized manner. Conclusion: We were able to use three different modalities to show that fluctuation in tumor oxygen is both coherent and incoherent, with periods of minutes to tens of minutes. These periods are very similar to those from the well-established metabolic, non-linear biomechanical phenomenon called the glycolytic oscillator. This may provide an additional explanation to the cause of cyclic hypoxia. Such dynamics could have profound implications in hypofractionated radiotherapy regiments and could help guide treatment and make it more patient specific. The authors would like to thank the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center (UWCCC) for the funds to complete this project. This work is also supported in part by NIH/NCI P30 CA014520- UW Comprehensive Cancer Center Support”.

  15. WE-FG-BRA-11: Theranostic Platinum Nanoparticle for Radiation Sensitization in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Y; Wagner, S; Medina-Kauwe, L; Cui, X; Zhang, G; Shiao, S; Sandler, H; Fraass, B [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We have developed a novel receptor-targeted theranostic platinum nanoparticle (HER-PtNP) for enhanced radiation sensitization in HER2-positive breast cancer radiation treatment. This study aims to evaluate receptor-targeting specificity, and radiation sensitization of the nanoparticle. Methods: The platinum nanoparticle (PtNP) was synthesized with the diameter of 2nm, and capped with cysteine. The nanoparticle was tagged with a fluorescent dye (cy5) for the fluoresence detection, and conjuated with HER2/3 targeted protein (HerPBK10) for HER2-targeting specificity. We evaluated the theranostic features using in vitro breast cancer cell models: HER2-positive BT-474, and HER2-negative MDA-MB-231. The HER2-targeting specificity was evaluated using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. For each cell line, three sets of samples, including non-stained control, fluorescence stained PtNP-cy5 treated, and HER-PtNP treated, were imaged by confocal microscopy. Two breast cancer cell lineages were incubated with PtNP and HER-PtNP at 10 µg/mL, and then irradiated with X-rays for 2 Gy dose at 50 kVp. A colonogenic assay was used to determine cellular survival fractions by immediately reseeding 300 cells after irradiation in growth media and allowing colonies to grow for 2 weeks. Results: The results of confocal images show that no apparent nanoparticle cellular uptake was observed in the HER2-(MDA-MB-231) cells with 1% for PtNP-cy5 and 0.5% for HER-PtNP. Similarly no apparent PtNP-cy5 uptake (<1%) for BT474 cells was observed. However, there was significant HER-PtNP uptake (73%) for the HER2+(BT474) cells. The clonogenic assay showed that BT474 cells treated with HER-PtNP had significantly lower survival compared to those treated with PtNP (32% vs 81%, p=0.01). However, no significant radiosensitivity enhancement was observed for MDA-MB-231 cell treated with PtNP and HER-PtNP (89% vs 92%, p=0.78). Conclusion: Our studies suggest that the HER2-targeted platinum nanoparticle has excellent receptor targeting specificity and enhanced radiation sensitization compared to nanoparticle alone, suggesting potential for clinical applications in breast cancer radiotherapy.

  16. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process.

  17. MO-DE-BRA-05: Developing Effective Medical Physics Knowledge Structures: Models and Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprawls, P [Sprawls Educational Foundation, Montreat, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method and supporting online resources to be used by medical physics educators for teaching medical imaging professionals and trainees so they develop highly-effective physics knowledge structures that can contribute to improved diagnostic image quality on a global basis. Methods: The different types of mental knowledge structures were analyzed and modeled with respect to both the learning and teaching process for their development and the functions or tasks that can be performed with the knowledge. While symbolic verbal and mathematical knowledge structures are very important in medical physics for many purposes, the tasks of applying physics in clinical imaging--especially to optimize image quality and diagnostic accuracy--requires a sensory conceptual knowledge structure, specifically, an interconnected network of visually based concepts. This type of knowledge supports tasks such as analysis, evaluation, problem solving, interacting, and creating solutions. Traditional educational methods including lectures, online modules, and many texts are serial procedures and limited with respect to developing interconnected conceptual networks. A method consisting of the synergistic combination of on-site medical physics teachers and the online resource, CONET (Concept network developer), has been developed and made available for the topic Radiographic Image Quality. This was selected as the inaugural topic, others to follow, because it can be used by medical physicists teaching the large population of medical imaging professionals, such as radiology residents, who can apply the knowledge. Results: Tutorials for medical physics educators on developing effective knowledge structures are being presented and published and CONET is available with open access for all to use. Conclusion: An adjunct to traditional medical physics educational methods with the added focus on sensory concept development provides opportunities for medical physics teachers to share their knowledge and experience at a higher cognitive level and produce medical professionals with the enhanced ability to apply physics to clinical procedures.

  18. TU-AB-BRA-02: An Efficient Atlas-Based Synthetic CT Generation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A major obstacle for MR-only radiotherapy is the need to generate an accurate synthetic CT (sCT) from MR image(s) of a patient for the purposes of dose calculation and DRR generation. We propose here an accurate and efficient atlas-based sCT generation method, which has a computation speed largely independent of the number of atlases used. Methods: Atlas-based sCT generation requires a set of atlases with co-registered CT and MR images. Unlike existing methods that align each atlas to the new patient independently, we first create an average atlas and pre-align every atlas to the average atlas space. When a new patient arrives, we compute only one deformable image registration to align the patient MR image to the average atlas, which indirectly aligns the patient to all pre-aligned atlases. A patch-based non-local weighted fusion is performed in the average atlas space to generate the sCT for the patient, which is then warped back to the original patient space. We further adapt a PatchMatch algorithm that can quickly find top matches between patches of the patient image and all atlas images, which makes the patch fusion step also independent of the number of atlases used. Results: Nineteen brain tumour patients with both CT and T1-weighted MR images are used as testing data and a leave-one-out validation is performed. Each sCT generated is compared against the original CT image of the same patient on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The proposed method produces a mean absolute error (MAE) of 98.6±26.9 HU overall. The accuracy is comparable with a conventional implementation scheme, but the computation time is reduced from over an hour to four minutes. Conclusion: An average atlas space patch fusion approach can produce highly accurate sCT estimations very efficiently. Further validation on dose computation accuracy and using a larger patient cohort is warranted. The author is a full time employee of Elekta, Inc.

  19. Nanocomposite electrodes for smartphone enabled healthcare garments: e-bra and smart vest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashanth S.; Rai, Pratyush; Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-10-01

    The financial burden of hospital readmissions and treatment of chronic cardiac diseases are global concerns. Point of Care (POC) has been presented as an elegant solution for healthcare cost reduction. However, large scale adoption of POC systems requires an intuitive, unobtrusive and easy to use health monitoring system from patient's perspective. Healthcare textiles are sensor systems mounted on textile platform that function as wearable unobtrusive health monitoring systems. Although much work has been done in the development and demonstration of textile mounted monitoring systems, material and production costs are still high. Nanomaterials based devices and technology can be employed in these healthcare textiles for improved electrical characteristics of the sensors, lowered cost due to less material consumption and compatibility to varied manufacturing techniques. Carbon nanotube composite ink based printable conductive electrodes is such a textile adaptable nanomaterial technology. Screen printed Nanocomposite electrodes made of carbon nanotubes and an acrylic polymer can be used in undergarments like vests and brassieres, for cardiac biopotential (Electrocardiography, ECG) sensing. A Bluetooth module and a smartphone can then be used to provide cyber-infrastructure connectivity for the healthcare data from these healthcare garments. They can be used to monitor young or elderly recuperating /convalescent patients either in hospital or at home, or they can be used by young athletes to monitor important physiological parameters to better design their training or fitness program. In this study, we evaluate screen printed CNT-acrylic Nanocomposite electrodes for ECG signal quality and any CNT leaching hazard that might lead to skin toxicity.

  20. MO-DE-BRA-02: SIMAC: A Simulation Tool for Teaching Linear Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlone, M; Harnett, N [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Harris, W [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham NC (United States); Norrlinger, B [Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); MacPherson, M [The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Lamey, M [Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Oldham, M [Duke University Medical Medical Center, Durham NC (United States); Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program, Durham NC (United States); Anderson, R

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The first goal of this work is to develop software that can simulate the physics of linear accelerators (linac). The second goal is to show that this simulation tool is effective in teaching linac physics to medical physicists and linac service engineers. Methods: Linacs were modeled using analytical expressions that can correctly describe the physical response of a linac to parameter changes in real time. These expressions were programmed with a graphical user interface in order to produce an environment similar to that of linac service mode. The software, “SIMAC”, has been used as a learning aid in a professional development course 3 times (2014 – 2016) as well as in a physics graduate program. Exercises were developed to supplement the didactic components of the courses consisting of activites designed to reinforce the concepts of beam loading; the effect of steering coil currents on beam symmetry; and the relationship between beam energy and flatness. Results: SIMAC was used to teach 35 professionals (medical physicists; regulators; service engineers; 1 week course) as well as 20 graduate students (1 month project). In the student evaluations, 85% of the students rated the effectiveness of SIMAC as very good or outstanding, and 70% rated the software as the most effective part of the courses. Exercise results were collected showing that 100% of the students were able to use the software correctly. In exercises involving gross changes to linac operating points (i.e. energy changes) the majority of students were able to correctly perform these beam adjustments. Conclusion: Software simulation(SIMAC), can be used to effectively teach linac physics. In short courses, students were able to correctly make gross parameter adjustments that typically require much longer training times using conventional training methods.

  1. MO-DE-BRA-06: 3D Image Acquisition and Reconstruction Explained with Online Animations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, A

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Understanding the principles of 3D imaging and image reconstruction is fundamental to the field of medical imaging. Clinicians, technologists, physicists, patients, students, and inquisitive minds all stand to benefit from greater comprehension of the supporting technologies. To help explain the basic principles of 3D imaging, we developed multi-frame animations that convey the concepts of tomographic imaging. The series of free (gif) animations are accessible online, and provide a multimedia introduction to the main concepts of image reconstruction. Methods: Text and animations were created to convey the principles of analytic tomography in CT, PET, and SPECT. Specific topics covered included: principles of sinograms/image data storage, forward projection, principles of PET acquisitions, and filtered backprojection. A total of 8 animations were created and presented for CT, PET, and digital phantom formats. In addition, a free executable is also provided to allow users to create their own tomographic animations – providing an opportunity for interaction and personalization to help foster user interest. Results: Tutorial text and animations have been posted online, freely available to view or download. The animations are in first position in a google search of “image reconstruction animations”. The website currently receives approximately 200 hits/month, from all over the world, and the usage is growing. Positive feedback has been collected from users. Conclusion: We identified a need for improved teaching tools to help visualize the (temporally variant) concepts of image reconstruction, and have shown that animations can be a useful tool for this aspect of education. Furthermore, posting animations freely on the web has shown to be a good way to maximize their impact in the community. In future endeavors, we hope to expand this animated content, to cover principles of iterative reconstruction, as well as other phenomena relating to imaging.

  2. SU-G-BRA-09: Estimation of Motion Tracking Uncertainty for Real-Time Adaptive Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H [Capital Medical University, Beijing, Beijing (China); Chen, Z [Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Nath, R; Liu, W [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: kV fluoroscopic imaging combined with MV treatment beam imaging has been investigated for intrafractional motion monitoring and correction. It is, however, subject to additional kV imaging dose to normal tissue. To balance tracking accuracy and imaging dose, we previously proposed an adaptive imaging strategy to dynamically decide future imaging type and moments based on motion tracking uncertainty. kV imaging may be used continuously for maximal accuracy or only when the position uncertainty (probability of out of threshold) is high if a preset imaging dose limit is considered. In this work, we propose more accurate methods to estimate tracking uncertainty through analyzing acquired data in real-time. Methods: We simulated motion tracking process based on a previously developed imaging framework (MV + initial seconds of kV imaging) using real-time breathing data from 42 patients. Motion tracking errors for each time point were collected together with the time point’s corresponding features, such as tumor motion speed and 2D tracking error of previous time points, etc. We tested three methods for error uncertainty estimation based on the features: conditional probability distribution, logistic regression modeling, and support vector machine (SVM) classification to detect errors exceeding a threshold. Results: For conditional probability distribution, polynomial regressions on three features (previous tracking error, prediction quality, and cosine of the angle between the trajectory and the treatment beam) showed strong correlation with the variation (uncertainty) of the mean 3D tracking error and its standard deviation: R-square = 0.94 and 0.90, respectively. The logistic regression and SVM classification successfully identified about 95% of tracking errors exceeding 2.5mm threshold. Conclusion: The proposed methods can reliably estimate the motion tracking uncertainty in real-time, which can be used to guide adaptive additional imaging to confirm the tumor is within the margin or initialize motion compensation if it is out of the margin.

  3. WE-G-BRA-04: Common Errors and Deficiencies in Radiation Oncology Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dosimetric errors in radiotherapy dose delivery lead to suboptimal treatments and outcomes. This work reviews the frequency and severity of dosimetric and programmatic errors identified by on-site audits performed by the IROC Houston QA center. Methods: IROC Houston on-site audits evaluate absolute beam calibration, relative dosimetry data compared to the treatment planning system data, and processes such as machine QA. Audits conducted from 2000-present were abstracted for recommendations, including type of recommendation and magnitude of error when applicable. Dosimetric recommendations corresponded to absolute dose errors >3% and relative dosimetry errors >2%. On-site audits of 1020 accelerators at 409 institutions were reviewed. Results: A total of 1280 recommendations were made (average 3.1/institution). The most common recommendation was for inadequate QA procedures per TG-40 and/or TG-142 (82% of institutions) with the most commonly noted deficiency being x-ray and electron off-axis constancy versus gantry angle. Dosimetrically, the most common errors in relative dosimetry were in small-field output factors (59% of institutions), wedge factors (33% of institutions), off-axis factors (21% of institutions), and photon PDD (18% of institutions). Errors in calibration were also problematic: 20% of institutions had an error in electron beam calibration, 8% had an error in photon beam calibration, and 7% had an error in brachytherapy source calibration. Almost all types of data reviewed included errors up to 7% although 20 institutions had errors in excess of 10%, and 5 had errors in excess of 20%. The frequency of electron calibration errors decreased significantly with time, but all other errors show non-significant changes. Conclusion: There are many common and often serious errors made during the establishment and maintenance of a radiotherapy program that can be identified through independent peer review. Physicists should be cautious, particularly in areas highlighted herein that show a tendency for errors

  4. WE-G-BRA-02: SafetyNet: Automating Radiotherapy QA with An Event Driven Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, S; Kessler, M; Litzenberg, D; Lee, C; Irrer, J; Chen, X; Acosta, E; Weyburne, G; Lam, K; Younge, K; Matuszak, M; Keranen, W; Covington, E; Moran, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quality assurance is an essential task in radiotherapy that often requires many manual tasks. We investigate the use of an event driven framework in conjunction with software agents to automate QA and eliminate wait times. Methods: An in house developed subscription-publication service, EventNet, was added to the Aria OIS to be a message broker for critical events occurring in the OIS and software agents. Software agents operate without user intervention and perform critical QA steps. The results of the QA are documented and the resulting event is generated and passed back to EventNet. Users can subscribe to those events and receive messages based on custom filters designed to send passing or failing results to physicists or dosimetrists. Agents were developed to expedite the following QA tasks: Plan Revision, Plan 2nd Check, SRS Winston-Lutz isocenter, Treatment History Audit, Treatment Machine Configuration. Results: Plan approval in the Aria OIS was used as the event trigger for plan revision QA and Plan 2nd check agents. The agents pulled the plan data, executed the prescribed QA, stored the results and updated EventNet for publication. The Winston Lutz agent reduced QA time from 20 minutes to 4 minutes and provided a more accurate quantitative estimate of radiation isocenter. The Treatment Machine Configuration agent automatically reports any changes to the Treatment machine or HDR unit configuration. The agents are reliable, act immediately, and execute each task identically every time. Conclusion: An event driven framework has inverted the data chase in our radiotherapy QA process. Rather than have dosimetrists and physicists push data to QA software and pull results back into the OIS, the software agents perform these steps immediately upon receiving the sentinel events from EventNet. Mr Keranen is an employee of Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Moran’s institution receives research support for her effort for a linear accelerator QA project from Varian Medical Systems. Other quality projects involving her effort are funded by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, Breast Cancer Research Foundation, and the NIH

  5. WE-H-BRA-07: Mechanistic Modelling of the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Heavy Charged Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, S [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Queen’s University, Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); McNamara, A; Schuemann, J; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Prise, K [Queen’s University, Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose Uncertainty in the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of heavy charged particles compared to photons remains one of the major uncertainties in particle therapy. As RBEs depend strongly on clinical variables such as tissue type, dose, and radiation quality, more accurate individualised models are needed to fully optimise treatments. MethodsWe have developed a model of DNA damage and repair following X-ray irradiation in a number of settings, incorporating mechanistic descriptions of DNA repair pathways, geometric effects on DNA repair, cell cycle effects and cell death. Our model has previously been shown to accurately predict a range of biological endpoints including chromosome aberrations, mutations, and cell death. This model was combined with nanodosimetric models of individual ion tracks to calculate the additional probability of lethal damage forming within a single track. These lethal damage probabilities can be used to predict survival and RBE for cells irradiated with ions of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET). ResultsBy combining the X-ray response model with nanodosimetry information, predictions of RBE can be made without cell-line specific fitting. The model’s RBE predictions were found to agree well with empirical proton RBE models (Mean absolute difference between models of 1.9% and 1.8% for cells with α/β ratios of 9 and 1.4, respectively, for LETs between 0 and 15 keV/µm). The model also accurately recovers the impact of high-LET carbon ion exposures, showing both the reduced efficacy of ions at extremely high LET, as well as the impact of defects in non-homologous end joining on RBE values in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells.ConclusionOur model is predicts RBE without the inclusion of empirical LET fitting parameters for a range of experimental conditions. This approach has the potential to deliver improved personalisation of particle therapy, with future developments allowing for the calculation of individualised RBEs. SJM is supported by a Marie Curie International Outgoing Fellowship from the European Commission’s FP7 program (EC FP7 MC-IOF-623630)

  6. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process

  7. MO-DE-BRA-02: SIMAC: A Simulation Tool for Teaching Linear Accelerator Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlone, M; Harnett, N; Harris, W; Norrlinger, B; MacPherson, M; Lamey, M; Oldham, M; Anderson, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The first goal of this work is to develop software that can simulate the physics of linear accelerators (linac). The second goal is to show that this simulation tool is effective in teaching linac physics to medical physicists and linac service engineers. Methods: Linacs were modeled using analytical expressions that can correctly describe the physical response of a linac to parameter changes in real time. These expressions were programmed with a graphical user interface in order to produce an environment similar to that of linac service mode. The software, “SIMAC”, has been used as a learning aid in a professional development course 3 times (2014 – 2016) as well as in a physics graduate program. Exercises were developed to supplement the didactic components of the courses consisting of activites designed to reinforce the concepts of beam loading; the effect of steering coil currents on beam symmetry; and the relationship between beam energy and flatness. Results: SIMAC was used to teach 35 professionals (medical physicists; regulators; service engineers; 1 week course) as well as 20 graduate students (1 month project). In the student evaluations, 85% of the students rated the effectiveness of SIMAC as very good or outstanding, and 70% rated the software as the most effective part of the courses. Exercise results were collected showing that 100% of the students were able to use the software correctly. In exercises involving gross changes to linac operating points (i.e. energy changes) the majority of students were able to correctly perform these beam adjustments. Conclusion: Software simulation(SIMAC), can be used to effectively teach linac physics. In short courses, students were able to correctly make gross parameter adjustments that typically require much longer training times using conventional training methods.

  8. WE-AB-BRA-03: Non-Invasive Controlled Release from Implantable Hydrogel Scaffolds Using Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncion, A; Kripfgans, O.D; Putnam, A.J; Frances chi, R.T; Fabiilli, M.L [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To control release of a model payload in acoustically responsive scaffolds (ARSs) using focused ultrasound (FUS). Methods: Fluorescently-labeled dextran (10 kDa) was encapsulated in sonosensitive perfluorocarbon (C{sub 6}F{sub 14} or C{sub 5}F{sub 12}) double emulsions (mean diameter: 2.9±0.1 µm). For in vitro release studies, 0.5 mL ARSs (10 mg/mL fibrin, 1% (v/v) emulsion) were polymerized in 24 well plates and covered with 0.5 mL medium. Starting one day after polymerization, ARSs were exposed to FUS (2.5 MHz, Pr = 8 MPa, 13 cycles, 100 Hz PRF) for 2 min daily. The amount of dextran released into the media was quantified. For in vivo studies, 0.25 mL ARSs were prepared as described previously and injected subcutaneously in the lower back of BALB/c mice. After polymerization, a subset of the implanted ARSs were exposed to FUS (as previously described). Animals were imaged longitudinally using a fluorescence imaging system to quantify the amount of dextran released from the ARSs. Results: In vitro: Over 6 days, +FUS displayed an 8.2-fold increase in dextran release compared to −FUS (−FUS: 2.7±0.6%; +FUS: 22.2±3.0%) for C{sub 6}F{sub 14} ARSs, and a 6.7-fold increase (−FUS: 5.0±0.8%; +FUS: 38.5±1.6%) for C{sub 5}F{sub 12}:C{sub 6}F{sub 14} ARSs. In vivo: +FUS displayed statistically greater dextran release compared to −FUS one day after implantation for C{sub 5}F{sub 12}:C{sub 6}F{sub 14} ARSs (−FUS: 55.1±1.5%; +FUS: 74.1±2.2%) and three days after implantation for C{sub 6}F{sub 14} ARSs (−FUS: 1.4±6.5%; +FUS: 30.4±5.4%). Conclusion: FUS enables non-invasive control of payload release from an ARS, which could benefit growth factor delivery for tissue regeneration. ARS are versatile due to their tunability (i.e. stiffness, emulsion composition, FUS pressure, FUS frequency, etc.) and can be modified to for optimal payload release. Future work will optimize ARS formulations for in vivo use to minimize payload release in the absence of FUS. This work was supported by NIH Grant R21 AR065010 (M.L. Fabiilli) and the Basic Radiologic Sciences Innovative Research Award (M.L. Fabiilli). A. Moncion is supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Student Research Fellowship (Grant DGE 1256260).

  9. TU-CD-BRA-01: A Novel 3D Registration Method for Multiparametric Radiological Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhbardeh, A; Parekth, VS; Jacobs, MA

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Multiparametric and multimodality radiological imaging methods, such as, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), computed tomography(CT), and positron emission tomography(PET), provide multiple types of tissue contrast and anatomical information for clinical diagnosis. However, these radiological modalities are acquired using very different technical parameters, e.g.,field of view(FOV), matrix size, and scan planes, which, can lead to challenges in registering the different data sets. Therefore, we developed a hybrid registration method based on 3D wavelet transformation and 3D interpolations that performs 3D resampling and rotation of the target radiological images without loss of information Methods: T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted-imaging(DWI), dynamic-contrast-enhanced(DCE) MRI and PET/CT were used in the registration algorithm from breast and prostate data at 3T MRI and multimodality(PET/CT) cases. The hybrid registration scheme consists of several steps to reslice and match each modality using a combination of 3D wavelets, interpolations, and affine registration steps. First, orthogonal reslicing is performed to equalize FOV, matrix sizes and the number of slices using wavelet transformation. Second, angular resampling of the target data is performed to match the reference data. Finally, using optimized angles from resampling, 3D registration is performed using similarity transformation(scaling and translation) between the reference and resliced target volume is performed. After registration, the mean-square-error(MSE) and Dice Similarity(DS) between the reference and registered target volumes were calculated. Results: The 3D registration method registered synthetic and clinical data with significant improvement(p<0.05) of overlap between anatomical structures. After transforming and deforming the synthetic data, the MSE and Dice similarity were 0.12 and 0.99. The average improvement of the MSE in breast was 62%(0.27 to 0.10) and prostate was 63%(0.13 to 0.04;p<0.05). The Dice similarity was in breast 8%(0.91 to 0.99) and for prostate was 89%(0.01 to 0.90;p<0.05) Conclusion: Our 3D wavelet hybrid registration approach registered diverse breast and prostate data of different radiological images(MR/PET/CT) with a high accuracy

  10. SU-F-BRA-04: Prostate HDR Brachytherapy with Multichannel Robotic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, F Maria; Podder, T; Yu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is gradually becoming popular in treating patients with prostate cancers. However, placement of the HDR needles at desired locations into the patient is challenging. Application of robotic system may improve the accuracy of the clinical procedure. This experimental study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a multichannel robotic system for prostate HDR brachytherapy. Methods: In this experimental study, the robotic system employed was a 6-DOF Multichannel Image-guided Robotic Assistant for Brachytherapy (MIRAB), which was designed and fabricated for prostate seed implantation. The MIRAB has the provision of rotating 16 needles while inserting them. Ten prostate HDR brachytherapy needles were simultaneously inserted using MIRAB into a commercially available prostate phantom. After inserting the needles into the prostate phantom at desired locations, 2mm thick CT slices were obtained for dosimetric planning. HDR plan was generated using Oncetra planning system with a total prescription dose of 34Gy in 4 fractions. Plan quality was evaluated considering dose coverage to prostate and planning target volume (PTV), with 3mm margin around prostate, as well as the dose limit to the organs at risk (OARs) following the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) guidelines. Results: From the CT scan, it is observed that the needles were inserted straight into the desired locations and they were adequately spaced and distributed for a clinically acceptable HDR plan. Coverage to PTV and prostate were about 91% (V100= 91%) and 96% (V100=96%), respectively. Dose to 1cc of urethra, rectum, and bladder were within the ABS specified limits. Conclusion: The MIRAB was able to insert multiple needles simultaneously into the prostate precisely. By controlling the MIRAB to insert all the ten utilized needles into the prostate phantom, we could achieve the robotic HDR brachytherapy successfully. Further study for assessing the system’s performance and reliability is in progress

  11. V ITER chrání zimu tuna stříbra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan

    Říjen (2016) ISSN 2464-7888 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * tokamak * ITER * thermal shield * silver * superconductivity Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.3pol.cz/cz/rubriky/jaderna-fyzika-a-energetika/1922-v-iter-chrani-zimu-tuna-stribra

  12. WE-AB-BRA-12: Virtual Endoscope Tracking for Endoscopy-CT Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, W; Rao, A; Wendt, R; Court, L; Yang, J; Beadle, B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The use of endoscopy in radiotherapy will remain limited until we can register endoscopic video to CT using standard clinical equipment. In this phantom study we tested a registration method using virtual endoscopy to measure CT-space positions from endoscopic video. Methods: Our phantom is a contorted clay cylinder with 2-mm-diameter markers in the luminal surface. These markers are visible on both CT and endoscopic video. Virtual endoscope images were rendered from a polygonal mesh created by segmenting the phantom’s luminal surface on CT. We tested registration accuracy by tracking the endoscope’s 6-degree-of-freedom coordinates frame-to-frame in a video recorded as it moved through the phantom, and using these coordinates to measure CT-space positions of markers visible in the final frame. To track the endoscope we used the Nelder-Mead method to search for coordinates that render the virtual frame most similar to the next recorded frame. We measured the endoscope’s initial-frame coordinates using a set of visible markers, and for image similarity we used a combination of mutual information and gradient alignment. CT-space marker positions were measured by projecting their final-frame pixel addresses through the virtual endoscope to intersect with the mesh. Registration error was quantified as the distance between this intersection and the marker’s manually-selected CT-space position. Results: Tracking succeeded for 6 of 8 videos, for which the mean registration error was 4.8±3.5mm (24 measurements total). The mean error in the axial direction (3.1±3.3mm) was larger than in the sagittal or coronal directions (2.0±2.3mm, 1.7±1.6mm). In the other 2 videos, the virtual endoscope got stuck in a false minimum. Conclusion: Our method can successfully track the position and orientation of an endoscope, and it provides accurate spatial mapping from endoscopic video to CT. This method will serve as a foundation for an endoscopy-CT registration framework that is clinically valuable and requires no specialized equipment

  13. MO-DE-BRA-01: Enhancing Radiation Physics Instruction Through Gamification and E-Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driewer, J; Lei, Y; Morgan, B; Zheng, D; Zhou, S; Burchell, M; Fowler, Z

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This project sought to “gamify” the instruction of radiation interaction physics concepts for technology students. Gamification applies game mechanics and user interactions in active learning contexts. In one part of this project, a self-guided eModule was developed for conceptual radiation interaction instruction. In a second part, a web-based game, Particle Launch (http://particle-launcher.ist.unomaha.edu), was created to challenge students to quickly apply radiation interaction concepts in a way that is stimulating and motivating. Methods: The eModule, focused on conceptual interaction physics, was designed in Adobe Captivate and incorporates animation, web videos, and assessment questions in order to generate student interest. Navigating the whole module takes 40 minutes for beginners. Assessments after three main sections are comprised of 3–4 questions randomly selected from a question pool. In collaboration with the University of Nebraska at Omaha’s College of Information Science and Technology, the Particle Launch game was created with the Unity gaming engine and designed with a game-play look and feel. The object of the game is to utilize different particles, energies, and directions to destroy a target given a limited number of resources and time to complete the task. A rewards system encourages accurate shots. Results: The eModule part of the project encourages a flipped classroom model in which class time is devoted to application of concepts rather than information-based lectures. Currently, eModule assessments are not tracked but this feature could be incorporated to encourage participation. Furthermore, in a class of five technology students, the game was found to be fun and engaging and had the effect of reinforcing basic concepts from the eModule. Conclusion: Gamification has significant potential to alter medical physics instruction. Game-play feedback is an important part of the learning process. Students found Particle Launch inviting and challenging and further research could help game design. This project was generously supported by the Office of the Vice-Chancellor for Academic Affairs and the University of Nebraska Medical Center

  14. MO-AB-BRA-04: Radiation Measurements with a DNA Double-Strand-Break Dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeidat, M; Cline, K; Stathakis, S; Papanikolaou, N; Rasmussen, K; Gutierrez, A; Ha, CS; Lee, SE; Shim, EY; Kirby, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Many types of dosimeters are used to measure radiation, but none of them directly measures the biological effect of this dose. The purpose here is to create a dosimeter that can measure the probability of double-strand breaks (DSB) for DNA, which is directly related to the biological effect of radiation. Methods: The dosimeter has DNA strands, which are labeled on one end with biotin and on the other with fluorescein. The biotin attaches these strands to magnetic beads. We suspended the DNA dosimeter in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as it matches the internal environment of the body. We placed small volumes (50µL) of the DNA dosimeter into tubes and irradiated these samples in a water-equivalent plastic phantom with several doses (three samples per dose). After irradiating the samples, a magnet was placed against the tubes. The fluorescein attached to broken DNA strands was extracted (called the supernatant) and placed into a different tube. The fluorescein on the unbroken strands remained attached to the beads in the tube and was re-suspended with 50µL of PBS. A fluorescence reader was used to measure the fluorescence for both the re-suspended beads and supernatant. To prove that we are measuring DSB, we tested dosimeter response with two different lengths of attached DNA strands (1 and 4 kilo-base pair). Results: The probability of DSB at the dose levels of 5, 10, 25, and 50 Gy were 0.05, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.19, respectively, while the coefficients of variation were 0.14, 0.07, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively. The 4 kilo-base-pair dosimeter produced 5.3 times the response of the 1 kilo-base-pair dosimeter. Conclusion: The DNA dosimeter yields a measurable response to dose that scales with the DNA strand length. The goal now is to refine the dosimeter fabrication to reproducibly create a low coefficient of variation for the lower doses. This work was supported in part by Yarmouk University (Irbid, Jordan) and CPRIT (RP140105)

  15. WE-FG-BRA-08: Potential Role of the Glycolytic Oscillator in Acute Hypoxia in Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che Fru, L [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Adamson, E; Campos, D; Song, C; Kimple, R [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Fain, S; Kissick, M [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Jacques, S [Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA, Portland, OR (United States); Kogel, A van der [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Nickel, K [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Oscillatory dynamics in acute hypoxia have been observed, but poorly understood. They have mostly been attributed to vascular perturbations, but no link has yet been made to metabolic causes. We set out to determine the fundamental frequencies and test for coherence in tumor oxygen dynamics and spatial properties. Methods: Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were inoculated onto bilateral flanks with human derived head and neck carcinoma (UW-SCC22) cell line xenografts. Oxygen dynamics were monitored in the tumor every minute for an hour using three modalities: blood oxygen level dependent - magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI), hemoglobin oxygen saturation photoacoustic, and locally manufactured optical probes for spectral fitting. A statistical test was used to separate fluctuating from non-fluctuating voxels and pixels in BOLD-MRI and photoacoustic data respectively. The power spectrum density (PSD) and the autocorrelation functions were calculated for the time series of each voxel, pixel and region, of the BOLD-MRI, photoacoustic or fiber optic data respectively. Results: Using all three techniques, intermittent oxygen dynamics with both coherent and incoherent signatures was observed in the tumors. Upon averaging the PSDs of fluctuating voxels and pixels, it was found that these oscillations occurred with periods of minutes to tens of minutes from all three approaches. Observations from the BOLD-MRI and photoacoustic data showed that clusters of voxels oscillated in a synchronized manner. Conclusion: We were able to use three different modalities to show that fluctuation in tumor oxygen is both coherent and incoherent, with periods of minutes to tens of minutes. These periods are very similar to those from the well-established metabolic, non-linear biomechanical phenomenon called the glycolytic oscillator. This may provide an additional explanation to the cause of cyclic hypoxia. Such dynamics could have profound implications in hypofractionated radiotherapy regiments and could help guide treatment and make it more patient specific. The authors would like to thank the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center (UWCCC) for the funds to complete this project. This work is also supported in part by NIH/NCI P30 CA014520- UW Comprehensive Cancer Center Support”.

  16. WE-FG-BRA-12: Research Work of the Radio-Dynamic Treatment Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quanshi; Sun, Q.Y; Xiao, G.P.; Zeng, J.; Wang, L. [Beijing Top Grade Medical (Yiren Hospital), Beijing, BEIJING (China); Chen, L.L.; Ma, C.M.C. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The finite penetration depth of Laser light has limited clinical applications for PDT. This present work investigates the activation of photosensitizers using Cerenkov light emission from 45MV photon beams produced in an LA45 cancer therapy accelerator. We have named this new treatment technique Radio-Dynamic Therapy (RDT). Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were made on various Cerenkov emission energies and their spectroscopy in excited target areas in order to estimate their photosensitizer inner activation efficiency. The Cerenkov light excitation efficiency used in RDT has been theoretically compared with the exotic excitation efficiency of external Laser light used in PDT. In addition, laboratory tests showed the differences of the excitation efficiencies between a patented catalyst coenzyme added as a substrate, and then without the coenzyme. A specific probe of DMA (Singlet Oxygen fluorescent probe-9, 10-dimethylanthracene) was also used to detect singlet oxygen. Finally, we also compared our results with similar previous experimental work reported in the scientific literature. Results: Our Monte Carlo results showed that the Cerenkov light intensity induced with 45MV beams from an LA45 is 8 – 10 times the Cerenkov light intensity induced with 6MV beams from conventional accelerators. Furthermore, the patented catalyst coenzyme enhanced the excitation efficiency of photosensitizers by 3–6 times under different conditions. In clinical situations, the new RDT technique also showed favorable outcomes for early and late stages of specific cancers and it is also good at metastatic cancer treatment. Conclusion: Our results indicated that the process of using the Cerenkov light emission to excite photosensitizers from 45MV photons has a similar process and efficiency as the conventional laser in PDT. Comparing the advantages of RDT with a conventional PDT, the RDT may be developed into a potential treatment modality for a wider range of cancers stages as well as for other diseases.

  17. SU-A-BRA-04: Incorporating Active Learning Into Medical Physics Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, J. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can be used to deepen a student’s understanding of radiation physics and dosimetry.

  18. MO-DE-BRA-06: MrRSCAL: A Radiological Simulation Tool for Resident Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W; Yanasak, N [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The goal of this project was to create a readily accessible, comprehensive-yet-flexible interactive MRI simulation tool for use in training and education of radiology residents in particular. This tool was developed to take the place of an MR scanner in laboratory activities, as magnet time has become scarce while hospitals are optimizing clinical scheduling for improved throughput. Methods: MrRSCAL (Magnetic resonance Resident Simulation Console for Active Learning) was programmed and coded using Matlab on a Mac workstation utilizing OS X platform. MR-based brain images were obtained from one of the co-authors and processed to generate parametric maps. Scanner sounds are also generated via mp3 convolution of a single MR gradient slew with a time-profile of gradient waveforms. Results: MrRSCAL facilitates the simulation of multiple MR sequences with the ability to alter MR parameters via an intuitive GUI control panel. The application allows the user to gain real-time understanding of image transformation when varying these said parameters by examining the resulting images. Lab procedures can be loaded and displayed for more directed study. The panel is also configurable, providing a simple interface for elementary labs or a full array of controls for the expert user. Conclusion: Our introduction of MrRSCAL, which is readily available to users with a current laptop or workstation, allows for individual or group study of MR image acquisition with immediate educational feedback as the MR parameters are manipulated. MrRSCAL can be used at any time and any place once installed, offering a new tool for reviewing relaxometric and artifact principles when studying for boards or investigating properties of a pulse sequence. This tool promises to be extremely useful in conveying traditionally difficult and abstract concepts involved with MR to the radiology resident and other medical professionals at large.

  19. MO-DE-BRA-01: Enhancing Radiation Physics Instruction Through Gamification and E-Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driewer, J; Lei, Y; Morgan, B; Zheng, D; Zhou, S [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Burchell, M; Fowler, Z [University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This project sought to “gamify” the instruction of radiation interaction physics concepts for technology students. Gamification applies game mechanics and user interactions in active learning contexts. In one part of this project, a self-guided eModule was developed for conceptual radiation interaction instruction. In a second part, a web-based game, Particle Launch (http://particle-launcher.ist.unomaha.edu), was created to challenge students to quickly apply radiation interaction concepts in a way that is stimulating and motivating. Methods: The eModule, focused on conceptual interaction physics, was designed in Adobe Captivate and incorporates animation, web videos, and assessment questions in order to generate student interest. Navigating the whole module takes 40 minutes for beginners. Assessments after three main sections are comprised of 3–4 questions randomly selected from a question pool. In collaboration with the University of Nebraska at Omaha’s College of Information Science and Technology, the Particle Launch game was created with the Unity gaming engine and designed with a game-play look and feel. The object of the game is to utilize different particles, energies, and directions to destroy a target given a limited number of resources and time to complete the task. A rewards system encourages accurate shots. Results: The eModule part of the project encourages a flipped classroom model in which class time is devoted to application of concepts rather than information-based lectures. Currently, eModule assessments are not tracked but this feature could be incorporated to encourage participation. Furthermore, in a class of five technology students, the game was found to be fun and engaging and had the effect of reinforcing basic concepts from the eModule. Conclusion: Gamification has significant potential to alter medical physics instruction. Game-play feedback is an important part of the learning process. Students found Particle Launch inviting and challenging and further research could help game design. This project was generously supported by the Office of the Vice-Chancellor for Academic Affairs and the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

  20. WE-AB-BRA-12: Virtual Endoscope Tracking for Endoscopy-CT Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, W; Rao, A; Wendt, R; Court, L [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States); Yang, J; Beadle, B [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of endoscopy in radiotherapy will remain limited until we can register endoscopic video to CT using standard clinical equipment. In this phantom study we tested a registration method using virtual endoscopy to measure CT-space positions from endoscopic video. Methods: Our phantom is a contorted clay cylinder with 2-mm-diameter markers in the luminal surface. These markers are visible on both CT and endoscopic video. Virtual endoscope images were rendered from a polygonal mesh created by segmenting the phantom’s luminal surface on CT. We tested registration accuracy by tracking the endoscope’s 6-degree-of-freedom coordinates frame-to-frame in a video recorded as it moved through the phantom, and using these coordinates to measure CT-space positions of markers visible in the final frame. To track the endoscope we used the Nelder-Mead method to search for coordinates that render the virtual frame most similar to the next recorded frame. We measured the endoscope’s initial-frame coordinates using a set of visible markers, and for image similarity we used a combination of mutual information and gradient alignment. CT-space marker positions were measured by projecting their final-frame pixel addresses through the virtual endoscope to intersect with the mesh. Registration error was quantified as the distance between this intersection and the marker’s manually-selected CT-space position. Results: Tracking succeeded for 6 of 8 videos, for which the mean registration error was 4.8±3.5mm (24 measurements total). The mean error in the axial direction (3.1±3.3mm) was larger than in the sagittal or coronal directions (2.0±2.3mm, 1.7±1.6mm). In the other 2 videos, the virtual endoscope got stuck in a false minimum. Conclusion: Our method can successfully track the position and orientation of an endoscope, and it provides accurate spatial mapping from endoscopic video to CT. This method will serve as a foundation for an endoscopy-CT registration framework that is clinically valuable and requires no specialized equipment.

  1. WE-H-BRA-04: Biological Geometries for the Monte Carlo Simulation Toolkit TOPASNBio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, A; Held, K; Paganetti, H; Schuemann, J; Perl, J; Piersimoni, P; Ramos-Mendez, J; Faddegon, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: New advances in radiation therapy are most likely to come from the complex interface of physics, chemistry and biology. Computational simulations offer a powerful tool for quantitatively investigating radiation interactions with biological tissue and can thus help bridge the gap between physics and biology. The aim of TOPAS-nBio is to provide a comprehensive tool to generate advanced radiobiology simulations. Methods: TOPAS wraps and extends the Geant4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulation toolkit. TOPAS-nBio is an extension to TOPAS which utilizes the physics processes in Geant4-DNA to model biological damage from very low energy secondary electrons. Specialized cell, organelle and molecular geometries were designed for the toolkit. Results: TOPAS-nBio gives the user the capability of simulating biological geometries, ranging from the micron-scale (e.g. cells and organelles) to complex nano-scale geometries (e.g. DNA and proteins). The user interacts with TOPAS-nBio through easy-to-use input parameter files. For example, in a simple cell simulation the user can specify the cell type and size as well as the type, number and size of included organelles. For more detailed nuclear simulations, the user can specify chromosome territories containing chromatin fiber loops, the later comprised of nucleosomes on a double helix. The chromatin fibers can be arranged in simple rigid geometries or within factual globules, mimicking realistic chromosome territories. TOPAS-nBio also provides users with the capability of reading protein data bank 3D structural files to simulate radiation damage to proteins or nucleic acids e.g. histones or RNA. TOPAS-nBio has been validated by comparing results to other track structure simulation software and published experimental measurements. Conclusion: TOPAS-nBio provides users with a comprehensive MC simulation tool for radiobiological simulations, giving users without advanced programming skills the ability to design and run complex simulations.

  2. SU-C-BRA-06: Automatic Brain Tumor Segmentation for Stereotactic Radiosurgery Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y; Stojadinovic, S; Jiang, S; Timmerman, R; Abdulrahman, R; Nedzi, L; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), which delivers a potent dose of highly conformal radiation to the target in a single fraction, requires accurate tumor delineation for treatment planning. We present an automatic segmentation strategy, that synergizes intensity histogram thresholding, super-voxel clustering, and level-set based contour evolving methods to efficiently and accurately delineate SRS brain tumors on contrast-enhance T1-weighted (T1c) Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). Methods: The developed auto-segmentation strategy consists of three major steps. Firstly, tumor sites are localized through 2D slice intensity histogram scanning. Then, super voxels are obtained through clustering the corresponding voxels in 3D with reference to the similarity metrics composited from spatial distance and intensity difference. The combination of the above two could generate the initial contour surface. Finally, a localized region active contour model is utilized to evolve the surface to achieve the accurate delineation of the tumors. The developed method was evaluated on numerical phantom data, synthetic BRATS (Multimodal Brain Tumor Image Segmentation challenge) data, and clinical patients’ data. The auto-segmentation results were quantitatively evaluated by comparing to ground truths with both volume and surface similarity metrics. Results: DICE coefficient (DC) was performed as a quantitative metric to evaluate the auto-segmentation in the numerical phantom with 8 tumors. DCs are 0.999±0.001 without noise, 0.969±0.065 with Rician noise and 0.976±0.038 with Gaussian noise. DC, NMI (Normalized Mutual Information), SSIM (Structural Similarity) and Hausdorff distance (HD) were calculated as the metrics for the BRATS and patients’ data. Assessment of BRATS data across 25 tumor segmentation yield DC 0.886±0.078, NMI 0.817±0.108, SSIM 0.997±0.002, and HD 6.483±4.079mm. Evaluation on 8 patients with total 14 tumor sites yield DC 0.872±0.070, NMI 0.824±0.078, SSIM 0.999±0.001, and HD 5.926±6.141mm. Conclusion: The developed automatic segmentation strategy, which yields accurate brain tumor delineation in evaluation cases, is promising for its application in SRS treatment planning.

  3. Modernisation of passengers stock deposit at the regional division Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SIMA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the latest accomplishments at the Regional Division Brasov regarding the modernisation of stock depot for passengers but also future programs that will continue this process. The rolling stock used in passenger transport was followed: passenger wagons, sleeping wagons, diesel engines, electric engines.   Passenger transport organisation should aim the accomplishment of the following requirements: ensuring passengers’ security on the route and in stations; reducing travel time (by increasing trains’ speed, choosing the best routes, reducing stops at stations, ensuring certain fast links at railway junctions; intensive usage of rolling stock, of fixed installations; the appropriate combination of freight with passenger transport, passengers’ good serving at stations and trains, especially by ensuring a timetable which would provide convenient hours and reliable connections at railway junctions.

  4. TU-EF-BRA-04: Into 2, 3, and 4 Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanasak, N.

    2015-01-01

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI ( f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions

  5. SU-G-BRA-09: Estimation of Motion Tracking Uncertainty for Real-Time Adaptive Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, H; Chen, Z; Nath, R; Liu, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: kV fluoroscopic imaging combined with MV treatment beam imaging has been investigated for intrafractional motion monitoring and correction. It is, however, subject to additional kV imaging dose to normal tissue. To balance tracking accuracy and imaging dose, we previously proposed an adaptive imaging strategy to dynamically decide future imaging type and moments based on motion tracking uncertainty. kV imaging may be used continuously for maximal accuracy or only when the position uncertainty (probability of out of threshold) is high if a preset imaging dose limit is considered. In this work, we propose more accurate methods to estimate tracking uncertainty through analyzing acquired data in real-time. Methods: We simulated motion tracking process based on a previously developed imaging framework (MV + initial seconds of kV imaging) using real-time breathing data from 42 patients. Motion tracking errors for each time point were collected together with the time point’s corresponding features, such as tumor motion speed and 2D tracking error of previous time points, etc. We tested three methods for error uncertainty estimation based on the features: conditional probability distribution, logistic regression modeling, and support vector machine (SVM) classification to detect errors exceeding a threshold. Results: For conditional probability distribution, polynomial regressions on three features (previous tracking error, prediction quality, and cosine of the angle between the trajectory and the treatment beam) showed strong correlation with the variation (uncertainty) of the mean 3D tracking error and its standard deviation: R-square = 0.94 and 0.90, respectively. The logistic regression and SVM classification successfully identified about 95% of tracking errors exceeding 2.5mm threshold. Conclusion: The proposed methods can reliably estimate the motion tracking uncertainty in real-time, which can be used to guide adaptive additional imaging to confirm the tumor is within the margin or initialize motion compensation if it is out of the margin.

  6. WE-FG-BRA-07: Theranostic Nanoparticles Improve Clinical MR-Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detappe, A [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Institut Lumiere-Matiere, Lyon, FR (France); Kunjachan, S; Berbeco, R [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Sancey, L; Motto-Ros, V; Tillement, O [Institut Lumiere-Matiere, Lyon, FR (France)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: MR-guided radiation therapy is a current and emerging clinical reality. We have designed and tested a silica-based gadolinium chelates nanoparticle (AGuIX) for integration with MR-guided radiation therapy. The AGuIX nanoparticles used in this study are a dual-modality probe with radiosensitization properties and better MRI contrast than current FDA-approved gadolinium chelates. In advance of an approved Phase I clinical trial, we report on the efficacy and safety in multiple animal models and clinically relevant radiation conditions. By modeling our study on current clinic workflows, we show compatibility with modern patient care, thus heightening the translational significance of this research. Methods: The dual imaging and therapy functionality of AGuIX was investigated in mice with clinical radiation beams while safety was evaluated in mice, and nonhuman primates after systemic injection of 0.25 mg/g of nanoparticles. MRI/ICP-MS were used to measure tumor uptake and biodistribution. Due to their small size (2–3 nm), AGuIX have good renal clearance (t1/2=19min). We performed in vitro cell uptake quantification and radiosensitization studies (clonogenic assays and DNA damage quantification). In vivo radiation therapy studies were performed with both 6MV and 6MV-FFF clinical radiation beams. Histology was performed to measure the increase in DNA damage in the tumor and to evaluate the toxicity in healthy tissues. Results: In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate statistically significant increase (P < 0.01) in DNA damage, tumor growth supression and survival (+100 days) compared to radiation alone. Negligible toxicity was observed in all of the animal models. The combination of 6MV-FFF/AGuIX demonstrated a substantial dose enhancement compared to 6MV/AGuIX (DEF = 1.36 vs. 1.22) due to the higher proportion of low energy photons. Conclusion: With demonstrated efficacy and negligible toxicity in mice and non-human primates, AGuIX is a biocompatible nanoplatform with strong translational potential for MR-guided radiation therapy.

  7. MO-AB-BRA-03: Calorimetry-Based Absorbed Dose to Water Measurements Using Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Martinez, E; Malin, M; DeWerd, L [University of WI-Madison/ADCL, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Interferometry-based calorimetry is a novel technique to measure radiation-induced temperature changes allowing the measurement of absorbed dose to water (ADW). There are no mechanical components in the field. This technique also has the possibility of obtaining 2D dose distributions. The goal of this investigation is to calorimetrically-measure doses between 2.5 and 5 Gy over a single projection in a photon beam using interferometry and compare the results with doses calculated using the TG-51 linac calibration. Methods: ADW was determined by measuring radiation-induced phase shifts (PSs) of light passing through water irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam. A 9×9×9 cm{sup 3} glass phantom filled with water and placed in an arm of a Michelson interferometer was irradiated with 300, 400, 500 and 600 monitor units. The whole system was thermally insulated to achieve sufficient passive temperature control. The depth of measurement was 4.5 cm with a field size of 7×7 cm{sup 2}. The intensity of the fringe pattern was monitored with a photodiode and used to calculate the time-dependent PS curve. Data was acquired 60 s before and after the irradiation. The radiation-induced PS was calculated by taking the difference in the pre- and post-irradiation drifts extrapolated to the midpoint of the irradiation. Results were compared to computed doses. Results: Average comparison of calculated ADW values with interferometry-measured values showed an agreement to within 9.5%. k=1 uncertainties were 4.3% for calculations and 14.7% for measurements. The dominant source of uncertainty for the measurements was a temperature drift of about 30 µK/s caused by heat conduction from the interferometer’s surroundings. Conclusion: This work presented the first absolute ADW measurements using interferometry in the dose range of linac-based radiotherapy. Future work to improve measurements’ reproducibility includes the implementation of active thermal control techniques.

  8. TU-EF-BRA-02: Longitudinal Proton Spin Relaxation and T1-Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemen, L. [Univ Cincinnati (United States)

    2015-06-15

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI ( f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions.

  9. TU-EF-BRA-04: Into 2, 3, and 4 Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanasak, N. [Georgia Regents University (Georgia)

    2015-06-15

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI ( f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions.

  10. TU-EF-BRA-03: Free Induction Decay (without the Decay) and Spin-Echo Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R. [Vanderbilt Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI ( f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions.

  11. TU-EF-BRA-01: NMR and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolbarst, A. [Univ Kentucky (United States)

    2015-06-15

    NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient - Anthony Wolbarst Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t). T1-MRI; The MRI Device - Lisa Lemen ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space - Nathan Yanasak Spin-Echo; S-E/Spin Warp in a 2D Slice - Ronald Price Magnetic resonance imaging not only reveals the structural, anatomic details of the body, as does CT, but also it can provide information on the physiological status and pathologies of its tissues, like nuclear medicine. It can display high-quality slice and 3D images of organs and vessels viewed from any perspective, with resolution better than 1 mm. MRI is perhaps most extraordinary and notable for the plethora of ways in which it can create unique forms of image contrast, reflective of fundamentally different biophysical phenomena. As with ultrasound, there is no risk from ionizing radiation to the patient or staff, since no X-rays or radioactive nuclei are involved. Instead, MRI harnesses magnetic fields and radio waves to probe the stable nuclei of the ordinary hydrogen atoms (isolated protons) occurring in water and lipid molecules within and around cells. MRI consists, in essence, of creating spatial maps of the electromagnetic environments around these hydrogen nuclei. Spatial variations in the proton milieus can be related to clinical differences in the biochemical and physiological properties and conditions of the associated tissues. Imaging of proton density (PD), and of the tissue proton spin relaxation times known as T1 and T2, all can reveal important clinical information, but they do so with approaches so dissimilar from one another that each is chosen for only certain clinical situations. T1 and T2 in a voxel are determined by different aspects of the rotations and other motions of the water and lipid molecules involved, as constrained by the local biophysical surroundings within and between its cells – and they, in turn, depend on the type of tissue and its state of health. Three other common applications of MRI exploit its capability to detect and image distinct movements of fluids: MR angiography (MRA), which rivals CT angiography but often requires no contrast medium, monitors the bulk flow of blood; functional MRI ( f MRI), distinguishes the perfusion of oxygenated blood from that of de-oxygenated, and lights up parts of the brain that are activated by a stimulus, rather like PET; and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indicates the diffusion of free water along tracts of axons, thereby bringing nerve trunks into view. There are variants on all of these themes, and on others as well. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), for example, can perform non-invasive ‘virtual biopsies’ that allow identification of certain cancers and other lesions. And an MRI-guided needle biopsy can sample brain tissue from a region only millimeters in dimensions. MRI, however, involves deeper and more complex aspects of physics, technology, and biology than do most other imaging modalities, and it is widely considered to be correspondingly more difficult to learn. We could probably cover all of this rather comprehensively if we had 50 hours available rather than 2 ̶ but, to paraphrase a former Secretary of Defense, you tell your story in the time you have allotted. The four presenters and another physicist, Kevin King from GE, have combined their efforts to co-author a single slide show that describes essentials of MRI as simply as possible. It is obviously far from thorough, but hopefully it will succeed in explaining some of the basics in a simplified but still valid fashion; in providing a taste of the numerous capabilities and complexities of the modality; and in whetting your appetite to learn more. Part I. NMR, and Proton Density MRI of the 1D Patient (Wolbarst), begins with an introductory case study that illustrates a half dozen ways in which MRI provides valuable clinical information. It then explores the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon, which underlies MRI. NMR can be introduced with either of two approaches. In the first, one thinks (loosely) of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms as (rotating and charged and therefore) magnetic objects, whose spin-axes tend to align in a strong external magnetic field, much like a compass needle. As with the Bohr atom, this spin-up/spin-down picture is a highly abridged version of the full quantum mechanical treatment, but still it leads to some useful, legitimate pictures of the NMR process occurring within a voxel: When RF photons of the correct (Larmor) frequency elevate protons in a fixed magnetic field out of their lower-energy spin state into the upper, the NMR phenomenon is indicated by the detectable absorption of RF power. With the addition of a linear gradient field along a multi-voxel, one-dimensional patient/phantom, as well, we can determine the water content of each compartment – an example of a real MRI study, albeit in 1D. Part I concludes with a discussion of the net magnetization at position x, m0(x), under conditions of dynamic thermal equilibrium, which leads into: Part II. Net Voxel Magnetization, m(x,t); T1-MRI; The MRI Device (Lemen), investigates the biophysics of the form of proton spin relaxation process characterized by the time T1. It then moves on to the creation of an MR image that displays the spatial variation in the values of this clinically relevant parameter, again in 1D. Finally, the design and workings of a clinical MRI machine are sketched, in preparation for: Part III. ‘Classical’ NMR; FID Imaging in 1D via k-Space (Yanasak) presents the second standard approach to NMR and MRI, the classical model. It focuses on the time dependence of the net nuclear magnetization, m(x,t), the overall magnetic field generated by the cohort of protons in the voxel at position x. Quite remarkably, this nuclear net magnetization itself acts in a strong magnetic field like a gyroscope in a gravitational field. This tack is better for explaining Free Induction Decay (FID), which involves a brief introduction to the Fourier transform and k-space. This leads to conventional Spin-Echo (S-E) reconstruction techniques for creating clinical images from raw data, and sets the stage for: Part IV. Spin-Echo; S-E / Spin Warp in a 2D Slice (Price) discusses application of the S- E sequence of radiofrequency pulses and gradient magnetic fields to the 1D patient. T2 is introduced but not explained. This Part also considers how to manipulate the image acquisition parameters so as to generate clinical pictures with contrast dominated by spatial variations in PD, T1, or T2. We conclude by demonstrating the spin-warp approach to imaging in 2D with a simple 2×2, 4-voxel example. Much of this material is presented in more detail in the chapter “MRI of the One-dimensional Patient, Part I”, in Advances in Medical Physics, Vol 5 (2014). Copies are on display at the Medical Physics Publishing booth. Learning Objectives: The participant will learn about the processes of NMR and T1 spin relaxation in a tissue voxel in a uniform magnetic field. The participant will learn about combining spin-up/spin-down NMR and T1 processes with a linear gradient to effect frequency-encoding of voxel spatial position. This approach can be used to create proton density and T1 MRI maps, respectively, of the contents of multi-voxel 1D phantoms. The participant will learn about how the ‘classical’ model of NMR it can generate Free Induction Decay (FID) images of 1D phantoms, which involves the use of the Fourier transform in k-space. This can lead simply into standard Spin-Echo images. The participant will learn about extending Spin-Echo imaging into 2 and more dimensions.

  12. WE-FG-BRA-07: Theranostic Nanoparticles Improve Clinical MR-Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detappe, A; Kunjachan, S; Berbeco, R; Sancey, L; Motto-Ros, V; Tillement, O

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: MR-guided radiation therapy is a current and emerging clinical reality. We have designed and tested a silica-based gadolinium chelates nanoparticle (AGuIX) for integration with MR-guided radiation therapy. The AGuIX nanoparticles used in this study are a dual-modality probe with radiosensitization properties and better MRI contrast than current FDA-approved gadolinium chelates. In advance of an approved Phase I clinical trial, we report on the efficacy and safety in multiple animal models and clinically relevant radiation conditions. By modeling our study on current clinic workflows, we show compatibility with modern patient care, thus heightening the translational significance of this research. Methods: The dual imaging and therapy functionality of AGuIX was investigated in mice with clinical radiation beams while safety was evaluated in mice, and nonhuman primates after systemic injection of 0.25 mg/g of nanoparticles. MRI/ICP-MS were used to measure tumor uptake and biodistribution. Due to their small size (2–3 nm), AGuIX have good renal clearance (t1/2=19min). We performed in vitro cell uptake quantification and radiosensitization studies (clonogenic assays and DNA damage quantification). In vivo radiation therapy studies were performed with both 6MV and 6MV-FFF clinical radiation beams. Histology was performed to measure the increase in DNA damage in the tumor and to evaluate the toxicity in healthy tissues. Results: In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate statistically significant increase (P < 0.01) in DNA damage, tumor growth supression and survival (+100 days) compared to radiation alone. Negligible toxicity was observed in all of the animal models. The combination of 6MV-FFF/AGuIX demonstrated a substantial dose enhancement compared to 6MV/AGuIX (DEF = 1.36 vs. 1.22) due to the higher proportion of low energy photons. Conclusion: With demonstrated efficacy and negligible toxicity in mice and non-human primates, AGuIX is a biocompatible nanoplatform with strong translational potential for MR-guided radiation therapy.

  13. MO-AB-BRA-07: Low Dose Imaging with Avalanche Amorphous Selenium Flat Panel Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuermann, J; Howansky, A; Goldan, A; Tanioka, K; Zhao, W [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Leveille, S; Tousignant, O [2Analogic Canada, Saint-laurent, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We present the first active matrix flat panel imager (AMFPI) capable of producing x-ray quantum noise limited images at low doses by overcoming the electronic noise through signal amplification by photoconductive avalanche gain (gav). The indirect detector fabricated uses an optical sensing layer of amorphous selenium (a-Se) known as High-Gain Avalanche Rushing Photoconductor (HARP). The detector design is called Scintillator HARP (SHARP)-AMFPI. This is the first image sensor to utilize solid-state HARP technology. Methods: The detector’s electronic readout is a 24 × 30 cm{sup 2} array of thin film transistors (TFT) with a pixel pitch of 85 µm. The HARP structure consists of a 15 µm layer of a-Se isolated from the high voltage (HV) and signal electrode by a 2 µm thick hole blocking layer and electron blocking layer, respectively, to reduce dark current. A 150 µm thick structured CsI scintillator with reflective backing and a fiber optic faceplate (FOP) was coupled to the semi-transparent HV bias electrode of the HARP structure. Images were acquired using a 30 kVp Mo/Mo spectrum typically used in mammography. Results: Optical sensitivity measurements demonstrate that gav = 76 ± 5 can be achieved over the entire active area of the detector. At a constant dose to the detector of 6.67 µGy, image quality increases with gav until the effective electronic noise is negligible. Quantum noise limited images can be obtained with doses as low as 0.18 µGy. Conclusion: We demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing avalanche gain to overcome electronic noise. The indirect detector fabricated is the first solid-state imaging sensor to use HARP, and the largest active area HARP sensor to date. Our future work is to improve charge transport within the HARP structure and utilize a transparent HV electrode.

  14. SU-B-BRA-02: The Medical Physics Value Proposition for Tomorrow and Today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G. [Colorado Associates in Medical Physics (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  15. SU-B-BRA-03: A Physician Perspective on the Value of Medical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burri, S. [Levine Cancer Institute (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  16. SU-B-BRA-04: An Administrators Perspective on the Value of Medical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNary, D. [Allegheny Health Network Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  17. WE-G-BRA-06: Calibrating an Ionisation Chamber: Gaining Experience Using a Dosimetry 'flight Simulator'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, A; Saunderson, J; Ward, J

    2012-06-01

    Recently there has been great interest in the use of simulation training, with the view to enhance safety within radiotherapy practice. We have developed a Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) which facilitates this, including the simulation of a number of 'Physics practices'. One such process is the calibration of an ionisation chamber for use in Linac photon beams. The VERT system was used to provide a life sized 3D virtual environment within which we were able to simulate the calibration of a departmental chamber for 6MV and 15 MV beams following the UK 1990 Code of Practice. The characteristics of the beams are fixed parameters in the simulation, whereas default (Absorbed dose to water) correction factors of the chambers are configurable thereby dictating their response in the virtual x-ray beam. When the simulation is started, a random, realistic temperature and pressure is assigned to the bunker. Measurement and chamber positional errors are assigned to the chambers. A virtual water phantom was placed on the Linac couch and irradiated through the side using a 10 × 10 field. With a chamber at the appropriate depths and irradiated iso-centrically, the Quality Indices (QI) of the beams were obtained. The two chambers were 'inter-compared', allowing the departmental chamber calibration factor to be calculated from that of the reference chamber. For the virtual 6/15 MV beams, the QI were found to be 0.668/ 0.761 and the inter-comparison ratios 0.4408/ 0.4402 respectively. The departmental chamber calibration factors were calculated; applying these and appropriate environmental corrections allowed the output of the Linac to be confirmed. We have shown how a virtual training environment can be used to demonstrate practical processes and reinforce learning. The UK CoP was used here, however any relevant protocol could be demonstrated. Two of the authors (Beavis and Ward) are Founders of Vertual Ltd, a spin-out company created to commercialise the research presented in this abstract. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. MO-FG-BRA-05: Next Generation Radiotherapy Biomaterials Loaded With Gold Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifter, G; Ngwa, W; Sajo, E; Korideck, H; Cormack, R; Makrigiorgos, G; Kumar, R; Sridhar, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It has been proposed that routinely used inert radiotherapy (RT) biomaterials (e.g. fiducials, spacers) can be upgraded to smarter ones by coating/loading them with radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs), for sustained in-situ release after implantation to enhance RT. In this work, we developed prototypes of such RT biomaterials and investigated the sustained release of GNPs from the biomaterials as a function of design parameters. Methods: Prototype smart biomaterials were produced by incorporating the GNPs in poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer millirods during the gel phase of production. For comparison, commercially available spacers were also coated with a polymer film loaded with fluorescent GNP. Optical/spectroscopy methods were used to monitor in vitro release of GNPs over time as a function of different design parameters: polymer weighting, type, and initial (loading) GNP concentrations. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was employed to verify GNP release. Results: Results showed that gold nanoparticles could be successfully loaded in the new RT biomaterial prototypes. Burst release of GNPs could be achieved within 1 to 25 days depending on the preparation approach. Burst release was followed by sustained release profile over time. The amount of released GNP increased with increasing loading concentration as expected. The release profiles could also be customized as a function of polymer weighting, or preparation approaches. Conclusion: Considered together, our results highlight potential for the development of next generation RT biomaterials loaded with GNPs customizable to different RT schedules. Such biomaterials could be employed as needed instead of currently used inert spacers/fiducials at no additional inconvenience to patients, to enhance RT

  19. $^{80}$Br $^{80}$Br-a new electron-gamma PAC probe

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Araújo, J P; Marques, J G; Soares, J C; Melo, A A

    2001-01-01

    Conversion electron-gamma PAC measurements of the 49-37 keV cascade in /sup 80/Br through the intermediate 2/sup -/ state with T/sub 1/2 /=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF/sub 2/ scintillation detectors. The parent /sup 80m/Br activity with a halflife of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2/sup -/ state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained. (7 refs).

  20. WE-FG-BRA-11: Theranostic Platinum Nanoparticle for Radiation Sensitization in Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Y; Wagner, S; Medina-Kauwe, L; Cui, X; Zhang, G; Shiao, S; Sandler, H; Fraass, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We have developed a novel receptor-targeted theranostic platinum nanoparticle (HER-PtNP) for enhanced radiation sensitization in HER2-positive breast cancer radiation treatment. This study aims to evaluate receptor-targeting specificity, and radiation sensitization of the nanoparticle. Methods: The platinum nanoparticle (PtNP) was synthesized with the diameter of 2nm, and capped with cysteine. The nanoparticle was tagged with a fluorescent dye (cy5) for the fluoresence detection, and conjuated with HER2/3 targeted protein (HerPBK10) for HER2-targeting specificity. We evaluated the theranostic features using in vitro breast cancer cell models: HER2-positive BT-474, and HER2-negative MDA-MB-231. The HER2-targeting specificity was evaluated using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. For each cell line, three sets of samples, including non-stained control, fluorescence stained PtNP-cy5 treated, and HER-PtNP treated, were imaged by confocal microscopy. Two breast cancer cell lineages were incubated with PtNP and HER-PtNP at 10 µg/mL, and then irradiated with X-rays for 2 Gy dose at 50 kVp. A colonogenic assay was used to determine cellular survival fractions by immediately reseeding 300 cells after irradiation in growth media and allowing colonies to grow for 2 weeks. Results: The results of confocal images show that no apparent nanoparticle cellular uptake was observed in the HER2-(MDA-MB-231) cells with 1% for PtNP-cy5 and 0.5% for HER-PtNP. Similarly no apparent PtNP-cy5 uptake (<1%) for BT474 cells was observed. However, there was significant HER-PtNP uptake (73%) for the HER2+(BT474) cells. The clonogenic assay showed that BT474 cells treated with HER-PtNP had significantly lower survival compared to those treated with PtNP (32% vs 81%, p=0.01). However, no significant radiosensitivity enhancement was observed for MDA-MB-231 cell treated with PtNP and HER-PtNP (89% vs 92%, p=0.78). Conclusion: Our studies suggest that the HER2-targeted platinum nanoparticle has excellent receptor targeting specificity and enhanced radiation sensitization compared to nanoparticle alone, suggesting potential for clinical applications in breast cancer radiotherapy.

  1. SU-B-BRA-00: The Medical Physicist Value Proposition for Tomorrow and Today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherouse, G. [Landauer Medical Physics, Glenwood, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the current rapidly changing Healthcare environment, many groups are competing for limited resources. How can medical physicists position themselves to be a relevant stakeholder in the discussion of how those resources are allocated Our value goes beyond what can be shown in a business plan and is heavily involved with safety and quality. Three areas will be explored: What is our value? Who needs to receive that message? How do we communicate that message? To help frame the discussion in terms of how other stakeholders may view the value of medical physicists, a physician and an administrator will present their perspective. Lastly, a multidisciplinary panel will present real life examples of strategies that can be utilized today to establish the value of medical physicists. The presentation of these examples will lead into an interactive question and answer time. V. Willcut, I work for Elekta. There was no research associated with this talk.

  2. SU-D-BRA-05: Toward Understanding the Robustness of Radiomics Features in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackin, D; Zhang, L; Yang, J; Jones, A; Court, L; Fave, X; Fried, D; Taylor, B; Rodriguez-Rivera, E; Dodge, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To gauge the impact of inter-scanner variability on radiomics features in computed tomography (CT). Methods: We compared the radiomics features calculated for 17 scans of the specially designed Credence Cartridge Radiomics (CCR) phantom with those calculated for 20 scans of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors. The scans were acquired at four medical centers using General Electric, Philips, Siemens, and Toshiba CT scanners. Each center used its own routine thoracic imaging protocol. To produce a large dynamic range of radiomics feature values, the CCR phantom has 10 cartridges comprising different materials. The features studied were derived from the neighborhood gray-tone difference matrix or image intensity histogram. To quantify the significance of the inter-scanner variability, we introduced the metric “feature noise”, which compares the ratio of inter-scanner variability and inter-patient variability in decibels, positive values indicating substantial noise. We performed hierarchical clustering based to look for dependence of the features on the scan acquisition parameters. Results: For 5 of the 10 features studied, the inter-scanner variability was larger than the inter-patient variability. Of the 10 materials in the phantom, shredded rubber seemed to produce feature values most similar to those of the NSCLC tumors. The feature busyness had the greatest feature noise (14.3 dB), whereas texture strength had the least (−14.6 dB). Hierarchical clustering indicated that the features depended in part on the scanner manufacturer, image slice thickness, and pixel size. Conclusion: The variability in the values of radiomics features calculated for CT images of a radiomics phantom can be substantial relative to the variability in the values of these features calculated for CT images of NSCLC tumors. These inter-scanner differences and their effects should be carefully considered in future radiomics studies

  3. SU-A-BRA-04: Incorporating Active Learning Into Medical Physics Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmeister, J.

    2016-01-01

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can be used to deepen a student’s understanding of radiation physics and dosimetry.

  4. WE-H-BRA-04: Biological Geometries for the Monte Carlo Simulation Toolkit TOPASNBio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, A; Held, K; Paganetti, H; Schuemann, J [Massachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Med. School, Boston, MA (United States); Perl, J [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Piersimoni, P; Ramos-Mendez, J; Faddegon, B [University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: New advances in radiation therapy are most likely to come from the complex interface of physics, chemistry and biology. Computational simulations offer a powerful tool for quantitatively investigating radiation interactions with biological tissue and can thus help bridge the gap between physics and biology. The aim of TOPAS-nBio is to provide a comprehensive tool to generate advanced radiobiology simulations. Methods: TOPAS wraps and extends the Geant4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulation toolkit. TOPAS-nBio is an extension to TOPAS which utilizes the physics processes in Geant4-DNA to model biological damage from very low energy secondary electrons. Specialized cell, organelle and molecular geometries were designed for the toolkit. Results: TOPAS-nBio gives the user the capability of simulating biological geometries, ranging from the micron-scale (e.g. cells and organelles) to complex nano-scale geometries (e.g. DNA and proteins). The user interacts with TOPAS-nBio through easy-to-use input parameter files. For example, in a simple cell simulation the user can specify the cell type and size as well as the type, number and size of included organelles. For more detailed nuclear simulations, the user can specify chromosome territories containing chromatin fiber loops, the later comprised of nucleosomes on a double helix. The chromatin fibers can be arranged in simple rigid geometries or within factual globules, mimicking realistic chromosome territories. TOPAS-nBio also provides users with the capability of reading protein data bank 3D structural files to simulate radiation damage to proteins or nucleic acids e.g. histones or RNA. TOPAS-nBio has been validated by comparing results to other track structure simulation software and published experimental measurements. Conclusion: TOPAS-nBio provides users with a comprehensive MC simulation tool for radiobiological simulations, giving users without advanced programming skills the ability to design and run complex simulations.

  5. Är vi överens om det? Samspel och samstämmighet i svensklärares bedömningssamtal om gymnasieelevers skrivande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Blomqvist

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln beskriver svensklärares interaktion och samstämmighet i samtal om summativ bedömning av gymnasieelevers skrivande. I ett dialogiskt perspektiv (Linell, 2011 undersöks interaktionella mönster avseende dominans, dynamik och koherens i tre svensklärargruppers bedömningssamtal. Dessa interaktionella mönster ställs i relation till uttryck för samstämmighet inom och mellan lärargrupperna. Resultatet visar att lärarna uttrycker hög grad av samstämmighet i bedömningssamtalen men att de bedömningar som lärarna gör enskilt i anslutning till samtalen enbart till viss del överensstämmer med gruppens beslut. Lägst grad av samstämmighet uppvisar den lärargrupp som i samtalen framstod som mest samstämmig. Där kännetecknas beslutsprocesserna av låg intensitet genom att få alternativ till bedömningar prövas. I de lärargrupper där intensiteten är högre genom att flera lärare styr samtalet i olika riktningar och där lärarna tillsammans prövar flera olika förslag på bedömning överensstämmer även enskilda lärares bedömningar i högre grad med gruppens beslut. Bedömningsöverensstämmelsen mellan lärargrupperna är däremot låg.

  6. Breasts and Bras (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These days, many girls' first bra is a sports bra, a type of bra worn by active women of any ... to figure out which ones she prefers. Besides sports bras, there are a lot of other types of bras. The most natural-looking bra is ...

  7. Mötet mellan skäggiga män : Hur ett socialt möte skapar en plats

    OpenAIRE

    Werbowsky, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Today our physical appearance is more important than before. The way we physically present ourselves is how many of us would like to be seen. By acting a certain way, dressing a certain way or spend time with a certain social group we identify ourselves. A certain style that an individual presents can say something about what that individual are interested in and how the person spends his or her time. Today many complement their physical appearance with a physical attribute like a be...

  8. Word-of-blog : Hur WOM på bloggar påverkar ett företags försäljning

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Sara; Johansson, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Företag har länge använt sig av samtal mellan människor för att sprida budskap om produkter, tjänster och varumärken. Forskare visade redan på 1950-talet att denna typ av informella konversationer, även kallad word-of-mouth (WOM), påverkar konsumenters köpbeteende och företags försäljning. I och med utvecklandet av Internet har WOM fått ytterligare uppmärksamhet och idag ser vi att fler och fler företag använder sig av kanaler såsom internetforum och bloggar som del av sin marknadsföring. Tro...

  9. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine); . the method was relatively simple; . the method could include an anaerobic step if needed; the method could include food; knowledge of the method existed in Sweden; and the method had been compared and evaluated in a scientific publication. In the experimental part of the study the bioaccessibility of antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and zinc in seven different ashes at two different particle size fractions (<63 mum and <2 mm) was investigated. These fractions were chosen to represent voluntary (<2 mm) and involuntary (<63 mum) ingestion of ash. The investigated ashes were produced in different incineration plants and represented different categories, i.e. type of ash (fly ash or bottom ash), fuel and incinerator. In the experimental part the influence of total concentration of the elements on their bioaccessibility was also investigated, as well as the influence of particle size fraction on total content of the elements. The influence of type of ash on both bioaccessibility and total concentration of the specific elements was also investigated. The bioaccessible fraction of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in a selection of ashes showed a higher variation between the different elements than between the different ashes. With the exception of arsenic in two of the investigated ashes, the bioaccessible concentration was substantially less than the total concentration of all elements in all ashes. The bioaccessible fraction of arsenic was high both in fly ashes (>85%) and in bottom ashes (40-85%). The bioaccessible fraction of lead was also relatively high and varied between 14 and 60% in the different ashes. Cadmium also had a high bioaccessible fraction which varied between 50-75% in the investigated ashes. The bioaccessible fraction of chromium was much smaller compared to the bioaccessible fraction of the other elements, and was with two exceptions less than 12%. The bioaccessible fraction of copper was relatively high and varied between 20 and 70% in the different ashes. In this study, particle size fraction only had an effect on the bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, chromium, and copper. For these elements, bioaccessibility was higher in the smaller particle size fraction representing involuntary ingestion. Particle size fraction also had an effect on the total concentration of cadmium, nickel, antimony and zinc, with higher total concentrations in the smaller particle size fraction. Total concentration only had an effect on the bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, copper and lead, with higher bioaccessible fractions at lower total concentrations. The type of ash had an influence on the bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, cadmium, chromium and antimony, with a higher bioaccessible fraction of arsenic, chromium and antimony in fly ashes compared to in bottom ashes, and a higher bioaccessible fraction of cadmium in bottom ashes compared to in fly ashes.

  10. Two-stage combustion, a new concept in reducing alkali related operational problem; Tvaastegsfoerbraenning, ett nytt koncept att minska alkalirelaterad driftproblematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoernhede, Anders; Hermansson, Sven; Seemann, Martin; Alamia, Alberto; Larsson, Anton; Davidsson, Kent; Niklasson, Fredrik; Atongka Tchoffor, Placid; Jones, Frida

    2012-07-01

    A possible way to reduce alkali related problems during thermal conversion of fuels into heat and power is to thermally split the fuel into a relatively alkali-lean gas stream and a relatively alkali-rich char stream. The alkali-lean gas stream could then be combusted and used for high-temperature purpose, e.g. superheating of steam. The char residue could be combusted for heating of e.g. steam tubes at inferior temperatures. The purpose of this project has been to study and demonstrate such two-stage combustion, with separation of the early devolatilization from alkali-rich fuels for steam superheating. Within the project, it has been investigated if this type of thermal conversion is thermo-economically feasible. Furthermore, it has been investigated in laboratory and pilot scale trials, which kinds of fuels, temperature levels and fuel residence times that are required to achieve a flue gas with significantly lower concentrations of alkaloids, compared to single-stage conversion. The results from the thermo-economical simulations show that it is possible to arrange the heat exchanger surfaces in a power plant for thermal two-stage conversion. Compared to traditional one-stage combustion, the electricity efficiency could be increased from 35 % to more than 38 %. However, the results from combustion, gasification and pyrolysis in lab, together with gasification trials in the Chalmers pilot plant, show that the investigated woody fuels (bark and wood pellets) do not seem to be feasible for two-stage conversion. These fuels emit alkaloids exclusively in conjunction with the devolatilization in opposite to the desired effect. On the other hand, straw is a potential fuel candidate for two-stage conversion, since straw emits alkaloids during both devolatilization and char conversion. Furthermore, the results show that increased temperature generally causes increased alkali release. From the results it is suggested that the propensity of a fuel to release alkali during devolatilization or char conversion rely on if the alkali is bound organically to the fuel or as soluble or non-soluble salts. Chemical fractionation could, therefore, possibly be used as analysis method for the suitability of a fuel to be used in two-stage conversion. Future trials and investigations of two-stage conversion for separation of a alkali-lean gas of with the devolatilization should, hence, be preceded by chemical fractionation and limited to fuels that are expected to release alkaloids during the char conversion.

  11. Biodiversity on mire ecosystems and drained peatlands - a basis for environmental peat harvesting; Biologisk maangfald paa myrar och dikad torvmark - underlag foer ett miljoemaessigt torvbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stedingk, Henrik von (Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The interest of peat harvesting has increased, due to the political ambition to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase the use of local energy sources. Peatlands drained for forestry, a common resource in Sweden, can be a good energy source in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, under certain conditions. The question is what consequences increased peat harvesting would have on biodiversity in the forest landscape. To answer this question this literature study was performed to summarize what is known about the life of a natural and drained mire, and to discuss what conservation values could be found on a drained peatland. The definition of mire is a wetland with active peat accumulation, even if mires also are distinguished based on specific plant communities. A mire often contains several mire types. Some mire taxa are specialized for living on mires, other organisms have other main habitats but utilize the mire for fulfilling their life cycle. The level of knowledge varies for different organisms. The best known groups are vascular plants and bryophytes. They are also used for classifying mires since their abundance is related to gradients of pH, fertility and water level. Arthropods is a diverse group on mires favored by open moist forests and water pools. Poor mires with restricted flora may be good insect habitats. Birds are found in habitats rich in insects. Large mires are richer in wader species thanks to higher heterogeneity and a variety of insect habitats. The microscopic life in peat is rich and the species composition differs from the forest soil, even if the level of knowledge is limited. Drainage leads to species turn over for many groups of organisms and drainage often leads to a decrease in diversity. However, drained peatlands is a collective concept including different peatland types in different succession phases and different intensity of drainage. Therefore in general, drained peatlands cannot be treated as less important for biodiversity than not drained peatlands. The plant succession following drainage leads to denser vegetation and dominance of forest plants. Often drainage is followed by forestry, leading to even lower nature conservation values. Conservation values on drained peatlands are rarely studied. Potential environments for nature conservation in drained peatlands are: 1) Areas with little drainage influence and preserved mire function. 2) Late forest successions after drainage with deciduous trees and dead wood. 3) Open pine forest or swamp forest that act as refugia for old growth lichens and wood fungi. 4) Pools and stream like older ditches with running water. An inventory focused on conservation values on drained peatlands is recommended. Peat harvesting causes ecosystem shift and species living on the mire disappear. An estimation of biodiversity effects from peat harvesting must include the lost mire, time of exploitation, as well as the after-treatment. A longer time perspective is therefore required when evaluating consequences of peat harvesting. The development of a broader spectra of after-treatment involving biodiversity is essential, as well as a system that guarantees a long term perspective in after-treatment for biodiversity. Methods for evaluating effects on the landscape level from increased peat harvesting are required. Increased peat harvesting on drained peatlands could be in convergence with the Swedish environmental goals, if choice of site and after-treatment is based on landscape analysis focusing on biodiversity

  12. Exposure conditions, lung function and airway symptoms in industrial production of wood pellets. A pilot project; Exponeringsfoerhaallanden, lungfunktion och luftvaegsbesaer vid industriell produktion av traepellets. Ett pilotprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, Katja; Loefstedt, Haakan; Berg, Peter; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, Cecilia; Selden, Anders [Oerebro Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Yrkes- och miljoemedicinska kliniken; Eriksson, Kaare [Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Holmstroem, Mats; Rask- Andersen, Anna [Uppsala Univ. Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    The production of wood pellets is a relatively new branch of the Swedish wood industry and has increased during the last years. A pilot study was performed to investigate the prevalence of airway symptoms, lung function and exposure among all 39 men employed in industrial production of wood pellets at six companies. The study included a questionnaire, medical examination, registration of nasal-PEF (peak expiratory flow) during a week, allergy screening (Phadiatop) and lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift. The results were compared with different reference data from other Swedish studies. Exposure measurements of monoterpenes and wood dust on filter and with a data logger (DataRAM) were also performed. The study group reported a higher frequency of cough without phlegm, awakening due to breathlessness and current asthma medication compared with reference data. For five of the six participants with physician-diagnosed asthma the disease debuted before the current employment and the results did not indicate an unusual asthma morbidity. Spirometry showed lower lung function before work shift than expected. However no difference over work shift was observed. A negative and non-significant correlation was seen between time with current work task and lung function. The study group reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms mostly blockage, sneezing and dryness compared with reference data. The registrations of nasal-PEF did not show any differences between work and spare time. The prevalence of positive Phadiatop (23 %) did not differ from reference data. No association between exposure (wood dust and monoterpenes) and acute effects on lung function was observed. The wood dust exposure (0.16-19 mg/m{sup 3}) was high and 11 of 24 measurements exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit of 2 mg/m{sup 3}. Peak exposures could be identified, e.g. at cleaning of engines with compressed air, with the DataRAM. The exposure to monoterpenes (0.64 and 24 mg/m{sup 3}) was low compared with the present Swedish limit of 150 mg/m{sup 3}. The monoterpene exposure does not seem to be a health or exposure problem in industrial production of wood pellets but wood dust exposure can effect the airways negatively. In this study the levels of wood dust were high and the study group reported more airway symptoms than expected. However the effect on lung function was small, but steps to reduce wood dust exposure should be done.

  13. Study of energy consumption in agriculture. An project commissioned by the Board of Agriculture; Kartlaeggning av jordbrukets energianvaendning. Ett projekt utfoert paa uppdrag av Jordbruksverket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Sundberg, Martin; Brown, Nils

    2010-07-01

    JTI has, on behalf of the Swedish Board of Agriculture, conducted a study on energy consumption in agriculture. The study also proposes measures to reduce the energy use and includes an outlook towards the future of the Swedish agricultural development. The study is limited to the use of fuel and electricity used for field-work and in farm work and energy for heating. Energy for heating of residential buildings and drying is not included in the mandate. The Swedish agricultural uses about 3.11 TWh of energy in the form of gas, electricity, oil and biofuels, not including drying and greenhouses. In addition, approx. 3.64 TWh of energy are consumed indirectly, 2.31 TWh of which from fertilizer use. The Swedish agriculture is moving towards fewer but larger farms. The number of enterprises has decreased from 26000 in year 2005 to 21700 in 2009. Increased energy production, both as a supplier of raw materials and recipients of products means that energy use is affected. In the future energy use will probably be affected by an increase in farm-based production of energy, primarily biogas for cogeneration. The variations in estimates of energy use are large, and agriculture's total energy use can vary between 1.64 TWh to 4.04 TWh, depending on the data sets used. Since the use of diesel dominate over the use of electricity, it is interesting to focus on reducing diesel consumption. Field work and harvest are the activities where the largest consumption of diesel is made. Measures can be taken are primarily farmers are running in a more energy efficient way. Other measures are: Reduced tillage; Replacing transport with tractor-trailer by truck; Transport of manure with other equipment than their own spreader; Livestock use of energy is primarily electricity for lighting, ventilation, distribution, cleaning, feeding, etc. The largest variations in energy use are associated with animal husbandry. It is difficult to generally comment on actions in order to reduce energy use in the farm. Care and maintenance of ventilation is a simple and effective measure that can reduce energy use by 10%. Smart technology choices, may, dependent on type of stable and local conditions, reduce the use of up to 60%. Well-designed and maintained lighting can save approximately 30%. The use of indirect energy is dominated by the production of fertilizers. It is approximately 2.7 TWh / year, but by using fertilizer manufactured with today's BAT, the indirect energy consumption be reduced to approximately 1.6 TWh/year

  14. Glass-covering of large building volumes. An interdisciplinary evaluation of a shopping centre; Oeverglasning av stora byggnadsvolymer; En tvaervetenskaplig utvaerdering av ett koepcentrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeman, R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Technology

    1993-11-01

    Systematized experiences of the function of large glass- covered spaces related to shopping centres, hotels, office buildings etc. are still relatively limited. With the glazed pedestrian precincts of the rebuilt Skaerholmen Centre in Stockholm as the main object of interdisciplinary studies, the aim of this thesis is to provide additional knowledge of large glass-covered spaces (atrium buildings). The studies comprises thermal comfort, temperature conditions, ventilation, energy balance, humidity - mycology, acoustics, operation - maintenance - durability and sociology. To sum up, it is clear that in the Scandinavian climate there is every likelihood of large glass-covered spaces in the public places functioning well from a technical as well as a social point of view. The energy consumption on heating the whole complex, based on theoretical calculations and measurement, is shown to have been reduced by the order of 10%. (author) figs., tabs., 101 refs

  15. Den tjuvmjölkande kvinnan - ett motiv i den teologiska utmarken = The milk-stealing woman : a motif in the margins of theology / Ann-Sofi Forsmark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Forsmark, Ann-Sofi

    2006-01-01

    Upplandi kirikutes esinevast paharetiga mestis olevast piima varastava ja võid kloppiva naise motiivist seinamaalidel kui marginaalsest teoloogias. See oli seotud Euroopasse jõudnud "nõiajahiga", kus arvati, et naine on aldis igasugustele pahategudele tänu kuradi mõjuvõimule naise üle

  16. Bayeuxtapetens marginaler - ett utrymme för kommunikation om kvinnligt och manligt? = Medieval margins - a site of communicatin about male and female? / Agneta Ney

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ney, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Bayeux' gobeläänist, mis kujutab Inglismaa vallutamist 11. sajandil normannide poolt - uurimus on vastukajaks kunstiteadlase Michael Camille'i arvamusele, et vaibaäärtel on kujutatud misogüüne. Naiste kujutamisest vaibal, oletatavatest põhjustest ja tähendustest

  17. Towards an economic sustainable, high yielding and climate-smart agriculture with high landscape values; Paa vaeg mot ett ekonomiskt haallbart, hoegproducerande och klimatsmart jordbruk med hoega landskapsvaerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, Karl-Ivar

    2013-07-15

    In 1995-97, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency carried out a futures study with the aim of identifying ways to achieve environmentally friendly, sustainable Swedish agriculture by 2021. The results indicated that major environmental improvements were possible, while also improving profitability and increasing production of food and bioenergy. At a time half way between 1995 and 2021, the trends predicted in that study were compared against actual developments in agriculture. The analysis showed that most objectives regarding environmental quality were on the way to being achieved relatively well. However, profitability continued to be weak, while food production had decreased and bioenergy production was far below the predicted level. The latter means that agriculture was far from achieving the target of compensating for its emissions of greenhouse gases through bioenergy production substituting for fossil energy. This analysis showed that weak profitability and insufficient production capacity at current prices are the greatest sustainability problems in Swedish agriculture. If profitability cannot be improved, agriculture will decline and its positive effects on the landscape will decrease. If production does not increase, there will have to be continued or increased food imports, which are often less favourable from an environmental perspective than food produced in Sweden. If bioenergy production in agriculture does not drastically increase, it will be difficult to realise the vision of a Sweden without net emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The present report updates the futures study. In the evaluation, great emphasis is placed on identifying paths to economically sustainable, high producing and climate-smart agriculture with high landscape values. It is assumed that the current agricultural support system is replaced with environmental payment based on landscape and climate benefits. The views expressed in this report are those of its author and do not necessarily coincide with views held by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

  18. IAS 40 ur ett Nordenperspektiv : Jämförelse av regelverkets efterlevnad 2014 jämfört med 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wigge, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Börsnoterade bolag ska i sin koncernredovisning redovisa enligt IFRS och förvaltningsfastigheter skall redovisas enligt IAS 40 Förvaltningsfastigheter. Detta examensarbete undersöker hur Nordiska börsnoterade bolag tillämpar vissa punkter inom IAS 40 i 2014 års redovisning jämfört med 2009 års redovisning. Syftet med undersökningen är att undersöka skillnader mellan de granskade företagens redovisning 2014 och 2009, med utgångspunkten i en tidigare publicerad undersökning (Hedlund & Ersso...

  19. Alkali and chlorine in biomass - a problem in connection with power generation. Alkali och klor i biomassa - ett problem vid elgenerering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, S

    1991-06-04

    The literature survey gives a summary of the macronutrients and the variations in different biomass. Especially alkali is discussed. The work gives an account of difficult biomass fuels which will rather be used in hot water boilers than in gas turbines of power generation. The amount of alkali and chlorine increases from hardwood < softwood < salix < straw from Phalaris arundineral (harvested during summer). The range of variation was 10-25 between the assortments. The fraction division is the most important factor for the variation. Alkaline content also depend on age, soil fertility and storage methods. Seasonal aspects and local depositions are less important. However, great care should be taken with fuel from coastal areas because of chlorine depositions. Gasification of biomass to produce gas for combined cycle operation poses special problems. The alkali content of logging residues have to be cleaned up to approximately 99 % in the example. When the process gas is originated from straw or salix the separation have to be even more efficient. The method used for the separation could be based on wet or dry technic hotgas cleanup has not yet been tested in large scale but seems to be a promising method to attain high degree of separation and power efficiency. Difficulties of power generation make straw fuels less interesting. The content of alkali and chlorine can be considerably decreased by changing the way of fertilization and cultivation period. If everything turns out well, this would give a complementary for gasification or steam generation. To the greates part this fuels will however be used in pure heat production. (author).

  20. Karlstads universitet - Ut i skogen, vad ska jag dit och göra? : En rapport om skapandet av ett unikt monterkoncept

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Karin; Jernberg, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    Sammanfattning Mässor förekom som fenomen redan under medeltiden och har allt sedan dess använts som en kanal för försäljning och marknadsföring. Idag tävlar företag och organisationer om mässbesökares uppmärksamhet genom att skapa attraktiva montrar med vinnande koncept som ska locka människor och få dem att lägga företagsnamnet på minnet. Detta är vad Karlstads universitet haft i åtanke då de utformat beskrivningen till detta projekt. Bakgrunden till projektet är att universitetet finns r...

  1. Luhmanns massmedieteori och Internet som ett artificiellt intelligent semiotiskt system [Luhmann’s mass-media theory and Internet as an artificial intelligent semiotic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kåhre

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how a modern form of AI programming, known as Connectionism in a design known as Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI, affects the perception Luhmann has on mass media's role concerning second-order observations. DAI uses nodes to create activity in the systems and not the codes used by the Classic or Symbolic form of AI. Luhmann’s theory can be developed by replacing the systems codes with nodes that change depending on their relations to other nodes. In this way, we can reformulate the concept of communication, so that it includes the systems interactions with the environment. It creates better conditions so that observing opportunities may arise directly from these interactions. Internet and AI-programmed search systems and robots can then act as an artificial semiotic system that creates opportunities for making observations.

  2. "Parasta oli, että työntekijä vaivautui tulemaan meille asti, monta kertaa." : Kokemuksia ratkaisukeskeisestä neuropsykiatrisesta valmennuksesta

    OpenAIRE

    Isomettä, Jenni

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aihe nousi esiin Tampereen kaupungin lasten ja nuorten terveyspalveluiden OSMO-hankkeesta. Työelämätaho oli vakuuttunut tämänkaltaisen työn tarpeellisuudesta. OSMO-lyhenne tulee sanoista osaamisverkostoista monimuotoinen tuki lasten ja nuorten kehitysympäristöihin. Opinnäytetyössä kartoitettiin Tampereen kaupungin OSMO-hankkeen ratkaisukeskeiseen neuropsykiatriseen valmennukseen osallistuneiden kokemuksia valmennuksesta. Opinnäytetyössä selvitettiin, mitä he ovat kokeneet valmen...

  3. Musik som ett specialpedagogiskt verktyg för barns språkutveckling : Fem sydafrikanska pedagogers syn på musik som pedagogiskt verktyg

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Lina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to study if and how five South African educators work with music as a special pedagogical tool in children's language development. To achieve the purpose of this study, two research questions were created. As method, interviews of a qualitative character were chosen.  The aim of the method is to give the educators the opportunity to think about and use their own experience before answering the questions. The result shows that the South African educators are not us...

  4. Effekterna av att ”flippa”ett klassrum med fokus på att lära ut engelska som andraspråk

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Yasmin; Säberg, Maja

    2016-01-01

    This literature review analyses what advantages and disadvantages can be gained by utilizing the flipped classroom method. The Swedish curriculum has been taken into consideration when conducting this review in order to see whether the method is compatible with the aim of the subject of English in the Swedish upper secondary school. Two key principles behind the flipped classroom are ‘active learning’ and ‘student-centered learning’. These key principles have been discussed and contrasted wit...

  5. Waste treatment in a systems perspective - Summary report -; Systemstudie Avfall - Sammanfattning - Sammanfattning av huvudresultat fraan projektet 'Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Johan; Bisaillon, Mattias; Haraldsson, Maarten; Norrman Eriksson, Ola; Sahlin, Jenny; Nilsson, Karolina

    2010-07-01

    The report 'Waste treatment in a systems perspective - Summary report' summarizes the main results from the studies made within the research project 'Thermal and biological treatment in a systems perspective'. The aim of the project is to develop tools and methodologies for systems analysis of waste management. The tools are used to evaluate waste treatment technologies for both household waste and commercial waste in a systems perspective. The focus is set to the municipal/regional waste and district heating system. However, to generate a full system analysis it is also important to consider effects that occur in the systems environment, such as the transport sector, the electricity production system, the agricultural sector etc. The report describes the benefits of using systems models for waste management planning by illustrating interesting results from the case studies made within the framework of the project. The report also presents the outcome from the whole project on an aggregated level as well as how the results and models have been used in different spin off projects. More thorough descriptions of models, methodologies and results are given in the reports for the two case studies, mainly. These reports presents two different case studies for municipal/regional waste management systems and are published by Waste Refinery, 'A systems study of the waste management system in Gothenburg' and 'A systems study of the waste management system in Boraas'. The models and methodology developed in the research project has been used in several 'spin-off projects'. Some of the main results of these studies will be presented in this report, together with references to more extensive descriptions. We can conclude, after these three years of research, that the results from the system studies have been used for the practical waste management planning in both Boraas and Gothenburg. The models and the results from the two case studies have also been used by other waste management systems in Sweden as well as for national waste management studies. The project has been presented internationally for researchers and practitioners where it has contributed with modelling knowledge and results presenting the effectiveness of integrated waste management combined with district heating systems. The results concerning options for reducing greenhouse gases have also reached the political arena in the EU, e.g. through ISWA to the Copenhagen meeting (COP15)

  6. Torg som mötesplats i stadsrummet : En undersökning om hur ett torg kan göras mer inbjudande och aktivt

    OpenAIRE

    Stjärnesund, Josefine

    2017-01-01

    This is a thesis in Information Design with an emphasis on Spatial Design. The purpose of the study is to create an active square that fullfills modern day expectations and requirements regarding function and aesthetics. The study investigates how Stora torget (English translation: “The Big Square”) in Västerås can be more inviting and how it should be designed to communicate that is is a meeting place for everyone. Through spatial analysis, observations, notation analysis, interviews and the...

  7. Kan stadsbors användning av IT bidra till ett hållbart samhälle? : En kunskapsöversikt.

    OpenAIRE

    Apelmo, Elisabet; Greger, Henriksson

    2014-01-01

    This report deals with everyday habits with environmental impacts in relation to the use of information and communication technology (ICT, colloquially referred to as IT). We raise issues related to a) how environmentally promising and problematic ‘ICT-practices’ in urban everyday life can be identified and b) how the potential for such practices to be transformed through the use of ICT can be assessed, and ultimately utilized, in the context of sustainable urban development. These issues we ...

  8. Anpassning av ett avgassystem för en motkolvstvåtaktsmotor med HCCI-förbränning

    OpenAIRE

    LAINEZ MARTÍ, JAVIER

    2010-01-01

    Målet för detta examensarbete har varit att förbättra driften av en motkolvs tvåtaktsmotormed HCCI-förbränning. Huvudfokus för arbetet har varit på gasväxlingsprocessen, dåfrämst avgasprocessen.Motorn har studerats med utgångspunkt från hur en tvåtakts Otto-cykel fungerar.Gasväxlingsprocessen i tvåtaktsmotorer kännetecknas av behovet av att snabbt få ut denförbrända gasen och införa ny blandning vid varje expansionstakt, samt avsaknaden avventiler. Behovet att kunna kontrollera gasflödet geno...

  9. Adaption of the power distribution system to a sustainable energy system - Smart meters and intelligent nets; Anpassning av elnaeten, till ett uthaalligt energisystem - Smarta maetare och intelligenta naet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Math

    2010-11-15

    The conversion of the energy system towards sustainability is a major challenge for society. The conversion includes a large-scale introduction of renewable electricity and the electrification of transport. Adaptations of the grid are needed in order to cope with this development: - Facilitate an increased introduction of renewable electricity; - Enabling power reduction at peak load; - Improve incentives for energy efficiency; - Creating conditions for more active purchasers of electricity. Security of supply must be high, although the new production affects the electricity grid in a different way than today. Therefore, new technical solutions, a so-called smart grid, is necessary in order to, inter alia, prevent congestion and over voltages, but also to enhance the operational safety in general. There is new technology that can help adjust the grid in an efficient and flexible way. Intelligent networks, or smart grids, is the collection of new technology, function and regulatory framework in the electricity market, etc. that cost-effectively facilitate introduction and utilization of renewable electricity generation, leading to reduced energy consumption, contributes to power reduction in peak load and creates conditions for active electricity customers. Sweden is one of the countries that score high in terms of active electricity customers and feedback of consumption for electricity customers. There is a direct consequence of introduction of the metering reform and installation of the AMR, in which Sweden was one of the first countries in Europe. As for modern technology to increase transmission capacity of transmission networks such as HVDC and FACTS technology, Sweden is a world leader. This technology will play an important role in enabling large-scale use of renewable electricity generation on European level. The investigation has resulted in the following proposals: - A knowledge platform created to be collect and disseminate relevant knowledge of research, development and demonstration to all stakeholders. An independent Coordination Council is established as a base for platform. - Funding for research, development and demonstration shall be done by existing structures. The EI should be given a increased role both as regards the allocation of resources and capabilities to develop the function and regulatory framework in the electricity market, - Svenska Kraftnaet is given the task to develop a comprehensive action plan for how the Swedish electricity grid will be adapted to the objectives for the development of renewable electricity generation and conversion of energy system. An important prerequisite for action is a system for equalizing the costs of connecting wind and other renewable energy sources, - Increased incentives for network companies to invest in smart grid is introduced in regulation; - Hourly metering is introduced for the majority of electricity customers, - EI should be instructed to review electricity companies' tariff structures in order to reduce peak load, - EI should be given the task of designing functional requirements of the customer information in order to increase opportunities to actively respond to market price signals, - EI is given the task of analyzing roles and responsibilities of different players in order to identify and suggest possible measures for to promote the use and development of smart grids, - EI should be instructed to analyze whether the current split in the national, regional and local networks are efficient. The timetable for implementing the above proposals are determined with consideration of the prior regulation. Results should be available well before March 2015 to provide electricity traders to adjust their investment plans; fall 2013 is proposed as the target date

  10. Kreatör eller reklampelare? : En intervjustudie om influencers deltagande och påverkan i ett klädföretags kampanj

    OpenAIRE

    Törnqvist, Alexandra; Horneij, Sofia

    2018-01-01

    Creator or billboard? An interview study based on influencers’ participation and impact in a clothing company’s campaign. The purpose of this study is to examine six influencers’ experiences of participating in a clothing company's campaign. The aim is to acquire a deeper understanding of what impact the influencers have in the campaign. The method used is qualitative interviews with six of fifteen influencers who participated in a clothing company's campaign in October 2017. The influencers ...

  11. Work-life balance utifrån ett arbetsgivarperspektiv : Om arbetsgivares arbete och inställning mot work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Johan

    2014-01-01

    I och med att tid spenderad på arbetsplatsen verkar fortsätta öka blir allt mindre och mindre tid kvar till familj och fritid, eller det som i denna uppsats benämns som övrigt liv. Den vanligaste orsaken till att en individ upplever obalans är att arbetssfären är för dominerande och lämnar kvar för lite tid till övriga sfärer. Därför har syftet i denna uppsats varit att öka förståelsen för hur och varför olika arbetsgivare arbetar med work-life balance samt att ta reda på vad de har för instä...

  12. "medarbetarna ska hålla i längden" : en kvalitativ studie om en hälsointervention ur ett chefsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Frögner, Ulrika; Nilsson, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Organisationen har en betydande roll i medarbetarens livspussel. Det finns mycket att vinna för arbetsgivaren genom att hantera problem och finna lösningar som passar den anställde. Studier av hälsofrämjande interventioner på arbetsplatsen visar att bäst resultat uppnås om interventionen riktar sig samtidigt till både individen och organisationen. Syftet med studien var att beskriva kommunanställda chefers uppfattningar av hur en interventionsstudie, som chefernas medarbetare deltagit i, påve...

  13. Regional monitoring of deposition and effects of air pollution; Regional oevervakning av nedfall och effekter av luftfoeroreningar. Sammanfattande slutrapport fraan ett samarbetsprojekt mellan IVL, laenen och Naturvaardsverket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselsson, Cecilia; Ferm, Martin; Hallgren Larsson, Eva; Knulst, Johan; Loevblad, Gun; Malm, Gunnar; Westling, Olle

    2000-05-01

    Regional programmes in Sweden focused on deposition and effects of air pollutants have been evaluated by IVL, Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Various air quality protection associations and regional environmental authorities initiated the monitoring programmes during the period 1985 to 1990. The result of the evaluation is a revised and coordinated programme with improved methods. The new regional programme combines collection of field data with national model calculations of deposition of air pollutants. The new programme involves collection of deposition on open field (bulk) and in forest stands (throughfall), and soil solution, according to national and international standards. Improved methods for monitoring of base cation and nitrogen deposition have been developed. Ambient air concentrations are measured at some locations. The purpose is to describe environmental conditions, regional differences, and temporal changes. Data on forest stands, such as needle loss, growth, and soil chemistry, are available since most locations are permanent forest plots, established for scientific forest observations. Regional dispersion and deposition of air pollutants will be calculated with a model (SMHI-MATCH), developed for simulating the dispersion and deposition of Swedish emissions in relation to the long-range transport on a relatively fine scale (grid square 11 km). The programme also includes developed methods for data handling, interpretation, evaluation, quality assurance and demonstration of results in written reports and via Internet.

  14. Circumstances in a nuclear power plant. Organization of risk and institutionalization of safety; Omstaendigheter paa ett kaernkraftverk. Organisering av risk och institutionalisering av saekerhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessblad, H

    1999-01-01

    Risk societies are made of risk organisations. This dissertation is an ethnographic study of a risk organisation, of a nuclear power plant. Risk organizations have larger demands on their organization than traditional companies have. Risk societies, to come or already present, have new political agendas. Within a risk society the major task is to reduce and distribute the negative side effects of industrial production, not to increase and distribute well-fare in society, as it has been in an industrial society. This is a study of a risk organisation claimed to produce these negative side effects. The title of this thesis relates to specific occasions in the organisation. The branch concept, circumstances, defines `situations beyond normal performance`, which are to be reported to the nuclear authorities. These circumstances are rarely endangering man or material, but given the nature of nuclear power production, they have a potential to escalate to something larger. This dissertation focuses on how the organisation deals with these issues and reproduces safety as something taken-for-granted. The material is gathered using participant observation of different functions in the plant. The work is based on narration of situations, meetings, interviews, and small talk etc, in every-day-interaction. The dissertation describes how business-as-usual produce safety. It is a description of how values, norms, attitudes, ideas, knowledge are produced and reproduced. These issues are discussed mainly in an institutional theory perspective. What has become apparent is that functions governed by routines and instructions tend to be more flexible and reflecting than those dealing with new tasks, such as problem solving projects. Thus, these new projects tend to reproduce earlier established procedures. Through the narration of the various functions of the plant joined with theoretical discussions, different themes have been found describing how the organisation deals with difficulties and how it reproduces its normal practice. The themes are gathered under `safety is a fine art`. Legitimization of the organisation was related to the plant`s capacity to present an articulated rationality, while safety was in large produced by tacit knowledge

  15. Har världshistorien ett kön? Familj och släkt i världspolitikens mitt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sjöberg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, gender perspectives have been adopted and elaborated in almost all research areas of history, apart from world history. A review of articles published in the Journal of World History during 2001–13 demonstrates a general pattern of gender blindness in the journal, with a few important exceptions. Several explanations for why world history neglects gender history are examined in this article. First, it has been claimed that world history has a strong materialist tradition, while gender historians work mostly with cultural perspectives. However, the articles in the Journal of World History show that world history is not unfamiliar with cultural issues or methodologies. Secondly, gender historians emphasize the complexity of gender relations, which do not accord well with prevailing explanations within world history that stress macro theories and general patterns. Thirdly, gender historians concentrate their research on women in their own countries, and this is of minor interest to scholars of world history. Fourthly, the absence of women and gender relations in writing and teaching on world history reflects the fact that almost every society in world history has had a gender order that discriminates against women in favour of men. What is lacking is a consciousness of this order. This opinion is easy to agree with, but it does not suggest ways of improving the gender consciousness of world historians. Fifthly, one opinion stresses that most women in history have lived their lives in families, while families do not play an important role in world history. This opinion relies on a view of gender history as exclusively women’s history. In order to emphasize and clarify gender as a structuring principle at the general level of societies, this article ends with an overview of a similarity of significance in almost all early modern political regencies. Dynastic thinking was established all over the world, from principalities to empires, and was everywhere constructed in terms of imagined family and kinship relations with superior masculinity and subordinated femininity. How can research in world history overlook this world-wide structure? 

  16. Kärnan i lyckad kriskommunikation : En studie om extern transparens inom förebyggande kriskommunikation ur ett företagsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrning, Caroline; Kempe, Frida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Title: The core of successful crisis communication? A study of external transparency in preventative crisis communication through a company perspective. Authors: Caroline Ehrning & Frida Kempe. Aim: This study examines how four companies proactively work with external transparency within preventing crisis communication. Research problem: There are gaps in the research of preventative crisis communication, not at the least in correlation with transparency. Method/material: We have...

  17. Masser af information uden betydning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    en diskussion af informationsteorien i Tor Nørretranders "Mærk verden" og en skitse til et alternativ baseret på anden ordens kybernetik og semiotik......en diskussion af informationsteorien i Tor Nørretranders "Mærk verden" og en skitse til et alternativ baseret på anden ordens kybernetik og semiotik...

  18. Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment for the Ravines and Beach Area Study areas of the Surplus Operable Unit, Fort Sheridan, Illinois, Volume 3 - BRA Text and BRA Appendices A-L

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-13

    in quadriplegia (Ledet et al, 1973). For chickens , the lowest oral lethal dose of trivalent arsenic as arsenic trioxide and sodium arsenite reported...Benchmarks for Wildlife: 1996 Revision (ES/ER/TM-86/R3). The Original Value (mg/kg/day) for the Test Organism (rat, mouse, dove, chicken , duck) was... roasted coffee and in charcoal broiled, barbecued or smoked meats. It is also found in creosote, coal tar, petroleum asphalt, and a variety of

  19. National intercomparison on in vivo measurement of Iodine-131 in the thyroid within a Brazilian Internal Dosimetry Laboratory Network - IAEA PROJECT BRA9055; Intercomparacao nacional de medicao in vivo de Iodo-131 na tireoide - Projeto TC IAEA BRA 9055

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, B.M.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Lucena, E.A., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cardoso, J.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ramos, M.A.P.; Sa, M.S. [Eletrobras Eletronuclear, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Alonso, T.C.; Silva, T.V.; Oliveira, C.M. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, F.F.; Oliveira, M.L.; Lacerda, I.V.B. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fajgelj, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria)

    2013-08-15

    In 2011, in Brazil, a National Intercalibration and Intercomparison exercise on in vivo measurement of iodine-131 in the thyroid was carried out in the scope of the Project IAEABRA9055 'Establishing a National Laboratory Network for Internal Individual Monitoring'. The exercise was conducted by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) and the Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research (IPEN), from National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). The objectives of the exercise were to (i) update information on current instrumentation resources available in the in vivo monitoring laboratories in operation in Brazil and to (ii) verify the reliability of the results of measurements of iodine-131 in thyroid provided by those laboratories. The procedure consisted on the measurement of a neck-thyroid anthropomorphic phantom provided by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD, containing two barium-133 standard sources certified by the National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation. Each participant should measure the phantom in a period of five days. The five laboratories are located in the States of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Pernambuco, in the following Institutions: Institute for Radiation Protection and Dosimetry, Nuclear Power Station Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology, Institute for Nuclear and Energetic Research, and Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences. The results reported included: activity measured, minimum detectable activity, accuracy and precision. The performance of the laboratories was evaluated according to the criteria suggested by ANSI 13.30 indicating their capacity to provide reliable results of iodine-131 content in the thyroid. (author)

  20. SU-G-BRA-01: A Real-Time Tumor Localization and Guidance Platform for Radiotherapy Using US and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarz, B; Culberson, W; Bassetti, M; McMillan, A; Matrosic, C; Shepard, A; Zagzebski, J; Smith, S; Lee, W; Mills, D; Cao, K; Wang, B; Fiveland, E; Darrow, R; Foo, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a real-time motion management platform for radiotherapy that directly tracks tumor motion using ultrasound and MRI. This will be a cost-effective and non-invasive real-time platform combining the excellent temporal resolution of ultrasound with the excellent soft-tissue contrast of MRI. Methods: A 4D planar ultrasound acquisition during the treatment that is coupled to a pre-treatment calibration training image set consisting of a simultaneous 4D ultrasound and 4D MRI acquisition. The image sets will be rapidly matched using advanced image and signal processing algorithms, allowing the display of virtual MR images of the tumor/organ motion in real-time from an ultrasound acquisition. Results: The completion of this work will result in several innovations including: a (2D) patch-like, MR and LINAC compatible 4D planar ultrasound transducer that is electronically steerable for hands-free operation to provide real-time virtual MR and ultrasound imaging for motion management during radiation therapy; a multi- modal tumor localization strategy that uses ultrasound and MRI; and fast and accurate image processing algorithms that provide real-time information about the motion and location of tumor or related soft-tissue structures within the patient. Conclusion: If successful, the proposed approach will provide real-time guidance for radiation therapy without degrading image or treatment plan quality. The approach would be equally suitable for image-guided proton beam or heavy ion-beam therapy. This work is partially funded by NIH grant R01CA190298

  1. SU-G-BRA-01: A Real-Time Tumor Localization and Guidance Platform for Radiotherapy Using US and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarz, B; Culberson, W; Bassetti, M; McMillan, A; Matrosic, C; Shepard, A; Zagzebski, J [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Smith, S; Lee, W; Mills, D; Cao, K; Wang, B; Fiveland, E; Darrow, R; Foo, T [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a real-time motion management platform for radiotherapy that directly tracks tumor motion using ultrasound and MRI. This will be a cost-effective and non-invasive real-time platform combining the excellent temporal resolution of ultrasound with the excellent soft-tissue contrast of MRI. Methods: A 4D planar ultrasound acquisition during the treatment that is coupled to a pre-treatment calibration training image set consisting of a simultaneous 4D ultrasound and 4D MRI acquisition. The image sets will be rapidly matched using advanced image and signal processing algorithms, allowing the display of virtual MR images of the tumor/organ motion in real-time from an ultrasound acquisition. Results: The completion of this work will result in several innovations including: a (2D) patch-like, MR and LINAC compatible 4D planar ultrasound transducer that is electronically steerable for hands-free operation to provide real-time virtual MR and ultrasound imaging for motion management during radiation therapy; a multi- modal tumor localization strategy that uses ultrasound and MRI; and fast and accurate image processing algorithms that provide real-time information about the motion and location of tumor or related soft-tissue structures within the patient. Conclusion: If successful, the proposed approach will provide real-time guidance for radiation therapy without degrading image or treatment plan quality. The approach would be equally suitable for image-guided proton beam or heavy ion-beam therapy. This work is partially funded by NIH grant R01CA190298.

  2. WE-DE-BRA-04: A Cost-Effective Pixelated EPID Scintillator for Enhanced Contrast and DQE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottmann, J; Myronakis, M; Hu, Y; Berbeco, R [Brigham and Woman’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Shedlock, D; Wang, A; Humber, D; Star-Lack, J [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Morf, D; Fueglistaller, R [Varian Medical Systems, Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Beams-eye-view imaging applications such as real-time soft-tissue motion estimation and MV-CBCT are hindered by the inherently low image contrast of electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) currently in clinical use. We investigate a cost effective scintillating glass that provides substantially increased detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Methods: A pixelated scintillator prototype was built from LKH-5 glass. The array is 12mm thick; 42.4×42.4cm2 wide and features 1.51mm pixel pitch with 20µm separation (glue+septa). The LKH-5 array was mounted on the active matrix flat panel imager (AMPFI) of an AS-1200 (Varian) with the GdO2S2:Tb removed. A second AS-1200 was utilized as reference detector. The prototype EPID was characterized in terms of CNR, modulation transfer function (MTF) and DQE. Additionally, the visibility of various fiducial markers typically used in the clinic as well as a realistic 3D-printed lung tumor model was assessed. All items were placed in a 12cm thick solid water phantom. CNR is estimated using a Las Vegas contrast phantom, presampled MTF is estimated using a slanted slit technique and the DQE is calculated from measured normalized noise power spectra (NPS) and the MTF. Results: DQE(0) for the LKH-5 prototype increased by a factor of 8× to about 10%, compared to the AS-1200 equipped with its standard GdO2S2:Tb scintillator. CNR increased by a factor of 5.3×. Due to the pixel size the MTF50 decreased by about 55% to 0.23lp/mm. The visibility of all fiducial markers as well as the tumor model were however markedly improved in comparison to an acquisition with the same parameters using the GdO2S2:Tb scintillator. Conclusion: LKH-5 scintillating glasses allow the cost effective construction of thick pixelated scintillators for portal imaging which can yield a substantial increase in DQE and CNR. Soft tissue and fiducial marker visibility was found to be markedly improved. The project was supported in part by NIH grant R01CA188446-01 and a grant from Varian Medical Systems.

  3. MO-AB-BRA-10: Cancer Therapy Outcome Prediction Based On Dempster-Shafer Theory and PET Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, C [Sorbonne University, University of Technology of Compiegne, CNRS, UMR 7253 Heudiasyc, 60205 Compiegne (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF - EA 4108 LITIS, 76000 Rouen (France); Li, H; Chen, H; Robinson, C. [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Denoeux, T [Sorbonne University, University of Technology of Compiegne, CNRS, UMR 7253 Heudiasyc, 60205 Compiegne (France); Vera, P [Centre Henri-Becquerel, 76038 Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF - EA 4108 LITIS, 76000 Rouen (France); Ruan, S [University of Rouen, QuantIF - EA 4108 LITIS, 76000 Rouen (France)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In cancer therapy, utilizing FDG-18 PET image-based features for accurate outcome prediction is challenging because of 1) limited discriminative information within a small number of PET image sets, and 2) fluctuant feature characteristics caused by the inferior spatial resolution and system noise of PET imaging. In this study, we proposed a new Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) based approach, evidential low-dimensional transformation with feature selection (ELT-FS), to accurately predict cancer therapy outcome with both PET imaging features and clinical characteristics. Methods: First, a specific loss function with sparse penalty was developed to learn an adaptive low-rank distance metric for representing the dissimilarity between different patients’ feature vectors. By minimizing this loss function, a linear low-dimensional transformation of input features was achieved. Also, imprecise features were excluded simultaneously by applying a l2,1-norm regularization of the learnt dissimilarity metric in the loss function. Finally, the learnt dissimilarity metric was applied in an evidential K-nearest-neighbor (EK- NN) classifier to predict treatment outcome. Results: Twenty-five patients with stage II–III non-small-cell lung cancer and thirty-six patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinomas treated with chemo-radiotherapy were collected. For the two groups of patients, 52 and 29 features, respectively, were utilized. The leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) protocol was used for evaluation. Compared to three existing linear transformation methods (PCA, LDA, NCA), the proposed ELT-FS leads to higher prediction accuracy for the training and testing sets both for lung-cancer patients (100+/−0.0, 88.0+/−33.17) and for esophageal-cancer patients (97.46+/−1.64, 83.33+/−37.8). The ELT-FS also provides superior class separation in both test data sets. Conclusion: A novel DST- based approach has been proposed to predict cancer treatment outcome using PET image features and clinical characteristics. A specific loss function has been designed for robust accommodation of feature set incertitude and imprecision, facilitating adaptive learning of the dissimilarity metric for the EK-NN classifier.

  4. SU-G-BRA-02: Development of a Learning Based Block Matching Algorithm for Ultrasound Tracking in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, A; Bednarz, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an ultrasound learning-based tracking algorithm with the potential to provide real-time motion traces of anatomy-based fiducials that may aid in the effective delivery of external beam radiation. Methods: The algorithm was developed in Matlab R2015a and consists of two main stages: reference frame selection, and localized block matching. Immediately following frame acquisition, a normalized cross-correlation (NCC) similarity metric is used to determine a reference frame most similar to the current frame from a series of training set images that were acquired during a pretreatment scan. Segmented features in the reference frame provide the basis for the localized block matching to determine the feature locations in the current frame. The boundary points of the reference frame segmentation are used as the initial locations for the block matching and NCC is used to find the most similar block in the current frame. The best matched block locations in the current frame comprise the updated feature boundary. The algorithm was tested using five features from two sets of ultrasound patient data obtained from MICCAI 2014 CLUST. Due to the lack of a training set associated with the image sequences, the first 200 frames of the image sets were considered a valid training set for preliminary testing, and tracking was performed over the remaining frames. Results: Tracking of the five vessel features resulted in an average tracking error of 1.21 mm relative to predefined annotations. The average analysis rate was 15.7 FPS with analysis for one of the two patients reaching real-time speeds. Computations were performed on an i5-3230M at 2.60 GHz. Conclusion: Preliminary tests show tracking errors comparable with similar algorithms at close to real-time speeds. Extension of the work onto a GPU platform has the potential to achieve real-time performance, making tracking for therapy applications a feasible option. This work is partially funded by NIH grant R01CA190298.

  5. WE-DE-BRA-06: Evaluation of the Imaging Performance of a Novel Water-Equivalent EPID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, SJ [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); The Ingham Institute, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Cheng, J; Atakaramians, S; Kuncic, Z [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Vial, P [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); The Ingham Institute, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Department of Medical Physics, Liverpool & Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Liverpool, NSW (Australia); Lu, M [Perkin-Elmer Medical Imaging, Santa Clara, California (United States); Meikle, S [Faculty of Health Sciences and Brain and Mind Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the megavoltage imaging performance of a novel, water-equivalent electronic portal imaging device (EPID) developed for simultaneous imaging and dosimetry applications in radiotherapy. Methods: A novel EPID prototype based on active matrix flat panel imager technology has been developed by our group and previously reported to exhibit a water-equivalent dose response. It was constructed by replacing all components above the photodiode detector in a standard clinical EPID (including the copper plate and phosphor screen) with a 15 × 15 cm{sup 2} array of plastic scintillator fibers. Individual fibers measured 0.5 × 0.5 × 30 mm{sup 3}. Spatial resolution was evaluated experimentally relative to that of a standard EPID with the thin slit technique to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) for 6 MV x-ray beams. Monte Carlo (MC) EPID models were used to benchmark simulated MTFs against the measurements. The zero spatial frequency detective quantum efficiency (DQE(0)) was simulated for both EPID configurations and a preliminary optimization of the prototype was performed by evaluating DQE(0) as a function of fiber length up to 50 mm. Results: The MC-simulated DQE(0) for the prototype EPID configuration was ∼7 times greater than that of the standard EPID. The prototype’s DQE(0) also increased approximately linearly with fiber length, from ∼1% at 5 mm length to ∼11% at 50 mm length. The standard EPID MTF was greater than the prototype EPID’s for all spatial frequencies, reflecting the trade off between x-ray detection efficiency and spatial resolution with thick scintillators. Conclusion: This study offers promising evidence that a water-equivalent EPID previously demonstrated for radiotherapy dosimetry may also be used for radiotherapy imaging applications. Future studies on optimising the detector design will be performed to develop a next-generation prototype that offers improved megavoltage imaging performance, with the aim to at least match that of current clinical EPIDs. Funding for this project was provided by an Australian Research Council Linkage Project grant (2015) between The University of Sydney, South Western Sydney Local Health District and Perkin-Elmer Pty Ltd.

  6. WE-AB-BRA-12: Post-Implant Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy by X-Ray and MRI Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S; Song, D; Lee, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Le, Y [Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: For post-implant dosimetric assessment after prostate brachytherapy, CT-MR fusion approach has been advocated due to the superior accuracy on both seeds localization and soft tissue delineation. However, CT deposits additional radiation to the patient, and seed identification in CT requires manual review and correction. In this study, we propose an accurate, low-dose, and cost-effective post-implant dosimetry approach based on X-ray and MRI. Methods: Implanted seeds are reconstructed using only three X-ray fluoroscopy images by solving a combinatorial optimization problem. The reconstructed seeds are then registered to MR images using an intensity-based points-to-volume registration. MR images are first pre-processed by geometric and Gaussian filtering, yielding smooth candidate seed-only images. To accommodate potential soft tissue deformation, our registration is performed in two steps, an initial affine followed by local deformable registrations. An evolutionary optimizer in conjunction with a points-to-volume similarity metric is used for the affine registration. Local prostate deformation and seed migration are then adjusted by the deformable registration step with external and internal force constraints. Results: We tested our algorithm on twenty patient data sets. For quantitative evaluation, we obtained ground truth seed positions by fusing the post-implant CT-MR images. Seeds were semi-automatically extracted from CT and manually corrected and then registered to the MR images. Target registration error (TRE) was computed by measuring the Euclidean distances from the ground truth to the closest registered X-ray seeds. The overall TREs (mean±standard deviation in mm) are 1.6±1.1 (affine) and 1.3±0.8 (affine+deformable). The overall computation takes less than 1 minute. Conclusion: It has been reported that the CT-based seed localization error is ∼1.6mm and the seed localization uncertainty of 2mm results in less than 5% deviation of prostate D90. The average error of 1.3mm with our system outperforms the CT-based approach and is considered well within the clinically acceptable limit. Supported in part by NIH/NCI grant 5R01CA151395. The X-ray-based implant reconstruction method (US patent No. 8,233,686) was licensed to Acoustic MedSystems Inc.

  7. WE-AB-BRA-12: Post-Implant Dosimetry in Prostate Brachytherapy by X-Ray and MRI Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S; Song, D; Lee, J; Le, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: For post-implant dosimetric assessment after prostate brachytherapy, CT-MR fusion approach has been advocated due to the superior accuracy on both seeds localization and soft tissue delineation. However, CT deposits additional radiation to the patient, and seed identification in CT requires manual review and correction. In this study, we propose an accurate, low-dose, and cost-effective post-implant dosimetry approach based on X-ray and MRI. Methods: Implanted seeds are reconstructed using only three X-ray fluoroscopy images by solving a combinatorial optimization problem. The reconstructed seeds are then registered to MR images using an intensity-based points-to-volume registration. MR images are first pre-processed by geometric and Gaussian filtering, yielding smooth candidate seed-only images. To accommodate potential soft tissue deformation, our registration is performed in two steps, an initial affine followed by local deformable registrations. An evolutionary optimizer in conjunction with a points-to-volume similarity metric is used for the affine registration. Local prostate deformation and seed migration are then adjusted by the deformable registration step with external and internal force constraints. Results: We tested our algorithm on twenty patient data sets. For quantitative evaluation, we obtained ground truth seed positions by fusing the post-implant CT-MR images. Seeds were semi-automatically extracted from CT and manually corrected and then registered to the MR images. Target registration error (TRE) was computed by measuring the Euclidean distances from the ground truth to the closest registered X-ray seeds. The overall TREs (mean±standard deviation in mm) are 1.6±1.1 (affine) and 1.3±0.8 (affine+deformable). The overall computation takes less than 1 minute. Conclusion: It has been reported that the CT-based seed localization error is ∼1.6mm and the seed localization uncertainty of 2mm results in less than 5% deviation of prostate D90. The average error of 1.3mm with our system outperforms the CT-based approach and is considered well within the clinically acceptable limit. Supported in part by NIH/NCI grant 5R01CA151395. The X-ray-based implant reconstruction method (US patent No. 8,233,686) was licensed to Acoustic MedSystems Inc.

  8. WE-G-BRA-03: Developing a Culture of Patient Safety Utilizing the National Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, B; Workie, D; Geraghty, C [Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To transition from an in-house incident reporting system to a ROILS standards system with the intent to develop a safety focused culture in the Department and enroll in ROILS. Methods: Since the AAPM Safety Summit (2010) several safety and reporting systems have been implemented within the Department. Specific checklists and SBAR reporting systems were introduced. However, the active learning component was lost due to reporting being viewed with distrust and possible retribution.To Facilitate introducing ROILS each leader in the Department received a copy of the ROILS participation guide. Four specific tasks were assigned to each leader: develop a reporting tree, begin the ROILS based system, facilitate adopting ROILS Terminology, and educate the staff on expectations of safety culture. Next, the ROILS questions were broken down into area specific questions (10–15) per departmental area. Excel spreadsheets were developed for each area and setup for error reporting entries. The Role of the Process Improvement Committee (PI) has been modified to review and make recommendations based on the ROILS entries. Results: The ROILS based Reporting has been in place for 4 months. To date 64 reports have been entered. Since the adoption of ROILS the reporting of incidents has increased from 2/month to 18/month on average. Three reports had a dosimetric effect on the patient (<5%) dose variance. The large majority of entries have been Characterized as Processes not followed or not sure how to Characterize, and Human Behavior. Conclusion: The majority of errors are typo’s that create confusion. The introduction of the ROILS standards has provided a platform for making changes to policies that increase patient safety. The goal is to develop a culture that sees reporting at a national level as a safe and effective way to improve our safety, and to dynamically learn from other institutions reporting.

  9. WE-G-BRA-03: Developing a Culture of Patient Safety Utilizing the National Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (ROILS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, B; Workie, D; Geraghty, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To transition from an in-house incident reporting system to a ROILS standards system with the intent to develop a safety focused culture in the Department and enroll in ROILS. Methods: Since the AAPM Safety Summit (2010) several safety and reporting systems have been implemented within the Department. Specific checklists and SBAR reporting systems were introduced. However, the active learning component was lost due to reporting being viewed with distrust and possible retribution.To Facilitate introducing ROILS each leader in the Department received a copy of the ROILS participation guide. Four specific tasks were assigned to each leader: develop a reporting tree, begin the ROILS based system, facilitate adopting ROILS Terminology, and educate the staff on expectations of safety culture. Next, the ROILS questions were broken down into area specific questions (10–15) per departmental area. Excel spreadsheets were developed for each area and setup for error reporting entries. The Role of the Process Improvement Committee (PI) has been modified to review and make recommendations based on the ROILS entries. Results: The ROILS based Reporting has been in place for 4 months. To date 64 reports have been entered. Since the adoption of ROILS the reporting of incidents has increased from 2/month to 18/month on average. Three reports had a dosimetric effect on the patient (<5%) dose variance. The large majority of entries have been Characterized as Processes not followed or not sure how to Characterize, and Human Behavior. Conclusion: The majority of errors are typo’s that create confusion. The introduction of the ROILS standards has provided a platform for making changes to policies that increase patient safety. The goal is to develop a culture that sees reporting at a national level as a safe and effective way to improve our safety, and to dynamically learn from other institutions reporting

  10. TH-AB-BRA-02: Automated Triplet Beam Orientation Optimization for MRI-Guided Co-60 Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D; Thomas, D; Cao, M; O’Connor, D; Lamb, J; Sheng, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: MRI guided Co-60 provides daily and intrafractional MRI soft tissue imaging for improved target tracking and adaptive radiotherapy. To remedy the low output limitation, the system uses three Co-60 sources at 120° apart, but using all three sources in planning is considerably unintuitive. We automate the beam orientation optimization using column generation, and then solve a novel fluence map optimization (FMO) problem while regularizing the number of MLC segments. Methods: Three patients—1 prostate (PRT), 1 lung (LNG), and 1 head-and-neck boost plan (H&NBoost)—were evaluated. The beamlet dose for 180 equally spaced coplanar beams under 0.35 T magnetic field was calculated using Monte Carlo. The 60 triplets were selected utilizing the column generation algorithm. The FMO problem was formulated using an L2-norm minimization with anisotropic total variation (TV) regularization term, which allows for control over the number of MLC segments. Our Fluence Regularized and Optimized Selection of Triplets (FROST) plans were compared against the clinical treatment plans (CLN) produced by an experienced dosimetrist. Results: The mean PTV D95, D98, and D99 differ by −0.02%, +0.12%, and +0.44% of the prescription dose between planning methods, showing same PTV dose coverage. The mean PTV homogeneity (D95/D5) was at 0.9360 (FROST) and 0.9356 (CLN). R50 decreased by 0.07 with FROST. On average, FROST reduced Dmax and Dmean of OARs by 6.56% and 5.86% of the prescription dose. The manual CLN planning required iterative trial and error runs which is very time consuming, while FROST required minimal human intervention. Conclusions: MRI guided Co-60 therapy needs the output of all sources yet suffers from unintuitive and laborious manual beam selection processes. Automated triplet orientation optimization is shown essential to overcome the difficulty and improves the dosimetry. A novel FMO with regularization provides additional controls over the number of MLC segments and treatment time. Varian Medical Systems; NIH grant R01CA188300; NIH grant R43CA183390.

  11. Reconsidering the Image of the Blue Bra: Photography, Conflict, and Cultural Memory in the 2011–2013 Egyptian Uprising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Habib Linssen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of photography and social media have been seen as pivotal to the Egyptian political uprisings of 2011 where icons of the revolution circulated widely, helped galvanize protesters, and documented key events against the backdrop of a rapidly shifting discourse of photojournalism. By examining the citizen-produced image of the ‘girl with the blue’ in its capacity to reflect the spatial-temporal dynamics of the revolution, to mediate complex social issues of gender and political visibility, and to contribute to the development of cultural memory role through contemporary street art, this essay uncovers the significance of an icon in the digital age.

  12. SU-C-BRA-03: An Automated and Quick Contour Errordetection for Auto Segmentation in Online Adaptive Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Ates, O; Li, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a tool that can quickly and automatically assess contour quality generated from auto segmentation during online adaptive replanning. Methods: Due to the strict time requirement of online replanning and lack of ‘ground truth’ contours in daily images, our method starts with assessing image registration accuracy focusing on the surface of the organ in question. Several metrics tightly related to registration accuracy including Jacobian maps, contours shell deformation, and voxel-based root mean square (RMS) analysis were computed. To identify correct contours, additional metrics and an adaptive decision tree are introduced. To approve in principle, tests were performed with CT sets, planned and daily CTs acquired using a CT-on-rails during routine CT-guided RT delivery for 20 prostate cancer patients. The contours generated on daily CTs using an auto-segmentation tool (ADMIRE, Elekta, MIM) based on deformable image registration of the planning CT and daily CT were tested. Results: The deformed contours of 20 patients with total of 60 structures were manually checked as baselines. The incorrect rate of total contours is 49%. To evaluate the quality of local deformation, the Jacobian determinant (1.047±0.045) on contours has been analyzed. In an analysis of rectum contour shell deformed, the higher rate (0.41) of error contours detection was obtained compared to 0.32 with manual check. All automated detections took less than 5 seconds. Conclusion: The proposed method can effectively detect contour errors in micro and macro scope by evaluating multiple deformable registration metrics in a parallel computing process. Future work will focus on improving practicability and optimizing calculation algorithms and metric selection.

  13. MO-DE-BRA-04: The CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network: Training of New Generation Innovators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seuntjens, J; Collins, L; Devic, S; El Naqa, I; Nadeau, J; Reader, A [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Beaulieu, L; Despres, P [Centre Hospitalier Univ de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Pike, B [University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Over the past century, physicists have played a major role in transforming scientific discovery into everyday clinical applications. However, with the increasingly stringent requirements to regulate medical physics as a health profession, the role of physicists as scientists and innovators has become at serious risk of erosion. These challenges trigger the need for a new, revolutionized training program at the graduate level that respects scientific rigor, attention for medical physics-relevant developments in basic sciences, innovation and entrepreneurship. Methods: A grant proposal was funded by the Collaborative REsearch and Training Experience program (CREATE) of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. This enabled the creation of the Medical Physics Research Training Network (MPRTN) around two CAMPEP-accredited medical physics programs. Members of the network consist of medical device companies, government (research and regulatory) and academia. The MPRTN/CREATE program proposes a curriculum with three main themes: (1) radiation physics, (2) imaging & image processing and (3) radiation response, outcomes and modeling. Results: The MPRTN was created mid 2013 (mprtn.com) and features (1) four new basic Ph.D. courses; (2) industry participation in research projects; (3) formal job-readiness training with involvement of guest faculty from academia, government and industry. MPRTN activities since 2013 include 22 conferences; 7 workshops and 4 exchange travels. Three patents were filed or issued, nine awards/best papers were won. Fifteen journal publications were accepted/published, 102 conference abstracts. There are now 13 industry partners. Conclusion: A medical physics research training network has been set up with the goal to harness graduate student’s job-readiness for industry, government and academia in addition to the conventional clinical role. Two years after inception, significant successes have been booked, but the true challenge will be to demonstrate that with this training philosophy CREATE scholars gain access to a much broader job market. Supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) Canada.

  14. TU-G-BRA-02: Can We Extract Lung Function Directly From 4D-CT Without Deformable Image Registration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipritidis, J; Woodruff, H; Counter, W; Keall, P; Hofman, M; Siva, S; Callahan, J; Le Roux, P; Hardcastle, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Dynamic CT ventilation imaging (CT-VI) visualizes air volume changes in the lung by evaluating breathing-induced lung motion using deformable image registration (DIR). Dynamic CT-VI could enable functionally adaptive lung cancer radiation therapy, but its sensitivity to DIR parameters poses challenges for validation. We hypothesize that a direct metric using CT parameters derived from Hounsfield units (HU) alone can provide similar ventilation images without DIR. We compare the accuracy of Direct and Dynamic CT-VIs versus positron emission tomography (PET) images of inhaled "6"8Ga-labelled nanoparticles (‘Galligas’). Methods: 25 patients with lung cancer underwent Galligas 4D-PET/CT scans prior to radiation therapy. For each patient we produced three CT- VIs. (i) Our novel method, Direct CT-VI, models blood-gas exchange as the product of air and tissue density at each lung voxel based on time-averaged 4D-CT HU values. Dynamic CT-VIs were produced by evaluating: (ii) regional HU changes, and (iii) regional volume changes between the exhale and inhale 4D-CT phase images using a validated B-spline DIR method. We assessed the accuracy of each CT-VI by computing the voxel-wise Spearman correlation with free-breathing Galligas PET, and also performed a visual analysis. Results: Surprisingly, Direct CT-VIs exhibited better global correlation with Galligas PET than either of the dynamic CT-VIs. The (mean ± SD) correlations were (0.55 ± 0.16), (0.41 ± 0.22) and (0.29 ± 0.27) for Direct, Dynamic HU-based and Dynamic volume-based CT-VIs respectively. Visual comparison of Direct CT-VI to PET demonstrated similarity for emphysema defects and ventral-to-dorsal gradients, but inability to identify decreased ventilation distal to tumor-obstruction. Conclusion: Our data supports the hypothesis that Direct CT-VIs are as accurate as Dynamic CT-VIs in terms of global correlation with Galligas PET. Visual analysis, however, demonstrated that different CT-VI algorithms might have varying accuracy depending on the underlying cause of ventilation abnormality. This research was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Australia Fellowship, an Cancer Institute New South Wales Early Career Fellowship 13-ECF-1/15 and NHMRC scholarship APP1038399. No commercial funding was received for this work

  15. WE-H-BRA-05: Investigation of LET Spectral Dependence of the Biological Effects of Therapeutic Protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, F; Bronk, L; Kerr, M; Wang, X; Li, Y; Peeler, C; Sahoo, N; Patel, D; Mirkovic, D; Titt, U; Grosshans, D; Mohan, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the dependence of biologic effect (BE) of therapeutic protons on LET spectra by comparing BEs with equal dose-averaged LET (LETd) derived from different LET spectra using high-throughput in vitro clonogenic survival assays. Methods: We used Geant4 to design the relevant experimental setups and perform the dose, LETd, and LET spectra calculations for spot-scanning protons. The clonogenic assay was performed using the H460 lung cancer cell line cultured in 96-well plates. In the first experimental setup (S1), cells were irradiated using 127.4 MeV protons with a 93.22 mm Lucite buildup resulting in a LETd value of 3.4 keV/µm in the cell layer. In the second experimental setup (S2), cells were irradiated by a combination of 127.4 MeV and 136.4 MeV protons with a 96.61 mm Lucite buildup. The LETd values in the cell layer were 11.4 keV/µm and 1.5 keV/µm respectively, but an average LETd of 3.4 keV/µm was obtained by adjusting the relative fluence of each beam. Ten discrete dose levels with 0.5 Gy increments were delivered. Results: In the two setups, the energies or LET spectra were different but resulted in identical LETd values. We quantified the dose contributions from high-LET (≥10 keV/µm, threshold determined by previous experiments) events in the LET spectra separately for these two setups as 3.2% and 10.5%. The biologic effects at each identical dose level yielded statistically significant different survival curves (extra sum-of-squares F-test, P<0.0001). The second setup with a higher contribution from high-LET events exhibited the higher biologic effect with a dose enhancement factor of 1.17±0.03 at 0.10 surviving fraction. Conclusion: The dose-averaged LET may not be an accurate indicator of the biological effects of protons. Detailed LET spectra may need to be considered explicitly to accurately quantify the biologic effects of protons. Funding Support: U19 CA021239-35, R21 CA187484-01 and MDACC-IRG.

  16. MO-DE-BRA-01: Flipped Physics Courses Within a Radiologic Technologist Program: Video Production and Long Term Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, T; Donaghy, M; Slechta, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if the flipped class format has an effect on examination results for a radiologic technologist (RT) program and discuss benefits from creating video resources. Methods: From 2001–2015, students had taken both a radiological physics and quality control (QC) class as a part of their didactic training. In 2005/2006, the creation of videos of didactic lectures and QC test demonstrations allowed for a flip where content was studied at home while exercises and reviews were done in-class. Final examinations were retrospectively reviewed from this timeframe. 12 multiple choice physics questions (MCP) and 5 short answer QC questions (SAQC) were common to pre and post flip exams. The RT program’s ARRT exam scores were also obtained and compared to national averages. Results: In total, 36 lecture videos and 65 quality control videos were created for the flipped content. Data was ∼2.4GB and distributed to students via USB or CD media. For MCP questions, scores improved by 7.9% with the flipped format and significance (Student’s t-test, p<0.05) was found for 3 of the 12 questions. SAQC questions showed improvement by 14.6% and significance was found for 2 of the 5 questions. Student enrollment increased from ∼14 (2001–2004) to ∼23 students (2005–15). Content was continuously added post-flip due to the efficiency of delivery. The QC class in 2003 covered 45 test setups in-class while 65 were covered with video segments in 2014. Flipped materials are currently being repurposed. In 2015, this video content was restructured into an ARRT exam review guide and in 2016, the content was reorganized for fluoroscopy training for physicians. Conclusion: We believe that flipped classes can improve efficiency of content delivery and improve student performance even with an increase in class size. This format allows for flexibility in learning as well as re-use in multiple applications.

  17. SU-D-BRA-06: Dual-Energy Chest CT: The Effects of Virtual Monochromatic Reconstructions On Texture Analysis Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, J; Duran, C; Stingo, F; Wei, W; Rao, A; Zhang, L; Court, L; Erasmus, J; Godoy, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the effect of virtual monochromatic reconstructions on several commonly used texture analysis features in DECT of the chest. Further, to assess the effect of monochromatic energy levels on the ability of these textural features to identify tissue types. Methods: 20 consecutive patients underwent chest CTs for evaluation of lung nodules using Siemens Somatom Definition Flash DECT. Virtual monochromatic images were constructed at 10keV intervals from 40–190keV. For each patient, an ROI delineated the lesion under investigation, and cylindrical ROI’s were placed within 5 different healthy tissues (blood, fat, muscle, lung, and liver). Several histogram- and Grey Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM)-based texture features were then evaluated in each ROI at each energy level. As a means of validation, these feature values were then used in a random forest classifier to attempt to identify the tissue types present within each ROI. Their predictive accuracy at each energy level was recorded. Results: All textural features changed considerably with virtual monochromatic energy, particularly below 70keV. Most features exhibited a global minimum or maximum around 80keV, and while feature values changed with energy above this, patient ranking was generally unaffected. As expected, blood demonstrated the lowest inter-patient variability, for all features, while lung lesions (encompassing many different pathologies) exhibited the highest. The accuracy of these features in identifying tissues (76% accuracy) was highest at 80keV, but no clear relationship between energy and classification accuracy was found. Two common misclassifications (blood vs liver and muscle vs fat) accounted for the majority (24 of the 28) errors observed. Conclusion: All textural features were highly dependent on virtual monochromatic energy level, especially below 80keV, and were more stable above this energy. However, in a random forest model, these commonly used features were able to reliably differentiate between most tissues types regardless of energy level. Dr Godoy has received a dual-energy CT research grant from Siemens Healthcare. That grant did not directly fund this research

  18. A Study of Household Energy Consumption and Road Trafin Bra_ov, Using West-European Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Meer, Erwin

    2006-01-01

    The aims of the project were reflected in the research question which was formulated as: "What type of methodologies applicable to end-use household energy-consumption, environmental awareness, and road-traffic analysis are suitable to apply in Eastern-European cities and households, under which

  19. WE-D-BRA-05: Pseudo In Vivo Patient Dosimetry Using a 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ger, R; Craft, DF; Burgett, EA; Price, RR; Kry, SF; Howell, RM

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of using 3D-printed patient-specific phantoms for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA). Methods: We created a patient-specific whole-head phantom using a 3D printer. The printer data file was created from high-resolution DICOM computed tomography (CT) images of 3-year old child treated at our institution for medulloblastoma. A custom-modified extruder system was used to create tissue-equivalent materials. For the printing process, the Hounsfield Units from the CT images were converted to proportional volumetric densities. A 5-field IMRT plan was created from the patient CT and delivered to the 3D- phantom. Dose was measured by an ion chamber placed through the eye. The ion chamber was placed at the posterior edge of the planning target volume in a high dose gradient region. CT scans of the patient and 3D-phantom were fused by using commercial treatment planning software (TPS). The patient’s plan was calculated on the phantom CT images. The ion chamber’s active volume was delineated in the TPS; dose per field and total dose were obtained. Measured and calculated doses were compared. Results: The 3D-phantom dimensions and tissue densities were in good agreement with the patient. However, because of a printing error, there was a large discrepancy in the density in the frontal cortex. The calculated and measured treatment plan doses were 1.74 Gy and 1.72 Gy, respectively. For individual fields, the absolute dose difference between measured and calculated values was on average 3.50%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D-printed patient-specific phantoms for IMRT QA. Such phantoms would be particularly advantageous for complex IMRT treatment plans featuring high dose gradients and/or for anatomical sites with high variation in tissue densities. Our preliminary findings are promising. We anticipate that, once the printing process is further refined, the agreement between measured and calculated doses will improve

  20. Double taxation conventions in Romania Case: DSSs Râşnov vs. ANAf braşov

    OpenAIRE

    Dumiter Florin; Jimon Ștefania; Boiță Marius

    2017-01-01

    Conventions to avoid double taxation are the panacea of tax law, lato sensu, and direct taxation, stricto sensu. Although the current network of double taxation conventions has over 2500 tax treaties concluded by the world’s states, there are still issues that need to be addressed in their application: the anti-abuse provisions to be found in conventions, the practices of the type treaty shopping, LOB clauses, use of arbitration in the application of double taxation avoidance conventions. The...

  1. E-Bra system for women ECG measurement with GPRS communication, Nanosensor, and motion artifact remove algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeokjun; Oh, Sechang; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-10-01

    CardioVascular Disease(CVD)s lead the sudden cardiac death due to irregular phenomenon of the cardiac signal by the abnormal case of blood vessel and cardiac structure. For last two decades, cardiac disease research for man is under active discussion. As a result, the death rate by cardiac disease in men has been falling gradually compared with relatively increasing the women death rate due to CVD[2]. The main reason of this phenomenon causes the lack a sense of the seriousness to female CVD and different symptom of female CVD compared with the symptoms of male CVD. Usually, because the women CVD accompanies with ordinary symptoms unrecognizing the heart abnormality signal such as unusual fatigue, sleep disturbances, shortness of breath, anxiety, chest discomfort, and indigestion dyspepsia, most women CVD patients do not realize that these symptoms are related to the CVD symptoms. Therefore, periodic ECG signal observation is required for women cardiac disease patients. ElectroCardioGram(ECG) detection, treadmill test/exercise ECG, nuclear scan, coronary angiography, and intracoronary ultrasound are used to diagnose abnormality of heart. Among the medical checkup methods for CVDs checkup, it is very effective method for the diagnosis of cardiac disease and the early detection of heart abnormality to monitor ECG periodically. This paper suggests the effective ECG monitoring system for woman by attaching the system on woman's brassiere by using augmented chest lead attachment method. The suggested system in this paper consists of ECG signal transmission system and a server program to display and analyze the transmitted ECG. The ECG signal transmission system consists of three parts such as ECG physical signal detection part with two electrodes made by gold nanowire structure, data acquisition with AD converter, and data transmission part with GPRS(General Packet Radio Service) communication. Usually, to detect human bio signal, Ag/AgCl or gold cup electrodes are used with conductive gel. However, the gel can be dried when taking long time monitoring. The gold nanowire structure electrodes without consideration of uncomfortable usage of gel are attached on beneath the chest position of a brassiere, and the electrodes convert the physical ECG signal to voltage potential signal. The voltage potential ECG signal is converted to digital signal by AD converter included in microprocessor. The converted ECG signal by AD converter is saved on every 1 sec period in the internal RAM in microprocessor. For transmission of the saved data in the internal RAM to a server computer locating at remote area, the system uses the GPRS communication technology, which can develop the wide area network(WAP) without any gateway and repeater. In addition, the transmission system is operated on client mode of GPRS communication. The remote server is installed a program including the functions of displaying and analyzing the transmitted ECG. To display the ECG data, the program is operated with TCP/IP server mode and static IP address, and to analyze the ECG data, the paper suggests motion artifact remove algorithm including adaptive filter with LMS(least mean square), baseline detection algorithm using predictability estimation theory, a filter with moving weighted factor, low pass filter, peak to peak detection, and interpolation.

  2. MO-FG-BRA-07: Theranostic Gadolinium-Based AGuIX Nanoparticles for MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detappe, A; Rottmann, J; Kunjachan, S; Berbeco, R; Tillement, O

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: AGuIX are gadolinium-based nanoparticles, initially developed for MRI, that have a potential role in radiation therapy as a radiosensitizer. Our goal is to demonstrate that these nanoparticles can both be used as an MRI contrast agent, as well as to obtain local dose enhancement in a pancreatic tumor when delivered in combination with an external beam irradiation. Methods: We performed in vitro cell uptake and radiosensitization studies of a pancreatic cancer cell line in a low energy (220kVp) beam, a standard clinical 6MV beam (STD) and a flattening filter free clinical 6MV beam (FFF). After injection of 40mM of nanoparticles, a biodistribution study was performed in vivo on mice with subcutaneous xenograft pancreatic tumors. In vivo radiation therapy studies were performed at the time point of maximum tumor uptake. Results: The concentration of AGuIX nanoparticles in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells, determined in vitro by MRI and ICPMS, peaks after 30 minutes with 0.3% of the initial concentration (5mg/g). Clonogenic assays show a significant effect (p<0.05) when the AGuIX are coupled with MV photon irradiation (DEF20%=1.31). Similar AGuIX tumor uptake is found in vivo by both MRI and ICPMS 30 minutes after intravenous injection. For long term survival studies, the choice of the radiation dose is determined with 5 control groups (3mice/group) irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20Gy. Afterwards, 4 groups (8mice/group) are used to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles. A Logrank test is performed as a statistical test to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles. Conclusion: The combination of the MRI contrast and radiosensitization properties of gadolinium nanoparticles reveals a strong potential for usage with MRI-guided radiation therapy

  3. TU-H-BRA-05: A System Design for Integration of An Interior MRI and a Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, W [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States); Wang, G [Rensselaer Polytechnic Instit., Troy, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: MRI is a highly desirable modality to guide radiation therapy but it is difficult to combine a conventional MRI scanner directly with a linear accelerator (linac). An interior MRI (iMRI) concept has been proposed to acquire MRI images within a small field of view only covering targets and immediate surrounding tissues. The objective of this project is to design an interior MRI system to work with a linac using a magnet to provide a field around 0.2T in a cube of 20cm per side, and perform image reconstruction with a slightly inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. Methods: All the results are simulated using a commercially available software package, FARADY. In our design, a ring structure holds the iMRI system and also imbeds a linac treatment head. The ring is synchronized to the linac gantry rotation. Half of the ring is made of steel and becomes a magnetic flux return path (yoke) so that a strong magnetic field will be limited inside the iron circuit and fringe fields will be very weak. In order to increase the static magnetic field homogeneity, special steel magnet boots or tips were simulated. Three curved boots were designed based on two-dimensional curves: arc, parabola and hyperbola. Results: Different boot surfaces modify magnetic field distributions differently. With the same pair of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets, the magnetic induction at the centers are 0.217T, 0.201T, 0.204T, and 0.212T for flat, arc, parabola and hyperbola boots, respectively. The hyperbola boots lead to the most homogeneous results, the static magnetic field deviations are within 0.5% in a cube of 20cm, and can be further improved using shimming techniques. Conclusion: This study supports the concept of an iMRI design. Successful development of iMRI will provide crucial information for tumor delineation in radiation therapy.

  4. MO-FG-BRA-07: Intrafractional Motion Effect Can Be Minimized in Tomotherapy Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, A; Chang, S; Matney, J; Wang, A; Lian, J [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Chao, E [Accuray Incorporated, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Tomotherapy has unique challenges in handling intrafractional motion compared to conventional LINAC. In this study, we analyzed the impact of intrafractional motion on cumulative dosimetry using actual patient motion data and investigated real time jaw/MLC compensation approaches to minimize the motion-induced dose discrepancy in Tomotherapy SBRT treatment. Methods: Intrafractional motion data recorded in two CyberKnife lung treatment cases through fiducial tracking and two LINAC prostate cases through Calypso tracking were used in this study. For each treatment site, one representative case has an average motion (6mm) and one has a large motion (10mm for lung and 15mm for prostate). The cases were re-planned on Tomotherapy for SBRT. Each case was planned with 3 different jaw settings: 1cm static, 2.5cm dynamic, and 5cm dynamic. 4D dose accumulation software was developed to compute dose with the recorded motions and theoretically compensate motions by modifying original jaw and MLC to track the trajectory of the tumor. Results: PTV coverage in Tomotherapy SBRT for patients with intrafractional motion depends on motion type, amplitude and plan settings. For the prostate patient with large motion, PTV coverage changed from 97.2% (motion-free) to 47.1% (target motion-included), 96.6% to 58.5% and 96.3% to 97.8% for the 1cm static jaw, 2.5cm dynamic jaw and 5cm dynamic jaw setting, respectively. For the lung patient with large motion, PTV coverage discrepancies showed a similar trend of change. When the jaw and MLC compensation program was engaged, the motion compromised PTV coverage was recovered back to >95% for all cases and plans. All organs at risk (OAR) were spared with < 5% increase from original motion-free plans. Conclusion: Tomotherapy SBRT is less motion-impacted when 5cm dynamic jaw is used. Once the motion pattern is known, the jaw and MLC compensation program can largely minimize the compromised target coverage and OAR sparing.

  5. WE-FG-BRA-01: Cancer Treatment Utilizing Photo-Activation of Psoralen with KV X-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, M; Yoon, S; Meng, B; Adamson, J; Alcorta, D; Osada, T; Lyerly, K; Dewhirst, M; Fecci, P; Spector, N; Fathi, Z; Walder, H; Beyer, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigates X-PACT (X-ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy): a new approach for the treatment of cancer. X-PACT utilizes psoralen, a potent anti-cancer therapeutic with immunogenic anti-cancer potential. Psoralen therapies have been limited due to the requirement for psoralen activation by UVA light. X-PACT solves this challenge by activating psoralen with UV light emitted from novel non-tethered phosphors (co-incubated with psoralen) that absorb x-rays and reradiate (phosphoresce) at UV wavelengths. Methods: The efficacy of X-PACT was evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. In-vitro studies utilized breast (4T1), glioma (CT2A) and sarcoma (KP-B) cell lines. Cells were exposed to X-PACT treatments where the concentrations of drug (psoralen and phosphor) and radiation parameters (energy, dose, and dose rate) were varied. Efficacy was evaluated primarily using flow cell cytometry to investigate treatment induced apoptosis. Methylene blue staining, and WST assays were also used. X-PACT was then evaluated in an in-vivo pilot study on BALBc mice with syngeneic 4T1 tumors, including control arms for X-PACT components. Analysis focused on tumor growth delay. Results: A multivariable regression analysis of 36 independent in-vitro irradiation experiments demonstrated that X-PACT induces significant tumor cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity on all three tumor cell lines in-vitro (p<0.0001). Neither psoralen nor phosphor alone had a strongly significant effect. The in-vivo studies show a pronounced tumor growth delay when compared to controls (42% reduction at 25 days, p=0.0002). Conclusions: These studies demonstrate for the first time a therapeutic effect for X-PACT, and provide a foundation and rationale for future studies. X-PACT represents a novel treatment approach in which well-tolerated low doses of x-ray radiation generate UVA light in-situ (including deep seated lesions) which in-turn photo-activates powerful anticancer therapeutics which may lead to short and long term therapeutic effect. This work was supported by Immunolight Llc

  6. MO-FG-BRA-03: A Monte-Carlo Study of Cellular Dosimetry of Radioactive Gold-Palladium Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y; Michaud, F; Fortin, M; Beaulieu, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radioactive gold-palladium nanoparticles ("1"0"3Pd:Pd@Au NPs) are being developed for prostate cancer brachytherapy. Photons emitted by the radioisotope palladium (photon energy: 20.1 and 23.0 keV), interacting with gold-coating of NPs, lead to enhanced energy distribution in nucleus. Here, a simple cellular model was studied using detailed track-structure method. Methods: Geant4-DNA was used with auger electrons enabled. Biological cell was modeled as a sphere of radius r=5 µm that were immersed in a fluid containing large number of NPs at different concentrations (S=1, 2.15, 5.1, 17.2 mg-Au/g-H2O). Nucleus was modeled as a concentric sphere (r=3µm). Thickness of gold-coating on "1"0"3Pd core was 15nm, 20nm and 25nm, respectively. A scenario of NP diffusion was investigated, where S=5.1 mg-Au/g-H2O outside cell and S=1 mg-Au/g-H2O in cytoplasm. 10"1"0 "1"0"3Pd decays were simulated for each combination of NP concentration and gold-coating. Results: A uniform increase in energy deposition (Edep) is observed in cell nucleus and the energy enhancement ratio (EER) is 1.16, 1.22 and 1.3 for 15nm, 20nm and 25nm of gold -coatings, respectively. Edep at the center of nucleus is increased by a factor of 1.47, 2.51 and 5.54 when the NP concentration in the cytoplasm increases from 1 mg-Au/g-H2O to 2.15, 5.10 and 17.2 mg-Au/g-H2O, respectively. When NPs diffuse into cytoplasm, the mean value of Edep in nucleus increases from 0.42 to 1.13 MeV per 10"9 decays (GBq-Second) of "1"0"3Pd and the maximum value increases from 0.54 to 2.5 MeV per GBq-Second. Conclusion: These results suggest that "1"0"3Pd:Pd@Au NPs constitute a promising nanotherapeutic agent. Ongoing studies use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of prostate cancer

  7. MO-FG-BRA-04: Leveraging the Abscopal Effect Via New Design Radiotherapy Biomaterials Loaded with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y; Cifter, G; Altundal, Y; Moreau, M; Sajo, E [Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Sinha, N [Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, MA (United States); Makrigiorgos, G [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ngwa, W [Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA (United States); Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Studies show that stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of a primary tumor in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) could Result in an immune-mediated regression of metastasis outside the radiation field, a phenomenon known as abscopal effect. However toxicities due to repeated systematic administration of ICI have been shown to be a major obstacle in clinical trials. Towards overcoming these toxicity limitations, we investigate a potential new approach whereby the ICI are administered via sustained in-situ release from radiotherapy (RT) biomaterials (e.g. fiducials) coated with a polymer containing the ICI. Methods: New design RT biomaterials were prepared by coating commercially available spacers/fiducials with a biocompatible polymer (PLGA) film containing fluorescent nanoparticles of size needed to load the ICI. The release of the nanoparticles was investigated in-vitro. Meanwhile, an experimentally determined in- vivo nanoparticle diffusion coefficient was employed in analytic calculations based on Fick’s second law to estimate the time for achieving the concentrations of ICI in the tumor draining lymph node (TDLN) that are needed to engender the abscopal effect during SBRT. The ICI investigated here was anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab) at approved FDA concentrations. Results: Our in -vitro study results showed that RT biomaterials could be designed to achieve burst release of nanoparticles within one day. Meanwhile, our calculations indicate that for a 2 to 4 cm tumor it would take 4–22 days, respectively, following burst release, for the required concentration of ICI nanoparticles to accumulate in the TDLN during SBRT. Conclusion: Current investigations combining RT and immunotherapy involve repeated intravenous administration of ICI leading to significant systemic toxicities. Our preliminary results highlight a potential new approach for sustained in-situ release of the ICI from new design RT biomaterials. These results provide impetus for more studies to leverage the powerful abscopal effect, while minimizing systemic toxicities through the new approach.

  8. MO-AB-BRA-02: Modeling Nanoparticle-Eluting Spacer Degradation During Brachytherapy Application with in Situ Dose-Painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boateng, F [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Ngwa, W [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy application with in situ dose-painting using gold nanoparticles (GNP) released from GNP-loaded brachytherapy spacers has been proposed as an innovative approach to increase therapeutic efficacy during brachytherapy. This work investigates the dosimetric impact of slow versus burst release of GNP from next generation biodegradable spacers. Methods: Mathematical models were developed based on experimental data to study the release of GNP from a spacer designed with FDA approved poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer. The diffusion controlled released process and PLGA polymer degradation kinetics was incorporated in the calculations for the first time. An in vivo determined diffusion coefficient was used for determining the concentration profiles and corresponding dose enhancement based on initial GNP-loading concentrations of 7 mg/g. Results: The results showed that there is significant delay before the concentration profile of GNP diffusion in the tumor is similar to that when burst release is assumed as in previous studies. For example, in the case of burst release after spacer administration, it took up to 25 days for all the GNP to be released from the spacer using diffusion controlled release process only. However, it took up to 45 days when a combined model for both diffusion and polymer degradation processes was used. Based on the tumor concentration profiles, a significant dose enhancement factor (DEF >20%), could be attained at a tumor distances of 5 mm from a spacer loaded with 10 nm GNP sizes. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to take the slow release of GNP from spacers and factors such as biodegradation of polymers into account in research development of GNP-eluting spacers for brachytherapy applications with in-situ dose-painting using gold nanoparticles. The findings suggest that I-125 may be the more appropriate for such applications given the relatively longer half-live compared to other radioisotopes like Pd-103 and Cs-131.

  9. TU-G-BRA-02: Can We Extract Lung Function Directly From 4D-CT Without Deformable Image Registration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipritidis, J; Woodruff, H; Counter, W; Keall, P [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Hofman, M; Siva, S; Callahan, J; Le Roux, P [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Hardcastle, N [Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Dynamic CT ventilation imaging (CT-VI) visualizes air volume changes in the lung by evaluating breathing-induced lung motion using deformable image registration (DIR). Dynamic CT-VI could enable functionally adaptive lung cancer radiation therapy, but its sensitivity to DIR parameters poses challenges for validation. We hypothesize that a direct metric using CT parameters derived from Hounsfield units (HU) alone can provide similar ventilation images without DIR. We compare the accuracy of Direct and Dynamic CT-VIs versus positron emission tomography (PET) images of inhaled {sup 68}Ga-labelled nanoparticles (‘Galligas’). Methods: 25 patients with lung cancer underwent Galligas 4D-PET/CT scans prior to radiation therapy. For each patient we produced three CT- VIs. (i) Our novel method, Direct CT-VI, models blood-gas exchange as the product of air and tissue density at each lung voxel based on time-averaged 4D-CT HU values. Dynamic CT-VIs were produced by evaluating: (ii) regional HU changes, and (iii) regional volume changes between the exhale and inhale 4D-CT phase images using a validated B-spline DIR method. We assessed the accuracy of each CT-VI by computing the voxel-wise Spearman correlation with free-breathing Galligas PET, and also performed a visual analysis. Results: Surprisingly, Direct CT-VIs exhibited better global correlation with Galligas PET than either of the dynamic CT-VIs. The (mean ± SD) correlations were (0.55 ± 0.16), (0.41 ± 0.22) and (0.29 ± 0.27) for Direct, Dynamic HU-based and Dynamic volume-based CT-VIs respectively. Visual comparison of Direct CT-VI to PET demonstrated similarity for emphysema defects and ventral-to-dorsal gradients, but inability to identify decreased ventilation distal to tumor-obstruction. Conclusion: Our data supports the hypothesis that Direct CT-VIs are as accurate as Dynamic CT-VIs in terms of global correlation with Galligas PET. Visual analysis, however, demonstrated that different CT-VI algorithms might have varying accuracy depending on the underlying cause of ventilation abnormality. This research was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Australia Fellowship, an Cancer Institute New South Wales Early Career Fellowship 13-ECF-1/15 and NHMRC scholarship APP1038399. No commercial funding was received for this work.

  10. SU-G-BRA-03: PCA Based Imaging Angle Optimization for 2D Cine MRI Based Radiotherapy Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T; Yue, N; Jabbour, S; Zhang, M [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an imaging angle optimization methodology for orthogonal 2D cine MRI based radiotherapy guidance using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of target motion retrieved from 4DCT. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 4DCT of 6 patients with lung tumor. A radiation oncologist manually contoured the target volume at the maximal inhalation phase of the respiratory cycle. An object constrained deformable image registration (DIR) method has been developed to track the target motion along the respiration at ten phases. The motion of the center of the target mass has been analyzed using the PCA to find out the principal motion components that were uncorrelated with each other. Two orthogonal image planes for cineMRI have been determined using this method to minimize the through plane motion during MRI based radiotherapy guidance. Results: 3D target respiratory motion for all 6 patients has been efficiently retrieved from 4DCT. In this process, the object constrained DIR demonstrated satisfactory accuracy and efficiency to enable the automatic motion tracking for clinical application. The average motion amplitude in the AP, lateral, and longitudinal directions were 3.6mm (min: 1.6mm, max: 5.6mm), 1.7mm (min: 0.6mm, max: 2.7mm), and 5.6mm (min: 1.8mm, max: 16.1mm), respectively. Based on PCA, the optimal orthogonal imaging planes were determined for cineMRI. The average angular difference between the PCA determined imaging planes and the traditional AP and lateral imaging planes were 47 and 31 degrees, respectively. After optimization, the average amplitude of through plane motion reduced from 3.6mm in AP images to 2.5mm (min:1.3mm, max:3.9mm); and from 1.7mm in lateral images to 0.6mm (min: 0.2mm, max:1.5mm), while the principal in plane motion amplitude increased from 5.6mm to 6.5mm (min: 2.8mm, max: 17mm). Conclusion: DIR and PCA can be used to optimize the orthogonal image planes of cineMRI to minimize the through plane motion during radiotherapy guidance.

  11. WE-G-BRA-09: Microsphere Brachytherapy Failure Mode and Effects Analysis in a Dual-Vendor Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younge, K C; Lee, C I; Feng, M; Novelli, P; Moran, J M; Prisciandaro, J I

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and quality of a dual-vendor microsphere brachytherapy program with failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). Methods: A multidisciplinary team including physicists, dosimetrists, a radiation oncologist, an interventional radiologist, and radiation safety personnel performed an FMEA for our dual-vendor microsphere brachytherapy program employing SIR-Spheres (Sirtex Medical Limited, Australia) and Theraspheres (BTG, England). We developed a program process tree and step-by-step instructions which were used to generate a comprehensive list of failure modes. These modes were then ranked according to severity, occurrence rate, and detectability. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) were calculated by multiplying these three scores together. Three different severity scales were created: one each for harmful effects to the patient, staff, or the institution. Each failure mode was ranked on one or more of these scales. Results: The group identified 164 failure modes for the microsphere program. 113 of these were ranked using the patient severity scale, 52 using the staff severity scale, and 50 using the institution severity scale. The highest ranked items on the patient severity scale were an error in the automated dosimetry worksheet (RPN = 297.5), and the incorrect target specified on the planning study (RPN = 135). Some failure modes ranked differently between vendors, especially those corresponding to dose vial preparation because of the different methods used. Based on our findings, we made several improvements to our QA program, including documentation to easily identify which product is being used, an additional hand calculation during planning, and reorganization of QA steps before treatment delivery. We will continue to periodically review and revise the FMEA. Conclusion: We have applied FMEA to our dual-vendor microsphere brachytherapy program to identify potential key weaknesses in the treatment chain. Our FMEA results were used to improve the effectiveness of our overall microsphere program

  12. TH-AB-BRA-04: Dosimetric Evaluation of MR-Guided HDR Brachytherapy Planning for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, Y; Barkati, M; Beliveau-Nadeau, D [CHUM Notre Dame Hospital, Montreal, QC, CA (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective study on 16 patients that had both CT and T2-weighted MR scans done at first fraction using the Utrecht CT/MR applicator (Elekta Brachytherapy) in order to evaluate uncertainties associated with an MR-only planning workflow. Methods: MR-workflow uncertainties were classified in three categories: reconstruction, registration and contouring. A systematic comparison of the CT and MR contouring, manual reconstruction and optimization process was performed to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on the recommended GEC ESTRO DVH parameters: D90% and V100% for HR-CTV as well as D2cc for bladder, rectum, sigmoid colon and small bowel. This comparison was done using the following four steps: 1. Catheter reconstruction done on MR images with original CT-plan contours and dwell times. 2. OAR contours adjusted on MR images with original CT-plan reconstruction and dwell times. 3. Both reconstruction and contours done on MR images with original CT-plan dwell times. 4. Entire MR-based workflow optimized dwell times reimported to the original CT-plan. Results: The MR-based reconstruction process showed average D2cc deviations of 4.5 ± 3.0%, 1.5 ± 2.0%, 2.5 ± 2.0% and 2.0 ± 1.0% for the bladder, rectum, sigmoid colon and small bowels respectively with a maximum of 10%, 6%, 6% and 4%. The HR-CTV’s D90% and V100% average deviations was found to be 4.0 ± 3.0%, and 2.0 ± 2.0% respectively with a maximum of 10% and 6%. Adjusting contours on MR-images was found to have a similar impact. Finally, the optimized MR-based workflow dwell times were found to still give acceptable plans when re-imported to the original CT-plan which validated the entire workflow. Conclusion: This work illustrates a systematic validation method for centers wanting to move towards an MR-only workflow. This work will be expanded to model based reconstruction, PD-weighted images and other types of applicators.

  13. Double taxation conventions in Romania Case: DSSs Râşnov vs. ANAf braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventions to avoid double taxation are the panacea of tax law, lato sensu, and direct taxation, stricto sensu. Although the current network of double taxation conventions has over 2500 tax treaties concluded by the world’s states, there are still issues that need to be addressed in their application: the anti-abuse provisions to be found in conventions, the practices of the type treaty shopping, LOB clauses, use of arbitration in the application of double taxation avoidance conventions. The case of Romania is analyzed in this article, through the DSSs Râşnov cause vs. ANAF Brasov, in order to highlight the way in which the framework of the double taxation avoidance convention is applied in Romania, if there are differences and divergences between the de jure provisions of the double taxation avoidance conventions and the de facto application, in practice, a state like Romania, which is in the process of catching up with economies in developed countries. The case presented in this article suggests that there is still room for maneuver to improve the framework for double taxation avoidance conventions in Romania and how they are applied in practice, which their provisions are interpreted and respected.

  14. MO-FG-BRA-09: Quantification of Nanoparticle Heating and Concentration for MR-Guided Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, CJ; Melancon, M; Fuentes, D; Stafford, RJ; Salatan, F; Yang, Q; Hwang, KP

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Nanoparticle Mediated Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (npLITT) is a technique that utilizes tumor localized optically activated nanoparticles to increase the conformality of laser ablation procedures. Temperatures in these procedures are dependent on the particle concentration which generally cannot be measured noninvasively prior to therapy. In this work we attempt to quantify particle concentration in vivo by estimating the increase in R2* relaxation induced by bifunctional magnetic resonance (MR)-visible gold-based nanoparticles (SPIO@Au) and relate it to the temperature increase observed during real time MR temperature imaging (MRTI) of laser ablation. Methods: SPIO@Au nanoparticles (90nm) were synthesized containing a silica-iron core (for MR visibility via R2*) and gold shell (for near-infrared absorption). High resolution R2* maps were acquired before and after injecting four different particle concentrations (saline,1e10, 5e10, and 10e10 particles/mL) into HN5 flank xenografts. Tumors were monitored using MRTI during treatment with an interstitial fiber. (1 watt, 808 nm, 3 minutes) Results: The maximum temperature within the tumors increased linearly with concentration of injected particles, reaching 34.0, 37.6, 45.8, and 55.4 "0C for saline, 1e10, 5e10 and 10e10 particles/mL injections, respectively (R2=.994). The highest temperatures occur at the injection site rather than the fiber, confirming that SPIO@Au nanoparticles are the primary absorber. The differences between the median R2* measured at the injection site and the rest of the tumor were −6, 134, 111, 156 s-1 for the saline,1e10,5e10 and 10e10 particles/mL injections, respectively. This R2* change is consistent with the measured relaxivity for the 1e10 particles/mL injection but does not maintain linearity at higher concentrations. Conclusion: Bifunctional SPIO@Au nanoparticles are a promising technology for providing noninvasive estimates of particle concentration via MRI and temperature increase in npLITT procedures. Future experiments will focus on lower, physiologically relevant particle concentrations and spin echo R2 mapping to better quantify the particle concentration. This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute under Award Numbers TL1TR000369 and P30CA016672 and was conducted at the MD Anderson Center for Advanced Biomedical Imaging in-part with equipment support from General Electric Healthcare

  15. WE-FG-BRA-04: A Portable Confocal Microscope to Image Live Cell Damage Response Induced by Therapeutic Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFadden, C; Flint, D; Grosshans, D; Sawakuchi, G [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Sadetaporn, D [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rice University, Houston, TX (United States); Asaithamby, A [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To construct a custom and portable fluorescence confocal laser-scanning microscope (FCLSM) that can be placed in the path of therapeutic radiation beams to study real-time radiation-induced damage response in live cells. Methods: We designed and constructed a portable FCLSM with three laser diodes for excitation (405, 488, and 635 nm). An objective lens focuses the excitation light and collects fluorescence from the sample. A pair of galvanometer mirrors scans/collects the laser beam/fluorescence along the focal plane (x/y-directions). A stepper motor stage scans in the axial direction and positions the x/y of the image field. Barrier filters and dichroic mirrors are used to route the spectral emission bands to the appropriate photodetector. An avalanche photodiode collects near-infrared fluorescence; a photodiode collects back-reflected 635 nm light; and a photomultiplier tube collects green fluorescence in the range of eGFP/eYFP. A 200-µm diameter pinhole was used to implement the confocal geometry for near-infrared and red channels and a 150-µm diameter pinhole for the green channel. Data acquisition and system control were achieved using a high-throughput data acquisition card. In-house software developed in LabVIEW was used to control the hardware, collect data from the photodetectors and reconstruct the confocal images. Results: 6 frames/s can be acquired for a 25 µm{sup 2} (128×128 pixels) field of view, visualizing the entire volume of the cell nucleus (∼10 µm depth) in <10 s. To demonstrate the usefulness of our FCLSM, we imaged gold nanoshells in live cells, radiation-induced damage in fibrosarcoma cells expressing eGFP tagged to a DNA repair protein, and neurons expressing eGFP. The system can also image particle tracks in fluorescent nuclear track detectors. Conclusion: We developed a versatile and portable FCLSM that allows radiobiology studies in live cells exposed to therapeutic radiation. The FCLSM can be placed in any vertical beam line for top-to-bottom exposures. This research was supported by the Sister Institution Network Fund and the Center for Radiation Oncology Research at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas. Gabriel Sawakuchi has research support from Elekta Inc.

  16. TU-H-BRA-05: A System Design for Integration of An Interior MRI and a Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, W; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: MRI is a highly desirable modality to guide radiation therapy but it is difficult to combine a conventional MRI scanner directly with a linear accelerator (linac). An interior MRI (iMRI) concept has been proposed to acquire MRI images within a small field of view only covering targets and immediate surrounding tissues. The objective of this project is to design an interior MRI system to work with a linac using a magnet to provide a field around 0.2T in a cube of 20cm per side, and perform image reconstruction with a slightly inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. Methods: All the results are simulated using a commercially available software package, FARADY. In our design, a ring structure holds the iMRI system and also imbeds a linac treatment head. The ring is synchronized to the linac gantry rotation. Half of the ring is made of steel and becomes a magnetic flux return path (yoke) so that a strong magnetic field will be limited inside the iron circuit and fringe fields will be very weak. In order to increase the static magnetic field homogeneity, special steel magnet boots or tips were simulated. Three curved boots were designed based on two-dimensional curves: arc, parabola and hyperbola. Results: Different boot surfaces modify magnetic field distributions differently. With the same pair of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets, the magnetic induction at the centers are 0.217T, 0.201T, 0.204T, and 0.212T for flat, arc, parabola and hyperbola boots, respectively. The hyperbola boots lead to the most homogeneous results, the static magnetic field deviations are within 0.5% in a cube of 20cm, and can be further improved using shimming techniques. Conclusion: This study supports the concept of an iMRI design. Successful development of iMRI will provide crucial information for tumor delineation in radiation therapy.

  17. MO-DE-BRA-04: Hands-On Fluoroscopy Safety Training with Real-Time Patient and Staff Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhoek, M; Bevins, N

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI) are routinely performed across many different hospital departments. However, many involved staff members have minimal training regarding safe and optimal use of fluoroscopy systems. We developed and taught a hands-on fluoroscopy safety class incorporating real-time patient and staff dosimetry in order to promote safer and more optimal use of fluoroscopy during FGI. Methods: The hands-on fluoroscopy safety class is taught in an FGI suite, unique to each department. A patient equivalent phantom is set on the patient table with an ion chamber positioned at the x-ray beam entrance to the phantom. This provides a surrogate measure of patient entrance dose. Multiple solid state dosimeters (RaySafe i2 dosimetry systemTM) are deployed at different distances from the phantom (0.1, 1, 3 meters), which provide surrogate measures of staff dose. Instructors direct participating clinical staff to operate the fluoroscopy system as they view live fluoroscopic images, patient entrance dose, and staff doses in real-time. During class, instructors work with clinical staff to investigate how patient entrance dose, staff doses, and image quality are affected by different parameters, including pulse rate, magnification, collimation, beam angulation, imaging mode, system geometry, distance, and shielding. Results: Real-time dose visualization enables clinical staff to directly see and learn how to optimize their use of their own fluoroscopy system to minimize patient and staff dose, yet maintain sufficient image quality for FGI. As a direct result of the class, multiple hospital departments have implemented changes to their imaging protocols, including reduction of the default fluoroscopy pulse rate and increased use of collimation and lower dose fluoroscopy modes. Conclusion: Hands-on fluoroscopy safety training substantially benefits from real-time patient and staff dosimetry incorporated into the class. Real-time dose display helps clinical staff visualize, internalize, and ultimately utilize the safety techniques learned during the training. RaySafe/Unfors/Fluke lent us a portable version of their RaySafe i2 Dosimetry System for 6 months.

  18. MO-FG-BRA-02: A Feasibility Study of Integrating Breathing Audio Signal with Surface Surrogates for Respiratory Motion Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Y; Zhu, X; Zheng, D; Li, S; Ma, R; Zhang, M; Fan, Q; Wang, X; Verma, V; Zhou, S [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Tang, X [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, West Harrison, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Tracking the surrogate placed on patient skin surface sometimes leads to problematic signals for certain patients, such as shallow breathers. This in turn impairs the 4D CT image quality and dosimetric accuracy. In this pilot study, we explored the feasibility of monitoring human breathing motion by integrating breathing sound signal with surface surrogates. Methods: The breathing sound signals were acquired though a microphone attached adjacently to volunteer’s nostrils, and breathing curve were analyzed using a low pass filter. Simultaneously, the Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) system from Varian were employed on a volunteer to monitor respiratory motion including both shallow and deep breath modes. The similar experiment was performed by using Calypso system, and three beacons taped on volunteer abdominal region to capture breath motion. The period of each breathing curves were calculated with autocorrelation functions. The coherence and consistency between breathing signals using different acquisition methods were examined. Results: Clear breathing patterns were revealed by the sound signal which was coherent with the signal obtained from both the RPM system and Calypso system. For shallow breathing, the periods of breathing cycle were 3.00±0.19 sec (sound) and 3.00±0.21 sec (RPM); For deep breathing, the periods were 3.49± 0.11 sec (sound) and 3.49±0.12 sec (RPM). Compared with 4.54±0.66 sec period recorded by the calypso system, the sound measured 4.64±0.54 sec. The additional signal from sound could be supplement to the surface monitoring, and provide new parameters to model the hysteresis lung motion. Conclusion: Our preliminary study shows that the breathing sound signal can provide a comparable way as the RPM system to evaluate the respiratory motion. It’s instantaneous and robust characteristics facilitate it possibly to be a either independently or as auxiliary methods to manage respiratory motion in radiotherapy.

  19. MO-FG-BRA-02: A Feasibility Study of Integrating Breathing Audio Signal with Surface Surrogates for Respiratory Motion Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Y; Zhu, X; Zheng, D; Li, S; Ma, R; Zhang, M; Fan, Q; Wang, X; Verma, V; Zhou, S; Tang, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Tracking the surrogate placed on patient skin surface sometimes leads to problematic signals for certain patients, such as shallow breathers. This in turn impairs the 4D CT image quality and dosimetric accuracy. In this pilot study, we explored the feasibility of monitoring human breathing motion by integrating breathing sound signal with surface surrogates. Methods: The breathing sound signals were acquired though a microphone attached adjacently to volunteer’s nostrils, and breathing curve were analyzed using a low pass filter. Simultaneously, the Real-time Position Management™ (RPM) system from Varian were employed on a volunteer to monitor respiratory motion including both shallow and deep breath modes. The similar experiment was performed by using Calypso system, and three beacons taped on volunteer abdominal region to capture breath motion. The period of each breathing curves were calculated with autocorrelation functions. The coherence and consistency between breathing signals using different acquisition methods were examined. Results: Clear breathing patterns were revealed by the sound signal which was coherent with the signal obtained from both the RPM system and Calypso system. For shallow breathing, the periods of breathing cycle were 3.00±0.19 sec (sound) and 3.00±0.21 sec (RPM); For deep breathing, the periods were 3.49± 0.11 sec (sound) and 3.49±0.12 sec (RPM). Compared with 4.54±0.66 sec period recorded by the calypso system, the sound measured 4.64±0.54 sec. The additional signal from sound could be supplement to the surface monitoring, and provide new parameters to model the hysteresis lung motion. Conclusion: Our preliminary study shows that the breathing sound signal can provide a comparable way as the RPM system to evaluate the respiratory motion. It’s instantaneous and robust characteristics facilitate it possibly to be a either independently or as auxiliary methods to manage respiratory motion in radiotherapy.

  20. WE-AB-BRA-09: Registration of Preoperative MRI to Intraoperative Radiographs for Automatic Vertebral Target Localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, T; Uneri, A; Ketcha, M; Reaungamornrat, S; Goerres, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vogt, S; Kleinszig, G [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Wolinsky, J [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Siewerdsen, JH

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Accurate localization of target vertebrae is essential to safe, effective spine surgery, but wrong-level surgery occurs with surprisingly high frequency. Recent research yielded the “LevelCheck” method for 3D-2D registration of preoperative CT to intraoperative radiographs, providing decision support for level localization. We report a new method (MR-LevelCheck) to perform 3D-2D registration based on preoperative MRI, presenting a solution for the increasingly common scenario in which MRI (not CT) is used for preoperative planning. Methods: Direct extension of LevelCheck is confounded by large mismatch in image intensity between MRI and radiographs. The proposed method overcomes such challenges with a simple vertebrae segmentation. Using seed points at centroids, vertebrae are segmented using continuous max-flow method and dilated by 1.8 mm to include surrounding cortical bone (inconspicuous in T2w-MRI). MRI projections are computed (analogous to DRR) using segmentation and registered to intraoperative radiographs. The method was tested in a retrospective IRB-approved study involving 11 patients undergoing cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine surgery following preoperative MRI. Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of projection-distance-error (PDE) between the true and estimated location of vertebrae in each radiograph. Results: The method successfully registered each preoperative MRI to intraoperative radiographs and maintained desirable properties of robustness against image content mismatch, and large capture range. Segmentation achieved Dice coefficient = 89.2 ± 2.3 and mean-absolute-distance (MAD) = 1.5 ± 0.3 mm. Registration demonstrated robust performance under realistic patient variations, with PDE = 4.0 ± 1.9 mm (median ± iqr) and converged with run-time = 23.3 ± 1.7 s. Conclusion: The MR-LevelCheck algorithm provides an important extension to a previously validated decision support tool in spine surgery by extending its utility to preoperative MRI. With initial studies demonstrating PDE <5 mm and 0% failure rate, the method is now in translation to larger scale prospective clinical studies. S. Vogt and G. Kleinszig are employees of Siemens Healthcare.

  1. TU-CD-BRA-12: Coupling PET Image Restoration and Segmentation Using Variational Method with Multiple Regularizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L; Tan, S [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Lu, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a new variational method which couples image restoration with tumor segmentation for PET images using multiple regularizations. Methods: Partial volume effect (PVE) is a major degrading factor impacting tumor segmentation accuracy in PET imaging. The existing segmentation methods usually need to take prior calibrations to compensate PVE and they are highly system-dependent. Taking into account that image restoration and segmentation can promote each other and they are tightly coupled, we proposed a variational method to solve the two problems together. Our method integrated total variation (TV) semi-blind deconvolution and Mumford-Shah (MS) segmentation. The TV norm was used on edges to protect the edge information, and the L{sub 2} norm was used to avoid staircase effect in the no-edge area. The blur kernel was constrained to the Gaussian model parameterized by its variance and we assumed that the variances in the X-Y and Z directions are different. The energy functional was iteratively optimized by an alternate minimization algorithm. Segmentation performance was tested on eleven patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and evaluated by Dice similarity index (DSI) and classification error (CE). For comparison, seven other widely used methods were also tested and evaluated. Results: The combination of TV and L{sub 2} regularizations effectively improved the segmentation accuracy. The average DSI increased by around 0.1 than using either the TV or the L{sub 2} norm. The proposed method was obviously superior to other tested methods. It has an average DSI and CE of 0.80 and 0.41, while the FCM method — the second best one — has only an average DSI and CE of 0.66 and 0.64. Conclusion: Coupling image restoration and segmentation can handle PVE and thus improves tumor segmentation accuracy in PET. Alternate use of TV and L2 regularizations can further improve the performance of the algorithm. This work was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC), under Grant No.61375018, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, under Grant No. 2012QN086. Wei Lu was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant No. R01 CA172638.

  2. TH-CD-BRA-12: Impact of a Magnetic Field On the Response From a Plastic Scintillation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therriault-Proulx, F; Wen, Z; Ibbott, G; Beddar, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study the effect of a strong magnetic field on the scintillation and the stem effect from a plastic scintillation detector (PSD) and evaluate its accuracy to measure dose. Methods: A plastic scintillation detector and a bare plastic fiber were placed inside a magnet of adjustable field strength (B=0−1.5T) and irradiated by a 6-MV photon beam (Elekta Versa HD LINAC). The PSD was built in-house using a scintillating fiber (BCF-60, 3-mm long × 1-mm diameter) coupled to an optical fiber similar to the bare fiber (PMMA, 12-m long, 1-mm diameter). Light output spectra were acquired with a spectrometer. Intensity and shape of the output spectra were compared as a function of the magnetic field strength. The bare fiber was used to study the behavior of the stem effect (composed of Cerenkov and fluorescence). The spectrometry setup allowed to perform a previously demonstrated hyperspectral stem-effect removal and calculated dose was studied as a function of the magnetic field strength. Results: Signal intensities were shown to increase with the magnetic field strength by up to 19% and 79% at 1.5T in comparison to the irradiation without a magnetic field, for respectively the PSD and the bare fiber. The light produced by Cerenkov effect in the optical fiber was shown to be the major component affected by the magnetic field. Effect of the magnetic field on the electrons trajectory may explain this behavior. Finally, accounting for the stem effect using the hyperspectral approach led to accuracy in dose measurement within 2.6%. Interestingly, variations in accuracy were negligible for values over 0.3T. Conclusion: Dependence of PSDs to magnetic field is mainly due to the Cerenkov light. When accounting for it, PSDs become a candidate of choice for both quality assurance and in vivo dosimetry of therapy under strong magnetic fields (e.g. for MRI-Linacs).

  3. WE-EF-BRA-01: A Dual-Use Optical Tomography System for Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K; Bin, Z; Wong, J [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); He, X; Iordachita, I [Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We develop a novel dual-use configuration for a tri-modality, CBCT/bioluminescence tomography(BLT)/fluorescence tomography(FT), imaging system with the SARRP that can function as a standalone system for longitudinal imaging research and on-board the SARRP to guide irradiation. BLT provides radiation guidance for soft tissue target, while FT offers functional information allowing mechanistic investigations. Methods: The optical assembly includes CCD camera, lens, filter wheel, 3-way mirrors, scanning fiber system and light-tight enclosure. The rotating mirror system directs the optical signal from the animal surface to the camera at multiple projection over 180 degree. The fiber-laser system serves as the external light source for the FT application. Multiple filters are used for multispectral imaging to enhance localization accuracy using BLT. SARRP CBCT provides anatomical information and geometric mesh for BLT/FT reconstruction. To facilitate dual use, the 3-way mirror system is cantilevered in front of the camera. The entire optical assembly is driven by a 1D linear stage to dock onto an independent mouse support bed for standalone application. After completion of on-board optical imaging, the system is retracted from the SARRP to allow irradiation of the mouse. Results: A tissue-simulating phantom and a mouse model with a luminescence light source are used to demonstrate the function of the dual-use optical system. Feasibility data have been obtained based on a manual-docking prototype. The center of mass of light source determined in living mouse with on-board BLT is within 1±0.2mm of that with CBCT. The performance of the motorized system is expected to be the same and will be presented. Conclusion: We anticipate the motorized dual use system provide significant efficiency gain over our manual docking and off-line system. By also supporting off-line longitudinal studies independent of the SARRP, the dual-use system is a highly efficient and cost-effective platform to facilitate optical imaging for pre-clinical radiation research. The work is supported by NIH R01CA158100 and Xstrahl Ltd. Drs. John Wong and Iulian Iordachita receive royalty payment from a licensing agreement between Xstrahl Ltd and Johns Hopkins University. John Wong also has a consultant agreement with Xstrahl Ltd.

  4. TH-AB-BRA-01: A Novel Doubly-Focused Multileaf Collimator Design for MR-Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H; Mutic, S; Green, O [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Low, D [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Fought, G; Kawrakow, I; Sharma, A; Shvartsman, S; Dempsey, J [ViewRay, Inc., Oakwood Village, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To describe the physical and dosimetric properties of a novel double-stack multileaf collimator (MLC). Methods: One of the compromises made in the MLC design has been to employ linear-motion singly-divergent shapes. Because the MLC leading edge moves linearly, it is rounded to provide a consistent, albeit compromised penumbra. The MLC employed in the new linac-based MR-IGRT unit is designed to be doubly focused in that each leaf moves in an arc centered at the source, and the sides of the leaves are machined such that they lie parallel to a line between the leaf edge and the source. The curvature of the MLC keeps motors and encoders in lower magnetic field. However, high spatial-resolution leaves are difficult to manufacture to sufficiently tight tolerances and difficult to move due to restricted space on the gantry. Wider leaves alleviate this problem with less moving parts but the coarse resolution disallows treating very small lesions. This compromise has been overcome by splitting the MLC leaf bank into two sets, stacked one upon the other and offset half of a leaf width. The dosimetry has been simulated using Monte-Carlo and a 6 MV linac in a 0.35 T magnetic field. Results: The combined MLC leaf set has a spatial resolution of effectively half of the leaf width, 4mm here. The dosimetry resolution and conformality are consistent with 4mm wide MLC assisted by inverse fluence modulation. Also, because each leaf junction is backed up by the stacked leaf that lies over the junction, the problem of tongue-and-groove dosimetry has been greatly reduced. The novel MLC design allows the use of more powerful leaf motors than would be otherwise possible if a single MLC bank is employed. Conclusions: The stacked MLC will provide highly conformal dose distributions suitable for stereotactic radiation therapy of small lesions. The research was funded by ViewRay, Inc.

  5. MO-FG-BRA-08: Swarm Intelligence-Based Personalized Respiratory Gating in Lung SAbR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modiri, A; Sabouri, P; Sawant, A [University of Maryland in Baltimore, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gu, X; Timmerman, R [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is widely deployed as a clinical motion-management strategy in lung radiotherapy. In conventional gating, the beam is turned on during a pre-determined phase window; typically, around end-exhalation. In this work, we challenge the notion that end-exhalation is always the optimal gating phase. Specifically, we use a swarm-intelligence-based, inverse planning approach to determine the optimal respiratory phase and MU for each beam with respect to (i) the state of the anatomy at each phase and (ii) the time spent in that state, estimated from long-term monitoring of the patient’s breathing motion. Methods: In a retrospective study of five lung cancer patients, we compared the dosimetric performance of our proposed personalized gating (PG) with that of conventional end-of-exhale gating (CEG) and a previously-developed, fully 4D-optimized plan (combined with MLC tracking delivery). For each patient, respiratory phase probabilities (indicative of the time duration of the phase) were estimated over 2 minutes from lung tumor motion traces recorded previously using the Synchrony system (Accuray Inc.). Based on this information, inverse planning optimization was performed to calculate the optimal respiratory gating phase and MU for each beam. To ensure practical deliverability, each PG beam was constrained to deliver the assigned MU over a time duration comparable to that of CEG delivery. Results: Maximum OAR sparing for the five patients achieved by the PG and the 4D plans compared to CEG plans was: Esophagus Dmax [PG:57%, 4D:37%], Heart Dmax [PG:71%, 4D:87%], Spinal cord Dmax [PG:18%, 4D:68%] and Lung V13 [PG:16%, 4D:31%]. While patients spent the most time in exhalation, the PG-optimization chose end-exhale only for 28% of beams. Conclusion: Our novel gating strategy achieved significant dosimetric improvements over conventional gating, and approached the upper limit represented by fully 4D optimized planning while being significantly simpler and more clinically translatable. This work was partially supported through research funding from National Institutes of Health (R01CA169102) and Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

  6. Opinions of tourists regarding the accessibility for people with disabilities in the area of Braşov County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present tourists’ opinions on the touristic destination - Brasov County, regarding accessibility for individuals with disabilities. Accessibility of disabled individuals is an actual subject, keeping in mind that in the European Union 1 of 6 persons has a disability. Results of the quantitative research conducted on a sample of 1119 tourists can be used by tourism stakeholders in order to develop facilities that allow increased accessibility for people with disabilities.

  7. SU-D-BRA-02: Motion Assessment During Open Face Mask SRS Using CBCT and Surface Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, BB; Fox, CJ; Hartford, AC; Gladstone, DJ

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the robustness of immobilization using open-face mask technology for linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with multiple non-coplanar arcs via repeated CBCT acquisition, with comparison to contemporaneous optical surface tracking data. Methods: 25 patients were treated in open faced masks with cranial SRS using 3–4 non-coplanar arcs. Repeated CBCT imaging was performed to verify the maintenance of proper patient positioning during treatment. Initial patient positioning was performed based on prescribed shifts and optical surface tracking. Positioning refinements employed rigid 3D-matching of the planning CT and CBCT images and were implemented via automated 6DOF couch control. CBCT imaging was repeated following the treatment of all non-transverse beams with associated couch kicks. Detected patient translations and rotations were recorded and automatically corrected. Optical surface tracking was applied throughout the treatments to monitor motion, and this contemporaneous patient positioning data was recorded to compare against CBCT data and 6DOF couch adjustments. Results: Initial patient positions were refined on average by translations of 3±1mm and rotations of ±0.9-degrees. Optical surface tracking corroborated couch corrections to within 1±1mm and ±0.4-degrees. Following treatment of the transverse and subsequent superior-oblique beam, average translations of 0.6±0.4mm and rotations of ±0.4-degrees were reported via CBCT, with optical surface tracking in agreement to within 1.1±0.6mm and ±0.6-degrees. Following treatment of the third beam, CBCT indicated additional translations of 0.4±0.2mm and rotations of ±0.3-degrees. Cumulative couch corrections resulted in 0.7 ± 0.4mm average magnitude translations and rotations of ±0.4-degrees. Conclusion: Based on CBCT measurements of patients during SRS, the open face mask maintained patient positioning to within 1.5mm and 1-degree with >95% confidence. Patient positioning determined by optical surface tracking agreed with CBCT assessment to within 1±1mm and ±0.6-degree rotations. These data support the use of 1–2mm PTV margins and repeated CBCT to maintain stereotactic positioning tolerances.

  8. SU-D-BRA-02: Motion Assessment During Open Face Mask SRS Using CBCT and Surface Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, BB; Fox, CJ; Hartford, AC; Gladstone, DJ [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH (Lebanon)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the robustness of immobilization using open-face mask technology for linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with multiple non-coplanar arcs via repeated CBCT acquisition, with comparison to contemporaneous optical surface tracking data. Methods: 25 patients were treated in open faced masks with cranial SRS using 3–4 non-coplanar arcs. Repeated CBCT imaging was performed to verify the maintenance of proper patient positioning during treatment. Initial patient positioning was performed based on prescribed shifts and optical surface tracking. Positioning refinements employed rigid 3D-matching of the planning CT and CBCT images and were implemented via automated 6DOF couch control. CBCT imaging was repeated following the treatment of all non-transverse beams with associated couch kicks. Detected patient translations and rotations were recorded and automatically corrected. Optical surface tracking was applied throughout the treatments to monitor motion, and this contemporaneous patient positioning data was recorded to compare against CBCT data and 6DOF couch adjustments. Results: Initial patient positions were refined on average by translations of 3±1mm and rotations of ±0.9-degrees. Optical surface tracking corroborated couch corrections to within 1±1mm and ±0.4-degrees. Following treatment of the transverse and subsequent superior-oblique beam, average translations of 0.6±0.4mm and rotations of ±0.4-degrees were reported via CBCT, with optical surface tracking in agreement to within 1.1±0.6mm and ±0.6-degrees. Following treatment of the third beam, CBCT indicated additional translations of 0.4±0.2mm and rotations of ±0.3-degrees. Cumulative couch corrections resulted in 0.7 ± 0.4mm average magnitude translations and rotations of ±0.4-degrees. Conclusion: Based on CBCT measurements of patients during SRS, the open face mask maintained patient positioning to within 1.5mm and 1-degree with >95% confidence. Patient positioning determined by optical surface tracking agreed with CBCT assessment to within 1±1mm and ±0.6-degree rotations. These data support the use of 1–2mm PTV margins and repeated CBCT to maintain stereotactic positioning tolerances.

  9. TU-G-BRA-06: PET-Based Treatment Response Assessement for Neoadjuvent Chemoradiation for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalah, E; Tai, A; Oshima, K; Hall, W; Erickson, B; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To address the limitations of the conventional response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST), and validate PET response criteria in solid tumors (PERCIST1.0). We analyze the relationship between the pathological treatment response (PTR) and PERCIST1.0 for patients treated with neoadjuvent chemoradiation (nCR) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Methods: The pre- and post-nCR CT and PET data for a total of 8 patients with resectable, or borderline resectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma treated with nCR were retrospectively analyzed. These data were compared with the PTR which were graded according to tumor cell destruction (cellularity), with Grade1, 2 or 3 (G1, G2 or G3) for good, moderate, and poor responses, respectively. RECIST-based PET (RECISTPET), and PERCIST1.0 were defined using lean body mass normalized SUV (nSUVlb). RECIST-based CT (RECISTCT) was defined by contouring the whole pancreas head (CTPH). Pre- and post-nSUVlb and SUVbw, PERCIST 1.0, were correlated with PTR using Pearson’s correlation coefficient test. Results: The average mean and SD in nSUVlb for all 8 patients analyzed were lower in post-nCR (1.35±0.34) compared to those at pre-nCR (1.38±0.20). Using PERCIST1.0, 5/8 patients showed stable metabolic disease (SMD), 2/8 partial metabolic response (PMR), and 1/8 progressive metabolic disease (PMD). Using RECISTPET 4/8 showed stable disease (STD), 4/8 partial response (PR), whereas 8/8 showed stable disease (STD) using RECISTCT. PTR were correlated with PERCIST1.0 (R=0.3780/P=0.6071). Pathological tumor size was correlated with RECISTCT (R=0.0727/P=0.8679), and RECISTPET, R=−0.3333/P=0.3798. Conclusion: Chemoradiation treatment response assessment based on metabolic tumor activities using PRECIST1.0 and RECISTPET appears to provide better agreement with pathological assessment as compared to the conventional CT-based assessment using RECISTCT. The integration of these additional radiographic metrics in assessing treatment response to nCR for pancreatic adenocarcinoma may provide a promising strategy to better select those patients most suitable for therapeutic intensification.

  10. SU-C-BRA-03: An Automated and Quick Contour Errordetection for Auto Segmentation in Online Adaptive Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J; Ates, O; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a tool that can quickly and automatically assess contour quality generated from auto segmentation during online adaptive replanning. Methods: Due to the strict time requirement of online replanning and lack of ‘ground truth’ contours in daily images, our method starts with assessing image registration accuracy focusing on the surface of the organ in question. Several metrics tightly related to registration accuracy including Jacobian maps, contours shell deformation, and voxel-based root mean square (RMS) analysis were computed. To identify correct contours, additional metrics and an adaptive decision tree are introduced. To approve in principle, tests were performed with CT sets, planned and daily CTs acquired using a CT-on-rails during routine CT-guided RT delivery for 20 prostate cancer patients. The contours generated on daily CTs using an auto-segmentation tool (ADMIRE, Elekta, MIM) based on deformable image registration of the planning CT and daily CT were tested. Results: The deformed contours of 20 patients with total of 60 structures were manually checked as baselines. The incorrect rate of total contours is 49%. To evaluate the quality of local deformation, the Jacobian determinant (1.047±0.045) on contours has been analyzed. In an analysis of rectum contour shell deformed, the higher rate (0.41) of error contours detection was obtained compared to 0.32 with manual check. All automated detections took less than 5 seconds. Conclusion: The proposed method can effectively detect contour errors in micro and macro scope by evaluating multiple deformable registration metrics in a parallel computing process. Future work will focus on improving practicability and optimizing calculation algorithms and metric selection.

  11. WE-D-BRA-05: Pseudo In Vivo Patient Dosimetry Using a 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ger, R; Craft, DF [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (United States); Burgett, EA [Idaho State University, Pocatello, idaho (United States); Price, RR [RANDJ Consulting, Frederick, MD (United States); Kry, SF; Howell, RM [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (United States); The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Ctr., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of using 3D-printed patient-specific phantoms for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA). Methods: We created a patient-specific whole-head phantom using a 3D printer. The printer data file was created from high-resolution DICOM computed tomography (CT) images of 3-year old child treated at our institution for medulloblastoma. A custom-modified extruder system was used to create tissue-equivalent materials. For the printing process, the Hounsfield Units from the CT images were converted to proportional volumetric densities. A 5-field IMRT plan was created from the patient CT and delivered to the 3D- phantom. Dose was measured by an ion chamber placed through the eye. The ion chamber was placed at the posterior edge of the planning target volume in a high dose gradient region. CT scans of the patient and 3D-phantom were fused by using commercial treatment planning software (TPS). The patient’s plan was calculated on the phantom CT images. The ion chamber’s active volume was delineated in the TPS; dose per field and total dose were obtained. Measured and calculated doses were compared. Results: The 3D-phantom dimensions and tissue densities were in good agreement with the patient. However, because of a printing error, there was a large discrepancy in the density in the frontal cortex. The calculated and measured treatment plan doses were 1.74 Gy and 1.72 Gy, respectively. For individual fields, the absolute dose difference between measured and calculated values was on average 3.50%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D-printed patient-specific phantoms for IMRT QA. Such phantoms would be particularly advantageous for complex IMRT treatment plans featuring high dose gradients and/or for anatomical sites with high variation in tissue densities. Our preliminary findings are promising. We anticipate that, once the printing process is further refined, the agreement between measured and calculated doses will improve.

  12. SU-G-BRA-06: Quantification of Tracking Performance of a Multi-Layer Electronic Portal Imaging Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y; Rottmann, J; Myronakis, M; Berbeco, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the improvement in tumor tracking, with and without fiducial markers, afforded by employing a multi-layer (MLI) electronic portal imaging device (EPID) over the current state-of-the-art, single-layer, digital megavolt imager (DMI) architecture. Methods: An ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio (d’) approach was used to quantify the ability of an MLI EPID and a current, state-of-the-art DMI EPID to track lung tumors from the treatment beam’s-eye-view. Using each detector modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS) as inputs, a detection task was employed with object functions describing simple three-dimensional Cartesian shapes (spheres and cylinders). Marker-less tumor tracking algorithms often use texture discrimination to differentiate benign and malignant tissue. The performance of such algorithms is simulated by employing a discrimination task for the ideal observer, which measures the ability of a system to differentiate two image quantities. These were defined as the measured textures for benign and malignant lung tissue. Results: The NNPS of the MLI ∼25% of that of the DMI at the expense of decreased MTF at intermediate frequencies (0.25≤

  13. SU-F-BRA-06: Dose Distributions for the CivaSheet Pd-103 Directional Brachytherapy Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, MJ [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A flexible polymer membrane (CivaSheet) has been developed by CivaTech Oncology, Inc. (Research Triangle Park, NC) for permanent brachytherapy. Distributed throughout the array are small plastic disks containing Pd-103 and gold foil shielding on one side to provide a directional dose distribution and facilitate imaging. This study evaluated dosimetry for the CivaSheet. Methods: Manufacturer-provided dimensional and compositional information for the device were compared to physical samples for validation of design information, then entered into the MCNP6 radiation transport code for dosimetry simulations. Three device sizes (6×6, 6×12, or 6×18 disk-arrays) were simulated as the membrane can be custom-sized preceding surgical placement. Dose to water was estimated with 0.01 cm resolution from the surface to 10 cm on both sides of the device. Because this is a novel device with calibration methods under development, results were normalized using DVHs to provide 90% prescription coverage to a plane positioned 0.5 cm from the front surfaces. This same normalization was used for creating isodose distributions. Results: Planar dose distributions of flat CivaSheets were relatively homogeneous with acceptable dose uniformity variations. Differences in the results between the differently sized CivaSheets were not significant. At 0.5 mm, 87% of the target volume was within the therapeutic dose range. Dose hotspots on the CivaSheet forward surfaces were directly above the disks. However, dose hotspots on the rear-facing surfaces were positioned between the disks. Doses in contact with the front surface were similar to those observed for currently available brachytherapy sources. Maximum doses that occurred on the rear surface were approximately 55 times lower than the dose on the front surface. Conclusion: Monte Carlo calculations validated the directional capabilities and advantageous dosimetry of the new Pd-103 brachytherapy device. It appears feasible to re-size the CivaSheet in the operating room with an acceptable variation in prescription dose. Research was supported by CivaTech Oncology, Inc.

  14. WE-EF-BRA-08: Cell Survival in Modulated Radiation Fields and Altered DNA-Repair at Field Edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzsch, S; Oelfke, U [The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Eismann, S [University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, DE (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Tissue damage prognoses in radiotherapy are based on clonogenic assays that provide dose dependent cell survival rates. However, recent work has shown that apart from dose, systemic reactions and cell-cell communication crucially influence the radiation response. These effects are probably a key in understanding treatment approaches such as microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). In this study we tried to quantify the effects on a cellular level in spatially modulated radiation fields. Methods: Pancreas carcinoma cells were cultured, plated and irradiated by spatially modulated radiation fields with an X-ray tube and at a synchrotron. During and after treatment cells were able to communicate via the intercellular medium. Afterwards we stained for DNA and DNA damage and imaged with a fluorescence microscope. Results: Intriguingly we found that DNA damage does not strictly increase with dose. Two cell entities appear that have either a high or a low amount of DNA lesions, indicating that DNA damage is also a cell stress reaction. Close to radiation boundaries damage-levels became alike; they were higher than expected at low and lower than expected at high doses. Neighbouring cells reacted similarly. 6 hours after exposure around 40% of the cells resembled in their reactions neighbouring cells more than randomly chosen cells that received the same dose. We also observed that close to radiation boundaries the radiation induced cell-cycle arrest disappeared and the size of DNA repair-centres increased. Conclusion: Cell communication plays an important role in the radiation response of tissues and may be both, protective and destructive. These effects may not only have the potential to affect conventional radiotherapy but may also be exploited to spare organs at risk by intelligently designing irradiation geometries. To that end intensive work is required to shed light on the still obscure processes in cell-signalling and radiation biology.

  15. SU-C-BRA-06: Developing Clinical and Quantitative Guidelines for a 4DCT-Ventilation Functional Avoidance Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradskiy, Y; Waxweiler, T; Diot, Q; Kavanagh, B; Schubert, L; Miften, M [University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Castillo, R [University of Texas Medical Branch of Galveston, Pearland, TX (United States); Guerrero, T; Castillo, E [Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: 4DCT-ventilation is an exciting new imaging modality that uses 4DCTs to calculate lung ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care, calculating 4DCT-ventilation allows for lung function evaluation without additional cost or inconvenience to the patient. Development of a clinical trial is underway at our institution to use 4DCT-ventilation for thoracic functional avoidance with the idea that preferential sparing of functional lung regions can decrease pulmonary toxicity. The purpose of our work was to develop the practical aspects of a 4DCT-ventilation functional avoidance clinical trial including: 1.assessing patient eligibility 2.developing trial inclusion criteria and 3.developing treatment planning and dose-function evaluation strategies. Methods: 96 stage III lung cancer patients from 2 institutions were retrospectively reviewed. 4DCT-ventilation maps were calculated using the patient’s 4DCTs, deformable image registrations, and a density-change-based algorithm. To assess patient eligibility and develop trial inclusion criteria we used an observer-based binary end point noting the presence or absence of a ventilation defect and developed an algorithm based on the percent ventilation in each lung third. Functional avoidance planning integrating 4DCT-ventilation was performed using rapid-arc and compared to the patient’s clinically used plan. Results: Investigator-determined clinical ventilation defects were present in 69% of patients. Our regional/lung-thirds ventilation algorithm identified that 59% of patients have lung functional profiles suitable for functional avoidance. Compared to the clinical plan, functional avoidance planning was able to reduce the mean dose to functional lung by 2 Gy while delivering comparable target coverage and cord/heart doses. Conclusions: 4DCT-ventilation functional avoidance clinical trials have great potential to reduce toxicity, and our data suggest that 59% of lung cancer patients have lung function profiles suitable for functional avoidance. Our study used a retrospective evaluation of a large lung cancer patient database to develop the practical aspects of a 4DCT-ventilation functional avoidance clinical trial. (R.C., E.C., T.G.), NIH Research Scientist Development Award K01-CA181292 (R.C.), and State of Colorado Advanced Industries Accelerator Grant (Y.V.)

  16. SU-G-BRA-13: An Advanced Deformable Lung Phantom for Analyzing the Dosimetric Impact of Respiratory Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, D; Kang, S; Kim, D; Kim, T; Kim, K; Cho, M; Suh, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The difference between three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) dose is affected by factors such as tumor size and motion. To quantitatively analyze the effects of these factors, a phantom that can independently control for each factor is required. The purpose of this study is to develop a deformable lung phantom with the above attributes and evaluate characteristics. Methods: A phantom was designed to simulate diaphragm motion with amplitude in the range 1 to 7 cm and various periods of regular breathing. To simulate different size tumors, tumors were produced by pouring liquid silicone into custom molds created by a 3D printer. The accuracy of phantom diaphragm motion was assessed using calipers and protractor. To control tumor motion, tumor trajectories were evaluated using 4D computed tomography (CT), and diaphragm-tumor correlation curve was calculated by curve fitting method. Three-dimensional dose and 4D dose were calculated and compared according to tumor motion. Results: The accuracy of phantom diaphragm motion was less than 1 mm. Maximum tumor motion amplitudes in the left-right and anterior-posterior directions were 0.08 and 0.12 cm, respectively, in a 10 cm"3 tumor, and 0.06 and 0.27 cm, respectively, in a 90 cm"3 tumor. The diaphragm-tumor correlation curve showed that tumor motion in the superior-inferior direction was increased with increasing diaphragm motion. In the 10 cm"3 tumor, the tumor motion was larger than the 90 cm"3 tumor. According to tumor motion, variation of dose difference between 3D and 4D was identified. Conclusion: The developed phantom can independently control factors such as tumor size and motion. In potentially, this phantom can be used to quantitatively analyze the dosimetric impact of respiratory motion according to the factors that influence the difference between 3D and 4D dose. This research was supported by the Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning of Korea (NRF-2014R1A2A1A10050270) and by the Radiation Technology R&D program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (No. 2013M2A2A7038291)

  17. Usamljenost žena odrasle dobi: Uloga percipirane kvalitete bračnog odnosa i samostišavanja

    OpenAIRE

    Lacković-Grgin, Katica; Nekić, Marina; Penezić, Zvjezdan

    2009-01-01

    Empirijska istraživanja u različitim kulturama konzistentno su utvrdila da su osobe u braku kao i one u izvanbračnoj zajednici manje usamljene od samaca, razvedenih i udovaca (de Jong Gierveld, 1987; Joness, Hebb, 2003). Budući da Weiss u svom interakcionističkom modelu usamljenosti naglašava da emocionalna i socijalna usamljenost nastaju kad socijalne interakcije ne osiguravaju osobi socijalne zalihe kao što su privrženost, socijalna integracija, potvrda vlastite vrijednosti i druge, razumno...

  18. WE-DE-BRA-06: Evaluation of the Imaging Performance of a Novel Water-Equivalent EPID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, SJ; Cheng, J; Atakaramians, S; Kuncic, Z; Vial, P; Lu, M; Meikle, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the megavoltage imaging performance of a novel, water-equivalent electronic portal imaging device (EPID) developed for simultaneous imaging and dosimetry applications in radiotherapy. Methods: A novel EPID prototype based on active matrix flat panel imager technology has been developed by our group and previously reported to exhibit a water-equivalent dose response. It was constructed by replacing all components above the photodiode detector in a standard clinical EPID (including the copper plate and phosphor screen) with a 15 × 15 cm 2 array of plastic scintillator fibers. Individual fibers measured 0.5 × 0.5 × 30 mm 3 . Spatial resolution was evaluated experimentally relative to that of a standard EPID with the thin slit technique to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) for 6 MV x-ray beams. Monte Carlo (MC) EPID models were used to benchmark simulated MTFs against the measurements. The zero spatial frequency detective quantum efficiency (DQE(0)) was simulated for both EPID configurations and a preliminary optimization of the prototype was performed by evaluating DQE(0) as a function of fiber length up to 50 mm. Results: The MC-simulated DQE(0) for the prototype EPID configuration was ∼7 times greater than that of the standard EPID. The prototype’s DQE(0) also increased approximately linearly with fiber length, from ∼1% at 5 mm length to ∼11% at 50 mm length. The standard EPID MTF was greater than the prototype EPID’s for all spatial frequencies, reflecting the trade off between x-ray detection efficiency and spatial resolution with thick scintillators. Conclusion: This study offers promising evidence that a water-equivalent EPID previously demonstrated for radiotherapy dosimetry may also be used for radiotherapy imaging applications. Future studies on optimising the detector design will be performed to develop a next-generation prototype that offers improved megavoltage imaging performance, with the aim to at least match that of current clinical EPIDs. Funding for this project was provided by an Australian Research Council Linkage Project grant (2015) between The University of Sydney, South Western Sydney Local Health District and Perkin-Elmer Pty Ltd.

  19. TH-AB-BRA-02: Automated Triplet Beam Orientation Optimization for MRI-Guided Co-60 Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D; Thomas, D; Cao, M; O’Connor, D; Lamb, J; Sheng, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: MRI guided Co-60 provides daily and intrafractional MRI soft tissue imaging for improved target tracking and adaptive radiotherapy. To remedy the low output limitation, the system uses three Co-60 sources at 120° apart, but using all three sources in planning is considerably unintuitive. We automate the beam orientation optimization using column generation, and then solve a novel fluence map optimization (FMO) problem while regularizing the number of MLC segments. Methods: Three patients—1 prostate (PRT), 1 lung (LNG), and 1 head-and-neck boost plan (H&NBoost)—were evaluated. The beamlet dose for 180 equally spaced coplanar beams under 0.35 T magnetic field was calculated using Monte Carlo. The 60 triplets were selected utilizing the column generation algorithm. The FMO problem was formulated using an L2-norm minimization with anisotropic total variation (TV) regularization term, which allows for control over the number of MLC segments. Our Fluence Regularized and Optimized Selection of Triplets (FROST) plans were compared against the clinical treatment plans (CLN) produced by an experienced dosimetrist. Results: The mean PTV D95, D98, and D99 differ by −0.02%, +0.12%, and +0.44% of the prescription dose between planning methods, showing same PTV dose coverage. The mean PTV homogeneity (D95/D5) was at 0.9360 (FROST) and 0.9356 (CLN). R50 decreased by 0.07 with FROST. On average, FROST reduced Dmax and Dmean of OARs by 6.56% and 5.86% of the prescription dose. The manual CLN planning required iterative trial and error runs which is very time consuming, while FROST required minimal human intervention. Conclusions: MRI guided Co-60 therapy needs the output of all sources yet suffers from unintuitive and laborious manual beam selection processes. Automated triplet orientation optimization is shown essential to overcome the difficulty and improves the dosimetry. A novel FMO with regularization provides additional controls over the number of MLC segments and treatment time. Varian Medical Systems; NIH grant R01CA188300; NIH grant R43CA183390.

  20. MO-FG-BRA-08: Swarm Intelligence-Based Personalized Respiratory Gating in Lung SAbR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modiri, A; Sabouri, P; Sawant, A; Gu, X; Timmerman, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory gating is widely deployed as a clinical motion-management strategy in lung radiotherapy. In conventional gating, the beam is turned on during a pre-determined phase window; typically, around end-exhalation. In this work, we challenge the notion that end-exhalation is always the optimal gating phase. Specifically, we use a swarm-intelligence-based, inverse planning approach to determine the optimal respiratory phase and MU for each beam with respect to (i) the state of the anatomy at each phase and (ii) the time spent in that state, estimated from long-term monitoring of the patient’s breathing motion. Methods: In a retrospective study of five lung cancer patients, we compared the dosimetric performance of our proposed personalized gating (PG) with that of conventional end-of-exhale gating (CEG) and a previously-developed, fully 4D-optimized plan (combined with MLC tracking delivery). For each patient, respiratory phase probabilities (indicative of the time duration of the phase) were estimated over 2 minutes from lung tumor motion traces recorded previously using the Synchrony system (Accuray Inc.). Based on this information, inverse planning optimization was performed to calculate the optimal respiratory gating phase and MU for each beam. To ensure practical deliverability, each PG beam was constrained to deliver the assigned MU over a time duration comparable to that of CEG delivery. Results: Maximum OAR sparing for the five patients achieved by the PG and the 4D plans compared to CEG plans was: Esophagus Dmax [PG:57%, 4D:37%], Heart Dmax [PG:71%, 4D:87%], Spinal cord Dmax [PG:18%, 4D:68%] and Lung V13 [PG:16%, 4D:31%]. While patients spent the most time in exhalation, the PG-optimization chose end-exhale only for 28% of beams. Conclusion: Our novel gating strategy achieved significant dosimetric improvements over conventional gating, and approached the upper limit represented by fully 4D optimized planning while being significantly simpler and more clinically translatable. This work was partially supported through research funding from National Institutes of Health (R01CA169102) and Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

  1. SU-G-BRA-08: Diaphragm Motion Tracking Based On KV CBCT Projections with a Constrained Linear Regression Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J [City College of New York, New York, NY (United States); Chao, M [The Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel strategy to extract the respiratory motion of the thoracic diaphragm from kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections by a constrained linear regression optimization technique. Methods: A parabolic function was identified as the geometric model and was employed to fit the shape of the diaphragm on the CBCT projections. The search was initialized by five manually placed seeds on a pre-selected projection image. Temporal redundancies, the enabling phenomenology in video compression and encoding techniques, inherent in the dynamic properties of the diaphragm motion together with the geometrical shape of the diaphragm boundary and the associated algebraic constraint that significantly reduced the searching space of viable parabolic parameters was integrated, which can be effectively optimized by a constrained linear regression approach on the subsequent projections. The innovative algebraic constraints stipulating the kinetic range of the motion and the spatial constraint preventing any unphysical deviations was able to obtain the optimal contour of the diaphragm with minimal initialization. The algorithm was assessed by a fluoroscopic movie acquired at anteriorposterior fixed direction and kilovoltage CBCT projection image sets from four lung and two liver patients. The automatic tracing by the proposed algorithm and manual tracking by a human operator were compared in both space and frequency domains. Results: The error between the estimated and manual detections for the fluoroscopic movie was 0.54mm with standard deviation (SD) of 0.45mm, while the average error for the CBCT projections was 0.79mm with SD of 0.64mm for all enrolled patients. The submillimeter accuracy outcome exhibits the promise of the proposed constrained linear regression approach to track the diaphragm motion on rotational projection images. Conclusion: The new algorithm will provide a potential solution to rendering diaphragm motion and ultimately improving tumor motion management for radiation therapy of cancer patients.

  2. WE-FG-BRA-04: A Portable Confocal Microscope to Image Live Cell Damage Response Induced by Therapeutic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, C; Flint, D; Grosshans, D; Sawakuchi, G; Sadetaporn, D; Asaithamby, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To construct a custom and portable fluorescence confocal laser-scanning microscope (FCLSM) that can be placed in the path of therapeutic radiation beams to study real-time radiation-induced damage response in live cells. Methods: We designed and constructed a portable FCLSM with three laser diodes for excitation (405, 488, and 635 nm). An objective lens focuses the excitation light and collects fluorescence from the sample. A pair of galvanometer mirrors scans/collects the laser beam/fluorescence along the focal plane (x/y-directions). A stepper motor stage scans in the axial direction and positions the x/y of the image field. Barrier filters and dichroic mirrors are used to route the spectral emission bands to the appropriate photodetector. An avalanche photodiode collects near-infrared fluorescence; a photodiode collects back-reflected 635 nm light; and a photomultiplier tube collects green fluorescence in the range of eGFP/eYFP. A 200-µm diameter pinhole was used to implement the confocal geometry for near-infrared and red channels and a 150-µm diameter pinhole for the green channel. Data acquisition and system control were achieved using a high-throughput data acquisition card. In-house software developed in LabVIEW was used to control the hardware, collect data from the photodetectors and reconstruct the confocal images. Results: 6 frames/s can be acquired for a 25 µm 2 (128×128 pixels) field of view, visualizing the entire volume of the cell nucleus (∼10 µm depth) in <10 s. To demonstrate the usefulness of our FCLSM, we imaged gold nanosh