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Sample records for etoposide markedly increases

  1. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

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    Hamzah M. Maswadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes. The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  2. Etoposide incorporated into camel milk phospholipids liposomes shows increased activity against fibrosarcoma in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmad N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Alsharidah, Mansour S; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  3. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M.; Aljarbou, Ahmad N.; Alorainy, Mohammed S.; Alsharidah, Mansour S.; Khan, Masood A.

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP) was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP) and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes) and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes). The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs. PMID:25821817

  4. An etoposide-resistant lung cancer subline overexpresses the multidrug resistance-associated protein.

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    Doyle, L. A.; Ross, D. D.; Ordonez, J. V.; Yang, W.; Gao, Y.; Tong, Y.; Belani, C. P.; Gutheil, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have characterised an etoposide-resistant subline of the small-cell lung cancer cell line, UMCC-1, derived at our centre. Subline UMCC-1/VP was developed by culturing the parent line in increasing concentrations of etoposide over 16 months. UMCC-1/VP is 20-fold resistant to etoposide by MTT assays, relative to the parent line, and is cross-resistant to doxorubicin, vincristine and actinomycin D, but not to taxol, cisplatin, melphalan, thiotepa or idarubicin. Topoisomerase II immunoblotting demonstrates a 50% reduction of the protein in the resistant subline. The UMCC-1/VP subline demonstrates a marked decrease in the accumulation of [3H]etoposide relative to the parent line, as well as a modest reduction in the accumulation of daunorubicin. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrate no detectable mdr1 expression but marked expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) gene in the resistant subline. Northern blotting with an MRP cDNA probe confirms marked overexpression of the MRP gene only in the UMCC-1/VP subline. Western blotting with antisera against MRP peptide confirms a 195 kDa protein band in the UMCC-1/VP subline. Southern blotting experiments demonstrate a 10-fold amplification of the MRP gene in the resistant subline. Depletion of glutathione with buthionine sulphoximine sensitised UMCC-1/VP cells to daunorubicin and etoposide. Our studies indicate that MRP gene expression may be induced by etoposide and may lead to reduced accumulation of the drug. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7669558

  5. Rap1 is indispensable for TRF2 function in etoposide-induced DNA damage response in gastric cancer cell line.

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    Li, X; Liu, W; Wang, H; Yang, L; Li, Y; Wen, H; Ning, H; Wang, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Fan, D

    2015-03-30

    The telomeric protein TRF2, involving in telomeric and extratelomeric DNA damage response, has been previously reported to facilitate multidrug resistance (MDR) in gastric cancer cells by interfering ATM-dependent DNA damage response induced by anticancer drugs. Rap1 is the TRF2-interacting protein in the shelterin complex. Complex formation between Rap1 and TRF2 is essential for their function in telomere and end protection. Here we focus on the effects of Rap1 on TRF2 function in DNA damage response induced by anticancer drugs. Both Rap1 and TRF2 expression were upregulated in SGC7901 and its MDR variant SGC7901/VCR after etoposide treatment, which was more marked in SGC7901/VCR than in SGC7901. Rap1 silencing by siRNA in SGC7901/VCR partially reversed the etoposide resistance. And Rap1 silencing partially reversed the TRF2-mediated resistance to etoposide in SGC7901. Rap1 silencing did not affect the TRF2 upregulation induced by etoposide, but eliminated the inhibition effect of TRF2 on ATM expression and ATM phosphorylation at serine 1981 (ATM pS1981). Furthermore, phosphorylation of ATM targets, including γH2AX and serine 15 (S15) on p53, were increased in Rap1 silencing cells in response to etoposide. Thus, we confirm that Rap1, interacting with TRF2 in the shelterin complex, also has an important role in TRF2-mediated DNA damage response in gastric cancer cells treated by etoposide.

  6. A pharmacoeconomic evaluation of cisplatin in combination with either etoposide or etoposide phosphate in small cell lung cancer.

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    Doyle, J J; Dezii, C M; Sadana, A

    1996-12-01

    alternative compared with standard etoposide chemotherapy in managing SCLC. The potential increase in patient volume conferred by the relative simplicity of etoposide phosphate administration would have a significant impact on operations in terms of scheduling patients and staff and increasing operational efficiencies, thereby facilitating cost reductions in excess of $2,700 per patient when an etoposide phosphate regimen is chosen over an etoposide regimen.

  7. Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor in bladder cancer cells treated with the DNA-damaging drug etoposide markedly increases apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Mathias; Memon, Ashfaque Ahmed; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    : The bladder cancer cell lines RT4 and T24, representing low- and high-malignancy grades respectively, were treated with VP16 (10 or 50 microM) and the level of apoptosis determined using a commercial kit. EGFR receptor activity was determined by western blotting using antibodies against phosphorylated EGFR...

  8. Influence of etoposide and cyclophosphamide on the efficacy of cloxacillin and erythromycin in an experimental staphylococcal infection.

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    Calame, W; van der Waals, R; Mattie, H; van Furth, R

    1989-01-01

    The effect of monocytopenia and granulocytopenia on the outgrowth of Staphylococcus aureus as well as on antibiotic efficacy was studied in an experimental thigh infection in mice. Pretreatment with etoposide reduced monocyte numbers in blood to 14% and those of granulocytes to 54% at the time of infection. Monocytopenia did not affect the proliferation of bacteria in the infected thigh or the reduction of bacterial numbers after treatment with cloxacillin or erythromycin. Pretreatment with cyclophosphamide reduced monocyte numbers to 15% and granulocyte numbers to 3%. This resulted in a marked increase in the number of bacteria at the site of infection and a decrease in the efficacy of antibiotic treatment. PMID:2764550

  9. Compound list: etoposide [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etoposide ETP 00131 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/etop...oside.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/etop...oside.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/etop...open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/etoposide.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  10. Reversal of chemoresistance with small interference RNA (siRNA) in etoposide resistant acute myeloid leukemia cells (HL-60).

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    Kachalaki, Saeed; Baradaran, Behzad; Majidi, Jafar; Yousefi, Mehdi; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Mohammadinejad, Sina; Mansoori, Behzad

    2015-10-01

    Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters is a major barrier in the success of cancer chemotherapy. One way to overcome overexpression of ABC drug transporter-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia is to suppress ABC drug transporter genes expression by small interference RNA (siRNA). In this study was assessed the involvement of ABCB1 gene in the mechanisms of resistance to etoposide in AML cells. The etoposide-resistant HL-60 cells were generated by stepwise exposure increasing concentrations of etoposide. The etoposide-resistant HL-60 cells were transfected with siRNAs using Transfection Reagent. The ABCB1 mRNA expression were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. The MDR1/P-gp levels were measured by Western blotting. The sensitivity of resistant HL-60 cells to etoposide after transfection was determined using MTT assay. Apoptosis of resistant HL-60 cells after transfection was detected by flow cytometer. It was found that siRNA effectively inhibited ABCB1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Knockdown of the ABCB1 gene correlated with increased sensitivity of the resistant HL-60 cells to etoposide and was observed to lower the cytotoxic index (IC50 etoposide value) after transfection. Our results indicate that product of the ABCB1 gene have effective role in resistance to etoposide in acute myeloid leukemia cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Etoposide Quinone Is a Redox-Dependent Topoisomerase II Poison†

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    Jacob, David A.; Mercer, Susan L.; Osheroff, Neil; Deweese, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Etoposide is a topoisomerase II poison that is used to treat a variety of human cancers. Unfortunately, 2–3% of patients treated with etoposide develop treatment-related leukemias characterized by 11q23 chromosomal rearrangements. The molecular basis for etoposide-induced leukemogenesis is not understood, but is associated with enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. Etoposide is metabolized by CYP3A4 to etoposide catechol, which can be further oxidized to etoposide quinone. A CYP3A4 variant is associated with a lower risk of etoposide-related leukemias, suggesting that etoposide metabolites may be involved in leukemogenesis. Although etoposide acts at the enzyme-DNA interface, several quinones poison topoisomerase II via redox-dependent protein adduction. The effects of etoposide quinone on topoisomerase IIα-mediated DNA cleavage have been examined previously. Although findings suggest that the activity of the quinone is slightly greater than that of etoposide, these studies were carried out in the presence of significant levels of reducing agents (which should reduce etoposide quinone to the catechol). Therefore, we examined the ability of etoposide quinone to poison human topoisomerase IIα in the absence of reducing agents. Under these conditions, etoposide quinone was ~5–fold more active than etoposide at inducing enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. Consistent with other redox-dependent poisons, etoposide quinone inactivated topoisomerase IIα when incubated with the protein prior to DNA and lost activity in the presence of dithiothreitol. Unlike etoposide, the quinone metabolite did not require ATP for maximal activity and induced a high ratio of double-stranded DNA breaks. Our results support the hypothesis that etoposide quinone contributes to etoposide-related leukemogenesis. PMID:21595477

  12. POLYSACCHARIDES TUSSILAGOFARFARA L. REDUCE MYELOSUPPRESSION INDUCED BY CISPLATIN AND ETOPOSIDE

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    E. A. Safonova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of polysaccharides Tussilagofarfara L. on erythroid sprout hematopoiesis, tumor growth and metastasis in mice with Lung cancer-67 during therapy with cisplatin and etoposide. It was found that the use of polysaccharides reduces myelosuppression induced by cytostatics of erythroidal sprout hematopoiesis and leads to increase anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effect of chemotherapy.

  13. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pijnacker (Roan); M.G.A. Goris (Marga); M. te Wierik (Margreet); E.M. Broens; J.W.B. van der Giessen (Joke); M. de Rosa (Mauro); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap A.); R.A. Hartskeerl (Rudy); D.W. Notermans (Daan); K. Maassen (Kitty); B. Schimmer

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans

  14. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, Roan; Goris, Marga G A; Te Wierik, Margreet J M; Broens, Els M; van der Giessen, Joke W B; de Rosa, Mauro; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Notermans, Daan W; Maassen, Kitty; Schimmer, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with an

  15. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, Roan; Goris, M.G.; Wierik, te M.J.; Broens, E.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.; Rosa, de M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hartskeerl, R.A.; Notermans, D.W.; Maassen, K.; Schimmer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with

  16. Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, M.; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of hypospadias is increasing in young boys, but it remains unclear whether human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals plays a role. Risk assessment is based on estimation of no-observed-adverse-effect levels for single compounds, although humans are exposed to combinations...... reproductive organs were assessed on PND 47 using a score from 0 to 3 (normal to marked) for hypospadias. Markedly increased frequencies were observed after exposure to a MIX of the three chemicals compared to administration of the three chemicals alone. Anogenital distance at PND 1, nipple retention at PND 13......, and dysgenesis score at PND 16 were highly correlated with the occurrence of hypospadias, and MIX effects were seen at doses where each of the individual chemicals caused no observable effects. Therefore, the results indicate that doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce no hypospadias when judged...

  17. Evaluating Cytotoxicity of Hyaluronate Targeted Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Etoposide on SK-OV-3 Cells

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    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Sadeghi Aliabadi, Hojatollah

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial ovarian carcinoma is one of the most fatal gynecological cancers. Etoposide is used in treating platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Sodium hyaluronate is a substance that binds to the CD44 receptors overexpressed in SK-OV-3 cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The aim of the present work was to study the cytotoxicity effect of hyaluronate targeted solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of etoposide on SK-OV-3 cells. The cytotoxicity of the targeted and nontargeted SLNs of etoposide was compared to free drug on the SK-OV-3 cells by MTT assay method. The cellular uptake of the targeted and nontargeted nanoparticles containing sodium fluorescein was also studied. The difference of cell vitality between nontargeted nanoparticles and also targeted nanoparticles with free drug was significant. Targeted nanoparticles also caused more toxicity than nontargeted nanoparticles (P Hyaluronate targeted SLNs containing etoposide increased the cytotoxicity of etoposide on SK-OV-3 cells which may be a worthwhile potential method for reducing the prescribed dose and systemic side effects of this drug in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. PMID:24868467

  18. Evaluating Cytotoxicity of Hyaluronate Targeted Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Etoposide on SK-OV-3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Mohammadi Ghalaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial ovarian carcinoma is one of the most fatal gynecological cancers. Etoposide is used in treating platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Sodium hyaluronate is a substance that binds to the CD44 receptors overexpressed in SK-OV-3 cells of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The aim of the present work was to study the cytotoxicity effect of hyaluronate targeted solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs of etoposide on SK-OV-3 cells. The cytotoxicity of the targeted and nontargeted SLNs of etoposide was compared to free drug on the SK-OV-3 cells by MTT assay method. The cellular uptake of the targeted and nontargeted nanoparticles containing sodium fluorescein was also studied. The difference of cell vitality between nontargeted nanoparticles and also targeted nanoparticles with free drug was significant. Targeted nanoparticles also caused more toxicity than nontargeted nanoparticles (P<0.05. After 4 hours of incubating, the fluorescence was remarkably higher in the cells treated by targeted SLNs rather than nontargeted ones, and there was no observable fluorescence in cells incubated with pure sodium fluorescein. Hyaluronate targeted SLNs containing etoposide increased the cytotoxicity of etoposide on SK-OV-3 cells which may be a worthwhile potential method for reducing the prescribed dose and systemic side effects of this drug in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  19. The Effect of Rosmarinus Officinalis and Chemotherapeutic Etoposide on Glioblastoma (U87 MG) Cell Culture.

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    Özdemir, Meryem Damla; Göktürk, Dilek

    2017-10-11

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most invasive and common type of brain cancer with very poor prognosis. One of the drugs administered for GBM pharmacotherapy is etoposide (VP-16), which belongs to the topoisomerase inhibitor family. It can be used in combination with other drugs or chemicals to avoid high dose toxicities or augment its effect at lower doses. In this study we aimed to investigate whether high dose toxicities of etoposide can be overcome when used in combination with a natural compound named Rosmarinus Officinalis. The impact of Rosmarinus Officinalis in combination with etoposide on GBM U87 MG cells and Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast (MEF) cells was investigated. Both neutral red and 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2, 5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assays were employed to gauge cell viability. We observed that increased quantities of Rosmarinus Officinalis induced MEF cell proliferation while it inhibited the survival of GBM cells. Our results indicate that Rosmarinus Officinalis did not affect the cytotoxicity of etoposide on GBM cell cultures. In contrast, in the MEF cell cultures Rosmarinus Officinalis induced proliferation and diminished the impact of etoposide. Rosmarinus Officinalis offers hope for developing new cancer treatment strategies. However, further studies are needed to verift these results.

  20. Etoposide quinone is a covalent poison of human topoisomerase IIβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas A; Byl, Jo Ann W; Mercer, Susan L; Deweese, Joseph E; Osheroff, Neil

    2014-05-20

    Etoposide is a topoisomerase II poison that is utilized to treat a broad spectrum of human cancers. Despite its wide clinical use, 2-3% of patients treated with etoposide eventually develop treatment-related acute myeloid leukemias (t-AMLs) characterized by rearrangements of the MLL gene. The molecular basis underlying the development of these t-AMLs is not well understood; however, previous studies have implicated etoposide metabolites (i.e., etoposide quinone) and topoisomerase IIβ in the leukemogenic process. Although interactions between etoposide quinone and topoisomerase IIα have been characterized, the effects of the drug metabolite on the activity of human topoisomerase IIβ have not been reported. Thus, we examined the ability of etoposide quinone to poison human topoisomerase IIβ. The quinone induced ~4 times more enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage than did the parent drug. Furthermore, the potency of etoposide quinone was ~2 times greater against topoisomerase IIβ than it was against topoisomerase IIα, and the drug reacted ~2-4 times faster with the β isoform. Etoposide quinone induced a higher ratio of double- to single-stranded breaks than etoposide, and its activity was less dependent on ATP. Whereas etoposide acts as an interfacial topoisomerase II poison, etoposide quinone displayed all of the hallmarks of a covalent poison: the activity of the metabolite was abolished by reducing agents, and the compound inactivated topoisomerase IIβ when it was incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of DNA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that etoposide quinone contributes to etoposide-related leukemogenesis through an interaction with topoisomerase IIβ.

  1. Hypersensitivity to Etoposide in Case of Metastatic Gestational Choriocarcinoma

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    Biljana Lazović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Etoposide is commonly used in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms. Hypersensitivity reactions to etoposide are infrequently reported and include hypotension, hypertension, flushing, diaphoresis, chest discomfort, dyspnea, bronchospasm and loss of consciousness. We report the case of a 39-year-old woman who experienced acute bronchospasm, tachycardia, hypoxia and hypotension. The symptoms resolved within an hour after administration of intravenous fluids, methylprednisolone, diphenhydramine and oxygen. Subsequently, the patient was given etoposide phosphate without incident.

  2. Meal ingestion markedly increases liver stiffness suggesting the need for liver stiffness determination in fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Daniel; Orozco, Federico; Mella, José María; Anders, Maria; Antinucci, Florencia; Mastai, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of noninvasive liver stiffness (LS) determination has heralded a new stage in the diagnosis and treatment of liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of food intake on LS in patients with different degrees of liver disease. We evaluated 24 patients (F≤1, n=11 and F> 1, n=13). LS (Fibroscan®) and portal blood flow (PBF) (Doppler ultrasound) were studied before and 30min after ingestion of a standard liquid meal. Food intake increased PBF (51±10%, p1). Hemodynamic and LS values returned to baseline pre-meal levels within 2hours. LS increases markedly after ingestion of a standard meal, irrespective of the degree of fibrosis. Our results strongly suggest that LS should be measured in fasting conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  3. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnacker, Roan; Goris, Marga G A; Te Wierik, Margreet J M; Broens, Els M; van der Giessen, Joke W B; de Rosa, Mauro; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Notermans, Daan W; Maassen, Kitty; Schimmer, Barbara

    2016-04-28

    In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with an increase of leptospirosis in dogs. In 2014, 13 dogs with leptospirosis were reported, compared with two to six dogs annually from 2010 to 2013. The majority of the autochthonous cases (n = 20) were linked to recreational exposure, e.g. swimming or fishing, followed by occupational exposure (n = 15). About sixty per cent (n = 37) of the autochthonous cases were most likely attributable to surface water contact, and 13 cases to direct contact with animals, mainly rats. A possible explanation for this increase is the preceding mild winter of 2013-2014 followed by the warmest year in three centuries, possibly enabling rodents and Leptospira spp. to survive better. A slight increase in imported leptospirosis was also observed in Dutch tourists (n = 33) most of whom acquired their infection in Thailand (n = 18). More awareness and early recognition of this mainly rodent-borne zoonosis by medical and veterinary specialists is warranted.

  4. pH-sensitive strontium carbonate nanoparticles as new anticancer vehicles for controlled etoposide release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wen-Yu; Sun, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Du, Xi-Ling; Liu, Hui; Wang, Shi-Long

    2012-01-01

    Strontium carbonate nanoparticles (SCNs), a novel biodegradable nanosystem for the pH-sensitive release of anticancer drugs, were developed via a facile mixed solvent method aimed at creating smart drug delivery in acidic conditions, particularly in tumor environments. Structural characterization of SCNs revealed that the engineered nanocarriers were uniform in size and presented a dumbbell-shaped morphology with a dense mass of a scale-like spine coating, which could serve as the storage structure for hydrophobic drugs. Chosen as a model anticancer agent, etoposide was effectively loaded into SCNs based on a simultaneous process that allowed for the formation of the nanocarriers and for drug storage to be accomplished in a single step. The etoposide-loaded SCNs (ESCNs) possess both a high loading capacity and efficient encapsulation. It was found that the cumulative release of etoposide from ESCNs is acid-dependent, and that the release rate is slow at a pH of 7.4; this rate increases significantly at low pH levels (5.8, 3.0). Meanwhile, it was also found that the blank SCNs were almost nontoxic to normal cells, and ESCN systems were evidently more potent in antitumor activity compared with free etoposide, as confirmed by a cytotoxicity test using an MTT assay and an apoptosis test with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. These findings suggest that SCNs hold tremendous promise in the areas of controlled drug delivery and targeted cancer therapy. PMID:23185118

  5. Prostate cancer stem-like cells proliferate slowly and resist etoposide-induced cytotoxicity via enhancing DNA damage response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Judy [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Juravinski Innovation Tower, Room T3310, St. Joseph' s Hospital, 50 Charlton Ave East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Father Sean O' Sullivan Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 4A6 (Canada); The Hamilton Centre for Kidney Research (HCKR), St. Joseph' s Hamilton Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 4A6 (Canada); Tang, Damu, E-mail: damut@mcmaster.ca [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Juravinski Innovation Tower, Room T3310, St. Joseph' s Hospital, 50 Charlton Ave East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Father Sean O' Sullivan Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 4A6 (Canada); The Hamilton Centre for Kidney Research (HCKR), St. Joseph' s Hamilton Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 4A6 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Despite the development of chemoresistance as a major concern in prostate cancer therapy, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this report, we demonstrate that DU145-derived prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) progress slowly with more cells accumulating in the G1 phase in comparison to DU145 non-PCSCs. Consistent with the important role of the AKT pathway in promoting G1 progression, DU145 PCSCs were less sensitive to growth factor-induced activation of AKT in comparison to non-PCSCs. In response to etoposide (one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs), DU145 PCSCs survived significantly better than non-PCSCs. In addition to etoposide, PCSCs demonstrated increased resistance to docetaxel, a taxane drug that is commonly used to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer. Etoposide produced elevated levels of γH2AX and triggered a robust G2/M arrest along with a coordinated reduction of the G1 population in PCSCs compared to non-PCSCs, suggesting that elevated γH2AX plays a role in the resistance of PCSCs to etoposide-induced cytotoxicity. We have generated xenograft tumors from DU145 PCSCs and non-PCSCs. Consistent with the knowledge that PCSCs produce xenograft tumors with more advanced features, we were able to demonstrate that PCSC-derived xenograft tumors displayed higher levels of γH2AX and p-CHK1 compared to non-PCSC-produced xenograft tumors. Collectively, our research suggests that the elevation of DNA damage response contributes to PCSC-associated resistance to genotoxic reagents. - Highlights: • Increased survival in DU145 PCSCs following etoposide-induced cytotoxicity. • PCSCs exhibit increased sensitivity to etoposide-induced DDR. • Resistance to cytotoxicity may be due to slower proliferation in PCSCs. • Reduced kinetics to growth factor induced activation of AKT in PCSCs.

  6. Combining etoposide and dexrazoxane synergizes with radiotherapy and improves survival in mice with central nervous system tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofland, Kenneth Francis; Thougaard, Annemette Vinding; Dejligbjerg, Marielle

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The treatment of patients with brain metastases is presently ineffective, but cerebral chemoradiotherapy using radiosensitizing agents seems promising. Etoposide targets topoisomerase II, resulting in lethal DNA breaks; such lesions may increase the effect of irradiation, which also depe...... nervous system tumors. This regimen may thus improve radiation therapy of central nervous system tumors....

  7. Head-To-Head Comparison of Different Solubility-Enabling Formulations of Etoposide and Their Consequent Solubility-Permeability Interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Avital; Miller, Jonathan M; Lindley, David; Carr, Robert A; Zocharski, Philip; Agbaria, Riad; Dahan, Arik

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a head-to-head comparison of different solubility-enabling formulations, and their consequent solubility-permeability interplay. The low-solubility anticancer drug etoposide was formulated in several strengths of four solubility-enabling formulations: hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, the cosolvent polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG-400), the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate, and an amorphous solid dispersion formulation. The ability of these formulations to increase the solubility of etoposide was investigated, followed by permeability studies using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and examination of the consequent solubility-permeability interplay. All formulations significantly increased etoposide's apparent solubility. The cyclodextrin-, surfactant-, and cosolvent-based formulations resulted in a concomitant decreased permeability that could be modeled directly from the proportional increase in the apparent solubility. On the contrary, etoposide permeability remained constant when using the ASD formulation, irrespective of the increased apparent solubility provided by the formulation. In conclusion, supersaturation resulting from the amorphous form overcomes the solubility-permeability tradeoff associated with other formulation techniques. Accounting for the solubility-permeability interplay may allow to develop better solubility-enabling formulations, thereby maximizing the overall absorption of lipophilic orally administered drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. ETOPOSIDE INDUCES CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN SPERMATOCYTES AND SPERMATOGONIAL STEM CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Pearson, F S; Bishop, J B; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-07-15

    Etoposide (ET) is a chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of leukemia, lymphomas and many solid tumors, such as testicular and ovarian cancers, that affect patients in their reproductive years. The purpose of the study was to use sperm FISH analyses to characterize the long-term effects of ET on male germ cells. We used a mouse model to characterize the induction of chromosomal aberrations (partial duplications and deletions) and whole chromosomal aneuploidies in sperm of mice treated with a clinical dose of ET. Semen samples were collected at 25 and 49 days after dosing to investigate the effects of ET on meiotic pachytene cells and spermatogonial stem-cells, respectively. ET treatment resulted in major increases in the frequencies of sperm carrying chromosomal aberrations in both meiotic pachytene (27- to 578-fold) and spermatogonial stem-cells (8- to 16-fold), but aneuploid sperm were induced only after treatment of meiotic cells (27-fold) with no persistent effects in stem cells. These results demonstrate that male meiotic germ cells are considerably more sensitive to ET than spermatogonial stem-cell and that increased frequencies of sperm with structural aberrations persist after spermatogonial stem-cell treatment. These findings predict that patients who undergo chemotherapy with ET may have transient elevations in the frequencies of aneuploid sperm, but more importantly, may have persistent elevations in the frequencies of sperm with chromosomal aberrations, placing them at higher risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes long after the end of their chemotherapy.

  9. Exercise in vivo marks human myotubes in vitro: Training-induced increase in lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lund

    Full Text Available Physical activity has preventive as well as therapeutic benefits for overweight subjects. In this study we aimed to examine effects of in vivo exercise on in vitro metabolic adaptations by studying energy metabolism in cultured myotubes isolated from biopsies taken before and after 12 weeks of extensive endurance and strength training, from healthy sedentary normal weight and overweight men.Healthy sedentary men, aged 40-62 years, with normal weight (body mass index (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 were included. Fatty acid and glucose metabolism were studied in myotubes using [14C]oleic acid and [14C]glucose, respectively. Gene and protein expressions, as well as DNA methylation were measured for selected genes.The 12-week training intervention improved endurance, strength and insulin sensitivity in vivo, and reduced the participants' body weight. Biopsy-derived cultured human myotubes after exercise showed increased total cellular oleic acid uptake (30%, oxidation (46% and lipid accumulation (34%, as well as increased fractional glucose oxidation (14% compared to cultures established prior to exercise. Most of these exercise-induced increases were significant in the overweight group, whereas the normal weight group showed no change in oleic acid or glucose metabolism.12 weeks of combined endurance and strength training promoted increased lipid and glucose metabolism in biopsy-derived cultured human myotubes, showing that training in vivo are able to induce changes in human myotubes that are discernible in vitro.

  10. Exercise in vivo marks human myotubes in vitro: Training-induced increase in lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Jenny; Mudry, Jonathan M.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Feng, Yuan Z.; Stensrud, Camilla; Brubak, Mari G.; Drevon, Christian A.; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Kolnes, Kristoffer J.; Johansen, Egil I.; Tangen, Daniel S.; Stadheim, Hans K.; Gulseth, Hanne L.; Krook, Anna; Kase, Eili T.; Jensen, Jørgen; Thoresen, G. Hege

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Physical activity has preventive as well as therapeutic benefits for overweight subjects. In this study we aimed to examine effects of in vivo exercise on in vitro metabolic adaptations by studying energy metabolism in cultured myotubes isolated from biopsies taken before and after 12 weeks of extensive endurance and strength training, from healthy sedentary normal weight and overweight men. Methods Healthy sedentary men, aged 40–62 years, with normal weight (body mass index (BMI) exercise showed increased total cellular oleic acid uptake (30%), oxidation (46%) and lipid accumulation (34%), as well as increased fractional glucose oxidation (14%) compared to cultures established prior to exercise. Most of these exercise-induced increases were significant in the overweight group, whereas the normal weight group showed no change in oleic acid or glucose metabolism. Conclusions 12 weeks of combined endurance and strength training promoted increased lipid and glucose metabolism in biopsy-derived cultured human myotubes, showing that training in vivo are able to induce changes in human myotubes that are discernible in vitro. PMID:28403174

  11. Ifosfamide, epirubicin, and etoposide (IEV) mobilize peripheral blood stem cells more efficiently than cyclophosphamide/etoposide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Christina; Blank, Christian; Krause, Stefan W; Andreesen, Reinhard; Hennemann, Burkhard

    2007-08-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support is an effective treatment in advanced multiple myeloma. In this study, we compare chemotherapy with ifosfamide, epirubicin, and etoposide (IEV) or cyclophosphamide and etoposide (CE) in 47 patients with multiple myeloma with regard to stem cell mobilization, toxicity, and tumor response. The proportion of patients reaching the threshold of >6 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg body weight was significantly higher in the IEV group (97% vs 71%), and more CD34+ cells (10 x 10(6) vs 3.5 x 10(6) cells/kg; p = 0.002) could be collected by the first leukapheresis associated with less leukaphereses needed. Non-hematopoietic side effects were mild with nausea being more frequent after IEV treatment (30% vs 7%). Grade 3/4 neutropenia (thrombocytopenia) occurred in 89 and 100% (55 and 44%) of the patients. There was one treatment-related death due to septic shock in the IEV group. Grade 3/4 anemia was more frequent in the IEV group (19% vs 0%). Forty-two percent (IEV) and 50% (CE) received inpatient treatment for neutropenic fever. In 20 and 7% of the patients, a partial response was observed after IEV and CE. However, the overall response rate (complete response and partial tumor response) after mobilization and tandem high-dose chemotherapy was 75% after IEV and 78% after CE and, thus, independent of the mobilization. In summary, both treatment protocols can readily be used for the mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells with comparable major toxicities and similar tumor response rates. However, the efficiency of the stem cell mobilization was significantly higher after IEV treatment.

  12. Total and cause-specific mortality by moderately and markedly increased ferritin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Marott, Jacob Louis; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    : We examined total and cause-specific mortality according to baseline plasma ferritin concentrations in a Danish population-based study (the Copenhagen City Heart Study) of 8988 individuals, 6364 of whom died (median follow-up 23 years). We also included a metaanalysis of total mortality comprising...... population-based studies according to ferritin quartiles or tertiles. RESULTS: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total mortality for individuals with ferritin ≥200 vs 1.2 (1.0-1.3; P = 0.03) in women....... Stepwise increasing concentrations of ferritin were associated with a stepwise increased risk of premature death overall (log rank, P = 2 × 10(-22)), with median survival of 55 years at ferritin concentrations ≥600 μg/L, 72 years at 400-599 μg/L, 76 years at 200-399 μg/L, and 79 years at ferritin

  13. Early adolescent cognitive gains are marked by increased sleep EEG coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Tarokh; Carskadon, Mary A.; Peter Achermann

    2014-01-01

    Although the increases in cognitive capacities of adolescent humans are concurrent with significant cortical restructuring, functional associations between these phenomena are unclear. We examined the association between cortical development, as measured by the sleep EEG, and cognitive performance in a sample of 9/10 year olds followed up 1 to 3 years later. Our cognitive measures included a response inhibition task (Stroop), an executive control task (Trail Making), and a verbal fluency task...

  14. Survival and Toxicity After Cisplatin Plus Etoposide Versus Carboplatin Plus Etoposide for Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Laura A; Huskamp, Haiden A; Lamont, Elizabeth B

    2016-07-01

    Elderly patients with cancer are under-represented in clinical trials and risk greater toxicity from chemotherapy. These patients and their physicians need better evidence to decide among guideline-recommended regimens. We test whether patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES SCLC) have noninferior survival and less hospital-based health care after carboplatin/etoposide compared with cisplatin/etoposide. We analyzed SEER-Medicare data for beneficiaries with ES SCLC diagnosed at age 67 years and older between 1995 and 2009. Among patients treated with first-line chemotherapy in the ambulatory setting, 831 received cisplatin/etoposide and 2,846 received carboplatin/etoposide. Propensity score matching (2:1 ratio) yielded 778 cisplatin/etoposide and 1,502 carboplatin/etoposide patients. Survival was nearly identical in the two groups: 35.7 weeks for cisplatin/etoposide and 35.9 weeks for carboplatin/etoposide. The hazard ratio of 1 (95% CI, 0.91 to 1.09) excluded our prespecified threshold, indicating noninferiority. Mortality at 6 months was indistinguishable: 35% for cisplatin/etoposide and 34% for carboplatin/etoposide. After carboplatin/etoposide, patients were less likely to be admitted to a hospital (80% v 86%, P < .001) and had fewer hospitalizations (median 1 v 2, odds ratio 0.76, 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.9), ED visits (median 1 v 2, odds ratio 0.82, 95% CI, 0.7 to 0.96), and ICU stays (median 0 v 0, odds ratio 0.82, 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.99). First-line carboplatin/etoposide is associated with similar survival and less subsequent hospital-based health care use than cisplatin/etoposide among elderly patients with ES SCLC treated in ambulatory settings. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Grapefruit juice markedly increases the plasma concentrations and antiplatelet effects of ticagrelor in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Mikko T; Tornio, Aleksi; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Neuvonen, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Lassila, Riitta; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study examined the effects of grapefruit juice on the new P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor, which is a substrate of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. Methods In a randomized crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of grapefruit juice or water thrice daily for 4 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 90 mg dose of ticagrelor. Results Grapefruit juice increased ticagrelor geometric mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) to 165% (95% confidence interval 147, 184%) and area under the concentration–time curve (AUC(0,∞)) to 221% of control (95% confidence interval 200, 245%). The Cmax and AUC(0,34 h) (P ticagrelor elimination half-life prolonging it from 6.7 to 7.2 h (P = 0.036). In good correlation with the elevated plasma ticagrelor concentrations, grapefruit juice enhanced the antiplatelet effect of ticagrelor, assessed with VerifyNow® and Multiplate® methods, and postponed the recovery of platelet reactivity. Conclusions Grapefruit juice increased ticagrelor exposure by more than two-fold, leading to an enhanced and prolonged ticagrelor antiplatelet effect. The grapefruit juice–ticagrelor interaction seems clinically important and indicates the significance of intestinal metabolism to ticagrelor pharmacokinetics. PMID:23126367

  16. Intracellular modulation, extracellular disposal and serum increase of MiR-150 mark lymphocyte activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de Candia

    Full Text Available Activated lymphocytes release nano-sized vesicles (exosomes containing microRNAs that can be monitored in the bloodstream. We asked whether elicitation of immune responses is followed by release of lymphocyte-specific microRNAs. We found that, upon activation in vitro, human and mouse lymphocytes down-modulate intracellular miR-150 and accumulate it in exosomes. In vivo, miR-150 levels increased significantly in serum of humans immunized with flu vaccines and in mice immunized with ovalbumin, and this increase correlated with elevation of antibody titers. Immunization of immune-deficient mice, lacking MHCII, resulted neither in antibody production nor in elevation of circulating miR-150. This study provides proof of concept that serum microRNAs can be detected, with minimally invasive procedure, as biomarkers of vaccination and more in general of adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, the prompt reduction of intracellular level of miR-150, a key regulator of mRNAs critical for lymphocyte differentiation and functions, linked to its release in the external milieu suggests that the selective extracellular disposal of microRNAs can be a rapid way to regulate gene expression during lymphocyte activation.

  17. Steam drying compared to drum drying markedly increases early phase rumen fermentability of sugar beet pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Larsen, Kasper; Jensen, Arne Sloth

    2017-01-01

    Freshly pressed and dried sugar beet pulp was sampled from 2 different factories located within a distance of 30 km and on 4 different dates. One factory was equipped with a steam dryer and the other with a drum dryer. A recognized in vitro technique was used to establish, how the drying process...... affected rumen fermentability of the pulp, since fibrous feeds (such as sugar beet pulp) rely on microbial fermentation in the rumen to be digestible to the cow. Steam dried pulp had a remarkable >60% higher fermentability compared to drum dried pulp during the first 12(-15) hours of fermentation...... (such as pectin) and small particles as low as 6.7-13.3 hours. Future feeding trials are needed to establish exactly how much the feeding value is increased in steam dried sugar beet pulp....

  18. Early adolescent cognitive gains are marked by increased sleep EEG coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Leila; Carskadon, Mary A; Achermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Although the increases in cognitive capacities of adolescent humans are concurrent with significant cortical restructuring, functional associations between these phenomena are unclear. We examined the association between cortical development, as measured by the sleep EEG, and cognitive performance in a sample of 9/10 year olds followed up 1 to 3 years later. Our cognitive measures included a response inhibition task (Stroop), an executive control task (Trail Making), and a verbal fluency task (FAS). We correlated sleep EEG measures of power and intra-hemispheric coherence at the initial assessment with performance at that assessment. In addition we correlated the rate of change across assessments in sleep EEG measures with the rate of change in performance. We found no correlation between sleep EEG power and performance on cognitive tasks for the initial assessment. In contrast, we found a significant correlation of the rate of change in intra-hemispheric coherence for the sigma band (11 to 16 Hz) with rate of change in performance on the Stroop (r = 0.61; p<0.02) and Trail Making (r =  -0.51; p<0.02) but no association for the FAS. Thus, plastic changes in connectivity (i.e., sleep EEG coherence) were associated with improvement in complex cognitive function.

  19. Early adolescent cognitive gains are marked by increased sleep EEG coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Tarokh

    Full Text Available Although the increases in cognitive capacities of adolescent humans are concurrent with significant cortical restructuring, functional associations between these phenomena are unclear. We examined the association between cortical development, as measured by the sleep EEG, and cognitive performance in a sample of 9/10 year olds followed up 1 to 3 years later. Our cognitive measures included a response inhibition task (Stroop, an executive control task (Trail Making, and a verbal fluency task (FAS. We correlated sleep EEG measures of power and intra-hemispheric coherence at the initial assessment with performance at that assessment. In addition we correlated the rate of change across assessments in sleep EEG measures with the rate of change in performance. We found no correlation between sleep EEG power and performance on cognitive tasks for the initial assessment. In contrast, we found a significant correlation of the rate of change in intra-hemispheric coherence for the sigma band (11 to 16 Hz with rate of change in performance on the Stroop (r = 0.61; p<0.02 and Trail Making (r =  -0.51; p<0.02 but no association for the FAS. Thus, plastic changes in connectivity (i.e., sleep EEG coherence were associated with improvement in complex cognitive function.

  20. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Oliva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet.Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate.Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls. In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight. The detected levels of glucose in

  1. Combined exposure to dissimilarly acting anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequency of hypospadias in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of hypospadias is increasing, but it is unclear whether human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals is related to this. Risk assessment based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds indicates that human tissue levels are too low levels to cause concern...... organs were scored on PND 47/48 using a score from 0 to 3 (normal-marked) for the endpoints hypospadia and vaginal opening. Animals with scores 2 or 3 were only found in the two highest mixture groups and the highest dose of vinclozolin, and score 3 was only observed in the highest mixture group. Also......, a combination of doses of each chemical that on its own did not produce clear sign of hypospadias (DEHP, finasteride and prochloraz) or a frequency around 14% (vinclozolin) induced a 100% frequency of hypospadias. In conclusion, doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce only low frequencies of hypospadias...

  2. Blocking blue light during mania - markedly increased regularity of sleep and rapid improvement of symptoms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Tone E G; Skrede, Silje; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Hamre, Børge; Grønli, Janne; Lund, Anders

    2014-12-01

    Available pharmacological treatment of mania is insufficient. Virtual darkness therapy (blue light-blocking treatment by means of orange-tinted glasses) is a promising new treatment option for mania. The basis for this might be the recently identified blue light-sensitive retinal photoreceptor, which is solely responsible for light stimulus to the circadian master clock. This is the first case report describing the clinical course of a closely monitored, hospitalized patient in a manic episode first receiving clear-lensed, and then blue light-blocking glasses. A 58-year-old Caucasian man, with bipolar I disorder and three previous manic episodes, was hospitalized during a manic episode. In addition to pharmacological treatment, he was treated with clear-lensed glasses for seven days, then one day without glasses, followed by six days of blue light-blocking glasses. During the entire observational period, he wore an actigraph with internal light sensors. Manic symptoms were unaltered during the first seven days. The transition to the blue-blocking regime was followed by a rapid and sustained decline in manic symptoms accompanied by a reduction in total sleep, a reduction in motor activity during sleep intervals, and markedly increased regularity of sleep intervals. The patient's total length of hospital stay was 20 days shorter than the average time during his previous manic episodes. The unusually rapid decline in symptoms, accompanied by uniform sleep parameter changes toward markedly increased regularity, suggest that blue-blockers might be targeting a central mechanism in the pathophysiology of mania that needs to be explored both in clinical research and in basic science. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Oral cyclophosphamide and etoposide in treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Seyda; Mutlu, Hasan; Goksu, Sema Sezgin; Arslan, Deniz; Tatli, Ali Murat; Uysal, Mukremin; Coskun, Hasan Senol; Bozcuk, Hakan; Ozdogan, Mustafa; Savas, Burhan

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is almost always fatal and few treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cyclophosphamide and etoposide for patients who underwent standard treatment for advanced MM. This study included 22 malignant pleural mesothelioma patients who were treated with oral cyclophosphamide and etoposide (EE). The average follow-up period of the patients was 39.1 months. Under the treatment of oral EE, median progression- free survival was 7.7 months [95%CI HR (4.3-11.1)] and median overall survival was 28.1 months [95%CI HR (5.8-50.3)]. The treatment response rates were as follows: 4 patients (27.3%) had a partial response (PR), 12 (54.5%) had stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD) was observed in 6 (35.9%). Oral EE can be administered effectively to patients with inoperable malignant mesothelioma who had previously received standard treatments.

  4. The increase in plasma nitrite after a dietary nitrate load is markedly attenuated by an antibacterial mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Mirco; Jansson, Emmelie A; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies surprisingly show that dietary inorganic nitrate, abundant in vegetables, can be metabolized in vivo to form nitrite and then bioactive nitric oxide. A reduction in blood pressure was recently noted in healthy volunteers after dietary supplementation with nitrate; an effect consistent with formation of vasodilatory nitric oxide. Oral bacteria have been suggested to play a role in bioactivation of nitrate by first reducing it to the more reactive anion nitrite. In a cross-over designed study in seven healthy volunteers we examined the effects of a commercially available chlorhexidine-containing antibacterial mouthwash on salivary and plasma levels of nitrite measured after an oral intake of sodium nitrate (10mg/kg dissolved in water). In the control situation the salivary and plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite increased greatly after the nitrate load. Rinsing the mouth with the antibacterial mouthwash prior to the nitrate load had no effect on nitrate accumulation in saliva or plasma but abolished its conversion to nitrite in saliva and markedly attenuated the rise in plasma nitrite. We conclude that the acute increase in plasma nitrite seen after a nitrate load is critically dependent on nitrate reduction in the oral cavity by commensal bacteria. The removal of these bacteria with an antibacterial mouthwash will very likely attenuate the NO-dependent biological effects of dietary nitrate.

  5. Marked increase in the prevalence of obesity in children of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country, between 1998 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Madeleine, George; Gabriel, Anne; Stettler, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    There are few data on overweight in children in developing countries. Such data are important to guide public health policy. We assessed trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from the Seychelles, a middle-income island state in the Indian Ocean. Multiple cross-sectional surveys were conducted each year between 1998 and 2004 on all students of all schools in four selected school grades (creche, 4th, 7th and 10th years of mandatory school). Weight and height were measured and children were asked about walking time and frequency of physical exercise at leisure time. Excess weight categories were defined according to the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data were available for 33 340 observations in 1998-2004, corresponding to 23,459 individual children measured once or several times. Based on IOTF criteria, the prevalence of 'overweight' or 'obesity' increased from 8.7% to 13.5% in boys, and from 11.8% to 18.6% in girls from 1998 to 2004 (P risk of overweight' and 'overweight' increased by similar proportions. The shift towards higher values over time was larger in the upper than the lower tail of the BMI distribution. Physical activity decreased over calendar years and was inversely associated with excess weight. The prevalence of excess weight increased markedly over a seven-year period in children in the Seychelles. This is likely to reflect a rapid nutrition transition with increasingly positive energy balance. These findings stress the need for programs and policies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy nutrition in countries in epidemiological transition.

  6. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  7. Marked increase of CYP24A1 mRNA level in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines following vitamin D administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Evelin; Lakatos, Péter; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János Pál; Tóbiás, Bálint; Jozilan, Hasan; Borka, Katalin; Horváth, Henrik Csaba; Kovalszky, Ilona; Szalay, Ferenc

    2012-11-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in numerous types of tumors. We aimed to examine the mRNA and protein expression of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-inactivating CYP24A1 and mRNA expression of the activating CYP27B1 enzymes, as well as that of vitamin D receptor (VDR), in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell cultures in response to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) administration. Increasing amounts of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (0.256-10 nM) were added to cultures of HepG2, Huh-Neo, Hep3B, Huh5-15 human HCC cell lines and cells then incubated for various time periods (30 min-28 h). The mRNA expression was analyzed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CYP24A1 protein in HepG2 cells was detected by immuncytochemistry. CYP24A1 mRNA expression significantly (pVDR gene expression in any cell cultures. Immuncytochemistry in HepG2 cells proved that gene activation was followed by CYP24A1 protein synthesis. Our novel data indicate that administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) results in a marked increase of CYP24A1 mRNA expression in some, but not all, human HCC lines in vitro. These differences could be dependent upon the origin of the tumor cells.

  8. GNPAT p.D519G is independently associated with markedly increased iron stores in HFE p.C282Y homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Chen, Wen-Pin; Emond, Mary J; Phatak, Pradyumna D; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Adams, Paul C; Gurrin, Lyle C; Anderson, Gregory J; Ramm, Grant A; Powell, Lawrie W; Allen, Katrina J; Phillips, John D; Parker, Charles J; McLaren, Gordon D; McLaren, Christine E

    2017-03-01

    GNPAT p.D519G positivity is significantly increased in HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with markedly increased iron stores. We sought to determine associations of p.D519G and iron-related variables with iron stores in p.C282Y homozygotes. We defined markedly increased iron stores as serum ferritin >2247pmol/L (>1000μg/L) and either hepatic iron >236μmol/g dry weight or iron >10g by induction phlebotomy (men and women). We defined normal or mildly elevated iron stores as serum ferritin stores with these variables: age; iron supplement use (dichotomous); whole blood units donated; erythrocyte units received as transfusion; daily alcohol consumption, g; and p.D519G positivity (heterozygosity or homozygosity). The mean age of 56 participants (94.6% men) was 55±10 (SD) y; 41 had markedly increased iron stores. Prevalences of swollen/tender 2nd/3rd metacarpophalangeal joints and elevated aspartate or alanine aminotransferase were significantly greater in participants with markedly increased iron stores. Only participants with markedly increased iron stores had cirrhosis. In multivariable analyses, p.D519G positivity was the only exposure variable significantly associated with markedly increased iron stores (odds ratio 9.9, 95% CI [1.6, 60.3], p=0.0126). GNPAT p.D519G is strongly associated with markedly increased iron stores in p.C282Y homozygotes after correction for age, iron-related variables, and alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A phase I study of bortezomib, etoposide and carboplatin in patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieu, Christopher; Chow, Laura; Pierson, A. Scott; Eckhardt, S. Gail; O'Bryant, Cindy L.; Morrow, Mark; Tran, Zung Vu; Wright, John J.; Gore, Lia

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity, pharmacological, and biological properties of the combination of bortezomib, etoposide, and carboplatin in adults with advanced solid malignancies. Patients and methods: Patients received escalating doses of bortezomib, etoposide, and carboplatin every 21 days.

  10. Etoposide in malignant pleural mesothelioma : Two phase II trials of the EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahmoud, T; Postmus, PE; van Pottelsberghe, C; Mattson, K; Tammilehto, L; Splinter, TAW; Planting, AST; Sutedja, T; van Pawel, J; van Zandwijk, N; Baas, P; Roozendaal, KJ; Schrijver, M; Kirkpatrick, A; Van Glabbeke, M; Ardizzoni, A; Giaccone, G

    1997-01-01

    Intravenous and oral etoposide (VP 16-213) were tested in two sequential phase II trials in chemotherapy-naive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. In the first trial, etoposide was given intravenously (i.v.) at a dose of 150 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3 and 5 every 3 weeks. The second trial

  11. Profiling RNA-Seq at multiple resolutions markedly increases the number of causal eQTLs in autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhams, Christopher A; Cunninghame Graham, Deborah S; Vyse, Timothy J

    2017-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of risk loci for autoimmune disease, yet only a minority (~25%) share genetic effects with changes to gene expression (eQTLs) in immune cells. RNA-Seq based quantification at whole-gene resolution, where abundance is estimated by culminating expression of all transcripts or exons of the same gene, is likely to account for this observed lack of colocalisation as subtle isoform switches and expression variation in independent exons can be concealed. We performed integrative cis-eQTL analysis using association statistics from twenty autoimmune diseases (560 independent loci) and RNA-Seq data from 373 individuals of the Geuvadis cohort profiled at gene-, isoform-, exon-, junction-, and intron-level resolution in lymphoblastoid cell lines. After stringently testing for a shared causal variant using both the Joint Likelihood Mapping and Regulatory Trait Concordance frameworks, we found that gene-level quantification significantly underestimated the number of causal cis-eQTLs. Only 5.0-5.3% of loci were found to share a causal cis-eQTL at gene-level compared to 12.9-18.4% at exon-level and 9.6-10.5% at junction-level. More than a fifth of autoimmune loci shared an underlying causal variant in a single cell type by combining all five quantification types; a marked increase over current estimates of steady-state causal cis-eQTLs. Causal cis-eQTLs detected at different quantification types localised to discrete epigenetic annotations. We applied a linear mixed-effects model to distinguish cis-eQTLs modulating all expression elements of a gene from those where the signal is only evident in a subset of elements. Exon-level analysis detected disease-associated cis-eQTLs that subtly altered transcription globally across the target gene. We dissected in detail the genetic associations of systemic lupus erythematosus and functionally annotated the candidate genes. Many of the known and novel genes were concealed at gene

  12. Reformulation of etoposide with solubility-enhancing rubusoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Koh, Gar Yee; Hollingsworth, Javoris; Russo, Paul S; Stout, Rhett W; Liu, Zhijun

    2012-09-15

    Etoposide (ETO), a widely used anti-cancer drug, is constrained by its low aqueous solubility and by side effects from both the drug and its solubilizing excipients. In this study, a recently discovered natural solubilizer rubusoside (RUB) was used to achieve the solubilization of ETO. Dynamic light scattering and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy studies showed that ETO and RUB formed ETO-RUB nanoparticles (∼6 nm in diameter). The powder of ETO-RUB nanoparticles was completely reconstitutable in water and remained stable in this solution at 25 and 37°C for at least 24h. Under other physiologic conditions, ETO solution was clear and free of precipitation at 25°C, but underwent various structural transformations. In PBS and simulated intestinal fluid, RUB-solubilized ETO underwent epimerization and equilibrated to cis-ETO. In simulated gastric fluid, RUB-solubilized ETO degraded to 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin-beta-d-glucoside and 4'-demethylepipodophyllotoxin. Higher temperatures favored epimerization or degradation. Furthermore, a side-by-side comparison with DMSO-solubilized ETO confirmed that the RUB-solubilized ETO showed no significant differences in cytotoxicity in colon, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. RUB effectively solubilized and stabilized etoposide, which sets the stage for further toxicology, bioavailability, and efficacy investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-Mechanism Model for the Interaction of Etoposide Quinone with Topoisomerase IIα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Elizabeth G; King, McKenzie M; Mercer, Susan L; Deweese, Joseph E

    2016-09-19

    Topoisomerase II is an essential nuclear enzyme involved in regulating DNA topology to facilitate replication and cell division. Disruption of topoisomerase II function by chemotherapeutic agents is in use as an effective strategy to fight cancer. Etoposide is an anticancer therapeutic that disrupts the catalytic cycle of topoisomerase II and stabilizes enzyme-bound DNA strand breaks. Etoposide is metabolized into several species including active quinone and catechol metabolites. Our previous studies have explored some of the details of how these compounds act against topoisomerase II. In our present study, we extend those analyses by examining several effects of etoposide quinone on topoisomerase IIα including whether the quinone impacts ATP hydrolysis, DNA ligation, cleavage complex persistence, and enzyme/DNA binding. Our results demonstrate that the quinone inhibits relaxation at 100-fold lower levels of drug when compared to that of etoposide. Further, the quinone inhibits ATP hydrolysis by topoisomerase IIα. The quinone does appear to stabilize single-strand breaks similar to etoposide suggesting a traditional poisoning mechanism. However, there is minimal difference in cleavage complex persistence in the presence of etoposide or etoposide quinone. In contrast to etoposide, we find that etoposide quinone blocks enzyme/DNA binding, which provides an explanation for previous data showing the ability of the quinone to inactivate the enzyme over time. Finally, etoposide quinone is able to stabilize the N-terminal protein clamp implying an interaction between the compound and this portion of the enzyme. Taken together, the evidence supports a two-mechanism model for the effect of the quinone on topoisomerase II: (1) interfacial poison and (2) covalent poison that interacts with the N-terminal clamp and impacts the binding of DNA.

  14. Rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin in the treatment of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Steve; Bansal, Pranshu; Lynch, David; Rojas Hernandez, Cristhiam Mauricio; Dayao, Zoneddy

    2016-12-20

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is becoming an increasingly recognized disorder in adults. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma is a relatively uncommon etiology of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and may complicate treatment options. Rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin are discussed here as a treatment regimen. A 66-year-old Hispanic man previously in good health presented with a 1-month history of recurrent fevers, chills, and night sweats and a 3-week history of new onset jaundice. A bone marrow biopsy revealed a normocellular bone marrow with increased histiocytes with areas of hemophagocytic activity. He met five out of eight criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis diagnosis including fevers, pancytopenia, hemophagocytosis, ferritin of 23,292 ng/mL (>500 ng/mL), and soluble-CD25 of 15,330 pg/mL (>1033 pg/mL). A right cervical lymph node biopsy revealed CD15, CD30, MUM-1, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small ribonucleic acid-positive cells with morphologic findings of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, lymphocyte-rich subtype. He completed 2 weeks of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-directed therapy with etoposide and dexamethasone, but then was switched to rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin due to minimal improvement in his pancytopenia and hepatic impairment. He completed one full cycle of rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin with notable improvement in serial hepatic function panels and had an undetectable Epstein-Barr virus viral load. However, he eventually died due to complications of Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia and colonic microperforation in the setting of persistent pancytopenia. This case discusses the challenges facing treatment of adult malignancy-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Rituximab, etoposide, methylprednisolone, high-dose cytarabine, and cisplatin may be a viable option for patients with secondary

  15. Effect of miR-513a-5p on etoposide-stimulating B7-H1 expression in retinoblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Xing, Yiqiao

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of etoposide, an anticancer chemotherapy drug, on B7-H1 expression in retinoblastoma (Rb) cells and the role of miR-513a-5p in the process. Rb cells were divided into control and etoposide groups. In the etoposide group, cells were treated with etoposide at different concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 μg/mL) for 24 h. Those given no treatment of etopside served as controls. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), fluorescence quantitative PCR and flow cytometry were performed to measure the mRNA and protein expression of B7-H1 in Rb cells. The mRNA expression of miR-513a-5p in Rb cells before and after etoposide treatment was also detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR. The miR-513a-5p mimics and the miR-513a-5p inhibitor were transfected into Rb cells separately, and fluorescence quantitative PCR and flow cytometry were used to detect the effect of the miR-513a-5p mimics or inhibitor on B7-H1 expression. TargetScan5.2 was employed to predict the miR-513a-5p binding sites in the 3'-untranslated region of B7-H1 mRNA. Luciferase reporter plasmids carrying this site were prepared and transfected into Rb cells and luciferase activity analyzed. The results showed that etoposide stimulated the mRNA and protein expression of B7-H1 in Rb cells, which reached a maximal level after treatment with 5 μg/mL etoposide (P<0.05). However, miR-513a-5p expression was decreased in Rb cells after etoposide treatment. When the miR-513a-5p inhibitor was added, B7-H1 expression was increased with the concentration of the miR-513a-5p inhibitor (P<0.05). Moreover, B7-H1 expression was decreased gradually with the concentration of the miR-513a-5p mimics increased (P<0.01). Additionally, the miR-513a-5p mimics were found to inhibit the luciferase activity. It was concluded that etoposide can promote B7-H1 expression in Rb cells, which may be associated with chemoresistance. The promoting effect of etoposide on B7-H1 expression can

  16. Stretch marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done. Tretinoin cream may help reduce stretch marks. Laser treatment may also help. In very rare cases, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  17. Steeper posterior tibial slope markedly increases ACL force in both active gait and passive knee joint under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, H; Shirazi-Adl, A; Adouni, M; Hashemi, J

    2014-04-11

    The role of the posterior tibial slope (PTS) in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) risk of injury has been supported by many imaging studies but refuted by some in vitro works. The current investigation was carried out to compute the effect of ±5(o) change in PTS on knee joint biomechanics in general and ACL force/strain in particular. Two validated finite element (FE) models of the knee joint were employed; one active lower extremity musculoskeletal model including a complex FE model of the knee joint driven by in vivo kinematics/kinetics collected in gait of asymptomatic subjects, and the other its isolated unconstrained passive tibiofemoral (TF) joint considered under 1400 N compression at four different knee flexion angles (0°-45°). In the TF model, the compression force was applied at the joint mechanical balance point causing no rotations in sagittal and frontal planes. Changes in PTS moderately affected muscle forces and joint contact forces at mid-stance period. Both active (at mid-stance) and passive (at all flexion angles) models showed a substantial increase in the anterior tibial translation and ACL force as PTS increased with reverse trends as PTS decreased. In the active model of gait at mid-stance, ACL force increased by 75% (from 181 N to 317 N) in steeper PTS but decreased by 44% (to 102 N) in flatter PTS. The posterolateral bundle of ACL carried the load at smaller flexion angles with a shift to its anteromedial bundle as flexion increased. In accordance with earlier imaging studies, greater PTS is a major risk factor for ACL rupture especially in activities involving large compression forces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased plasma citrulline in mice marks diet-induced obesity and may predict the development of the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sailer

    Full Text Available In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA and aromatic amino acids (AAA increase in states of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. We here assessed whether these putative biomarkers can also be identified in two different obesity and diabetic mouse models. C57BL/6 mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mimic the metabolic impairments of obesity in humans characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ to induce insulin deficiency were used as a type 1 diabetes model. Plasma amino acid profiling of two high fat (HF feeding trials revealed that citrulline and ornithine concentrations are elevated in obese mice, while systemic arginine bioavailability (ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline is reduced. In skeletal muscle, HF feeding induced a reduction of arginine levels while citrulline levels were elevated. However, arginine or citrulline remained unchanged in their key metabolic organs, intestine and kidney. Moreover, the intestinal conversion of labeled arginine to ornithine and citrulline in vitro remained unaffected by HF feeding excluding the intestine as prime site of these alterations. In liver, citrulline is mainly derived from ornithine in the urea cycle and DIO mice displayed reduced hepatic ornithine levels. Since both amino acids share an antiport mechanism for mitochondrial import and export, elevated plasma citrulline may indicate impaired hepatic amino acid handling in DIO mice. In the insulin deficient mice, plasma citrulline and ornithine levels also increased and additionally these animals displayed elevated BCAA and AAA levels like insulin resistant and diabetic patients. Therefore, type 1 diabetic mice but not DIO mice show the "diabetic fingerprint" of plasma amino acid changes observed in humans. Additionally, citrulline may serve as an early indicator of the obesity-dependent metabolic

  19. Beta2-adrenoceptor Thr164Ile polymorphism is associated with markedly decreased vasodilator and increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishy, Victor; Landau, Ruth; Sofowora, Gbenga G; Xie, Hong-Guang; Smiley, Richard M; Kim, Richard B; Byrne, Daniel W; Wood, Alastair J J; Stein, C Michael

    2004-08-01

    The uncommon Thr164Ile polymorphism of the beta2-adrenoceptor is associated with profoundly altered responses to agonist in vitro; however its effects on vascular responses in vivo are not known. Altered adrenergic vascular sensitivity may contribute to the decreased survival observed in patients with congestive heart failure carrying the Ile164 allele. We used the linear variable differential transformer dorsal hand vein technique to compare vasodilation in response to the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol, and vasoconstriction in response to the alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine, in healthy homozygous (Thr164/Thr164) (n = 21) and heterozygous Thr164/Ile164 (n = 5) women. The dose of isoproterenol required to achieve 50% venodilation (geometric mean; 95% CI) was significantly higher in women with the Ile164 allele (82.5 ng/min; 17.3-394 ng/min) than those without (15.8 ng/min; 11-25 ng/min; P = 0.004). The maximum response to isoproterenol was not different (102 +/- 1% and 102 +/- 3%, respectively, P = 0.9). The dose of phenylephrine needed to induce 50% venoconstriction was significantly lower in women with the Ile164 allele (151 ng/min; 42-543 ng/min) than those without (540 ng/min; 350-835 ng/min; P = 0.02). The Thr164Ile polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor is associated with a five-fold reduction in sensitivity to beta2 receptor agonist-mediated vasodilation; vasoconstrictor sensitivity is increased. The overall effect of the Thr164Ile polymorphism is to shift the balance of adrenergic vascular tone toward vasoconstriction. This suggests a mechanistic explanation for the clinical observation of decreased survival in patients with congestive heart failure heterozygous for the Thr164Ile polymorphism.

  20. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Elizabeth Bond

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice question (MCQ examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the

  1. Management of a Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction to IV Etoposide in a Woman with a Yolk Sac Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Starks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type I hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous administration of etoposide are extremely rare. Etoposide is an essential component of several chemotherapy regimens used in gynecologic oncology, and discontinuation of this drug during a course of treatment should only be due to severe patient intolerance. We report the successful use of intravenous etoposide phosphate as a substitute drug in a patient with a yolk sac tumor who manifested a Type I hypersensitivity to intravenous etoposide. The patient ultimately completed all 4 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP using etoposide phosphate as a substitute drug.

  2. Beta-3 adrenergic agonist, BRL-26830A, and alpha/beta blocker, arotinolol, markedly increase regional blood flow in the brown adipose tissue in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Yoshida, T; Nishimura, M; Nakanishi, T; Kondo, M; Yoshimura, M

    1992-09-01

    Regional vascular effects of some adrenergic agents, focussing on brown adipose tissue (BAT), were investigated using tracer microspheres with a reference sample method in the anesthetized rat. Intravenous injections of 0.5 mg/kg BRL-26830A, a beta 3-adrenergic agonist, increased heart rate, but changes in blood pressure and cardiac output were not significant. The drug decreased blood flow in the brain, the spleen and the kidneys, but markedly increased it in BAT. At 2 mg/kg, arotinolol, an alpha/beta-adrenergic blocker, decreased blood pressure by 20 mmHg and increased cardiac output by 95 ml/min/kg. It slightly but significantly decreased blood flow in the liver and the spleen, but markedly increased the flow in BAT. Acebutolol, a beta 1-adrenergic blocker, decreased blood flow in the liver, the spleen, the pancreas, the kidneys, the adrenals, the skeletal muscle and the skin. Bunazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic blocker, decreased it in all organs and tissue expect the brain and BAT. The pattern of redistribution of blood flow by arotinolol was very similar to that caused by BRL-26830A. Acebutolol and bunazosin rather decreased the blood flow in the BAT. These results indicate that stimulation of beta 3-adrenergic receptors, in BAT results in vasodilation, and that arotinolol may bind to those beta 3-adrenergic receptors.

  3. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 Protects Fibrosarcoma Cells from Etoposide-Induced Apoptosis through Activation of the PI3K/Akt Cell Survival Pathway1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer, Maria U; Larsen, Lise; Offenberg, Hanne; Brünner, Nils; Lademann, Ulrik A

    2008-01-01

    High levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) in tumors are associated with poor prognosis in several cancer types, and the reason for this association is not fully understood. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 has been suggested to contribute to tumor growth by protecting cancer cells from apoptosis, and we have previously shown that wild type murine fibrosarcoma cells are significantly more resistant to apoptosis induced by chemotherapy than PAI-1-deficient fibrosarcoma cells. Here, we further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiapoptotic function of PAI-1 focusing on the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/Akt cell survival pathway. We demonstrate that the activation level of the Akt cell survival pathway is reduced in PAI-1-deficient cells. Inhibition of either PI3K or Akt by synthetic inhibitors sensitized the wild type but not the PAI-1-deficient cells to etoposide-induced cell death. More importantly, reintroduction of PAI-1 expression in PAI-1-deficient cells induced an increase in Akt activity and protection against etoposide-induced apoptosis. Concordantly, silencing of PAI-1 by RNA interference in wild type fibrosarcoma cells decreased the level of active Akt, and this was accompanied by a sensitization of the cells to etoposide-induced cell death. Altogether, our data suggest that PAI-1 influences sensitivity to etoposide-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway by acting upstream of PI3K and Akt. This points to PAI-1 as a possible therapeutic target in cancer diseases where PAI-1 inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. PMID:18813358

  4. Lactobionic acid-conjugated TPGS nanoparticles for enhancing therapeutic efficacy of etoposide against hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsend-Ayush, Altansukh; Zhu, Xiumei; Ding, Yu; Yao, Jianxu; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Many effective anti-cancer drugs have limited use in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy due to the drug resistance mechanisms in liver cells. In recent years, tumor-targeted drug delivery and the inhibition of drug-resistance-related mechanisms has become an integrated strategy for effectively combating chemo-resistant cancer. Herein, lactobionic acid-conjugated d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS-LA conjugate) has been developed as a potential asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR)-targeted nanocarrier and an efficient inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to enhance etoposide (ETO) efficacy against HCC. The main properties of ETO-loaded TPGS-LA nanoparticles (NPs) were tested through in vitro and in vivo studies after being prepared using the nanoprecipitation method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). According to the results, smaller (∼141.43 nm), positively charged ETO-loaded TPGS-LA NPs were more suitable for providing efficient delivery to hepatoma cells by avoiding the clearance mechanisms. It was found that ETO-loaded TPGS-LA NPs were noticeably able to enhance the cytotoxicity of ETO in HepG2 cells. Besides this, markedly higher internalization by the ASGPR-overexpressed HepG2 cells and efficient accumulation at the tumor site in vivo were revealed in the TPGS-LA NP group. More importantly, animal studies confirmed that ETO-loaded TPGS-LA NPs achieved the highest therapeutic efficacy against HCC. Interestingly, ETO-loaded TPGS-LA NPs also exhibited a great inhibitory effect on P-gp compared to the ETO-loaded TPGS NPs. These results suggest that TPGS-LA NPs could be used as a potential ETO delivery system against HCC.

  5. Murine Cerebral Malaria Is Associated with a Vasospasm-Like Microcirculatory Dysfunction, and Survival upon Rescue Treatment Is Markedly Increased by Nimodipine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales, Pedro; Zanini, Graziela M.; Meays, Diana; Frangos, John A.; Carvalho, Leonardo J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Brain hemodynamics in cerebral malaria (CM) is poorly understood, with apparently conflicting data showing microcirculatory hypoperfusion and normal or even increased blood flow in large arteries. Using intravital microscopy to assess the pial microvasculature through a closed cranial window in the murine model of CM by Plasmodium berghei ANKA, we show that murine CM is associated with marked decreases (mean: 60%) of pial arteriolar blood flow attributable to vasoconstriction and decreased blood velocity. Leukocyte sequestration further decreased perfusion by narrowing luminal diameters in the affected vessels and blocking capillaries. Remarkably, vascular collapse at various degrees was observed in 44% of mice with CM, which also presented more severe vasoconstriction. Coadministration of artemether and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker used to treat postsubarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm, to mice presenting CM markedly increased survival compared with artemether plus vehicle only. Administration of nimodipine induced vasodilation and increased pial blood flow. We conclude that vasoconstriction and vascular collapse play a role in murine CM pathogenesis and nimodipine holds potential as adjunctive therapy for CM. PMID:20110412

  6. Conservative Chemotherapy in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: Experience With Etoposide, Methotrexate, and Dactinomycin Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Seung Won; Park, Tae Chul; Bae, Seog Nyeon

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, toxicity, and survival of patients in our institution treated by EMA (etoposide, methotrexate [MTX], and dactinomycin) chemotherapy for 3 groups of patients: ones that had low-risk gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) that was resistant to MTX (group A), those with high-risk GTD (group B), and the group having low-risk GTD but the cancer being metastatic (group C). The medical records of 58 patients who received EMA chemotherapy in groups A, B, and C in the 2000 to 2012 period at St Mary's Hospital were examined. Clinical characteristics, chemotherapy responses, causes of treatment failure, and cases of drug toxicity were analyzed retrospectively. Treatment with the EMA regimen resulted in primary remission in 52 (96%) of 54 patients and resistance in 2 of the patients (3%). In the resistance group, one belonged to group B and was treated with etoposide, MTX, and actinomycin D with cyclophosphamide and vincristine (EMA-EP) and the other belonged to group A and died of refractory disease. World Health Organization (WHO) grade 4 leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia with the EMA regimen occurred in 6% and 0.4% of the cycles, respectively; the other toxic effects were acceptable and manageable. Median cycles of EMA chemotherapy during the treatment were 7, 8, and 8 in groups A, B, and C, respectively. There was some reduction in total chemo cycle and toxicity, as compared with a previously reported study using the alternative cyclophosphamide and vincristine regimen. Among the EMA treated patients, 1 patient with a second malignancy of breast cancer was documented. In addition, 5 child births for the treated patients were recorded during the follow-up period of mostly 10 years. The EMA chemotherapy seemed to reduce treatment duration and the relapse rate without increasing the adverse effects in patients with MTX resistance and low-risk GTD, but having confirmed metastatic lesions. Although this study had some

  7. Patients with Advanced Ovarian Cancer Administered Oral Etoposide following Taxane as Maintenance Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Nagano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The concept of maintenance therapy is one of the highly relevant approaches in the management of advanced ovarian cancer. The fundamental goal of maintenance therapy is to improve survival outcomes. We attempted to reinforce maintenance chemotherapy by adding oral etoposide following taxane administration. Cases: We retrospectively evaluated 14 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who had achieved clinically defined complete response to a primary platinum/taxane chemotherapy regimen and who were administered oral etoposide (50 mg/day × 21 days per cycle monthly for 3-5 cycles following paclitaxel or docetaxel administration as maintenance chemotherapy. With regard to oral etoposide toxicity, grade 2 oral mucositis and grade 3 anemia were observed in 1 patient each. Three to five cycles of etoposide were administered to all patients, though daily dosage was reduced to 25 mg in 2 patients due to toxicity. The median progression-free survival was 43.5 months, the median overall survival was 86 months, and 5-year overall survival was 77.1%. Conclusion: The results from this ovarian cancer treatment evaluation suggest that oral etoposide may be administered safely following paclitaxel or docetaxel as maintenance chemotherapy. We expect this regimen to contribute to the improvement in the survival outcomes of patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

  8. Toxicogenomics of nanoparticulate delivery of etoposide: potential impact on nanotechnology in retinoblastoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Moutushy; Dilnawaz, Fahima; Misra, Ranjita; Harilal, Anju; Verma, Rama Shenkar; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    To develop a suitable formulation with high entrapment efficiency, etoposide-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (NPs) were formulated by single emulsion-solvent evaporation method by changing different formulation parameters such as drug loading, choice of organic solvent and percentage of emulsifier polyvinyl alcohol. The NPs showed higher entrapment efficiency, ~86% (with 15% (w/w) drug loading). The physicochemical parameters revealed smooth topology with size range (240-320 nm), a negative zeta potential (~19 mV) and in vitro sustained-release activity (~60% drug release in 40 days). Greater anti-proliferative activity ~100 times was observed with NPs (IC50 = 0.002 μg/ml) than that of native etoposide (IC50 = 0.2 μg/ml) in retinoblastoma cell line (Y-79). These NPs demonstrated greater (G1/S) blocking and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential as measured by flow cytometry. There was upregulation of apoptotic gene activity in NPs than native etoposide, as revealed through microarray analysis. However, this is the first ever report demonstrating the intricate modulation of genetic network affected by NPs. Collectively, these results suggest that etoposide-loaded NPs could be potentially useful as a novel drug delivery system for retinoblastoma in the future. FigureNanoparticle-mediated etoposide delivery promotes apoptosis through upregulating several apoptotic inducer genes.

  9. Characterisation of multidrug-resistant Ehrlich ascites tumour cells selected in vivo for resistance to etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D; Maare, C; Eriksen, J

    2000-01-01

    -extractable immunoreactive topoisomerase IIalpha and beta in EHR2/VP16 was reduced by 30-40% relative to that in EHR2. The multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) mRNA was increased 20-fold in EHR2/VP16 as compared with EHR2, whereas the expression of P-glycoprotein was unchanged. In EHR2/VP16, the steady......M. ATPase activity was slightly stimulated by daunorubicin, whereas vinblastine, verapamil, and cyclosporin A had no effect. In conclusion, development of resistance to VP16 in EHR2 is accompanied by a significant reduction in topoisomerase II (alpha and beta) and by increased expression of MRP mRNA (20......An Ehrlich ascites tumour cell line (EHR2) was selected for resistance to etoposide (VP16) by in vivo exposure to this agent. The resulting cell line (EHR2/VP16) was 114.3-, 5.7-, and 4.0-fold resistant to VP16, daunorubicin, and vincristine, respectively. The amount of salt...

  10. Paroxetine markedly increases plasma concentrations of ophthalmic timolol; CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase the risk of cardiovascular adverse effects of 0.5% timolol eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Jukka; Volotinen-Maja, Marjo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Neuvonen, Mikko; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

    2014-12-01

    Although ophthalmic timolol is generally well tolerated, a significant fraction of topically administered timolol can be systemically absorbed. We investigated the effect of the strong CYP2D6 inhibitor paroxetine on the pharmacokinetics of timolol after ophthalmic administration. In a four-phase crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers ingested either paroxetine (20 mg) or placebo daily for 3 days. In phases 1-2, timolol 0.1% gel, and in phases 3-4, timolol 0.5% drops were administered to both eyes. Paroxetine increased the plasma concentrations of timolol with both timolol formulations to a similar degree. The geometric mean ratio (95% confidence interval) of timolol peak concentration was 1.53-fold (1.23-1.91) with 0.1% timolol and 1.49-fold (0.94-2.36) with 0.5% timolol, and that of timolol area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to 12 hours was 1.61-fold (1.26- to 2.06-fold) and 1.78-fold (1.21-2.62), respectively. During paroxetine administration, six subjects on 0.5% timolol drops, but none on 0.1% timolol gel, had plasma timolol concentrations exceeding 0.7 ng/ml, which can cause systemic adverse effects in patients at risk. There was a positive correlation between the AUC from time 0 to 13 hours of paroxetine and the placebo phase AUC from time 0 to infinity of timolol after timolol 0.5% drops (P paroxetine phase than during the placebo phase at 1 and 3 hours after 0.5% timolol dosing. In conclusion, paroxetine and other CYP2D6 inhibitors can have a clinically important interaction with ophthalmic timolol, particularly when patients are using 0.5% timolol formulations. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. A Phase III Randomized Study Comparing a Chemotherapy with Cisplatin and Etoposide to a Etoposide Regimen without Cisplatin for Patients with Extensive Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Berghmans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn a literature meta-analysis, we showed survival benefits for regimens including cisplatin [hazard ratio (HR 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.57–0.66] and for those including etoposide (HR 0.65; 0.61–0.69. That benefit was mainly observed when etoposide alone or in combination with cisplatin was included in the chemotherapy regimens. Our objective was to determine if chemotherapy with both drugs improves survival in comparison to a non-platinum regimen with etoposide.MethodsExtensive small-cell lung cancer patients were randomized between cisplatin–etoposide (CE and ifosfamide + etoposide + epirubicin regimen (IVE between 2000 and 2013.Results176 and 170 eligible patients were allocated to CE and IVE (315 deaths were required before analysis, respectively. Objective response rates were not significantly different: 60% with CE and 59% with IVE. No statistically significant difference in median survival and 1-year and 2-year was observed with rates of 9.6 months, 31 and 5% for CE and 10 months, 39 and 9% for IVE, respectively. HR was 0.84 (95% CI 0.68–1.05, p = 0.16. Only two prognostic factors for survival were retained in multivariate analysis: sex with HR = 0.69 (95% CI 0.49–0.97, p = 0.03 and performance status with HR = 0.53 (95% CI 0.49–0.97, p < 0.0001. After adjustment for these prognostic factors, HR for survival was 0.83 (95% CI 0.65–1.08, p = 0.17. There was more thrombopenia in the CE regimen and more leukopenia with IVE.ConclusionCombination of CE failed to improve survival in comparison to an etoposide-containing regimen without cisplatin.Clinical Trial Registrationhttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00658580?term=ELCWP+01994&rank=1, identifier NCT00658580.

  12. Prenatal exposure to a low-frequency electromagnetic field demasculinizes adult scent marking behavior and increases accessory sex organ weights in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGivern, R.F.; Sokol, R.Z.; Adey, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to a low-level, low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic (EM) field (15 Hz, 0.3 msec duration, peak intensity 8 gauss) for 15 min twice a day from day 15 through day 20 of gestation, a period in development that is critical for sexual differentiation of the male rat brain. No differences in litter size, number of stillborns, or body weight were observed in offspring from field-exposed dams. At 120 days of age, field-exposed male offspring exhibited significantly less scent marking behavior than controls. Accessory sex organ weights, including epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate, were significantly higher in field-exposed subjects at this age. However, circulating levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as epididymal sperm counts, were normal. These data indicate that brief, intermittent exposure to low-frequency EM fields during the critical prenatal period for neurobehavioral sex differentiation can demasculinize male scent marking behavior and increase accessory sex organ weights in adulthood.

  13. On denture marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrman, H I; DiZinno, J A; Wasén, J; René, N

    1999-06-01

    During the last decades in Sweden dentures have been permanently marked with a stainless steel metal band incorporated into the acrylic and containing the patient's birth date, a special number, and "S" for Sweden. The last recommendation issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare states that "the patients shall always be offered denture marking and be informed about the benefit thereof. Denture marking is not permitted if the patient refuses it". Requirements for denture markers have been that they should be biologically inert (when incorporated into the denture), not be expensive, be easy to inscribe, be possible to retrieve after an accident, and survive elevated temperatures for a reasonable time under normal circumstances. Although the frequency of edentulousness has decreased in recent years due to the improvement in oral health there remains a need to address the issue of marking of complete dentures, because there is a large variation in the oral status of populations in different countries. Given that only one marked denture can reveal the identity of a deceased person when all other methods fail to do so, makes it worthwhile. Furthermore, denture marking is important in long-term care facilities. We have investigated the issue of denture marking in Europe and in the United States. The results from the European survey show that denture marking is, to our knowledge regulated by law only in Sweden and Iceland. In the US denture marking is so far mandatory in 21 states while New York State requires dentures to be marked if the patient requests it and several other states impose the obligation to mark dentures on long-term care facilities. Since there is no international consensus regarding the issue of denture marking it is important to address it. A survey from the Nordic countries has shown that if denture marking was in general use, the contribution to the establishment of identity by forensic odontology in cases of fire would increase by about 10

  14. Randomized phase III study comparing paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) to standard BEP in intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, Ronald; Skoneczna, Iwona; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC).......To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC)....

  15. Convection-enhanced delivery of etoposide is effective against murine proneural glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonabend, Adam M; Carminucci, Arthur S; Amendolara, Benjamin; Bansal, Mukesh; Leung, Richard; Lei, Liang; Realubit, Ronald; Li, Hai; Karan, Charles; Yun, Jonathan; Showers, Christopher; Rothcock, Robert; O, Jane; Califano, Andrea; Canoll, Peter; Bruce, Jeffrey N

    2014-09-01

    Glioblastoma subtypes have been defined based on transcriptional profiling, yet personalized care based on molecular classification remains unexploited. Topoisomerase II (TOP2) contributes to the transcriptional signature of the proneural glioma subtype. Thus, we targeted TOP2 pharmacologically with etoposide in proneural glioma models. TOP2 gene expression was evaluated in mouse platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)(+)phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)(-/-)p53(-/-) and PDGF(+)PTEN(-/-) proneural gliomas and cell lines, as well as human glioblastoma from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Correlation between TOP2 transcript levels and etoposide susceptibility was investigated in 139 human cancer cell lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia public dataset and in mouse proneural glioma cell lines. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of etoposide was tested on cell-based PDGF(+)PTEN(-/-)p53(-/-) and retroviral-based PDGF(+)PTEN(-/-) mouse proneural glioma models. TOP2 expression was significantly higher in human proneural glioblastoma and in mouse proneural tumors at early as well as late stages of development compared with normal brain. TOP2B transcript correlated with susceptibility to etoposide in mouse proneural cell lines and in 139 human cancer cell lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. Intracranial etoposide CED treatment (680 μM) was well tolerated by mice and led to a significant survival benefit in the PDGF(+)PTEN(-/-)p53(-/-) glioma model. Moreover, etoposide CED treatment at 80 μM but not 4 μM led to a significant survival advantage in the PDGF(+)PTEN(-/-) glioma model. TOP2 is highly expressed in proneural gliomas, rendering its pharmacological targeting by intratumoral administration of etoposide by CED effective on murine proneural gliomas. We provide evidence supporting clinical testing of CED of etoposide with a molecular-based patient selection approach. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology 2014

  16. The Effect of Ascorbic Acid over the Etoposide- and Temozolomide-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Glioblastoma Cell Culture: A Molecular Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokturk, Dilek; Kelebek, Hasim; Ceylan, Seda; Yilmaz, Dervis Mansuri

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the lethal central nervous system tumors. One of the widely used chemical agents for the treatment of glioblastoma is temozolomide. It is an orally administered, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) alkylating agent. DNA alkylation triggers the death of tumor cells. However, some tumor cells are able to repair this type of DNA damage and thus lower the therapeutic effect of temozolomide. Laboratory and clinical studies indicate that temozolomide"s anticancer effects might be strengthened when combined with other chemotherapeutic agents like etoposide or antioxidant agents like ascorbic acid. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and oxidative stress effects of ascorbic acid (1000 ?M), temozolomide (100 ?M) and etoposide (25 ?M) agents alone and in dual and triple combinations in a glioblastoma U87 MG cell culture. The cytotoxic and oxidative stress effects were investigated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis methods. Cytotoxicity tests showed that etoposide, temozolomide, "etoposide+ascorbic acid", "temozolomide+ascorbic acid", "temozolomide+etoposide" and "temozolomide+etoposide+ascorbic acid" combinations have anti-proliferative effects. The maximum anti-proliferation response was observed in the "temozolomide+etoposide+ascorbic acid"-added group. Similarly LCMS/ MS analyses showed that minimum oxidative DNA damage occurred in the "temozolomide+etoposide+ascorbic acid"-added group. Ascorbic acid decreases the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of etoposide and etoposide-temozolomide combination but it has no meaningful effect on temozolomide"s toxicity.

  17. Consumption of juice fortified with oregano extract markedly increases excretion of phenolic acids but lacks short- and long-term effects on lipid peroxidation in healthy nonsmoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Anna; Mursu, Jaakko; Nurmi, Tarja; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Alfthan, Georg; Hiltunen, Raimo; Kaikkonen, Jari; Salonen, Jukka T; Voutilainen, Sari

    2006-08-09

    Oregano has been shown to possess antioxidant capacity in various in vitro models and has thus been suggested to be potentially beneficial to human health, but studies in humans are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability and the effects of Origanum vulgare extract supplementation on serum lipids and lipid peroxidation in healthy nonsmoking men. A four-week double-blinded supplementation trial was concluded in which volunteers (n = 45) were randomized to consume daily mango-orange juice (placebo), mango-orange juice enriched with 300 mg/d total phenolic compounds from oregano extract, or mango-orange juice enriched with 600 mg/d total phenolic compounds from oregano extract. The excretion of phenolic compounds was markedly increased in the higher phenolic group as compared to the placebo group, but no significant changes were observed in the safety parameters, serum lipids, or biomarkers of lipid peroxidation.

  18. Standardized deceased donor kidney donation rates in the UK reveal marked regional variation and highlight the potential for increasing kidney donation: a prospective cohort study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D. M.; Johnson, R. J.; Hudson, A. J.; Collett, D.; Murphy, P.; Watson, C. J. E.; Neuberger, J. M.; Bradley, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK has implemented a national strategy for organ donation that includes a centrally coordinated network of specialist nurses in organ donation embedded in all intensive care units and a national organ retrieval service for deceased organ donors. We aimed to determine whether despite the national approach to donation there is significant regional variation in deceased donor kidney donation rates. Methods The UK prospective audit of deaths in critical care was analysed for a cohort of patients who died in critical care between April 2010 and December 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with kidney donation. The logistic regression model was then used to produce risk-adjusted funnel plots describing the regional variation in donation rates. Results Of the 27 482 patients who died in a critical care setting, 1528 (5.5%) became kidney donors. Factors found to influence donation rates significantly were: type of critical care [e.g. neurointensive vs general intensive care: OR 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.75, P69 vs age 18–39 yr: OR 0.2, 0.15–0.25, Pdeath [e.g. ‘other’ (excluding ‘stroke’ and ‘trauma’) vs ‘trauma’: OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.03–0.05, Pdonation rates for the 20 UK kidney donor regions showed marked variation. The overall standardized donation rate ranged from 3.2 to 7.5%. Four regions had donation rates of >2 standard deviations (sd) from the mean (two below and two above). Regional variation was most marked for donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney donors with 9 of the 20 regions demonstrating donation rates of >2 sd from the mean (5 below and 4 above). Conclusions The marked regional variation in kidney donation rates observed in this cohort after adjustment for factors strongly associated with donation rates suggests that there is considerable scope for further increasing kidney donation rates in the UK, particularly DCD. PMID:24335581

  19. SUCCESSFUL LONG-TERM CONTROL OF IDIOPATHIC HYPEREOSINOPHILIC SYNDROME WITH ETOPOSIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, AJ; VANESSEN, LH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    A 38-year-old man with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome had an inadequate response to steroids and severe side effects from hydroxyurea treatment, which necessitated withdrawal of the treatment. Successful control of clinical symptoms and eosinophil counts was obtained with etoposide (VP16-213)

  20. Analysis of body composition in individuals with high bone mass reveals a marked increase in fat mass in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Celia L; Paggiosi, Margaret A; Crabtree, Nicola; Steel, Sue A; McCloskey, Eugene; Duncan, Emma L; Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A; Fraser, William D; Smith, George Davey; Tobias, Jon H

    2013-02-01

    High bone mass (HBM), detected in 0.2% of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, is characterized by raised body mass index, the basis for which is unclear. To investigate why body mass index is elevated in individuals with HBM, we characterized body composition and examined whether differences could be explained by bone phenotypes, eg, bone mass and/or bone turnover. We conducted a case-control study of 153 cases with unexplained HBM recruited from 4 UK centers by screening 219 088 DXA scans. A total of 138 first-degree relatives (of whom 51 had HBM) and 39 spouses were also recruited. Unaffected individuals served as controls. We measured fat mass, by DXA, and bone turnover markers. Among women, fat mass was inversely related to age in controls (P = .01), but not in HBM cases (P = .96) in whom mean fat mass was 8.9 [95% CI 4.7, 13.0] kg higher compared with controls (fully adjusted mean difference, P fat mass in male HBM cases was less marked (gender interaction P = .03). Compared with controls, lean mass was also increased in female HBM cases (by 3.3 [1.2, 5.4] kg; P fat mass increases, resulting in 4.5% lower percentage lean mass in HBM cases (P fat mass were fully attenuated after hip bone mineral density (BMD) adjustment (P = .52) but unchanged after adjustment for bone turnover (P fat mass adjustment (P fat mass in females, statistically explained by their greater BMD, but not by markers of bone turnover.

  1. Metformin synergistically enhances antiproliferative effects of cisplatin and etoposide in NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Fernandes Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of combining conventional antineoplastic drugs (cisplatin and etoposide with metformin in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in the NCI-H460 cell line, in order to develop new therapeutic options with high efficacy and low toxicity.METHODS: We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and calculated the combination index for the drugs studied.RESULTS: We found that the use of metformin as monotherapy reduced the metabolic viability of the cell line studied. Combining metformin with cisplatin or etoposide produced a synergistic effect and was more effective than was the use of cisplatin or etoposide as monotherapy.CONCLUSIONS: Metformin, due to its independent effects on liver kinase B1, had antiproliferative effects on the NCI-H460 cell line. When metformin was combined with cisplatin or etoposide, the cell death rate was even higher.

  2. Bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatinum (BEP) chemotherapy for metastatic germ cell tumours: treatment outcomes at UKM medical centre, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azrif, Muhammad; Leong, Yu Kong; Aslan, Nik Muhammad; Fong, Kua Voon; Ismail, Fuad

    2012-01-01

    Although bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatinum (BEP) chemotherapy is established as the standard treatment for germ cell tumours, it requires significant experience in administration and toxicity management to maintain optimal dose intensity...

  3. Retinoic acid protects human breast cancer cells against etoposide-induced apoptosis by NF-kappaB-dependent but cIAP2-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronemeyer Hinrich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinoids, through their cognate nuclear receptors, exert potent effects on cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis, and have significant promise for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. These ligands can determine the ultimate fate of target cells by stimulating or repressing gene expression directly, or indirectly through crosstalking with other signal transducers. Results Using different breast cancer cell models, we show here that depending on the cellular context retinoids can signal either towards cell death or cell survival. Indeed, retinoids can induce the expression of pro-apoptotic (i.e. TRAIL, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand, Apo2L/TNFSF10 and anti-apoptotic (i.e. cIAP2, inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 genes. Promoter mapping, gel retardation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that retinoids induce the expression of this gene mainly through crosstalk with NF-kappaB. Supporting this crosstalk, the activation of NF-kappaB by retinoids in T47D cells antagonizes the apoptosis triggered by the chemotherapeutic drugs etoposide, camptothecin or doxorubicin. Notably apoptosis induced by death ligands (i.e. TRAIL or antiFAS is not antagonized by retinoids. That knockdown of cIAP2 expression by small interfering RNA does not alter the inhibition of etoposide-induced apoptosis by retinoids in T47D cells reveals that stimulation of cIAP2 expression is not the cause of their anti-apoptotic action. However, ectopic overexpression of a NF-kappaB repressor increases apoptosis by retinoids moderately and abrogates almost completely the retinoid-dependent inhibition of etoposide-induced apoptosis. Our data exclude cIAP2 and suggest that retinoids target other regulator(s of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway to induce resistance to etoposide on certain breast cancer cells. Conclusions This study shows an important role for the NF-kappaB pathway in retinoic acid signaling and retinoic acid-mediated resistance to

  4. Elimination of neutrophils in zymosan-induced ankle inflammation by etoposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya I. Milanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of joint inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Therefore their elimination and/or a functional inhibition might have beneficial or even therapeutic effects in these diseases. In the present study we exploited the cytotoxic action of etoposide to deplete neutrophils. We administrated the drug twice (at day -3 and day -1 to SCID mice having intact innate immunity and a fail in T- and B-cell maturation. Ankle inflammation was induced by the injection of zymosan (ZY. Joint damage was evaluated by histology grading system for cell infiltration and proteoglycan loss and degree of cartilage erosion. The frequencies of mature Ly6G+CD11b+ cells in bone marrow (BM were monitored at days -4, -2 and 0 by flow cytometry. At day 7 of ankle inflammation the amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-17 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Histological analysis of the joint sections showed decreased scores for cell infiltration and cartilage proteoglycan loss and reduced cartilage erosion in drug-treated zymosan injected mice in comparison to untreated group with ankle inflammation. Etoposide diminished cell numbers in BM, inhibits granulopoiesis triggered by zymosan and decreased the frequencies of mature Ly6G+CD11b+ cells in BM and eliminated Ly6G+ cells from blood and synovial fluid. We observed reduced TNF-α and impaired IL-17 production in etoposide-treated ZY group. Our data provide a proof-of principle that the elimination of neutrophils might be exploited in a design of new therapeutic approaches for joint inflammatory diseases.

  5. Simultaneous determination of cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin and etoposide in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Honoré, Per Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    A method for simultaneous bioanalysis of the three cytotoxic drugs cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin and etoposide in human plasma was developed and validated. A HPLC method with ultra-violet and fluorescence detection, preceded by mixed-mode cation-exchange solid phase extraction sample....... The overall precision (% relative standard deviation) was within 0.2-13.5% and the recovery ranged between 86.1% and 110.1% for the three drugs at all concentrations tested. Plasma samples were stable for at least two months when stored at -20 degrees C. The method was successfully applied to quantification...

  6. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection with marked pericardial effusion successfully treated with allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Shinichiro; Takeda, Yusuke; Isshiki, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Nakao, Sanshiro; Takaishi, Koji; Nagao, Yuhei; Hasegawa, Nagisa; Togasaki, Emi; Shimizu, Ryoh; Kawajiri, Chika; Sakai, Shio; Mimura, Naoya; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Ohwada, Chikako; Sakaida, Emiko; Iseki, Tohru; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Nakaseko, Chiaki

    2016-05-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with a persistent fever and shortness of breath. Computed tomography showed marked pericardial effusion, hepatosplenomegaly, and cervical and mediastinal lymph node swelling. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody titers were abnormally elevated, and the copy number of EBV-DNA was increased in peripheral blood. Based on these observations, she was diagnosed with chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV). The EBV-infected cells in her peripheral blood were CD4(+)T lymphocytes. Fever and pericardial effusion improved following treatment with a combination of prednisolone, etoposide, and cyclosporine; however, peripheral blood EBV-DNA levels remained high. The patient underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from an EBV-seronegative, HLA-matched sibling donor, with fludarabine and melphalan conditioning. The post-transplantation course was uneventful, except for mild skin acute graft-versus-host disease (grade 2). EBV-DNA became undetectable in peripheral blood 98 days post transplantation. She has since been in good health without disease recurrence. CAEBV is a potentially fatal disease caused by persistent EBV infection of T lymphocytes or natural killer cells, thus requiring prompt treatment and allogeneic transplantation. Pericardial effusion is rarely observed in CAEBV and can impede its diagnosis. Therefore, we should be aware that patients may present with marked pericardial effusion as an initial manifestation of CAEBV.

  7. Randomized phase III study comparing paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) to standard BEP in intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer: Intergroup study EORTC 30983

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Wit (Ronald); I. Skoneczna (I.); G. Daugaard (Gedske); M. de Santis (Maria); A. Garin (A.); N. Aass (N.); J.A. Witjes (Alfred); P. Albers (Peter); J.D. White (Jeffrey); J.R. Germa-Lluch; S. Marreaud (Sandrine); L.A.J. Collette (Lau)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC). Patients and Methods: Patients were

  8. Effects of oxygen radical scavengers on the inactivation of SS phi X174 DNA by the semi-quinone free radical of the antitumor agent etoposide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, M.J.; Mans, D.R.A.; Lafleur, M.V.M.; Van Schaik, M A; de Vries, J; Vermeulen, N P; Retèl, J.; Lankelma, J

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effects of oxygen radical scavengers on the inactivation of ss phi X174 DNA by the semi-quinone free radical of the antitumor agent etoposide (VP 16-213), which was generated from the ortho-quinone of etoposide at pH greater than or equal to 7.4. A semi-quinone free radical of

  9. Effect of low-dose oral etoposide on serum CA-125 in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deJong, RS; Hofstra, LS; Willemse, PHB; deBruijn, HWA; deVries, EGE; Mulder, NH; Boonstra, J.

    The effect of oral etoposide on CA-125 serum levels was evaluated in 17 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and progressive disease during, or relapsing after, prior chemotherapy. Only three patients had measurable lesions at extraperitoneal sites. Five had no measurable lesions. The oral

  10. Acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico após quimioterapia com cisplatina, etoposide e bleomicina: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Adrialdo José; Malheiros Suzana Maria Fleury; Borges Lia Raquel Rodrigues; Dzik Carlos; Nalli Darcio G; Gabbai Alberto Alain

    2003-01-01

    Relatamos o caso de um homem de 20 anos, com diagnóstico de tumor de células germinativas, que apresentou acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico durante quimioterapia com cisplatina, etoposide e bleomicina. Os casos relatados na literatura foram revisados, bem como os diferentes mecanismos fisiopatológicos implicados na toxicidade vascular deste esquema quimioterápico.

  11. Extremely rapid increase in fatty acid transport and intramyocellular lipid accumulation but markedly delayed insulin resistance after high fat feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonen, Arend; Jain, Swati S; Snook, Laelie A; Han, Xiao-Xia; Yoshida, Yuko; Buddo, Kathryn H; Lally, James S; Pask, Elizabeth D; Paglialunga, Sabina; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Harasim, Ewa; Wright, David C; Chabowski, Adrian; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms for diet-induced intramyocellular lipid accumulation and its association with insulin resistance remain contentious. In a detailed time-course study in rats, we examined whether a high-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid accumulation via alterations in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)-mediated fatty acid transport, selected enzymes and/or fatty acid oxidation, and whether intramyocellular lipid accretion coincided with the onset of insulin resistance. We measured, daily (on days 1-7) and/or weekly (for 6 weeks), the diet-induced changes in circulating substrates, insulin, sarcolemmal substrate transporters and transport, selected enzymes, intramyocellular lipids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and basal and insulin-stimulated sarcolemmal GLUT4 and glucose transport. We also examined whether upregulating fatty acid oxidation improved glucose transport in insulin-resistant muscles. Finally, in Cd36-knockout mice, we examined the role of FAT/CD36 in intramyocellular lipid accumulation, insulin sensitivity and diet-induced glucose intolerance. Within 2-3 days, diet-induced increases occurred in insulin, sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 (but not fatty acid binding protein [FABPpm] or fatty acid transporter [FATP]1 or 4), fatty acid transport and intramyocellular triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and ceramide, independent of enzymatic changes or muscle fatty acid oxidation. Diet-induced increases in mitochondria and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation occurred much later (≥21 days). FAT/CD36 ablation impaired insulin-stimulated fatty acid transport and lipid accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity and prevented diet-induced glucose intolerance. Increasing fatty acid oxidation in insulin-resistant muscles improved glucose transport. High-fat feeding rapidly increases intramyocellular lipids (in 2-3 days) via insulin-mediated upregulation of sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 and fatty acid

  12. Loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 markedly increases the rate of base substitution mutagenesis and has distinct effects on genomic deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamborszky, J.; Szikriszt, B.; Gervai, J. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of cancer. Owing to their function in homologous recombination repair, much research has focused on the unstable genomic phenotype of BRCA1/2 mutant cells manifest mainly as large-scale rearrangements. We used whole......-genome sequencing of multiple isogenic chicken DT40 cell clones to precisely determine the consequences of BRCA1/2 loss on all types of genomic mutagenesis. Spontaneous base substitution mutation rates increased sevenfold upon the disruption of either BRCA1 or BRCA2, and the arising mutation spectra showed strong...... and specific correlation with a mutation signature associated with BRCA1/2 mutant tumours. To model endogenous alkylating damage, we determined the mutation spectrum caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and showed that MMS also induces more base substitution mutations in BRCA1/2-deficient cells...

  13. Long-term Temozolomide Treatment Induces Marked Amino Metabolism Modifications and an Increase in TMZ Sensitivity in Hs683 Oligodendroglioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Lamoral-Theys

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors. The worst prognosis is associated with gliomas of astrocytic origin, whereas gliomas with an oligodendroglial origin offer higher sensitivity to chemotherapy, especially when oligodendroglioma cells display 1p19q deletions. Temozolomide (TMZ provides therapeutic benefits and is commonly used with radiotherapy in highly malignant astrocytic tumors, including glioblastomas. The actual benefits of TMZ during long-term treatment in oligodendroglioma patients have not yet been clearly defined. In this study, we have investigated the effects of such a long-term TMZ treatment in the unique Hs683 oligodendroglioma model. We have observed increased TMZ sensitivity of Hs683 orthotopic tumors that were previously treated in vitro with months of progressive exposure to increasing TMZ concentrations before being xenografted into the brains of immunocompromised mice. Whole-genome and proteomic analyses have revealed that this increased TMZ sensitivity of Hs683 oligodendroglioma cells previously treated for long periods with TMZ can be explained, at least partly, by a TMZ-induced p38-dependant dormancy state, which in turn resulted in changes in amino acid metabolism balance, in growth delay, and in a decrease in Hs683 oligodendroglioma cell-invasive properties. Thus, long-term TMZ treatment seems beneficial in this Hs683 oligodendroglioma model, which revealed itself unable to develop resistance against TMZ.

  14. Progressive seizure aggravation in the repeated 6-Hz corneal stimulation model is accompanied by marked increase in hippocampal p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Giordano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 6-Hz corneal stimulation test is used to screen novel antiepileptic molecules to overcome the problem of drug refractoriness. Although recognized as a standard test, it has been evaluated only recently in the attempt to characterize the putative neuronal networks involved in seizures caused by corneal stimulation. In particular, by recording from the CA1 region we previously established that the hippocampus participates to propagation of seizure activity. However, these findings were not corroborated by using markers of neuronal activation such as FosB/ΔFosB antigens. In view of this discrepancy, we performed new experiments to characterize the changes in levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (p-ERK1/2, which are also used as markers of neuronal activation. To this aim, mice underwent corneal stimulation up to three different times, in three sessions separated by an interval of three days. To characterize a group in which seizures could be prevented by pharmacological treatment, we also considered pretreatment with the ghrelin receptor antagonist EP-80317 (330 µg/kg. Control mice were sham-treated. Video electrocorticographic recordings were obtained from mice belonging to each group of treatment. Animals were finally used to characterize the immunoreactivity for FosB/ΔFosB and p-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus. As previously shown, FosB/ΔFosB levels were highly increased throughout the hippocampus by the first induced seizure but, in spite of the progressively increased seizure severity, they were restored to control levels after the third stimulation. At variance, corneal stimulation caused a progressive increase in p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity all over the hippocampus, especially in CA1, peaking in the third session. Predictably, EP-80317 administration reduced both duration and severity of seizures, prevented the increase in FosB/ΔFosB levels in the first session, and partially counteracted the increase in p-ERK1

  15. Valiti maailma ilusaim mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Mai algul Nürnbergis toimunud filateelia maailmanäitusel valiti 1997. a. maailma kõige ilusam postmark. Konkursi võitis Ahvenamaa mark "75 aastat Ahvenamaa iseseisvust, II koht ئ Soome mark "Postmargipäev: Aino lugulaul", III ئ Saksamaal Heinrich von Stephani 100. surma-aastapäeva puhul välja antud mark.

  16. Effects of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin treatment on Leydig cell structure and transcription of steroidogenic enzymes in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bader, Maie; Kilarkaje, Narayana

    2015-01-15

    Cytotoxic anticancer chemotherapy affects pituitary-testicular hormonal axis in humans and in animals. This study investigated the effects on Leydig cells of three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (0.75, 7.5, and 1.5mg/kg, respectively; BEP) chemotherapy in rat testis. The chemotherapy has induced hyperplasia of and degenerative changes in Leydig cells at the end of BEP exposure, which remained so even after a recovery time of 63 days. The increased testicular oxidative stress at the end of the chemotherapy returned to normal level after the recovery time. The chemotherapy has stimulated the transcription of scavenger receptor class type-B1 (SCARB1), steroidogenic acute-regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (CYP11A1), CYP17A1, and inhibited that of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B6) and CYP19A1 in association with increased cholesterol and decreased testosterone levels. Even after the recovery time, the chemotherapy still had inhibitory effects on the transcription of all of the above genes in addition to luteinizing hormone receptor and HSD3B1, but not on the StAR gene. The cholesterol and testosterone levels also did not show any significant differences with the control group. The decreased testosterone level at the end of chemotherapy was probably due to inhibition of HSD3B1 and HSD17B6 genes. In conclusion, clinically relevant dose-levels and treatment protocols of BEP chemotherapy adversely affect Leydig cell function. The BEP chemotherapy inhibits the transcription of steroidogenic enzymes and that these effects sustain over an extended period of time without returning to normal levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The induction of colitis and ileitis in mice is associated with marked increases in intestinal concentrations of stimulants of TLRs 2, 4, and 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clett Erridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs appear to be modulated by the interaction of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs derived from intestinal bacteria with their respective innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs. We aimed to establish if intestinal concentrations of proinflammatory bacterial ligands of TLR2, TLR4, or TLR5 may be altered in murine IBD models, and to characterize which of the major bacterial groups may contribute to each signal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PAMPs specific for TLR2 (lipopeptide equivalents, TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide equivalents, and TLR5 (flagellin equivalents in human and murine fecal and intestinal samples were quantified using HEK-293 cells transfected with respective TLRs and calibrated with defined standard PAMPs. The induction of colitis in mice by dextran-sodium-sulphate treatment significantly increased colonic lipopeptide (fourfold and LPS equivalent (550-fold concentrations, while flagellin equivalent concentrations remained similar. The induction of ileitis by oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii dramatically increased ileal concentrations of lipopeptide (370-fold, LPS (3,300-fold, and flagellin equivalents (38-fold, all P<0.01. Analysis of representative strains of the major bacterial groups of the human intestine revealed that enterobacterial species are likely to be more significant contributors of soluble TLR2 and TLR4 stimulants to the intestinal milieu than Bacteroides species or Gram-positive Firmicutes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the induction of colitis or ileitis in mice is associated with significant disease-specific alterations to the PAMP profile of the gut microbiota.

  18. The role of RAD51 in etoposide (VP16) resistance in small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse Tengbjerg; Lundin, Cecilia; Spang-Thomsen, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Etoposide (VP16) is a potent inducer of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is efficiently used in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) therapy. However, acquired VP16 resistance remains an important barrier to effective treatment. To understand the underlying mechanisms for VP16 resistance in SCLC, we...... investigated DSB repair and cellular VP16 sensitivity of SCLC cells. VP16 sensitivity and RAD51, DNA-PK(cs), topoisomerase IIalpha and P-glycoprotein protein levels were determined in 17 SCLC cell lines. In order to unravel the role of RAD51 in VP16 resistance, we cloned the human RAD51 gene, transfected SCLC...... cells with RAD51 sense or antisense constructs and measured the VP16 resistance. Finally, we measured VP16-induced DSBs in the 17 SCLC cell lines. Two cell lines exhibited a multidrug-resistant phenotype. In the other SCLC cell lines, the cellular VP16 resistance was positively correlated with the RAD51...

  19. Pulmonary Function in Patients With Germ Cell Cancer Treated With Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: For patients with germ cell cancer, various pulmonary toxicity risk factors have been hypothesized for treatment with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). Because existing studies have shortcomings, we present a large, unselected cohort of patients who have undergone close monitoring...... of lung function before, during, and after treatment with BEP to disclose valid pulmonary toxicity risk factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who were treated with BEP at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, from 1984 to 2007, were included. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) that measured...... the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and forced vital capacity were performed systematically before, during, and after treatment with BEP for 5 years of follow-up. According to local protocol, bleomycin was discontinued if hemoglobin...

  20. Cancer Chemotherapy Update: Bevacizumab, Etoposide, and Cisplatin Regimen for Refractory Brain Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Seth A; Solimando, Dominic A; Waddell, J Aubrey

    2017-06-01

    The complexity of cancer chemotherapy requires pharmacists be familiar with the complicated regimens and highly toxic agents used. This column reviews various issues related to preparation, dispensing, and administration of antineoplastic therapy, and the agents, both commercially available and investigational, used to treat malignant diseases. Questions or suggestions for topics should be addressed to Dominic A. Solimando, Jr, President, Oncology Pharmacy Services, Inc, 4201 Wilson Blvd #110-545, Arlington, VA 22203, email: OncRxSvc@comcast.net; or J. Aubrey Waddell, Professor, University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy; Oncology Pharmacist, Pharmacy Department, Blount Memorial Hospital, 907 E. Lamar Alexander Parkway, Maryville, TN 37804, email: waddfour@charter.net. Regimen Name: Bevacizumab, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEEP) Origin of Name: The regimen is named for the medications it contains: be vacizumab, e toposide, and cis p latin.

  1. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  2. Global reduction of the epigenetic H3K79 methylation mark and increased chromosomal instability in CALM-AF10-positive leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Kakadia, Purvi M; Chen, Ying; Li, Ya-Qiang; Deshpande, Aniruddha J; Buske, Christian; Zhang, Kang-Ling; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Guo-Liang; Bohlander, Stefan K

    2009-07-16

    Chromosomal translocations generating fusion proteins are frequently found in human leukemias. The fusion proteins play an important role in leukemogenesis by subverting the function of one or both partner proteins. The leukemogenic CALM-AF10 fusion protein is capable of interacting with the histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79)-specific methyltransferase hDOT1L through the fused AF10 moiety. This interaction leads to local H3K79 hypermethylation on Hoxa5 loci, which up-regulates the expression of Hoxa5 and contributes to leukemogenesis. However, the long latency of leukemogenesis of CALM-AF10 transgenic mice suggests that the direct effects of fusion oncogene are not sufficient for the induction of leukemia. In this study, we show that the CALM-AF10 fusion protein can also greatly reduce global H3K79 methylation in both human and murine leukemic cells by disrupting the AF10-mediated association of hDOT1L with chromatin. Cells with reduced H3K79 methylation are more sensitive to gamma-irradiation and display increased chromosomal instability. Consistently, leukemia patients harboring CALM-AF10 fusion have more secondary chromosomal aberrations. These findings suggest that chromosomal instability associated with global epigenetic alteration contributes to malignant transformation in certain leukemias, and that leukemias with this type of epigenetic alteration might benefit from treatment regimens containing DNA-damaging agents. This study is registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00266136.

  3. Oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and gestodene markedly increase plasma concentrations and effects of tizanidine by inhibiting cytochrome P450 1A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfors, Marika T; Backman, Janne T; Laitila, Jouko; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2005-10-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) can inhibit drug metabolism, but their effect on various cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and drugs can be different. Our objective was to study the effect of combined OCs, containing ethinyl estradiol (INN, ethinylestradiol) and gestodene, on CYP1A2 activity, as well as their interaction potential with tizanidine. In a parallel-group study, 15 healthy women using OCs and 15 healthy women without OCs (control subjects) ingested a single dose of 4 mg tizanidine. Plasma and urine concentrations of tizanidine, as well as several of its metabolites (M-3, M-4, M-5, M-9, and M-10), and pharmacodynamic variables were measured until 24 hours after dosing. As a marker of CYP1A2 activity, an oral caffeine test was performed in both groups. The mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity [AUC0-infinity] of tizanidine was 3.9 times greater (Pgestodene increase, to a clinically significant extent, the plasma concentrations and effects of tizanidine, probably mainly by inhibiting its CYP1A2-mediated presystemic metabolism. Care should be exercised when tizanidine is prescribed to OC users.

  4. Diabetes and hypertension markedly increased the risk of ischemic stroke associated with high serum resistin concentration in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Ryoichi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. The relationship between resistin and coronary artery disease is highly controversial, and the information regarding resistin and ischemic stroke is limited. In the present study, the association between serum resistin concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD was investigated in a general Japanese population. Methods A total of 3,201 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or older (1,382 men and 1,819 women were divided into quintiles of serum resistin, and the association between resistin and CVD was examined cross-sectionally. The combined effect of either diabetes or hypertension and high serum resistin was also assessed. Serum resistin was measured using ELISA. Results Compared to those without CVD, age- and sex-adjusted mean serum resistin concentrations were greater in subjects with CVD (p = 0.002 or ischemic stroke (p Conclusion Elevated serum resistin concentration appears to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, especially lacunar and atherothrombotic infarction in the general Japanese population. The combination of high resistin and the presence of either diabetes or hypertension increased the risk of ischemic stroke.

  5. Acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico após quimioterapia com cisplatina, etoposide e bleomicina: relato de caso Ischemic stroke after chemotherapy with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrialdo José Santos

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos o caso de um homem de 20 anos, com diagnóstico de tumor de células germinativas, que apresentou acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico durante quimioterapia com cisplatina, etoposide e bleomicina. Os casos relatados na literatura foram revisados, bem como os diferentes mecanismos fisiopatológicos implicados na toxicidade vascular deste esquema quimioterápico.A 20-year-old man with a germ cell tumor who experienced an ischemic stroke as a complication of cisplatin/etoposide/bleomycin based chemotherapy is reported. The previously reported cases are reviewed as well as the different physiopathologic mechanisms associated with vascular toxicity of this regimen.

  6. Lujan Mark-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    This is a review of Mark-IV target neutronics design. It involved the major redesign of the upper tier, offering harder neutron spectra for upper-tier FPs; a redesign of the high-resolution (HR) moderator; and a preservation of the rest of Mark-III features.

  7. Marks, Prof. Tobin J

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2011 Honorary. Marks, Prof. Tobin J. Date of birth: 25 November 1944. Address: Prof. of Materials Sci. & Engg., Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145, Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA Contact: Office: (+1-847) 491 5658. Email: t-marks@northwestern.edu. YouTube; Twitter ...

  8. [Identification from bite marks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, P

    1980-02-01

    Criteria to be considered for establishing the guilt or innocence of a possible offender on the basis of bite marks on the skin of the murder victim were presented using four analyses of bite marks on murder victims. The bite marks must be identifiable; a clear 1:1 photograph should be made which is then compared with impression of a model of the suspect's bite. These impressions are made with graphite on, for example, the surface of a balloon or modelling clay. The evidence provided by a distinct bite mark is almost as conclusive as a fingerprint. Using only the bite mark photographs, the forensic-stomatologic evaluation influenced the course of argumentation in the legal proceedings of three of the four cases discussed; the evaluation was central for the proceedings in one case.

  9. Absence of p53 enhances growth defects and etoposide sensitivity of human cells lacking the Bloom syndrome helicase BLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Sairei; Adachi, Noritaka; Koyama, Hideki

    2007-07-01

    The Bloom syndrome helicase BLM and the tumor-suppressor protein p53 play important roles in preserving genome integrity. Here, we knock out the genes for BLM and p53 in a human pre-B-cell line, Nalm-6. We show that p53 plays an important role in cell proliferation, but not apoptosis, when BLM is absent. Intriguingly, despite the apoptotic function of p53, BLM(/)TP53(/) cells were more sensitive than either single mutant to etoposide, an anticancer agent that poisons DNA topoisomerase II. Our results suggest a direct, BLM-independent role for p53 in etoposide-induced, topoisomerase II-mediated DNA damage in human cells.

  10. A Randomized Study on Postrelapse Disease-Free Survival with Adjuvant Mistletoe versus Oral Etoposide in Osteosarcoma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Alessandra; Reif, Marcus; Mariani, Erminia; Ferrari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background. Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumour. After the second relapse, the 12-month postrelapse disease-free survival (PRDFS) rate decreases below 20%. Oral Etoposide is often used in clinical practice after surgery as an “adjuvant” outside any protocol and with only limited evidence of improved survival. Viscum album fermentatum Pini (Viscum) is an extract of mistletoe plants grown on pine trees for subcutaneous (sc) injection with immunomodulatory activity. Methods. Encourage...

  11. Treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme with carmustine, cisplatin and etoposide followed by radiotherapy. A phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Kristjansen, P E; Wagner, A

    1999-01-01

    A meta-analysis and several studies of patients with grade III and IV gliomas have indicated that the addition of nitrosurea based chemotherapy to surgery and radiation may improve survival. We performed a phase II study of pre-irradiative chemotherapy with BCNU, cisplatin and etoposide. This imp......A meta-analysis and several studies of patients with grade III and IV gliomas have indicated that the addition of nitrosurea based chemotherapy to surgery and radiation may improve survival. We performed a phase II study of pre-irradiative chemotherapy with BCNU, cisplatin and etoposide....... This implies a short total treatment duration and a reliable response evaluation. The treatment schedule was three cycles of BCNU 200 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1, cisplatin 20 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1-5 and etoposide (VP-16) 100 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1-5, given every five weeks and followed by localized radiation, 60 Gy in 30...

  12. A Randomized Study on Postrelapse Disease-Free Survival with Adjuvant Mistletoe versus Oral Etoposide in Osteosarcoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Longhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumour. After the second relapse, the 12-month postrelapse disease-free survival (PRDFS rate decreases below 20%. Oral Etoposide is often used in clinical practice after surgery as an “adjuvant” outside any protocol and with only limited evidence of improved survival. Viscum album fermentatum Pini (Viscum is an extract of mistletoe plants grown on pine trees for subcutaneous (sc injection with immunomodulatory activity. Methods. Encouraged by preliminary findings, we conducted a study where osteosarcoma patients free from disease after second metastatic relapse were randomly assigned to Viscum sc or Oral Etoposide. Our goal was to compare 12-month PRDFS rates with an equivalent historical control group. Results. Twenty patients have been enrolled, with a median age of 34 years (range 11–65 and a median follow-up time of 38.5 months (3–73. The median PRDSF is currently 4 months (1–47 in the Etoposide and 39 months (2–73 in the Viscum group. Patients getting Viscum reported a higher quality of life due to lower toxicity. Conclusion. Viscum shows promise as adjuvant treatment in prolonging PRDFS after second relapse in osteosarcoma patients. A larger study is required to conclusively determine efficacy and immunomodulatory mechanisms of Viscum therapy in osteosarcoma patients.

  13. A Randomized Study on Postrelapse Disease-Free Survival with Adjuvant Mistletoe versus Oral Etoposide in Osteosarcoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Alessandra; Reif, Marcus; Mariani, Erminia; Ferrari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background. Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumour. After the second relapse, the 12-month postrelapse disease-free survival (PRDFS) rate decreases below 20%. Oral Etoposide is often used in clinical practice after surgery as an "adjuvant" outside any protocol and with only limited evidence of improved survival. Viscum album fermentatum Pini (Viscum) is an extract of mistletoe plants grown on pine trees for subcutaneous (sc) injection with immunomodulatory activity. Methods. Encouraged by preliminary findings, we conducted a study where osteosarcoma patients free from disease after second metastatic relapse were randomly assigned to Viscum sc or Oral Etoposide. Our goal was to compare 12-month PRDFS rates with an equivalent historical control group. Results. Twenty patients have been enrolled, with a median age of 34 years (range 11-65) and a median follow-up time of 38.5 months (3-73). The median PRDSF is currently 4 months (1-47) in the Etoposide and 39 months (2-73) in the Viscum group. Patients getting Viscum reported a higher quality of life due to lower toxicity. Conclusion. Viscum shows promise as adjuvant treatment in prolonging PRDFS after second relapse in osteosarcoma patients. A larger study is required to conclusively determine efficacy and immunomodulatory mechanisms of Viscum therapy in osteosarcoma patients.

  14. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  15. Prosodic focus marking in Bai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.Z.H.; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  16. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  17. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  18. Tuftsin Augments Antitumor Efficacy of Liposomized Etoposide against Fibrosarcoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif; Khan, Aijaz A; Dwivedi, Varun; Ahmad, Manzoor G; Hakeem, Seema; Owais, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Anticancer drugs are generally plagued by toxic manifestations at doses necessary for control of various forms of cancer. Incorporating such drugs into liposomes not only reduces toxicity but also enhances the therapeutic index. Some antioxidants and potent immunomodulators have also been shown to impart significant antitumor activity presumably by nonspecific activation of the host immune system. In the present study, we evaluated augmentation of the antitumor activity of etoposide (ETP) by the immunomodulator tuftsin in Swiss albino mice with fibrosarcoma. The efficacies of the free form of ETP, liposomized ETP (Lip-ETP), and tuftsin-bearing liposomized ETP (Tuft-Lip-ETP) formulations were evaluated on the basis of tumor regression, effect on expression level of p53wt and p53mut, and survival of the treated animals. Tuft-Lip-ETP, when administered at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight/day for five days, significantly reduced tumor volume, delayed tumor growth, and also up-regulated the expression of p53wt. In contrast, although Lip-ETP delayed tumor growth, it did not decrease tumor size. The results of the present study suggest that tuftsin incorporation in drug-loaded liposomes is a promising treatment strategy for various forms of cancers, including fibrosarcoma. PMID:17622310

  19. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  20. Bite Mark Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SK Padmakumar; VT Beena; N Salmanulfaris; Ashith B Acharya; G Indu; Sajai J Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the in...

  1. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  2. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chester; Romney, Jon; Owens, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  3. YNK1, the yeast homolog of human metastasis suppressor NM23, is required for repair of UV radiation- and etoposide-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Mengmeng; Jarrett, Stuart G.; Craven, Rolf [Department of Molecular and Biomedical Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0298 (United States); Kaetzel, David M. [Department of Molecular and Biomedical Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0298 (United States)], E-mail: dmkaetz@uky.edu

    2009-01-15

    In humans, NM23-H1 is a metastasis suppressor whose expression is reduced in metastatic melanoma and breast carcinoma cells, and which possesses the ability to inhibit metastatic growth without significant impact on the transformed phenotype. NM23-H1 exhibits three enzymatic activities in vitro, each with potential to maintain genomic stability, a 3'-5' exonuclease and two kinases, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), and protein histidine kinase. Herein we have investigated the potential contributions of NM23 proteins to DNA repair in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contains a single NM23 homolog, YNK1. Ablation of YNK1 delayed repair of UV- and etoposide-induced nuclear DNA damage by 3-6 h. However, YNK1 had no impact upon the kinetics of MMS-induced DNA repair. Furthermore, YNK1 was not required for repair of mitochondrial DNA damage. To determine whether the nuclear DNA repair deficit manifested as an increase in mutation frequency, the CAN1 forward assay was employed. An YNK1 deletion was associated with increased mutation rates following treatment with either UV (2.6x) or MMS (1.6x). Mutation spectral analysis further revealed significantly increased rates of base substitution and frameshift mutations following UV treatment in the ynk1{delta} strain. This study indicates a novel role for YNK1 in DNA repair in yeast, and suggests an anti-mutator function that may contribute to the metastasis suppressor function of NM23-H1 in humans.

  4. YNK1, the yeast homolog of human metastasis suppressor NM23, is required for repair of UV radiation- and etoposide-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengmeng; Jarrett, Stuart G; Craven, Rolf; Kaetzel, David M

    2009-01-15

    In humans, NM23-H1 is a metastasis suppressor whose expression is reduced in metastatic melanoma and breast carcinoma cells, and which possesses the ability to inhibit metastatic growth without significant impact on the transformed phenotype. NM23-H1 exhibits three enzymatic activities in vitro, each with potential to maintain genomic stability, a 3'-5' exonuclease and two kinases, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), and protein histidine kinase. Herein we have investigated the potential contributions of NM23 proteins to DNA repair in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contains a single NM23 homolog, YNK1. Ablation of YNK1 delayed repair of UV- and etoposide-induced nuclear DNA damage by 3-6h. However, YNK1 had no impact upon the kinetics of MMS-induced DNA repair. Furthermore, YNK1 was not required for repair of mitochondrial DNA damage. To determine whether the nuclear DNA repair deficit manifested as an increase in mutation frequency, the CAN1 forward assay was employed. An YNK1 deletion was associated with increased mutation rates following treatment with either UV (2.6x) or MMS (1.6 x). Mutation spectral analysis further revealed significantly increased rates of base substitution and frameshift mutations following UV treatment in the ynk1Delta strain. This study indicates a novel role for YNK1 in DNA repair in yeast, and suggests an anti-mutator function that may contribute to the metastasis suppressor function of NM23-H1 in humans.

  5. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  6. Airbag bounce marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  7. Therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia following etoposide-based chemotherapy in non-seminomatous germ cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy related AML (t- AML accounts for 10-20% of all cases of AML. Cytotoxic agents implicated are alkylating agents, topoisomerase II inhibitors and rarely anti metabolites and anti tubulin agents. A growing incidence of therapy related acute promyelocytic leukemia (t-APL has been reported over the last few decades in malignant and non malignant conditions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first t-APL case report to be reported in NSGCT post etoposide based therapy.

  8. Interview with Mark Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Watson is a British comedian and novelist. His five novels to date – 'Bullet Points' (2004, 'A Light-Hearted Look At Murder' (2007, 'Eleven' (2010, 'The Knot' (2012 and 'Hotel Alpha' (2014 – explore human relationships and communities in contemporary society. His latest novel Hotel Alpha tells the story of an extraordinary hotel in London and two mysterious disappearances that raise questions no one seems willing to answer. External to the novel, readers can also discover more about the hotel and its inhabitants in one hundred extra stories that expand the world of the novel and can be found at http://www.hotelalphastories.com. In conversation here with Dr Katy Shaw, Mark offers some reflections on his writing process, the field of contemporary literature, and the vitality of the novel form in the twenty-first century.

  9. High-dose chemotherapy with carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplant is an effective treatment for elderly patients with poor-prognosis lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolas; Borchiellini, Delphine; Coso, Diane; Gastaud, Lauris; Boscagli, Annick; Saudes, Laurence; Re, Daniel; Gutnecht, Jean; Garnier, Georges; Petit, Emmanuel; Barriere, Jèrôme; Naman, Hervé; Rossignol, Benoit; Thyss, Antoine; Peyrade, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) after high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) increases overall survival when used in relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients under 65 years old. Limited experience is available for older patients. We present a retrospective analysis of 73 consecutive patients aged over 65 years treated for aggressive or relapsed lymphoma by HDT with carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan (BEAM) at full dosage followed by ASCT. Patient data were obtained from medical charts from two institutions. Median age was 67 years (65-74). Significant comorbidities were present in 24.7% of patients. The median number of days for grade 4 neutropenia was 9 (5-18). The early treatment-related mortality rate (<100 days) was 2.7%. The estimated 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 67.2% and 78.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the full-dose HDT-ASCT regimen is feasible, safe and efficient in selected patients over 65 years old.

  10. Ifosfamide, epirubicin and etoposide rituximab in refractory or relapsed B-cell lymphoma: analysis of remission induction and stem cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Helge; Müller, Andrea; Von Schilling, Christoph; Licht, Thomas; Peschel, Christian; Keller, Ulrich

    2008-07-01

    Chemotherapy with ifosfamide, epirubicin and etoposide (IEV) is an effective treatment regimen for refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab has been shown to improve response rates, progression-free survival and overall survival in B-cell NHL. This study included 85 patients who were treated with IEV or rituximab-IEV (R-IEV) for refractory/relapsed B-cell NHL. The overall response rate was 40.7% (IEV) versus 68.8% (R-IEV). Fever occurred after 23.4% of IEV and 19.4% of R-IEV cycles. 94.9% of patients mobilized sufficient numbers of CD34+ cells (IEV) versus 93.8% (R-IEV). Fifty-five patients (64.7%) proceeded to high-dose therapy after IEV+/-rituximab. The median survival time was 60.0 months (IEV) and 19.5 months (R-IEV), and has not been reached for patients who received high-dose therapy. The addition of rituximab to IEV salvage chemotherapy increases the response rates in B-cell NHL without affecting stem cell mobilization, but overall survival for patients proceeding to high-dose chemotherapy is not improved.

  11. D-2-Hydroxyglutarate does not mimic all the IDH mutation effects, in particular the reduced etoposide-triggered apoptosis mediated by an alteration in mitochondrial NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oizel, K; Gratas, C; Nadaradjane, A; Oliver, L; Vallette, F M; Pecqueur, C

    2015-03-26

    Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-1 and -2 have recently been described in glioma. This mutation leads to a neomorphic enzymatic activity as the conversion of isocitrate to alpha ketoglutarate (αKG) is replaced by the conversion of αKG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) with NADPH oxidation. It has been suggested that this oncometabolite D-2HG via inhibition of αKG-dioxygenases is involved in multiple functions such as epigenetic modifications or hypoxia responses. The present study is aimed at deciphering how the mutant IDH can affect cancer pathogenesis, in particular with respect to its associated oncometabolite D-2HG. We show that the overexpression of mutant IDH in glioma cells or treatment with D-2HG triggered an increase in cell proliferation. However, although mutant IDH reduced cell sensitivity to the apoptotic inducer etoposide, D-2HG exhibited no effect on apoptosis. Instead, we found that the apoptotic effect was mediated through the mitochondrial NADH pool reduction and could be inhibited by oxamate. These data show that besides D-2HG production, mutant IDH affects other crucial metabolite pools. These observations lead to a better understanding of the biology of IDH mutations in gliomas and their response to therapy.

  12. Telicity marking in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kardos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the encoding of telicity in Hungarian. While proposing a mereological, scalar semantic analysis, it shows that Hungarian uses a telicity-marking strategy in which it contrasts with English, where telicity is not the direct consequence of an overt marker but arises as a cumulative effect of specific, well-definable properties of various components of verbal predicates including the head verb and its argument(s. A major contribution of the analysis, which mainly addresses telicity marking in the class of non-creation/non-consumption predicates in neutral sentences, lies in the fact that it reveals important cross-linguistic differences with respect to the aspectual role of verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions and the referential properties of telic verbal predicates. As for the former, it is demonstrated that Hungarian verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions mark telicity by directly placing bounds on events by virtue of serving an event maximalizing function, whereas the English counterparts of these elements do not have such direct event-bounding effects. As for the latter, it emerges that in Hungarian quantized reference is a necessary and sufficient condition for telicity in cases where in English it is only sufficient.

  13. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease: results of MEA (methotrexate, etoposide and dactinomycin) as first-line chemotherapy in high risk disease and EA (etoposide and dactinomycin) as second-line therapy for low risk disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, L S; Lorigan, P C; Coleman, R E; Hancock, B W

    2000-01-01

    Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is potentially fatal, but the majority of patients are cured with chemotherapy. Any developments in treatment are therefore being directed towards maintaining efficacy and reducing toxicity. We evaluated efficacy and toxicity of methotrexate, etoposide and dactinomycin (MEA) as first-line therapy for high risk disease and etoposide and dactinomycin (EA) as second-line therapy for methotrexate-refractory low risk disease in a retrospective analysis of 73 patients (38 MEA, 35 EA) treated since 1986 at a supra-regional centre. The median follow-up period was 5.5 years and the median number of cycles received was 7. The overall complete response rate was 85% (97% for EA, 75% for MEA). Of eight patients who failed to respond, four have since died and four were cured with platinum-based chemotherapy. Alopecia was universal. Grade II or worse nausea, emesis, or stomatitis was observed in 29%, 30% and 37% respectively. Fifty-one per cent experienced grade II/III anaemia, 8% grade II or higher thrombocytopenia and 64% grade III or IV neutropenia; in six cases this was complicated by sepsis. Fifty-four per cent of patients went on to have a normal pregnancy. No patient has developed a second malignancy. In conclusion, the MEA and EA chemotherapy regimens for persistent trophoblastic disease are very well tolerated, do not appear to affect future fertility and are associated with excellent, sustained complete response rates. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10789722

  14. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  15. Extended Essay Marking on Screen: Is Examiner Marking Accuracy Influenced by Marking Mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin; Hopkin, Rebecca; Shiell, Hannah; Bell, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, large-scale educational assessment agencies are shifting the mode of school examination marking towards having examiners mark examination scripts on screen rather than on paper. This shift has prompted questions about whether the mode of marking might influence examiner marking accuracy, particularly in relation to…

  16. Maintenance therapy with oral etoposide following first-line docetaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyu Fang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of maintenance therapy with oral etoposide following first-line docetaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. The overall response rate in the docetaxel-cisplatin phase was 30.4%, with complete response of 0, partial response of 28, stable disease of 39. Maintenance chemotherapy with oral etoposide was given in 67 patients. No complete response was observed, but 10 patients presented with partial response and 45 with stable disease . The median time to progression was 5.0 months; median overall survival time was 10 months and the 1-year survival rate was 41% during the maintenance therapy. Therapy with oral etoposide was well tolerated with the hematologic toxicities, fatigue and oral mucositis being the most frequent side effects. Docetaxel-cisplatin chemotherapy followed by maintenance therapy with oral etoposide was well tolerated and moderately active against metastatic metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

  17. The effect of the two epipodophyllotoxin derivatives etoposide (VP-16) and teniposide (VM-26) on cell lines established from patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, H; Vindeløv, Lars; Christensen, I J

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether there is any difference between the two epipodophyllotoxin derivatives etoposide and teniposide in their therapeutic effect in small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL), they were compared against five human SCCL cell lines in vitro. When the two were compared at equimolar conc...

  18. ENHANCEMENT OF CISPLATIN AND ETOPOSIDE CYTOTOXICITY AFTER ALL-TRANS-RETINOIC-ACID-INDUCED CELLULAR-DIFFERENTIATION OF A MURINE EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELL-LINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GUCHELAAR, HL; TIMMERBOSSCHA, H; DAMMEIRING, A; UGES, DRA; OOSTERHUIS, JW; DEVRIES, EGE; MULDER, NH

    1993-01-01

    The potential of a combination of differentiation induction and chemotherapy was analyzed. Treatment of the murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line PCC4 in vitro with all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) was followed by exposure to cisplatin (CDDP) or etoposide (VP-16). The expression of EC-cell-specific

  19. Panobinostat synergistically enhances the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin, doxorubicin or etoposide on high-risk neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Wang

    Full Text Available High-risk neuroblastoma remains a therapeutic challenge with a long-term survival rate of less than 40%. Therefore, new agents are urgently needed to overcome chemotherapy resistance so as to improve the treatment outcome of this deadly disease. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs represent a novel class of anticancer drugs. Recent studies demonstrated that HDACIs can down-regulate the CHK1 pathway by which cancer cells can develop resistance to conventional chemotherapy drugs. This prompted our hypothesis that combining HDACIs with DNA damaging chemotherapeutic drugs for treating neuroblastoma would result in enhanced anti-tumor activities of these drugs. Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines with a novel pan-HDACI, panobinostat (LBH589, resulted in dose-dependent growth arrest and apoptosis in 4 high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines. Further, the combination of panobinostat with cisplatin, doxorubicin, or etoposide resulted in highly synergistic antitumor interactions in the high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines, independent of the sequence of drug administration. This was accompanied by cooperative induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, panobinostat treatment resulted in substantial down-regulation of CHK1 and its downstream pathway and abrogation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint. Synergistic antitumor interactions were also observed when the DNA damaging agents were combined with a CHK1-specific inhibitor, LY2603618. Contrary to panobinostat treatment, LY2603618 treatments neither resulted in abrogation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint nor enhanced cisplatin, doxorubicin, or etoposide-induced apoptosis in the high-risk neuroblastoma cells. Surprisingly, LY2603618 treatments caused substantial down-regulation of total CDK1. Despite this discrepancy between panobinostat and LY2603618, our results indicate that suppression of the CHK1 pathway by panobinostat is at least partially responsible for the synergistic antitumor interactions

  20. Comparison of Nutrition-Related Adverse Events and Clinical Outcomes Between ICE (Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide) and MCEC (Ranimustine, Carboplatin, Etoposide, and Cyclophosphamide) Therapies as Pretreatment for Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Malignant Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imataki, Osamu; Arai, Hidekazu; Kume, Tetsuo; Shiozaki, Hitomi; Katsumata, Naomi; Mori, Mariko; Ishide, Keiko; Ikeda, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare nutrition-related adverse events and clinical outcomes of ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide regimen (ICE therapy) and ranimustine, carboplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide regimen (MCEC therapy) instituted as pretreatment for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Material/Methods We enrolled patients who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation between 2007 and 2012. Outcomes were compared between ICE therapy (n=14) and MCEC therapy (n=14) in relation to nutrient balance, engraftment day, and length of hospital stay. In both groups, we compared the timing of nutrition-related adverse events with oral caloric intake, analyzed the correlation between length of hospital stay and duration of parenteral nutrition, and investigated the association between oral caloric intake and the proportion of parenteral nutrition energy in total calorie supply. Five-year survival was compared between the groups. Results Compared with the MCEC group, the ICE group showed significant improvement in oral caloric intake, length of hospital stay, and timing of nutrition-related adverse events and oral calorie intake, but a delay in engraftment. Both groups showed a correlation between duration of parenteral nutrition and length of hospital stay (P=0.0001) and between oral caloric intake (P=0.0017) and parenteral nutrition energy sufficiency rate (r=−0.73, P=0.003; r=−0.76, P=0.002). Five-year survival was not significantly different between the groups (P=0.1355). Conclusions Our findings suggest that compared with MCEC therapy, ICE therapy improves nutrition-related adverse events and reduces hospital stay, conserving medical resources, with no significant improvement in long-term survival. The nutritional pathway may serve as a tool for objective evaluation of pretreatment for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. PMID:29398693

  1. Evaluation of pavement marking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the useful life of pavement markings. The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) provides general guidelines for the application and installation of pavement markings. However, performance...

  2. Escalation of daunorubicin and addition of etoposide in the ADE regimen in acute myeloid leukemia patients aged 60 years and older: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 9720.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, M R; George, S L; Sanford, B L; Mrózek, K; Kolitz, J E; Moore, J O; Stone, R M; Powell, B L; Caligiuri, M A; Bloomfield, C D; Larson, R A

    2011-05-01

    Untreated de novo (n=421) and secondary (n=189) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients ≥60 years received intensified chemotherapy, including daunorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and etoposide 100 mg/m(2) during days 1, 2, 3 with cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) during days 1-7, with a second induction if needed and one consolidation course with these drugs and doses for 2, 2 and 5 days, respectively. In all, 287 (47%) achieved complete remission (CR), 136 (22%) died and 187 (31%) were non-responders. CR rates were 27, 44 and 52% for complex karyotypes, rare aberrations and neither (P<0.001), 52 and 37% for de novo and secondary AML (P=0.003), and 53 and 42% for age 60-69 and ≥70 years (P=0.015). In multivariable analysis, CR predictors included non-complex/non-rare karyotypes (P<0.001), de novo AML (P<0.001), better performance status (PS) (P<0.001) and younger age (P=0.001). Disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survival medians were 6.8 (95% CI: 6.2, 7.8) and 7.2 (95% CI: 6.4, 8.6) months. In multivariable analysis, DFS was shorter for complex karyotypes (P<0.001) and increasing white blood count (WBC) (P<0.001) and age (P=0.038), and OS for complex karyotypes (P<0.001), increasing WBC (P=0.001) and age (P<0.001), poorer PS (P<0.001) and secondary AML (P=0.010). Outcomes and prognostic factors were similar to those in previous Cancer and Leukemia Group B studies.

  3. Development and validation of a High Performance Liquid Chromatographic method for determination of etoposide in biodegradable polymeric implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gabriela Reis Solano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method using HPLC-UV was developed and validated for the determination of etoposide incorporated into polycaprolactone implants. The method was carried out in isocratic mode using a C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm; 5 µm, at 25 ºC, with acetonitrile and acetic acid 4% (70:30 as mobile phase, a flow rate of 2 mL/min, and UV detection at 285 nm. The method was linear (r² > 0.99 over the range of 5 to 65 µg/mL, precise (RSD < 5%, accurate (recovery of 98.7%, robust, selective regarding excipient of the sample, and had a quantitation limit equal to 1.76 µg/mL. The validated method can be successfully employed for routine quality control analyses.

  4. Prognostic Factors and Treatment Results After Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin in Germ Cell Cancer: A Population-based Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kier, Maria G; Lauritsen, Jakob; Mortensen, Mette S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First-line treatment for patients with disseminated germ cell cancer (GCC) is bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). A prognostic classification of patients receiving chemotherapy was published by the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) in 1997, but only...... a small proportion of the patients received BEP. OBJECTIVE: To estimate survival probabilities after BEP, evaluate the IGCCCG prognostic classification, and propose new prognostic factors for outcome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Of a Danish population-based cohort of GCC patients (1984-2007), 1889...... received first-line BEP, with median follow-up of 15 yr. Covariates evaluated as prognostic factors were age, year of treatment, primary site, non-pulmonary visceral metastases, pulmonary metastases, and tumor markers. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Outcomes measured were 5-yr progression...

  5. Co-delivery of Vorinostat and Etoposide Via Disulfide Cross-Linked Biodegradable Polymeric Nanogels: Synthesis, Characterization, Biodegradation, and Anticancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parveen; Wasim, Lubna; Chopra, Madhu; Chhikara, Aruna

    2017-09-25

    Treatment regimens for cancer patients using single chemotherapeutic agents often lead to undesirable toxicity, drug resistance, reduced uptake etc. Combination of two or more drugs is therefore becoming an imperative strategy to overcome these limitations. A step forward can be taken through delivery of the drugs used in combination via nanoparticles. Co-administration of chemotherapeutic drugs encapsulated in nanoparticles has been shown to result in synergistic effects and enhanced therapeutic efficacy. In present study, we explored the combination treatment of histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (VOR) and topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide (ETOP). The concurrent combination treatment of VOR and ETOP resulted in synergistic effect on human cervical HeLa cancer cells. VOR and ETOP were encapsulated into poly(ethylene glycol) monomethacrylate (POEOMA)-based disulfide cross-linked nanogels. The nanogels were synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) via cyclohexane/water inverse mini-emulsion and were degradable in presence of intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration. Both the drugs were loaded into the nanogels by physical encapsulation method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both VOR- and ETOP-loaded nanogels showed sustained release profile. Furthermore, combination treatment drugs encapsulated of POEOMA nanogel demonstrated enhanced synergistic cytotoxic effect compared with combination of free drugs. Enhanced synergistic cell killing efficiency of drug-loaded POEOMA nanogels was due to increased apoptosis via caspase 3/7 activation. Therefore, combination of VOR- and ETOP-loaded PEG-based biodegradable nanogels may provide a promising therapy with enhanced anticancer effect.

  6. Mark-recapture and mark-resight methods for estimating abundance with remote cameras: a carnivore case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Robert S; McClintock, Brett T; Lyren, Lisa M; Boydston, Erin E; Crooks, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Abundance estimation of carnivore populations is difficult and has prompted the use of non-invasive detection methods, such as remotely-triggered cameras, to collect data. To analyze photo data, studies focusing on carnivores with unique pelage patterns have utilized a mark-recapture framework and studies of carnivores without unique pelage patterns have used a mark-resight framework. We compared mark-resight and mark-recapture estimation methods to estimate bobcat (Lynx rufus) population sizes, which motivated the development of a new "hybrid" mark-resight model as an alternative to traditional methods. We deployed a sampling grid of 30 cameras throughout the urban southern California study area. Additionally, we physically captured and marked a subset of the bobcat population with GPS telemetry collars. Since we could identify individual bobcats with photos of unique pelage patterns and a subset of the population was physically marked, we were able to use traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight methods, as well as the new "hybrid" mark-resight model we developed to estimate bobcat abundance. We recorded 109 bobcat photos during 4,669 camera nights and physically marked 27 bobcats with GPS telemetry collars. Abundance estimates produced by the traditional mark-recapture, traditional mark-resight, and "hybrid" mark-resight methods were similar, however precision differed depending on the models used. Traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight estimates were relatively imprecise with percent confidence interval lengths exceeding 100% of point estimates. Hybrid mark-resight models produced better precision with percent confidence intervals not exceeding 57%. The increased precision of the hybrid mark-resight method stems from utilizing the complete encounter histories of physically marked individuals (including those never detected by a camera trap) and the encounter histories of naturally marked individuals detected at camera traps. This new estimator may be

  7. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  8. An Approach to Mark Arthropods for Mark Capture Type Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of studies were conducted to validate methods for marking a wide variety of arthropods with inexpensive proteins for mark-capture dispersal research. The markers tested included egg albumin protein in chicken egg whites and casein protein in bovine milk. The first study qualified the effec...

  9. Laser marking as environment technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotova, Lydia; Badida, Miroslav

    2017-11-01

    The contribution deals with the laser marking as one of the progressive and environment friendly technologies with utilisation in many branches of industry. Engraving and other types of laser marking of different types of materials are very actual technologies these days. Laser marking decreases the waste creation in comparison with the other classical marking technologies, which use paintings or created chips. In this experimental investigation the laser marking surface texturing of material AL99,7 according to STN 42 4003:1993-08 (STN EN 573) has been conducted. The laser marking machine TruMark 6020 and software TruTops Mark were used. Laser surface texturing after laser marking has been realised under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of engraving or annealing surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The evaluation of roughness of engraved surfaces has been realized according to STN EN ISO 4287 by using Surftest SJ 301. The aim of the contribution was to show how different laser parameters affect the surface texture and colour change of metallic materials while creating minimal waste.

  10. High-dose thiotepa, etoposide and carboplatin as conditioning regimen for autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Mauro; Ballanti, Stelvio; Iodice, Giuseppe; Reale, Antonia; Falzetti, Franca; Minelli, Olivia; Serio, Gabriella; Martelli, Massimo F; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Ria, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) generally provides good results in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). We studied a high-dose chemotherapy regimen based on thiotepa, etoposide and carboplatin (TECA). Fifty-eight patients with advanced HL were treated with thiotepa, etoposide and carboplatin for transplant induction. The overall response rate was 79·3% (39 CR: 67·2%; and 7 PR: 12·1%); 12 patients (20·1%) were non-responders. The 5-year overall survival rate was 77·6%; five initially responder patients relapsed within the first 5 years of follow-up and underwent salvage therapy. The TECA conditioning regimen for ASCT in HL results in a good anti-HL effect, positive response to treatment and high 5-year overall survival rate. It was also well tolerated and did not induce excessive toxicity, suggesting that TECA may be a very useful conditioning regimen for HL.

  11. A phase I/II trial of iodine-131-tositumomab (anti-CD20), etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed B-cell lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, O. W.(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center); Eary, Janet F.(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center); Gooley, T; Gopal, A K.; Liu, Stephen (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA); Rajendran, Joseph G.(UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON); Maloney, David G.; Petersdorf, Stephen; Bush, Sharon A.; Durack, L. D.(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center); Martin, P J.(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center); Fisher, Darrell R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wood, Brent; Borrow, James W.(First Hill Diagnostic Imaging, Richland, WA); Porter, Bruce (First Hill Diagnostic Imaging, Richland, WA); Smith, Justin P.(First Hill Diagnostic Imaging, Richland, WA); Matthews, D. C.(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center); Appelbaum, F. R.(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center); Bernstein, I. D.(Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

    1999-11-01

    Relapsed B-cell lymphomas are incurable with conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, although a fraction of patients can be cured with high-dose chemoradiotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). We conducted a phase I/II trial to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of iodine 131 (I-131)-tositumomab (anti-CD20 antibody) that could be combined with etoposide and cyclophosphamide followed by ASCT in patients with relapsed B-cell lymphomas. Fifty-two patients received a trace-labeled infusion of 1.7 mg/kg I-131-tositumomab (185-370 MBq) followed by serial quantitative gamma-camera imaging and estimation of absorbed doses of radiation to tumor sites and normal organs. Ten days later, patients received a therapeutic infusion of 1.7 mg/kg tositumomab labeled with an amount of I-131 calculated to deliver the target dose of radiation (20-27 Gy) to critical normal organs (liver, kidneys, and lungs). Patients were maintained in radiation isolation until their total -body radioactivity was less than 0.07 mSv/h at 1 m. They were then given etoposide and cyclophosphamide followed by ASCT. The MTD of I-131-tositumomab that could be safely combined with 60 mg/kg etoposide and 100 mg/kg cyclophosphamide delivered 25 Gy to critical normal organs. The estimated overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of all treated patients at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. These findings compare favorably with those in a nonrandomized control group of patients who underwent transplantation, external-beam total-body irradiation, and etoposide and cyclophosphamide therapy during the same period (OS of 53% and PFS of 36% at 2 years), even after adjustment for confounding variables in a multivariable analysis.

  12. Lethal and mutagenic interactions between γ-rays, cisplatin and etoposide at the cellular and molecular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Olga; Bracesco, Nelson; Nunes, Elia

    2011-02-01

    We analysed the lethal and mutagenic interactions between γ-rays, cisplatin (Pt) and etoposide (E), three agents used in tumour chemoradiotherapy. Corresponding results at cellular and molecular levels could provide additional elements on involved mechanisms and, on antitumour activity and toxicity in combined cancer treatments. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC7K(lys2-3) (auxotrophic for lysine) was used as eukaryotic model. Exponential growing cells were exposed to the mentioned agents, as single and combined treatments. Lethal and mutation interaction equations were determined as a function of doses according to quantitative models. DNA double-strand breaks were evaluated immediately after treatments, through pulsed-field electrophoresis and laser densitometry. All three agents induced significant mutant frequency. The γ +Pt + E combination determined maximal lethal and mutagenic synergism, followed by γ + Pt and γ + E combinations. Meanwhile, Pt + E combination showed lethal additivity and very low mutagenic synergism. Pt + E double combination determined moderate DNA degradation. DNA degradation after γ-exposure, was similar to that of γ + Pt, γ + E and γ + Pt + E combinations. Synergistic lethal and mutagenic interactions indicate crosstalk between non-homologous end joining, homologous recombination and postreplicative repair pathways. Pt + E additivity indicate independence of involved repair pathways. Furthermore, the quantification of interactive events may be an additional suitable tool in tumour therapy planning.

  13. Eesti vajab riigiarhitekti / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Linnade tekkimisest Eestis, linnaehitusest ja linnaplaneerimisest. Pärnu muinsuskaitsealast ja uute korruselamute ehitamisest. Arhitektuuriameti loomise ja riigiarhitekti ametikoha vajalikkusest. Kommenteerivad Ülar Mark, Triin Ojari, Harry Liivrand, Karin Paulus

  14. THE EDUCATION OF MARK ZUCKERBERG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert Safian

    2012-01-01

    ... do?" This was before The Sodai Network, before Facebook was a global phenomenon, before Mark Zuckerberg was famous. McGirt decided against the ambush and'got her interview the next day Thus began...

  15. Mark Tompkins, Livin' is Deadly

    OpenAIRE

    Ginot, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Cet article rend compte de la longue fréquentation du spectacle " Hommages " de Mark Tompkins, composé de quatre solos hommages à quatre figures de la danse : Nijinski, Valeska Gert, Joséphine Baker et Harry Sheppard. Il est écrit sous une forme fictionnelle qui croise la parole de Mark Tompkins, celle de ses personnages et celle de l'auteure de l'article.

  16. Vastab Mark Lubotski / Mark Lubotski ; interv. Toomas Velmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lubotski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Hamburgi Muusikakõrgkooli viiuliprofessor Mark Lubotskist, kes viibis Tallinnas oktoobris 2008 ja oli IV rahvusvahelise Heino Elleri nimelise viiuldajate konkursi žürii esimeheks. Tema sidemetest Eesti muusikutega, pagemisest Läände, Heino Elleri nimelisest konkursist ja tööst žüriis

  17. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  18. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  19. Predictive value of BRCA1, ERCC1, ATP7B, PKM2, TOPOI, TOPΟ-IIA, TOPOIIB and C-MYC genes in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC who received first line therapy with cisplatin and etoposide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Karachaliou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of genes involved in the action of cisplatin-etoposide in Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC. METHODS: 184 SCLC patients' primary tumour samples were analyzed for ERCCI, BRCA1, ATP7B, PKM2 TOPOI, TOPOIIA, TOPOIIB and C-MYC mRNA expression. All patients were treated with cisplatin-etoposide. RESULTS: The patients' median age was 63 years and 120 (65% had extended stage, 75 (41% had increased LDH serum levels and 131 (71% an ECOG performance status was 0-1. Patients with limited stage, whose tumours expressed high ERCC1 (p=0.028, PKM2 (p=0.046, TOPOI (p=0.008, TOPOIIA (p=0.002 and TOPOIIB (p<0.001 mRNA had a shorter Progression Free Survival (PFS. In limited stage patients, high expression of ERCC1 (p=0.014, PKM2 (p=0.026, TOPOIIA (p=0.021 and TOPOIIB (p=0.019 was correlated with decreased median overall survival (mOS while in patients with extended stage, only high TOPOIIB expression had a negative impact on Os (p=0.035. The favorable expression signature expression signature (low expression of ERCC1, PKM2, TOPOIIA and TOPOIIB was correlated with significantly better PFS and Os in both LS-SCLC (p<0.001 and p=0.007, respectively and ES-SCLC (p=0.007 and (p=0.011, respectively group. The unfavorable expression signature was an independent predictor for poor PFS (HR: 3.18; p=0.002 and HR: 3.14; p=0.021 and Os (HR: 4.35; p=0.001and HR: 3.32; p=0.019 in both limited and extended stage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Single gene's expression analysis as well as the integrated analysis of ERCC1, PKM2, TOPOIIA and TOPOIIB may predict treatment outcome in patients with SCLC. These findings should be further validated in a prospective study.

  20. Spear-Marked Black Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Bruce H. Baker

    1977-01-01

    The spear-marked black moth, Rheumaptera hastata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a serious defoliator of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) in interior Alaska. Epidemic populations have occurred at 15- to 17- year intervals, persisted for 2 years, and then collapsed. Recorded outbreaks occurred in 1941, acreage unknown; from 1957 to 1958, 5 million acres (2...

  1. Ifosfamid, Epirubicin und Etoposid +/- Rituximab bei refraktären oder rezidivierten B-Zell Lymphomen: eine Analyse der Remissionsinduktion und Stammzellmobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Andrea Maria

    2009-01-01

    Die Chemotherapie mit Ifosfamid, Epirubicin und Etoposid (IEV) ist ein effektives Behandlungsprotokoll bei refraktären/rezidivierten NHL. Für Rituximab konnte gezeigt werden, dass es Ansprechraten, das ereignisfreie Überleben sowie das Gesamtüberleben bei B-Zell NHL verbessert. In einer retrospektiven Analyse wurden 85 Patienten analysiert, die an einem Zentrum mit IEV oder Rituximab-IEV (R-IEV) bei refraktärem/rezidiviertem B-Tell NHL therapiert wurden. 67 Patienten wurden mit IEV und 18 mit...

  2. Cell of origin predicts outcome to treatment with etoposide-containing chemotherapy in young patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Anne O; Pedersen, Mette Ø; Knudsen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Addition of etoposide to the R-CHOP chemotherapy regimen with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab (R-CHOEP) has resulted in improved survival in young patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is not known whether biological factors can......) or non-GCB by Hans' algorithm. Only in patients with the GCB phenotype was treatment with R-CHOEP associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with R-CHOP. Patients with GCB phenotype treated with R-CHOEP also had superior OS compared with patients with non...

  3. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-09-29

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets.

  4. A Phase II Study of Cyclophosphamide, Etoposide, Vincristine and Prednisone (CEOP) Alternating with Pralatrexate (P) as Front Line Therapy for Patients with Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PTCL): Final Results from the T- Cell Consortium Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Ranjana H.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Lechowicz, Mary Jo; Beaven, Anne W.; Loberiza, Fausto; Carson, Kenneth R.; Evens, Andrew M.; Foss, Francine; Horwitz, Steven; Pro, Barbara; Brown, Lauren Pinter; Smith, Sonali M.; Shustov, Andrei R.; Savage, Kerry J.; Vose, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Summary Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) have suboptimal outcomes using conventional CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy. The anti-folate pralatrexate, the first drug approved for patients with relapsed/refractory PTCL, provided a rationale to incorporate it into the front-line setting. This phase 2 study evaluated a novel front-line combination whereby cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and prednisone (CEOP) alternated with pralatrexate (CEOP-P) in PTCL. Patients achieving a complete or partial remission (CR/PR) were eligible for consolidative stem cell transplantation (SCT) after 4 cycles. Thirty-three stage II–IV PTCL patients were treated: 21 PTCL-not otherwise specified (64%), 8 angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (24%) and 4 anaplastic large cell lymphoma (12%). The majority (61%) had stage IV disease and 46% were International Prognostic Index high/intermediate or high risk. Grade 3–4 toxicities included anaemia (27%), thrombocytopenia (12%), febrile neutropenia (18%), mucositis (18%), sepsis (15%), increased creatinine (12%) and liver transaminases (12%). Seventeen patients (52%) achieved a CR. The 2-year progression-free survival and overall survial, were 39% (95% confidence interval 21–57) and 60% (95% confidence interval 39–76), respectively. Fifteen patients (45%) (12 CR) received SCT and all remained in CR at a median follow-up of 21.5 months. CEOP-P did not improve outcomes compared to historical data using CHOP. Defining optimal front line therapy in PTCL continues to be a challenge and an unmet need. PMID:26627450

  5. Automated road marking recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.; Shigabiev, R. R.; Talipov, D. N.

    2017-09-01

    Development of the automated road marking recognition systems in existing and future vehicles control systems is an urgent task. One way to implement such systems is the use of neural networks. To test the possibility of using neural network software has been developed with the use of a single-layer perceptron. The resulting system based on neural network has successfully coped with the task both when driving in the daytime and at night.

  6. Pavement Marking Types and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev 2-89) Prescr:bed by ANSI Sid 139-18 298- 102 PREFACF This project was sponsored by the Headquarters, US Army...they are the cost and performance standard used to compare all other marking types. 17. There are several methods that may be employed to classify...rubber base which is usually a chlorinated rubber, drying oil varnish or modified alkyd known as oleoresin , and water based materials (US Department

  7. Ifosfamide, epirubicin, etoposide (IEV) and autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplant: a feasible and effective salvage treatment for lymphoid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavio, Marino; Garrone, Alberto; Pierri, Ivana; Michelis, Gian Luca; Balocco, Manuela; Albarello, Alessandra; Varaldo, Riccardo; Canepa, Paolo; Miglino, Maurizio; Ballerini, Filippo; Canepa, Letizia; Gobbi, Marco

    2005-10-01

    The IEV schedule consisted of epirubicin 100 mg/m2 on day 1, etoposide 150 mg/m2 on days 1-3, and ifosfamide 2.5 g/m2 on days 1-3. Patients who proceeded to haematopoietic stem cell transplants (HDTs) received conditioning therapy with BEAM [for the Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) groups], or melphalan 100 mg/m2 and mitoxantrone [for the multiple myeloma (MM) patients]. The study consisted of 65 patients with a median age of 53 years: 27 had aggressive NHL, 20 had HL, 7 had indolent NHL, and 11 had MM. Fifty-five patients received IEV for a disease that was refractory to conventional induction regimens, or that was in first or second relapse; 4 patients were treated with IEV while in complete response (CR) after chemotherapy in order to mobilise peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). Ninety percent of patients with HL responded to IEV, and 85% achieved CR. Both aggressive and indolent NHLs were less responsive (ORR 50 and 33%, respectively; CRR 41 and 16.5%, respectively). MM patients displayed an intermediate responsiveness (ORR 50% and CRR 30%). IEV was well tolerated in most patients. No life- threatening infections were recorded. PBSC mobilisation was successful in 37 out of 39 patients (95%) and led to the collection of a median of 16, 12, and 13.7 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg in patients with HL, NHL, and MM, respectively. All 37 patients underwent an autologous stem cell transplant following a 1 to 2 month interval after the end of IEV. Two patients were submitted to an allogeneic transplant. The median overall survival rate in HL, aggressive NHL, and indolent NHL is 32 (5-60), 16 (2-46), and 14 (4-42) months, respectively. Median EFS is 31 (5-60), 7 (2-46), and 7.5 (4-42) months, respectively. In conclusion, our study confirms that IEV +/- HDT is a well-tolerated and effective salvage treatment for lymphoid malignancies, and that IEV acts as an excellent stem cell mobiliser.

  8. Role of the semi-quinone free radical of the anti-tumour agent etoposide (VP-16-213) in the inactivation of single- and double-stranded phi X174 DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Mans, D. R.; Ret?l, J.; van Maanen, J M; Lafleur, M. V.; van Schaik, M. A.; Pinedo, H M; Lankelma, J.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the anti-tumour agent etoposide (VP-16-213) could involve its bioactivation to metabolites which can damage DNA. Active metabolites of etoposide, generated in vitro, are the 3',4'-dihydroxy-derivative (catechol) and its oxidation product, the ortho-quinone. The conversion of the catechol into the ortho-quinone (and vice versa) proceeds via formation of a semi-quinone free radical. We investigated the role of this radical species in the inactivation of biologically a...

  9. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  10. Mark Twain: inocente ou pecador? = Mark Twain: innocent or sinner?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helou Doca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A leitura cuidadosa do texto do “Tratado de Paris”, em 1900, leva Mark Twain a concluir que a intenção política norte-americana era, claramente, a de subjugação. Declara-se, abertamente, antiimperialista, nesse momento, apesar das inúmeras críticasrecebidas por antagonistas políticos que defendiam o establishment dos Estados Unidos. Após viajar para a Europa e Oriente, em 1867, como correspondente do jornal Daily Alta Califórnia, Mark Twain publica, em 1869, seu relato de viagem, The Innocents Abroad or TheNew Pilgrim’s Progress. Nosso estudo demonstra que o autor, apesar das diversas máscaras usadas em seus relatos, narra histórias, culturas e tradições, tanto da Europa quanto do Oriente, já com os olhos bem abertos pelo viés antiimperialista. Faz uso da paródia, sátira, ironia e humor para dessacralizar impérios, monarcas e a Igreja que subjugavam os mais fracos, iluminando, desde então, os estudos sobre culturas. Nosso estudo, outrossim, faz uma reflexão sobre cultura, tradição e o olhar do viajante, justificando o “olhar inocente” do narrador em seu relato.After carefully reading the Treaty of Paris in 1900, Mark Twain concluded that the goal of U.S. policy was clearly one ofsubjugation. He openly declared himself an anti-imperialist at that time, in spite of the numerous criticisms he received from political opponents who supported the United States status quo. After traveling to Europe and the East in 1867 as a correspondent for The DailyAlta California newspaper, Mark Twain published his travel report, The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrim’s Progress in 1869. Our study demonstrates that the author, in spite of using different guises in his reports, narrated histories, cultures and traditions – from both Europe and the East – with a viewpoint already imbued by his anti-imperialistic ideals. Twain made use of parody, satire, irony and humor within his texts in order to desecrate empires,monarchs and

  11. Effect of Molecular Weight and Molar Ratio of Dextran on Self-Assembly of Dextran Stearate Polymeric Micelles as Nanocarriers for Etoposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Varshosaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic polymer surfactants are composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers and are widely used in targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the effect of molecular weight and molar ratio of dextran on physicochemical properties of dextran stearate polymeric micelles. Dextran stearate was synthesized by acylation of dextran with stearoyl chloride. Etoposide loaded polymeric micelles were prepared by dialysis method. The resulting micelles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, critical micelle concentration (CMC, drug loading capacity, and release efficiency. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of micelles were studied in CT-26 colorectal carcinoma cell line. Molecular weight and molar ratio of dextran-stearate were impressive on zeta potential, CMC, drug loading capacity, and release efficiency. Unlike polymer molecular weight, molar ratio of stearate had a significant effect on cytotoxicity and particle size of etoposide loaded micelles. Although molecular weight of dextran had no significant effect on cytotoxicity of micelles on CT-26 cells, it had drastic attributes for stability of polymeric micelles. Consequently, both variables of molecular weight of dextran and molar ratio of stearate should be taken into account to have a stable and effective micelle of dextran-stearate.

  12. Single-Centre Experience of Systemic Treatment with Vincristine, Ifosfamide, and Doxorubicin Alternating with Etoposide, Ifosfamide, and Cisplatin in Adult Patients with Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Requilé

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Ewing sarcoma (ES in adult patients requires a multidisciplinary approach. Systemic therapy remains an important component of clinical management of this disease. ES is extremely rare in adult patients. Due to the rarity of the disease, no standard of care in terms of chemotherapy for the adult population exists, and the level of evidence for individual agents or some multidrug combinations is limited. Most regimens that are used in both adults and children include anthracyclines, etoposide, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide. In this report, we describe our experience with the alternating use of triple combination therapies based on vincristine, ifosfamide, and doxorubicin (VIA and an etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin combination (VIP. We retrospectively evaluated the response rates, outcome, and tolerance of adult patients (n = 64 treated with VIA/VIP between 1990 and 2014. The patients included were treated with perioperative chemotherapy (53.1% neoadjuvant therapy and 17.2% adjuvant therapy or had synchronous metastases at diagnosis (29.7%. Five-year overall survival rate was 52.2% for all patients, 72.2% for patients with localized disease, and 5.3% in patients with synchronous metastases. Overall response rate (ORR was 37% after 2 cycles of VIA and 2 cycles of VIP. There were no patients with progressive disease (PD.

  13. Laser treatment of stretch marks: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Leonardo; Piccinetti, A. L.; Monache, G. D.; Botta, G.; Mancini, S.

    2000-06-01

    The best treatment of these stretch mark is still unknown. Some authors proposed the treatment with flash-lamp-pumped dye laser 585 nm, with fluence over 8 J/cm2. Reviewing our experiences on no-surgical effects of lasers in the various phases of the wound healing, including the re- epithelization, we would like to apply the no-surgical laser therapy treating the stretch marks of breast, abdomen and lumbo-sacral region. The goal is to inhibit the fibrous tissue metabolism, encouraging the destruction of the collagen fibers with inflammatory mechanism, and increasing the reconstitution of the superficial dermis layers. We treated five cases of stretch marks in women 22-35 years old, since May 1999, with a cycle of applications of double lasers, 511 and 577 nm, with energy of 20 Joule for spot, respecting the maximum thermal relaxation times of the skin. We waited two weeks interval between the applications. Results obtained after five applications are very positive, and we are encouraged to continue this experimentation.

  14. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... buoys. (b) Sidemarks are lateral marks which advise the mariner to stay to one side of the mark. Their.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks.... Preferred channel marks have red and green horizontal bands with the color of the topmost band indicating...

  15. Lasershot(sm) marking system: high-volume labeling for safety-critical parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, C B; Hackel, L; Honig, J; Halpin, J; Chen, H-L; Mendieta, F; Harris, F; Lane, L; Daly, J; Harrison, J

    2001-02-16

    The Lasershot Marking System uses laser pulses to safely and permanently impress identification markings on metal components. This process does not remove material or change surface chemistry and actually increases the marked area's resistance to fatigue and corrosion failure. Lasershot marking is ideally suited for marking parts used in situations where safety is critical--from hip-joint replacements to commercial airliner components. The minimum size of the mark is limited only by the resolution of the reading system, allowing manufacturers to mark parts which, up to now, have been too small to label with mechanical peening techniques. The high resolution of the Lasershot marks makes them difficult to reproduce, providing a solution to the ongoing problem of inferior, counterfeited parts. The high marking rate of up to six marks per second makes this system practical and cost-effective for marking high-volume components.

  16. Is current bite mark analysis a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J G; Blackwell, S A

    2010-09-10

    Four human-to-human bite mark cases in which forensic odontological opinion was found to be in error, or at best deeply divided between experts, are described. These are used to illustrate that there is a growing awareness on the part of the legal profession that bite mark opinions by experts may often be little more than that and that these opinions often cannot be substantiated given the paucity of rigorous scientific evaluation, and will therefore be increasingly challenged. This may not best serve justice and so it is argued that forensic odontology needs to bring more scientific rigour to the evaluation of bite marks. This may threaten to disenfranchise some of the current practitioners and there may be some resistance to change. Forensic odontology is not the only identification science facing such problems, but nevertheless a paradigm shift is predicted in the way bite mark evidence will have to be gathered and evaluated in the future. Some new scientific approaches are described that strive to unravel some of the most basic problems confronting our profession when we attempt to make morphometric comparisons between injuries and the dentition of the biter. A need to capture the actions and consequences of biting in 3D dimensions and simultaneously in real-time is proposed as a path of investigation highly likely to bring some clarity to a confused situation. There is also an urgent need for the ongoing controversy between some of our eminent peers relating to the assumed uniqueness, or otherwise, of the human anterior dentition to be resolved. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Otolith marking of juvenile shortnose gar by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been used to mark a variety of fish species at multiple developmental stages; however, there is little information on batch-marking Lepisosteidae. Juvenile Shortnose Gar Lepisosteus platostomus (53 ± 3 mm TL) were seined from an Oklahoma State University research pond and transported to the Oklahoma Fishery Research Lab. Juvenile Shortnose Gar were exposed to a range of OTC concentrations—0, 500, 600, and 700 mg/L—for 4, 5, or 6 h. Lapillus and sagitta otoliths were examined 14 d postexposure for mark presence and evaluation using fluorescent microscopy. Overall, 93.3% of otoliths exposed to OTC exhibited a mark. Concentration of OTC affected the mean mark quality, whereas duration and otolith type examined did not. However, as concentration increased, so did mortality, suggesting a balance is needed to achieve marking goals. Based on our findings, batch marking of Shortnose Gar can be successful at OTC concentrations from 500 to 700 mg/L for 4–6 h, although mark quality may vary and mortality rates increase at the higher concentrations and longer durations.

  18. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  19. Dihydralazine induces marked cerebral vasodilation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H

    1987-01-01

    Dihydralazine is widely used for acute control of hypertension. In experimental studies it seems to dilate cerebral resistance vessels and increase intracranial pressure. However, the effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in man has been little studied. Measurements of CBF were performed with the i...... of dihydralazine was of the same order of magnitude as the effect of 5% CO2 inhalation. These results in normal subjects should be extrapolated to diseased persons only with extreme caution. Still, the very marked and long lasting vasodilation observed suggests that dihydralazine, from a theoretical point of view...

  20. Effects of combined treatment of α-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid, selenium and zinc on bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin-induced alterations in testosterone synthesis pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilarkaje, Narayana

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effects of therapeutically relevant dose levels of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) on testicular steroidogenic enzymes, and possible protective effects of an antioxidant cocktail (AC). Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received BEP with or without the AC (α-tocopherol, L-ascorbic acid, selenium and zinc) for either (a) 4 days (short term; 1.5, 15 and 3 mg/kg), or (b) three cycles of 21 days each (0.75, 7.5 and 1.5 mg/kg), or (c) the three cycles with a 63-day recovery period. The expression of steroidogenic enzymes were measured in the testes by Western blotting and immunofluorescent labeling. The short-term BEP exposure resulted in a decrease in scavenger receptor class-B1 and an increase in luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). The AC with or without BEP has increased the levels of LHR, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-HSD, but without significant changes in testosterone levels. The three cycles of BEP up-regulated the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and down-regulated that of cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), cytochrome p450 17A1 (Cyp17A1, recovered by the AC) and 17β-HSD, associated with significant reduction in testosterone levels. The three cycles with the recovery time led to decreases in LHR, StAR, P450scc and Cyp17A1 and increases in 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD. The AC did not enhance the recovery of the enzyme levels. The three cycles of BEP treatment inhibit the testosterone synthesis pathway even after the recovery time. The AC recovers the effects of BEP chemotherapy on a few steroidogenic enzymes.

  1. Pneumatosis intestinalis after etoposide-based chemotherapy in a patient with metastatic small cell lung cancer: successful conservative management of a rare condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Luiza Dib Batista Bugiato; Anjos, Carlos Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Gustavo Dos Santos; Carvalho, Igor Fernando da Silva

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old male patient, smoker, was diagnosed with small cell lung cancer metastatic to lung, liver and central nervous system. He received chemotherapy with carboplatin AUC 5 on day 1 and etoposide 100mg/m2 on days 1, 2 and 3. During the first cycle, the patient presented with febrile neutropenia and abdominal distension. Chest, abdomen and pelvis computed tomography scan was performed and detected gas dissecting the wall of sigmoid colon extending to the mesosigmoid. Patient had no abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and on physical examination he had no peritoneal irritation, tachycardia or hemodynamic instability compatible with perforation or acute abdomen. Therefore, the radiological finding was interpreted as pneumatosis intestinalis caused by chemotherapy with etoposide. Pneumatosis resolved after continuous oxygen therapy. The second cycle was administered after a complete resolution of the clinical condition and etoposide dose was reduced by 30%. The patient experienced a remarkable evolution. RESUMO Paciente do gênero masculino, 69 anos, fumante, diagnosticado com câncer de pulmão de pequenas células, metastático para pulmão, fígado e sistema nervoso central. Foi administrada quimioterapia com carboplatina AUC 5 no dia 1 e etoposídeo 100mg/m2 nos dias 1, 2 e 3. Durante o primeiro ciclo, o paciente apresentou neutropenia febril e distensão abdominal. Tomografias de tórax, abdome e pelve detectaram gás dissecando a parede do cólon sigmoide, com extensão para o mesossigmoide. O paciente não apresentava dor abdominal, náusea, vômito e não tinha sinais de irritação peritoneal, taquicardia ou instabilidade hemodinâmica compatíveis com perfuração ou abdome agudo. O achado radiológico foi interpretado como pneumatose intestinal causada por etoposídeo. A resolução do quadro ocorreu após suplementação de oxigênio. O segundo ciclo foi administrado após resolução completa do quadro, com redução da dose do quimioterápico em 30

  2. Comparison of Concurrent Use of Thoracic Radiation With Either Carboplatin-Paclitaxel or Cisplatin-Etoposide for Patients With Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Conor E; Behera, Madhusmita; Ernani, Vinicius; Higgins, Kristin A; Saba, Nabil F; Shin, Dong M; Pakkala, Suchita; Pillai, Rathi N; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Curran, Walter J; Belani, Chandra P; Khuri, Fadlo R; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2017-08-01

    The 2 most common chemotherapy regimens used concurrently with thoracic radiation for patients with unresectable IIIA and IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are carboplatin-paclitaxel and cisplatin-etoposide. There are no prospective comparisons of these 2 regimens in this setting. To conduct a systematic review of published trials to compare outcomes and toxic effects between cisplatin-etoposide and carboplatin-paclitaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer receiving thoracic radiation. Studies that enrolled patients with stage III disease receiving radiotherapy (RT) with carboplatin-paclitaxel or cisplatin-etoposide were identified using electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library) and meeting abstracts. Trials were excluded if they were phase 1, enrolled less than 10 patients, or included surgical resection. A systematic analysis of extracted data was performed with software using random and fixed effect models. Clinical outcomes were compared using point estimates for weighted values of median overall survival, progression-free survival, response rate, and toxic effects. A 2-tailed t test with a significance level of .05 was used for all comparisons. Overall, 3090 patients were included from 31 studies in the cisplatin-etoposide groups (median age, 61 years; 65% male; 40% squamous histology; median radiation dose, 63.0 Gy), and 3728 patients from 48 studies in carboplatin-paclitaxel groups (median age, 63 years; 65% male; 40% squamous histology; median radiation dose, 64.6 Gy). There was no significant difference in response rates between cisplatin-etoposide and carboplatin-paclitaxel (58% vs 56%; P = .26), respectively. For cisplatin-etoposide vs carboplatin-paclitaxel, there was no significant difference in median progression free survival (12 months vs 9.3 months; P = .20), overall survival (19.6 months vs 18.4 months; P = .40), or 3-year survival rate (31% vs 25%; P = .50). Cisplatin-etoposide was associated with

  3. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  4. Infrared technique for decoding of invisible laser markings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Jaeschke, Peter; Stein, Johannes; Goede, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Counterfeiting and product piracy continues to be an important issue not only for the Western industry, but also for the society in general. Due to the drastic increase in product imitation and the request for plagiarism protection as well as for reducing thefts there is a high interest in new protection methods providing new security features. The method presented here consists of security markings which are included below paint layers. These markings are invisible for the human eye due to the non-transparency of the upper layers in the visible spectral range. However, the markings can be detected by an infrared technique taking advantage on the partial transparency of the upper paint layers in the IR-region. Metal sheets are marked using laser radiation. The beam of a Nd:YAG-laser provides a modification of the surface structure, resulting in dark markings due to the annealing effect. After coating of the laser-marked material, the markings are invisible for the bare eye. In order to read out the invisible information below the coating, an infrared reflection technique is used. The samples are illuminated with halogen lamps or infrared radiators. Many coating materials (i. e. paints) show a certain transparency in the mid-infrared region, especially between 3 - 5 micrometers . The reflected radiation is detected using an IR-camera with a sensitivity range from 3.4 - 5 micrometers . Due to the different reflection properties between the markings and their surrounding, the information can be detected.

  5. Longitudinal Changes in Serum Levels of Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone in Testicular Cancer Patients after Orchiectomy Alone or Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    ) or combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP). DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS: Changes in TT and LH were investigated during 5-yr follow-up (Stage I: n=75, BEP: n=81). A selected group of TC patients with mild Leydig cell dysfunction (LH ≥ 8 IU/l) were followed for a longer...... period (Stage I: n=20, BEP: n=23). An age-matched control group of 839 healthy men served as controls for TT and LH levels. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Changes in age-adjusted TT and LH were evaluated separately in each treatment group with univariate linear regression analysis....... The proportion of patients initiating testosterone substitution during follow-up was calculated. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In the 75 Stage I patients there were no significant changes in LH and TT, while in the 81 BEP treated patients there was a significant decline in LH during follow-up (-24.2 percentage point...

  6. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of etoposide tumor growth inhibitory effect in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rat model using free intratumoral drug concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigatto, Maiara Cássia; Roman, Renatha Menti; Carrara, Letizia; Buffon, Andréia; Magni, Paolo; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model linking etoposide free tumor and total plasma concentrations to the inhibition of solid tumor growth in rats. Walker-256 tumor cells were inoculated subcutaneously in the right flank of Wistar rats, which were randomly divided in control and two treated groups that received etoposide 5 or 10mg/kg i.v. bolus every day for 8 and 4days, respectively, and tumor volume was monitored daily for 30days. The plasma and intratumoral concentrations-time profiles were obtained from a previous study and were modeled by a four-compartment population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model. PK/PD analysis was conducted using MONOLIX v.4.3.3 on average data and by mean of a nonlinear mixed-effect model. PK/PD data were analyzed using a modification of Simeoni Tumor Growth Inhibition (TGI) model by introduction of an Emax function to take into account the concentration dependency of k2variable parameter (variable potency). The Simeoni TGI-Emax model was capable to fit schedule-dependent antitumor effects using the tumor growth curves from the control and two different administered schedules. The PK/PD model was capable of describing the tumor growth inhibition using total plasma or free tumor concentrations, resulting in higher k2max (maximal potency) for free concentrations (25.8mL·μg(-1)·day(-1) - intratumoral vs. 12.6mL·μg(-1)·day(-1) total plasma). These findings indicate that the plasma concentration may not be a good surrogate for pharmacologically active free tumor concentrations, emphasizing the importance of knowing drug tumor penetration to choose the best antitumor therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  8. Cooperative Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  9. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  10. Early Detection of Autism (ASD) by a Non-invasive Quick Measurement of Markedly Reduced Acetylcholine & DHEA and Increased β-Amyloid (1-42), Asbestos (Chrysotile), Titanium Dioxide, Al, Hg & often Coexisting Virus Infections (CMV, HPV 16 and 18), Bacterial Infections etc. in the Brain and Corresponding Safe Individualized Effective Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Ahdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2015-01-01

    A brief historical background on Autism & some of the important symptoms associated with Autism are summarized. Using strong Electro Magnetic Field Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical molecules with identical weight (which received U.S. Patent) non-invasively & rapidly we can detect various molecules including neurotransmitters, bacteria, virus, fungus, metals & abnormal molecules. Simple non- invasive measurement of various molecules through pupils & head of diagnosed or suspected Autism patients indicated that in Autism patients following changes were often found: 1) Acetylcholine is markedly reduced; 2) Alzheimer's disease markers (i.e. β-Amyloid (1-42), Tau Protein, Apolipoprotein (Apo E4)) are markedly increased; 3) Chrysotile Asbestos is increased; 4) Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is moderately increased; 5) Al is moderately increased; 6) Hg is moderately increased; 7) Dopamine, Serotonin & GABA are significantly reduced (up to about 1/10 of normal); 8) Often viral infections (such as CMV, HHV-6, HPV-16, HPV-18, etc.), and Bacterial infections (such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium TB, Borrelia Burgdorferi, etc.) coexist. Research by others on Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows that it is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders, with about 70% of ASD patients also suffering from gastro-intestinal problems. While Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by formation of 1) Amyloid plaques, 2) Neurofibrillary tangles inside of neurons, and 3) Loss of connections between neurons. More than 90% of AD develops in people over the age of 65. These 3 characteristics often progressively worsen over time. Although Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alzheimer's disease are completely different diseases they have some similar biochemical changes. Eight examples of such measurement & analysis are shown for comparison. Most of Autism patients improved significantly by removing the source or preventing intake of Asbestos, TiO2, Al & Hg or enhancing urinary output

  11. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval marking. 7.29 Section 7.29 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... makes such marking impractical, permanent paint or ink may be used to mark the edge with an MSHA...

  12. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have been...

  13. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... marked on bulk containers of special natural wine or other wine produced under § 24.218; (4) The net contents of each container larger than four liters or each case in wine gallons, or for containers larger...

  14. A Phase II Study of Methotrexate, Etoposide, Dexamethasone and Pegaspargase Sandwiched with Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed, Stage IE to IIE Extranodal Natural-Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal-Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Peng; Xiong, Jie; Cheng, Shu; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Chao-Fu; Cai, Gang; Zhong, Hui-Juan; Huang, Heng-Ye; Chen, Jia-Yi; Zhao, Wei-Li

    2017-11-01

    A phase II study of methotrexate, etoposide, dexamethasone, and pegaspargase (MESA) sandwiched with radiotherapy for newly diagnosed, stage IE-IIE extranodal natural-killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (ENKTL) was conducted to explore its clinical efficacy and safety, as well as novel serum biomarkers upon anti-metabolic treatment. Four cycles of MESA sandwiched with radiotherapy were administered. The primary end point was the overall response rate (ORR). Serum metabolomic profiles were assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, with specific metabolites quantified by targeted metabolic analysis. Forty patients were enrolled and the ORR was 92.1% (95%CI, 83.1%-100.0%). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 89.1% and overall survival (OS) rate was 92.0%. Grade 3/4 non-hematologic and hematologic toxicities were observed in 17 (42.5%) and 26 patients (65·0%) during chemotherapy, and in 9 (22.5%) and 0 (0.0%) patients during radiotherapy, respectively. Fifty-six significantly decreased and 59 increased metabolites were identified in ENKTL, as compared to healthy volunteers. A predictive principal components analysis model of asparaginase-associated metabolites, asparaginase-associated metabolic score (AspM), was established, including alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and succinic acid. Patients with high AspM score displayed superior survival and prognostic significance of AspM was validated in a historical cohort of early and advanced-stage ENKTL treated with asparaginase-based regimens. Multivariate analysis confirmed AspM as a prognostic score independent of PINK and PINK combined with Epstein-Barr virus DNA. MESA sandwiched with radiotherapy is an effective and safe regimen for early-stage ENKTL. AspM score may be a promising prognostic index of serum metabolites in addition to clinical prognostic index in ENKTL. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Cult of Celebrity and Trade Marks: the next instalment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Davies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increasing use of registered trade marks by celebrities to protect their names from exploitation, the UK Trade Marks Registry has recently issued guidance on registration of "famous names". This article seeks to examine the implications of the guidance in light of the existing legislative framework for registration of a personal name and recent judicial developments, together with examples of some famous names that have been granted registered protection.

  16. Regulation of glucose homeostasis by KSR1 and MARK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J Klutho

    Full Text Available Protein scaffolds control the intensity and duration of signaling and dictate the specificity of signaling through MAP kinase pathways. KSR1 is a molecular scaffold of the Raf/MEK/ERK MAP kinase cascade that regulates the intensity and duration of ERK activation. Relative to wild-type mice, ksr1⁻/⁻ mice are modestly glucose intolerant, but show a normal response to exogenous insulin. However, ksr1⁻/⁻ mice also demonstrate a three-fold increase in serum insulin levels in response to a glucose challenge, suggesting a role for KSR1 in insulin secretion. The kinase MARK2 is closely related to C-TAK1, a known regulator of KSR1. Mice lacking MARK2 have an increased rate of glucose disposal in response to exogenous insulin, increased glucose tolerance, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. mark2⁻/⁻ksr1⁻/⁻ (DKO mice were compared to wild type, mark2⁻/⁻, and ksr1⁻/⁻ mice for their ability to regulate glucose homeostasis. Here we show that disruption of KSR1 in mark2⁻/⁻ mice reverses the increased sensitivity to exogenous insulin resulting from MARK2 deletion. DKO mice respond to exogenous insulin similarly to wild type and ksr1⁻/⁻ mice. These data suggest a model whereby MARK2 negatively regulates insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue through inhibition of KSR1. Consistent with this model, we found that MARK2 binds and phosphorylates KSR1 on Ser392. Phosphorylation of Ser392 is a critical regulator of KSR1 stability, subcellular location, and ERK activation. These data reveal an unexpected role for the molecular scaffold KSR1 in insulin-regulated glucose metabolism.

  17. Predicting contrast in sentences with and without focus marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Katy

    2014-10-01

    How do we know when a contrast is coming? This study explores the prediction of parallel contrastive phrases, especially NPs, in sentences with and without overt focus marking. A written sentence-completion questionnaire with clauses followed by the conjunction "but" compared unmarked initial clauses to ones with the focus marker "only" on the subject or object. Both conditions with "only" elicited more contrasts overall than the condition without focus marking, and many of the contrasts were with the focus-marked NP. While the baseline (no-only) condition had full clauses for half of the completions, subject focus increased clausal completions and object focus increased negative ellipsis completions ("not"+NP structures), both changes in syntax which make a contrast with the marked NP easy. The production of negative ellipsis sentences primarily in the object-focus condition suggests that the object bias of these sentences in comprehension could relate to their being used more frequently with this meaning. Finally, the overall pattern of results shows that overt marking of contrastive focus increases continuations with contrasts, and the conjunction "but" does not reliably predict explicitly-stated contrasts within a sentence without overt focus marking.

  18. Effects of skin elasticity on bite mark distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cheri; Marroquin, Leonor A

    2015-12-01

    Bite marks have been reported to have an evidentiary value similar to fingerprints. We believed bite mark distortion would impact the accuracy and reliability of bite mark interpretation. Inked denture-stamps were substituted for actual bite marks and were placed onto 40 participating volunteers' shoulders. Four changes in arm position were photographed using an ABFO #2 reference scale. The measurements of individual tooth widths and intercanine distances in each position were compared. The maximum tooth width distortion observed was 53.8%, whereas the maximum intercanine distance distortion was 41.9%. Distortion was found to increase with age and weight and was non-uniform across a dental arch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An integrated technique for the analysis of skin bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Herman; Owen, Johanna H; van Heerden, Willie F P; Solheim, Tore

    2008-01-01

    The high number of murder, rape, and child abuse cases in South Africa has led to increased numbers of bite mark cases being heard in high courts. Objective analysis to match perpetrators to bite marks at crime scenes must be able to withstand vigorous cross-examination to be of value in conviction of perpetrators. An analysis technique is described in four stages, namely determination of the mark to be a human bite mark, pattern association analysis, metric analysis and comparison with the population data, and illustrated by a real case study. New and accepted techniques are combined to determine the likelihood ratio of guilt expressed as one of a range of conclusions described in the paper. Each stage of the analysis adds to the confirmation (or rejection) of concordance between the dental features present on the victim and the dentition of the suspect. The results illustrate identification to a high degree of certainty.

  20. Organ representation areas of different internal organs localized on the eyebrows & eyelids by the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test electromagnetic resonance phenomenon between 2 identical molecules--Part I: Detection of increased markers for cancer & heart disease from white hairs on the eyebrows and marked decrease in the markers after taking one optimal dose of DHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Organ representation areas of different internal organs were localized on the eyebrows for the first time in 2005 and localized on the surrounding tissue around the eye in 2008 using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) electromagnetic resonance phenomenon between 2 identical tissue. The appearance of white hairs at specific organ representation areas of eyebrows represent an abnormal condition of the specific internal organ if the BDORT grading is (-)4 or a higher negative value. When one of these white hairs on the eyebrows is examined at any location along its entire length by the BDORT, if the grading is a very abnormal negative value of (-)6 or a higher (-) value, significantly abnormal conditions exist or existed at the corresponding time at the specific location of the hair. The heart representation area on the eyebrow is located nearest to the bridge of the nose on each side, where abnormally increased BNP (Brain Natriuretic Peptide) and cardiac Troponin I content is detected on the part of the white hair where the BDORT grading is (-)6 or a higher negative value. In the very abnormal part of the white hair representing the heart, Asbestos, TXB2, and PLGF (Placental Growth Factor) are markedly increased, while DHEA is markedly reduced. If Integrin alpha5beta1 and Oncogene C-fos Ab2 are more than 5-10 ng (BDORT units), malignancy can be suspected. When one optimal dose of DHEA, 8.5 mg, was taken once, normal body tissue telomere was increased from less than 1 ng (during which time the patient experienced extreme tiredness and frequent urination), to 525 ng (BDORT units), not only did severe tiredness & frequent urination completely disappear, but also the white hair representing the left ventricle changed to black hair, and the semi-transparent white hair representing the kidney changed to a non-transparent white hair, with significant decreases in the abnormal parameters. Thus, it is possible to detect unrecognized serious heart conditions or early

  1. Busulfan and melphalan versus carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan as high-dose chemotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NBL1/SIOPEN): an international, randomised, multi-arm, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenstein, Ruth; Pötschger, Ulrike; Pearson, Andrew D J; Brock, Penelope; Luksch, Roberto; Castel, Victoria; Yaniv, Isaac; Papadakis, Vassilios; Laureys, Geneviève; Malis, Josef; Balwierz, Walentyna; Ruud, Ellen; Kogner, Per; Schroeder, Henrik; de Lacerda, Ana Forjaz; Beck-Popovic, Maja; Bician, Pavel; Garami, Miklós; Trahair, Toby; Canete, Adela; Ambros, Peter F; Holmes, Keith; Gaze, Mark; Schreier, Günter; Garaventa, Alberto; Vassal, Gilles; Michon, Jean; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique

    2017-04-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with haemopoietic stem-cell rescue improves event-free survival in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma; however, which regimen has the greatest patient benefit has not been established. We aimed to assess event-free survival after high-dose chemotherapy with busulfan and melphalan compared with carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan. We did an international, randomised, multi-arm, open-label, phase 3 cooperative group clinical trial of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma at 128 institutions in 18 countries that included an open-label randomised arm in which high-dose chemotherapy regimens were compared. Patients (age 1-20 years) with neuroblastoma were eligible to be randomly assigned if they had completed a multidrug induction regimen (cisplatin, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and etoposide with or without topotecan, vincristine, and doxorubicin) and achieved an adequate disease response. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to busulfan and melphalan or to carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan by minimisation, balancing age at diagnosis, stage, MYCN amplification, and national cooperative clinical group between groups. The busulfan and melphalan regimen comprised oral busulfan (150 mg/m2 given on 4 days consecutively in four equal doses); after Nov 8, 2007, intravenous busulfan was given (0·8-1·2 mg/kg per dose for 16 doses according to patient weight). After 24 h, an intravenous melphalan dose (140 mg/m2) was given. Doses of busulfan and melphalan were modified according to bodyweight. The carboplatin, etoposide, and melphalan regimen consisted of carboplatin continuous infusion of area under the plasma concentration-time curve 4·1 mg/mL per min per day for 4 days, etoposide continuous infusion of 338 mg/m2 per day for 4 days, and melphalan 70 mg/m2 per day for 3 days, with doses for all three drugs modified according to bodyweight and glomerular filtration rate. Stem-cell rescue was given after the last dose of high

  2. Alignment robustness for 90 nm and 65 nm node through copper alignment mark integration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Scott; Hinnen, Paul; Morton, Rob; Cooper, Kevin; Sassoulas, Pierre-Olivier; Depre, Jerome; Navarro, Ramon; van Haren, Richard; Browning, Clyde; Reber, Doug; Megens, Henry

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, methods for stacking ASML scribe lane alignment marks (SPM) and improving the mark performance at initial copper metal levels are discussed. The new mark designs and the theoretical reasons for mark design and/or integration change are presented. In previous joint publications between ASML and Freescale Semiconductor [1], improved overlay performance and alignment robustness for Back End Of Line (BEOL) layers by the application of stacked scribe lane marks (SPM) was presented. In this paper, further improvements are demonstrated through the use of optimized Versatile Scribe Lane Mark design (VSPM). With the application of stacked optimized VSPM-marks, the alignment signal strength of marks in the copper metal layer is increased compared to stacked SPM marks. The gains in signal strength stability, which is typical for stacked marks, as well as significantly reduced scribe lane usage, are also maintained. Through the placement of specially designed orthogonal scatter-bars in selected layers under the VSPM-marks, the alignment performance of initial inlaid metal layers is improved as well. The integration of these marks has been evaluated for the 90 nm and 65 nm technology nodes as part of a joint development program between the Crolles2 Alliance and ASML. A measured overlay improvement of ~10-15% was obtained by a strategy change from floating copper marks to stacked optimized VSPM marks.

  3. Factors affecting scent-marking behaviour in Eurasion beaver (Castor fiber)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosell, F.; Nolet, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a main function of territory marking in Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) is defense of the territory. The results showed that: (1) beaver colonies with close neighbors scent-mark more often than isolated ones; (2) the number of scent markings increased significantly with

  4. A Phase II feasibility study of oral etoposide given concurrently with radiotherapy followed by dose intensive adjuvant chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed high-risk medulloblastoma (protocol POG 9631): A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Adam J; Kocak, Mehmet; Hershon, Linda; Rousseau, Pierre; Decarie, Jean-Claude; Shaw, Susan; Burger, Peter; Friedman, Henry S; Gajjar, Amar; Moghrabi, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Children with high-risk medulloblastoma historically have had a poor prognosis. The Children's Oncology Group completed a Phase II study using oral etoposide given with radiotherapy followed by intensive chemotherapy. Patients enrolled in the study had high-risk disease defined as ≥1.5 cm2 of residual disease postsurgery or definite evidence of central nervous metastasis. All patients underwent surgery followed by radiotherapy. During radiation, the patients received oral etoposide (21 days on, 7 off) at an initial dose of 50 mg/m2 per day (treatment 1), which was reduced to 35 mg/m2 per day (treatment 2) due to toxicity. After radiotherapy, the patients received chemotherapy with three cycles of cisplatin and oral etoposide, followed by eight courses of cyclophosphamide and vincristine. Between November 1998 and October 2002, 53 patients were accrued; 15 received treatment 1 and 38 treatment 2. Forty-seven patients (89%) were eligible. Response to radiation was excellent, with 19 (40.4%) showing complete response, 24 (51.1%) partial response, and four (8.5%) no recorded response. The overall 2- and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 76.6 ± 6% and 70.2 ± 7%, respectively. The 2- and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 80.9 ± 6% and 76.6 ± 6%, respectively. Clinical response postradiation and PFS/OS were not significantly different between the treatment groups. There was a trend toward a difference in 5-year PFS between those without and with metastatic disease (P = 0.072). Oral etoposide was tolerable at 35 mg/m2 (21 days on and 7 days off) when given during full-dose irradiation in patients with high-risk medulloblastoma with encouraging survival data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Retrospective study of irinotecan/cisplatin followed by etoposide/cisplatin or the reverse sequence in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao XG

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoguang Xiao, Shujing Wang, Shu Xia, Man Zou, Yang Li, Yao Wei, Qi Mei, Yuan Chen Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Background: Much research has confirmed the favorable effect of irinotecan/cisplatin (IP and etoposide/cisplatin (EP on extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (E-SCLC. This study investigated two sequential orders of IP and EP in the treatment of E-SCLC. We also compared the efficacy and safety of IP and EP in first-line chemotherapy in E-SCLC. Methods: Ninety-three untreated patients with E-SCLC were randomly allocated to two groups. Group A received IP as first-line therapy until progression and then changed to EP; group B received EP as first-line therapy until tumor progression followed by IP. The primary endpoints were overall survival and time to second tumor progression. The secondary endpoints were first progression-free survival (PFS, ie, time from randomization to first occurrence of tumor progression after first-line treatment with IP or EP, tumor response, and safety of the different sequential treatment orders of IP and EP. Results: Median overall survival was 15.4 months in group A (IP followed by EP versus 15.7 months in group B (EP followed by IP; P=0.483. The median time to second tumor progression was 9.5 months in group A versus 9.9 months in group B (P=0.361. As first-line and second-line therapy, IP achieved a 95.9% and 60% disease control rate, respectively, and EP achieved 95.6% and 59% disease control rate. The median first PFS was not significantly different between group A and group B (6.5 months and 6.3 months, respectively; P=0.256. Grade 3/4 diarrhea appeared to be significantly more frequent with IP than with EP. The probability of anemia and thrombocytopenia was not significantly different between the two groups. However, significantly more patients who received the IP regimen as

  6. A reduced grade of liver fibro-steatosis after raltegravir, maraviroc and fosamprenavir in an HIV/HCV co-infected patient with chronic hepatitis, cardiomyopathy, intolerance to nelfinavir and a marked increase of serum creatine phosphokinase levels probably related to integrase inhibitor use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Antoni, A; Weimer, L E; Manfredi, R; Fragola, V; Ferrari, C

    2012-12-01

    The use of new antiretroviral drugs in HIV infection is particularly important in patients with intolerance or resistance to other antiretroviral agents. Raltegravir and maraviroc represent new, important resources in salvage regimens. A reduced grade of liver fibro-steatosis after a combination of raltegravir and maraviroc (second-line) has not been studied and the mechanism by which these new drug classes induced a marked reduction of grade of liver diseases is currently unknown. In the present case report, nested in an ongoing multicentre observational study on the use of new antiretroviral inhibitors in heavy treatment-experienced HIV patients, we evaluated the correlation between a "short therapeutic regimen" raltegravir maraviroc and fosamprenavir and liver diseases. The aim of this report is to describe the use of a three-drug regimen based on two novel-class antiretroviral agents (raltegravir and maraviroc) plus the protease inhibitor fosamprenavir, in an experienced HIV-infected patient with chronic progressive hepatitis C complicated by liver fibrosis; an overwhelming increased serum creatine kinase level occurred during treatment, and is probably related to integrase inhibitor administration. At present no information is available regarding this correlation.

  7. 33 CFR 401.6 - Markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... both sides at the bow and stern. (b) In addition to the markings required by paragraph (a) of this... markings. (c) Where a vessel's bulbous bow extends forward beyond her stem head, a symbol of a bulbous bow... number indicating the total length in meters by which the bulbous bow projects beyond the stem. (68 Stat...

  8. Credit Documentation and the Mark 15 Subroutine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, J.E.

    2001-08-16

    This report documents the rewrite of the heat transfer subroutine. Part of the process of preparing the Mark 15 assembly for production operation is the development of thermal-hydraulic limits for the assembly. These limits require, among other items, the development of a Mark 15 assembly subroutine for the CREDIT code.

  9. 46 CFR 58.16-35 - Markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-35 Markings. (a) The outside of the cylinder enclosure housing liquefied petroleum gas cylinders, valves and regulators shall be marked as...

  10. Chapter 9: Marking and assessing forest heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. North; J. Sherlock

    2012-01-01

    Marking guidelines commonly use stocking level, crown class, and species preferences to meet management objectives. Traditionally, these guidelines were applied across the extent of the stand. Current marking guidelines are more flexible, responding to within-stand variability with different stocking level, crown class, and species preference guidelines in...

  11. 27 CFR 44.184 - Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mark. 44.184 Section 44.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Tubes by Manufacturers and Export Warehouse Proprietors Packaging Requirements § 44.184 Mark. Every...

  12. 37 CFR 2.45 - Certification mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification mark. 2.45 Section 2.45 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.45 Certification mark. (a) In an...

  13. 37 CFR 2.44 - Collective mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collective mark. 2.44 Section 2.44 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.44 Collective mark. (a) In an...

  14. 37 CFR 2.83 - Conflicting marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conflicting marks. 2.83 Section 2.83 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Publication and Post Publication § 2.83 Conflicting marks. (a...

  15. 37 CFR 2.43 - Service mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service mark. 2.43 Section 2.43 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.43 Service mark. In an...

  16. Mark formation modeling in optical rewritable recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusche, J.H.; Segal, A.; Vuik, C.; Urbach, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In optical rewritable recording media, such as the Blu-ray Disc, amorphous marks are formed on a crystalline background of a phase-change layer, by means of short, high power laser pulses. In order to improve this data storage concept, it is of great importance to understand the mark formation

  17. Validating Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper details an investigation into onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong--where paper-based marking is being phased out, being completely superseded by OSM. The study described involved 30 raters who had previously rated English language essay scripts on screen in the 2007 Hong Kong Certificate of Education examination. In the current study,…

  18. Natuurgegevens De Marke 1991-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guldemond, A.; Geerts, R.H.E.M.; Hilhorst, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Verschillende natuurelementen zijn aangelegd op De Marke, en jaarlijks is de ontwikkeling gevolgd van flora en fauna. In dit document geven we een overzicht van de resultaten (zonder toelichting) over de periode 1991-2009. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd door CLM, PRI, Proefboerderij De Marke (onderdeel

  19. Precision markedly attenuates repetitive lift capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Brooke R; Holland, Laura; McGhee, Deirdre; Sampson, John A; Bell, Alison; Stapley, Paul J; Groeller, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of precision on time to task failure in a repetitive whole-body manual handling task. Twelve participants were required to repetitively lift a box weighing 65% of their single repetition maximum to shoulder height using either precise or unconstrained box placement. Muscle activity, forces exerted at the ground, 2D body kinematics, box acceleration and psychophysical measures of performance were recorded until task failure was reached. With precision, time to task failure for repetitive lifting was reduced by 72%, whereas the duration taken to complete a single lift and anterior deltoid muscle activation increased by 39% and 25%, respectively. Yet, no significant difference was observed in ratings of perceived exertion or heart rate at task failure. In conclusion, our results suggest that when accuracy is a characteristic of a repetitive manual handling task, physical work capacity will decline markedly. The capacity to lift repetitively to shoulder height was reduced by 72% when increased accuracy was required to place a box upon a shelf. Lifting strategy and muscle activity were also modified, confirming practitioners should take into consideration movement precision when evaluating the demands of repetitive manual handling tasks.

  20. Rituximab plus Ifosfamide, Carboplatin and Etoposide for T-Cell/Histiocyte-Rich B-Cell Lymphoma Arising in Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Chul Park

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A small subset of patients with nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NLPHLs develop a non-Hodgkin lymphoma either concurrently or subsequently, usuallyT-cell/histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphomas (T/HRBCL, which are subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL. The standard treatment of DLBCL patients is rituximab-based chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisolone. However, the administration of this chemotherapy regimen to patients with DLBCL arising in NLPHL brings concern about the cardiac toxicity of anthracycline because the majority of these patients had already received anthracycline-based chemotherapy with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine at the time of NLPHL. Herein, we report 2 patients with sequential transformation of NLPHL to T/HRBCL. They initially presented with limited-stage NLPHL and subsequently developed T/HRBCL after 16 and 8 months, respectively. At the time of T/HRBCL, they were treated with rituximab, ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide, and complete responses were obtained.

  1. Acute pancreatitis induced by etoposide-lobaplatin combination chemotherapy used for the treatment of lung cancer: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cheng-Liang; Duan, Peng-Yu; Zhang, Wang-Jun; Li, Le; Qu, Feng-Zhi; Sun, Bei; Wang, Gang

    2017-07-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis (DIP) is a rare type of pancreatitis that is not usually observed in the clinical practice. It is generally difficult to distinguish from acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by other causes. Here, we report a 62-year-old Chinese female patient with "small cell lung cancer" as the initial presentation. Because the patient could not bear the surgical treatment, the chemotherapy composed of lobaplatin and etoposide was performed. Three days later, the patient displayed sudden abdominal pain, distension, nausea, and vomiting without obvious inducements. Laboratory tests showed that the levels of serum and urine amylase were enhanced; abdominal computed tomography (CT) result showed the enlargement of the pancreas, peripancreatic effusion, and a rough edge, which suggested the diagnosis of AP. The patient had no history of biliary tract disease, alcoholism, binge overeating, hyperlipidemia, and hereditary pancreatitis. The patient was diagnosed with DIP. The chemotherapy was stopped at once and we performed fluid resuscitation, pain alleviation, prophylactic antibiotics, and nutritional support, etc on the patient. Later, the patient's clinical symptoms were obviously relieved, and she recovered successfully. The chemotherapy was continued, but later, the patient showed abdominal pain, distension, nausea, and vomiting again. The levels of serum amylase and urine amylase were enhanced again. Further imaging examination strongly indicated the recurrence of AP. We should raise awareness of the clinicians regarding DIP, thereby enabling its timely diagnosis and accurate treatment, as well as promoting the rational and safe use of drugs.

  2. Ifosfamide, epirubicin and etoposide (IEV) regimen as salvage and mobilization therapy for refractory or early relapsing patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocali, Barbara; De Simone, Mariacarla; Annunziata, Mario; Palmieri, Salvatore; D'Amico, Maria Rosaria; Copia, Carolina; Viola, Assunta; Mele, Giuseppina; Schiavone, Ettore Mariano; Ferrara, Felicetto

    2004-08-01

    The prognosis of early relapsing or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is still poor. Effective salvage therapy should be able to induce high response rate as well as to mobilize hematopoietic precursors. A combination of ifosfamide, epirubicin and etoposide (IEV) was given to 28 patients with refractory or relapsing high grade NHL (4 lymphoblastic lymphoma and 24 large cell lymphoma). All patients were evaluated for response. After 2 courses of IEV, the overall and complete response rate were 64% and 39%, respectively. All patients were controlled for mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells, which was successful in 26 out of 28 (93%). Overall, 25 out of 26 patients proceeded to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Toxicity was mild, with no occurrence of severe persisting extra-hematologic side-effects. Following the entire therapeutic program, including IEV and ASCT, median progression free survival has not yet been reached and 21 patients are alive (18 in continuous complete remission) after a median follow-up of 18 months. Our results demonstrate that treatment with IEV regimen is effective in refractory or relapsing aggressive NHL, resulting in a high percentage of successful stem cell mobilization and feasibility of ASCT.

  3. In Vitro Expansion of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alters DNA Double Strand Break Repair of Etoposide Induced DNA Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Hare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are of interest for use in diverse cellular therapies. Ex vivo expansion of MSCs intended for transplantation must result in generation of cells that maintain fidelity of critical functions. Previous investigations have identified genetic and phenotypic alterations of MSCs with in vitro passage, but little is known regarding how culturing influences the ability of MSCs to repair double strand DNA breaks (DSBs, the most severe of DNA lesions. To investigate the response to DSB stress with passage in vitro, primary human MSCs were exposed to etoposide (VP16 at various passages with subsequent evaluation of cellular damage responses and DNA repair. Passage number did not affect susceptibility to VP16 or the incidence and repair kinetics of DSBs. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ transcripts showed little alteration with VP16 exposure or passage; however, homologous recombination (HR transcripts were reduced following VP16 exposure with this decrease amplified as MSCs were passaged in vitro. Functional evaluations of NHEJ and HR showed that MSCs were unable to activate NHEJ repair following VP16 stress in cells after successive passage. These results indicate that ex vivo expansion of MSCs alters their ability to perform DSB repair, a necessary function for cells intended for transplantation.

  4. Multi-institutional phase 2 clinical and pharmacogenomic trial of tipifarnib plus etoposide for elderly adults with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Judith E; Vener, Tatiana I; Raponi, Mitch; Ritchie, Ellen K; Smith, B Douglas; Gore, Steven D; Morris, Lawrence E; Feldman, Eric J; Greer, Jacqueline M; Malek, Sami; Carraway, Hetty E; Ironside, Valerie; Galkin, Steven; Levis, Mark J; McDevitt, Michael A; Roboz, Gail R; Gocke, Christopher D; Derecho, Carlo; Palma, John; Wang, Yixin; Kaufmann, Scott H; Wright, John J; Garret-Mayer, Elizabeth

    2012-01-05

    Tipifarnib (T) exhibits modest activity in elderly adults with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Based on preclinical synergy, a phase 1 trial of T plus etoposide (E) yielded 25% complete remission (CR). We selected 2 comparable dose levels for a randomized phase 2 trial in 84 adults (age range, 70-90 years; median, 76 years) who were not candidates for conventional chemotherapy. Arm A (T 600 mg twice a day × 14 days, E 100 mg days 1-3 and 8-10) and arm B (T 400 mg twice a day × 14 days, E 200 mg days 1-3 and 8-10) yielded similar CR, but arm B had greater toxicity. Total CR was 25%, day 30 death rate 7%. A 2-gene signature of high RASGRP1 and low aprataxin (APTX) expression previously predicted for T response. Assays using blasts from a subset of 40 patients treated with T plus E on this study showed that AMLs with a RASGRP1/APTX ratio of more than 5.2 had a 78% CR rate and negative predictive value 87%. This ratio did not correlate with outcome in 41 patients treated with conventional chemotherapies. The next T-based clinical trials will test the ability of the 2-gene signature to enrich for T responders prospectively. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00602771.

  5. Combination of skin-directed therapy and oral etoposide for smoldering adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma with skin involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Yu; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Okura, Risa; Hama-Yamamoto, Kayo; Fueki-Yoshioka, Haruna; Ohmori, Shun; Yamada, Shigenori; Yoshizawa, Mayuko; Hiromasa, Kana; Tajiri, Makiko; Kabashima-Kubo, Rieko; Yoshioka, Manabu; Sugita, Kazunari; Yoshiki, Ryutaro; Hino, Ryosuke; Kobayashi, Miwa; Izu, Kunio; Nakamura, Motonobu; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2013-03-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) have skin involvement, and the smoldering, skin lesion-bearing cases are often treated with various skin-directed therapies, such as phototherapy and radiation therapy. Daily oral administration of etoposide plus prednisolone (EP) is also used for smoldering-type ATLL. However, it remains unclear whether these therapies improve patients' survival. We retrospectively analyzed the prognosis of patients with smoldering, skin lesion-bearing ATLL (n = 62), who were treated, as first therapy, with one skin-directed therapy (n = 29), oral EP alone (n = 14) or a combination of skin-directed therapy and oral EP (n = 19). Multivariate analysis revealed that the hazard ratios (HRs) for the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with the combination therapy were significantly lower than those with the skin-directed therapy (HR 0.1, p = 0.001; HR 0.2, p = 0.002, respectively). These results suggest that the combination of skin-directed therapy and oral EP improves the clinical outcome of patients with smoldering, skin lesion-bearing ATLL.

  6. [Combination of etoposide, cisplatin and ifosfamide (VPH) in the salvage chemotherapy of relapsing or refractory aggressive malignant lymphoma. Study of 51 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, H; Catry-Thomas, I; Soubeyran, P; Bonnel, C; Hoerni, B

    1994-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma refractory or relapsing after CHOP-like regimen, underwent a salvage chemotherapy by VPH: etoposide 100 mg/m2/d, D1 to D3, cisplatin 20 mg/m2/d, D1 to D5, ifosfamide 1 g/m2/d D1 to D5, mesna 1.2 g/m2/d D1 to D5, every 4 weeks. Among 46 evaluable patients for efficacy, 21 (45.6%) achieved complete or partial response according to WHO criteria and 25 (54.3%) failed, while five cases (9.8% of all patients) were not evaluable (two initial complete remission before VPH, two early toxic deaths and one confusional syndrome). Thirty-five patients (68.6%) died of lymphoma, three (5.8%) of acute toxicity and 13 (25.5%) are alive: five in complete remission. The toxicity is mainly myelo-suppression, digestive and renal but could be managed as usually. Although the follow-up is short, this regimen appears effective in these circumstances after CHOP failure but it should be used early, before overt chemoresistance. It does not hinder a bone marrow transplantation programme.

  7. Epoplex Glomarc 90 Polyurea pavement marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pavement markings provide an important means of communication for all roadway users and must be capable of : conveying information during inclement weather and evening hours when there may be little to no contribution from : overhead lighting. Recent...

  8. 49 CFR 172.304 - Marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... labels or attachments; and (4) Must be located away from any other marking (such as advertising) that could substantially reduce its effectiveness. (b) [Reserved] [Amdt. 172-29, 41 FR 15996, Apr. 15, 1976...

  9. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  10. Mark Twain, Fenimore Cooper, and Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Robert Alan

    1992-01-01

    Describes how Mark Twain's essay "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses" helped students to get interested in writing and inspired them to write a similar essay critiquing the movie "Batman." Provides excerpts from students' essays. (PRA)

  11. User's guide : pavement marking management system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pavement markings play a critical role in maintaining a safe and efficient driving environment for road users, especially during nighttime conditions. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) spends millions of dollars each year for installatio...

  12. 77 FR 4271 - Special Permit Marking Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Removal of obsolete Special Permit markings... first shopping event, whichever occurred first. This document relieves tank car owners from that...

  13. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  14. Glass marking with diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser; Handotai reiki Nd:YLF laser ni yoru glass marking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, F.; Hayashi, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-20

    The compact marking system based on a beam scanning system in which the fourth harmonic (FHG: 262 nm in wavelength) of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF (Nd:LiYf4) laser is used for the source of ultraviolet light is described. The result of application to the glass marking that caused a problem due to the generation of cracks is also explained. The machining characteristics significantly vary depending on the type of glass. During actual marking, sample processing must be beforehand carried out to optimize the processing conditions after confirming that there is no problem in practical use. For marking on the glass used for liquid-crystal board, it is valid to improve the density of a dot and increase the number of shots per dot for obtaining high visibility. However, cracks may occur in the clearance of each dot because of the thermal effect. Therefore, the processing conditions must be optimized according to the glass type and crack generation state. The generation of cracks can be suppressed by setting the processing conditions to the optimum level. As a result, satisfactory marking is obtained. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Resource Utilization and Toxicities After Carboplatin/Etoposide/Melphalan and Busulfan/Melphalan for Autologous Stem Cell Rescue in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Using a National Administrative Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ami V; Seif, Alix E; Li, Yimei; Getz, Kelly; Fisher, Brian T; Huang, Vera; Mante, Adjoa; Aplenc, Richard; Bagatell, Rochelle

    2016-05-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) is a key component of high-risk neuroblastoma therapy. Resources required to support patients treated with ASCR conditioning regimens [carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan (CEM) and busulfan/melphalan (BuMel)] have not been directly compared. An administrative database was used to analyze resource utilization and outcomes in a cohort of high-risk neuroblastoma patients. Patients were followed for 60 days from start of conditioning or until death. Length of hospitalization, length of intensive care unit (ICU) level of care, incidence of sepsis and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), and duration of use of specific supportive care resources were analyzed. Six of 171 CEM patients and zero of 59 BuMel patients died during the study period (P = 0.34). Duration of hospitalization was longer following BuMel (median 35 vs. 31 days; P = 0.01); however, there was no difference in duration of ICU-level care. Antibiotic use was longer following CEM (median 19 vs. 15 days; P = 0.01), as was antihypertensive use (median 5 vs. 1.6 days; P = 0.0024). Duration of opiate and nonnarcotic analgesic use was longer following CEM early in the study period. Resources consistent with a diagnosis of SOS were used in a higher proportion of BuMel patients. A higher proportion of BuMel treated patients required mechanical ventilation (17% vs. 6%; P = 0.03). We used administrative billing data to compare resources associated with ASCR conditioning regimens. CEM patients required more extended use of analgesics, antibiotics, and antihypertensives, while duration of hospitalization was longer, and SOS and the use of mechanical ventilation were more frequent following BuMel. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 78 FR 35990 - All Operating Boiling-Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I And Mark II Containments; Docket Nos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... COMMISSION All Operating Boiling-Water Reactor Licensees With Mark I And Mark II Containments; Docket Nos... Licensees operate boiling-water reactors (BWRs) with Mark I and Mark II containment designs. II. The events... Boiling Water Reactors with Mark I and Mark II Containments'' (November 26, 2012). Option 2 in SECY-12...

  17. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.; Hayes, K.; Hoard, C.; Hower, N.; Hutchinson, D.; Jaros, J.A.; Koetke, D.; Kowalski, L.A.

    1989-03-01

    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 {mu}m spatial resolution and <1000 {mu}m track-pair resolution in pressurized CO{sub 2} gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO{sub 2} mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Beyond δ : Tailoring marked statistics to reveal modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valogiannis, Georgios; Bean, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Models that seek to explain cosmic acceleration through modifications to general relativity (GR) evade stringent Solar System constraints through a restoring, screening mechanism. Down-weighting the high-density, screened regions in favor of the low density, unscreened ones offers the potential to enhance the amount of information carried in such modified gravity models. In this work, we assess the performance of a new "marked" transformation and perform a systematic comparison with the clipping and logarithmic transformations, in the context of Λ CDM and the symmetron and f (R ) modified gravity models. Performance is measured in terms of the fractional boost in the Fisher information and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for these models relative to the statistics derived from the standard density distribution. We find that all three statistics provide improved Fisher boosts over the basic density statistics. The model parameters for the marked and clipped transformation that best enhance signals and the Fisher boosts are determined. We also show that the mark is useful both as a Fourier and real-space transformation; a marked correlation function also enhances the SNR relative to the standard correlation function, and can on mildly nonlinear scales show a significant difference between the Λ CDM and the modified gravity models. Our results demonstrate how a series of simple analytical transformations could dramatically increase the predicted information extracted on deviations from GR, from large-scale surveys, and give the prospect for a much more feasible potential detection.

  19. The Four Marks of Holistic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What, to borrow a theological phrase, are the marks of a truly holistic kinesiology department? "In Kinesis and the Nature of the Human Person" (2010), I examined the theoretical impact of Aristotle's definition of "kinesis" and Polanyi's theory of "tacit knowledge" on kinesiology. The intention here, however, is practical rather than theoretical.…

  20. Eesti oma idamaa kunstnik / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    1999-01-01

    8. apr.-st Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumis veebruaris Soulis idamaise maalikunsti alal magistrikraadi kaitsnud Kati Kalda (sünd. 1971) maalinäitus "Elu korea moodi", Kalev Mark Kostabi maalide väljapanek ning loodusfoto konkursi parimate tööde näitus.

  1. Globaalne palavik ja Nord Stream / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni liikme Mark Soosaare sõnul peaks Eesti Taani eeskujul jõudma parlamentaarse otsuseni loobuda tuumajaamaehitusest, vähendada tuleks märgatavalt Eesti metsade raiumist. Vene-Saksa gaasitarneleppe vastu töötamise asemel tuleks otsida ühisosa nii Venemaa kui teiste Läänemeremaadega

  2. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  3. 76 FR 36983 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... particular, paragraph 33 discusses the paint pattern used to mark structures based on size and shape. Section..., poles, smokestacks and skeletal framework of storage tanks and similar structures. The METs addressed in.... Secondly, the FAA recommended spherical and/or flag markers be used in addition to the above paint pattern...

  4. Case Marking Uniformity in Developmental Pronoun Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Colleen E.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hadley, Pamela A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if children acquire grammatical case as a unified system or in a piecemeal fashion. In English language acquisition, many children make developmental errors in marking case on subject position pronouns (e.g., "Me" do it, "Him" like it). It is unknown whether children who produce…

  5. Aluminum alloy nanosecond vs femtosecond laser marking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aluminum alloy, a vastly used material base within several industry fields. For the novelty impact, femtolaser mark- ing has ... The modern industry, in order to preserve, protect, promote and enhance the value of their activities, use .... the laser beam; therefore, the freshly formed clusters of li- quid alloy microspheres have the ...

  6. NASA 3D Models: Mark III Spacesuit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both the JSC Mark III and the ARC AX-5 suit have been designed to operate at a pressure of 8.3 psi. Current space shuttle spacesuits operate at 4.3 psi and require a...

  7. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlmans, Maeike; Otte, Willem M; Van't Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans Ss; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-05-01

    To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. Literature review. All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*, med* or patient* were found anywhere in the paper's title, abstract or the journal's name. Other papers were considered controls. As a verification, clinical journals were compared to non-clinical journals in two different approaches. Also, 50 highest impact journals were explored for publisher group dependent differences. Total number of question marks in titles. A total of 368,362 papers were classified as clinical and 596,889 as controls. Clinical papers had question marks in 3.9% (95% confidence interval 3.8-4.0%) of titles and other papers in 2.3% (confidence interval 2.3-2.3%; p titles of clinical papers than in other papers. This could suggest that clinicians often have a question-driven approach to research and scientists in more fundamental research a hypothesis-driven approach. An alternative explanation is that clinicians like catchy titles. Publishing groups might have pro- and anti-question mark policies.

  8. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, Maeike; Otte, Willem M; Van't Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans Ss; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Literature review. PARTICIPANTS: All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*,

  9. 27 CFR 45.42 - Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF... chapter may be used in the mark as the name of the manufacturer.) As an alternative, where tobacco... or in the package by a means approved by the appropriate TTB officer. Before using the alternative...

  10. 27 CFR 40.212 - Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED... approved as provided in § 40.65 may be used in the mark as the name of the manufacturer.) As an alternative... using the alternative, the manufacturer shall notify the appropriate TTB officer in writing of the name...

  11. Mark Twain's Nemesis: The Paige Compositor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Corban

    Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), who had set type by hand in his youth, had believed that a mechanical composer was beyond the realm of possibility. In 1880, however, he invested $2,000 in an early typesetter invented by James W. Paige. Both Clemens and Paige dreamed of immense wealth that would be generated by selling thousands of Paige Compositors.…

  12. Marks & Spencer loob ELis maksupretsedenti / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 13. apr. lk. 6. Briti rõivakett Marks & Spencer kaebas, et Briti maksuseadused, mis ei lubanud emafirma Suurbritannias maksustavast tulust maha kanda Saksamaal, Prantsusmaal ja Belgias asunud tütarfirmade suuri kahjumeid üheksakümnendate aastate lõpus, on vastuolus EL-i ühisturu seadustega

  13. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate fr...

  14. Mark the Evangelist: His African memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark is the author of the oldest gospel in the Christian Bible. Not much is known about him or his family except for a few references in the Bible. The general assumption, originating in the West, is that Mark was born and bred in Palestine. One of the main proponents of the Western view is Walter Bauer, a German theologian of the first half of the 20th century. His views rely heavily on the argument from silence, as Africa had – and to a great extent still has – an oral culture. Contrary to the Western view, Thomas Oden, an American theologian, did research on the oral culture and investigated the African memory of Mark. This article presents a critical discussion and a review of the book written by Oden in 2011 titled The African memory of Mark. Oden seems to be very subjective in his remarks in favour of Africa, as is also clear from his book titled How Africa shaped the Christian mind, written in 2007, and the question is if he really has enough grounds for his postulations.

  15. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Withdrawal of Wine Without Payment of Tax for... to the marks and brands required to be placed on packages or cases of wine at the time they are... the Government side of each case or Government head of each container before removal from the bonded...

  16. Primary Science Quality Mark--2016 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Back in May 2011, an article in "Primary Science" described how the idea for a quality mark for primary science was developed from an initial conversation at an Association for Science Education annual conference (Turner, Marshall and Elsmore, 2011). Its intention then, as now, was to support and champion good practice and raise the…

  17. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy: Some Land- marks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Mathematics and. Astronomy: Some Land- marks. Michio Yano*. Indian Mathematics and Astronomy: Some Landmarks··. By S Balachandra Roo. Jnana Deep Publications, Bangalore,. 1994, Pages, VIII + 234, Price Rs. 751-. On Indio). This book is 'mainly addressed to the student community and general read-.

  18. 49 CFR 178.345-14 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specification. (2) If no change of information in the specification plate is required, the letters “NC” must... other means in characters at least 3/16 inch high. The information required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of... applicable information required by the ASME Code, must be marked on the tank nameplate (parenthetical...

  19. 46 CFR 196.40-15 - Load line marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load line marks. 196.40-15 Section 196.40-15 Shipping... Markings on Vessels § 196.40-15 Load line marks. (a) Vessels assigned a load line shall have the deck line and the load line marks permanently marked or embossed as required by Subchapter E (Load Lines) of...

  20. 19 CFR 134.32 - General exceptions to marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.32 General exceptions to marking requirements. The articles described or meeting the specified conditions set forth...): (a) Articles that are incapable of being marked; (b) Articles that cannot be marked prior to shipment...

  1. 19 CFR 134.52 - Certificate of marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.52 Certificate of marking. (a) Applicability. Port directors may accept certificates of marking supported by samples of articles required to be... provision of § 141.20 of this chapter, to certify that marking of the country of origin on imported articles...

  2. 19 CFR 11.9 - Special marking on certain articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special marking on certain articles. 11.9 Section... OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.9 Special marking on certain articles. (a... of additional U.S. Note 4, Chapter 91. If any article so required to be marked is found not to be...

  3. 19 CFR 134.43 - Methods of marking specific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of marking specific articles. 134.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.43 Methods of marking specific articles. (a) Marking previously required by certain provisions of the...

  4. 14 CFR 45.23 - Display of marks; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display of marks; general. 45.23 Section 45... IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.23 Display of marks; general. (a) Each operator of an aircraft shall display on that aircraft marks consisting of the Roman capital...

  5. A vision-based navigation approach with multiple radial shape marks for indoor aircraft locating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Haoyin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since GPS signals are unavailable for indoor navigation, current research mainly focuses on vision-based locating with a single mark. An obvious disadvantage with this approach is that locating will fail when the mark cannot be seen. The use of multiple marks can solve this problem. However, the extra process to design and identify different marks will significantly increase system complexity. In this paper, a novel vision-based locating method is proposed by using marks with feature points arranged in a radial shape. The feature points of the marks consist of inner points and outer points. The positions of the inner points are the same in all marks, while the positions of the outer points are different in different marks. Unlike traditional camera locating methods (the PnP methods, the proposed method can calculate the camera location and the positions of the outer points simultaneously. Then the calculation results of the positions of the outer points are used to identify the mark. This method can make navigation with multiple marks more efficient. Simulations and real world experiments are carried out, and their results show that the proposed method is fast, accurate and robust to noise.

  6. A randomized phase III study comparing standard dose BEP with sequential high-dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus stem-cell support in males with poor-prognosis germ-cell cancer. An intergroup study of EORTC, GTCSG, and Grupo Germinal (EORTC 30974)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Skoneczna, I; Aass, N

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of one cycle of standard dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus three cycles of high-dose VIP followed by stem-cell infusion [high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT arm)] to four cycles of standard cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP) in patients with poor......-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC). Patient and methods: Patients with poor-prognosis GCC were assigned to receive either BEP or VIP followed by HD-CT. To show a 15% improvement in a 1-year failure-free survival (FFS), the study aimed to recruit 222 patients but closed with 137, due to slow accrual....

  7. Natural markings of Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Marine Science ... in order to assess the reliability of natural marks for long-term photo-identification studies. ... Results showed that Cuvier's beaked whales were extensively marked (96% of population; mean = 48 marks per ...

  8. Question mark ear deformity-revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al-Qattan, Noha M

    2017-01-01

    We report on two unusual cases of Cosman (question mark) ear; both required modifications of the standard techniques for surgical correction. The first patient presented with a unilateral question mark ear and concurrent ear prominence and bulging of the cartilage of the anti-helix. Simultaneous correction was done using a combination of cartilage suturing/scoring (for the prominence and the cartilage bulge) as well as Al-Qattan's "v-y skin flap-cartilage graft-z-plasty" technique (for the correction of the ear cleft deformity). The second patient had aurico-condylar syndrome with bilateral ear deformity and complete separation of ear lobes from the external ear. Staged transposition followed by Al-Qattan's technique resulted in a satisfactory outcome. Level V, therapeutic study.

  9. The Bionic Clicker Mark I & II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Elliott G; Ourselin, S; Nikitichev, Daniil; Vercauteren, T; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne

    2017-08-14

    In this manuscript, we present two 'Bionic Clicker' systems, the first designed to demonstrate electromyography (EMG) based control systems for educational purposes and the second for research purposes. EMG based control systems pick up electrical signals generated by muscle activation and use these as inputs for controllers. EMG controllers are widely used in prosthetics to control limbs. The Mark I (MK I) clicker allows the wearer to change the slide of a presentation by raising their index finger. It is built around a microcontroller and a bio-signals shield. It generated a lot of interest from both the public and research community. The Mark II (MK II) device presented here was designed to be a cheaper, sleeker, and more customizable system that can be easily modified and directly transmit EMG data. It is built using a wireless capable microcontroller and a muscle sensor.

  10. Sandia Mark II X-Ray System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, L.W.

    1979-11-01

    The Sandia Mark II X-Ray System was designed and developed to provide an intense source of mononergetic, ultra-soft x rays with energies between 0.282 and 1.486 keV. The x-ray tube design is similar to one developed by B.L. Henke and incorporates modifications made by Tom Ellsberry. An operations manual section is incorporated to help the experimenter/operator.

  11. Teaching Mark through a postcolonial optic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-16

    Jul 16, 2015 ... of the divine.' Moore (2006:196–197) argues that Mark can, and should – given all the anti-empire signals – on the one hand be read as resistance literature. But, on the other hand, one needs to 'aqua-glide over the intense ambivalence that, on an alternative reading, can be shown … to characterize and ...

  12. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  13. Bite-marks on battered children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube-Becker, E

    1977-01-21

    Instances of human bites are generally rare, although it does sometimes occur that people use their teeth as a means of attack of defence. When looking into cases of the ill-treatment of children we often find bite-marks in addition to other signs of abusement. Eleven cases from the Institute of Forensic Medicine at Düsseldorf University are presented out of a total of 48 cases of ill-treatment of children followed by death in which human bite-marks as well as other haematomas on the victims could be proved. In all cases the cause of death was a subdural haematoma. All but three of the offenders were female, and all were young and subject to excess stress so that the act could eventually be regarded as the result of a disintegration of emotional status. The combination of bite-marks with haematomas and other signs of ill-treatment support with sufficient certainty the conclusion that a criminal action of a third person is involved.

  14. Heat transfer burnout of Mark VIII fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernath, L.

    1956-08-01

    The operating conditions to which the special Mark VIII quatrefoils will be exposed during the proposed piloting program have been compared with the conditions required to cause burnout, using an established method of calculating these conditions. The results of this comparison permit the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) With normal flow of coolant through the special elements the heat flux to be encountered in the R-8 cycle (1400 MW) will be 70% or that required to cause burnout (30% margin from burnout). (2) With a reduction of coolant flow to 82% of normal through one tube of a special element, burnout of that fuel column is possible in the R-8 cycle. (3) In the R-6 cycle (1280 MW), the margin from burnout in the special Mark VIII quatrefoils is 42% with full flow and 20% with the above reduced coolant flow. A similar comparison of operating conditions predicted for the L-3 cycle (full Mark VIII charge) shows that, even at the highest power level (1250 MW), the margin from burnout is greater than 55% with normal flow and 40% with reduced flow.

  15. Design and Positioning of Diacritical Marks in Latin Typefaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Rajković

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents relevant information concerning the types, shape and positioning of diacritical marks in Latin typefaces. The aim is to increase the awareness of the importance of diacritics, their design and use. The design of the low-ercase dcroat letter presents a particular problem, because it is present only in the Croatian and Vietnamese script and is therefore often incorrectly designed or it is missing the respective font. Data on the most common methods of shaping and positioning of this diacritical sign was collected by measuring the geometry of the dcroat letter in various fonts. Most common designers’ mistakes were shown and evaluated. Suggestions for the design of diacritical marks are proposed taking into account asymmetry, width, uppercase, vertical and horizontal positioning and cultural preferences.

  16. Making the certainty based marking pilot study a reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone BA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin AT Stone, Thomas I LemonSchool of Medicine, Institute of Medical Education, Cardiff University, Cardiff, WalesWe thank the authors of "Use of certainty-based marking in a second-year medical student cohort: a pilot study"1 for their pilot study, we agree this is an interesting area that warrants further investigation. Schoendorfer and Emmett1 aimed to assess student opinion of certainty-based marking (CBM as a method of improving current curricula and explore the effectiveness of its implementation. If effective, the researchers believe CBM may increase the amount of certainty by those in professional health care roles.View original paper by Schoendorfer and Emmett.

  17. Markedly Elevated Troponin in Diabetic Ketoacidosis without Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Menekşe Gerede

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Troponin gives excellent accuracy in the identification of myocardial necrosis, however, it may elevate also in a series of non-atherosclerotic heart diseases. We report the case of a 58-year-old woman with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. She had markedly increased levels (90 fold of cardiac biomarkers (troponin I and CK-MB and initial electrocardiography changes compatible with myocardial infarction. She had normal a coronary angiogram. This case shows that nonspecific myocardial injury may occur in DKA with the findings mimicking myocardial infarction including increased level of cardiac biomarkers and electrocardiography changes.

  18. Mark Raidpere näitused Pariisis ja Napolis / Mark Raidpere ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidpere, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Mark Raidpere videod "Vekovka", "Dedication / Pühendus", "Majestoso Mystico" näitusel Pariisis Michel Reini galeriis. Osaleb koos saksa fotograafi Sven Johnega näitusel Napolis. Kreekas Thessalonikis valminud filmist "1:1:1"

  19. Dietary calcein marking of shovelnose sturgeon and the effect of sunlight on mark retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Kindschi, G.A.; Bell, T.A.; Mohler, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcein, a fluorochrome dye, is a potential fish-marking agent that has not been evaluated in sturgeon. Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus (average weight, 9.7 g) were fed calcein, immersed in a calcein bath, or left unmarked to determine calcein mark intensity. In the first study, six treatments were evaluated in a two-by-three factorial arrangement. Feed was formulated with 2.0 g of SE-MARK/kg either as powder or in an encapsulated form. Sturgeon were fed the test diets for 5, 10, or 15 d. They readily ate feed containing powdered or encapsulated calcein. Sturgeon fed powdered calcein had more brilliant marks than those fed encapsulated calcein (8.27 versus 4.66 lm; P comparison of the three treatment groups showed that sturgeon fed powdered calcein for 15 d (14.06 lm) were brighter (P < 0.01) than fish fed encapsulated calcein (8.46 lm) or fish immersed in calcein (9.68 lm). In the second study, previouslymarked sturgeon were exposed to sunlight for 14months to determine their retention of calcein marks. Dorsal marks were no longer visible on fish exposed to 100% sunlight after 8 weeks. Most but not all fish exposed to 20% sunlight had no discernable dorsalmarks after 8 weeks, but ventral marks at the pectoral fin girdle were present on all fish in the 0% and 20% sunlight exposure treatments. Feeding calcein for 15 d appears to have excellent potential for practical application, such as distinguishing hatchery-reared from wild fish. Ventral calcein marks remained visible after 14 months of exposure to 20% sunlight when sturgeon were reared in clear water. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  20. [Effect of time and pressure factors on the cupping mark color].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi-xin; Tong, Bo-ying; Wang, Xue-xia; Sun, Gai-ling

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effects of the factors of time and pressure during cupping treatment on the cupping mark color, so as to provide scientific data and evidence for study on parameters and effect of cupping treatment. Orthogonal experimental design was used with 12 stimulating parameters on 3 time levels and 4 pressure levels, cupping was given at 12 sites on the back of a same healthy subject, and 34 persons/times were completed in the experiment. The cupping mark color at each site was assessed 24 hours after cupping with a cupping mark color atlas, and the change law of cupping mark color was analyzed. There was a significant difference for the different parameters (P cupping mark color (P 30 min >20 min. The effect of pressure factor on cupping mark color was significant (P -0.06 MPa > -0.05 MPa > -0.04 MPa. The stimulation of 10 minutes and the pressure of -0.04 MPa produces a marked ecchymosis on the cupping site, getting darker and darker along with increase of the stimulation intensity; the effect of pressure factor on cupping mark color is the largest with a linear relationship, which can be expressed as Y (cupping skin color) = 2.025 + 0.902 x 100 x negative pressure absolute value (-MPa); while the effect of time factor on cupping mark color is more complicated, which is possibly related with the cupping site.

  1. 14 CFR 45.31 - Marking of export aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of export aircraft. 45.31 Section 45.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION AND REGISTRATION MARKING Nationality and Registration Marks § 45.31 Marking of export aircraft. A...

  2. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plainly marked as follows: (1) Each side of each lifeboat and rescue boat bow must be marked in block... marked on the stern of the vessel to meet the requirements of subpart 67.123 of this chapter. (2) The number of persons for which the boast is equipped must be clearly marked, preferably on the bow, in...

  3. 25 CFR 304.3 - Classifying and marking of silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.3 Classifying and marking of silver. For the present the Indian Arts and Crafts Board... Government mark. All such marking of silver shall, for the present, be done by an agent of the Indian Arts...

  4. 19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.45 Approved markings of country name. (a) Language. (1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(2) of... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approved markings of country name. 134.45 Section...

  5. Punctuation Marks Make a Difference in Translation: Practical Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogahed, Mogahed M.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the issue of using punctuation marks correctly. The misuse of punctuation marks affects meaning; therefore, it affects translation. As a result, the writer should pay more attention to punctuation marks and not to use them randomly. Simultaneously, the reader has to take care of the punctuation marks when interpreting a…

  6. 1L Mark-IV Target Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This presentation includes General Design Considerations; Current (Mark-III) Lower Tier; Mark-III Upper Tier; Performance Metrics; General Improvements for Material Science; General Improvements for Nuclear Science; Improving FOM for Nuclear Science; General Design Considerations Summary; Design Optimization Studies; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Material Science; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Nuclear Science (Disk); Mark IV Enables Much Wider Range of Nuclear-Science FOM Gains than Mark III; Mark-IV Performance Summary; Rod or Disk? Center or Real FOV?; and Project Cost and Schedule.

  7. Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Mobilization with Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide Chemotherapy versus Plerixafor-Based Strategies in Patients with Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Binod; Veltri, Lauren Westfall; Fenske, Timothy S; Eastwood, Daniel; Craig, Michael D; Cumpston, Aaron; Shillingburg, Alexandra; Esselman, Jean; Watkins, Kathy; Pasquini, Marcelo C; D'Souza, Anita; Hari, Parameswaran; Kanate, Abraham Sebastian; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Studies comparing the efficacy and safety of chemo-mobilization with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) ± rituximab with plerixafor-based approaches in lymphoma patients have not been performed. We analyzed hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization outcomes in lymphoma patients undergoing chemo-mobilization with ICE (n = 35) compared with either routine plerixafor (n = 30) or "just in time" (JIT) plerixafor-based mobilization (n = 33). Chemo-mobilization provided a significantly higher total CD34(+) cell yield (median collection, 5.35 × 10(6) cells/kg for ICE versus 3.15 × 10(6) cells/kg for routine plerixafor and 3.6 × 10(6) cells/kg for JIT plerixafor, P < .001). The median day 1 yield of CD34(+) cells was not significantly different (median, 2.2 × 10(6) cells/kg in ICE versus 1.9 × 10(6) cells/kg in upfront plerixafor versus 1.7 × 10(6) cells/kg in JIT plerixafor, P = .20). There was no significant difference in the 3 groups in terms of total number of apheresis sessions performed (median, 2 in each group; P = .78). There were no mobilization failures (inability to collect at least 2 × 10(6) cells/kg) in the chemo-mobilization group, whereas 5 patients (16.7%) in the routine plerixafor and 3 patients (9.1%) in JIT group had mobilization failure (P = .04). Mean time to neutrophil engraftment was faster in the chemo-mobilization group, 10.3 days (±1.2) compared with 12.1 days (±3.6) in the routine plerixafor group and 11.6 days (±3.0) in the JIT group (P < .001) and mean time to platelet engraftment was 13.7 days (±.7) in ICE versus 20.3 days (±1.6) in routine plerixafor versus 17.1 days (± .9) in JIT group (P < .001). Red blood cell transfusions were significantly higher in the chemo-mobilization group (34.3% versus 0 versus 3.2% versus 1, P < .001) and so were the platelet transfusions (22.9% versus 0 versus 0, P < .001). Excluding the cost of chemotherapy

  8. Epigenetic changes during sepsis: on your marks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Aurélien; Galichon, Pierre; Ziliotis, Marie-Julia; Sadia, Iman; Hertig, Alexandre

    2015-10-15

    Epigenetics is the study of how cells, organs, and even individuals utilize their genes over specific periods of time, and under specific environmental constraints. Very importantly, epigenetics is now expanding into the field of medicine and hence should provide new information for the development of drugs. Bomsztyk and colleagues have detected major epigenetic changes occurring in several organs as early as 6 h after the onset of a mouse model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome induced by Staphylococcus aureus lung injury. Decrease in mRNA of key genes involved in endothelial function was found to be associated with (and potentially explained by) a decrease in permissive histone marks, while repressive marks were unchanged. We discuss here the limitations of a whole-organ as opposed to a cell-specific approach, the nature of the controls that were chosen, and the pitfalls of histone modifications as a cause of the eventual phenotype. While the use of 'epidrugs' is definitely welcome in the clinic, how and when they will be used in sepsis-related multiple organ dysfunction will require further experimental studies.

  9. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  10. Mark 3 correlator hardware and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Mark 3 correlator system is described in some detail. The correlator system is based on a modular philosophy. Each correlator module independently processes the data from one track pair. Therefore, 28 modules are necessary to complete a full one baseline processor and 84 modules for a full 3 baseline processor. Each correlator module has two interfaces: (1) data and clock from each of the two tracks to be correlated and (2) Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) dataway interface to the computer. The processor is organized around the IEEE CAMAC standard architecture, housing 15 correlator modules in each of 6 crates. This allows one pass processing of a full 3 baseline 28 track observation or a 6 baseline (4 station) 14 track observation. The correlator architecture allows easy expansion for up to 8 stations. The computer system is an HP 1000 system utilizing a 16 bit minicomputer with disc and tape peripherals. The processing software is also organized in a modular fashion with many independent but cooperative programs controlling the operation of the Mark 3 processor. Processing time through the correlator is normally real time or faster, with graphics displays providing real time monitor and control of the processing operation.

  11. Sea lamprey mark type, marking rate, and parasite-host relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  12. Differential Signature of the Centrosomal MARK4 Isoforms in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Magnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4 is a serine-threonine kinase expressed in two spliced isoforms, MARK4L and MARK4S, of which MARK4L is a candidate for a role in neoplastic transformation. Methods: We performed mutation analysis to identify sequence alterations possibly affecting MARK4 expression. We then investigated the MARK4L and MARK4S expression profile in 21 glioma cell lines and 36 tissues of different malignancy grades, glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells (GBM CSCs and mouse neural stem cells (NSCs by real-time PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the sub-cellular localisation of MARK4 isoforms in glioma and normal cell lines by immunofluorescence. Results: Mutation analysis rules out sequence variations as the cause of the altered MARK4 expression in glioma. Expression profiling confirms that MARK4L is the predominant isoform, whereas MARK4S levels are significantly decreased in comparison and show an inverse correlation with tumour grade. A high MARK4L/MARK4S ratio also characterizes undifferentiated cells, such as GBM CSCs and NSCs. Accordingly, only MARK4L is expressed in brain neurogenic regions. Moreover, while both MARK4 isoforms are localised to the centrosome and midbody in glioma and normal cells, the L isoform exhibits an additional nucleolar localisation in tumour cells. Conclusions: The observed switch towards MARK4L suggests that the balance between the MARK4 isoforms is carefully guarded during neural differentiation but may be subverted in gliomagenesis. Moreover, the MARK4L nucleolar localisation in tumour cells features this MARK4 isoform as a nucleolus-associated tumour marker.

  13. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of......, the pelt during the growth phase of the winter coat will producemarks that can be recognized as bite marks at pelting, (2) bite marks applied experimentally by use of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social/aggressive interactions (bites)between mink are only visible if pressure/bite on the mink...... skin is applied during the activegrowth phase of the winter coat prior to time when matured, (3) bite marks will be easierto detect on dark mink than on mink with light coloured fur and (4) the number of bitemarks accumulates and increases with time mink are housed in groups. The experimentalmink were...

  14. An interview with Mark G. Hans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Mark G; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    It is a great honor to conduct an interview with Professor Mark G. Hans, after following his outstanding work ahead of the Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center and the Department of Orthodontics at the prestigious Case Western Reserve School of Dental Medicine (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Born in Berea, Ohio, Professor Mark Hans attended Yale University in New Haven, CT, and earned his Bachelor of Science Degree in Chemistry. Upon graduation, Dr. Hans received his DDS and Masters Degree of Science in Dentistry with specialty certification in Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University. During his education, Dr. Hans’ Master’s Thesis won the Harry Sicher Award for Best Research by an Orthodontic Student and being granted a Presidential Teaching Fellowship. As one of the youngest doctors ever certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, Dr. Hans continues to maintain his board certification. He has worked through academics on a variety of research interests, that includes the demographics of orthodontic practice, digital radiographic data, dental and craniofacial genetics, as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, with selected publications in these fields. One of his noteworthy contributions to the orthodontic literature came along with Dr. Donald Enlow on the pages of “Essentials of Facial Growth”, being reference on the study of craniofacial growth and development. Dr. Mark Hans’s academic career is linked to CWRU, recognized as the renowned birthplace of research on craniofacial growth and development, where the classic Bolton-Brush Growth Study was historically set. Today, Dr. Hans is the Director of The Bolton-Brush Growth Study Center, performing, with great skill and dedication, the handling of the larger longitudinal sample of bone growth study. He is Associate Dean for Graduate Studies, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Orthodontics, working in clinical and theoretical activities with students of the Undergraduate Course from the School of

  15. J/psi spectroscopy from Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, U.

    1987-02-01

    The Mark III detector at the SPEAR e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring at SLAC has accumulated a data sample of 5.8 x 10/sup 6/ J/psi produced. The status of the xi(2230) observed in the radiative J/psi decay is described. The status of the glueball candidates eta(1440) (iota(1440)) and f/sub 2/(1720) (theta(1720)) are probed with a systematic comparison between the radiative and the hadronic decays of J/psi. Finally, an understanding of quark correlations is attempted from a systematic study of the J/psi decaying into Vector-Pseudoscalar, Vector-Tensor and Vector-Scalar nonets.

  16. Teaching Mark through a postcolonial optic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the potential value of a postcolonial approach for teaching Mark’s gospel. Investigating a number of texts from the gospel, it asks to what extent a postcolonial optic implies a different approach to the gospel, what it adds and where challenges exist. Teaching with a postcolonial optic entails framing the gospel in its 1st-century imperial context and focusing on the ambivalence and ambiguity of imperial rule, investigating texts with attention to hybridity and mimicry in particular. Teaching the Gospel of Mark through a postcolonial optic opens up new possibilities for interpretation and contextualisation, but at the same time poses certain challenges, pedagogically and otherwise.

  17. Scent-marking by coyotes, Canis latrans: the influence of social and ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese; Ruff

    1997-11-01

    We observed 49 coyotes, Canis latransfrom five resident packs for 2456 h and five transient coyotes for 51 h from January 1991 to June 1993 in the Lamar River Valley, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, U.S.A. During these observations we recorded 3042 urinations, 451 defecations, 446 ground scratches and 743 double-marks. The rate of scent-marking (via urination) was influenced by the social organization (resident versus transient) to which the coyote belonged, the social class (alpha, beta or pup) of the animal and the time of the year. Transient coyotes scent-marked at a lower rate than did members of a resident pack. Within the resident packs, alpha coyotes scent-marked at a higher rate than beta coyotes (adults and yearlings subordinant to alphas, but dominant over pups) and pups. Alpha coyotes increased their rate of marking during the breeding season; beta and pup coyotes performed scent-marks at a relatively constant rate throughout the year. There was no influence of social class or time of year on the rate of defecation. The rate of double-marking was highest among alpha coyotes with a peak during the breeding season. Alpha coyotes ground-scratched at a higher rate than did beta and pup coyotes. Alpha and beta coyotes scent-marked more than expected along the periphery of the territory compared to the interior; pups marked in the interior and edge in proportion to expected frequencies. Double-marking and ground-scratching were higher than expected along the periphery of the territory. The distribution of defecations was not different from expected along the edge versus the interior of the territory. Pack size did not influence the rate of scent-marking performed by individuals in the pack or by the alpha pair. We concluded that alpha coyotes were the primary members of the resident pack involved in scent-marking. The large coyote packs and the high rate of marking by the alpha pairs were parallel to the scent-marking behaviour displayed by wolves, C

  18. Detection of Asymptomatic Cardiac Metastasis and Successful Salvage Chemotherapy Comprising a Prednisone, Etoposide, Procarbazine, and Cyclophosphamide Regimen in an Elderly Japanese Patient Suffering from a Delayed Recurrence of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Tagami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of facial diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL associated with recurrent metastasis in the heart and other sites in a 76-year-old Japanese woman. Initially, she developed DLBCL in her left upper eyelid that spread into the left orbit (Ann Arbor classification stage I. The lesion went into clinical regression after 4 cycles of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. More than 3 years later, the lymphoma recurred in her facial skin, together with metastases in the mediastinal lymph nodes and the heart; the tumor in the heart was successfully detected by PET/CT and cardiac MRI. To treat the recurrent lesions, we performed a salvage chemotherapy regimen comprising prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine, and cyclophosphamide, which successfully induced tumor regression.

  19. Handheld lasers allow efficient detection of fluorescent marked organisms in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin B; Fleischer, Shelby J; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C; Tooker, John F; Gish, Moshe

    2015-01-01

    Marking organisms with fluorescent dyes and powders is a common technique used in ecological field studies that monitor movement of organisms to examine life history traits, behaviors, and population dynamics. External fluorescent marking is relatively inexpensive and can be readily employed to quickly mark large numbers of individuals; however, the ability to detect marked organisms in the field at night has been hampered by the limited detection distances provided by portable fluorescent ultraviolet lamps. In recent years, significant advances in LED lamp and laser technology have led to development of powerful, low-cost ultraviolet light sources. In this study, we evaluate the potential of these new technologies to improve detection of fluorescent-marked organisms in the field and to create new possibilities for tracking marked organisms in visually challenging environments such as tree canopies and aquatic habitats. Using handheld lasers, we document a method that provides a fivefold increase in detection distance over previously available technologies. This method allows easy scouting of tree canopies (from the ground), as well as shallow aquatic systems. This novel detection method for fluorescent-marked organisms thus promises to significantly enhance the use of fluorescent marking as a non-destructive technique for tracking organisms in natural environments, facilitating field studies that aim to document otherwise inaccessible aspects of the movement, behavior, and population dynamics of study organisms, including species with significant economic impacts or relevance for ecology and human health.

  20. Pinnuks silmas - Mark Soosaar 60 / Mark Soosaar ; interv. Jüri Aarma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Mark Soosaare vastused olematutele küsimustele (J. Aarma küsimused vahelt ära võetud). Endast, oma uuest filmist "Vabatahtlikud" ja muust. Lisatud Sirje Niitra artikkel "Valutab südant" Soosaare muredest ja võitlustest seoses Pärnu linnaga

  1. MarkIT büroo = Offices of MarkIT

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 102C asuvas büroohoones paikneva MarkIT büroo sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Kard Männil (SAB Miu Miu Miu) ja Loreida Hein (Studio La), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Valge büroomööbel on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Graafika on sisearhitektid ise joonistanud

  2. Highly activated p53 contributes to selectively increased apoptosis of latently HIV-1 infected cells upon treatment of anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, YoungHyun; Lim, Hoyong; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Chang; Kang, Chun; Bae, Yong-Soo; Yoon, Cheol-Hee

    2016-08-16

    Despite the successful inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by combination antiretroviral therapy, cells latently infected with HIV-1 remaining in patients are a major obstacle for eradication of HIV-1 infection. The tumor suppressor factor p53 is activated by HIV-1 infection, and restricts HIV-1 replication. However, a therapeutic strategy based on p53 activity has not been considered for elimination of latently infected cells. Apoptotic cells were analyzed using flow cytometry with anti-annexin A5-FITC Ab and PI staining upon treatment of anticancer drugs. The expression and activation of p53 and apoptotic molecules in latently HIV-1-infected T cells were compared using Western blot analysis. The role of p53 in the anticancer drug treatment-induced apoptosis of cells latently infected with HIV-1 was determined by knock-down experiment using siRNA against p53. Upon treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), apoptosis was increased in latently infected ACH2 cells encoding competent p53 compared with uninfected parent A3.01 cells, while the apoptosis of latently infected p53 null J1.1 cells was less than that of uninfected cells. Treatment with 5-FU increased the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP in ACH2 cells compared with uninfected and latently infected p53 null J1.1 cells. The levels of expression and activation of p53 were higher in both latently infected ACH2 and NCHA2 cells than in uninfected cells. Furthermore, the activation levels of p53 in both cells were further increased upon 5-FU treatment. Consistent with p53 status, apoptosis was markedly increased in ACH2 and NCHA2 cells compared with uninfected and latently infected J1.1 cells upon treatment with other anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin and etoposide. Inhibition of p53 in cells with latent HIV-1 infection diminished apoptosis upon 5-FU treatment. Evidence described here indicate that when treated with anticancer drugs, apoptosis of cells with latent HIV-1 infection

  3. Synthesis of benefits and costs of alternative lane marking strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) currently uses snowplowable raised pavement markers (SRPMs) to supplement longitudinal pavement markings on some facilities. SRPMs are much more visible than traditional longitudinal markings under wet...

  4. 37 CFR 6.4 - Schedule for collective membership marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule for collective... Schedule for collective membership marks. All collective membership marks in applications based on sections... follows: Class Title 200 Collective Membership. ...

  5. 19 CFR 181.116 - Petition regarding adverse marking decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for NAFTA Review of Adverse Marking Decision” and shall be signed by the exporter, producer or his... other than the principal. (c) Content. The Petition for NAFTA Review of Adverse Marking Decision letter...

  6. Visual implant elastomer mark retention through metamorphosis in amphibian larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Grant, Evan H.

    2008-01-01

    Questions in population ecology require the study of marked animals, and marks are assumed to be permanent and not overlooked by observers. I evaluated retention through metamorphosis of visual implant elastomer marks in larval salamanders and frogs and assessed error in observer identification of these marks. I found 1) individual marks were not retained in larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica), whereas only small marks were likely to be retained in larval salamanders (Eurycea bislineata), and 2) observers did not always correctly identify marked animals. Evaluating the assumptions of marking protocols is important in the design phase of a study so that correct inference can be made about the population processes of interest. This guidance should be generally useful to the design of mark–recapture studies, with particular application to studies of larval amphibians.

  7. Analysis and identification of bite marks in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of bite marks plays an important role in personal identification in forensic casework. Bite marks can be recorded in violent crimes such as sexual offences, homicides, child abuse cases, and during sports events. The arrangement, size and alignment of human teeth are individualistic to each person. Teeth, acting as tools leave recognizable marks depending on tooth arrangement, malocclusion, habits, occupation, tooth fracture, and missing or extra teeth. Bite mark identification is based on the individuality of a dentition, which is used to match a bite mark to a suspect. Bite marks are often considered as valuable alternative to fingerprinting and DNA identification in forensic examinations. The present review describes the classification, characteristics, mechanism of production, and appearance of bite mark injuries, collection of evidence, comparison techniques, and technical aids in the analysis of the bite marks.

  8. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R.K. Gorea; O.P. Jasuja; Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman; Abhinav Gorea

    2014-01-01

    Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study c...

  9. Differential Object Marking, Case and Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ormazabal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present empirical evidence showing that Differential Object Marking (DOM  in Spanish is determined by structural conditions related to Case and agreement. We also argue that semantic concepts such as specificity, definiteness, animacy, or topicality, tightly connected to the presence or absence of A, must be parasitic on the syntactic configurations where DOM is licensed. We also present some consequences of our analysis for the general theory of agreement. We argue that the same structural relation is involved in all cases of DOM, as well as in Dative Clitic Constructions, where the presence of the particle A preceding clitic-doubled datives is syntactically unified with DOM phenomena. The accusative/dative distinction traditionally attributed to the Spanish pronominal system does not correspond, in synchronic terms, to different case relations, but distinguishes between agreeing and non-agreeing arguments. Similarly, the distribution of DOM corresponds to a Case-checked/Caseless difference. We extend the analysis to account for well-known restrictions on the co-appearance of two DOM arguments, which  are analyzed as the consequence of a competition between two arguments for a single target.

  10. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart.

  11. The Mark 3 data base handler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Schupler, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    A data base handler which would act to tie Mark 3 system programs together is discussed. The data base handler is written in FORTRAN and is implemented on the Hewlett-Packard 21MX and the IBM 360/91. The system design objectives were to (1) provide for an easily specified method of data interchange among programs, (2) provide for a high level of data integrity, (3) accommodate changing requirments, (4) promote program accountability, (5) provide a single source of program constants, and (6) provide a central point for data archiving. The system consists of two distinct parts: a set of files existing on disk packs and tapes; and a set of utility subroutines which allow users to access the information in these files. Users never directly read or write the files and need not know the details of how the data are formatted in the files. To the users, the storage medium is format free. A user does need to know something about the sequencing of his data in the files but nothing about data in which he has no interest.

  12. The History of Punctuation Marks in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анастасия Александровна Борзенкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the history of the evolution of punctuation marks in the Spanish language. Punctuation is one of the fundamental tools for the organization of written language. At the same time this system causes many difficulties in learning both in the mother tongue and in foreign language. Moreover, this aspect of the language system is often omitted in Russia. The authors of this article have the objective to show the stages in the development of punctuation, which emerged from the Greek interpunction and punctuation system in Latin, in the Spanish language. Basing its arguments on this assumption, the article also names the background of these changes (including extra-linguistic factors. The key moment in the history of the punctuation was the foundation of the Royal Spanish Academy that went into the codification of Spanish (Castilian language. As a result, the punctuation norm was for the first time ever fixed and described for the whole Spanish country. For the same reason a lot of attention in the article is paid to the detailed analysis of the Orthography of the Spanish language starting with the edition of 1741 and finishing with the edition of 2010. The authors are confident that this article will be interesting for language experts, translators, teachers and for those who want to take an exam of DELE of C1 and C2 levels.

  13. Who's Marking My Essay? The Assessment of Non-Native-Speaker and Native-Speaker Undergraduate Essays in an Australian Higher Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Sally Roisin; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Assessment is a crucial factor in higher education where marks gained can determine future study and career options. Increasing student numbers, and an increasing proportion of international students, raises concerns regarding marking practices, and whether the same criteria are used to mark both native-speaker (NS) and non-native-speaker (NNS)…

  14. 14 CFR 101.17 - Lighting and marking requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lighting and marking requirements. 101.17... BALLOONS Moored Balloons and Kites § 101.17 Lighting and marking requirements. (a) No person may operate a... FAA publication “Obstruction Marking and Lighting”. (b) No person may operate a moored balloon or kite...

  15. 47 CFR 73.1213 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 73..., marking and lighting. (a) The provisions of part 17 of this chapter (Construction, Marking, and Lighting... structure complies with applicable painting and lighting requirements. ...

  16. 14 CFR 139.311 - Marking, signs, and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking, signs, and lighting. 139.311... OF AIRPORTS Operations § 139.311 Marking, signs, and lighting. (a) Marking. Each certificate holder...) and (b)(1)(iii) of this section must be internally illuminated at each Class III airport. (c) Lighting...

  17. 47 CFR 74.30 - Antenna structure, marking and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure, marking and lighting. 74.30... Applicable to All Services in Part 74 § 74.30 Antenna structure, marking and lighting. The provisions of part 17 of the FCC rules (Construction, Marking, and Lighting of Antenna Structures) require certain...

  18. 9 CFR 316.13 - Marking of outside containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in § 325.7(b) of this subchapter. (f) The outside containers of glands and organs which are not used... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of outside containers. 316.13... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.13 Marking of outside containers. (a...

  19. 78 FR 20295 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...- marking Paint Committee, Forest Service, USDA, San Dimas Technology and Development Center, 444 East...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in...

  20. 77 FR 20612 - National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ..., National Tree-marking Paint Committee, Forest Service, USDA, San Dimas Technology and Development Center... Forest Service National Tree-Marking Paint Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Tree-Marking Paint Committee will meet in Flagstaff, Arizona on May...

  1. 33 CFR 401.14 - Anchor marking buoys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchor marking buoys. 401.14... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.14 Anchor marking buoys. A highly visible anchor marking buoy of a type approved by the Manager and the Corporation...

  2. 19 CFR 134.41 - Methods and manner of marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.41... example, it is suggested that the country of origin on metal articles be die sunk, molded in or etched; on... amended (19 U.S.C. 1304), requires that the marking of the country of origin be legible, indelible, and...

  3. 19 CFR 134.11 - Country of origin marking required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.11 Country of origin... English name of the country of origin of the article, at the time of importation into the Customs... of the country of origin of the article unless the container is also excepted from marking. ...

  4. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall: (a) Observe and respect original...

  5. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  6. The Nature of Object Marking in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokgoz, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the nature of object marking in American Sign Language (ASL). I investigate object marking by means of directionality (the movement of the verb towards a certain location in signing space) and by means of handling classifiers (certain handshapes accompanying the verb). I propose that object marking in ASL is…

  7. Survival and reproduction of radio-marked adult spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Foster; E.D. Forsman; E.C. Meslow; G.S. Miller; J.A. Reid; F.F. Wagner; A.B. Carey; J.B. Lint

    1992-01-01

    We compared survival, reproduction, and body mass of radio-marked and non radio-marked spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) to determine if backpack radios influenced reproduction or survival. In most study areas and years, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in survival of males and females or in survival of radio-marked versus banded owls. There...

  8. Marking for Structure using Boolean Feedback | Louw | Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence that marking student texts with well considered checklists is more effective than marking by hand. An experiment conducted on first-year students illustrated that the checklists developed to mark introductions, conclusions and paragraphs yielded better revision results than handwritten ...

  9. Marked Object Recognition Multitouch Screen Printed Touchpad for Interactive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivago Serrado Nunes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The market for interactive platforms is rapidly growing, and touchscreens have been incorporated in an increasing number of devices. Thus, the area of smart objects and devices is strongly increasing by adding interactive touch and multimedia content, leading to new uses and capabilities. In this work, a flexible screen printed sensor matrix is fabricated based on silver ink in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. Diamond shaped capacitive electrodes coupled with conventional capacitive reading electronics enables fabrication of a highly functional capacitive touchpad, and also allows for the identification of marked objects. For the latter, the capacitive signatures are identified by intersecting points and distances between them. Thus, this work demonstrates the applicability of a low cost method using royalty-free geometries and technologies for the development of flexible multitouch touchpads for the implementation of interactive and object recognition applications.

  10. Non-Invasive Genetic Mark-Recapture as a Means to Study Population Sizes and Marking Behaviour of the Elusive Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Simone; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Gruber, Bernd; Klenke, Reinhard; Henle, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying population status is a key objective in many ecological studies, but is often difficult to achieve for cryptic or elusive species. Here, non-invasive genetic capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods have become a very important tool to estimate population parameters, such as population size and sex ratio. The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) is such an elusive species of management concern and is increasingly studied using faecal-based genetic sampling. For unbiased sex ratios or population size estimates, the marking behaviour of otters has to be taken into account. Using 2132 otter faeces of a wild otter population in Upper Lusatia (Saxony, Germany) collected over six years (2006-2012), we studied the marking behaviour and applied closed population CMR models accounting for genetic misidentification to estimate population sizes and sex ratios. We detected a sex difference in the marking behaviour of otters with jelly samples being more often defecated by males and placed actively exposed on frequently used marking sites. Since jelly samples are of higher DNA quality, it is important to not only concentrate on this kind of samples or marking sites and to invest in sufficiently high numbers of repetitions of non-jelly samples to ensure an unbiased sex ratio. Furthermore, otters seemed to increase marking intensity due to the handling of their spraints, hence accounting for this behavioural response could be important. We provided the first precise population size estimate with confidence intervals for Upper Lusatia (for 2012: N = 20 ± 2.1, 95% CI = 16-25) and showed that spraint densities are not a reliable index for abundances. We further demonstrated that when minks live in sympatry with otters and have comparably high densities, a non-negligible number of supposed otter samples are actually of mink origin. This could severely bias results of otter monitoring if samples are not genetically identified.

  11. Mark Leonard : EL ei peakski olema suurvõim / Mark Leonard ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leonard, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevdirektoriga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA ja Euroopa suhteid, Euroopa Liidu välispoliitikat, Venemaa ja Euroopa Liidu suhteid pärast Gruusia konflikti. Ta peab murettekitavaks, et Venemaa üritab takistada euroopalike väärtuste levitamist oma naaberriikides. Vt. samas: Mark Leonard. Ilmunud ka Sirp : Diplomaatia 14. nov. nr. 11 lk. 13-14

  12. Marked point processes for enhancing seismic fault patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, Keresztes; Szirányi, Tamás; Borda, Monica; Lavialle, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we present a new method for fault extraction in seismic blocks, using marked point processes. Our goal is to increase the detection accuracy of the state of the art fault attributes by computing them on a system of objects based on an a priori knowledge about the faults. An original curved support has been developed to describe the faults in vertical sections of the seismic blocks. The results are compared with the previous models used for linear network extraction, such as the Candy model. Synthetic blocks were used to compare the results obtained thanks to the point processes with the classical attributes. To segment the whole blocks, a multi-2D approach was used. Several modifications of the algorithm were necessary in order to make the results easier to interpret for geologists. One interest of the high-level approach offered by the marked point processes is the possibility of using the objects as a common support for various fault detection operators. A whole detection framework can be proposed which acts like a decision fusion process.

  13. 9 CFR 317.10 - Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers bearing official marks, labels, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers bearing official marks, labels, etc. 317.10 Section 317.10 Animals and Animal... DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.10 Reuse of official inspection marks; reuse of containers bearing...

  14. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  15. Hidden Markov model for dependent mark loss and survival estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laake, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Devin S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Ternent, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Mark-recapture estimators assume no loss of marks to provide unbiased estimates of population parameters. We describe a hidden Markov model (HMM) framework that integrates a mark loss model with a Cormack–Jolly–Seber model for survival estimation. Mark loss can be estimated with single-marked animals as long as a sub-sample of animals has a permanent mark. Double-marking provides an estimate of mark loss assuming independence but dependence can be modeled with a permanently marked sub-sample. We use a log-linear approach to include covariates for mark loss and dependence which is more flexible than existing published methods for integrated models. The HMM approach is demonstrated with a dataset of black bears (Ursus americanus) with two ear tags and a subset of which were permanently marked with tattoos. The data were analyzed with and without the tattoo. Dropping the tattoos resulted in estimates of survival that were reduced by 0.005–0.035 due to tag loss dependence that could not be modeled. We also analyzed the data with and without the tattoo using a single tag. By not using.

  16. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  17. Teacher Correction versus Peer-Marking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourente Miguel Mariana Correia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Written language is undoubtedly more often used than oral language in a variety of contexts, including both the professional and academic life. Consequently, developing strategies for correcting compositions and improving students’ written production is of vital importance. This article describes an experiment aimed at assessing the two most widely used methods of correction for compositions –traditional teacher correction and peer marking and their effect on the frequency of errors. Data was collected by asking students to write and revise a text. Statistical tests were performed to analyse it. At the end of the experiment, it was found that no significant difference in efficiency existed between the two methods, contradicting expectations (cf. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 and Ward, 2001. Key words: English-Teaching, Foreign Language-Teaching Writing, Evaluation, Assessment El lenguaje escrito es sin duda usado con más frecuencia que el lenguaje oral en una variedad de situaciones o contextos, incluyendo tanto la vida profesional como la académica. En consecuencia, el desarrollo de estrategias para corregir composiciones y mejorar la producción escrita de los estudiantes es de suma importancia. Este artículo describe un experimento cuyo objetivo es evaluar los dos métodos más usados para la corrección de composiciones, la corrección tradicional por el maestro y la corrección por revisión de pares, con respecto a su efecto en la frecuencia de errores. Se recogió información haciendo que estudiantes escribieran y revisaran un texto y sobre esos textos se aplicaron pruebas estadísticas para analizar los errores. Contrario a lo esperado, al final del experimento, no se encontró ninguna diferencia significativa entre los resultados encontrados por los dos métodos, (cfr. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 y Ward, 2001. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza, Idioma Extranjero-Enseñanza, Composición, Evaluación

  18. Unequal Probability Marking Approach to Enhance Security of Traceback Scheme in Tree-Based WSNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changqin; Ma, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Zuo, Zhengbang

    2017-01-01

    Fog (from core to edge) computing is a newly emerging computing platform, which utilizes a large number of network devices at the edge of a network to provide ubiquitous computing, thus having great development potential. However, the issue of security poses an important challenge for fog computing. In particular, the Internet of Things (IoT) that constitutes the fog computing platform is crucial for preserving the security of a huge number of wireless sensors, which are vulnerable to attack. In this paper, a new unequal probability marking approach is proposed to enhance the security performance of logging and migration traceback (LM) schemes in tree-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main contribution of this paper is to overcome the deficiency of the LM scheme that has a higher network lifetime and large storage space. In the unequal probability marking logging and migration (UPLM) scheme of this paper, different marking probabilities are adopted for different nodes according to their distances to the sink. A large marking probability is assigned to nodes in remote areas (areas at a long distance from the sink), while a small marking probability is applied to nodes in nearby area (areas at a short distance from the sink). This reduces the consumption of storage and energy in addition to enhancing the security performance, lifetime, and storage capacity. Marking information will be migrated to nodes at a longer distance from the sink for increasing the amount of stored marking information, thus enhancing the security performance in the process of migration. The experimental simulation shows that for general tree-based WSNs, the UPLM scheme proposed in this paper can store 1.12–1.28 times the amount of stored marking information that the equal probability marking approach achieves, and has 1.15–1.26 times the storage utilization efficiency compared with other schemes. PMID:28629135

  19. The utility of harvest recoveries of marked individuals to assess polar bear (Ursus maritimus) survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Laake, Jeff; Laidre, Kristin L.; Born, Erik W.; Atkinson, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    Management of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations requires the periodic assessment of life history metrics such as survival rate. This information is frequently obtained during short-term capture and marking efforts (e.g., over the course of three years) that result in hundreds of marked bears remaining in the population after active marking is finished. Using 10 additional years of harvest recovery subsequent to a period of active marking, we provide updated estimates of annual survival for polar bears in the Baffin Bay population of Greenland and Canada. Our analysis suggests a decline in survival of polar bears since the period of active marking that ended in 1997; some of the decline in survival can likely be attributed to a decline in springtime ice concentration over the continental shelf of Baffin Island. The variance around the survival estimates is comparatively high because of the declining number of marks available; therefore, results must be interpreted with caution. The variance of the estimates of survival increased most substantially in the sixth year post-marking. When survival estimates calculated with recovery-only and recapture-recovery data sets from the period of active marking were compared, survival rates were indistinguishable. However, for the period when fewer marks were available, survival estimates were lower using the recovery-only data set, which indicates that part of the decline we detected for 2003 – 09 may be due to using only harvest recovery data. Nevertheless, the decline in the estimates of survival is consistent with population projections derived from harvest numbers and earlier vital rates, as well as with an observed decline in the extent of sea ice habitat.

  20. Unequal Probability Marking Approach to Enhance Security of Traceback Scheme in Tree-Based WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changqin; Ma, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Zuo, Zhengbang

    2017-06-17

    Fog (from core to edge) computing is a newly emerging computing platform, which utilizes a large number of network devices at the edge of a network to provide ubiquitous computing, thus having great development potential. However, the issue of security poses an important challenge for fog computing. In particular, the Internet of Things (IoT) that constitutes the fog computing platform is crucial for preserving the security of a huge number of wireless sensors, which are vulnerable to attack. In this paper, a new unequal probability marking approach is proposed to enhance the security performance of logging and migration traceback (LM) schemes in tree-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main contribution of this paper is to overcome the deficiency of the LM scheme that has a higher network lifetime and large storage space. In the unequal probability marking logging and migration (UPLM) scheme of this paper, different marking probabilities are adopted for different nodes according to their distances to the sink. A large marking probability is assigned to nodes in remote areas (areas at a long distance from the sink), while a small marking probability is applied to nodes in nearby area (areas at a short distance from the sink). This reduces the consumption of storage and energy in addition to enhancing the security performance, lifetime, and storage capacity. Marking information will be migrated to nodes at a longer distance from the sink for increasing the amount of stored marking information, thus enhancing the security performance in the process of migration. The experimental simulation shows that for general tree-based WSNs, the UPLM scheme proposed in this paper can store 1.12-1.28 times the amount of stored marking information that the equal probability marking approach achieves, and has 1.15-1.26 times the storage utilization efficiency compared with other schemes.

  1. Effect of oscillation-mark formation on the surface quality of continuously cast steel slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, E.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1985-09-01

    In a study of early solidification during the continuous casting of steel slabs, the effect of the formation of oscillation marks on the surface quality of the slabs has been examined by metallographic in-vestigation of slab samples and by performing a set of mathematical analyses. Positive segregation of solute elements, especially phosphorus and manganese, has been observed at the bottom of the oscillation marks and has been classified into two categories. One type is observed at the end of the overflow region on subsurface hooks which originate from partial solidification of the meniscus. A heat-flow model which takes into account the shape of the oscillation marks has revealed that this type of positive segregation is caused by local delay of solidification at the bottom of the oscillation marks. The other type of positive segregation has been found in a layer on the bottom of the oscillation marks without subsurface hooks. This form of segregation cannot be explained by the heat-flow model, but is likely due to a penetration mechanism in which the negative pressure in the flux channel generated during the upward motion of the mold draws out interdendritic liquid from the semi-solidified shell. Transverse cracks are found along the bottom of oscillation marks. The surface of the transverse cracks exhibits an interdendritic appearance in the vicinity of the slab surface, which implies that the cracks are initiated as hot tears in the mold region. A heat-flow analysis predicts that deep oscillation marks cause nonuniformity of the shell in the mold, which also was observed in the metallographic in-vestigation. According to the heat-flow analysis, not only the depth but also the pitch of the oscillation marks affects the shell profile. Therefore increasing the frequency of mold oscillation effectively reduces transverse cracks, by decreasing both the depth and the pitch of oscillation marks.

  2. Feather pecking in growers: a study with individually marked birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wechsler, B; Huber-Eicher, B; Nash, David Richard

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether individual birds specialise in feather pecking. Growers were individually marked and reared in groups of 30 or 31 in pens with a slatted floor. At an age of 4 to 6 weeks feather pecking was frequent in all pens. 2. On average 83% of all...... group members (10 groups, experiment 1) were recorded at least once as initiator of a feather pecking interaction. In each group 2 to 6 individuals feather pecked more than twice as often as the average for the group, and were defined as 'high rate peckers'. They initiated 39% of all recorded feather...... pecking interactions. 3. Every interaction was classified (with increasing intensity) as pecking, pinching, pulling or plucking. Compared to the others, 'high rate peckers' had more of their feather pecking classified as plucking and less classified as pecking. 4. There was no evidence that particular...

  3. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  4. Comparison of Native Escherichia Coli L-Asparaginase Versus Pegylated Asparaginase, in Combination with Ifosfamide, Methotrexate, Etoposide, and Prednisolone (IMEP), in Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type (NTCL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jee; Ock, Chan-Young; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Sung Hee; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Jung, Sun Hoi; Cho, Yoon Sook; Kim, Miso; Keam, Bhumsuk; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kim, Il Han; Heo, Dae Seog

    2017-07-03

    The aim of this study was to compare asparaginase-related toxicities in two asparaginase preparations, namely native Escherichia coli (E. coli) L-asparaginase (L-ASP) and pegylated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) in combination with ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) in NK/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL). A total of 41 NTCL patients who received IMEP plus native E. coli L-ASP or PEG-ASP at Seoul National University Hospital were included in this study between January 2013 and March 2016. IMEP/ASP treatment consisted of ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, plus native E. coli L-ASP (6000 IU/m2 on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) or PEG-ASP (2500 IU/m2 on day 1) every 3 weeks. ASP-related toxicities, toxicity patterns, length of hospital stay and clinical outcomes were compared between the different treatment groups. The frequency of ASP-related toxicities was similar between the IMEP plus native E. coli L-ASP group and the PEG-ASP group apart from hypofibrinogenemia (native E. coli L-ASP vs. PEG-ASP group, 86.4% vs. 36.8%, p=0.001). Although post-treatment transaminase and albumin levels were significantly high and low, respectively, hepatotoxicity gradients before and after treatment did not differ significantly between the groups. Since PEG-ASP was given at an outpatient clinic in some patients, length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the IMEP plus PEG-ASP group (median 4.0 vs. 6.0 days, p=0.002). A favorable tendency of clinical outcomes was observed in NTCL patients treated with IMEP plus PEG-ASP (complete remission rate, 73.7% vs. 45.5%, p=0.067). IMEP plus PEG-ASP showed similar ASP-related toxicities, shorter length of hospital stay, and a trend towards improved clinical outcomes compared with IMEP plus native E. coli L-ASP in NTCL.

  5. A mark that is no mark? Queer women and violence in HIV discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Gibson, Margaret F

    2013-01-01

    Lesbian, bisexual and queer women are invisible and ignored in HIV discourse, as epidemiological classifications result in their institutionalised exclusion from risk categories. Simultaneously, these women live with HIV, often in situations of societal exclusion and under threat of violence. In this paper, we consider the connections between discourse and violence to examine how both are reproduced through, applied to and dependent upon people. The ways lesbian, bisexual and queer women do (or do not) appear in HIV discourse tells us much about how people and categories operate in the global pandemic. The fault-lines of lesbian, bisexual and queer women's constrained visibility in HIV discourse can be seen in situations where they are exposed to HIV transmission through homophobic sexual assault. In dominant HIV discursive practices, such homophobic assault leaves Judith Butler's 'mark that is no mark', recording neither its violence nor its 'non-heterosexuality'. Structural violence theory offers a means to understand direct and indirect violence as it pertains to HIV and lesbian, bisexual and queer women. We call for forms of modified structural violence theory that better attend to the ways in which discourse connects with material realities. Our theoretical and epidemiological lens must be broadened to examine how anti-lesbian, bisexual and queer-women bias affects transnational understandings of human worth.

  6. Caspase activation increases beta-amyloid generation independently of caspase cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesco, Giuseppina; Koh, Young Ho; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2003-11-14

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes "alternative" proteolysis mediated by caspases. Three major caspase recognition sites have been identified in the APP, i.e. one at the C terminus (Asp720) and two at the N terminus (Asp197 and Asp219). Caspase cleavage at Asp720 has been suggested as leading to increased production of Abeta. Thus, we set out to determine which putative caspase sites in APP, if any, are cleaved in Chinese hamster ovary cell lines concurrently with the increased Abeta production that occurs during apoptosis. We found that cleavage at Asp720 occurred concurrently with caspase 3 activation and the increased production of total secreted Abeta and Abeta1-42 in association with staurosporine- and etoposide-induced apoptosis. To investigate the contribution of caspase cleavage of APP to Abeta generation, we expressed an APP mutant truncated at Asp720 that mimics APP caspase cleavage at the C-terminal site. This did not increase Abeta generation but, in contrast, dramatically decreased Abeta production in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Furthermore, the ablation of caspase-dependent cleavage at Asp720, Asp197, and Asp219 (by site-directed mutagenesis) did not prevent enhanced Abeta production following etoposide-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that the enhanced Abeta generation associated with apoptosis does not require cleavage of APP at its C-terminal (Asp720) and/or N-terminal caspase sites.

  7. Pavement Marking Visibility Requirements During Wet Night Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Ronald B. (Ronald Bruce)

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of pavement markings in wet night conditions. Typically, performance will decrease in wet conditions. The degradation is a result of flooding of the marking optics and a change in the optical media, thereby reducing retroreflectivity and the visibility distance. Several technologies are available to improve the visibility of markings under wet conditions. This study used four technologies and evaluated them in a dynamic situation. In the experiment, veh...

  8. 46 CFR 78.50-15 - Load line marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Load line marks. 78.50-15 Section 78.50-15 Shipping... Vessels § 78.50-15 Load line marks. (a) Vessels assigned a load line shall have the deck line and the load line marks permanently scribed or embossed as required by subchapter E (Load Lines) of this chapter. (b) ...

  9. A general review of bite-mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J

    1981-03-01

    Bite-mark evidence has been used as an aid in the identification of criminals in many instances. The author, a forensic odontologist in Liverpool, England, during his lifetime, personally investigated the cases presented which include instances of rape and battery. It is shown how perpetrators of violent injuries were detected from bite marks on the victim or the perpetrator, or on foodstuffs found at the scene of the crime, when the marks were compared to dental impressions taken subsequently.

  10. Recognition of bite marks in child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, S A

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals must be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. Bite marks are one of several visual expressions of active child abuse. The efforts of forensic odontologists, in conjunction with recent technical advancements in bite mark analysis, support the uniqueness of the human dentition and have contributed to the conviction of numerous child abusers. Through recognition, proper documentation, and reporting dentists can help the forensic community use bite marks to solve cases of child maltreatment.

  11. Research on laser marking speed optimization by using genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongyun; Yu, Qiwei; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Laser Marking Machine is the most common coding equipment on product packaging lines. However, the speed of laser marking has become a bottleneck of production. In order to remove this bottleneck, a new method based on a genetic algorithm is designed. On the basis of this algorithm, a controller was designed and simulations and experiments were performed. The results show that using this algorithm could effectively improve laser marking efficiency by 25%.

  12. Moves for standard skeleta of 3-manifolds with marked boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Amendola, Gennaro

    2008-01-01

    We prove that the classical set of moves for standard spines of 3-manifolds (i.e. the MP-move and the V-move) does not suffice to relate to each other any two standard skeleta of a 3-manifold with marked boundary. We also describe a condition on the 3-manifold with marked boundary that tells whether the generalised set of moves, made up of the MP-move and the L-move, suffices to relate to each other any two standard skeleta of the 3-manifold with marked boundary. For the 3-manifolds with mark...

  13. Acquired body marks: A mode of identification in Forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Monika; Mondal, P R

    2017-11-01

    Each individual regardless of sex, age and caste has a particular identification mark present on their body. This study is mainly an attempt to understand the distribution pattern of different types of acquired body marks present on the body which can be used as a marker for individual identification in Forensics. Data was collected by means of observation, interview schedule and interviews from 160 individuals of 6 multi-caste villages of Udaipur in Rajasthan, India. A wide variation was observed in the distribution patterns of various acquired body marks. Scars were the most prevalent (87.5%) followed by body piercing (66%), occupational marks (38.5%), tattoo marks (27.5%) and body deformity (5%). There is a strong association between sex of an individual and presence of tattoo and occupational marks. Type of occupation is associated with the presence of scar and occupational marks. Age also has its influence on the presence and type of - tattoo and occupational marks. This wide variation in the distribution of acquired body marks based on sex, age, educational status, occupation, religion etc. of an individual need to be considered and included as a method of identification of unknown in Forensic Science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Feature extraction of the wafer probe marks in IC packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chia-Te; Kao, Chen-Ting; Wang, Chau-Shing

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an image processing approach to extract six features of the probe mark on semiconductor wafer pads. The electrical characteristics of the chip pad must be tested using a probing needle before wire-bonding to the wafer. However, this test leaves probe marks on the pad. A large probe mark area results in poor adhesion forces at the bond ball of the pad, thus leading to undesirable products. In this paper, we present a method to extract six features of the wafer probe marks in IC packaging for further digital image processing.

  15. Acquaintance of bite mark identification procedures in Forensic Odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Yuti Malinda; Dewi Zakiawati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bite mark analysis casework strives to connect a biter to the teeth pattern present on the object linked in some way to crime or event. This analysis requiring an immediate response by the forensic odontologist since the marks fade rapidly in the living and the dead in a matter of hours. The aim of this article is to help the dentist to know and understand the procedures of bite mark identification in forensic odontology field. Literature review: Bite marks may be present th...

  16. Cavernous hemangioma presenting marked hyperostosis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobata, Hitoshi; Miyake, Hiroji; Kitamura, Junji; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Ohta, Tomio

    1988-02-01

    The authors report here a case of hemangioma of the left parietal bone which presented headache and papilledema. This patient is a 37-year-old female who had, prior to admission, complained of increasing headache for one year and blurred vision for three months. She had no history of head injury. Local physical examinations revealed a slight bulging in her left parietal region which was insensitive to palpation and not adherent to the overlying scalp. Neurological examinations revealed bilateral papilledema and an incongruous bitemporal upper quadrant defect in the visual field. All the other neurological and laboratory data were normal. A plain skull roentogenogram showed a 9 x 9 cm osteolytic and characteristic honeycomb lesion in the parietal region. Systemic bone survey revealed a similar lesion in the right tibia which was not histologically examined. A marked accumulation of isotopes was detected on the bone scintigrams at both lesions. Selective external carotid angiograms demonstrated a tumor stain fed by the superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningial arteries. CT scans of the brain and skull clearly showed a local thickening of and structural changes in the skull bone and also a mass effect on the brain and lateral ventricle. The lesioned bone was removed en bloc and replaced by an artificial bone. It was highly vascular, but not adherent to the overlying dura. The post-operative course was uneventful, and the headache and papilledema disappeared. Hemangioma of the skull presenting marked hyperostosis, as reported above, seems to be rare. In addition, in this case, skeletal angioma without any clinical manifestation was detected. Clinical and radiological pictures of the hemangioma of the skull and other bones were briefly discussed.

  17. DRAWING FOR TRAFFIC MARKING USING BIDIRECTIONAL GRADIENT-BASED DETECTION WITH MMS LIDAR INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014. The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  18. Drawing for Traffic Marking Using Bidirectional Gradient-Based Detection with MMS LIDAR Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, G.; Takeda, H.; Nakamura, K.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014). The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  19. Marking the Moral Boundaries of Class

    OpenAIRE

    John Kirk

    2006-01-01

    This article welcomes the recent renewed interest in the topic of class within sociology and cultural studies. This comes after a long period – from around the middle part of the 1980s and into the 1990s – during which social class was dismissed as a mode of understanding socio-economic and cultural conditions on the part of both academics and mainstream political organisations alike. Working-class formations in particular came under scrutiny, increasingly seen to be in terminal decline a...

  20. PushMenu: Extending Marking Menus for Pressure-Enabled Input Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Huot, Stéphane; Nancel, Mathieu; Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel

    2008-01-01

    4 pages; Several approaches have been proposed to increase the breadth of standard Marking Menus over the 8 item limit, most of which have focused on the use of the standard 2D input space (x-y). We present Push Menu, an extension of Marking Menu that takes advantage of pressure input as a third input dimension to increase menu breadth. We present the results of a preliminary experiment that validates our design and shows that Push Menu users who are neither familiar with pen-based interfaces...

  1. Ülar Mark: loome uut ja iga loomisega lammutame midagi / Ülar Mark ; intervjueerinud Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektuurikeskuse juhatuse esimees, arhitekt Ülar Mark Tallinna arhitektuurist ja linna arengust, demokraatlikust linnaruumist. Pikemalt Solarise keskusest, vabadussambast, väikepoodide asemele suurte kaubanduskeskuste tulekust

  2. Markedly increased serum and urinary fructose concentrations in diabetic patients with ketoacidosis or ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takahiro; Igarashi, Kanji; Ogata, Nobuyuki; Oka, Yoko; Ichiyanagi, Kaoru; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu

    2012-04-01

    To investigate fructose concentrations in diabetic patients with ketoacidosis or ketosis, serum fructose concentrations and daily urinary fructose excretion were measured in 23 patients with ketoacidosis (n = 16) and ketosis (n = 7) on the first day of admission. Seventeen patients were diagnosed with type 1, one patient with mitochondrial, and 4 patients with atypical diabetes. In 16 of the 23 patients, serum and urinary fructose could be assessed after starting treatments. Mean serum fructose concentration was 71.6 ± 108.1 μmol/l, and mean daily urinary fructose excretion was 352.1 ± 473.7 μmol/day. Serum fructose levels in patients with atypical diabetes were much higher (205.0 ± 213.3 μmol/l) than those in patients with type 1 diabetes (45.1 ± 44.5 μmol/l), while urinary fructose levels in atypical diabetes (249.7 ± 92.4 μmol/day) tended to be lower than those in type 1 diabetes (382.6 ± 533.2 μmol/day). Serum fructose concentrations decreased significantly (P ketosis.

  3. Maaväline lind Mark Raidpere / Fagira D. Morti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fagira D. Morti, pseud., 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Soome Vabariigi president Tarja Halonen andis 28. veebruaril 2009. aastal Kumu Kunstimuuseumis videokunstnik Mark Raidperele üle Ars Fennica kunstipreemia. Meenutusi kunstniku EHI-s õppimise ajast, esimese näituse "Ilo" avamisest Vaal galeriis. Mark Raidpere loomingu mõistmisest

  4. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark Adapted from the NCI Cancer ... this page included, e.g., “For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark was originally published by the ...

  5. 15 CFR 16.10 - The Department of Commerce Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Department of Commerce Mark. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.10 The Department of Commerce Mark. The Department of...

  6. Mark's story as oral traditional literature: Rethinking the transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interpretation of Mark's gospel is inextricably linked to a conception of the gospel's genesis. By basing his argument on an aspect of the 'oral formulaic theory' the author of this paper argues that Mark's gospel can be seen as an example of oral traditional composition. The primary asset of this perspective is that it ...

  7. Differential Object Marking in Child and Adult Spanish Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Sanchez-Walker, Noelia

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of two studies that investigate the factors contributing to non-native-like ability in child and adult heritage speakers by focusing on oral production of Differential Object Marking (DOM), the overt morphological marking of animate direct objects in Spanish. In study 1, 39 school-age bilingual children (ages 6-17) from the…

  8. 7 CFR 319.37-10 - Marking and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and identity. 319.37-10 Section 319.37-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-10 Marking and identity. (a) Any restricted article for...

  9. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.184 Distilled spirits container marks. All...

  10. The Ambiguity of Musical Expression Marks and the Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ambiguity of Musical Expression Marks and the Challenges of Teaching and Learning Keyboard Instruments: The Nnamdi Azikiwe University Experience. ... the fact that some of the performance marks demand subjective expressions from the performer such as, 'furiously', 'fiercely' 'with agitation' 'brightly', tenderly, etc.

  11. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Optimal setting up of injection molding process variables plays a very important role in controlling the quality of the injection molded products. It is all the most important to control attribute defects like sink marks. Sink marks are basically a “designed in” problem and hence it is to be attended during designs stages.

  12. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial number...

  13. Multi-Disciplinary Peer-Mark Moderation of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmot, Peter; Pond, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Self and peer assessment offers benefits for enhancing student learning. Peer moderation provides a convenient solution for awarding individual marks in group assignments. This paper provides a significant review of peer-mark moderation, and describes an award winning, web-based tool that was developed in the UK and is now spreading across the…

  14. 37 CFR 2.37 - Description of mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of mark. 2.37 Section 2.37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.37 Description of mark. A...

  15. 32 CFR 2400.16 - Derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification markings. 2400.16... SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.16 Derivative classification markings. (a) Documents..., as described in § 2400.12 of this part, the information may not be used as a basis for derivative...

  16. The Evidentiary Value of Bite Mark Analysis in Criminal Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail H. Al-Amad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the comparison between a bite mark injury and a suspect’s teeth was considered evidence linking the suspect to the victim. However, in recent years, many convictions were re-assessed by a legal initiative in the United States called the “Innocence Project”. The outcome of this project was the exoneration of many wrongfully convicted inmates. Some of those exonerations were of prisoners who had been convicted based on bite mark evidence. Consequently, the admissibility and evidentiary value of bite mark evidence came under profound scrutiny. On the other hand, proponents of bite mark evidence advocate the use of bite mark evidence in courts as an evidence of approximation, rather than conclusion. This paper will discuss the genesis and history of bite mark evidence, as well as the modern analysis of bite marks that is based on metric and non-metric digital assessment. The evidentiary value of bite  marks and the weight they should carry in today’s courts will be discussed.

  17. 27 CFR 19.612 - Authorized abbreviations to identify marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks... which are authorized in this part for use in marking containers, the following abbreviations may be used... Stamps DSS Gallon or Wine Gallon WG Gross Weight G Proof P Specially Denatured: Alcohol SDA Rum SDR Tare...

  18. Examining Negative Attitudes toward Onscreen Marking in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coniam, David

    2009-01-01

    This article details an investigation into onscreen marking (OSM) in Hong Kong--where paper-based marking (PBM) is being phased out, to be completely superseded by OSM. It is a specific follow-up to a larger study (Coniam, 2009a) involving 30 raters who had previously rated English language essay scripts on screen in the 2007 Hong Kong Certificate…

  19. 19 CFR 10.58 - Bolting cloths; marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolting cloths; marking. 10.58 Section 10.58... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Bolting Cloths § 10.58 Bolting cloths; marking. (a) As a prerequisite to the free entry of bolting cloth for milling...

  20. 77 FR 10533 - Stephen L. Marks: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Stephen L. Marks from providing services in any capacity to a person that has an approved or pending drug product application. We... relating to the regulation of a drug product under the FD&C Act. Mr. Marks was given notice of the proposed...

  1. Tone sandhi, prosodic phrasing, and focus marking in Wenzhou Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, Franziska

    2012-01-01

    In most languages, focus (i.e. highlighting information) is marked by modifying the melody of the sentence. But how is focus marked in a Chinese dialect with eight different citation tones and a complex tonal phonology? This thesis investigates the connection between tonal realization and tone

  2. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  3. 49 CFR 221.13 - Marking device display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking device display. 221.13 Section 221.13... § 221.13 Marking device display. (a) During the periods prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section... with, (2) display on the trailing end of the rear car of that train, and (3) continuously illuminate or...

  4. Roles, and establishment, maintenance and erasing of the epigenetic cytosine methylation marks in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Kumari, Renu; Sharma, Vishakha; Sharma, Vinay

    2013-12-01

    Heritable information in plants consists of genomic information in DNA sequence and epigenetic information superimposed on DNA sequence. The latter is in the form of cytosine methylation at CG, CHG and CHH elements (where H = A, T orC) and a variety of histone modifications in nucleosomes. The epialleles arising from cytosine methylation marks on the nuclear genomic loci have better heritability than the epiallelic variation due to chromatin marks. Phenotypic variation is increased manifold by epiallele comprised methylomes. Plants (angiosperms) have highly conserved genetic mechanisms to establish, maintain or erase cytosine methylation from epialleles. The methylation marks in plants fluctuate according to the cell/tissue/organ in the vegetative and reproductive phases of plant life cycle. They also change according to environment. Epialleles arise by gain or loss of cytosine methylation marks on genes. The changes occur due to the imperfection of the processes that establish and maintain the marks and on account of spontaneous and stress imposed removal of marks. Cytosine methylation pattern acquired in response to abiotic or biotic stress is often inherited over one to several subsequent generations.Cytosine methylation marks affect physiological functions of plants via their effect(s) on gene expression levels. They also repress transposable elements that are abundantly present in plant genomes. The density of their distribution along chromosome lengths affects meiotic recombination rate, while their removal increases mutation rate. Transposon activation due to loss of methylation causes rearrangements such that new gene regulatory networks arise and genes for microRNAs may originate. Cytosine methylation dynamics contribute to evolutionary changes. This review presents and discusses the available evidence on origin, removal and roles of cytosine methylation and on related processes, such as RNA directed DNA methylation, imprinting, paramutation and

  5. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  6. An innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism using computer vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic quality acceptance for road marking works has been relied on subjective visual examination. Due to a lack of quantitative operation procedures, acceptance outcome can be biased and results in great quality variation. To improve aesthetic quality acceptance procedure of road marking, we develop an innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism, utilizing machine vision technologies. Using edge smoothness as a quantitative aesthetic indicator, the proposed prototype system first receives digital images of finished road marking surface and has the images processed and analyzed to capture the geometric characteristics of the marking. The geometric characteristics are then evaluated to determine the quality level of the finished work. System is demonstrated through two real cases to show how it works. In the end, a test comparing the assessment results between the proposed system and expert inspection is conducted to enhance the accountability of the proposed mechanism.

  7. Evaluation and treatment of patients with human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M H; Roenigk, H H; Smith, E S; Pierce, L J

    1989-06-01

    Physicians and other health care workers who care for patients who have sustained human bite marks need a working protocol to ensure that these patients receive proper care. This protocol involves taking a thorough history and performing a physical examination, approximately determining the bite mark age, and administering proper therapy. The history will help to determine whether a criminal act has been committed and which agencies need to be notified. The American Board of Forensic Odontology published criteria for bite mark analysis in 1984 that included a description of the bite mark including its size, shape, and color, along with techniques for collection of evidence from both the victim and suspect. To determine bite mark age, tissue response to injury (inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and matrix formation and remodeling) is reviewed. Finally, the bacteria that are found in these wounds and the proper use of antimicrobial agents are expanded upon.

  8. A useful marking method for free living mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available A paint-spraying device was employed for marking wild African mammals without capture. This relatively inexpensive marking technique, which had originally been used for the marking of American desert bighorn sheep at drinking places, was also successfully applied in the marking of impala, Aepyceros melampus, blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, Burchell's zebra, Equus burchellii antiquorum aud the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. The apparatus used differs in some respects from that originally described by Hanson (1964. It was also used for the marking of animals from a mobile unit and away from fixed drinking places. This paper is based on a part of a thesis, submitted to the University of Pretoria in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of D.Sc. (Wildlife Management.

  9. The Information Literacy of Survey Mark Hunting: A Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Galas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article makes connections between the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education and the activity of survey mark hunting. After a brief review of the literature related to geographic information systems (GIS, information literacy, and gamification of learning, the authors enter into a dialogue in which they discover and describe the various ways information literacy is both required by and developed through the recreational activity of survey mark hunting. Through their dialogue they found that the activity of survey mark hunting relies on the construction of both information and its authority in ways contextualized within the communities that participate; that survey mark hunting is a conversation that builds on the past, where lived experience counts as evidence; and, that survey mark hunting is both a metaphor and embodied enactment of information literacy.

  10. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usang, M. D.; Hamzah, N. S.; J. B., Abi M.; M. Z., M. Rawi; Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  11. Methods for the Analysis of Human Bite Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naru, A S

    1997-12-01

    The comparison of features within a bite mark injury with the dentition of a suspect may be required during the course of a criminal investigation. A review of the literature regarding bite mark analysis has been undertaken to determine the value of this evidence. Bite marks in skin are complex injuries consisting of abrasions, lacerations, and contusions, caused by the crushing action of the teeth and related structures. Front-line investigators need to recognize and interpret these features, but no standard method of information collection or comparison has been agreed. Many classifications of bite mark types have been proposed, but do not appear to aid mark analysis. Investigations of bite strengths and sucking forces have been inconclusive. Insufficient information exists as to the accuracy and reproducibility of the representation of the dentition by tissue pathology. Histological analysis and collagen staining techniques have attempted to define the area of injury in detail, but have limited application. The quality of the mark is determined by numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Distortion and shrinkage of the tissues introduce dimensional disturbances that require elimination before a comparison can be undertaken. No method exists to quantify and correct these distortions. The investigator must be aware that self-inflicted marks often occur among children and that other events may replicate bite mark injuries. The most common bite mark comparison methods employ an intermediate template produced from the suspect dentition that, when overlaid onto a scale photograph of the injury, demonstrates correspondence. No agreement exists regarding the individuality of human dentition, minimum level of correspondence required to positively identify the assailant, and the accuracy to which tissue pathology can represent these details. It is concluded that bite mark comparison can only exclude a suspect and should not be used for positive identification. Copyright

  12. Concepts to elucidate the pattern-associated analysis of tooth marks in court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, H

    2005-03-01

    Increased awareness by crime scene detectives has led to a rise in number of bite mark associated cases appearing before the South African courts. This has led to an increased number of dentists being subpoenaed to give forensic evidence. The purpose of this paper was to elucidate the presentation of evidence in pattern associated tooth mark analysis. Three aspects are discussed. They are the basic principle of pattern association, the effects of limited shrinkage and distortion on the pattern of the tooth marks, and finally how to overcome the difficulties that court personnel experience in visualising bite marks. The author has applied these basic concepts over the past six years. Judges and defence advocates have been able to understand the simple concepts and apply them to the more complex issues before them. The concepts described should be familiar to all dentists and forensic odontologists giving tooth mark evidence in the high court. They will assist in explaining all aspects of pattern association to the legal fraternity and aid in the presentation of the evidence. Their strength is in their simplicity.

  13. Angiotensin II infusion induces marked diaphragmatic skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir M Rezk

    Full Text Available Advanced congestive heart failure (CHF and chronic kidney disease (CKD are characterized by increased angiotensin II (Ang II levels and are often accompanied by significant skeletal muscle wasting that negatively impacts mortality and morbidity. Both CHF and CKD patients have respiratory muscle dysfunction, however the potential effects of Ang II on respiratory muscles are unknown. We investigated the effects of Ang II on diaphragm muscle in FVB mice. Ang II induced significant diaphragm muscle wasting (18.7±1.6% decrease in weight at one week and reduction in fiber cross-sectional area. Expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1 and of the pro-apoptotic factor BAX was increased after 24 h of Ang II infusion (4.4±0.3 fold, 3.1±0.5 fold and 1.6±0.2 fold, respectively, compared to sham infused control suggesting increased muscle protein degradation and apoptosis. In Ang II infused animals, there was significant regeneration of injured diaphragm muscles at 7 days as indicated by an increase in the number of myofibers with centralized nuclei and high expression of embryonic myosin heavy chain (E-MyHC, 11.2±3.3 fold increase and of the satellite cell marker M-cadherin (59.2±22.2% increase. Furthermore, there was an increase in expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, 1.8±0.3 fold increase in Ang II infused diaphragm, suggesting the involvement of IGF-1 in diaphragm muscle regeneration. Bone-marrow transplantation experiments indicated that although there was recruitment of bone-marrow derived cells to the injured diaphragm in Ang II infused mice (267.0±74.6% increase, those cells did not express markers of muscle stem cells or regenerating myofibers. In conclusion, Ang II causes marked diaphragm muscle wasting, which may be important for the pathophysiology of respiratory muscle dysfunction and cachexia in conditions such as CHF and CKD.

  14. A narratological analysis of Mark 12:1-12: The plot of the Gospel of Mark in a nutshell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Eck

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is an attempt to read Mark 12: 1-12 in terms of the plot of the Gospel. Firstly a brief survey is given of the development of the term plot from Aristotle to the present, thereafter an own methodological point of departure concerning plot is formulated in order to study the plot of Mark. The conclusions made from this are used to indicate how Mark 12: 1-12 fits into the plot of the Gospel and what functional role it plays in the development of the plot. The conclusion reached is that Mark 12: 1-12 contains the plot of Mark in a nutshell.

  15. Thermal spectra of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; El espectro termico del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R.; Palacios G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The diffraction phenomenon is gave in observance of the well known Bragg law in crystalline materials and this can be performance by mean of X-rays, electrons and neutrons among others, which allows to do inside the field of each one of these techniques the obtaining of measurements focussed at each one of them. For the present work, it will be mentioned only the referring to X-ray and neutron techniques. The X-ray diffraction due to its properties just it does measurements which are known in general as superficial measurements of the sample material but for the properties of the neutrons, this diffraction it explores in volumetric form the sample material. Since the neutron diffraction process depends lots of its intensity, then it is important to know the neutron source spectra that in this case is supplied by the TRIGA Mark III reactor. Within of diffraction techniques a great number of them can be found, however some of the traditional will be mentioned such as the identification of crystalline samples, phases identification and the textures measurement. At present this last technique is founded on the dot of a minimum error and the technique of phases identification performs but not compete with that which is obtained by mean of X-rays due to this last one has a major resolution. (Author)

  16. Identifying and preserving high-water mark data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Todd A.; Bruce, Jennifer L.; O'Connor, Jim; McGee, Benton D.; Holmes, Robert R.; Hollins, Ryan; Forbes, Brandon T.; Kohn, Michael S.; Schellekens, Mathew; Martin, Zachary W.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2016-03-08

    High-water marks provide valuable data for understanding recent and historical flood events. The proper collection and recording of high-water mark data from perishable and preserved evidence informs flood assessments, research, and water resource management. Given the high cost of flooding in developed areas, experienced hydrographers, using the best available techniques, can contribute high-quality data toward efforts such as public education of flood risk, flood inundation mapping, flood frequency computations, indirect streamflow measurement, and hazard assessments.This manual presents guidance for skilled high-water mark identification, including marks left behind in natural and man-made environments by tranquil and rapid flowing water. This manual also presents pitfalls and challenges associated with various types of flood evidence that help hydrographers identify the best high-water marks and assess the uncertainty associated with a given mark. Proficient high-water mark data collection contributes to better understanding of the flooding process and reduces risk through greater ability to estimate flood probability.The U.S. Geological Survey, operating the Nation’s premier water data collection network, encourages readers of this manual to familiarize themselves with the art and science of high-water mark collection. The U.S. Geological survey maintains a national database at http://water.usgs.gov/floods/FEV/ that includes high-water mark information for many flood events, and local U.S. Geological Survey Water Science Centers can provide information to interested readers about participation in data collection and flood documentation efforts as volunteers or observers.

  17. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  18. Caffeine markedly sensitizes human mesothelioma cell lines to pemetrexed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sang Hee; Goldman, I. David; Zhao, Rongbao

    2013-01-01

    Pemetrexed is a new generation antifolate approved for the treatment of mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer. Caffeine is known to augment radiation or chemotherapeutic drug-induced cell killing. The current study addresses the impact of caffeine on the activity of pemetrexed in mesothelioma cell lines. Caffeine enhanced pemetrexed activity in all four mesothelioma cell lines tested (H2052, H2373, H28 and MSTO-211H). Caffeine sensitized H2052 cells in a dose- and schedule-dependent manner, and was associated with a markedly decreased clonogenic survival. Caffeine sensitization occurred only in cells subjected to pulse, but not continuous, exposure to pemetrexed. Similar pemetrexed sensitization was also observed with the clinically better tolerated caffeine analog, theobromine. Pemetrexed sensitization by caffeine was associated with an increase in pemetrexed-induced phosphorylation of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and Chk1. These data indicate that caffeine and its analog, theobromine, may be a useful approach to enhance pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. PMID:17594092

  19. Pedestrian-driver communication and decision strategies at marked crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucha, Matus; Dostal, Daniel; Risser, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work is to describe pedestrian-driver encounters, communication, and decision strategies at marked but unsignalised crossings in urban areas in the Czech Republic and the ways in which the parties involved experience and handle these encounters. A mixed-methods design was used, consisting of focus groups with pedestrians and drivers regarding their subjective views of the situations, on-site observations, camera recordings, speed measurements, the measurement of car and pedestrian densities, and brief on-site interviews with pedestrians. In close correspondence with the literature, our study revealed that the most relevant predictors of pedestrians' and drivers' behaviour at crossings were the densities of car traffic and pedestrian flows and car speed. The factors which influenced pedestrians' wait/go behaviour were: car speed, the distance of the car from the crossing, traffic density, whether there were cars approaching from both directions, various signs given by the driver (eye contact, waving a hand, flashing their lights), and the presence of other pedestrians. The factors influencing drivers' yield/go behaviour were: speed, traffic density, the number of pedestrians waiting to cross, and pedestrians being distracted. A great proportion of drivers (36%) failed to yield to pedestrians at marked crossings. The probability of conflict situations increased with cars travelling at a higher speed, higher traffic density, and pedestrians being distracted by a different activity while crossing. The findings of this study can add to the existing literature by helping to provide an understanding of the perception of encounter situations by the parties involved and the motives lying behind certain aspects of behaviour associated with these encounters. This seems necessary in order to develop suggestions for improvements. For instance, the infrastructure near pedestrian crossings should be designed in such a way as to take proper account of pedestrians

  20. Laser-Marking Mechanism of Thermoplastic Polyurethane/Bi2O3 Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wei; Cao, Zheng; Qiu, Pengfei; Wu, Dun; Liu, Chunlin; Li, Huili; Zhu, He

    2015-11-04

    Using bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) as a laser-marking additive and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) as the matrix, TPU/Bi2O3 composite materials were prepared by melt blending in a torque rheometer. The sheet samples prepared from the TPU/Bi2O3 composites were treated in air by scanning with a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) pulsed laser beam at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Compared with the pure TPU sample, the laser-marked composite samples exhibited differences in marking contrast as the Bi2O3 content increased from 0.1% to 1.0% based on stereomicroscope analysis. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry analysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the laser-marked surface material of the composite samples. Furthermore, a mechanism for the laser-effected darkening of the TPU/Bi2O3 composites was proposed. The results herein indicated that the addition of the Bi2O3 laser-sensitive additive to TPU resulted in laser darkening of the TPU/Bi2O3 composites. The marking contrast and visual appearance of the surface of the TPU/Bi2O3 composites after laser irradiation was due to a synergistic effect consisting of carbonization via TPU pyrolysis and reduction of Bi2O3 to black bismuth metal.

  1. Gilbert Lake: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Gilbert Lake District of Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1983 calendar year. The...

  2. Fur Management Plan: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR Furbearer Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the environmental...

  3. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR (including Clarence Cannon, Louisa, and Calhoun NWRs) Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to...

  4. 47 CFR 78.63 - Antenna structure marking and lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structure marking and lighting. 78.63... lighting. The owner of each antenna structure is responsible for ensuring that the structure, if required... painting and lighting requirements. ...

  5. 51. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esindab Eestit kunstnik Mark Raidpere...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Mark Raidpere ekspositsiooni "Varjupaik" on koostanud Hanno Soans. 12. VI-6. XI avatud biennaalil on kaks peakuraatorit ja kaks teemanäitust: Maria de Corrali kureeritud "Kunsti kogemus" ja Rosa Martinezi kureeritud "Alati pisut eespool"

  6. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. Wildlife- including migratory...

  7. St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on St. Marks NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  8. Trapping Plan : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Brussels District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mark Twain NWR- Brussels District trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  9. Viktor Misiano kureerib Mark Raidperet ning Jaan Toomikut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    27.05-26.08.2007 esitatakse Itaalia kunstikeskuses Pratos näitusel "Progressive Nostalgia" Jaan Toomiku videot "Merikajakas" (2004) ja Mark Raidpere videot "Andrei/Andris" (2006). Loetletud osalejad teistest maadest

  10. Meet EPA Chemist Mark Strynar, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Mark Strynar is a physical scientist in EPA's Office of Research and Development. His research interests include developing methods to measure and analyze the movement of PFCs and other xenobiotic compounds in biological and environmental media

  11. Continuous assessment and matriculation examination marks – An empirical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servaas van der Berg

    2015-12-01

    This study compares CASS data to the externally assessed matric exam marks for a number of subjects. There are two signalling dimensions to inaccurate assessments: (i Inflated CASS marks can give students a false sense of security and lead to diminished exam effort. (ii A weak correlation between CASS and the exam marks could mean poor signalling in another dimension: Relatively good students may get relatively low CASS marks. Such low correlations indicate poor assessment reliability, as the examination and continuous assessment should both be testing mastery of the same national curriculum. The paper analyses the extent of each of these dimensions of weak signalling in South African schools and draws disturbing conclusions for a large part of the school system.

  12. The cognitive benefits of movement reduction: evidence from dance marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Edward C; Wilson, Margaret; Lynch, Molly; Cuykendall, Shannon

    2013-09-01

    In a number of domains, humans adopt a strategy of systematically reducing and minimizing a codified system of movement. One particularly interesting case is "marking" in dance, wherein the dancer performs an attenuated version of the choreography during rehearsal. This is ostensibly to save the dancer's physical energy, but a number of considerations suggest that it may serve a cognitive function as well. In this study, we tested this embodied-cognitive-load hypothesis by manipulating whether dancers rehearsed by marking or by dancing "full out" and found that performance was superior in the dancers who had marked. This finding indicates that marking confers cognitive benefits during the rehearsal process, and it raises questions regarding the cognitive functions of other movement-reduction systems, such as whispering, gesturing, and subvocalizing. In addition, it has implications for a variety of topics in cognitive science, including embodied cognition and the nascent fields of dance and music cognition.

  13. Narrative Report : Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year for the Complex Headquarters, the...

  14. Campus lecture marks Conflict Resolution Day Oct. 21

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Conflict Resolution Program will sponsor a video conference presentation by Craig Runde and Tim Flanagan, co-authors of three books on conflict in the workplace, as the university marks International Conflict Resolution Day Thursday, Oct. 21.

  15. Narrative report: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  16. Skype'i kaasasutajad investeerivad MarkIT-isse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Nelja eestlasest Skype'i kaasasutaja loodud Ambient Sound Investments (ASI) investeerib 2 miljonit eurot, et aidata kaasa MarkIT e-hankekeskkonna arendamisele ning ettevõtte laienemisele viide Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riiki

  17. Safety performance evaluation of converging chevron pavement markings : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to perform a detailed safety analysis of converging chevron : pavement markings, quantifying the potential safety benefits and developing an understanding of the : incident types addressed by the treatment, and (...

  18. Sediment contamination survey on St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess habitat quality on the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Sediment samples were...

  19. Acquaintance of bite mark identification procedures in Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuti Malinda

    2017-08-01

    Conclution: Dentist should carefully determine the conclusion among these possibilities , the mark is “possible biter”, “probable biter”, or “with a high level of confidence, is the biter”

  20. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  1. Gilbert Lake: Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  2. 76 FR 13192 - Mark E. Van Wormer: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permanently debarring Mark E. Van Wormer, MD... Imaging and Laser Surgery Center, PC, and the Physicians GreatSkin Clinic. From on or about January 13...

  3. Inland Waters - Navigation Distance Mark - Minnesota River (Non-Navigable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A distance mark indicates the distance measured from an origin and consists of a distinct location without special installation, used to serve as a reference along...

  4. The gender-marking effect in spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosjean, F; Dommergues, J Y; Cornu, E; Guillelmon, D; Besson, C

    1994-11-01

    In this paper we examine whether the recognition of a spoken noun is affected by the gender marking--masculine or feminine--that is carried by a preceding word. In the first of two experiments, the gating paradigm was used to study the access of French nouns that were preceded by an appropriate gender marking, carried by an article, or preceded by no gender marking. In the second experiment, subjects were asked to make a lexical decision on the same material. A very strong facilitatory effect was found in both cases. The origin of the gender-marking effect is discussed, as well as the level of processing involved--lexical or syntactic.

  5. Comparative tag retention, clip quality, and injuries of juvenile spring Chinook salmon marked by an automated marking trailer and manual marking trailer at Warm Springs NFH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In an attempt to address the concerns raised as a result of the marking of the 2004 brood at Warm Springs NFH, a study plan was developed to evaluate the use of an...

  6. Advancements in automatic marking with range pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D.; Valadez, J.

    2013-06-01

    In previous work, an approach was detailed using CATS-MRCC-RPM, where new pattern matching functionality is used to find locations on a jobdeck that are suitable for mark placements and ultimately, metrology tool measurement locations. These locations are found by first creating pattern definitions. The defined patterns are passed to the CATS MRCC-RPM match algorithm which in turn outputs all found locations that match the description. In that previous work, the pattern definitions, also known as mark templates, had several limitations. For example, each template could hold only one mark placed at its center, and had to be symmetrical. This was considered to be severely limiting in nature and not production worthy for advanced mask manufacturing. This paper builds on top of the previous one in various ways, extends the possibilities, and provides mask makers unlimited options for extending metrology automation. Mark templates are expanded upon to hold multiple marks at different offsets from its center, and even of different types. Each template can be symmetrical or asymmetrical, and yet all the marks on it can still be correctly placed by taking advantage of match orientation information during the Classification step. Placement of other mark types beyond basic ones is also explored, such as Arbitrary Area. Lastly, the classification step is an enhancement process that thoroughly manages the use of chip/mark information. The result makes use of the output of JD MRC (jobdeck MRC) which executes RPM on jobdecks by chip in order to reduce redundant chips processing, rather than search all chip placements by extension.

  7. Aksel Mark: kõik algaski Otsal / Enn Nõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõu, Enn, 1933-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Mark Beijer, Mai. Landkänning : Brevväxling mellan Anu och Aksel Mark under deras första år som flyktingar från Estland 1944-45. Stockholm : Bokverksta´n Förlag, 2008; Allt började på Otsa : minnen från min barndom och skoláren. Stockholm : Beijer Bok & Skog, 2011

  8. The Evidentiary Value of Bite Mark Analysis in Criminal Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Suhail H. Al-Amad

    2016-01-01

    For decades, the comparison between a bite mark injury and a suspect’s teeth was considered evidence linking the suspect to the victim. However, in recent years, many convictions were re-assessed by a legal initiative in the United States called the “Innocence Project”. The outcome of this project was the exoneration of many wrongfully convicted inmates. Some of those exonerations were of prisoners who had been convicted based on bite mark evidence. Consequently, the admissibility and evident...

  9. Bite mark analysis in forensic routine case work

    OpenAIRE

    Lessig, R.; Weber, M.; Wenzel, V.

    2006-01-01

    The individuality of the human dentition frequently allows the Forensic Odonto-Stomatologist (FOS) to reach a strong opinion of association in cases of identification and bite mark analy-sis. Such analysis can often be useful during the investigation of violent crimes, especially those involving sexual assault. Bites from animals are rarely the object of bite mark analysis. The teeth of animals leave patterned injuries that appear quite different from those created by human teeth. This is esp...

  10. Space-time relationships in the UV markings on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M. J. S.; Smith, G. R.; Elliott, D. A.; Klaasen, K.; Danielson, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    A group of geometrically rectified composite pictures taken with the Mariner 10 television cameras is presented which shows the temporal development of UV markings at various locations on Venus over the last seven days of the television experiment. The pictures are of two types: one in which the development of a marking is followed in a reference frame that moves with the apparent motion of the atmosphere and a second in which the development of the markings at fixed angular distances from the subsolar meridian can be seen. By comparing these composites with Mercator projections of single Mariner frames, it is shown that: (1) large-scale markings between + and - 45 deg latitude have lifetimes in excess of four days and move en masse with the apparent motion at the equator; (2) smaller-scale markings have lifetimes between 1.5 and 4 days; (3) the polar ring, bowlike waves, circumequatorial belts, and cellular features all exhibit rapid growth, modulation, or propagation characteristics; and (4) a single dark horizontal Y-shaped marking encircles the planet. It is suggested that both the Y and the polar ring are visible manifestations of propagating waves.

  11. Mark retention of calcein in Cisco and Bloater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Mackey, Gregg; Nash, Kendra; Chiavelli, Richard; Johnson, James H.; Kehler, Thomas; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, a multi-agency initiative to restore these native forage species has been under way. Evaluating the restoration success of Cisco Coregonus artedi and Bloater C. hoyi in Lake Ontario waters requires methods to identify stocked fish. However, juvenile Cisco and Bloater are fragile; thus, mass marking techniques that reduce the handling of individual fish are required and have not previously been evaluated. In 2014–2015 we evaluated the usefulness of calcein (SE-MARK) as a marker on bony structures, including the otolith. Juvenile Bloater and Cisco (14, 100, 128 d old) were immersed in a calcein bath at 5,000 mg/L of water for 4 min to apply the chemical marker. Observations of the marking retention were evaluated 8 d following the treatment. All fish immersed in calcein had strong brilliant marks (rating scale 3) on all bony structures including scales, fin rays, jaw bones, and vertebrate. The otolith was the only hard structure that did not show a brilliant marking due to the opaque nature of the structure. Our results suggest that calcein produces a strong discernable mark on hard bony structures of Cisco and Bloater; however, long-term retention needs further study.

  12. AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF ROAD MARKINGS FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  13. Automatic Extraction of Road Markings from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Pei, Z.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  14. Astrocyte pathology in Alexander disease causes a marked inflammatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Markel; Putilina, Maria; Riemer, Ellen C; Goldman, James E

    2015-10-01

    Astrocytes and microglia are commonly involved in a wide variety of CNS pathologies. However, they are typically involved in a secondary response in which many cell types are affected simultaneously and therefore it is difficult to know their contributions to the pathology. Here, we show that pathological astrocytes in a mouse model of Alexander disease (AxD; GFAP (Tg);Gfap (+/R236H)) cause a pronounced immune response. We have studied the inflammatory response in the hippocampus and spinal cord of these mice and have found marked microglial activation, which follows that of astrocytes in a spatial pathological progression, as shown by increased levels of Iba1 and microglial cell (Iba1+) density. RNA sequencing and subsequent gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that a majority of the most upregulated genes in GFAP (Tg);Gfap (+/R236H) mice are directly associated with immune function and that cytokine and chemokine GO attributes represent nearly a third of the total immune attributes. Cytokine and chemokine analysis showed CXCL10 and CCL2 to be the most and earliest increased molecules, showing concentrations as high as EAE or stroke models. CXCL10 was localized exclusively to astrocytes while CCL2 was also present in microglia. Despite the high levels of CXCL10 and CCL2, T cell infiltration was mild and no B cells were found. Thus, mutations in GFAP are sufficient to trigger a profound inflammatory response. The cellular stress caused by the accumulation of GFAP likely leads to the production of inflammatory molecules and microglial activation. Examination of human AxD CNS tissues also revealed microglial activation and T cell infiltrates. Therefore, the inflammatory environment may play an important role in producing the neuronal dysfunction and seizures of AxD.

  15. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usang, M. D., E-mail: mark-dennis@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; Rawi, M. Z. M. [Malaysia Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  16. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usang, M. D.; Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; M. Rawi M., Z.

    2016-01-01

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  17. A salvage chemotherapy of R-P-IMVP16/CBDCA consisting of rituximab, methylprednisolone, ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and carboplatin for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma who had previously received R-CHOP therapy as first-line chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuro; Hara, Takeshi; Shibata, Yuhei; Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Soranobu; Kitagawa, Junichi; Kanemura, Nobuhiro; Goto, Naoe; Kito, Yusuke; Kasahara, Senji; Yamada, Toshiki; Sawada, Michio; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Takami, Tsuyoshi; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Tsurumi, Hisashi

    2017-09-01

    We have reported the efficacy of the salvage chemotherapy P-IMVP16/CBDCA for patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who had previously received CHOP before the availability of rituximab (R). Here, we confirmed the efficacy of R combined with P-IMVP16/CBDCA as a salvage chemotherapy for patients with DLBCL, who had previously received R-CHOP. We retrospectively analysed 59 patients with relapse or refractory DLBCL (38 male patients and 21 female patients) presenting between June 2004 and June 2013. The patients received R 375 mg/m2 on day 1, methylprednisolone 1000 mg/body for 3 days (from day 3 to day 5), ifosfamide 1000 mg/m2 for 5 days (from day 3 to day 7), methotrexate 30 mg/m2 on day 5 and day 12, etoposide 80 mg/m2 for 3 days (from day 3 to day 5), and carboplatin 300 mg/m2 on day 3 every 21 days. Patients aged 70 years or older were given 75% of the standard dose. The overall response rate (complete response + partial response) was 64.4%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 55.3%. The 2-year progression free survival rate was 34.7%. The 2-year overall survival rate was 61.5% for the relapse patients, and 15.6% for the refractory patients (p chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Identitet marke proizvoda – čimbenik uspješnog tržišnog položaja marke proizvoda

    OpenAIRE

    Lijović, Branislav

    2012-01-01

    U ovom se radu polazi od pojma identita marke proizvoda kao nove paradigme marketinga. Cilj ovoga rada je definiranje pojma identiteta marke proizvoda i negovoga značenja za ostvarenje tržišne vrijednosti marke proizvoda i ukupnih marketing ciljeva gospodarskog subjekta. Identitetom marke proizvoda i kombinacijom njegovih elemenata implementira se strategija gospodarskog subjekta i željeno tržišno pozicioniranje marke proizvoda. Sustavnim kreiranjem i upravljanjem identitetom mark...

  19. Airborne LiDAR for the Detection of Archaeological Vegetation Marks Using Biomass as a Proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In arable landscapes, the airborne detection of archaeological features is often reliant on using the properties of the vegetation cover as a proxy for sub-surface features in the soil. Under the right conditions, the formation of vegetation marks allows archaeologists to identify and interpret archaeological features. Using airborne Laser Scanning, based on the principles of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR to detect these marks is challenging, particularly given the difficulties of resolving subtle changes in a low and homogeneous crop with these sensors. In this paper, an experimental approach is adopted to explore how these marks could be detected as variations in canopy biomass using both range and full waveform LiDAR data. Although some detection was achieved using metrics of the full waveform data, it is the novel multi-temporal method of using discrete return data to detect and characterise archaeological vegetation marks that is offered for further consideration. This method was demonstrated to be applicable over a range of capture conditions, including soils deemed as difficult (i.e., clays and other heavy soils, and should increase the certainty of detection when employed in the increasingly multi-sensor approaches to heritage prospection and management.

  20. Determination of the quality of stripe-marked and cracked eggs during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chi Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Stripe marks, which occasionally occur on the shell, do not cause breakage to the shell and shell membranes of eggs. This study investigated the quality of intact eggs (IEs, minor stripe-marked eggs (MEs, severe stripe-marked eggs (SEs, and cracked eggs (CEs during 3-week storage at 25°C. Methods Shell eggs were collected the day after being laid and were washed. Among them, eggs without any visual cracks or stripe marks on the shells were evaluated as IEs by the plant employees using candling in a darkened egg storage room; the remaining eggs exhibited some eggshell defects. At day 3, the eggs were further categorized into IEs, MEs, SEs, CEs, and broken eggs (BEs on the basis of the description given. Except BEs, which were discarded, the remaining eggs were stored at 25°C (approximate relative humidity 50% and then analyzed. Results Stripe marks were observed primarily within the first 3 days after washing. At day 3, CEs had significantly (p<0.05 lower Haugh unit values, but all eggs had grades AA or A, according to the United States Department of Agriculture standard. As storage time increased, differences in egg quality between groups were more obvious. IEs had the highest eggshell breaking strength. During storage, the total plate counts and pathogens, namely Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp., were not detectable in the internal content of IEs and SEs. Conclusion In conclusion, cracks degraded egg quality severely and minor stripe marks only slightly influenced the egg quality.

  1. A comparative study between xerographic, computer-assisted overlay generation and animated-superimposition methods in bite mark analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Meng Wei; Chong, Zhen Feng; Asif, Muhammad Khan; Rahmat, Rabiah A; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran

    2016-09-01

    This study was to compare the suitability and precision of xerographic and computer-assisted methods for bite mark investigations. Eleven subjects were asked to bite on their forearm and the bite marks were photographically recorded. Alginate impressions of the subjects' dentition were taken and their casts were made using dental stone. The overlays generated by xerographic method were obtained by photocopying the subjects' casts and the incisal edge outlines were then transferred on a transparent sheet. The bite mark images were imported into Adobe Photoshop® software and printed to life-size. The bite mark analyses using xerographically generated overlays were done by comparing an overlay to the corresponding printed bite mark images manually. In computer-assisted method, the subjects' casts were scanned into Adobe Photoshop®. The bite mark analyses using computer-assisted overlay generation were done by matching an overlay and the corresponding bite mark images digitally using Adobe Photoshop®. Another comparison method was superimposing the cast images with corresponding bite mark images employing the Adobe Photoshop® CS6 and GIF-Animator©. A score with a range of 0-3 was given during analysis to each precision-determining criterion and the score was increased with better matching. The Kruskal Wallis H test showed significant difference between the three sets of data (H=18.761, pbite mark analysis using the computer-assisted animated-superimposition method was the most accurate, followed by the computer-assisted overlay generation and lastly the xerographic method. The superior precision contributed by digital method is discernible despite the human skin being a poor recording medium of bite marks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recognition in context: Implications for trade mark law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Michael S; McFarlane, Kimberley A; Burt, Jennifer S; Kelly, Sarah J; Weatherall, Kimberlee G; Burrell, Robert G

    2017-10-01

    Context effects in recognition have played a major role in evaluating theories of recognition. Understanding how context impacts recognition is also important for making sound trade mark law. Consumers attempting to discriminate between the brand they are looking for and a look-alike product often have to differentiate products which share a great deal of common context: positioning on the supermarket shelf, the type of store, aspects of the packaging, or brand claims. Trade mark and related laws aim to protect brands and reduce consumer confusion, but courts assessing allegations of trade mark infringement often lack careful empirical evidence concerning the impact of brand and context similarity, and, in the absence of such evidence, make assumptions about how consumers respond to brands that downplay the importance of context and focus on the similarity of registered marks. The experiments reported in this paper aimed to test certain common assumptions in trade mark law, providing evidence that shared context can cause mistakes even where brand similarity is low.

  3. Segmentation and classification of road markings using MLS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilán, Mario; Riveiro, Belén; Martínez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Arias, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Traffic signs are one of the most important safety elements in a road network. Particularly, road markings provide information about the limits and direction of each road lane, or warn the drivers about potential danger. The optimal condition of road markings contributes to a better road safety. Mobile Laser Scanning technology can be used for infrastructure inspection and specifically for traffic sign detection and inventory. This paper presents a methodology for the detection and semantic characterization of the most common road markings, namely pedestrian crossings and arrows. The 3D point cloud data acquired by a LYNX Mobile Mapper system is filtered in order to isolate reflective points in the road, and each single element is hierarchically classified using Neural Networks. State of the art results are obtained for the extraction and classification of the markings, with F-scores of 94% and 96% respectively. Finally, data from classified markings are exported to a GIS layer and maintenance criteria based on the aforementioned data are proposed.

  4. A method for studying knife tool marks on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kai-Ping; Chung, Ju-Hui; Chung, Fang-Chun; Tseng, Bo-Yuan; Pan, Chih-Hsin; Yang, Kai-Ting; Yang, Chun-Pang

    2011-07-01

    The characteristics of knife tool marks retained on hard tissues can be used to outline the shape and angle of a knife. The purpose of this study was to describe such marks on bone tissues that had been chopped with knives. A chopping stage with a gravity accelerator and a fixed bone platform was designed to reconstruct the chopping action. A digital microscope was also used to measure the knife angle (θ) and retained V-shape tool mark angle (ψ) in a pig skull. The κ value (elasticity coefficient; θ/ψ) was derived and recorded after the knife angle (θ) and the accompanied velocity were compared with the proportional impulsive force of the knife and ψ on the bone. The constant impulsive force revealed a correlation between the V-shape tool mark angle (ψ) and the elasticity coefficient (κ). These results describe the tool marks--crucial in the medicolegal investigation--of a knife on hard tissues. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Male and female meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus respond differently to scent marks from the top- middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. FERKIN, Nicholas J. HOBBS, Benjamin D. FERKIN, Adam C.FERKIN, Daniel A. FERKIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that individuals responded preferentially to the mark of the top-scent donor relative to that of the bottom-scent donor of an over-mark. However, terrestrial mammals are likely to encounter over-marks consisting of the scent marks of more than two same-sex conspecifics in the intersections of runways, near the nests of sexually receptive female conspecifics, and inside and along the borders of the territories of conspecifics. We determined how meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, respond to the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark. We tested the hypothesis that voles exposed to an over-mark will respond preferentially to the scent marks that were deposited more recently, the scent marks that were on top or near the top of the over-mark, compared to the scent marks that were deposited earlier or near the bottom of the over-mark. Voles spent more time investigating the mark of the top-scent donor than that of the either the middle- or bottom-scent donor. However, males but not female voles spent more time investigating the middle-scent mark than the bottom-scent mark. We also tested the hypothesis that voles evaluate and respond to over-marks differently from single scent marks. Voles spent more time investigating the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors compared to scent marks that were not part of the over-mark. Voles can distinguish among the overlapping scent marks of three scent donors and sex differences exist in the values they appear to attach to each of these scent marks [Current Zoology 57 (4: 441–448, 2011].

  6. Estimating sample size for landscape-scale mark-recapture studies of North American migratory tree bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Laura E.; Lukacs, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Concern for migratory tree-roosting bats in North America has grown because of possible population declines from wind energy development. This concern has driven interest in estimating population-level changes. Mark-recapture methodology is one possible analytical framework for assessing bat population changes, but sample size requirements to produce reliable estimates have not been estimated. To illustrate the sample sizes necessary for a mark-recapture-based monitoring program we conducted power analyses using a statistical model that allows reencounters of live and dead marked individuals. We ran 1,000 simulations for each of five broad sample size categories in a Burnham joint model, and then compared the proportion of simulations in which 95% confidence intervals overlapped between and among years for a 4-year study. Additionally, we conducted sensitivity analyses of sample size to various capture probabilities and recovery probabilities. More than 50,000 individuals per year would need to be captured and released to accurately determine 10% and 15% declines in annual survival. To detect more dramatic declines of 33% or 50% survival over four years, then sample sizes of 25,000 or 10,000 per year, respectively, would be sufficient. Sensitivity analyses reveal that increasing recovery of dead marked individuals may be more valuable than increasing capture probability of marked individuals. Because of the extraordinary effort that would be required, we advise caution should such a mark-recapture effort be initiated because of the difficulty in attaining reliable estimates. We make recommendations for what techniques show the most promise for mark-recapture studies of bats because some techniques violate the assumptions of mark-recapture methodology when used to mark bats.

  7. EDXRF study of Indian punch-marked silver coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, V.; Rautray, T. R.; Basa, D. K.

    2004-09-01

    Coins are important archaeological objects that can provide valuable information regarding coin minting methodology and provenance as well as politics and economics of the time. Punch-marked coins are the oldest known numismatics used in ancient India. 23 Indian punch-marked silver coins were analysed, for the first time, by using multi-elemental non-destructive energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. Our study reveals that silver, copper, iron, gold and lead are the significant constituents of the Indian punch marked silver coins, with minor/trace of elements like Ti, Cr, Co, Ni, As and Y also seems to indicate the fragmentation as well as the impoverishment of the power for the regimes that had produced the studied coins.

  8. XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Lyubomir; Lyal, Christopher Hc; Weitzman, Anna; Morse, David R; King, David; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Morris, Robert A; Catapano, Terry; Agosti, Donat

    2011-01-01

    We review the three most widely used XML schemas used to mark-up taxonomic texts, TaxonX, TaxPub and taXMLit. These are described from the viewpoint of their development history, current status, implementation, and use cases. The concept of "taxon treatment" from the viewpoint of taxonomy mark-up into XML is discussed. TaxonX and taXMLit are primarily designed for legacy literature, the former being more lightweight and with a focus on recovery of taxon treatments, the latter providing a much more detailed set of tags to facilitate data extraction and analysis. TaxPub is an extension of the National Library of Medicine Document Type Definition (NLM DTD) for taxonomy focussed on layout and recovery and, as such, is best suited for mark-up of new publications and their archiving in PubMedCentral. All three schemas have their advantages and shortcomings and can be used for different purposes.

  9. Two bite mark cases with inadequate scale references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M L

    1985-07-01

    Most literature addressing comparisons between epidermal bite marks and the perpetrator's bite pattern mandates fastidious coordination between the size of the compared reproductions. While ideal, this is not possible in every case and inability to control this variable in selected cases may not necessarily invalidate the comparison. The first case involves a known perpetrator. All photographic measurements were recorded with acceptable techniques to discover a serious discrepancy in arch size. The second case was degraded by the absence of a ruler in a tangentially made photograph of a bite mark. In both cases, the weight of the conclusions were lessened by these problems but the impartial handling of the evidence and explanation of discrepancies offered credibility to the analyses. Both cases illustrate that a technical infraction in processing and recording bite marks, though serious, need not automatically preempt the analysis.

  10. RAPID INSPECTION OF PAVEMENT MARKINGS USING MOBILE LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at building a robust semi-automated pavement marking extraction workflow based on the use of mobile LiDAR point clouds. The proposed workflow consists of three components: preprocessing, extraction, and classification. In preprocessing, the mobile LiDAR point clouds are converted into the radiometrically corrected intensity imagery of the road surface. Then the pavement markings are automatically extracted with the intensity using a set of algorithms, including Otsu’s thresholding, neighbor-counting filtering, and region growing. Finally, the extracted pavement markings are classified with the geometric parameters using a manually defined decision tree. Case studies are conducted using the mobile LiDAR dataset acquired in Xiamen (Fujian, China with different road environments by the RIEGL VMX-450 system. The results demonstrated that the proposed workflow and our software tool can achieve 93% in completeness, 95% in correctness, and 94% in F-score when using Xiamen dataset.

  11. UID...Leaving Its Mark on the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975 bar codes on products at the retail counter have been accepted as the standard for entering product identity for price determination. Since the beginning of the 21 st century, the Data Matrix symbol has become accepted as the bar code format that is marked directly on a part, assembly or product that is durable enough to identify that item for its lifetime. NASA began the studies for direct part marking Data Matrix symbols on parts during the Return to Flight activities after the Challenger Accident. Over the 20 year period that has elapsed since Challenger, a mountain of studies, analyses and focused problem solutions developed by and for NASA have brought about world changing results. NASA Technical Standard 6002 and NASA Handbook 6003 for Direct Part Marking Data Matrix Symbols on Aerospace Parts have formed the basis for most other standards on part marking internationally. NASA and its commercial partners have developed numerous products and methods that addressed the difficulties of collecting part identification in aerospace operations. These products enabled the marking of Data Matrix symbols in virtually every situation and the reading of symbols at great distances, severe angles, under paint and in the dark without a light. Even unmarkable delicate parts now have a process to apply a chemical mixture, recently trademarked as Nanocodes, that can be converted to Data Matrix information through software. The accompanying intellectual property is protected by ten patents, several of which are licensed. Direct marking Data Matrix on NASA parts dramatically decreases data entry errors and the number of parts that go through their life cycle unmarked, two major threats to sound configuration management and flight safety. NASA is said to only have people and stuff with information connecting them. Data Matrix is one of the most significant improvements since Challenger to the safety and reliability of that connection.

  12. Thickness and marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda de Souza Mauá Serapião TOLEDO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Evaluate the thickness and the marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips (OCRS and a possible correlation between them. Material and Methods The following OCRS were selected: Accufilm II, BK20, BK21, BK22, BK23, BK28, and BK31. The thickness was measured in three points of the OCRS with an electronic measuring device (TESA, and the mean was calculated. To produce the marks on the strips, composite resin specimens were adapted to a universal testing machine (Versat 2000 with 40 kgf load cell at a speed of 1.0 mm/min. The mark images were photographed with a stereoscopic microscope (Stemi SV11 and processed and analyzed by the 550-Leica Qwin® analyzer. Results Values (μm found in the 1st and 2nd thickness measurements were: Accufilm II - 16.4 and 14.2; BK20 - 10.0 and 8.1; BK21 - 9.5 and 8.0; BK22 - 9.7 and 8.7; BK23 - 9.8 and 7.9; BK28 - 12.8 and 10.0; and BK31 - 8.4 and 8.0, respectively. The mean (mm2 values found in the mark areas were: Accufilm II - 0.078; BK20 - 0.035; BK21 - 0.045; BK22 - 0.012; BK23 - 0.022; BK28 - 0.024; and BK31 - 0.024. The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05 and Pearson’s correlation tests. Conclusions Only in the 2nd measurement, the OCRS thickness observed was similar to the value indicated by the manufacturers; the Accufilm II and the BK28 strips showed the better marks; and no correlation was found between the thickness and the marking area.

  13. Mark-18A Ion Exchange Raffinate Management Strategy & Processing Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-21

    It is desired to recover Cm-244 through Cm-248 from dissolved Mark-18A targets following anion exchange processing to remove the Pu. The Cm will be sent to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for additional R&D. Approximately 5-8 L per quarter of a Mark-18A target will have undergone anion exchange treatment and will contain Cm. A significant portion of this volume of anion exchange raffinate solution is dissolved fission products not desired to be recovered which could be sent to waste. To reduce the amount of material being sent to ORNL, a waste and volume minimization strategy was developed and is described in this report.

  14. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply......The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transporta- tion is essential for achieving politically agreed upon emissions re- duction targets that aim to combat global climate change. So-called eco-routing and eco-driving are able to substantially reduce GHG emissions caused by vehicular...

  15. Marks on the petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  16. NONPARAMETRIC ESTIMATION OF CONDITIONAL CUMULATIVE HAZARDS FOR MISSING POPULATION MARKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Pumar, Amalia Jácome

    2010-01-01

    A new function for the competing risks model, the conditional cumulative hazard function, is introduced, from which the conditional distribution of failure times of individuals failing due to cause j can be studied. The standard Nelson-Aalen estimator is not appropriate in this setting, as population membership (mark) information may be missing for some individuals owing to random right-censoring. We propose the use of imputed population marks for the censored individuals through fractional risk sets. Some asymptotic properties, including uniform strong consistency, are established. We study the practical performance of this estimator through simulation studies and apply it to a real data set for illustration.

  17. [Bite mark analysis. Part 1. Methods and overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Valck, E

    1995-06-01

    Criminal cases in which a suspect or a victim has left his or her teeth marks on another person or on an inanimate object such as a candy bar, an apple, cheese or even a beer can seem to occur more frequently. Testifying to the similarity or dissimilarity of a suspect's dentition to the bite mark in question is probably the most unique contribution that forensic dentistry makes to the judicial inquiry. This is a grave responsibility because a defendant's life or freedom may depend on the testimony given by the forensic odontologist in court.

  18. The effects of man-marking on work intensity in small-sided soccer games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Jake K; Tsui, Man-Chung; Smith, Andrew W; Carling, Christopher; Chan, Gar-Sun; Wong, Del P

    2012-01-01

    THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EXAMINE THE EFFECT OF MANIPULATING DEFENSIVE RULES: with and without man-marking (MM and NMM) on exercise intensity in 3 vs. 3 small- sided games (SSGs). Twelve adolescent soccer players (age: 16.2 ± 0.7 years; body mass: 55.7 ± 6.4 kg; body height: 1.70 ± 0.07 m) participated in this repeated measures study. Each participant performed in four different SSGs formats: 3 vs. 3 MM with and without goals and 3 vs. 3 NMM with and without goals. Each SSG lasted 3 x 4 minutes interspersed with 4 minutes passive recovery. The percentage heart rate reserve (%HRreserve) was recorded continuously during SSG and session-rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) after the SSG. MANOVA showed that defensive rule had significant effects on intensity (F = 5.37, p SSG induced significantly higher %HRreserve compared to NMM (Goal: 80.5 vs. 75.7%; No goal: 80.5 vs. 76.1%; p 0.05, effect size = 0.63) when no goals were used. Higher intra-class reliability and lower coefficient of variation values were also reported in MM as compared to NMM. This study in youth soccer players shows there is ~4.5% increase in heart rate response by using the man-marking in 3 vs. 3 SSG thus the intensity of SSG can be significantly increased when using man-marking tactics. Key pointsIntensity level of exercise during games can be raised if man-marking rule is adopted.No significant differences in perceived exertion were found in no goal SSG with and without man-marking.Adding goals in 3 vs. 3 SSG can lower perceived exertion without leading to large variations in intensity level.

  19. Basic Research of Intrinsic Tamper Indication Markings Defined by Pulsed Laser Irradiation (Quad Chart).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, Neville R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Objective: We will research how short (ns) and ultrashort (fs) laser pulses interact with the surfaces of various materials to create complex color layers and morphological patterns. Method: We are investigating the site-specific, formation of microcolor features. Also, research includes a fundamental study of the physics underlying periodic ripple formation during femtosecond laser irradiation. Status of effort: Laser induced color markings were demonstrated on an increased number of materials (including metal thin films) and investigated for optical properties and microstructure. Technology that allows for marking curved surfaces (and large areas) has been implemented. We have used electro-magnetic solvers to model light-solid interactions leading to periodic surface ripple patterns. This includes identifying the roles of surface plasmon polaritons. Goals/Milestones: Research corrosion resistance of oxide color markings (salt spray, fog, polarization tests); Through modeling, investigate effects of multi-source scattering and interference on ripple patterns; Investigate microspectrophotometry for mapping color; and Investigate new methods for laser color marking curved surfaces and large areas.

  20. Large Marks-decahedral Pd nanoparticles synthesized by a modified hydrothermal method using a homogeneous reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiqiang; Qi, Weihong; Ji, Wenhai; Wang, Tianran; Peng, Hongcheng; Wang, Qi; Jia, Yanlin; He, Jieting

    2017-05-01

    Fivefold symmetry appears only in small particles and quasicrystals because internal stress in the particles increases with the particle size. However, a typical Marks decahedron with five re-entrant grooves located at the ends of the twin boundaries can further reduce the strain energy. During hydrothermal synthesis, it is difficult to stir the reaction solution contained in a digestion high-pressure tank because of the relatively small size and high-temperature and high-pressure sealed environment. In this work, we optimized a hydrothermal reaction system by replacing the conventional drying oven with a homogeneous reactor to shift the original static reaction solution into a full mixing state. Large Marks-decahedral Pd nanoparticles ( 90 nm) have been successfully synthesized in the optimized hydrothermal synthesis system. Additionally, in the products, round Marks-decahedral Pd particles were also found for the first time. While it remains a challenge to understand the growth mechanism of the fivefold twinned structure, we proposed a plausible growth-mediated mechanism for Marks-decahedral Pd nanoparticles based on observations of the synthesis process.

  1. The potential for targeted rewriting of epigenetic marks in COPD as a new therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan-Dan; Song, Juan; Bartel, Sabine; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne; Rots, Marianne G; Hylkema, Machteld N

    2017-08-19

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an age and smoking related progressive, pulmonary disorder presenting with poorly reversible airflow limitation as a result of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The prevalence, disease burden for the individual, and mortality of COPD continues to increase, whereas no effective treatment strategies are available. For many years now, a combination of bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory corticosteroids has been most widely used for therapeutic management of patients with persistent COPD. However, this approach has had disappointing results as a large number of COPD patients are corticosteroid resistant. In patients with COPD, there is emerging evidence showing aberrant expression of epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs in blood, sputum and lung tissue. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches may exist using epigenetic therapy. This review aims to describe and summarize current knowledge of aberrant expression of epigenetic marks in COPD. In addition, tools available for restoration of epigenetic marks are described, as well as delivery mechanisms of epigenetic editors to cells. Targeting epigenetic marks might be a very promising tool for treatment and lung regeneration in COPD in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Book Review: Mark Aronoff's Morphology by Itself: Stems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Rivers State University of Science and Technology. Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. E-mail: isaaceyingulube@yahoo.com. Bibliographic Information. Aronoff, Mark (1994). Morphology by Itself: Stems and Inflectional Classes. Linguistic. Inquiry Monograph Series, 22. Cambridge, M.A: Mit Press, Pp. Xviii+210.

  3. 46 CFR 195.11-20 - Marking and label plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plate. (a) All vans shall be provided with a label plate stating light weight, gross weight, and power requirements where applicable. (b) For vans subject to inspection label plates shall provide space for the date... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and label plate. 195.11-20 Section 195.11-20...

  4. Case Marking in Hungarian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kas, Bence; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) acquiring a language with a rich case marking system (Hungarian) have difficulty with case, and, if so, whether the difficulty is comparable for spatial and nonspatial meanings. Data were drawn from narrative samples and from a sentence repetition task. Suffixes were…

  5. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Handling of numerous processing variables to control defects is a mammoth task that costs time, effort and money. This paper presents a simple and efficient way to study the influence of injection molding variables on sink marks using Taguchi approach. Using the Taguchi approach, optimal parameter settings and the ...

  6. Electronic Marking of Statistics Assessments for Bioscience Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Karen L.; Underwood, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the main features of a program written to perform electronic marking of quantitative or simple text questions. One of the main benefits is that it can check answers for being consistent with earlier errors, so can cope with a range of numerical questions. We summarise our experience of using it in a statistics course taught to 200…

  7. Glycosylated haemoglobin is markedly elevated in new and known ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a tendency to significantly positive correlation between blood glucose and HbA1c in new diabetes patients. Conclusions: In our setting, DKA is associated with markedly elevated HbA1c levels in known type 1, known type 2 and new onset diabetes. Key words: Glycosylated haemoglobin, ketoacidosis, Known and ...

  8. 50 CFR 20.66 - Marking of package or container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of package or container. 20.66 Section 20.66 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.... No person shall import migratory game birds via the Postal Service or a common carrier unless the...

  9. Book Review: Mark Aronoff's Morphology by Itself: Stems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v9i4.11. Book Review: Mark Aronoff's Morphology by Itself: Stems and. Inflectional Classes. Emmanuel, O. Alfred. University of Port Harcourt. Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. &. Ngulube, Isaac Eyi. Rivers State University of Science and Technology. Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

  10. Pärnakad eelistavad linnapeana Mark Soosaart / Ester Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2005-01-01

    Isamaaliidu Pärnu osakonna korraldatud küsitlus näitas, et kolmandik 448 küsitletust avaldab toetust Pärnu Linnakodanike Ühenduse linnapeakandidaadile Mark Soosaarele, erakondadest pälvis 35% toetuse Reformierakond. Diagrammid: Toetus linnapeakandidaadile; Toetus erakonnale

  11. Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding sites across promoters of sense-intronic long noncoding RNAs. Sourav Ghosh, Satish Sati, Shantanu Sengupta and Vinod Scaria. J. Genet. 94, 17–25. Gencode V9 lncRNA gene : 11004. Known lncRNA : 1175. Novel lncRNA : 5898. Putative lncRNA :.

  12. The Information Literacy of Survey Mark Hunting: A Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Galas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article makes connections between the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education and the activity of survey mark hunting. After a brief review of the literature related to geographic information systems (GIS, information literacy, and gamification of learning, the authors enter into a dialogue in which they discover and describe the...

  13. 75 FR 81587 - Coding of Design Marks in Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... newly registered trademarks in its searchable electronic database with design mark codes based on the... trademark examining attorneys used the automated system exclusively to conduct their searches. The USPTO... Trademark Search Facility Classification Code Index (``TC Index''). The TC Index allowed those who wished to...

  14. Space Radiation Analysis for the Mark III Spacesuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Bill; Boeder, Paul; Ross, Amy

    2013-01-01

    NASA has continued the development of space systems by applying and integrating improved technologies that include safety issues, lightweight materials, and electronics. One such area is extravehicular (EVA) spacesuit development with the most recent Mark III spacesuit. In this paper the Mark III spacesuit is discussed in detail that includes the various components that comprise the spacesuit, materials and their chemical composition that make up the spacesuit, and a discussion of the 3-D CAD model of the Mark III spacesuit. In addition, the male (CAM) and female (CAF) computerized anatomical models are also discussed in detail. We combined the spacesuit and the human models, that is, we developed a method of incorporating the human models in the Mark III spacesuit and performed a ray-tracing technique to determine the space radiation shielding distributions for all of the critical body organs. These body organ shielding distributions include the BFO (Blood-Forming Organs), skin, eye, lungs, stomach, and colon, to name a few, for both the male and female. Using models of the trapped (Van Allen) proton and electron environments, radiation exposures were computed for a typical low earth orbit (LEO) EVA mission scenario including the geostationary (GEO) high electron environment. A radiation exposure assessment of these mission scenarios is made to determine whether or not the crew radiation exposure limits are satisfied, and if not, the additional shielding material that would be required to satisfy the crew limits.

  15. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    It was observed that thermal conductivity of the mold material does influence sink marks. DOE has been widely used by various researchers for optimization of injection molding process to control defects and improve quality. Patel and Mallick (1998) applied DOE for defect reduction in injection molding. Sink index was ...

  16. Telecollaborative Desktop-Videoconferencing Exchange: The Case of Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    This presentation is a case study of the Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC) development of Mark, one of ten American students engaged in a desktop-videoconferencing telecollaborative exchange with a class of French students. Due in part to its inherent complexity, this context has not been widely researched. To observe ICC development, I…

  17. Witnesses to the truth: Mark's point of view

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-12

    Aug 12, 2016 ... Mark's rhetoric, though direct, is compellingly communicated through his narrative (Rhoads, Dewey & Michie 1999:7). 4.Resseguie goes even .... tradition that Jesus stands in), then has John 'tell' (Mk 1:8), then, finally ... mind is settled; if the omniscient narrator, the Old Testament, John the Baptist and.

  18. The scent marking behaviour of the brown hyaena Hyaena brunnea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deposition onto grass stalks of two distinct, strongsmelling substances produced in the anal scent pouch, is the most common form of scent marking in the brown hyaena (Hyaena brunnea). It is called pasting. The behaviour associated with pasting is described, as is the related functional anatomy of the scent pouch.

  19. 7 CFR 319.75-5 - Marking and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and identity. 319.75-5 Section 319.75-5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... identity. (a) Any restricted article at the time of importation shall plainly and correctly bear on the...

  20. 7 CFR 340.7 - Marking and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and identity. 340.7 Section 340.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... identity. (a) Any regulated article to be imported other than by mail, shall, at the time of importation...

  1. Koht, kust tagasi ei tulda / Mark Jenkins ; fotod Cory Richards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jenkins, Mark

    2015-01-01

    National Geographicu ekspeditsiooni, mille koosseisu kuulusid Renan Ozturk, Mark Jenkins, Cory Richards, Emily Harrington ja Kilaree O'Neill, püüdlustest tõusta Kagu-Aasia kõrgeima mäe Hkakabo Razi tippu ning mõõta selle täpset kõrgust GPS-i abil

  2. How prosody marks shifts in footing in classroom discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skidmore, David; Murakami, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    Prosody refers to features of speech such as intonation, volume and pace. In this paper, we examine teacher–student dialogue in an English lesson at a secondary school in England, using Conversation Analysis notation to mark features of prosody. We also make connections with Goffman’s theoretical...

  3. 25 CFR 310.4 - Application of mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR USE OF GOVERNMENT MARKS OF GENUINENESS FOR ALASKAN... be applied to the article with a rubber stamp to be furnished by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board... U S Indian Arts & Crafts Board I D or, in the case of articles too small to carry this stamp: ( ) U...

  4. 25 CFR 310.7 - Application of mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR USE OF GOVERNMENT MARKS OF GENUINENESS FOR ALASKAN... be applied to the article with a rubber stamp to be furnished by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board... U S Indian Arts & Crafts Board I D or, in the case of articles too small to carry this stamp: ( ) U...

  5. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF... owned by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board. ...

  6. Külaline kunstiilma tipust / Mark Jones ; intervjueerinud Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jones, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Kumu Kunstimuuseumis on 23. jaanuarini 2011 avatud näitus "John Constable. Victoria & Alberti muuseumi kogudest". Tallinnas viibinud muuseumi direktori söör Mark Jonesiga John Costable'i loomingust, Tallinna näitusest, Constable'i kollektsioonist Victoria & Alberti muuseumis, Victoria & Alberti muuseumist ja selle näitustest

  7. The Acquisition of Korean Plural Marking by Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the L2 acquisition of Korean plural marking by English-speaking learners within a feature-reassembly approach--a formal feature-based approach suggesting that native-like attainment of L2 morphosyntactic knowledge is determined by whether learners can reconfigure the formal features assembled in functional categories and…

  8. Dialekmerkers in die Afrikaanse literatuur Dialect marking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on research on the socio-linguistic aspects of dialect marking in Afrikaans literature since the 19th century. The ways in which dialect forms are being used in literature can be seen as “acts of identity”, as described by Le Page and Tabouret-Keller (1985). In the 19th century some Afrikaans writers only ...

  9. "Denture marking" as an aid to forensic identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Jayashree; Kumar, C Dhinesh; Simon, Paul

    2012-09-01

    "Identification through forensic science is an art of giving the corpse a name A real life detective work that would put even Sherlock Homes to shame." Forensic dentistry deals with proper handling and examination of dental evidence and proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings in interest of justice. Denture marking or labeling is not a new concept in either Prosthetic or Forensic dentistry and its routine practice has been urged by Forensic dentists internationally for many years. Denture marking is accepted as a means of identifying dentures and persons in geriatric institutions or post mortem during war, crimes, and civil unrest, natural and mass disasters. Prosthodontists are playing very important role in forensic dentistry as they are concerned with fabrication of various prostheses which can serve as an important tool for identification. Identification is essential requirement of any medico-legal investigation because a wrong identity may pose a problem in delivering justice. The main objective of this article is to discuss the various methods of denture marking and to emphasize the importance of denture marking for person identification in medico legal investigations.

  10. Finiteness Marking in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra M.; Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated finiteness marking (e.g., he walk "s", he walk "ed") in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS); the boys were grouped based on receptive vocabulary (i.e., borderline, impaired). Method: Twenty-one boys with the full mutation of fragile X, between the ages of 8 and 16 years participated. The…

  11. 5 CFR 1312.8 - Standard identification and markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... front and back cover, on the title page, and on the first page. (6) The highest classification of...), will be typed or marked at the beginning or end of each paragraph or section of the document. If all...” together with the classification level, e.g., “(FGI-C)”. In such cases, separate document identifying the...

  12. A quantitative analysis of the marked asymmetry existing between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pelvic girdle musculature of eleven of the eighteen southern African Mabuya species described by Branch (1988) was examined, using differences in mass to emphasize the marked asymmetry existing between partners of certain muscle pairs. The lighter muscles expressed as indices of their heavier partners gave a ...

  13. Transient Central Diabetes Insipidus and Marked Hypernatremia following Cardiorespiratory Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar H. Koubar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Diabetes Insipidus is often an overlooked complication of cardiopulmonary arrest and anoxic brain injury. We report a case of transient Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI following cardiopulmonary arrest. It developed 4 days after the arrest resulting in polyuria and marked hypernatremia of 199 mM. The latter was exacerbated by replacing the hypotonic urine by isotonic saline.

  14. The Indian Institute of Science: Marking a Centenary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 5. The Indian Institute of Science: Marking a Centenary. P Balaram. General Article Volume 14 Issue 5 May 2009 pp 416-429. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/05/0416-0429 ...

  15. The Roles of Punctuation Marks while Learning about Written Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, Barbara M.; Cayton, Gabrielle A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-three kindergarten and first grade children were asked to articulate the meaning and the need for punctuation marks in a list of numerals showing prices for a list of items. Despite not having been schooled yet formally on the use and roles of numerical punctuation, many children gave similar explanations regarding the purpose of…

  16. Subject marking, coordination and noun classes in ciNsenga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subject marking on the Bantu verb seems to be a straightforward process in clauses with simple subject noun phrases (NP) as the verb only has to agree with a single NP. With conjoined NPs, on the other hand, subject-verb agreement is more complicated as there are three possibilities for such agreement: (i) agreement ...

  17. Forensic dentistry and human bite marks: issues for doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A; Hall, Rachel C

    2002-08-01

    The human dentition can be used as a weapon of attack or defence. Bite mark injuries are common in cases of sexual assault, child abuse and homicide. Many bite injuries are first seen in casualty departments where quick and proper recovery of evidence can assist in analysing these injuries. This article describes different bite injuries, collection of evidence and comparative analysis methods.

  18. Natural markings and their use in determining calving intervals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-10-06

    Oct 6, 1987 ... 3,6% of the calves born but may be sex linked. In 19 animals carrying dorsal marks that were ..... effects on the rate of water flow these callosities are frequently associated with large numbers of ..... therefore, this might result in the recognition of fewer calving intervals and (if the changes are reversed.

  19. Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    promoters, our analysis suggests a possible alternative mechanism of regulation and/or biogenesis of sense-intronic lncRNAs. [Ghosh S., Sati S., Sengupta S. and Scaria V. 2015 Distinct patterns of epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding sites across promoters of sense-intronic long noncoding RNAs. J. Genet.

  20. 22 CFR 9.7 - Identification and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... guidance in 12 Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM). (b) Foreign government information shall retain its original... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification and marking. 9.7 Section 9.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.7 Identification and...