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Sample records for etiolated barley plants

  1. Changes in the state of carotenoid pigments during greening of etiolated barley seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilova, S.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in the metabolism of carotenoid pigments during greening of etiolated barley seedlings have been studied. The experiments were carried out with six-day-old etiolated plants, having a well-developed first leaf, grown on 1/2 Knop nutrient solution. The plants were illuminated with light, 10 000 lux intensity. Samples for analysis were taken at nil, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours. The extraction of the pigments was effected with the aid of the fractionation method according to Chernomorski and Sapozhnikov. The specific radioactivity of the individual carotenoid pigments was measured. To this end the plants were placed on a solution of sodium acetate ( 14 C) for 18 hours before illumination. The radiochemical purification of the pigments was carried out on an aluminium oxide column, after their chromatographic separation on paper. The results obtained from the experiments show that the illumination of the plants leads to a 2.4-fold increase in the total amount of carotenoids. The amount of the carotene increases approximately about 8 times over a 24-hour period and that of the xanthophylles - almost two times. A rhythm is observed in the formation of lutein and violaxanthin, which is discussed in connection with the participation of these pigments in the formation and the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. The data on the changes in the state of the individual pigments indicate differences in accordance with their nature. The distinct manifestation of the heterogeneity of the carotene is observed in the case where the photosynthesis apparatus is fully formed. Obviously, the manifestation of the heterogeneity of that pigment is related to the formation of chloroplast and changes in the environment. Data on changes in the specific radioactivity of the easily-extractable fractions of the lutein and the violaxanthin show that the newly-synthesized molecules are more easily extractable. (author)

  2. Modulation of the nitrate reductase transcript by cytokinin and abscisic acid in etiolated barley seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jia-ling; Enl, J.R.; Chen, Chong-maw

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of the hormonal modulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) and/or abscisic acid (ABA) on the level of NR poly(A)RNA was studied in etiolated barley seedlings using a 32 P-labelled NR cDNA as a probe. Enhancement of NR activity by 2 x 10 -5 M BA was measurable only after 60 minutes of exposure of the seedlings to light, while a significant stimulatory effect on the transcript level could by clearly detected within 15 minutes. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly(A)RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of BA applied to the seedlings. The stimulatory effects seen for BA were nullified by ABA. The counteractive effects of ABA on BA were dose-responsive, with greater inhibition at higher concentrations of ABA. Evidence suggests that the interaction of BA and ABA on NR activity is at the transcriptional level, however, is also possible that interactions occur at the postranscriptional level as well

  3. A protochlorophyllide light-harvesting complex involved in de-etiolation of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbothe, C.; Lebedev, N.; Reinbothe, S.

    1999-01-01

    When etiolated angiosperm seedlings break through the soil after germination, they are immediately exposed to sunlight, but at this stage they are unable to perform photosynthesis1. In the absence of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, two other porphyrin species cooperate as the basic light-harvesting structure of etiolated plants. Protochlorophyllide a and protochlorophyllide b (ref. 2) form supramolecular complexes with NADPH and two closely related NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins—PORA and PORB (ref. 3)—in the prolamellar body of etioplasts. Here we report that these light-harvesting POR–protochlorophyllide complexes, named LHPP, are essential for the establishment of the photosynthetic apparatus and also confer photoprotection on the plant. They collect sunlight for rapid chlorophyll a biosynthesis and, simultaneously, dissipate excess light energy in the bulk of non-photoreducible protochlorophyllide b. Based on this dual function, it seems that LHPP provides the link between skotomorphogenesis and photosynthesis that is required for efficient de-etiolation

  4. Emprego do estiolamento na propagação de plantas Etiolation to clonal plant propagation

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    Luiz Antonio Biasi

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O estiolamento tem sido utilizado com sucesso no enraizamento de diversas espécies frutíferas e ornamentais lenhosas. Os resultados geralmente são melhores combinando esta técnica com o andamento ou aplicação de reguladores de crescimento. O estiolamento pode ser utilizado de diversas formas, em plantas à campo ou em casa de vegetação. O enraizamento pode ocorrer com os ramos ainda ligados a planta-matriz, realizando-se uma mergulhia, ou então destacados, realizando-se uma estaquia. Neste último caso, após o crescimento do ramo estiolado, ele é novamente exposto à luz, mas com um revestimento opaco em sua base, para que o resto do ramo torne-se verde, mas a base, onde ocorrerá o enraizamento, continue estiolada. O fenômeno ainda não está totalmente conhecido, mas sabe-se que o estiolamento provoca alterações anatômicas e fisiológicas nos tecidos que estão correlacionadas com o melhor enraizamento. Ocorrem reduções na lignificação e suberificação dos tecidos, aumento de tecidos parenquimáticos indiferenciados e redução na espessura das paredes celulares. Também é alterado o controle da luz sobre o metabolismo de auxinas, causando alterações no conteúdo de compostos fenólicos e na atividade do AIA-oxidase e de cofatores do enraizamento.Etiolation has been used successfully to improve rooting in cuttings of woody fruit-tree and ornamental species. The cuttings rooting is usually better when etiolation is used together with ringbarking or hormone application. Etiolation can be achieved through different forms by covering the stock plants in the field or in the greenhouse. The shoots can be rooted while they are still attached to the stock plant, by stooling or they are removed like cuttings. In this case, after the etiolated shoots have elongated enough, the shading is gradually reduced and an opaque band is wrapped around the base of the new shoot, thereby retaining its etiolated condition while the rest of the

  5. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  6. γ-ray radiation decontamination of barley plant powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaojun; Fu Junjie; Wang Zhiping; Zhang Guobin

    2007-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of barley plant powder by 60 Co γ-rays and the effect on its components were studied. Results showed that irradiation was very effective in killing the microorganisms in barley plant powder. The irradiation did not cause obvious changes of the major components of protein, total sugar, free amino acid, crude fiber, but 35% loss of vitamin E was observed after 10kGy irradiation. It is suggested that 7.5-10kGy irradiation is good enough for decontamination of the barley plant powder. (authors)

  7. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CADMIUM INTERACTIONS WITH BARLEY PLANTS: AN OVERVIEW

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    A VASSILEV

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of author’s previous publications, unpublished results as well as available literature on barley responses to Cd contamination. The physiological backgrounds of the acute Cd toxicity in barley plants are briefly described. Some data characterizing the chronic Cd toxicity in barley have been also provided in relation to its possible use for seed production and Cd phytoextraction on Cd-contaminated agricultural soils. Information about the main physiological factors limiting growth of Cd-exposed barley plants and grain yield, seedling quality as well as Cd phytoextraction capacity of barley grown in Cd-contaminated soils is presented.

  9. BarleyBase—an expression profiling database for plant genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lishuang; Gong, Jian; Caldo, Rico A.; Nettleton, Dan; Cook, Dianne; Wise, Roger P.; Dickerson, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    BarleyBase (BB) (www.barleybase.org) is an online database for plant microarrays with integrated tools for data visualization and statistical analysis. BB houses raw and normalized expression data from the two publicly available Affymetrix genome arrays, Barley1 and Arabidopsis ATH1 with plans to include the new Affymetrix 61K wheat, maize, soybean and rice arrays, as they become available. BB contains a broad set of query and display options at all data levels, ranging from experiments to individual hybridizations to probe sets down to individual probes. Users can perform cross-experiment queries on probe sets based on observed expression profiles and/or based on known biological information. Probe set queries are integrated with visualization and analysis tools such as the R statistical toolbox, data filters and a large variety of plot types. Controlled vocabularies for gene and plant ontologies, as well as interconnecting links to physical or genetic map and other genomic data in PlantGDB, Gramene and GrainGenes, allow users to perform EST alignments and gene function prediction using Barley1 exemplar sequences, thus, enhancing cross-species comparison. PMID:15608273

  10. Studies on luciferin-luciferase ATP assay in plants (etiolated wheat germs, and bean leaves

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    A. Barbaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For ATP determination by the method of bioluminescence apparatus of home production was adapted from the equipment available in any isotope laboratory. The measurement error did not exceed 1.5 per cent. Methodical experiments concerned the choice of the extraction, fixation and storage methods of plant material for determination at the given moment of the amount of ATP in the tissues, unchanged by the analytical procedure. The highest ATP amounts were recovered by extraction with perchloric acid at high (25% concentrations of the tissue in the homogenate. The best way of fixation of the material for later analyses was found to be freezing of ready extracts. Lyophilization and freezing of the plant material caused a several-fold decrease of the ATP level in the tissues. These results suggest the necessity of working in conditions of low temperature during the entire analytical procedure and strict observation of time limitation.

  11. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...

  12. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  13. Gravimorphism in rice and barley: promotion of leaf elongation by vertical inversion in agravitropically growing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Takahashi, H; Suge, H

    1998-12-01

    We have compared shoot responses of agravitropic rice and barley plants to vertical inversion with those of normal ones. When rice plants were vertically inverted, the main stems of a japonica type of rice, cv. Kamenoo, showed negative gravitropism at nodes 2-15 of both elongated and non-elongated internodes. However, shoots of lazy line of rice, lazy-Kamenoo, bent gravitropically at nodes 11-15 only elongated internodes but not at nodes 2-10 of non-elongated ones. Thus, shoots of Kamenoo responded gravitropically at all stages of growth, whereas shoots of lazy-Kamenoo did not show gravitropic response before heading. In Kamenoo plants, lengths of both leaf-sheath and leaf-blade were shortened by vertical inversion, but those of the vertically inverted plants of lazy-Kamenoo were significantly longer than the plants in an upright position. When agravitropic and normal plants of barley were vertically inverted, the same results as in rice were obtained; elongation of both leaf-sheath and leaf-blade was inhibited in normal barley plants, Chikurin-Ibaragi No. 1, but significantly stimulated in agravitropic plants of serpentina barley. These results suggest that vertical inversion of rice and barley plants enhances the elongation growth of leaves in the absence of tropistic response.

  14. Changes in isovitexin-O-glycosylation during the development of young barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauch, Dominic; Porzel, Andrea; Schumann, Erika; Pillen, Klaus; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Phenylpropanoids are a class of plant natural products that have many biological functions, including stress defence. In barley, phenylpropanoids have been described as having protective properties against excess UV-B radiation and have been linked to resistance to pathogens. Although the phenylpropanoid composition of barley has recently been addressed in more detail, the biosynthesis and regulation of this pathway have not been fully established. Barley introgression lines, such as the S42IL-population offer a set of genetically diverse plants that enable the correlation of metabolic data to distinct genetic regions on the barley genome and, subsequently, identification of relevant genes. The phenylpropanoid profiles of the first and third leaf of barley seedlings in Scarlett and four members of the S42IL-population were obtained by LC-MS. Comparison of the leaf profiles revealed a change in the glycosylation pattern of the flavone-6-C-glucoside isovitexin in the elite cultivar Scarlett. The change was characterized by the stepwise decrease in isovitexin-7-O-glucoside (saponarin) and an increase in isovitexin-2″-O-β-D-glucoside content. The lines S42IL-101-, -177 and -178 were completely devoid of isovitexin-2″-O-β-D-glucoside. Parallel glucosyltransferase assays were consistent with the observed metabolic patterns. The genetic region responsible for this metabolic effect was located on chromosome 1H between 0.21 and 15.08 cM, encompassing 505 gene candidates in the genome of the sequenced cultivar Morex. Only one of these genes displayed sequence similarity with glucosyltransferases of plant secondary metabolism that possessed the characteristic PSPG motif. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative study of the radionuclide uptake and distribution within plants for barley and maize varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, O.

    1998-01-01

    Differences in the Cs-134 and Sr-85 uptake by three barley and two maize varieties were investigated in a water culture experiment. In barley, the maximum differences were about 30% for cesium and 50% for strontium. The differences between the maize varieties were negligible. The maximum difference between the varieties of the two species of crops was approximately 30% for cesium and 1 70% for strontium with higher radionuclide uptake by maize. All barley varieties accumulated cesium nearly 3.5 times more effectively than strontium, whereas for the maize varieties, cesium was accumulated about 2 times more effectively. There is a large difference in the radionuclide distribution within the plants: the amount of radiocesium in the green part of plants of both species was approximately 30% of the total, while for radiostrontium it was about 80%. As a result, approximately the same amount of the radionuclides were present in the green part of plants, despite the large difference in the uptake of the radionuclides by the whole plants. It is concluded that crop selection as a provision to reduce radionuclide contamination of the food chain should only be applied taking into account the different radionuclide distributions within the plants

  16. Plasma membrane and salinity tolerance of barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rahmani, F. H.; Al-Mashhadani, M. S.; Al-Delemee, N. H.

    1997-01-01

    Barley cultivar, California Mario ut, was grown in a nutrient solution containing increasing Nacl concentrations up to 250 mm. The effect of Nacl on growth, mineral compost ion ant integrity of the plasma membrane was studied. Growth of the shoot'and root was stimulated or little affected by 10 and 20 ml Nacl. Further increase in Nacl concentrations depressed the growth. The depression was conspicuous between 100 and 250 mm Nacl. Increasing Nacl concentration decreased potassium content in the shoots and roots and led to steep increase in sodium accumulation. The integrity of the plasma membrane was measured in term of potassium leakage from the root tips. Rapid leakage of potassium was obtained at Nacl concentrations ranging from 100 to 250 mm. At the same concentrations of Nacl, adenosine triphosphatase activity in the root tips was increased. Results indicate that the plasma membrane of root cells was damaged by the increased levels of salinity. It was concluded that the plasma membrane of root cells is the primary site of salinity toxicity. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs. 3 figs

  17. Barley yellow mosaic virus VPg is the determinant protein for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance in barley plants

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    Huangai Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV, genus Bymovirus factor(s responsible for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance genes (rym4/5/6 in barley. Genome mapping analysis using chimeric infectious cDNA clones between rym5-breaking (JT10 and rym5-non-breaking (JK05 isolates indicated that genome-linked viral protein (VPg is the determinant protein for breaking the rym5 resistance. Likewise, VPg is also responsible for overcoming the resistances of rym4 and rym6 alleles. Mutational analysis identified that amino acids Ser-118, Thr-120 and His-142 in JT10 VPg are the most critical residues for overcoming rym5 resistance in protoplasts. Moreover, the rym5-non-breaking JK05 could accumulate in the rym5 protoplasts when eIF4E derived from a susceptible barley cultivar was expressed from the viral genome. Thus, the compatibility between VPg and host eIF4E determines the ability of BaYMV to infect barley plants.

  18. Fusion of Plant Height and Vegetation Indices for the Estimation of Barley Biomass

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    Nora Tilly

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is an important parameter for crop management and yield estimation. However, since biomass cannot be determined non-destructively, other plant parameters are used for estimations. In this study, plant height and hyperspectral data were used for barley biomass estimations with bivariate and multivariate models. During three consecutive growing seasons a terrestrial laser scanner was used to establish crop surface models for a pixel-wise calculation of plant height and manual measurements of plant height confirmed the results (R2 up to 0.98. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements were conducted with a field spectrometer and used for calculating six vegetation indices (VIs, which have been found to be related to biomass and LAI: GnyLi, NDVI, NRI, RDVI, REIP, and RGBVI. Furthermore, biomass samples were destructively taken on almost the same dates. Linear and exponential biomass regression models (BRMs were established for evaluating plant height and VIs as estimators of fresh and dry biomass. Each BRM was established for the whole observed period and pre-anthesis, which is important for management decisions. Bivariate BRMs supported plant height as a strong estimator (R2 up to 0.85, whereas BRMs based on individual VIs showed varying performances (R2: 0.07–0.87. Fused approaches, where plant height and one VI were used for establishing multivariate BRMs, yielded improvements in some cases (R2 up to 0.89. Overall, this study reveals the potential of remotely-sensed plant parameters for estimations of barley biomass. Moreover, it is a first step towards the fusion of 3D spatial and spectral measurements for improving non-destructive biomass estimations.

  19. Barley Benefits from Organic Nitrogen in Plant Residues Applied to Soil using 15N Isotope Dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A.M.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Abdel Aziz, H.A.; El-Degwy, S.M.A.; Abd El-Haleem, M.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in pots (sandy soil cultivated with Barley plant) under greenhouse conditions, at Inshas, Egypt. The aim was to evaluate the transformation of nitrogen applied either as mineral form ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , or as organic-material-N (plant residues) .Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Labeled 15 N as( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (5 % a.e) or plant residues (ground leuceana forage, compost, and mixture of them) were applied at a rate of 20 kg N/ ha). 15 N technique was used to evaluate N-uptake and fertilizer use efficiency. The treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design under greenhouse conditions. The obtained results showed that the dry weight of barley shoots was positively affected by reinforcement of mineral- N with organic-N. On the other hand, the highest dry weight was estimated with leuceana either applied alone or reinforced with mineral N. Similar trend was noticed with N uptake but only with organic N, while with treatment received 50% organic-N. plus 50% mineral- N. the best value of N uptake was recorded with mixture of leuceana and compost. The amount of Ndff was lowest where fertilizer 15 N was applied alone. Comparing Ndff for the three organic treatments which received a combination of fertilizer- 15 N+organic-material-N, results showed that the highest Ndff was occurred with mixture of leuceana and compost, whereas the lowest was induced with individual leuceana treatment. 15 N recovery in shoots of barley ranged between 22.14 % to 82.16 %. The lowest occurred with application of mineral 15 N alone and; the highest occurred where mineral 15 N was mixed with compost or leucaena-compost mixture

  20. Estiolamento na micropropagação do Abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola Etiolated in micropropagation of cv. Pérola Pineapple plant

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    Maria Aparecida Moreira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do estiolamento na micropropagação de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola e posterior recuperação dos brotos estiolados, realizando-se dois experimentos. No primeiro, os caules utilizados como explantes foram obtidos de brotos pré-estabelecidos in vitro, dos quais foram retiradas as folhas. O estiolamento foi induzido colocando-se os explantes em tubos de ensaio no escuro por 20, 40 e 80 dias, contendo os seguintes meios de cultura: 1 MS suplementado com 0,1 mg.L-1 de ANA e 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 2 MS suplementado com 1,8 mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP e 3 MS sem reguladores de crescimento. Para número de brotos, o melhor meio foi o MS + 1,8 mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP, obtendo-se média de 10,26 brotações aos 40 dias no escuro. Para comprimento de brotos estiolados, o meio MS sem reguladores de crescimento foi significativamente melhor quando os explantes foram mantidos por 80 dias no escuro, apresentando comprimento médio de 10,86 cm. No segundo experimento, os brotos estiolados, com e sem o ápice, foram colocados horizontalmente em placas contendo meios de cultura com idêntica formulação aos descritos anteriormente. Para número total de brotos, brotações estioladas sem ápice em meio MS suplementado com 1,8mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP promoveram o melhor resultado, correspondendo a 10,61 brotações por explante.It was aimed to produce micropropagated plantlets of pineapple cv. Pérola by using the etiolated technique and subsequent recovery of etiolated shoots. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, the stalks used as explant were obtained from in vitro shoots established without leaves. The etiolation was induced by putting the explants in test tubes in the darkness for 20, 40 and 80 days with the media: 1 MS supplemented with ANA 0.1mg.L-1 and BAP 0.5mg.L-1, 2 MS supplemented with ANA 1.8mg.L-1 and BAP 2mg.L-1 and 3 MS without growth regulators. The best results for shoot number were obtained

  1. Changes of primary and secondary metabolites in barley plants exposed to CdO nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřová, Kristýna; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil; Oravec, Michal; Pompeiano, Antonio; Tříska, Jan; Urban, Otmar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 218, NOV (2016), s. 207-218 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/2315; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15039 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : Barley * CdO nanoparticles * Gas chromatography * High performance liquid chromatography * Mass spectrometry * Plant metabolites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UIACH-O) Impact factor: 5.099, year: 2016

  2. Dehydration Stress Contributes to the Enhancement of Plant Defense Response and Mite Performance on Barley

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    M. E. Santamaria

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Under natural conditions, plants suffer different stresses simultaneously or in a sequential way. At present, the combined effect of biotic and abiotic stressors is one of the most important threats to crop production. Understanding how plants deal with the panoply of potential stresses affecting them is crucial to develop biotechnological tools to protect plants. As well as for drought stress, the economic importance of the spider mite on agriculture is expected to increase due to climate change. Barley is a host of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and drought produces important yield losses. To obtain insights on the combined effect of drought and mite stresses on the defensive response of this cereal, we have analyzed the transcriptomic responses of barley plants subjected to dehydration (water-deficit treatment, spider mite attack, or to the combined dehydration-spider mite stress. The expression patterns of mite-induced responsive genes included many jasmonic acid responsive genes and were quickly induced. In contrast, genes related to dehydration tolerance were later up-regulated. Besides, a higher up-regulation of mite-induced defenses was showed by the combined dehydration and mite treatment than by the individual mite stress. On the other hand, the performance of the mite in dehydration stressed and well-watered plants was tested. Despite the stronger defensive response in plants that suffer dehydration and mite stresses, the spider mite demonstrates a better performance under dehydration condition than in well-watered plants. These results highlight the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a combination of stresses and emphasize the difficulties to predict their consequences on crop production.

  3. Dehydration Stress Contributes to the Enhancement of Plant Defense Response and Mite Performance on Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, M. E.; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Under natural conditions, plants suffer different stresses simultaneously or in a sequential way. At present, the combined effect of biotic and abiotic stressors is one of the most important threats to crop production. Understanding how plants deal with the panoply of potential stresses affecting them is crucial to develop biotechnological tools to protect plants. As well as for drought stress, the economic importance of the spider mite on agriculture is expected to increase due to climate change. Barley is a host of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and drought produces important yield losses. To obtain insights on the combined effect of drought and mite stresses on the defensive response of this cereal, we have analyzed the transcriptomic responses of barley plants subjected to dehydration (water-deficit) treatment, spider mite attack, or to the combined dehydration-spider mite stress. The expression patterns of mite-induced responsive genes included many jasmonic acid responsive genes and were quickly induced. In contrast, genes related to dehydration tolerance were later up-regulated. Besides, a higher up-regulation of mite-induced defenses was showed by the combined dehydration and mite treatment than by the individual mite stress. On the other hand, the performance of the mite in dehydration stressed and well-watered plants was tested. Despite the stronger defensive response in plants that suffer dehydration and mite stresses, the spider mite demonstrates a better performance under dehydration condition than in well-watered plants. These results highlight the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a combination of stresses and emphasize the difficulties to predict their consequences on crop production. PMID:29681917

  4. Influence of sulfur dioxide and ozone on vegetation of bean and barley plants under different soil moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowski, A; Grzesiak, S

    1974-01-01

    The effects of toxic gases on extent of injuries to assimilating surface, dry weight yields, and generative development in bean and barley were studied in three successive phases of vegetation under conditions of optimum soil moisture and of drought just above the wilting point. Experiments with ozone and sulfur dioxide on bean and SO/sub 2/ on barley demonstrate that the susceptibility of plants to toxic gases decrease under drought conditions that cause a temporary dehydration of tissues. Determinations of sulfate sulfur contents in different plant organs show that a lower hydration of tissues is accompanied by lower adsorption of sulfur dioxide.

  5. Spatio-temporal changes in endogenous abscisic acid contents during etiolated growth and photomorphogenesis in tomato seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humplík, Jan; Turečková, Veronika; Fellner, Martin; Bergougnoux, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), č. článku e1039213. ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arabidopsis seedlings * blue-light * phytochromes * germination * metabolism * dormancy * barley * seeds * abscisic acid * blue-light * etiolated growth * photomorphogenesis * tomato Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  6. Systemic responses of barley to the 3-hydroxy-decanoyl-homoserine lactone producing plant beneficial endophyte Acidovorax radicis N35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengcai Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing auto-inducers of the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL type produced by Gram-negative bacteria have different effects on plants including stimulation on root growth and/or priming or acquirement of systemic resistance in plants. In this communication the influence of AHL production of the plant growth promoting endophytic rhizosphere bacterium Acidovorax radicis N35 on barley seedlings was investigated. A. radicis N35 produces 3-hydroxy-C10-homoserine lactone (3-OH-C10-HSL as the major AHL compound. To study the influence of this QS autoinducer on the interaction with barley, the araI-biosynthesis gene was deleted. The comparison of inoculation effects of the A. radicis N35 wild type and the araI mutant resulted in remarkable differences. While the N35 wild type colonized plant roots effectively in microcolonies, the araI mutant occurred at the root surface as single cells. Furthermore, in a mixed inoculum the wild type was much more prevalent in colonization than the araI mutant documenting that the araI mutation affected root colonization. Nevertheless, a significant plant growth promoting effect could be shown after inoculation of barley with the wild type and the araI mutant in soil after two months cultivation. While A. radicis N35 wild type showed only a very weak induction of early defense responses in plant RNA expression analysis, the araI mutant caused increased expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes. This was corroborated by the accumulation of several flavonoid compounds such as saponarin and lutonarin in leaves of root inoculated barley seedlings. Thus, although the exact role of the flavonoids in this plant response is not clear yet, it can be concluded, that the synthesis of AHLs by A. radicis has implications on the perception by the host plant barley and thereby contributes to the establishment and function of the bacteria-plant interaction.

  7. Bioconcentration factors and plant-water partition coefficients of munitions compounds in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Sanchez, Tifany L; Kuo, Dave T F; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2017-12-01

    Plants growing in the soils at military ranges and surrounding locations are exposed, and potentially able to uptake, munitions compounds (MCs). The extent to which a compound is transferred from the environment into organisms such as plants, referred to as bioconcentration, is conventionally measured through uptake experiments with field/synthetic soils. Multiple components/phases that vary among different soil types and affect the bioavailability of the MC, however, hinder the ability to separate the effects of soil characteristics from the MC chemical properties on the resulting plant bioconcentration. To circumvent the problem, this work presents a protocol to measure steady state bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for MCs in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using inert laboratory sand rather than field/synthetic soils. Three MCs: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (2,4-DNAN), and two munition-like compounds (MLCs): 4-nitroanisole (4-NAN) and 2-methoxy-5-nitropyridine (2-M-5-NPYNE) were evaluated. Approximately constant plant biomass and exposure concentrations were achieved within a one-month period that produced steady state log BCF values: 0.62 ± 0.02, 0.70 ± 0.03, 1.30 ± 0.06, 0.52 ± 0.03, and 0.40 ± 0.05 L kg plant dwt -1 for TNT, 2,4-DNT, 2,4-DNAN, 4-NAN, and 2-M-5-NPYNE, respectively. Furthermore, results suggest that the upper-bounds of the BCFs can be estimated within an order of magnitude by measuring the partitioning of the compounds between barley biomass and water. This highlights the importance of partition equilibrium as a mechanism for the uptake of MCs and MLCs by barley from interstitial water. The results from this work provide chemically meaningful data for prediction models able to estimate the bioconcentration of these contaminants in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Proteomes of the barley aleurone layer: A model system for plant signalling and protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Andersen, Birgit; Shahpiri, Azar

    2011-01-01

    molecules in an isolated system. These properties have led to its use as a model system for the study of plant signalling and germination. More recently, proteome analysis of the aleurone layer has provided new insight into this unique tissue including identification of plasma membrane proteins and targeted...... analysis of germination-related changes and the thioredoxin system. Here, analysis of intracellular and secreted proteomes reveals features of the aleurone layer system that makes it promising for investigations of plant protein secretion mechanisms....... to gibberellic acid produced by the embryo, the aleurone layer synthesises hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for the degradation of storage products. The barley aleurone layer can be separated from the other seed tissues and maintained in culture, allowing the study of the effect of added signalling...

  9. High-resolution mapping of genes involved in plant stage-specific partial resistance of barley to leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, F.K.S.; Bouchon, R.; Kuijken, R.; Loriaux, A.; Boyd, C.; Niks, R.E.; Marcel, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    Partial resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) Rphq11 and rphq16 against Puccinia hordei isolate 1.2.1 were previously mapped in seedlings of the mapping populations Steptoe/Morex and Oregon Wolfe Barleys, respectively. In this study, QTL mapping was performed at adult plant stage for the two

  10. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out on a temperate soil to determine the decline rate, the stabilization in soil organic matter and the plant uptake of N from N-15-labelled crop residues. The fate of N from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) residues was followed...... mineralization of N was highly correlated to the concentrations of soluble C and N and the lignin:N ratio of residues. The contribution of residue-derived N to the inorganic N pool was at its maximum 30 DAI (10-55%) and declined to on average 5% after 3 years of decomposition. Residual organic labelled N...... in the top 10 cm soil declined rapidly during the initial 86 DAI for all residue types. Leaching of soluble organic materials may have contributed to this decline. At 216 DAI 72, 59 and 45% of the barley, mature pea and green pea residue N, respectively, were present in organic N-forms in the topsoil. During...

  11. Effect of Planting Date on Cold Tolerance of Winter and Spring Barley Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Eivazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate cold tolerance of twenty barley genotypes under field conditions, an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design at 3 sowing dates of October 5, November 5, and December 5 in Saatlu Agricultural Research Station, West Azarbaijan, Iran, during 2010-11 seasons. Also, another experiment was conducted on the same genotypes based on a completely randomized design under greenhouse conditions. in wich Cold stress was applied up to -25°C at two, four and six leaf development stages. LT50, ion leakage and dry matter were measured and apex photographed. Field experiment results showed the lowest significant differences at p≤0.05 between different levels of sowing date, genotype, and interaction between them for plant height, spike/m2, kernel per spike, 1000-kernel weight, grain yield and total dry matter. Genotypes of winter growth type had higher grain yield (4250kg/ha than those with spring growth type (4190kg/ha. There were significant differences for ion leakage and dry matter at 4 and 6 leaf development stages under greenhouse conditions. Genotype 1 (winter growth type with lowest values of range and standard deviation for grain yield, total dry matter and LT50 = -38 °C showed a relatively low ion leakage. In contrast, genotypes 5, 10 and 14 (spring growth type were identified sensitive to cold stress due to having more values of range, standard deviation for grain yield and total dry matter, LT50 = -18 to -27 °C and ion leakage from 25 to 33µS/m. Regression analysis showed 1000-kernel weight and total dry matter to remain at final model. Cluster analysis indicated that genotypes 2, 18, 1, 17 and 19 were superior genotypes. In principal component analysis, four components showed 80% of total variations, and the first component with 26% of variation was an important yield component for improving grain yield of barley genotypes. In conclusion, grain yields of winter and spring barley genotypes were

  12. Suberized transport barriers in Arabidopsis, barley and rice roots: From the model plant to crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreszies, Tino; Schreiber, Lukas; Ranathunge, Kosala

    2018-02-07

    Water is the most important prerequisite for life and plays a major role during uptake and transport of nutrients. Roots are the plant organs that take up the major part of water, from the surrounding soil. Water uptake is related to the root system architecture, root growth, age and species dependent complex developmental changes in the anatomical structures. The latter is mainly attributed to the deposition of suberized barriers in certain layers of cell walls, such as endo- and exodermis. With respect to water permeability, changes in the suberization of roots are most relevant. Water transport or hydraulic conductivity of roots (Lp r ) can be described by the composite transport model and is known to be very variable between plant species and growth conditions and root developmental states. In this review, we summarize how anatomical structures and apoplastic barriers of roots can diversely affect water transport, comparing the model plant Arabidopsis with crop plants, such as barley and rice. Results comparing the suberin amounts and water transport properties indicate that the common assumption that suberin amount negatively correlates with water and solute transport through roots may not always be true. The composition, microstructure and localization of suberin may also have a great impact on the formation of efficient barriers to water and solutes. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Use of gamma-Irradiation in Counteracting the Effect of Salinity for Cultivation of Barley and Pea Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.; Afifi, L.M.; Kamel, H.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Kord, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The biochemical changes induced by salinity in two economic plants (Barley and Pea) and the probable counteraction of gamma irradiation for enhancement of growth were studied. The data obtained revealed that the reduction in pigments content due to salinity treatment was more pronounced in pea plants than barley. However, gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in pigment content of both plants. The interaction effect of salinity and radiation varied from an increase in case of barley to a reduction in peas. In both plants, soluble sugars content increased due to salinity and /or gamma-radiation. Moreover, total carbohydrates increased due to the combined treatment. A matched increase in free proline content was recorded with increase of salinity. While, gamma-irradiation showed a different trend. Protein and nucleic acids contents were proportionally decreased with increase of salinity levels, whereas gamma radiation induced an increase in both protein and nucleic acids content. A progressive reduction in the yield by increasing salinity was observed, while gamma-irradiation increased the yield of both plants. 14 CO 2 fixation was reduced by salinity treatment while gamma-radiation increased it. Contrary to 14 CO 2 fixation, salinity enhanced respiration, while radiation retarded it

  14. Uptake and translocation of [14C]-monoethanolamine in barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, H.; Bergmann, H.; Reissmann, P.

    1988-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of 14 C-monoethanolamine (EA) and its hydrochloride were investigated after application to an unwounded part of the fifth leaf from the main shoot of intact spring barley plants. After 48 and 72 h, resp., the free EA base was both absorbed rapidly and translocated out of the feeding leaf. The absorbed 14 C preferably migrated to the tillers, which resulted in an approximately uniform distribution of the radioactivity in the above ground parts of the plant after the uptake phase (similar 14 C concentrations in the main shoot and tillers), whereas only few radioactivity moved to the roots. On the other hand, the protonated EA (EA-HCl) exhibited both a reduced uptake and a restricted mobility. The bulk of radioactivity remained in the main shoot. As a consequence of the principally analogous metabolism of EA and its protonated form, the translocation differences are compensated during ontogenesis. When the plants reached maturity, similar distribution patterns could be found in which the kernels represented a considerable sink. (author)

  15. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED A. BAKHETA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bakheta MA, Hussein MM. 2014. Uniconazole effect on endogenous hormones, proteins and proline contents of barley plants (Hordium vulgare under salinity stress (NaCl. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 39-44. Pot experiments were carried out during two growth seasons 2010 / 2011 under greenhouse conditions of the National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt to investigate the response of barley plants (Hordium vulgare L grown under salinity stress (2500 or 5000 ppm to spraying with solutions of uniconazole at 150 or 200 ppm. The obtained results showed that irrigation with saline solutions caused increases in the amounts of abscisic acid (ABA, crude protein, total soluble-protein and proline contents. The results showed that spraying barley plants grown under saline solutions with uniconazole increased endogenous hormone contents of ABA, cytokinins, crude protein, total soluble protein and proline but caused decreases in the amounts of endogenous indole acetic acid (IAA and gibberellic acid (GA3. High protection of abscisic acid in treating plants with uniconazole and under salt stress (interaction effect increases proline, proteins and soluble protein which has been proposed to act as compatible solutes that adjust the osmotic potential in the cytoplasm. Thus, these biochemical characters can be used as a metabolic marker in relation to salinity stress.

  16. Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei. Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of

  17. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly

  18. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th–10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter–gatherer economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergusheva, Elena A.; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N.; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440–890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter–gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early–Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the “Satsumon type” barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the “Okhotsk type” spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  19. Barley (Hordeum vulgare in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leipe

    Full Text Available This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island, the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  20. Element distribution of the barley plant grown in an agar slice suspended culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino-Nakanishi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    1991-01-01

    An agar slice suspended culture was devised for the further study of the barley root. The roots were placed into an agar covered with a nylon cloth and suspended in a water culture vessel. Barley roots grown in the agar developed hardly any root hair. The element contents of the root grown in the agar culture and that in the water culture were measured by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of K, Mg and Cl in the root grown in the agar were about half of these grown in the water. Na and Mn concentrations were the same and Ca concentration was slightly higher when grown in the agar. The agar system is expected to provide more information to study the root hair. (author)

  1. Barley Brassinosteroid Mutants Provide an Insight into Phytohormonal Homeostasis in Plant Reaction to Drought Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gruszka, D.; Janeczko, A.; Dziurka, M.; Pociecha, E.; Oklešťková, Jana; Szarejko, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, DEC 2 (2016), č. článku 1824. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : abscisic- acid * arabidopsis-thaliana * jasmonic - acid * gibberellin biosynthesis * constitutive activation * abiotic stresses * brassica-napus * rice * responses * tolerance * barley * brassinosteroids * drought * homeostasis * mutants * phytohormones Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  2. The influence of flooding on soil proportion and plant growth. 1. The influence on root development and growth of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment has been carried out to study the extent of root and shoot of barley exposed to flooding at various time of flooding. Several parameters were used in the experiment, namely the percentage of 86 Rb in the root system, dry weight of root as well as shoot, increase of leaf size, number of leaves and tillers and nitrogen content in leaf tissue. Radioactive 86 Rb-Cl was used in the experiment and injected into the plant 24 hours before harvest. The plants were harvested 2, 6, and 20 days after flooding. From the result obtained, it turned out that flooding conditions apparently reduced root development in the lower part of soil layer, while in the top layer a proper development of root was concentrated. Injury symptoms were mainly observed in the shoot; where leaf yellowing occured and started with the first leaf five days after flooding and subsequently reduced the number of leaves and tillers. (author)

  3. DNA microarray revealed and RNAi plants confirmed key genes conferring low Cd accumulation in barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanism of low Cd accumulation in crops is crucial for sustainable safe food production in Cd-contaminated soils. Results Confocal microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence analyses revealed a distinct difference in Cd...... with a substantial difference between the two genotypes. Cd stress led to higher expression of genes involved in transport, carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction in the low-grain-Cd-accumulating genotype. Novel transporter genes such as zinc transporter genes were identified as being associated with low Cd...... accumulation. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed our microarray data. Furthermore, suppression of the zinc transporter genes HvZIP3 and HvZIP8 by RNAi silencing showed increased Cd accumulation and reduced Zn and Mn concentrations in barley grains. Thus, HvZIP3 and HvZIP8 could be candidate genes related to low...

  4. Analysis of T-DNA/Host-Plant DNA Junction Sequences in Single-Copy Transgenic Barley Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne G. Bartlett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing across the junction between an integrated transfer DNA (T-DNA and a host plant genome provides two important pieces of information. The junctions themselves provide information regarding the proportion of T-DNA which has integrated into the host plant genome, whilst the transgene flanking sequences can be used to study the local genetic environment of the integrated transgene. In addition, this information is important in the safety assessment of GM crops and essential for GM traceability. In this study, a detailed analysis was carried out on the right-border T-DNA junction sequences of single-copy independent transgenic barley lines. T-DNA truncations at the right-border were found to be relatively common and affected 33.3% of the lines. In addition, 14.3% of lines had rearranged construct sequence after the right border break-point. An in depth analysis of the host-plant flanking sequences revealed that a significant proportion of the T-DNAs integrated into or close to known repetitive elements. However, this integration into repetitive DNA did not have a negative effect on transgene expression.

  5. Influence of NaCl-Induced Salinity and Cd Toxicity on Respiration Activity and Cd Availability to Barley Plants in Farmyard Manure-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel R. A. Usman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cd availability and toxicity as affected by NaCl-induced salinity and farmyard manure addition. The Cd availability and toxicity were investigated in greenhouse pot and incubation experiments were conducted on a calcareous loamy sand soil contaminated with Cd (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mg kg−1 of soil and amended with two rates of 0.0 and 30 g farmyard manure (FYM kg−1. Barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L. were sown in pots and irrigated with water containing different levels of salinity (0, 30, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. The results revealed that the DTPA-extractable Cd and its content in barley plant shoots tended to increase in line as Cd was applied and salt levels increased. Elevated decreases in the soil basal respiration with increased Cd applied and NaCl-induced salinity were found. However, applying FYM significantly reduced Cd availability and increased plant growth and soil respiration activity. The results clearly showed that adding farmyard manure as soil organic amendment decreased the availability of Cd to barley plants and mitigated the toxicity of both Cd and salinity to soil microbial activity.

  6. Effect Of Gamma Radiation On Plant Mineral Content And Yield Of Barley Grown Under Saline Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charabaji, T.; Khalifa, K.; Al-Ain, F.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Al-Hijanah, an area located at about 35 km south east of Damascus. Seeds of two barley varieties [Arabi Abiad (AA) and Pakistani PK 30163 (PK)] were irradiated with 2 doses 0 and 15 Gy of gamma irradiation. They were sown on saline soil (16.4-18.7 dS/m) and irrigated with saline water ( 7-8 dS/m) A dose of 15 Gy of gamma irradiation was shown to positively effect the percent germination of PK but had no similar effect on AA. -Physiological Maturity Stage: The same dose (15 Gy) increased shoot dry weight, but had a negative effect on K + and Na + contents in the PK variety. As for the AA variety, Mg ++ and P contents were increased, whereas Na + and Cl- were slightly decreased. -Harvest Stage: Gamma irradiation had a positive effect on total yield, grain yield, nitrogen yield and harvest index of the PK variety. A positive effect was produced on straw yield, 1000-grain weight and N% of a Avariety. (Authors)

  7. EFFECTS OF SOME PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON JASMONIC ACID INDUCED INHIBITION OF SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF BARLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat ÇAVUŞOĞLU

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effects of gibberellic acid, kinetin, benzyladenine, ethylene, 24-epibrassinolide and polyamines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine on jasmonic acid inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of barley were studied. All of the plant growth regulators studied were determined to have a succesful performance in reversing of the inhibitory effects of jasmonic acid on the seed germination and seedling growth. Moreover, the above mentioned growth regulators overcame the inhibitory effect of JA on the percentages of germination and coleoptile emergence in the same ratio, while GA3 was the most successful hormone on the fresh weight and radicle and coleoptile elongation in comparison with the other growth regulators. Key words: Barley, jasmonic acid, plant growth regulator, seed germination, seedling growth ARPANIN TOHUM ÇİMLENMESİ VE FİDE BÜYÜMESİNİN JASMONİK ASİT TEŞVİKLİ İNHİBİSYONU ÜZERİNE BAZI BİTKİ BÜYÜME DÜZENLEYİCİLERİNİN ETKİLERİ Özet: Arpanın tohum çimlenmesi ve fide büyümesinin jasmonik asit inhibisyonu üzerine gibberellik asit, kinetin, benziladenin, etilen, 24-epibrassinolit ve poliaminlerin (spermin, spermidin, putressin, kadaverin etkileri araştırılmıştır. Çalışılan bitki büyüme düzenleyicilerinin tümünün tohum çimlenmesi ve fide büyümesi üzerinde jasmonik asitin engelleyici etkisini tersine çevirmede başarılı bir performansa sahip oldukları belirlenmiştir. Dahası, yukarıda sözü edilen büyüme düzenleyicileri çimlenme ve koleoptil çıkış yüzdeleri üzerinde aynı oranda etkili olurken, taze ağırlık ve radikula ve koleoptil uzaması üzerinde diğer büyüme düzenleyicileri ile karşılaştırıldığında en başarılı hormon GA3 olmuştur. Anahtar kelimeler: Arpa, jasmonik asit, bitki büyüme düzenleyicisi, tohum çimlenmesi, fide büyümesi

  8. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    germination. Lastly, the application of metabolomics to barley grain germination provides essential data on biochemical processes, including insights into the formation of compounds that contribute to malt quality. To maximize the benefits of the 'omics' revolution to the malting industry, there is a need......Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...

  9. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  10. Genotype-dependent variation in the transpiration efficiency of plants and photosynthetic activity of flag leaves in spring barley under varied nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Anetta; Górny, Andrzej G

    2003-01-01

    In the study, spring barley genotypes of various origin and breeding history were found to show a broad genetic variation in the vegetative and generative measures of the whole-plant transpiration efficiency (TE), photosynthesis (A) and transpiration (E) rates of flag leaves, leaf efficiency of gas exchange (A/E) and stress tolerance (T) when grown till maturity in soil-pots under high and reduced NPK supplies. Broad-sense heritabilities for the characteristics ranged from 0.61 to 0.87. Significant genotype-nutrition interactions were noticed, constituting 19-23% of the total variance in TE measures. The results suggest that at least some 'exotic' accessions from Ethiopia, Syria, Morocco and/or Tibet may serve as attractive genetic sources of novel variations in TE, T and A for the breeding of barleys of improved adaptation to less favourable fertilisation.

  11. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  12. Matter accumulation and changes of assimilation product transport and carbohydrate regime in barley plants as induced by infection with Puccinia striiformis West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Accumulation of nuclides (/sup 32/P, /sup 14/C), /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation and /sup 14/C transport were studied in several barley cultivars differing in their resistance to yellow rust. Increased matter accumulation was found in the rust pustules. Mycelium was proved by means of autoradiography. Infection causes changes with regard to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation, carbohydrate regime and transport of /sup 14/C assimilation products. Certain relationships exist between these changes and plant resistance to yellow rust. During germination the rust uredospores release substances, particularly amino acids, to be transported in the plant.

  13. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Wheat and Barley Plants Grown in Single or Few Rows in Small Plots Using Active and Passive Spectral Proximal Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Barmeier, Gero;Schmidhalter, Urs

    2017-01-01

    In the early stages of plant breeding, breeders evaluate a large number of varieties. Due to limited availability of seeds and space, plot sizes may range from one to four rows. Spectral proximal sensors can be used in place of labour-intensive methods to estimate specific plant traits. The aim of this study was to test the performance of active and passive sensing to assess single and multiple rows in a breeding nursery. A field trial with single cultivars of winter barley and winter wheat w...

  14. Acceleration of leaf senescence is slowed down in transgenic barley plants deficient in the DNA/RNA-binding protein WHIRLY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharewicz, Weronika; Distelfeld, Assaf; Bilger, Wolfgang; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Hensel, Götz; Krupinska, Karin

    2017-02-01

    WHIRLY1 in barley was isolated as a potential regulator of the senescence-associated gene HvS40. In order to investigate whether the plastid-nucleus-located DNA/RNA-binding protein WHIRLY1 plays a role in regulation of leaf senescence, primary foliage leaves from transgenic barley plants with an RNAi-mediated knockdown of the WHIRLY1 gene were characterized by typical senescence parameters, namely pigment contents, function and composition of the photosynthetic apparatus, as well as expression of selected genes known to be either down- or up-regulated during leaf senescence. When the plants were grown at low light intensity, senescence progression was similar between wild-type and RNAi-W1 plants. Likewise, dark-induced senescence of detached leaves was not affected by reduction of WHIRLY1. When plants were grown at high light intensity, however, senescence was induced prematurely in wild-type plants but was delayed in RNAi-W1 plants. This result suggests that WHIRLY1 plays a role in light sensing and/or stress communication between chloroplasts and the nucleus. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  16. Climate Change Effects to Plant Ecosystems - Genetic Resources for Future Barley Breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz

    were identified for possible use in breeding of climate resilient cultivars and SNP-markers that link to traits favourable in changed environments. Basic knowledge of plant response to multifactor climate treatments has been added as well as data on numerous genotypes modeling the impact of climate...

  17. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D

    2015-01-01

    to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from Illumina....... Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  18. Barley growth and plant mineral content of plant grown from seeds irradiated by low doses of gamma irradiated and cultured on salt media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbaji, T.; Arabi, M.I.; Jawhar, M.

    2000-02-01

    Seeds of two barley White Arabi (WA) Pakistani PK30163 (PK) were irradiated with three doses 0,15 and 20 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then they were cultured on (Coic-Lesaint) nutrient media containing several concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, and 100 mmol). The irradiation doses did not affect the shoot growth of plants, whereas the combination between 15 Gy and 50 and 100 mmol NaCl decreased significantly the root growth. Doses of 0 and 20 Gy and 10 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on WA variety wet weight. The 20 Gy and 10 and 50 mmol NaCl significantly reduced the wet weight of PK variety. Dry weight of WA variety was decreased, when the seeds were irradiated by 15 Gy and cultured on media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. WA and PK content of Ca ++ increased when weeds were irradiated by 15 Gy (WA) and 20 Gy (PK) and grown on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. The content of Mg ++ and K ++ of 2 varieties were increased, when seeds were cultured on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. Positive relationship was noticed between Na + and Cl - contents and NaCl concentrations in the media. The NaCl concentrations correlated with the irradiation, negatively effected the total N % of the WA variety, whereas in the absence of irradiation, 10 and 50 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on the total N % of PK variety. Similar effects were produced for the last variety with the dose of 15 Gy and NaCl concentrations in the media. Concentration of 100 mmol NaCl positively affect PO4 -- of unirradiated WA variety, but PO -- of all plants of PK variety was increased with 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The content of SO4 -- of 2 varieties was increased, when the seeds were exposed to the irradiation of 15 and 20 Gy and cultured on a media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The ratio of Na/Cl, was generally different from 1 and the Cl - content was higher than Na + content, in seedlings of both barley varieties. (author)

  19. Barley growth and plant mineral content of plant grown from seeds irradiated by low doses of gamma irradiated and cultured on salt media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbaji, T; Arabi, M I; Jawhar, M [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Agriculture

    2000-02-01

    Seeds of two barley White Arabi (WA) Pakistani PK30163 (PK) were irradiated with three doses 0,15 and 20 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then they were cultured on (Coic-Lesaint) nutrient media containing several concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, and 100 mmol). The irradiation doses did not affect the shoot growth of plants, whereas the combination between 15 Gy and 50 and 100 mmol NaCl decreased significantly the root growth. Doses of 0 and 20 Gy and 10 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on WA variety wet weight. The 20 Gy and 10 and 50 mmol NaCl significantly reduced the wet weight of PK variety. Dry weight of WA variety was decreased, when the seeds were irradiated by 15 Gy and cultured on media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. WA and PK content of Ca{sup ++} increased when weeds were irradiated by 15 Gy (WA) and 20 Gy (PK) and grown on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. The content of Mg{sup ++} and K{sup ++} of 2 varieties were increased, when seeds were cultured on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. Positive relationship was noticed between Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} contents and NaCl concentrations in the media. The NaCl concentrations correlated with the irradiation, negatively effected the total N % of the WA variety, whereas in the absence of irradiation, 10 and 50 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on the total N % of PK variety. Similar effects were produced for the last variety with the dose of 15 Gy and NaCl concentrations in the media. Concentration of 100 mmol NaCl positively affect PO4{sup --} of unirradiated WA variety, but PO{sup --} of all plants of PK variety was increased with 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The content of SO4{sup --} of 2 varieties was increased, when the seeds were exposed to the irradiation of 15 and 20 Gy and cultured on a media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The ratio of Na/Cl, was generally different from 1 and the Cl{sup -} content was higher than Na{sup +} content, in seedlings of both barley varieties. (author)

  20. Kinetics of the absorbed dose formation and the effect of chronic β-irradiation on the cytogenetic characteristics and harvest of barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyablitskaya, E.Ya.; Kal'chenko, V.A.; Aleksakhin, R.M.; Zuev, N.D.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made of the kinetics of the absorbed dose formation, of the cytogenetic effects and the yield of barley plants growing in the experimental fields artificially contaminated with 90 Sr- 90 Y. It was shown that 70% of the dose absorbed during the vegetation period fall on the 1st and the and stages of organogenesis. The dose absorbed was shown to increase the cytogenetic effects. As calculated per 1 Gy the cytogenetic effects had an inverse relation to the dose rate

  1. Microtubule bundling plays a role in ethylene-mediated cortical microtubule reorientation in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianqian; Sun, Jingbo; Mao, Tonglin

    2016-05-15

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is known to regulate plant growth under etiolated conditions (the 'triple response'). Although organization of cortical microtubules is essential for cell elongation, the underlying mechanisms that regulate microtubule organization by hormone signaling, including ethylene, are ambiguous. In the present study, we demonstrate that ethylene signaling participates in regulation of cortical microtubule reorientation. In particular, regulation of microtubule bundling is important for this process in etiolated hypocotyls. Time-lapse analysis indicated that selective stabilization of microtubule-bundling structures formed in various arrays is related to ethylene-mediated microtubule orientation. Bundling events and bundle growth lifetimes were significantly increased in oblique and longitudinal arrays, but decreased in transverse arrays in wild-type cells in response to ethylene. However, the effects of ethylene on microtubule bundling were partially suppressed in a microtubule-bundling protein WDL5 knockout mutant (wdl5-1). This study suggests that modulation of microtubule bundles that have formed in certain orientations plays a role in reorienting microtubule arrays in response to ethylene-mediated etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Phytotoxicity of Chitosan and SiO2 Nanoparticles to Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faride BEHBOUDI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants such as wheat and barley that are strategically important crops need to be considered to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles (NPs. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan and SiO2 NPs on wheat and barley plants. Two factorial experiments (seeds priming and direct exposure were performed based on a completely randomized design in four replications. Results showed that the seeds priming with the NPs had not significant effect on germination parameters such as Germination Percentage (GP, Germination Rate (GR, Germination Value (GV, Mean Germination Time (MGT, Pick Value (PV and Mean Daily Germination (MDG. In contrast, exposure of the seeds to the NPs had significant effects on these parameters. In both experiments, treatments had significant effects on shoot, seedling, root length, fresh and dry weight, as well as vigor indexes as compared to the control. In most traits, the best concentration of NPs was 30 ppm, whereas applications of the NPs with 90 ppm displayed adverse effects on majority of the studied traits. According to these results, selectivity in applications of NPs with suitable concentration and method is essential for different plant species.

  3. N-acyl-homoserine lactone uptake and systemic transport in barley rest upon active parts of the plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sieper, T.; Forczek, Sándor; Matucha, Miroslav; Kraemer, P.; Hartmann, A.; Schroeder, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 2 (2014), s. 545-555 ISSN 1469-8137 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : barley (Hordeum vulgare) * monoclonal antibodies * N-acyl-homoserine lactones (HSLs) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  4. Effects of Amended Sewage Sludge Application on Yield and Heavy Metal Uptake of Barley: A Case Study of Ahvaz Sewage Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Chorom

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of sewage sludge application as an organic fertilizer on agricultural farms is environmental pollution concerns such as heavy metals uptake by plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of amended sewage sludge application on yield and heavy metal uptake of Barley. This study was carried out over a period of barley growth with two treatments of sewage sludge (50 and 100 ton/ha and control treatment with four replicates arranged in a randomized complete block design. Plant samples were taken at three intervals (50, 90, and 180 days after sowing. The samples were prepared for measuring nutrients and heavy metals in stem, leaf, straw, and grain. Results of plant analysis showed that application of sewage sludge increased nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and cadmium in vegetative parts compared to control. Grain analysis showed that application of sewage sludge significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, iron, and zinc. Grass yield significantly increased in the plot treated with 100 ton/ha sewage sludge. Grain yield in the two treatments significantly increased. The results revealed that the sewage sludge increased heavy metals uptake by plants but still below standard levels. It is, therefore, necessary to use the quantities of the elements introduced into soil and absorbed by plants in order to determine the toxicity level for each metal taking into account factors such as plant and soil types as well as environmental conditions. This information can then be used to determine sludge application quantities in each case. Meanwhile, sludge application may only be recommended for irrigated crops receiving adequate irrigation water due to its salinity. Moreover, it cannot be recommended for irrigated crops directly consumed by man.

  5. Comparative studies about fungal colonization and deoxynivalenol translocation in barley plants inoculated at the base with Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium pseudograminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pecoraro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium crown rot (FCR, an important disease of wheat and barley, is mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum and F. pseudograminearum, which are also responsible for mycotoxin production. This is the first comparative investigation of their colonization on barley plants after stem base inoculation. At plant maturity, FCR symptoms were visually evaluated, fungal biomass was quantified by Real-Time quantitative PCR and deoxynivalenol (DON was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. All the inoculated strains caused the typical FCR necrotic symptoms. Real-Time PCR analysis showed that F. graminearum and F. culmorum were present in the head tissues, while F. pseudograminearum colonized only up to the area including the second node of the stem. Conversely, DON was detected up to the head for all the three species. This study shows that, as already demonstrated in previous research for wheat, DON may be detected up to the head as a consequence of stem base infection by the three FCR agents

  6. Dry matter yield, carbon isotope discrimination and nitrogen uptake in silicon and/ or potassium fed chickpea and barley plants grown under water and non-water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Chammaa, M.; Mouasess, A.

    2012-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope discrimination Δ 13 C in water stressed (FC1) and well watered (FC2) chickpea plants using 15 N and 13 C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si 5 0, Si 1 00 and Si 2 00) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. The results showed that: In chickpeas, it was found, for most of the growth parameters, that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of most studied parameters. The Si 1 00K + (FC1) and Si 5 0K + (FC2) treatments gave high enough amounts of N 2 -fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N 2 -fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leaves dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si 5 0K - and Si 1 00K - ) is associated with lower Δ 13 C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE). Hence, Δ 13 C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be considered as an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.In barley plants, solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si 1 00) were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing

  7. 14CO2-assimilation, translocation of 14C, and 14C-carbonate uptake in different organs of spring barley plants in relation to adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, B.K.; Ibenthal, W.-D.; Heitefuss, R.

    1986-01-01

    The cultivar Peruvian of spring barley, which is susceptible at all growth stages, and Asse, which exhibits adult-plant resistance to powdery mildew, were compared in 14 CO 2 assimilation, distribution of 14 C, and 14 C-carbonate uptake in different organs of healthy and infected plants. The reduction of 14 CO 2 assimilation in infected plants at the first and fourth leaf stages was greater in Peruvian than in Asse. In Peruvian, the 14 C which was fixed by the infected third leaf of plants with mildew on the lower 3 leaves remained in the third leaves with very little translocation to other parts of the plant. Infection of the lower three leaves at the fourth leaf stage reduced 14 CO 2 assimilation in noninfected fourth leaves of Asse less than that of Peruvian, but the flow of 14 C from the healthy fourth leaves into other plant parts such as leaf sheaths was markedly stimulated in Peruvian compared to Asse. Infection also reduced the uptake of 14 C-carbonate by seedling roots, the reduction being greater in Peruvian than Asse. A greater proportion of the 14 C absorbed by roots of Asse was translocated to the infected leaves than that of Peruvian. It was concluded that powdery mildew disrupted the normal pattern of photosynthesis and translocation of metabolites in a susceptible cultivar more markedly than in an adult-plant-resistant cultivar of spring barley. (author)

  8. Barley plants over-expressing the NAC transcription factor gene HvNAC005 show stunting and delay in development combined with early senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W; Matthewman, Colette; Podzimska-Sroka, Dagmara

    2016-01-01

    -expressing plants showed up-regulation of genes involved with secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, stress, signalling, development, and transport. Up-regulation of senescence markers and hormone metabolism and signalling genes supports a role of HvNAC005 in the cross field of different hormone and signalling......The plant-specific NAC transcription factors have attracted particular attention because of their involvement in stress responses, senescence, and nutrient remobilization. The HvNAC005 gene of barley encodes a protein belonging to subgroup NAC-a6 of the NAC family. This study shows that HvNAC005...... pathways. Binding of HvNAC005 to promoter sequences of putative target genes containing the T[G/A]CGT core motif was shown by direct protein-DNA interactions of HvNAC005 with promoters for two of the up-regulated genes. In conclusion, HvNAC005 was shown to be a strong positive regulator of senescence...

  9. Jasmonic acid protects etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana against herbivorous arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; Von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2016-08-02

    Seed predators can cause mass ingestion of larger seed populations. As well, herbivorous arthropods attempt to attack etiolated seedlings and chose the apical hook for ingestion, aimed at dropping the cotyledons for later consumption. Etiolated seedlings, as we show here, have established an efficient mechanism of protecting their Achilles' heel against these predators, however. Evidence is provided for a role of jasmonic acid (JA) in this largely uncharacterized plant-herbivore interaction during skotomorphogenesis and that this comprises the temporally and spatially tightly controlled synthesis of a cysteine protease inhibitors of the Kunitz family. Interestingly, the same Kunitz protease inhibitor was found to be expressed in flowers of Arabidopsis where endogenous JA levels are high for fertility. Because both the apical hook and inflorescences were preferred isopod targets in JA-deficient plants that could be rescued by exogenously administered JA, our data identify a JA-dependent mechanism of plant arthropod deterrence that is recalled in different organs and at quite different times of plant development.

  10. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...... whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress...... tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...

  11. Effects of INH, DNP, 2,4-D and CMU on the photosynthetic activity of barley and maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Prieto, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    Determinations of the rate of photosynthesis were made in barley and maize leaves treated with INH, DNP, 2,4-D or CMU. 1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solutions was absorbed by roots during 24 or 48 hours in both dark and light conditions. After this period, photosynthetic activity, compensation point and 14 C O 2 assimilation were determined. Results show that INH increases the rate of photosynthesis, DNP and 2,4-D do not alter it sensibly and CMU acts as a strong inhibitor of photosynthesis. Some possible applications for ths obtention of labelled compounds by biosynthesis are discussed. (Author) 87 refs

  12. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  13. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots. II. Movement in roots and efflux of sodium in plants with divided root systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H; Kojima, S [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1977-09-01

    The root system of young barley was almost halved, and the two portions were planted in culture grounds with different composition after severing the capillary connection between both root groups. With one portion in the acid medium solution of various compositions and the other in the /sup 22/Na-absorbing medium solution, the sodium absorbed from one root group moved to and flowed out from the other root group, and this state was observed. Also, the efflux of potassium from the root was observed. (1) The Na efflux was small in the culture ground with dilute hydrochloric acid, and larger in that with AlCl/sub 3/ or phosphate. (2) The K efflux was large under short-day condition. (3) Under short-day condition, in the culture ground with soluble Al, the K efflux was promoted by nitrogen-source addition, but the Na efflux was suppressed.

  14. The Importance of Barley Varieties in terms of Production, Marketing and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Taşcı

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to investigate the criteria affecting the marketing of barley in the stages of barley production, marketing and processing in Konya province. In the study; survey results were used which get from mixed feed (37 items and malt factory (1 item, traders (50 items purchasing and selling barley, and agricultural enterprises (107 items including barley production in agricultural activities operating in Konya province. It was determined that barley varieties were not an important criterion in the selling price, while the hectoliter and other plant species do not mix into barley are the main criteria considered by agricultural enterprises to affect the sale of barley. The most important criteria that traders keep in mind when buying barley is hectoliter of barley, which is followed by moisture, colour and foreign matter confusion rate of barley. The most important criteria that factories take into consideration when purchasing barley is determined as the moisture content of the barley, followed by the hectoliter of barley and the rate of foreign matter contamination. For the malt industry; Barley variety is a very important factor in the purchase criteria, followed by barley humidity and colour.

  15. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Wheat and Barley Plants Grown in Single or Few Rows in Small Plots Using Active and Passive Spectral Proximal Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gero Barmeier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early stages of plant breeding, breeders evaluate a large number of varieties. Due to limited availability of seeds and space, plot sizes may range from one to four rows. Spectral proximal sensors can be used in place of labour-intensive methods to estimate specific plant traits. The aim of this study was to test the performance of active and passive sensing to assess single and multiple rows in a breeding nursery. A field trial with single cultivars of winter barley and winter wheat with four plot designs (single-row, wide double-row, three rows, and four rows was conducted. A GreenSeeker RT100 and a passive bi-directional spectrometer were used to assess biomass fresh and dry weight, as well as aboveground nitrogen content and uptake. Generally, spectral passive sensing and active sensing performed comparably in both crops. Spectral passive sensing was enhanced by the availability of optimized ratio vegetation indices, as well as by an optimized field of view and by reduced distance dependence. Further improvements of both sensors in detecting the performance of plants in single rows can likely be obtained by optimization of sensor positioning or orientation. The results suggest that even in early selection cycles, enhanced high-throughput phenotyping might be able to assess plant performance within plots comprising single or multiple rows. This method has significant potential for advanced breeding.

  16. Lipoic acid and redox status in barley plants subjected to salinity and elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, U.; Robredo, A.; Mena-Petite, A.; Munoz-Rueda, A. (Univ. del Pais Vasco/EHU, Dept. de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Bilbao (Spain)); Lacuesta, M. (Univ. del Pais Vasco/EHU, Dept. de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)); Sgherri, C.; Navari-Izzo, F. (Univ. di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Pisa (Italy))

    2010-02-15

    Future environmental conditions will include elevated concentrations of salt in the soil and an elevated concentration of CO{sub 2}in the atmosphere. Because these environmental changes will likely affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cellular antioxidant metabolism in opposite ways, we analyzed changes in cellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and non-enzymatic antioxidant metabolite [lipoic acid (LA), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH)] content induced by salt stress (0, 80, 160 or 240 mM NaCl) under ambient (350 mumol mol-1) or elevated (700 mumol mol-1) CO{sub 2}concentrations in two barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) that differ in sensitivity to salinity (cv. Alpha is more sensitive than cv. Iranis). Under non-salinized conditions, elevated CO{sub 2}increased LA content, while ASA and GSH content decreased. Under salinized conditions and ambient CO{sub 2}, ASA increased, while GSH and LA decreased. At 240 mM NaCl, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased in Alpha and decreased in Iranis. When salt stress was imposed at elevated CO{sub 2}, less oxidative stress and lower increases in ASA were detected, while LA was constitutively higher. The decrease in oxidative stress could have been because of less ROS formation or to a higher constitutive LA level, which might have improved regulation of ASA and GSH reductions. Iranis had a greater capacity to synthesize ASA de novo and had higher constitutive LA content than did Alpha. Therefore, we conclude that elevated CO{sub 2}protects barley cultivars against oxidative damage. However, the magnitude of the positive effect is cultivar specific. (author)

  17. Barley seeds coating with humates-phosphatase complexes in order to improve p uptake and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilar, M. C.; Busto, M. D.; Ortega, N.; Perez-Mateos, M.

    2009-01-01

    Although plants may uptake some forms of organic phosphorus compounds, most of them must be first mineralized to inorganic forms to become available to plants. this hydrolysis is catalyzed by extracellular phosphatases produced by plant roots and microorganisms when plant P availability is limiting P fertilizers added to soil rapidly become unavailable to plants by forming insoluble P compounds. (Author)

  18. Characterization of the N-terminal segment used by the barley yellow dwarf virus movement protein to promote interaction with the nuclear membrane of host plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Sarah Rachel; Harris, Frederick; Brandenburg, Klaus; Phoenix, David Andrew

    2007-11-01

    The barley yellow dwarf virus movement protein (BYDV-MP) requires its N-terminal sequence to promote the transport of viral RNA into the nuclear compartment of host plant cells. Here, graphical analysis predicts that this sequence would form a membrane interactive amphiphilic alpha-helix. Confirming this prediction, NT1, a peptide homologue of the BYDV-MP N-terminal sequence, was found to be alpha-helical (65%) in the presence of vesicles mimics of the nuclear membrane. The peptide increased the fluidity of these nuclear membrane mimics (rise in wavenumber of circa 0.5-1.0 cm(-1)) and induced surface pressure changes of 2 mN m(-1) in lipid monolayers with corresponding compositions. Taken with isotherm analysis these results suggest that BYDV-MP forms an N-terminal amphiphilic alpha-helix, which partitions into the nuclear membrane primarily through thermodynamically stable associations with the membrane lipid headgroup region. We speculate that these associations may play a role in targeting of the nuclear membrane by BYDM-MP.

  19. Structural plasticity of Barley yellow dwarf virus-like cap-independent translation elements in four genera of plant viral RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Kraft, Jelena J; Hui, Alice Y; Miller, W Allen

    2010-06-20

    The 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of many plant viral RNAs contain cap-independent translation elements (3' CITEs). Among the 3' CITEs, the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV)-like translation elements (BTEs) form a structurally variable and widely distributed group. Viruses in three genera were known to harbor 3' BTEs, defined by the presence of a 17-nt consensus sequence. To understand BTE function, knowledge of phylogenetically conserved structure is essential, yet the secondary structure has been determined only for the BYDV BTE. Here we show that Rose spring dwarf-associated luteovirus, and two viruses in a fourth genus, Umbravirus, contain functional BTEs, despite deviating in the 17nt consensus sequence. Structure probing by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and primer extension (SHAPE) revealed conserved and highly variable structures in BTEs in all four genera. We conclude that BTEs tolerate striking evolutionary plasticity in structure, while retaining the ability to stimulate cap-independent translation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Automorphosis-like growth in etiolated pea seedlings is induced by the application of chemicals affecting perception of gravistimulation and its signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Ueda, Junichi

    Both microgravity conditions in space and simulated microgravity using a 3-dimensional clinostat resulted in: (1) automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings, (2) epicotyls bending ca. 45° from the vertical line to the direction away from cotyledons, (3) inhibition of hook formation and (4) alternation of growth direction of roots. These facts indicate that the growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings on earth is under the influence of gravistimulation. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, blockers of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels, induced automorphosis-like epicotyl bending. Cantharidin, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase, also phenocopied automorphosis-like growth. On the other hand, cytochalasin B, cytochalasin D and brefeldin A did not induce automorphological epicotyl bending and inhibition of hook formation, although these compounds strikingly inhibited elongation of etiolated pea epicotyls. These results strongly suggest that stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels are involved in the perception of signals of gravistimuli in plants, and they are transduced by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades by changing levels of calcium ions. Possible mechanisms to induce automorphosis-like growth in relation to gravity signals in etiolated pea seedlings are discussed.

  1. ALTERATIONS IN BARLEY PROTEOME UPON FUNGAL INFECTION AND TRICYCLAZOLE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar a,b

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The barley proteome was investigated upon fungal infection and subsequent treatment by tricyclazole (TCZ, which is known to have applications in spot blotch disease management in barley.Significantly enhanced chlorophyll content was recorded in TCZ treated plants. The disease severity was significantly reduced after TCZ application in pathogen inoculated plants by reducing the appressoria formation at infection site in barley leaves. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE revealed the expression profile of proteins from (I control plants (healthy barley leaves; application with sterile water,(II plants after foliar application of TCZ (100 µg/ml, (III plants inoculated with B. sorokiniana and (IV plants treated with TCZ (72 h after B. sorokiniana inoculation. A set of 33 proteins expressed differentially after TCZ treatment. Out of this 19 had known functions, while others were unknown or hypothetical proteins. These differentially expressed proteins were related to redox-activity and gene expression, electron transfer,cell division and chromosome partitioning, cell envelop biogenesis, energy metabolism and conversion, respiration and pathogenesis related functions in the barley plants. The study provides a platform and documents the proteins that might be involved in disease management in barley following TCZ application. It is expected that the study will provide boost in understanding proteome regulation upon fungal infection and subsequent anti-fungal treatment and will attract researchers for further validation leading to better pest management.

  2. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Hanne Cecilie

    remobilisation from ageing plant parts. Thus, GS is highly involved in determining crop yield and NUE. The major objective of this PhD project was to investigate the NUE properties of transgenic barley designed to constitutively overexpress a GS1 isogene (HvGS1.1). These transgenic lines exhibited an increased...... for N demand. Of the GS isogenes, only the transcript levels of root HvGS1.1 increased when plants were transferred from high to low N. This change coincided with an increase in total GS activity. Pronounced diurnal variation was observed for root nitrate transporter genes and GS isogenes in both root...... fertilizer requirement. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) has been a major topic in plant nitrogen research for decades due to its central role in plant N metabolism. The cytosolic version of this enzyme (GS1) plays an important role in relation to primary N assimilation as well as in relation to N...

  3. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  4. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  5. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  6. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  7. Small heat shock protein message in etiolated Pea seedlings under altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaiev, O.

    Plants are subjected to various environmental changes during their life cycle To protect themselves against unfavorable influences plant cells synthesize several classes of small heat shock proteins sHsp ranging in size from 15 to 30 kDa This proteins are able to enhance the refolding of chemically denatured proteins in an ATP-independent manner in other words they can function as molecular chaperones The potential contribution of effects of space flight at the plant cellular and gene regulation level has not been characterized yet The object of our study is sHsp gene expression in etiolated Pisum sativum seedlings exposed to altered gravity and environmental conditions We designed primers to detect message for two inducible forms of the cytosolic small heat shock proteins sHsp 17 7 and sHsp 18 1 Applying the RT- PCR we explore sHsps mRNA in pea seedling cells subjected to two types of altered gravity achieved by centrifugation from 3 to 8g by clinorotation 2 rpm and temperature elevation 42oC Temperature elevation as the positive control significantly increased PsHspl7 7 PsHspl8 1 expression We investigate the expression of actin it was constant and comparable for unstressed controls for all variants Results are under discussion

  8. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Some Chemical Characteristics of barley Mutants induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Ali, H.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of acetonic extract from some barley mutations (P1, P2 and P3 varieties) induced by gamma irradiation as compared with local barley variety (Hordeum vulgare L.) as control. Barley samples were obtained from Plant Breeding Unit, Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. The measurements of the antioxidant activity using a radical scavenging capacity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching assay were assessed in the barley acetonic extract. Furthermore, amino acids composition of barley mutant samples was determined. The results indicated that the acetonic extract of barley varieties under investigation possess marked antioxidant and anti radical capacities. The data showed that the acetonic extract of barley mutant P1 possessed the higher antioxidant activity as compared with the antioxidant activities of acetonic extract from control and other barley mutant samples. Meanwhile, the flour of barley mutations under investigation contained trace elements of iron, copper and manganese. GC and mass analyses were used to identify the active compound of extract of control and mutant barley samples. The results illustrated that the main components of the control sample of barely extract was pentane, 3 methyl (47.73%) while gamma irradiation caused noticeable change in the relative percentage of some components of acetonic extract from barley mutant samples. Moreover, the results presented that changes were disappeared, and some compounds of the acetonic extract from mutant barley samples were appeared. Furthermore, the results exhibited that barley flour supplemented with wheat flour at 30% level produced acceptable cookies. Accordingly, the phenolic constituents of barley acetonic extract induced by gamma irradiation, especially samples of P1 mutant, may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  10. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen

    in plants under low N and iv) proteomes of uninfected plants were similar under two N levels. Correlation of level of proteolysis induced by the fungus with measurement of Fusarium-damaged kernels, fungal biomass and mycotoxin levels indicated that FHB was more severe in barley with low N. In Chapter 3......, the molecular mechanisms of barley defense to Fusarium graminearum at the early infection stage were studied. Antibodies against barley β-amylases were shown to be the markers for infection at proteome level and for selection of the time for proteome analysis before extensive degradation caused by the fungus...... the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D gels, it is used as a tool for studying the barley- Fusarium graminearum interaction form three different...

  11. Effect of Blue Light on Endogenous Isopentenyladenine and Endoreduplication during Photomorphogenesis and De-Etiolation of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergougnoux, Véronique; Zalabák, David; Jandová, Michaela; Novák, Ondřej; Wiese-Klinkenberg, Anika; Fellner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Light is one of the most important factor influencing plant growth and development all through their life cycle. One of the well-known light-regulated processes is de-etiolation, i.e. the switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis. The hormones cytokinins (CKs) play an important role during the establishment of photomorphogenesis as exogenous CKs induced photomorphogenesis of dark-grown seedlings. Most of the studies are conducted on the plant model Arabidopsis, but no or few information are available for important crop species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In our study, we analyzed for the first time the endogenous CKs content in tomato hypocotyls during skotomorphogenesis, photomorphogenesis and de-etiolation. For this purpose, two tomato genotypes were used: cv. Rutgers (wild-type; WT) and its corresponding mutant (7B-1) affected in its responses to blue light (BL). Using physiological and molecular approaches, we identified that the skotomorphogenesis is characterized by an endoreduplication-mediated cell expansion, which is inhibited upon BL exposure as seen by the accumulation of trancripts encoding CycD3, key regulators of the cell cycle. Our study showed for the first time that iP (isopentenyladenine) is the CK accumulated in the tomato hypocotyl upon BL exposure, suggesting its specific role in photomorphogenesis. This result was supported by physiological experiments and gene expression data. We propose a common model to explain the role and the relationship between CKs, namely iP, and endoreduplication during de-etiolation and photomorphogenesis. PMID:23049779

  12. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh

    2017-01-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains......, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T2-generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase...... activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature...

  13. Transcriptomics analysis of etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in response to microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gene expression profile of two-week-old etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings under microgravity on board space flight BRIC16 were compared with ground grown control in...

  14. High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snape John W

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low ( Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

  15. Jasmonate inhibits COP1 activity to suppress hypocotyl elongation and promote cotyledon opening in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuyu; Cui, Xuefei; Su, Liang; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Gong, Qingqiu; Yang, Jianping; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2017-06-01

    A germinating seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis to emerge from the soil and reach for light. During this phase, the cotyledons are closed, and the hypocotyl elongates. Upon exposure to light, the seedling rapidly switches to photomorphogenesis by opening its cotyledons and suppressing hypocotyl elongation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is critical for maintaining skotomorphogenesis. Here, we report that jasmonate (JA) suppresses hypocotyl elongation and stimulates cotyledon opening in etiolated seedlings, partially phenocopying cop1 mutants in the dark. We also find that JA stabilizes several COP1-targeted transcription factors in a COP1-dependent manner. RNA-seq analysis further defines a JA-light co-modulated and cop1-dependent transcriptome, which is enriched for auxin-responsive genes and genes participating in cell wall modification. JA suppresses COP1 activity through at least two distinct mechanisms: decreasing COP1 protein accumulation in the nucleus; and reducing the physical interaction between COP1 and its activator, SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 1 (SPA1). Our work reveals that JA suppresses COP1 activity to stabilize COP1 targets, thereby inhibiting hypocotyl elongation and stimulating cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. REPRESSOR OF ULTRAVIOLET-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS function allows efficient phototropin mediated ultraviolet-B phototropism in etiolated seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Schumacher, Paolo; Poelman, Dirk; Fankhauser, Christian; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Vandenbussche, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) light is a part of the solar radiation which has significant effects on plant morphology, even at low doses. In Arabidopsis, many of these morphological changes have been attributed to a specific UV-B receptor, UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8). Recent findings showed that next to phototropin regulated phototropism, UVR8 mediated signaling is able of inducing directional bending towards UV-B light in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis, in a phototropin independent manner. In this study, kinetic analysis of phototropic bending was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each of these pathways in UV-B mediated phototropism. Diminishing UV-B light intensity favors the importance of phototropins. Molecular and genetic analyses suggest that UV-B is capable of inducing phototropin signaling relying on phototropin kinase activity and regulation of NPH3. Moreover, enhanced UVR8 responses in the UV-B hypersensitive rup1rup2 mutants interferes with the fast phototropin mediated phototropism. Together the data suggest that phototropins are the most important receptors for UV-B induced phototropism in etiolated seedlings, and a RUP mediated negative feedback pathway prevents UVR8 signaling to interfere with the phototropin dependent response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Or mutation leads to photo-oxidative stress responses in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) seedlings during de-etiolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Xiao; Dong, Kang

    2013-11-01

    The Orange (Or) gene is a gene mutation that can increase carotenoid content in plant tissues normally devoid of pigments. It affects plastid division and is involved in the differentiation of proplastids or non-colored plastids into chromoplasts. In this study, the de-etiolation process of the wild type (WT) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Or mutant seedlings was investigated. We analyzed pigment content, plastid development, transcript abundance and protein levels of genes involved in the de-etiolation process. The results showed that Or can increase the carotenoid content in green tissues, although not as effectively as in non-green tissues, and this effect might be caused by the changes in biosynthetic pathway genes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There was no significant difference in the plastid development process between the two lines. However, the increased content of antheraxanthin and anthocyanin, and higher expression levels of violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (VDE) suggested a stress situation leading to photoinhibition and enhanced photoprotection in the Or mutant. The up-regulated expression levels of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced genes, ZAT10 for salt tolerance zinc finger protein and ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2 (APX2), suggested the existence of photo-oxidative stress in the Or mutant. In summary, abovementioned findings provide additional insight into the functions of the Or gene in different tissues and at different developmental stages.

  18. Methionine metabolism and ethylene formation in etiolated pea stem sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, N.; Kende, H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem sections of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were incubated overnight on tracer amounts of L-[U- 14 C]methionine and, on the following morning, on 0.1 millimolar indoleacetic acid to induce ethylene formation. Following the overnight incubation, over 70% of the radioactivity in the soluble fraction was shown to be associated with S-methylmethionine (SMM). The specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved closely paralleled that of carbon atoms 3 and 4 of methionine extracted from the tissue and was always higher than that determined for carbon atoms 3 and 4 of extracted SMM. Overnight incubation of pea stem sections on 1 millimolar methionine enhanced indoleacetic acid-induced ethylene formation by 5 to 10%. Under the same conditions, 1 millimolar homocysteine thiolactone increased ethylene synthesis by 20 to 25%, while SMM within a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 millimolar did not influence ethylene production. When unlabeled methionine or homocysteine thiolactone was applied to stem sections which had been incubated overnight in L-[U- 14 C]methionine, the specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved was considerably lowered. Application of unlabeled SMM reduced the specific radioactivity of ethylene only slightly

  19. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley ...

  20. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  1. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanis, M.; Hanisova, A.; Knytl, V.; Cerny, J.; Benc, S.

    1977-01-01

    The induction of mutations in cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been part of the breeding programme at the Plant Breeding Station at Stupice since 1960. A total of 26 cultivars or selections of winter wheat, 4 cultivars or selections of spring wheat, 2 cultivars of field beans, and 43 selections of spring barley have been treated since 1960. A total of 140 mutant lines of wheat and 37 mutant lines of barley with improved disease resistance of a race-specific type have been obtained. Several mutation programme derived cultivars have been registered in Czechoslovakia (''Diamant'', ''Ametyst'', ''Favorit'', ''Hana'', ''Rapid'', and ''Atlas'' in barley, and ''Alfa'' in field beans), but none of them is a mutation for disease resistance. A series of mutants have been used in crossing programmes. Approaches to improve the efficiency of mutation breeding for disease resistance are suggested. (author)

  2. Transcriptome of barley under three different heavy metal stress reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kintlová, Martina; Blavet, Nicolas; Cegan, R.; Hobza, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, SEP (2017), s. 15-17 ISSN 2213-5960 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : plants * Barley * RNA-Seq * Transcriptome * Heavy metal * Copper * Zinc * Cadmium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  3. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of morphological, resistance, and other agronomically relevant traits in modern spring barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraakman, A.T.W.; Martinez, F.; Mussiraliev, B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Niks, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    A set of 148 modern spring barley cultivars was explored for the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between genes governing traits and nearby marker alleles. Associations of agronomically relevant traits (days to heading, plant height), resistance traits (leaf rust, barley yellow dwarf virus

  4. Regeneration of the Barley Zygote in In Vitro Cultured Ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2010-01-01

    In vitro cultures of zygotes and small embryos carry a lot of potential for studying plant embryogenesis and are also highly relevant for plant biotechnology. Several years ago we established an in vitro ovule culture technique for barley that allows the regeneration of plants from zygotes (Holm et...... culture ability in immature embryo culture i.e. Femina, Salome and Corniche. Barley spikes were emasculated and hand pollinated 3 days after emasculation. In barley, fertilization takes place one hour after pollination and ovules with fertilized egg cells could therefore be isolated one hour after...... pollination. Ovules were grown for 3 weeks on a culture medium where after embryos could be isolated and transferred to regeneration medium. An average of 1.2 green plantlets per ovule could be regenerated from 50 % of the isolated ovules. No genotypic differences were found on embryo induction...

  5. Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackay Ian J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping

  6. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  7. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  8. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  9. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  10. Genetic diversity and structure analysis in wild and landraces of barley from Jordan by using ISJ markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A. W.; Balogh, M. J.; Baloch, M.; Baloch, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure in cultivated and wild barley populations collected from Jordan which is considered as primary gene pool of barley. In a total, 94 cultivated barley accessions composed of 4 populations and 52 wild barley accessions consisted of 3 populations were used for genetic analysis using 7 Intron Splice Junction (ISJ) markers. The genetic diversity index (He) of cultivated barley ranged between 0.049 and 0.060; whereas that of wild barley populations ranged between 0.084 and 0.146, suggesting that wild resources of barley harbored greater genetic diversity than its domesticated counterpart, reflecting that barley domestication occurred with genetic bottleneck. Analysis of molecular variance showed high genetic variations among rather than within populations, referring that high genetic differentiation of barley populations caused by genetic and geographical separation of the populations in the harsh growing conditions of Fertile Crescent. Principal coordinate, clustering and structure analysis not only separated cultivated and wild barley, but also each single population, showing their genetic basis and original sample site. The obtained Results also revealed that there is lesser genetic communication between cultivated and wild barley under natural environments. The current findings can better be exploited for collection and utilization of plant germplasms. (author)

  11. Characterization of Resistance to Cephus cinctus (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) in Barley Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea C; Talbert, Luther E; Achhami, Buddhi B; Blake, Nancy K; Hofland, Megan L; Sherman, Jamie D; Lamb, Peggy F; Reddy, Gadi V P; Weaver, David K

    2018-04-02

    Most barley cultivars have some degree of resistance to the wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Damage caused by WSS is currently observed in fields of barley grown in the Northern Great Plains, but the impact of WSS damage among cultivars due to genetic differences within the barley germplasm is not known. Specifically, little is known about the mechanisms underlying WSS resistance in barley. We characterized WSS resistance in a subset of the spring barley CAP (Coordinated Agricultural Project) germplasm panel containing 193 current and historically important breeding lines from six North American breeding programs. Panel lines were grown in WSS infested fields for two consecutive years. Lines were characterized for stem solidness, stem cutting, WSS infestation (antixenosis), larval mortality (antibiosis), and parasitism (indirect plant defense). Variation in resistance to WSS in barley was compared to observations made for solid-stemmed resistant and hollow-stemmed susceptible wheat lines. Results indicate that both antibiosis and antixenosis are involved in the resistance of barley to the WSS, but antibiosis seems to be more prevalent. Almost all of the barley lines had greater larval mortality than the hollow-stemmed wheat lines, and only a few barley lines had mortality as low as that observed in the solid-stemmed wheat line. Since barley lines lack solid stems, it is apparent that barley has a different form of antibiosis. Our results provide information for use of barley in rotation to control the WSS and may provide a basis for identification of new approaches for improving WSS resistance in wheat.

  12. Changes of the laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence signatures during greening of etiolated leaves of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, F.; Lichtenthaler, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    The UV-laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence-emission spectra were used to characterize the pigment status of etiolated leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during a 48 h greening period under white light conditions. Upon UV-light excitation (337 nm) leaves not only show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm), but also in the blue and green regions between 400 to 570 nm with maxima or shoulders near 450 nm (blue) and 530 nm (green). During greening of etiolated leaves the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 strongly correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of the chlorophylls to the carotenoids (a+b/x+c). The ratio of the blue to the green fluorescence F450/F530 was also correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of chlorophylls to total carotenoids (a+b/x+c). Consequently, there also existed a correlation between the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 and the ratio of the blue to green fluorescence F450/F530. In contrast, the ratios of the blue to red fluorescences F450/F690 and F450/F735 did not show clear relations to the pigment content of the investigated plants. The particular shape of the UV-laser-induced-fluorescence emission spectra of wheat leaves as well as the dependencies of the fluorescence ratios on the pigment content are due to a partial and differential reabsorption of the emitted fluorescences by the photosynthetic pigments

  13. Cisgenic Barley with Improved Phytase Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T......-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. Transformed T0 plants show increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1,400 in wild type to 8,950 FTU/kg in T0 plants. T1 plants of each transformant are currently screened with PCR for extra...... copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....

  14. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T......-DNA borders in order to promote integration of the two genes at unlinked places in the plant genome. Transformed T0 plants show increases in the phytase activity of mature seeds from 1,400 in wild type to 8,950 FTU/kg in T0 plants. T1 plants of each transformant are currently screened with PCR for extra...... copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....

  15. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  16. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  17. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    . In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  18. Barley polyamine oxidase: Characterisation and analysis of the cofactor and the N-terminal amino acid sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radova, A.; Sebela, M.; Galuszka, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the first purification method developed for the isolation of an homogeneous polyamine oxidase (PAO) from etiolated barley seedlings. The crude enzyme preparation was obtained after initial precipitation of the extract with protamine sulphate and ammonium sulphate. The enzyme...... was further confirmed by measuring the fluorescence spectra, Barley PAO is an acidic protein (pI 5.4) containing 3% of neutral sugars: its molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE was 56 kDa, whilst gel permeation chromatography revealed the higher value of 76 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of barley...... PAO shows a high degree of similarity to that of maize PAO and to several other flavoprotein oxidases. The polyamines spermine and spermidine were the only two substrates of the enzyme with K-m values 4 x 10(-5) and 3 x 10(-5) M and pH optima of 5.0 and 6.0, respectively. Barley polyamine oxidase...

  19. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  20. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinguish varieties of crop plants and establish their purity as a prerequisite for any ... of genetic material in germplasm collection and as a general guide for the choice ... Sixty-nine barley cultivars were grown under field condi- tions in three ...

  1. Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein in Barley Chloroplast Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannangara, C. G.; Jense, C J

    1975-01-01

    Biotin localized in barley chloroplast lamellae is covalently bound to a single protein with an approximate molecular weight of 21000. It contains one mole of biotin per mole of protein and functions as a carboxyl carrier in the acetyl-CoA carboxylase reaction. The protein was obtained by solubil...... by solubilization of the lamellae in phenol/acetic acid/8 M urea. Feeding barley seedlings with [14C]-biotin revealed that the vitamin is not degraded into respiratory substrates by the plant, but is specifically incorporated into biotin carboxyl carrier protein....

  2. Distribution Map and Community Characteristics of Weeds in Barley Fields of Ardabil Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Soheili

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying weeds of irrigated barley fields is one of the most important practices in weed management. Based on cultivated areas irrigated barley in all counties of Ardabil province during six years (2000-2005, 46 sample barley fields were selected and weed species were counted in each sampling point and population indices were calculated with Thomas method. By using specific furmula the density, frequency and uniformity of each weed species in fields were calculated. In each field longitude, latitude and altitude were recorded by using GPS. These data were used for producing weed maps using GIS. Results showed that Galium tricurnatum, Fumaria vaillantiand Raphanus raphanistrum were dominante broadleaf species in irrigated barley fields of Ardabil province. The dominant grassy weed species in these fields were Avena fatua and Secale cereal. Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense were the most important troublesome plants prior to harvesting in irrigated barley fields of this province.

  3. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  4. Radiation induced desynaptic mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, H.M.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous occurrence of asynapsis and desynapsis has been frequently reported in a number of crop plants (Beadle 1930, 1933; Beasley and Brown 1942; Li et al. 1945; Magoon et al. 1961; Miller 1963) and other angiospermic texa (Calarier 1955; Chennaveraiah and Krisnappa 1968; Ehrenberg 1949; Johnson 1941, 1944; Roy and Jha 1958). However, there are only a few reports of induced asynapsis or desynapsis (Gottschalk and Baquar 1971; Martini and Bozzini 1966). The present paper deals with the morphology and meiotic behavior of gamma-ray induced barley mutants showing high degree of desynapsis resulting in partial to complete sterility. (author)

  5. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...... about the function of many CSEPs in virulence and the identities of their host targets. In this PhD study, we investigated the function of nine CSEPs and found that CSEP0081, CSEP0105, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 act as effectors by promoting the Bgh infection success. Independent silencing of these CSEPs...... proteins (sHsps), Hsp16.9 and Hsp17.5, were identified as interactors for both CSEP0105 and CSEP0162. These interactions were confirmed in planta by BiFC and co-localization studies. Small heat shock proteins are highly conserved ATP-independent chaperones that protect the cell from stress-induced protein...

  6. Improvement of quinoa and barley through induced mutations and biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siles, A.Z.; Miranda, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The main cropping problems in the Bolivian highlands are the long growing period of barley, high degree of environmental influence on the performance of quinoa, and low soil moisture at sowing time, leading to low germination rate and poor stands, and frost or chilling damages. The program aimed to establish protocols for induction of mutations with X rays and chemical mutagens (NaN 3 , MNH, EMS) in quinoa, barley, native forage species and forest plants and to obtain mutant lines, especially in barley and quinoa; and to establish callus regeneration in quinoa and micropropagation of kenua (Polilepis). The project is still in its study stages, hence further evaluations are needed before firm conclusions are drawn. (author)

  7. Barley HvPAPhy_a as transgene provides high and stable phytase activities in mature barley straw and in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Inger Baeksted; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    The phytase purple acid phosphatase (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during barley seed development was evaluated as transgene for overexpression in barley. The phytase was expressed constitutively driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-promoter, and the phytase activity was measured in the mature grains, the green leaves and in the dry mature vegetative plant parts left after harvest of the grains. The T 2 -generation of HvPAPhy_a transformed barley showed phytase activity increases up to 19-fold (29 000 phytase units (FTU) per kg in mature grains). Moreover, also in green leaves and mature dry straw, phytase activities were increased significantly by 110-fold (52 000 FTU/kg) and 57-fold (51 000 FTU/kg), respectively. The HvPAPhy_a-transformed barley plants with high phytase activities possess triple potential utilities for the improvement of phosphate bioavailability. First of all, the utilization of the mature grains as feed to increase the release of bio-available phosphate and minerals bound to the phytate of the grains; secondly, the utilization of the powdered straw either directly or phytase extracted hereof as a supplement to high phytate feed or food; and finally, the use of the stubble to be ploughed into the soil for mobilizing phytate-bound phosphate for plant growth. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. UV-B inhibition of hypocotyl growth in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is a consequence of cell cycle arrest initiated by photodimer accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biever, Jessica J.; Brinkman, Doug; Gardner, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important constituent of sunlight that determines plant morphology and growth. It induces photomorphogenic responses but also causes damage to DNA. Arabidopsis mutants of the endonucleases that function in nucleotide excision repair, xpf-3 and uvr1-1, showed hypersensitivity to UV-B (280–320nm) in terms of inhibition of hypocotyl growth. SOG1 is a transcription factor that functions in the DNA damage signalling response after γ-irradiation. xpf mutants that carry the sog1-1 mutation showed hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B irradiation similar to the wild type. A DNA replication inhibitor, hydroxyurea (HU), also inhibited hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings, but xpf-3 was not hypersensitive to HU. UV-B irradiation induced accumulation of the G2/M-specific cell cycle reporter construct CYCB1;1-GUS in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings that was consistent with the expected accumulation of photodimers and coincided with the time course of hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B treatment. Etiolated mutants of UVR8, a recently described UV-B photoreceptor gene, irradiated with UV-B showed inhibition of hypocotyl growth that was not different from that of the wild type, but they lacked UV-B-specific expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), as expected from previous reports. CHS expression after UV-B irradiation was not different in xpf-3 compared with the wild type, nor was it altered after HU treatment. These results suggest that hypocotyl growth inhibition by UV-B light in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, a photomorphogenic response, is dictated by signals originating from UV-B absorption by DNA that lead to cell cycle arrest. This process occurs distinct from UVR8 and its signalling pathway responsible for CHS induction. PMID:24591052

  9. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, pre...

  10. Uptake of [14C]triadimenol via grain and root after seed treatment of winter barley with a flowable seed dressing: Influence of soil moisture and sowing date on the distribution of radioactivity and active ingredient content in plant and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    1988-12-01

    Winter barley seed of the 'Vogelsander Gold' variety was shown in a total of 7 lysimeters after seed treatment with [benzene ring-U- 14 C]triadimenol in the formulation as [ 14 C]Baytan 075 FS and [ 14 C]Baytan 25 DS at an early (September) and a late date (October). After both dates of sowing, the FS-treated winter barley developed under 3 different soil moisture conditions. The radioactivity and active ingredient contents in plants and soil were recorded until tillering as a function of low, high and natural precipitation after sowing. Details on the uptake of radioactivity via grain and roots were quantitatively and qualitatively studied in two further lysimeters, a pot experiment as well as experiments in the growth chamber. The results are presented and discussed in detail. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Breeding of proanthocyanidin free malting barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Anna Maria

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Haze formation in stored beer is due to colloidal precipitation of proteins with polyphenols of which proanthocyanidins are the most important group. 70-80% of proanthocyanidin in beer are from barley malt. Today breweries attain haze stability by using enzymes, additives or adsorbents. A better solution would be to remove proanthocyanidins. Carlsberg Plant Breeding uses induced mutations to breed proanthocyanidin-free malting barley. After mutagen treatment with sodium azide M1 seeds are planted in the field and M2 seeds are harvested in bulk. A single seed, non-destructive method has been developed to identify mutant kernels lacking proanthocyanidins in the testa. The method involves the inclusion of M2 seeds - 50 at a time - in semisolid clay blocks, whereafter a small part of the endosperm, testa and pericarp are exposed by sanding the seeds. The clay block is then placed in a vanillin-HCI solution so that the uncovered tissues can react with the solution. A red colour will develop in the testa of normal seeds, whereas the testa layers of proanthocyanid-free seeds remain colourless. So far, more than 600 mutants have been induced in over 100 barley varieties, spring as well as winter-types, from barley producing areas around the world. The mutants can be assigned to at least 7 loci, all of which can block the biosynthetic pathway for the proanthocyanidins. Mutants in the ant-18 and ant-19 loci show poor kernel development. Only a few mutants are known in the ant-12, ant-22 and ant-25 loci. Breeding work is focussed on mutants belonging to the ant-13 and ant-17 loci. Whereas the malting quality of ant-17 lines suffer from apparent abnormal enzyme development in the aleurone layer, this defect does not exist in ant-13 lines. Brewing trials with proanthocyanidin-free malt have shown excellent haze stability without changes in beer flavour. Breeding work based on the ant-13 lines led to disease resistant lines with good malting quality, while grain yield

  12. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  13. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  14. Allelopathic effect of ryegrass (lolium persicum) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baziar, M.R.; Farahvash, F.; Mirshekari, B.; Rashidi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield. (author)

  15. Barley uptake of N deposited in the rhizosphere of associated field pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    N deposited in the rhizosphere of a legume may contribute to the N-nutrition of an intercropped non-legume. The process of deposition and subsequent uptake by a neighbouring plant is often termed N-transfer. The N-transfer from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) to associated spring barley (Hordeum...... debris. Separating the root systems reduced the barley recovery of pea-derived N to about half the amount recovered in the association where root systems grew in the same compartment. The death of pea, caused by spraying with a herbicide, increased the amount of N recovered in barley, whereas shading...... the pea plant had no effect on the amount of pea-derived N taken up in barley. The N deposited up to 45 days of growth contributed

  16. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  17. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    phytase gene (HvPAPhy_a) expressed during grain filling to evaluate the cisgenesis concept in barley. The marker gene elimination method was used to obtain marker-free plant lines. Here, the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T-DNA borders to allow unlinked integration...... of the two genes. We analysed the transformants for co-transformation efficiency, increased phytase activities in the grain, integration of the kanamycin resistance gene of the vector-backbone and segregation between the HvPAPhy_a insert and the hygromycin resistance gene. The frequencies of the four......PAPhy_a insert for further analysis. Seeds from plants homozygous for the insert showed 2.6- and 2.8-fold increases in phytase activities and the activity levels were stable over the three generations analysed. In one of the selected lines, the flanking sequences from both the left and right T-DNA borders were...

  18. Growth patterns for etiolated soybeans germinated under spaceflight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Piastuch, William C.

    In the GENEX (GENe EXpression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87), six surface sterilized soybean seeds ( Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to initiate the process of seed germination on-orbit and subsequently transferred them to four light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight plants ( N = 177), (2) the corresponding ground control population ( N = 183), plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions ( N = 93). No significant morphological differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. Some causes underlying this phenomenon are speculated on.

  19. Unique and Conserved Features of the Barley Root Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn K. Kirschner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant root growth is enabled by root meristems that harbor the stem cell niches as a source of progenitors for the different root tissues. Understanding the root development of diverse plant species is important to be able to control root growth in order to gain better performances of crop plants. In this study, we analyzed the root meristem of the fourth most abundant crop plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare. Cell division studies revealed that the barley stem cell niche comprises a Quiescent Center (QC of around 30 cells with low mitotic activity. The surrounding stem cells contribute to root growth through the production of new cells that are displaced from the meristem, elongate and differentiate into specialized root tissues. The distal stem cells produce the root cap and lateral root cap cells, while cells lateral to the QC generate the epidermis, as it is typical for monocots. Endodermis and inner cortex are derived from one common initial lateral to the QC, while the outer cortex cell layers are derived from a distinct stem cell. In rice and Arabidopsis, meristem homeostasis is achieved through feedback signaling from differentiated cells involving peptides of the CLE family. Application of synthetic CLE40 orthologous peptide from barley promotes meristem cell differentiation, similar to rice and Arabidopsis. However, in contrast to Arabidopsis, the columella stem cells do not respond to the CLE40 peptide, indicating that distinct mechanisms control columella cell fate in monocot and dicot plants.

  20. Frequency of Aneuploids in Progenies of Autotriploid Barley, Hordeum Vulgare L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome counts of 863 progeny plants originating from 68 autotriploid barley plants revealed a considerable variation in chromosome numbers ranging from the diploid number (2n= 14) to 2n= 39. The most frequent groups were plants with 15 and 16 chromosomes each constituting about 27% of all pro...

  1. Diversity for seedling vigor in wild barley (hordeum vulgare L. subs. simpatina) germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, K.; Park, M.R.; Lee, H.J.; Lee, C.A.; Rehman, S.; Steffenson, B.; Lee, K.J.; Yun, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a poly house and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual seedling score and shoot and seedling fresh and dry weight. Correlation analysis showed that the visual seedling score was a reliable method for estimating seedling vigor in wild barley. The first three principal components (PC) explained 82.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1(54.0%) associated with shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, shoot length and seedling length. Accessions from the southwest portion of the Fertile Crescent, like WBDC020 (Turkey), WBDC238 (Jordan) and WBDC244 (Jordan) exhibited the highest positive values for most of the plant vigor traits investigated. These wild barley accessions likely carry alleles that will be useful for the improvement of plant vigor traits in cultivated barley. (author)

  2. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, D.

    1989-01-01

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O 2 , and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with 14 C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA

  3. Density Stress has Minimal Impacts on the Barley or Maize Seedling Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer St. Pierre

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High planting density affects the morphology and productivity of many crop species. Our objectives were to examine the phenotypic and transcriptomic changes that occur during plant density stress in barley ( L. and maize ( L. seedlings. In maize and barley seedlings, density stress impacted several morphological traits. Gene expression profiles were examined in four barley and five maize genotypes grown at low and high plant densities. Only 221 barley and 35 maize genes exhibited differential expression in response to plant density stress. The majority of the gene expression changes were observed in a subset of the genotypes and reflected minor changes in the level of expression, indicating that the plant density stress imposed in this study did not result in major changes in gene expression. Also, little overlap was observed within barley or maize genotypes in gene expression during density stress, indicating that genotypic differences play a major role in the response to density stress. While it is clear that gene expression differences are involved in morphological changes induced by high plant densities, it is likely that many of these gene expression differences are subtle and restricted to particular tissues and developmental time.

  4. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide and green light on plastid gene transcription and cytokinin content of barley leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Efimova, N.V.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Kusnetsov, V.; Litvinovskaya, R. P.; Zlobin, Y.L.; Dobrev, Petre; Vedenicheva, N.P.; Savchuk, A. L.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Kudryakova, N.V.; Kuznetsov, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, APR (2017), s. 32-40 ISSN 0039-128X Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : lupinus-luteus cotyledons * arabidopsis-thaliana * de-etiolation * abscisic-acid * brassinosteroid biosynthesis * plant development * hormonal balance * mutant * expression * growth * Brassinosteroids * Cytokinin * Gene expression * Green light * Hordeum vulgare * Transcription Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  5. Leaf rust of cultivated barley: pathology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert F; Golegaonkar, Prashant G; Derevnina, Lida; Sandhu, Karanjeet S; Karaoglu, Haydar; Elmansour, Huda M; Dracatos, Peter M; Singh, Davinder

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust of barley is caused by the macrocyclic, heteroecious rust pathogen Puccinia hordei, with aecia reported from selected species of the genera Ornithogalum, Leopoldia, and Dipcadi, and uredinia and telia occurring on Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum, Hordeum bulbosum, and Hordeum murinum, on which distinct parasitic specialization occurs. Although Puccinia hordei is sporadic in its occurrence, it is probably the most common and widely distributed rust disease of barley. Leaf rust has increased in importance in recent decades in temperate barley-growing regions, presumably because of more intensive agricultural practices. Although total crop loss does not occur, under epidemic conditions yield reductions of up to 62% have been reported in susceptible varieties. Leaf rust is primarily controlled by the use of resistant cultivars, and, to date, 21 seedling resistance genes and two adult plant resistance (APR) genes have been identified. Virulence has been detected for most seedling resistance genes but is unknown for the APR genes Rph20 and Rph23. Other potentially new sources of APR have been reported, and additivity has been described for some of these resistances. Approaches to achieving durable resistance to leaf rust in barley are discussed.

  6. 11C-methionine translocation in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Bughio, Naimatullah; Shigeta Ishioka, Noriko

    2000-01-01

    11 C-methionine was supplied to barley plants through a single leaf or via the roots and real time 11 C movement was monitored using a PETIS (positron emitting tracer imaging system). In Fe-deficient plants, 11 C-methionine was translocated from the tip of the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center' at the basal part of the shoot and then retranslocated to all the chlorotic leaves, while a negligible amount was retranslocated to the roots. In Fe-sufficient plants, methionine was translocated from the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center and then only to the newest leaf on the main shoot. A negligible amount was also retranslocated to the roots. Although, in Fe-sufficient plants, methionine translocation was observed from absorbing roots to shoots, in Fe-deficient plants, only a little amount was translocated from roots to shoots. In conclusion, methionine from the upper portion of a plant is not used as a precursor of mugineic acid under Fe-deficiency conditions. (author)

  7. Green Barley as an Ingredient in Pasta: Antioxidant Activity and Sensory Characteristics Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanišová Eva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study was to determine antioxidant activity, sensory properties as well as total polyphenol, flavonoid and chlorophyll content of raw and cooked pasta enriched by 1%, 3% and 5% addition of green barley powder. Results of antioxidant activity showed that increase of green barley addition increase antioxidant activity of pasta. The values in raw pasta obtained by DPPH ranged from 1.17 (control to 1.81 (5% addition mg TEAC/g DM, after cooking values ranged from 0.82 (control to 1.59 (5% addition mg TEAC/g DM. Similar tendency was signed by molybdenum reducing antioxidant power method. In enriched pasta was also found higher content of total polyphenol (0.19 in control raw sample and 1.81 mg GAE/g DM in pasta with 5 % of green barley addition; values of cooked pasta ranged from 0.10 in control sample to 0.73 mg GAE/g DM in pasta with 5 % of green barley addition as well as total flavonoid content (results of raw pasta were from 0.00 in control sample to 0.41 mg QE/g DM in pasta with 5% of green barley addition; values of cooked pasta were from 0.00 in control sample to 0.29 mg QE/g DM in variant with 5% green barley. Green barley also enriched pasta for chlorophyll with the best results in 5% addition. From prepared variants of enriched pasta the best overall acceptability was sign in 3% of green barley addition. Pastas enriched with plant-derived bioactive compounds such as green barley may confer health benefits to consumers.

  8. Uptake and distribution of 232U in peas and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Cline, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of 232 U from soil and its distribution in peas and barley were examined under conditions which isolated root uptake from deposition on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground plant parts were harvested at maturity and analyzed for 232 U content by alpha-energy-analysis. The ratio of concentration (CR) of 232 U in the dry barley seeds to dry soil was 1.6 x 10 -4 while the CR values of the stem/leaf to dry soil fraction was 3.6 x 10 -3 . The Cr values for the pea seed, stem/pod and leaf components were 5.4 x 10 -4 , 3.3 x 10 -3 and 1.7 x 10 -2 , respectively. This indicates that the CR values used in certain radiological dose-assessment models may be high by about a factor of 100 when evaluating the consumption of seeds of legumes or cereal grains by man. (author)

  9. Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D.; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley...... or wheat flour as the sole nutrient source to mimic the host–pathogen interaction. A gel‐based proteomics approach was employed to identify the proteins secreted into the culture medium. Sixty‐nine unique fungal proteins were identified in 154 protein spots, including enzymes involved in the degradation...... between wheat and barley flour medium were mainly involved in fungal cell wall remodelling and the degradation of plant cell walls, starch and proteins. The in planta expression of corresponding F. graminearum genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction in barley...

  10. Tracer study on sulphur use efficiency in potato-barley sequence on acid soil of Shimla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sud, K.C.; Sharma, R.C.; Sharma, N.K.

    1999-01-01

    Controlled studies were conducted on acidic soil of Fagu (Shimla) to study the efficiency of labelled ammonium sulphate as effected by farmyard manure (FYM) on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its residual effect on succeeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The direct and residual effects of FYM and sulphur on dry matter yield and S concentration in potato and barley plants were significant. Applied FYM had a positive effect on radioassay values i.e. % Sdff and % S utilization by potato from labelled S carrier, whereas, the residual effect of applied S on barley was more than its direct effect on potato. Results indicate that combined application of S and FYM resulted in 3.4 per cent more S contribution to barley crop and was reflected in % S utilization values. (author)

  11. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne K. Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  12. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    OpenAIRE

    Eva eBrod; Eva eBrod; Anne Falk Øgaard; Tore eKrogstad; Trond Knapp Haraldsen; Emmanuel eFrossard; Astrid eOberson

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared wit...

  13. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    OpenAIRE

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne K. Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with...

  14. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL.

  15. The Barley Grain Thioredoxin System – an Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eHägglund

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds and play numerous important functions in plants. In cereal seeds, cytosolic h-type thioredoxin facilitates the release of energy reserves during the germination process and is recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. This review presents a summary of the research conducted during the last ten years to elucidate the structure and function of the barley seed thioredoxin system at the molecular level combined with proteomic approaches to identify target proteins.

  16. The breeding of new malting barley variety 'yangpi NO.3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinrong; Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jianhua; Zhang Rong

    2009-01-01

    'Yangpi No 3' is a spring and two-rowed new malting barley variety. It was selected by the radiation-induced mutations. Its yield was about 6750 kg/hm 2 and the maturity was slightly later. The variety is with good agronomic traits, strong resistance, top quality and planted mainly in Huainan of Jiangsu Province. It had been qualified by Crop Variety Evaluation Committee of Jiangsu Province in Feb, 2009(200901). (authors)

  17. Nutrient uptake by barley in six colombian soils

    OpenAIRE

    Madero Morales, Edgar Enrique; Amézquita, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    In Colombia, the increase of barley production is restricted by such factors as irregular rainfall, low temperatures, soil acidity, low fertility and disease, associated with improper soil management and scarse improve germoplasm, A suitable use of fertilizers is an alternative to face part of the problem by means of plant breeding in different terrain, tend to develop of low soil productivity tolerant cultivars. To arrive at appropiate recommendations for farmers, it was consider the quantit...

  18. Characterization of barley Prp1 gene and its expression during seed development and under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian-Tao; Liu, Tao; Ma, Jian; Wei, Yu-Ming; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2011-10-01

    The pre-mRNA processing (Prp1) gene encodes a spliceosomal protein. It was firstly identified in fission yeast and plays a regular role during spliceosome activation and cell cycle. Plant Prp1 genes have only been identified from rice, Sorghum and Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we reported the identification and isolation of a novel Prp1 gene from barley, and further explored its expressional pattern by using real-time quantitative RTPCR, promoter prediction and analysis of microarray data. The putative barley Prp1 protein has a similar primary structure features to those of other known Prp1 protein in this family. The results of amino acid comparison indicated that Prp1 protein of barley and other plant species has a highly conserved 30 termnal region while their 50 sequences greatly varied. The results of expressional analysis revealed that the expression level of barley Prp1 gene is always stable in different vegetative tissues, except it is up-regulated at the mid- and late stages of seed development or under the condition of cold stress. This kind of expressional pattern for barley Prp1 is also supported by our results of comparison of microarray data from barley, rice and Arabidopsis. For the molecular mechanism of its expressional pattern, we conclude that the expression of Prp1 gene may be up-regulated by the increase of pre-mRNAs and not be constitutive or ubiquitous.

  19. Ultraviolet radiation induces stress in etiolated Landoltia punctata, as evidenced by the presence of alanine, a universal stress signal: a ¹⁵N NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monselise, E B-I; Levkovitz, A; Kost, D

    2015-01-01

    Analysis with (15) N NMR revealed that alanine, a universal cellular stress signal, accumulates in etiolated duckweed plants exposed to 15-min pulsed UV light, but not in the absence of UV irradiation. The addition of 10 mm vitamin C, a radical scavenger, reduced alanine levels to zero, indicating the involvement of free radicals. Free D-alanine was detected in (15) N NMR analysis of the chiral amino acid content, using D-tartaric acid as solvent. The accumulation of D-alanine under stress conditions presents a new perspective on the biochemical processes taking place in prokaryote and eukaryote cells. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare Seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Deng

    Full Text Available The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare, a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.

  1. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  2. Transcriptome analysis of Carica papaya embryogenic callus upon De-etiolated 1 (DET1 gene suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyana Jamaluddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is considered to be one of the most nutritional fruits. It is rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrient which function as antioxidant in our body [1]. Previous studies revealed that the suppression of a negative regulator gene in photomorphogenesis, De-etiolated 1 (DET1 can improve the phytonutrient in tomato and canola without affecting the fruit quality [2,3]. This report contains the experimental data on high-throughput 3′ mRNA sequencing of transformed papaya callus upon DET1 gene suppression.

  3. Growth Protocols for Etiolated Soybeans Germinated within BRIC-60 Canisters Under Spaceflight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Sharek, J. A.; Johnson, K. M.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V. I.; Martynenko, O. I.; Piastuch, W. C.

    As part of the GENEX (Gene Expression) spaceflight experiment, protocols were developed to optimize the inflight germination and subsequent growth of 192 soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) seeds during STS-87. We describe a method which provided uniform growth and development of etiolated seedlings while eliminating root and shoot restrictions for short-term (4-7 day) experiments. Final seedling growth morphologies and the gaseous CO2 and ethylene levels present both on the last day in space and at the time of recovery within the spaceflight and ground control BRIC-60 canisters are presented

  4. Variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dyulgerov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study was conducted to examine the variation in the agronomic and morphological traits in spring barley. For this purpose, 22 lines from the ICARDA High Input Barley Program for favorable environment and 3 check varieties (Rihane-03, VMorales and Veslets were tested in an alpha-lattice design with two replications at the Institute of Agriculture – Karnobat, Bulgaria in 2014 and 2015 growing season. The traits days to heading, plant height, number of tillers per plant, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, spike length, awn length, peduncle length, spikelet number per spike, grain number per spike, grain weight per spike, 1000 grains weight, grain yield, powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres and stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei infection were studied. Significant differences between lines for all studied traits were found. The number of fertile tillers per plant was significantly positively correlated with grain yield. Lines expressed higher grain yields, shorter stem, better tolerance to net blotch and stripe rust than Bulgarian check variety Veslets were identified. These genotypes can, therefore, be used as parents for the improvement of spring barley.

  5. Proteomic analysis of barley response during early spot blotch infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Daoude, A.; Jawhar, M.; Shoaib, A.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2015-01-01

    Spot blotch (SB), caused by the fungus Cochliobolus sativus, is a common foliar disease of barley worldwide, but little is known about the host response to infection at the protein level. In this study, a systematic shotgun proteomics approach was chosen to document the early barley response to C. sativus infection. Overall, 28 protein spots were consistently observed as differential in the proteome profiles of the challenged and unchallenged plants. After tryptic digestion, MALDI-TOF/MS analysis and MASCOT database searching identified proteins associated with the defense response including resistance proteins, putative hydrolase, proteinase, kinase and general metabolism and transport proteins. These afford important functions in host resistance and pathogen's inhibition in plants. One of the identified products is a putative NBS-LRR protein which is considered one of the major plant disease resistance proteins identified to date. This work indicates that, in combination with functional genomics, response of barley to challenge by C. sativus involved the recruitment of proteins from various defense pathways.(author)

  6. The effect of lanthanum applications on drought tolerance in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckingham, S.; Maheswaran, J.; Peverill, K.; Meehan, B.; Stokes, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Glasshouse investigations carried out by the authors on both perlite and soil, have repeatedly shown that several plant species, when treated with lanthanum, retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. Dry matter increases under water stress have been observed in some cases. Barley plants watered to 50% field capacity, and show-ing signs of water stress, yielded 18% more dry matter when treated with 5 kg/ha and 10 kg/ha of lanthanum than control plants (P<0.05). The results of these experiments suggest that increased dry matter production in crops under periods of water stress, is likely when previously treated with lanthanum. Consequently, it is conceivable that lanthanum may have potential as an agent that induces drought tolerance in grain crops, grown in low rainfall areas. Subsequent field trials using barley as a test crop at Walpeup, in the Mallee region of Victoria have shown that in a below average rainfall year, combined soil and foliar applications of lanthanum can significantly increase grain yield. This effect was not evident when barley grown on the same soil type was treated with lanthanum under above average rainfall conditions

  7. Comparison of Production Effectiveness of Wheat and Barley in Terms of Energy Use and Productivity in Sistan and Blochestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ziaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of energy productivity of different crops can be used as an effective tool to prioritize crops planting in each area. This study was conducted in order to compare of wheat and barley farms of Sistan and Blochestan province in relation of various aspects of energy consumption at 2009. 100 wheat and 100 barley fields were selected randomly from Zahedan, Zabol, Saravan, Khash, Iranshahr, Gasht, Sib and Soran, Zaboli, Nahok, Jalegh and Nikshahr cities. Inputs data and yield of wheat and barley fields were collected in the form of questionnaires in a face-to-face interviewing. Results showed that total energy inputs of wheat and barley fields were 32492.97 and 25655.81 MJ.ha-1, respectively. Total energy outputs for wheat and barley fields also were 48517.24 and 49800.87 MJ.ha-1, respectively. Based on these results the amount of energy use efficiency for wheat and barley fields were 1.49 and 1.94 respectively, and the amount of energy productivity for mentioned fields were 0.056 and 0.066. The share of renewable energy as one of the sustainability index of agricultural systems was 19.60 for wheat and 14.60 for barley fields. Therefore, it seems that barley production is more efficient from various aspects of energy consumption rather than wheat in Sistan and Blochestan province.

  8. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  9. HvWRKY10, HvWRKY19, and HvWRKY28 positively regulate Mla-triggered immunity and basal defense to barley powdery mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    WRKY proteins represent a large family of transcription factors (TFs), involved in plant development and defense responses. So far, fifty-five unique barley TFs have been annotated that contain the WRKY domain; twenty-six of these are present on the Barley1 GeneChip. We analyzed time-course expres...

  10. Innate nonhost immunity in barley to different heterologous rust fungi is controlled by sets of resistance genes with different and overlapping specificities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafary, H.; Szabo, L.J.; Niks, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    We developed an evolutionary relevant model system, barley-Puccini rust fungi, to study the inheritance and specificity of plant factors that determine to what extent innate nonhost immunity can be suppressed. A mapping population was developed from a cross between an experimental barley line

  11. Phototropin 1 and dim-blue light modulate the red light de-etiolation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; M Folta, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Light signals regulate seedling morphological changes during de-etiolation through the coordinated actions of multiple light-sensing pathways. Previously we have shown that red-light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition can be reversed by addition of dim blue light through the action of phototropin 1 (phot1). Here we further examine the fluence-rate relationships of this blue light effect in short-term (hours) and long-term (days) hypocotyl growth assays. The red stem-growth inhibition and blue promotion is a low-fluence rate response, and blue light delays or attenuates both the red light and far-red light responses. These de-etiolation responses include blue light reversal of red or far-red induced apical hook opening. This response also requires phot1. Cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) are activated by higher blue light fluence-rates and override phot1's influence on hypocotyl growth promotion. Exogenous application of auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid abolished the blue light stem growth promotion in both hypocotyl growth and hook opening. Results from the genetic tests of this blue light effect in auxin transporter mutants, as well as phytochrome kinase substrate mutants indicated that aux1 may play a role in blue light reversal of red light response. Together, the phot1-mediated adjustment of phytochrome-regulated photomorphogenic events is most robust in dim blue light conditions and is likely modulated by auxin transport through its transporters.

  12. Giemsa C-banding of Barley Chromosomes. IV. Chromosomal Constitution of Autotetraploid Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    The progeny of an autotetraploid barley plant (C1) consisted of 45 tetraploids and 33 aneuploids. Giemsa C-banding was used to identify each of the chromosomes in 20 euploid and 31 aneuploid C2--seedlings, and in 11 C3--offspring of aneuploid C2--plants. The euploid C2--seedlings all had four...... homologues of each of the chromosomes. The aneuploid C2--seedlings were fairly equally distributed on hypo-and hyperploids, and on the seven chromosome groups. This suggests that a particular chromosome is lost or gained at random in gametes and embryos. The 11 C3--seedlings comprised seven true euploids......, one seedling with 2n=28 having an extra chromosome 6 and missing one chromosome 3, and three seedlings with 2n=29. The chromosomal composition of aneuploid C3--seedlings did not reflect that of their aneuploid C2--parents with respect to missing or extra chromosomes. Two hypohexaploid C2--seedlings...

  13. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  14. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  15. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  16. Leaf senescence and nutrient remobilisation in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, P L; Holm, P B; Krupinska, K

    2008-01-01

    Extensive studies have been undertaken on senescence processes in barley and wheat and their importance for the nitrogen use efficiency of these crop plants. During the senescence processes, proteins are degraded and nutrients are re-mobilised from senescing leaves to other organs, especially...... of chloroplasts is summarised. Rubisco is thought to be released from chloroplasts into vesicles containing stroma material (RCB = Rubisco-containing bodies). These vesicles may then take different routes for their degradation. Transcriptome analyses on barley and wheat senescence have identified genes involved...... in degradative, metabolic and regulatory processes that could be used in future strategies aimed at modifying the senescence process. The breeding of crops for characters related to senescence processes, e.g. higher yields and better nutrient use efficiency, is complex. Such breeding has to cope with the dilemma...

  17. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  18. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H.; Ha, P.T.L.; Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T.

    2001-01-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10 5 to ca. 6 x 10 3 by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of 62 Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  19. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  20. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hannah; Hickey, Lee; Richard, Cecile; Mace, Emma; Kelly, Alison; Borrell, Andrew; Franckowiak, Jerome; Fox, Glen

    2016-03-01

    Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.). Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH) population (ND24260 × 'Flagship') comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT) markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical) and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL) were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/) was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L.), and sorghum [ (L.) Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley. Copyright © 2016 Crop Science Society of America.

  1. Genomic Regions Influencing Seminal Root Traits in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water availability is a major limiting factor for crop production, making drought adaptation and its many component traits a desirable attribute of plant cultivars. Previous studies in cereal crops indicate that root traits expressed at early plant developmental stages, such as seminal root angle and root number, are associated with water extraction at different depths. Here, we conducted the first study to map seminal root traits in barley ( L.. Using a recently developed high-throughput phenotyping method, a panel of 30 barley genotypes and a doubled-haploid (DH population (ND24260 × ‘Flagship’ comprising 330 lines genotyped with diversity array technology (DArT markers were evaluated for seminal root angle (deviation from vertical and root number under controlled environmental conditions. A high degree of phenotypic variation was observed in the panel of 30 genotypes: 13.5 to 82.2 and 3.6 to 6.9° for root angle and root number, respectively. A similar range was observed in the DH population: 16.4 to 70.5 and 3.6 to 6.5° for root angle and number, respectively. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL for seminal root traits (root angle, two QTL; root number, five QTL were detected in the DH population. A major QTL influencing both root angle and root number (/ was positioned on chromosome 5HL. Across-species analysis identified 10 common genes underlying root trait QTL in barley, wheat ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench]. Here, we provide insight into seminal root phenotypes and provide a first look at the genetics controlling these traits in barley.

  2. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  3. Chloroindolyl-3-acetic Acid and its Methyl Ester Incorporation of 36Cl in Immature Seeds of Pea and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1974-01-01

    Immature seeds of pea and barley were harvested on plants grown in solutions containing 36Cl−, but no other chlorides. Autoradiography of two-dimensional thin layer chromatograms (silicagel) of butanol extracts of freeze-dried seeds showed the presence in both species of several radioactive...... compounds besides Cl−. One compound, present in pea and probably in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4- and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acid methyl esters. Another, detected in pea, but probably not in barley, cochromatographed with a mixture of 4-and 6-chloroindolyl-3-acetic acids....

  4. Loose smut of barley grown in three types of farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nedelcheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Over the period of 2014-2015, on the experimental field of the Institute of Agriculture in Karnobat, Bulgaria, was set a field trial with twenty cultivars of barley – 15 two-row: Obzor, Emon, Perun, Orfey, Lardeya, Asparuh, Kuber, Zagorets, Imeon, Sayra, Devinya, Sitara, Krami, Vicky, Potok; 3 four-row: Veslets, Aheloy 2, Tamaris; and 2 six-row cultivars – IZ Bori and Bozhin. All the cultivars were grown in three types of farming: conventional, organic and biodynamic. In conventional farming were applied pesticides and nitrogen fertilization. In the organic production were not used pesticides, mineral and organic fertilizers; and in biodynamic farming was applied biodynamic compost prepared from manure and biodynamic preparations (also organic. In conventional farming, the seeds were disinfected before sowing with Kinto plus (Triticonazole 20 g/l + Prochloraz 60 g/l, at a rate of 150 ml/100 kg seeds. In organic and biodynamic farming were used nondisinfected seeds. In the phenophase of full maturity of barley was conducted monitoring survey for plants infected with loose smut in all 2 the trial variants, the number of infected plants per m were counted and the infection rates were calculated. Infected plants of Tamaris grown in the three types of farming underwent microscopic analysis and measurement of 100 teliospores from each variant. The aim of this experiment was to investigate varietal susceptibility of barley to Ustilago nuda, grown in three types of farming, and to establish if the growing method affects the size of the teliospores of the pathogen. With two-row barley were found plants of Lardeya, Kuber, Devinya, Krami and Vicky infected with Ustilago nuda. Krami manifested the lowest resistance in the three types of farming. With four-row barley, Tamaris was found to be highly susceptible and Veslets was poorly resistant. Both cultivars expressed weaker susceptibility in conventional and biodynamic farming and stronger in

  5. Transcriptome reprogramming due to the introduction of a barley telosome into bread wheat affects more barley genes than wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Elodie; Abrouk, Michael; Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Vrána, Jan; Balzergue, Sandrine; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Brunaud, Véronique; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Endo, Takashi R; Bartoš, Jan; Appels, Rudi; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2018-03-06

    Despite a long history, the production of useful alien introgression lines in wheat remains difficult mainly due to linkage drag and incomplete genetic compensation. In addition, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of foreign chromatin on plant phenotype. Here, a comparison of the transcriptomes of barley, wheat and a wheat-barley 7HL addition line allowed the transcriptional impact both on 7HL genes of a non-native genetic background and on the wheat gene complement as a result of the presence of 7HL to be assessed. Some 42% (389/923) of the 7HL genes assayed were differentially transcribed, which was the case for only 3% (960/35 301) of the wheat gene complement. The absence of any transcript in the addition line of a suite of chromosome 7A genes implied the presence of a 36 Mbp deletion at the distal end of the 7AL arm; this deletion was found to be in common across the full set of Chinese Spring/Betzes barley addition lines. The remaining differentially transcribed wheat genes were distributed across the whole genome. The up-regulated barley genes were mostly located in the proximal part of the 7HL arm, while the down-regulated ones were concentrated in the distal part; as a result, genes encoding basal cellular functions tended to be transcribed, while those encoding specific functions were suppressed. An insight has been gained into gene transcription in an alien introgression line, thereby providing a basis for understanding the interactions between wheat and exotic genes in introgression materials. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Yield and yield structure of spring barley (Hodeum vulgare L. grown in monoculture after different stubble crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2006- 2008 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental factor was the type of stubble crop ploughed in each year after harvest of spring barley: white mustard, lacy phacelia, winter rape, and a mixture of narrow-leaf lupin with field pea. In the experiment, successive spring barley crops were grown one after the other (in continuous monoculture. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of stubble crops used on the size and structure of barley yield. The three-year study showed an increasing trend in grain yield of spring barley grown after the mixture of legumes, lacy phacelia, and white mustard compared to its size in the treatment with no cover crop. Straw yield was significantly higher when barley was grown after the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with field pea than in the other treatments of the experiment. The type of ploughed-in stubble crop did not modify significantly plant height, ear length, and grain weight per ear. Growing the mixture of leguminous plants as a cover crop resulted in a significant increase in the density of ears per unit area in barley by an average of 14.7% relative to the treatment with winter rape. The experiment also showed the beneficial effect of the winter rape cover crop on 1000-grain weight of spring barley compared to that obtained in the treatments with white mustard and the mixture of legumes. All the cover crops caused an increase in the number of grains per ear of barley relative to that found in the control treatment. However, this increase was statistically proven only for the barley crops grown after lacy phacelia and the mixture of legumes.

  7. COMPARISON OF THE FROST RESISTANCE OF BARLEY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    immediate recovery of the photosynthetic quantum yield after freezing. Landraces which showed the highest cold tolerance were found to acclimatize best. Key words/phrases: Barley, chlorophyll fluorescence, cold acclimation, Ethiopia, frost tolerance. INTRODUCTION. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a traditional crop.

  8. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC–MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  9. The Hv NAC6 transcription factor: a positive regulator of penetration resistance in barley and Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Rung, Jesper Henrik; Gregersen, Per Langkjaer

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens induce the expression of many genes encoding plant transcription factors, though specific knowledge of the biological function of individual transcription factors remains scarce. NAC transcription factors are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in both abiotic...... and biotic stress adaptation, as well as in developmental processes. In this paper, we provide convincing evidence that a barley NAC transcription factor has a direct role in regulating basal defence. The gene transcript was isolated by differential display from barley leaves infected with the biotrophic...... powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). The full-length cDNA clone was obtained using 5'-RACE and termed HvNAC6, due to its high similarity to the rice homologue, OsNAC6. Gene silencing of HvNAC6 during Bgh inoculation compromises penetration resistance in barley epidermal cells...

  10. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  11. Physiological responses in barley to applications of lanthanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, N.; Maheswaran, J.; Peverill, K.; Meehan, B.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Chinese research and glasshouse investigations carried out in Victoria by the authors have shown that several plant species, when treated with Rare Earth Elements (REEs), retain greater amounts of moisture under water stressed conditions. The physiological adaptation of the plant to retain moisture in response to REE treatment however, has not been investigated. A glasshouse trial is currently in progress to study the physiological and agronomic responses of barley (cv. Schooner) grown in pots to application of lanthanum (0, 5 and 10 kg/ha), at a concentration of 0.05%, under well-watered (field capacity) and water-deficit (25 - 30% field capacity) conditions. Lanthanum was applied both directly to the soil and as a foliar spray. The physiological measurements include, photosynthetic rate, leaf water potential, osmotic potential, relative water content, stomatal conductance and water use efficiency. Measured agronomic parameters include plant height, tiller production, leaf area development, total grain weight, total biomass, root and shoot ratio and harvest index. Analysis of plant tissue for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and La to study the relationship between application of REE and nutrient uptake is also being carried out. The paper discusses physiological and agronomic changes in barley plants in response to treatment with lanthanum, under conditions of water stress

  12. Epigenetic chromatin modifiers in barley: IV. The study of barley Polycomb group (PcG genes during seed development and in response to external ABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanca Michele A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic phenomena have been associated with the regulation of active and silent chromatin states achieved by modifications of chromatin structure through DNA methylation, and histone post-translational modifications. The latter is accomplished, in part, through the action of PcG (Polycomb group protein complexes which methylate nucleosomal histone tails at specific sites, ultimately leading to chromatin compaction and gene silencing. Different PcG complex variants operating during different developmental stages have been described in plants. In particular, the so-called FIE/MEA/FIS2 complex governs the expression of genes important in embryo and endosperm development in Arabidopsis. In our effort to understand the epigenetic mechanisms regulating seed development in barley (Hordeum vulgare, an agronomically important monocot plant cultivated for its endosperm, we set out to characterize the genes encoding barley PcG proteins. Results Four barley PcG gene homologues, named HvFIE, HvE(Z, HvSu(z12a, and HvSu(z12b were identified and structurally and phylogenetically characterized. The corresponding genes HvFIE, HvE(Z, HvSu(z12a, and HvSu(z12b were mapped onto barley chromosomes 7H, 4H, 2H and 5H, respectively. Expression analysis of the PcG genes revealed significant differences in gene expression among tissues and seed developmental stages and between barley cultivars with varying seed size. Furthermore, HvFIE and HvE(Z gene expression was responsive to the abiotic stress-related hormone abscisic acid (ABA known to be involved in seed maturation, dormancy and germination. Conclusion This study reports the first characterization of the PcG homologues, HvFIE, HvE(Z, HvSu(z12a and HvSu(z12b in barley. All genes co-localized with known chromosomal regions responsible for malting quality related traits, suggesting that they might be used for developing molecular markers to be applied in marker assisted selection. The Pc

  13. Transient Overexpression of HvSERK2 Improves Barley Resistance to Powdery Mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingbo; Li, Qingwei; Guo, Guimei; He, Ting; Gao, Runhong; Faheem, Muhammad; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Ruiju; Liu, Chenghong

    2018-04-18

    Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases (SERKs) play an essential role in plant response to pathogen infection. Here we identified three SERK genes ( HvSERK1/2/3 ) from barley, and aimed to determine their implication in defense responses to barley powdery mildew ( Bgh ). Although HvSERK1/2/3 share the characteristic domains of the SERK family, only HvSERK2 was significantly induced in barley leaves during Bgh infection. The expression of HvSERK2 was rapidly induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) treatment, but not by treatment with salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), ethephon (ETH), or abscisic acid (ABA). Bioinformatics analysis of the cloned HvSERK2 promoter revealed that it contains several elements responsible for defense responses against pathogens. Promoter functional analysis showed that the HvSERK2 promoter was induced by Bgh and H₂O₂. Subcellular localization analysis of HvSERK2 indicated that it is mainly located on the plasma membrane. Transient overexpression of HvSERK2 in epidermal cells of the susceptible barley cultivar Hua 30 reduced the Bgh haustorium index from 58.6% to 43.2%. This study suggests that the HvSERK2 gene plays a positive role in the improvement of barley resistance to powdery mildew, and provides new insight into the function of SERK genes in the biotic stress response of plants.

  14. The Influence of Processing by Impulse Pressure on the Productivity of the Don Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Violetta Aleksandrovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is the important indicator, which determines the amount of yield. The productivity of plants depends on the number of bruchids per plant and on the weight of 1000 bruchids. The article studies the influence of impulse pressure of various magnitudes on plant productivity of Don barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. It was found that the pressure of 17 MPa was the most effective for increasing the productivity. Impulse pressure of other magnitudes also had influence on the productivity of Don barley.

  15. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  16. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  17. Esterase Isoenzyme Variants in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, S.; Nielsen, G.

    1977-01-01

    Gene symbols are proposed for 27 esterase isoenzyme alleles representing 10 loci in barley. Two new esterase loci, Est 9 and Est 10, each with an active and a silent allele, and three new alleles in previously described loci were found. A few chemical and physical characteristics of the different...... esterase isoenzyme systems were studied. The heat inactivation temperature differed for the isoenzymes coded by most of the loci, whereas the substrate and inhibitor specificity of the isoenzymes was less distinct. A possible relationship between some of the systems is discussed....

  18. Radiation after-effects in daughter generations of barley grown under conditions of enhanced radioactive background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, O.N.; Shershunova, V.I.; Taskaev, A.I.

    1978-01-01

    Stimulation of growth and development was observed in the first daughter generation of barley plants grown under conditions simulating an enhanced radioactive background. The stimulatory effect was partially reproduced in the second generation, and signs of depression of initial growth of plants were found in the third generation. A great number of alterations and their regular occurrence allow to refer them to lingering modifications originating under the effect of a radiation factor on vegetating plants

  19. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    on barley (Hordeum vulgare). Barley accumulates five hydroxynitrile glucosides, including one cyanogenic glucoside, in the epidermal cell layer. Cyanogenic glucosides are classically known as hydrogen cyanide-releasing defense compounds which act against generalist insects and herbivores. However...... is proposed. The results obtained in this Ph.D. study provide a unique insight demonstrating that hydroxynitrile glucosides play a far more complex role in barley defense against and susceptibility to Bgh than previously described. Future studies can build on the platforms established in this study to provide...

  20. Inter-chromosomal transfer of immune regulation during infection of barley with the powdery mildew pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildews infect over 9,500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. Powdery mildew disease of barley is caused by the Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) and has become a model for the interactions among obligate biotrophs and their cereal hosts. Successful infection r...

  1. Basal host resistance of barley to powdery mildew: connecting quantitative trait loci and candidate genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Marcel, T.C.; Johrde, A.; Pecchioni, N.; Schweizer, P.; Niks, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) is a quantitatively inherited trait that is based on nonhypersensitive mechanisms of defense. A functional genomic approach indicates that many plant candidate genes are involved in the defense against formation of

  2. Potential rates of ammonium oxidation, nitrite oxidation, nitrate reduction and denitrification in the young barley rhizosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Binnerup, S. J.; Sørensen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Potential activities (enzyme contents) of ammonium (NH4+) oxidizing, nitrite (NO2-) oxidizing, nitrate (NO3-) reducing and denitrifying bacteria were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil obtained from young barley plants in the field. The activities as well as pools of inorganic N (NH4+, NO2...

  3. Environmental, phenotypic and genetic variation of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhala, T.; Rijn, C.P.E.; Buntjer, J.; Stam, P.; Nevo, E.; Poorter, H.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Wild relatives of crop plants offer an attractive gene pool for cultivar improvement. We evaluated genetic and phenotypic variation for a set of 72 Israeli accessions of wild barley from 21 populations. These populations were grouped further into four ecotypes. In addition, environmental variables

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation (60CO) on quatitative characters of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, T.C.; Gonzalez, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Seeds od f a barley line were irradiated with doses ranging from O to 64 Kr of gamma radiation for three consecutive generations (R1,R2 and R3). From these, several mutant generations were obtained in the field, planting at a commercial density and without selection. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Fungal Endophytes of Wild Barley and their Effects on Diuraphis noxia Population Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester; C.M. Davitt

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the expression of Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance in four plant introduction (PI) lines of wild barley (Hordeum) infected with different species or strains of endophytic fungi (tribe Balansieae, family Clavicipitaceae, Neotyphodium gen. nov. [formerly...

  6. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunitz...... Ca2+-modulated kinetics of the AMY2/BASl interaction and found that the complex formation involves minimal structural changes. The modulation of the interaction by calcium ions makes it unique among the currently known binding mechanisms of proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors....

  7. Classification and Processing Optimization of Barley Milk Production Using NIR Spectroscopy, Particle Size, and Total Dissolved Solids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is a grain whose consumption has a significant nutritional benefit for human health as a very good source of dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic and phytic acids. Nowadays, it is more and more often used in the production of plant milk, which is used to replace cow milk in the diet by an increasing number of consumers. The aim of the study was to classify barley milk and determine the optimal processing conditions in barley milk production based on NIR spectra, particle size, and total dissolved solids analysis. Standard recipe for barley milk was used without added additives. Barley grain was ground and mixed in a blender for 15, 30, 45, and 60 seconds. The samples were filtered and particle size of the grains was determined by laser diffraction particle sizing. The plant milk was also analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, in the range from 904 to 1699 nm. Furthermore, conductivity of each sample was determined and microphotographs were taken in order to identify the structure of fat globules and particles in the barley milk. NIR spectra, particle size distribution, and conductivity results all point to 45 seconds as the optimal blending time, since further blending results in the saturation of the samples.

  8. Dinitrogen fixation estimates in Vetch-barley swards using {sup 15} N-methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdali, F; Sharabi, N E [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O.Box 6091, Damascus, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    N 2- fixation in vetch (Vicia Sativa) grown alone and in mixture with barley (hordeum vulgare) in pots was evaluated using {sup 15} N isotope dilution method. Two harvests were made over the growing season. The proportion of the above-ground N, derived from atmospheric N 2 (% Ndfa) in mixed vetch was significantly higher than that of vetch in pure culture for the different harvests. However, this increase was not accompanied with the amount of N 2-fixation. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in N-content or in N-derived from soil between barley grown in mixture and in monoculture, in spite of the difference in the number of plants between the tow cropping systems. These results indicate a high competing capacity of barley for soil nitrogen in mixed culture. Barley grown together with vetch had lower atom % 15 N excess than barley grown in mono-culture because it may have received some of their N from N-released by the legume in the second herbage but not in the first. Overall, results obtained from this experiment indicate the importance of mixed crops for forage production. Based on these results, further investigation must carried out in the field. 1 fig.

  9. Growth, Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Nitrogen Uptake in Silicon and/or Potassium Fed barley Grown under Two Watering Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Kurdali, Fawaz; Al-Chammaa, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The present pot experiment was an attempt to monitor the beneficial effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) applications on growth and nitrogen uptake in barley plants grown under water (FC1) and non water (FC2) stress conditions using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si 50, Si 100 and Si 200) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. Dry matter (DM) and N yield (NY) in different plant parts of barley plants was affected by Si and/ or K fertilization as well as by the wa...

  10. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...... transgenic tobacco was blocked by pyroglutamate, after the removal of which, N-terminal sequencing verified the transit signal-peptide cleavage site deduced from the cDNA sequence. Phenotype comparisons show that the constitutive expression of Prx8 lead to growth retardation. However, an infection assay...

  11. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  12. Phosphorus acquisition by barley (Hordeum vulgare L. at suboptimal soil temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Ylivainio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of soil temperature (8 ºC and 15 ºC on barley growth, barley phosphorus (P uptake and soil P solubility. Barley was grown in a pot experiment in two soils with different P fertilization histories for 22 years. The availability of P was estimated by using 33P-labeled fertilizer and calculating L-values. After cultivation for 22 years at ambient soil temperature without P fertilization (-P, soil L-value had decreased compared to soil that received annual P fertilization (P+. Low soil temperature further reduced the L-values, more in the -P soil than in the +P soil. Our results demonstrated that P fertilization can only partially ameliorate poor growth at low soil temperatures. Thus, applying ample fertilization to compensate for poor growth at low soil temperatures would increase the P content and solubility in the soil, but plant uptake would remain inhibited by cold.

  13. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbern, Christopher A; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne H; Schmidt, Sidsel B; Pedas, Pai; Bruhn, Dan; Schjoerring, Jan K; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Husted, Søren

    2009-03-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements revealed that the quantum yield efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) was reduced from 0.83 in Mn-sufficient control plants to below 0.5 in Mn-starved plants. Leaf Mn concentrations declined from 30 to 7 microg Mn g(-1) dry weight in control and Mn-starved plants, respectively. Mn-starved plants had up to four-fold higher transpiration than control plants. Stomatal closure and opening upon light/dark transitions took place at the same rate in both Mn treatments, but the nocturnal leaf conductance for water vapour was still twice as high in Mn-starved plants compared with the control. The observed increase in transpiration was substantiated by (13)C-isotope discrimination analysis and gravimetric measurement of the water consumption, showing significantly lower water use efficiency in Mn-starved plants. The extractable wax content of leaves of Mn-starved plants was approximately 40% lower than that in control plants, and it is concluded that the increased leaf conductance and higher transpirational water loss are correlated with a reduction in the epicuticular wax layer under Mn deficiency.

  14. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  15. THE STIMULATING EFFECT OF LASER RED LIGHT, FAR RED LIGHT AND SODIUM CARBONATE AT THE INITIAL STAGES OF BARLEY ONTOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Dudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Modern ecological state of the environment and human unhealthy diet cause many diseases. A healthy diet is the one that contains adequate amounts of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, macronutrients and micronutrients. Photosynthesis i. e. the process by which plants produce organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water, is the source of life, the source of evolution and proliferation of life forms on the Earth. Thus, the juice made from sprouted barley provides physiologically active chlorophyll, macronutrients and micronutrients, vitamins А, В2 , В3 , В5 , В6 , В8 , Е and К. It is well known that light from a red laser with a wavelength of 638.2 nm has a stimulating action on the germination energy, germination ability and productivity of seeds, and on the crop yields. Therefore, this research is of primary importance today. The research result produced a sharp decline in plant vigor and germinating capacity of barley when soaking in 1n sodium carbonate solution, as well as changes in the ratio of potassium-sodium balance in plants. Thus at lower concentrations of sodium carbonate and 0.1 n sodium increasing of pigment content in barley is observed on the seventh day. The red laser light has a similar stimulating action: the chlorophyll content of barley plants increased after the red laser treatment of barley seeds. However, the chlorophyll contents were depressed when the seeds were exposed to far red light with wavelengths of 754±10 nm. Using these factors, one can manage the content of chlorophyll and sodium-potassium balance in the initial stages of barley ontogenesis in the technology of barley juice or the powder for a healthy and proper human diet.

  16. BAX INHIBITOR-1 is required for full susceptibility of barley to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Ruth; Bischof, Melanie; Weis, Corina; Shaw, Jane; Lacomme, Christophe; Schweizer, Patrick; Duchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2010-09-01

    BAX INHIBITOR-1 (BI-1) is one of the few proteins known to have cross-kingdom conserved functions in negative control of programmed cell death. Additionally, barley BI-1 (HvBI-1) suppresses defense responses and basal resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei and enhances resistance to cell death-provoking fungi when overexpressed in barley. Downregulation of HvBI-1 by transient-induced gene silencing or virus-induced gene silencing limited susceptibility to B. graminis f. sp. hordei, suggesting that HvBI-1 is a susceptibility factor toward powdery mildew. Transient silencing of BI-1 did not limit supersusceptibility induced by overexpression of MLO. Transgenic barley plants harboring an HvBI-1 RNA interference (RNAi) construct displayed lower levels of HvBI-1 transcripts and were less susceptible to powdery mildew than wild-type plants. At the cellular level, HvBI-1 RNAi plants had enhanced resistance to penetration by B. graminis f. sp. hordei. These data support a function of BI-1 in modulating cell-wall-associated defense and in establishing full compatibility of B. graminis f. sp. hordei with barley.

  17. Apoplastic domains and sub-domains in the shoots of etiolated corn seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, B. L.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Light Green, an apoplastic probe, was applied to the cut mesocotyl base or to the cut coleoptile apex of etiolated seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Silver Queen. Probe transport was measured and its tissue distribution determined. In the mesocotyl, there is an apoplastic barrier between cortex and stele. This barrier creates two apoplastic domains which are non-communicating. A kinetic barrier exists between the apoplast of the mesocotyl stele and that of the coleoptile. This kinetic barrier is not absolute and there is limited communication between the apoplasts of the two regions. This kinetic barrier effectively creates two sub-domains. In the coleoptile, there is communication between the apoplast of the vascular strands and that of the surrounding cortical tissue. No apoplastic communication was observed between the coleoptile cortex and the mesocotyl cortex. Thus, the apoplastic space of the coleoptile cortex is a sub-domain of the integrated coleoptile domain and is separate from that of the apoplastic domain of the mesocotyl cortex.

  18. Enterobacterias como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea en la comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Agudelo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar, a nivel de la comunidad, los enteropatógenos bacterianos que producen diarrea en niños menores de 10 años, tomamos muestras de heces de 204 pacientes con cuadro diarreico de 1 a 7 días de evolución y de un grupo control, sin diarrea, conformado por 48 niños. Evaluamos también la recuperación de los microorganismos empleando o no medio de Cary-Blair como medio de transporte e identificamos las categorías de Escherichia coli aisladas empleando pruebas biológicas e inmunológicas. Se destacaron como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea E. coli (58,8%, E. coli enterotoxigénica, productora de toxina labil (ECET-TL (5,1%, Salmonella enteritidis (6,9% y Shigella sonnei (5,9%. Cuando no se usó el medio de transporte de Cary-Blair la sensibilidad en la recuperación de los microorganismos fue del 37%. Se destaca la importancia de determinar la frecuencia real de las categorías de E. coli en nuestro medio.

  19. Mechanism of blue-light-induced plasma-membrane depolarization in etiolated cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    A large, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane precedes the rapid blue-light (BL)-induced growth suppression in etiolated seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. The mechanism of this voltage transient was investigated by applying inhibitors of ion channels and the plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase, by manipulating extracellular ion concentrations, and by measuring cell input resistance and ATP levels. The depolarizing phase was not affected by Ca(2+)-channel blockers (verapamil, La3+) or by reducing extracellular free Ca2+ by treatment with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). However, these treatments did reduce the rate of repolarization, indicating an inward movement of Ca2+ is involved. No effects of the K(+)-channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA+) were detected. Vanadate and KCN, used to inhibit the H(+)-ATPase, reduced or completely inhibited the BL-induced depolarization. Levels of ATP increased by 11-26% after 1-2 min of BL. Input resistance of trichrome cells, measured with double-barreled microelectrodes, remained constant during the onset of the depolarization but decreased as the membrane voltage became more positive than -90 mV. The results indicate that the depolarization mechanism initially involves inactivation of the H(+)-ATPase with subsequent transient activation of one or more types of ion channels.

  20. Micro-PIXE evaluation of Fe distribution in barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Povh, B.; Strasser, O.; Gierth, M.; Przybylowicz, W.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Churms, C.; Schuessler, A.

    1999-01-01

    High Fe concentrations were reported from roots of plants grown in soil. This has been discussed as a possible Fe source for plants, since the concentrations shown in the roots were much higher than in the shoots. There are, however, also some indications that soil contamination at the root surface of soil grown plants could have led to an overestimation of the Fe concentration in roots. Fe distribution in root cross sections of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Alexis) has been studied to investigate this hypothesis. Micro-PIXE analyses in point and mapping mode were complemented by the STIM technique. Based on the correlation between Fe and soil-related elements (Ti, Al and Si), most of Fe located at the root surface could be attributed to soil contamination. It could also be shown that this soil contamination leads to an overestimation of Fe concentration in roots. (author)

  1. Can barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s.l.) adapt to fast climate changes? A controlled selection experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemayehu, Fikadu Reta; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon

    2013-01-01

    to environmental stress, we conducted a selection experiment over five plant generations (G0–G4) in three scenarios, where atmospheric [CO2] and temperature were increased as single factors and in combination. The treatments represented the expected environmental characteristics in Northern Europe around year 2075...... to environmental change needs to be explored in order to select the most productive genotypes. Presently, it is unknown whether cereal crops like spring barley can adapt to climate stressors over relatively few generations. To evaluate if strong selection pressures could change the performance of barley......, the G4-generation of selected plants did not improve its reproductive output compared to the G0-generation, as G4 produced less seeds and had a lower yield than unselected plants. These results indicate that barley might not respond positively to rapid and strong selection by elevated [CO2...

  2. Rhizodeposition of N by pea and barley and its effect on soil N dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Rhizodeposition of N during plant growth influences the microbial activity in the rhizosphere and constitutes a source of labile organic N, but has not been quantified to the same degree as the rhizodeposition of C. The rhizodeposition of N, defined as root-derived N present in the soil after...... removal of visible roots and root fragments, was determined during field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth in a sandy soil at a low concentration of mineral N using a continuous split-root N-15-labelling technique. The N rhizodeposition constituted 15 and 48......% of the below-ground N in pea when determined 7 and 14 (maturity) wk after planting (WAP), respectively. In barley 32 and 71% of the below-ground N were present in rhizodeposits at the two samplings. At maturity the rhizodeposition of N amounted to 19 mg N plant(-1) (7% of total plant N) for pea and 17 mg N...

  3. Exploring the Plant–Microbe Interface by Profiling the Surface-Associated Proteins of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Cereal grains are colonized by a microbial community that actively interacts with the plant via secretion of various enzymes, hormones, and metabolites. Microorganisms decompose plant tissues by a collection of depolymerizing enzymes, including β-1,4-xylanases, that are in turn inhibited by plant...... xylanase inhibitors. To gain insight into the importance of the microbial consortia and their interaction with barley grains, we used a combined gel-based (2-DE coupled to MALDI-TOF-TOF MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) proteomics approach complemented with enzyme activity assays to profile the surface......-associated proteins and xylanolytic activities of two barley cultivars. The surface-associated proteome was dominated by plant proteins with roles in defense and stress-responses, while the relatively less abundant microbial (bacterial and fungal) proteins were involved in cell-wall and polysaccharide degradation...

  4. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  5. Environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production in Iran using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshyar, E.

    2017-07-01

    Current intensive grain crops production is often associated with environmental burdens. However, very few studies deal with the environmental performance of both current and alternative systems of barley production. This study was undertaken to evaluate energy consumption and environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production. Additionally, three alternative scenarios were examined for irrigated barley fields including conservation tillage and biomass utilization policies. The findings showed that around 25 GJ/ha energy is needed in order to produce 2300 kg/ha irrigated barley and 13 GJ/ha for 1100 kg/ha rain-fed barley. Life cycle assessment (LCA) results indicated that irrigated farms had more environmental impacts than rain-fed farms. Electricity generation and consumption had the highest effect on the abiotic depletion potential, human toxicity potential, freshwater and marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential. However, alternative scenarios revealed that using soil conservation tillage systems and biomass consumption vs. gas for electricity generation at power plants can significantly mitigate environmental impacts of irrigated barley production similar to the rain-fed conditions while higher yield is obtained.

  6. Environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production in Iran using life cycle assessment (LCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houshyar, E.

    2017-01-01

    Current intensive grain crops production is often associated with environmental burdens. However, very few studies deal with the environmental performance of both current and alternative systems of barley production. This study was undertaken to evaluate energy consumption and environmental impacts of irrigated and rain-fed barley production. Additionally, three alternative scenarios were examined for irrigated barley fields including conservation tillage and biomass utilization policies. The findings showed that around 25 GJ/ha energy is needed in order to produce 2300 kg/ha irrigated barley and 13 GJ/ha for 1100 kg/ha rain-fed barley. Life cycle assessment (LCA) results indicated that irrigated farms had more environmental impacts than rain-fed farms. Electricity generation and consumption had the highest effect on the abiotic depletion potential, human toxicity potential, freshwater and marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential. However, alternative scenarios revealed that using soil conservation tillage systems and biomass consumption vs. gas for electricity generation at power plants can significantly mitigate environmental impacts of irrigated barley production similar to the rain-fed conditions while higher yield is obtained.

  7. Estimating Leaching Requirements for Barley Growth under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Busaidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is receiving considerable attention. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salt accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of saline irrigation and leaching fraction on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. growth. For this purpose highly saline water was diluted to the salinity levels of 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 leaching fractions (LF. The results of the experiment showed that both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil in the following manner: a the salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface; b an enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon but there was no significant difference in plant yield between different treatments of leaching fractions. Salinity of water significantly impaired barley growth. The good drainage of sandy soil enhanced the leaching process and minimized the differences between leaching fractions. The increment in saline treatments (3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 added more salts and stressed plant growth. However, the conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective in enhancing the yield potential of crops in water-scarce areas.

  8. Investigation of Leaf Diseases and Estimation of Chlorophyll Concentration in Seven Barley Varieties Using Fluorescence and Hyperspectral Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Yu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf diseases, such as powdery mildew and leaf rust, frequently infect barley plants and severely affect the economic value of malting barley. Early detection of barley diseases would facilitate the timely application of fungicides. In a field experiment, we investigated the performance of fluorescence and reflectance indices on (1 detecting barley disease risks when no fungicide is applied and (2 estimating leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC. Leaf fluorescence and canopy reflectance were weekly measured by a portable fluorescence sensor and spectroradiometer, respectively. Results showed that vegetation indices recorded at canopy level performed well for the early detection of slightly-diseased plants. The combined reflectance index, MCARI/TCARI, yielded the best discrimination between healthy and diseased plants across seven barley varieties. The blue to far-red fluorescence ratio (BFRR_UV and OSAVI were the best fluorescence and reflectance indices for estimating LCC, respectively, yielding R2 of 0.72 and 0.79. Partial least squares (PLS and support vector machines (SVM regression models further improved the use of fluorescence signals for the estimation of LCC, yielding R2 of 0.81 and 0.84, respectively. Our results demonstrate that non-destructive spectral measurements are able to detect mild disease symptoms before significant losses in LCC due to diseases under natural conditions.

  9. Recovery of nitrogen by spring barley following incorporation of 15N-labelled straw and catch crop material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, I.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots re...... mineral fertilizer was in the second and third barley crop similar to the recovery of N from incorporated plant residues.......The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots...... receiving (NH4NO3)-N-15-N-15 were included. Plant samples were taken every second week until maturity during the first growing season and at maturity in the two following years. Incorporation of plant material had no significant influence on the above-ground dry matter yield of the barley. The barley...

  10. Radiosensitivities of cultured barley of different type (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan

    1990-01-01

    The dormant seeds (with 13% moisture) of 47 barley varieties were irradiated with various doses (0-40 krad) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The radiosensitivities of naked barley was significantly higher than that of hulled barley. The sensitive coefficients of seedling height were 0.04945 and 0.03667 for naked barley and hulled barley, respectively. The radiosensitivity of four-row naked barley was significantly higher than that of two-row hulled barley and six-row hulled barley. 47 varieties studied could be divided into five types with different radiosensitivities, i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive and extreme sensitive. It was also found that the dose-effect curves of cell nucleus volume had a peal at 30 krad

  11. Analysis of molecular diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide survey of cultivated barley germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganal Martin W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was a systematic survey of the molecular diversity in barley genetic resources. To this end 953 cultivated barley accessions originating from all inhabited continents except Australia were genotyped with 48 SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated with routine statistics (allelic richness, gene diversity, allele frequency, heterozygosity and unique alleles, Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA, and analysis of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium. Results A genotyping database for 953 cultivated barley accessions profiled with 48 SSR markers was established. The PCoA revealed structuring of the barley population with regard to (i geographical regions and (ii agronomic traits. Geographic origin contributed most to the observed molecular diversity. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2. The values of LD for barley were comparable to other plant species (conifers, poplar, maize. The pattern of intrachromosomal LD with distances between the genomic loci ranging from 1 to 150 cM revealed that in barley LD extended up to distances as long as 50 cM with r2 > 0.05, or up to 10 cM with r2 > 0.2. Few loci mapping to different chromosomes showed significant LD with r2 > 0.05. The number of loci in significant LD as well as the pattern of LD were clearly dependent on the population structure. The LD in the homogenous group of 207 European 2-rowed spring barleys compared to the highly structured worldwide barley population was increased in the number of loci pairs with r2 > 0.05 and had higher values of r2, although the percentage of intrachromosomal loci pairs in significant LD based on P 0.80 provided higher LD values as compared to 19 low polymorphic loci (PIC Conclusion A global population of cultivated barley accessions was highly structured. Clustering highlighted the accessions with the same geographic origin, as well as accessions possessing

  12. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Alonso-Azcarate, J. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Carlos III, s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Rodriguez, L., E-mail: Luis.Rromero@uclm.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Camilo Jose Cela, s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: > Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. > Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. > Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  13. Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the availability of metals and their accumulation in maize and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, E.; Alonso-Azcarate, J.; Rodriguez, L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. on metal availability in two mining soils was assessed by means of chemical extraction methods and a pot experiment using crop plants. Results from single and sequential extractions showed that L. terrestris had a slight effect on metal fractionation in the studied soils: only metals bound to the soil organic matter were significantly increased in some cases. However, we found that L. terrestris significantly increased root, shoot and total Pb and Zn concentrations in maize and barley for the soil with the highest concentrations of total and available metals. Specifically, shoot Pb concentration was increased by a factor of 7.5 and 3.9 for maize and barley, respectively, while shoot Zn concentration was increased by a factor of 3.7 and 1.7 for maize and barley, respectively. Our results demonstrated that earthworm activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. - Research highlights: → Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils. → Earthworm activity can significantly increase total, shoot and root metal concentrations for crop plants. → Both bioassays and chemical extraction methods are necessary for assessing the bioavailability of metals in contaminated soils. - Lumbricus terrestris L. activity increases the bioavailability of metals in soils and total, shoot and root metal concentrations for maize and barley.

  14. The breeding of new malting barley variety 'Yangpi No.2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jinrong; Yang Hefeng

    2005-01-01

    'Yangpi No.2' barley pasted the examination of Jiangsu province in 2002, is the new spring two-rowed malting barley variety selected by which irradiation mutated the early-maturing of barley. The yield capacity of 'Yangpi No.2' barley is about 6750 kg/hm 2 , it had the characters of early-maturing, good agronomic characters, strong anti-adversity, high quality, and adapted well to everywhere in Jiangsu province. (authors)

  15. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  16. Influence of UV-A or UV-B light and of the nitrogen source on the induction of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in etiolated tomato cotyledons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migge, A.; Carrayol, E.; Hirel, B.; Lohmann, M.; Meya, G.; Becker, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet A (UV-A) or B (UV-B) light and of the nitrogen source on the induction of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT, EC 1.4.7.1) was examined in etiolated cotyledons of tomato (Lycopersicon escu- lentum L.). The Fd-GOGAT activity increased upon illumination of etiolated tomato cotyledons with UV-A or UV-B light. This stimulation of Fd-GOGAT activity was correlated with an increase in both the Fd-GOGAT transcript level and the Fd-GOGAT protein abundance. These results suggest that UV-A or UV-B light stimulates the de novo synthesis of Fd-GOGAT in etiolated tomato cotyledons. Both UV-A and UV-B light failed to influence the activity of NADH-GOGAT (EC 1.4.1.14) in etiolated tomato cotyledons. Taken together, our data indicate that the tomato genes encoding Fd- or NADH-dependent glutamate synthase are regulated differently by UV-A or UV-B light. No difference with respect to both the Fd-GOGAT transcript and protein abundance was found between cotyledons of tomato seedlings grown with either nitrate or ammonium as the sole N-source in the dark or in white light. In addition, the increase in the Fd-GOGAT protein pool induced by white light in etiolated nitrate-grown tomato seedling cotyledons was similar to that induced by white light in etiolated ammonium-grown tomato seedling cotyledons. These results show that the tomato Fd-GOGAT protein level does not depend strongly on the nature of the nitrogen source and that there appears to be no major stimulatory effect on the Fd-GOGAT protein pool produced by nitrate during the illumination of etiolated tomato cotyledons

  17. UV-B induction of NADP-malic enzyme in etiolated and green maize seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drincovich, M.F.; Casati, P.; Andreo, C.S.; Donahue, R.; Edwards, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of treatment of etiolated maize seedlings with UV-B and UV-A radiation, and different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm), on the activity and quantity of NADP-malic enzyme (NADPME) and on RNA levels was determined. Under low levels of PAR (14 µmol m –2 s –1 ), exposure to UV-B radiation (9 µmol m –2 s –1 ) but not UV-A radiation (11 µmol m –2 s –1 ) for 6–24 h caused a marked increase in the activity of the enzyme similar to that observed under high PAR (300 µmol m –2 s –1 ) in the absence of UV-B. Western blot analysis indicated there was a specific increase of the photosynthetically active isoform of the enzyme. This increase was also measured at the RNA level by dot blot analysis, indicating that the induction is displayed at the level of NADP-ME transcription. UV-B treatment of green leaves after a 12 h dark period also caused an increase in the activity and level of NADP-ME. The UV-B induction of NADP-ME synthesis may reflect a mechanism for induction of photosynthetic processes in C4 photosynthesis. Alternatively, the relatively low intensity of UV-B radiation present under full sunlight might provide a signal that facilitates repair of UV-B-induced damage through the increased activity of different enzymes such as NADP-ME. It is speculated that the reducing power and pyruvate generated by activity of NADP-ME may be used for respiration in cellular repair processes and as substrates for the fatty acid synthesis required for membrane repair. (author)

  18. Nature and origin of the calcium asymmetry-arising during gravitropic response in etiolated pea epicotyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliaccio, F.; Galston, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Seven day old etiolated pea epicotyls were loaded symmetrically with 3 H-indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) or 45 Ca 2+ , then subjected to 1.5 hours of 1g gravistimulation. Epidermal peels taken from top and bottom surfaces after 90 minutes showed an increase in IAA on the lower side and of Ca 2+ on the upper side. Inhibitors of IAA movement (TIBA, 9-hydroxyfluorene carboxylic acid) block the development of both IAA and Ca 2+ asymmetries, but substances known to interfere with normal Ca 2+ transport do not significantly alter either IAA or Ca 2+ asymmetries. These substances, however, are active in modifying both Ca 2+ uptake and efflux through oat and pea leaf protoplast membranes. The authors conclude that the 45 Ca 2+ fed to pea epicotyls occurs largely in the cell wall, and that auxin movement is primary and Ca 2+ movement secondary in gravitropism. They hypothesize that apoplastic Ca 2+ changes during the graviresponse because it is displaced by H + secreted through auxin-induced proton release. This proposed mechanism is supported by localized pH experiments, in which filter paper soaked in various buffers was applied to one side of a carborundum-abraded epicotyls. Buffer at pH 3 increased calcium loss from the side to which it is applied, whereas pH 7 buffer decreases it. Moreover, 10 micromolar IAA and 1 micromolar fusicoccin, which promote H + efflux, increase Ca 2+ release from pea epicotyl segments, whereas cycloheximide, which inhibits H + efflux, has the reverse effect

  19. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  20. Amylolytic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from barley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... naturally present in barley, and produced cell-bound and cell-free α-amylase at alkaline conditions. The two strains may be developed into starter cultures to facilitate the germination of barley and produce malt with a higher fermentable sugar content. Key words: Lactobacillus plantarum, starch hydrolysis, barley, malting ...

  1. The effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on gene expression and pigment composition in etiolated and green pea leaf tissue: UV-B-induced changes are gene-specific and dependent upon the developmental stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, B.R.; James, P.E.; Strid, A.; Anthony, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280–320nm) on gene expression and pigment composition has been investigated in pea tissue at different stages of development. Pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Feltham First) seedlings were grown for 17d and then exposed to supplementary UV-B radiation. Chlorophyll a per unit fresh weight decreased by more than 20% compared with control levels after exposure to UV-B radiation for 7d. In contrast, chlorophyll b content remained the same or increased slightly. Leaf protein biosynthesis, as determined by 35 S-methionine incorporation, was rapidly inhibited by UV-B radiation, although the steady-state levels of proteins were either unchanged or only slightly altered. RNA transcripts for the chlorophyll a/b binding protein (cab) were also rapidly reduced to low or even undetectable levels in the expanded third leaf or younger leaf bud tissue after exposure to UV-B radiation. In contrast, cab RNA transcripts were either low or undetectable in etiolated pea tissue, but increased substantially in light and during exposure to UV-B radiation. The cab RNA transcripts were still present at control levels in pea plants after 7d of greening under supplementary UV-B radiation or UV-B alone. The protein composition changed significantly over the 7d of greening, but no differences could be detected between the light treatments. The increase in chlorophyll content was slightly greater during de-etiolation under supplementary UV-B radiation than under control irradiance. Under UV-B radiation alone, chlorophyll was synthesized at a greatly reduced rate. Changes in protective pigments were also determined. Anthocyanins did not change in either etiolated or green tissue exposed to UV-B radiation. However, other flavonoids increased substantially in either tissue during exposure to light and UV-B radiation. The RNA levels for chalcone synthase were measured in green and etiolated tissue exposed to UV-B radiation. The chs RNA transcripts were

  2. Growth, Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Nitrogen Uptake in Silicon and/or Potassium Fed barley Grown under Two Watering Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurdali, Fawaz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment was an attempt to monitor the beneficial effects of silicon (Si and/or potassium (K applications on growth and nitrogen uptake in barley plants grown under water (FC1 and non water (FC2 stress conditions using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si50, Si100 and Si200 and one fertilizer rate of K were used. Dry matter (DM and N yield (NY in different plant parts of barley plants was affected by Si and/ or K fertilization as well as by the watering regime level under which the plants have been grown. Solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si 100 were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing higher spike's N yield. Solely added Si or in combination with K significantly reduced leaves ∆13 C reflecting their bifacial effects on water use efficiency (WUE, particularly in plants grown under well watering regime. This result indicated that Si might be involved in saving water loss through reducing transpiration rate and facilitating water uptake; consequently, increasing WUE. Although the rising of soil humidity generally increased fertilizer nitrogen uptake (Ndff and its use efficiency (%NUE in barley plants, applications of K or Si fertilizers to water stressed plants resulted in significant increments of these parameters as compared with the control. Our results highlight that Si or K is not only involved in amelioration of growth of barley plants, but can also improve nitrogen uptake and fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency particularly under water deficit conditions.

  3. Labeled Azospirillum brasilense wild type and excretion-ammonium strains in association with barley roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adrian Richard Schenberger; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Furmam, Rafaela Wiegand; Freitas, Denis Leandro de; Santos, Karina Freire d'Eça Nogueira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Ayub, Ricardo Antônio; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Galvão, Carolina Weigert

    2017-09-01

    Soil bacteria colonization in plants is a complex process, which involves interaction between many bacterial characters and plant responses. In this work, we labeled Azospirillum brasilense FP2 (wild type) and HM053 (excretion-ammonium) strains by insertion of the reporter gene gusA-kanamycin into the dinitrogenase reductase coding gene, nifH, and evaluated bacteria colonization in barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we determined inoculation effect based on growth promotion parameters. We report an uncommon endophytic behavior of A. brasilense Sp7 derivative inside the root hair cells of barley and highlight the promising use of A. brasilense HM053 as plant growth-promoting bacterium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  5. Nitrogen uptake by Azospirillum brasilense inoculated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as influenced by N and P fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negi, Mahima; Tilak, K.V.B.R.; Sachdev, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in a sandy-loam soil under potted conditions revealed that application of nitrogen and phosphorus increased the population of Azospirillium in the barley rhizosphere. A two fold increase was observed in the Azospirillium population at 80 days compared to that at 40 days of plant growth. The unsterilized inoculated roots had more population than the surface sterilized inoculated roots. Increased drymatter production of barley was obtained in A. brasilense inoculated N 0 P 1 (0 kg N and 30 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ) treatment than uninoculated control. Also N and P uptake was higher in A. brasilense inoculated plants in the presence of both N and P fertilizers. The 15 N data revealed that at harvest nearly 36 per cent of the total N uptake was from the nitrogen fixed by A. brasilense irrespective of P treatment. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs

  6. The barley HvNAC6 transcription factor affects ABA accumulation and promotes basal resistance against powdery mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yan-Jun; Perera, Venura; Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Barley HvNAC6 is a member of the plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC2) transcription factor family and we have shown previously that it acts as a positive regulator of basal resistance in barley against the biotrophic pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). In this study, we use a trans...

  7. Temporal and spatial distribution of roots and competition for nitrogen in pea-barley intercrops - a field study employing P-32 technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    was the dominant component of the pea-barley intercrop, obtaining 90% of its sole crop yield, while pea produced only 15% of the grains of a sole crop pea. Intercropping of pea and barley improved the utilization of plant growth resources (LER > 1) as compared to sole crops. Root system distribution in time...... and space can partly explain interspecific competition. The P-32 methodology proved to be a valuable tool for determining root dynamics in intercropping systems....

  8. Improving drought and salinity tolerance in barley by application of salicylic acid and potassium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf Ali Fayez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and physiological activities of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Gustoe grown in soil cultures were evaluated to recognize the ameliorative role of salicylic acid (SA and KNO3 against the negative effects of salt and water deficit stresses. Barley plants were subjected to three levels of NaCl (50, 100 and 150 mM, three levels of water stress (80%, 70% and 50% of the soil water content (SWC and the combination of 150 mM NaCl + 50 μM SA, 150 mM NaCl + 10 mM KNO3, 50% SWC + 50 μM SA and 50% SWC + 10 mM KNO3 for two weeks. Salt and water deficit stresses reduced the shoot growth, leaf photosynthetic pigments, K+ contents and provoked oxidative stress in leaves confirmed by considerable changes in soluble carbohydrate, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and Na+ contents. Leaf soluble protein of salt and water deficit treated plants was unaffected. The Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing salt and water deficit treated plants. Application of 50 μM SA or 10 mM KNO3 to150 mM NaCl and/or 50% SWC treated plants improved these attributes under salt and water stresses. Soluble carbohydrates in stressed plants may have a significant role in osmotic adjustment. It can be concluded that the addition of SA or KNO3 can ameliorate the oxidative stress in barley stressed plants. This ameliorative effect might be maintained through low MDA contents and decreased Na+/K+ ratio in leaves. This study also provided evidence for the ability of barley cultivation in salt and water deficit soils due to its capacity for osmotic adjustment.

  9. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-03-23

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  10. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui; Saade, Stephanie; Kurtek, Sebastian; Berger, Bettina; Brien, Chris; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  11. An LRR/malectin receptor-like kinase mediates resistance to non-adapted and adapted powdery mildew fungi in barley and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaraman Rajaraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for required for nonhost resistance 8 encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates nonhost resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating nonhost resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  12. An LRR/Malectin Receptor-Like Kinase Mediates Resistance to Non-adapted and Adapted Powdery Mildew Fungi in Barley and Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Jeyaraman; Douchkov, Dimitar; Hensel, Götz; Stefanato, Francesca L; Gordon, Anna; Ereful, Nelzo; Caldararu, Octav F; Petrescu, Andrei-Jose; Kumlehn, Jochen; Boyd, Lesley A; Schweizer, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) belonging to the multigene family of receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are the sensing devices of plants for microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns released from microbial organisms. Here we describe Rnr8 (for Required for non-host resistance 8 ) encoding HvLEMK1, a LRR-malectin domain-containing transmembrane RLK that mediates non-host resistance of barley to the non-adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici . Transgenic barley lines with silenced HvLEMK1 allow entry and colony growth of the non-adapted pathogen, although sporulation was reduced and final colony size did not reach that of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus B. graminis f.sp. hordei . Transient expression of the barley or wheat LEMK1 genes enhanced resistance in wheat to the adapted wheat powdery mildew fungus while expression of the same genes did not protect barley from attack by the barley powdery mildew fungus. The results suggest that HvLEMK1 is a factor mediating non-host resistance in barley and quantitative host resistance in wheat to the wheat powdery mildew fungus.

  13. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  14. Genomic Prediction of Manganese Efficiency in Winter Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leplat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Manganese efficiency is a quantitative abiotic stress trait controlled by several genes each with a small effect. Manganese deficiency leads to yield reduction in winter barley ( L.. Breeding new cultivars for this trait remains difficult because of the lack of visual symptoms and the polygenic features of the trait. Hence, Mn efficiency is a potential suitable trait for a genomic selection (GS approach. A collection of 248 winter barley varieties was screened for Mn efficiency using Chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence in six environments prone to induce Mn deficiency. Two models for genomic prediction were implemented to predict future performance and breeding value of untested varieties. Predictions were obtained using multivariate mixed models: best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP and genomic best linear unbiased predictor (G-BLUP. In the first model, predictions were based on the phenotypic evaluation, whereas both phenotypic and genomic marker data were included in the second model. Accuracy of predicting future phenotype, , and accuracy of predicting true breeding values, , were calculated and compared for both models using six cross-validation (CV schemes; these were designed to mimic plant breeding programs. Overall, the CVs showed that prediction accuracies increased when using the G-BLUP model compared with the prediction accuracies using the BLUP model. Furthermore, the accuracies [] of predicting breeding values were more accurate than accuracy of predicting future phenotypes []. The study confirms that genomic data may enhance the prediction accuracy. Moreover it indicates that GS is a suitable breeding approach for quantitative abiotic stress traits.

  15. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1989-11-01

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  16. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  17. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...... with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...

  18. An Integrated Resource for Barley Linkage Map and Malting Quality QTL Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Szűcs

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Barley ( L. is an economically important model plant for genetics research. Barley is currently served by an increasingly comprehensive set of tools for genetic analysis that have recently been augmented by high-density genetic linkage maps built with gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. These SNP-based maps need to be aligned with earlier generation maps, which were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL detection, by integrating multiple types of markers into a single map. A 2383 locus linkage map was developed using the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB Mapping Population to allow such alignments. The map is based on 1472 SNP, 722 DArT, and 189 prior markers which include morphological, simple sequence repeat (SSR, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP, and sequence tagged site (STS loci. This new OWB map forms, therefore, a useful bridge between high-density SNP-only maps and prior QTL reports. The application of this bridge concept is shown using malting-quality QTLs from multiple mapping populations, as reported in the literature. This is the first step toward developing a Barley QTL Community Curation workbook for all types of QTLs and maps, on the GrainGenes website. The OWB-related resources are available at OWB Data and GrainGenes Tools (OWB-DGGT (.

  19. Transcriptome Sequencing in a Tibetan Barley Landrace with High Resistance to Powdery Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Quan Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hulless barley is an important cereal crop worldwide, especially in Tibet of China. However, this crop is usually susceptible to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. In this study, we aimed to understand the functions and pathways of genes involved in the disease resistance by transcriptome sequencing of a Tibetan barley landrace with high resistance to powdery mildew. A total of 831 significant differentially expressed genes were found in the infected seedlings, covering 19 functions. Either “cell,” “cell part,” and “extracellular region” in the cellular component category or “binding” and “catalytic” in the category of molecular function as well as “metabolic process” and “cellular process” in the biological process category together demonstrated that these functions may be involved in the resistance to powdery mildew of the hulless barley. In addition, 330 KEGG pathways were found using BLASTx with an E-value cut-off of <10−5. Among them, three pathways, namely, “photosynthesis,” “plant-pathogen interaction,” and “photosynthesis-antenna proteins” had significant matches in the database. Significant expressions of the three pathways were detected at 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h after infection, respectively. These results indicated a complex process of barley response to powdery mildew infection.

  20. Field Screening of Waterlogging Tolerance in Spring Wheat and Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Kristina Sundgren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved waterlogging tolerance of wheat and barley varieties may alleviate yield constraints caused by heavy or long-lasting precipitation. The waterlogging tolerance of 181 wheat and 210 barley genotypes was investigated in field trials between 2013 and 2014. A subset of wheat genotypes were selected for yield trials in 2015 and 2016. Our aim was to: (1 characterize the waterlogging tolerance of genotypes with importance for Norwegian wheat and barley breeding, and (2 identify which phenotypic traits that most accurately determine the waterlogging tolerance of wheat in our field trials. Waterlogging tolerance was determined by principal component analysis (PCA where best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs of the traits chlorosis, relative plant height, heading delay, relative spike number, relative biomass and an overall condition score were used as input variables. Six wheat and five barley genotypes were identified as consistently more tolerant in 2013 and 2014. This included the waterlogging tolerant CIMMYT line CETA/Ae. tauschii (895. Chlorosis and the overall condition score were the traits that best explained the yield response of the genotypes selected for the yield trials. Our results show that early stress symptoms did not necessarily reflect the ability to recover post treatment. Thus, records from full crop cycles appear as fundamental when screening populations with unknown tolerance properties.

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of aluminum tolerance in tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxin Dai

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation than XZ61 and Dayton under Al stress. Thirty-five Al-tolerance/resistance-associated proteins were identified and categorized mainly in metabolism, energy, cell growth/division, protein biosynthesis, protein destination/storage, transporter, signal transduction, disease/defense, etc. Among them, 30 were mapped on barley genome, with 16 proteins being exclusively up-regulated by Al stress in XZ16, including 4 proteins (S-adenosylmethionine-synthase 3, ATP synthase beta subunit, triosephosphate isomerase, Bp2A specifically expressed in XZ16 but not Dayton. The findings highlighted the significance of specific-proteins associated with Al tolerance, and verified Tibetan wild barley as a novel genetic resource for Al tolerance.

  2. The barley MATE gene, HvAACT1, increases citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance when expressed in wheat and barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Ryan, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Aluminium is toxic in acid soils because the soluble Al3+ inhibits root growth. A mechanism of Al3+ tolerance discovered in many plant species involves the release of organic anions from root apices. The Al3+-activated release of citrate from the root apices of Al3+-tolerant genotypes of barley is controlled by a MATE gene named HvAACT1 that encodes a citrate transport protein located on the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expressing HvAACT1 with a constitutive promoter in barley and wheat can increase citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance of these important cereal species. Methods HvAACT1 was over-expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) using the maize ubiquitin promoter. Root apices of transgenic and control lines were analysed for HvAACT1 expression and organic acid efflux. The Al3+ tolerance of transgenic and control lines was assessed in both hydroponic solution and acid soil. Key Results and Conclusions Increased HvAACT1 expression in both cereal species was associated with increased citrate efflux from root apices and enhanced Al3+ tolerance, thus demonstrating that biotechnology can complement traditional breeding practices to increase the Al3+ tolerance of important crop plants. PMID:23798600

  3. Dominant Groups of Potentially Active Bacteria Shared by Barley Seeds become Less Abundant in Root Associated Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Luhua; Danzberger, Jasmin; Schöler, Anne; Schröder, Peter; Schloter, Michael; Radl, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms colonizing plant internal tissues. They are ubiquitously associated with plants and play an important role in plant growth and health. In this work, we grew five modern cultivars of barley in axenic systems using sterile sand mixture as well as in greenhouse with natural soil. We characterized the potentially active microbial communities associated with seeds and roots using rRNA based amplicon sequencing. The seeds of the different cultivars share a great part o...

  4. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Andersen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface......-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites. The isolated fungi were grown...... on medium containing barley flour or wheat arabinoxylan as sole carbon source. Their secretomes and xylanase activities were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and enzyme assays and were found to vary according to species and carbon source. Secretomes were dominated by cell wall degrading enzymes with xylanases...

  5. Photosystem II functionality in barley responds dynamically to changes in leaf manganese status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Powikrowska, Marta; Krogholm, Ken Suszkiewicz

    2016-01-01

    functionality. We have here used parameters derived from measurements of fluorescence induction kinetics (OJIP transients), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and PSII subunit composition to investigate how latent Mn deficiency changes the photochemistry in two barley genotypes differing in Mn efficiency. Mn...... the plants incapable of dissipating excess energy in a controlled way. Thus, the Mn deficient plants became severely affected in their ability to recover from high light-induced photoinhibition, especially under strong Mn deficiency. Interestingly, the Mn-efficient genotype was able to maintain a higher NPQ...... decrease in the abundance of the OEC protein subunits, PsbP and PsbQ in response to Mn deficiency for both genotypes. We conclude that regulation of photosynthetic performance by means of maintaining and inducing NPQ mechanisms contribute to genotypic differences in the Mn efficiency of barley genotypes...

  6. Inhibition of barley grain germination by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth-Bejerano, N.; Meulen, R.M. van der; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    Intact grains of barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Triumph) germinated rapidly in the dark or when exposed to brief daily light breaks in the temperature range 15-25°C, although germination proceeded less rapidly at low temperatures. Prolonged illumination (16 h/day) or continuous light inhibited

  7. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  8. Barley Breeding for Quality Improvement in Tunisia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... sub-humid environment at Beja and a semi-arid one at Kef. Heading date ... State of art showed that barley was a main food crop in. North Africa for ... rably to many other food grains (wheat, rye, and oats) and played a .... rates both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) into ...

  9. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  10. Chromosome aberration assays in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, M J [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville; Nilan, R A

    1982-01-01

    Barley is an exceellent organism for studies of induced chromosome aberrations because of its few (2n = 2x = 14) relatively large chromosomes. Root-tip and shoot-tip cells have been used extensively for the study of ionizing radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. The general procedures are well known, the technology is simple and easy to learn, and the assays are relatively quick and inexpensive. Both root tips and shoot tips can be used for the study of chemical mutagens as well as ionizing radiations. Pollen mother cells are well suited for studying the effects of mutagens on meiotic chromosomes. The literature review for the Gene-Tox Program reported on 61 chemicals tested for their effects on barley chromosomes. Of these, 90% were reported to be either positive or positive dose-related, while 7% were negative and 3% were questionable. Barley assays based on chromosomal aberrations are useful to detect the clastogenic potency of chemicals under laboratory conditions. Indications are that the data from barley can be used to corroborate data obtained from other organisms. Among the classes of chemicals assayed were: alcohols and phenols; alkaloids; epoxides; alkyl sulfates; amides and sulfonamides; aromatic amines; aryl halides; aziridines; alkenes; carbamates; hydroazides; nitroaromatics; nitrosamides; nitrosources; phenothiazines; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  11. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...

  12. Technical note: In situ ruminal starch disappearance kinetics of hull-less barley, hulled barley, and corn grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G; Yang, Y; Teets, C L; Brooks, W S; Griffey, C A

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare ruminal starch disappearance rates of hull-less barley, hulled barley, and corn grains. Five different genotypes were used for each of the 2 barley types. In addition, each of these genotypes was grown in 2 different locations and years, resulting 10 independent barley samples for each of the 2 barley grain types. Five different genotypes of corn grain were obtained from a commercial seed company. After being ground to pass through a 4-mm screen of a cutter mill, 3.6 g of each grain was placed into a porous bag, which was then incubated in the rumen of 2 ruminally cannulated cows for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. Corn grains had greater instant ruminal starch disappearances than barley grains (22.4 and 8.2%, respectively). Instant ruminal starch disappearances did not differ between hulled and hull-less barley grains. Ruminal starch fractional disappearance rates were greatest for hulled barley grains, moderate for hull-less barley grains, and lowest for corn grains (15.3, 13.9, and 7.1%/h, respectively). Ruminal starch half-life was shortest for hulled and hull-less barley grains (4.4 h) and longest for corn grains (6.6 h). Ruminal starch half-life did not differ between hulled barley and hull-less barley grains. In conclusion, using a holistic experimental design and statistical analysis, this study showed that starch from hull-less barley grains has a ruminal half-life similar to that of hulled barley grains and shorter than that of corn grains. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Overexpression of HvIcy6 in Barley Enhances Resistance against Tetranychus urticae and Entails Partial Transcriptomic Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Estrella Santamaria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cystatins have been largely used for pest control against phytophagous species. However, cystatins have not been commonly overexpressed in its cognate plant species to test their pesticide capacity. Since the inhibitory role of barley HvCPI-6 cystatin against the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae has been previously demonstrated, the purpose of our study was to determine if barley transgenic lines overexpressing its own HvIcy6 gene were more resistant against this phytophagous infestation. Besides, a transcriptomic analysis was done to find differential expressed genes among wild-type and transformed barley plants. Barley plants overexpressing HvIcy6 cystatin gene remained less susceptible to T. urticae attack when compared to wild-type plants, with a significant lesser foliar damaged area and a lower presence of the mite. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a certain reprogramming of cellular metabolism and a lower expression of several genes related to photosynthetic activity. Therefore, although caution should be taken to discard potential deleterious pleiotropic effects, cystatins may be used as transgenes with impact on agricultural crops by conferring enhanced levels of resistance to phytophagous pests.

  14. Multi-method research strategy for understanding changes in storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated in a range of diverse environments and is widely utilised as feed for animal and as malt in brewing. Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient whch directly increases plant growth and is used as a fertiliser to meet the demands for higher yield. However...

  15. Interactions with the actin cytoskeleton are required for cell wall localization of barley stripe mosaic virus TGB proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The host cytoskeleton and membrane system are the main routes by which plant viruses move within or between cells. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) -induced actin filament thickening was visualized in the cytoskeleton of agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells expressing DsRed:Talin. ...

  16. Gamma-radiation Mutagenesis in Genetically Unstable Barley Mutants. Pt. 3. Effects of Aging in Various Genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchiuniene, L.

    1995-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation effect was tested on the grain material of normal-initial barley c. 'Auksiniai II' and allelic mutants tw 1 and tw 2 . Dependence of the aging effects on genotype was obvious, especially in survival test. Differences were observed even on allelic mutants. These observations are important for the preservation strategy of plant genetical resources. (author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Uptake and Distribution of Added Selenite and Selenate by Barley and Red Clover as Influenced by Sulphur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1973-01-01

    The uptake of added Se from selenite and selenate by barley and red clover was investigated in a pot experiment. Much more of selenate than of selenite was taken up but the Se concentrations in the plants declined more with time when selenate was the source. Increasing sulphate addition to the soil...

  18. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Synergic effect of. gamma. irradiation and formaldehyde on growth of barley seedlings after caryopse treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvy, A; Maltet, P; Jonard, R [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France). Service de Radio-Agronomie; Montpellier-1 Univ., 34 (France))

    1980-06-30

    A synergic effect is observed on the shortening of first leaf of seedlings following combined treatments with ..gamma.. irradiation before or during exposure to formaldehyde in gaseous phase on barley caryopses with low water content (4,7%) under anoxic conditions. This effect being attributed to the great reactivity of free radicals in such dry and anoxic systems, new methods of mutagenic treatment can therefore be envisaged for higher plants.

  20. Synergic effect of γ irradiation and formaldehyde on growth of barley seedlings after caryopse treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvy, Andre; Maltet, Patrick; Jonard, Robert

    1980-01-01

    A synergic effect is observed on the shortening of first leaf of seedlings following combined treatments with γ irradiation before or during exposure to formaldehyde in gaseous phase on barley caryopses with low water content (4,7%) under anoxic conditions. This effect being attributed to the great reactivity of free radicals in such dry and anoxic systems, new methods of mutagenic treatment can therefore be envisaged for higher plants [fr

  1. Combining mechanical rhizome removal and cover crops for Elytrigia repens control in organic barley systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B; Nørremark, M; Kristensen, E F

    2013-01-01

    of vegetative propagules located within the plough layer to allow for quick re-establishment of a plant cover. A field experiment comparing the effects of conventional practices (stubble cultivation) with different combinations of rotary cultivation (One, Two or four passes) and cover crops (none vs. rye......-vetch-mustard mixture) on Elytrigia repens rhizome removal, shoot growth and suppression of a subsequent barley crop was examined in two growing seasons. Four passes with a modified rotary cultivator, where each pass was followed by rhizome removal, reduced E. repens shoot growth in barley by 84% and 97%. In general...

  2. Integration of β-glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-03-01

    β-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on β-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley β-glucan rich fractions and mushroom β-glucan fractions at 10 % levels increased the total dietary fibre content of extrudates compared to the control (P extruded snack products.

  3. Barley yellow dwarf virus: Luteoviridae or Tombusviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Allen; Liu, Sijun; Beckett, Randy

    2002-07-01

    Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid transmission and phloem-limitation properties resemble those of the Luteoviridae, the family in which BYDV is classified. In contrast, many genes and cis-acting signals involved in replication and gene expression most closely resemble those of the Tombusviridae. BYDV is in genus Luteovirus, family Luteoviridae. BYDV includes at least two serotypes or viruses: BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. The former BYDV-RPV is now Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). CYDV is in genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Genus Luteovirus shares many features with family Tombusviridae. Physical properties: approximately 25 nm icosahedral (T = 3) virions. One major (22 kDa) and one minor (50-55 kDa) coat protein. 5.6-5.8 kb positive sense RNA genome with no 5'-cap and no poly(A) tail. Most grasses. Most important in oats, barley and wheat. Also infects maize and rice. Yellowing and dwarfing in barley, stunting in wheat; reddening, yellowing and blasting in oats. Some isolates cause leaf notching and curling. Key attractions: Model for the study of circulative transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses. Plethora of unusual translation mechanisms. Evidence of recombination in recent evolutionary history creates taxonomic ambiguity. Economically important virus of wheat, barley and oats, worldwide. Useful websites/meetings: International symposium: 'Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease: Recent Advances and Future Strategies', CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-5 September 2002, http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/wheat/Conf_BYD_02/invitation.htm http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/wheat/BYDVNEWS/htm/BYDVNEWS.htm Aphid transmission animation: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~sforza/tmv/bydv_aph.html.

  4. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  5. Boron toxicity tolerance in barley through reduced expression of the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hrmova, Maria; Baumann, Ute; Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2010-08-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is a significant limitation to cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. Here we describe the cloning of a gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare), underlying the chromosome 6H B toxicity tolerance quantitative trait locus. It is the second B toxicity tolerance gene identified in barley. Previously, we identified the gene Bot1 that functions as an efflux transporter in B toxicity-tolerant barley to move B out of the plant. The gene identified in this work encodes HvNIP2;1, an aquaporin from the nodulin-26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily that was recently described as a silicon influx transporter in barley and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that a rice mutant for this gene also shows reduced B accumulation in leaf blades compared to wild type and that the mutant protein alters growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under high B. HvNIP2;1 facilitates significant transport of B when expressed in Xenopus oocytes compared to controls and to another NIP (NOD26), and also in yeast plasma membranes that appear to have relatively high B permeability. We propose that tolerance to high soil B is mediated by reduced expression of HvNIP2;1 to limit B uptake, as well as by increased expression of Bot1 to remove B from roots and sensitive tissues. Together with Bot1, the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1 is an important determinant of B toxicity tolerance in barley.

  6. Haplotyping, linkage mapping and expression analysis of barley genes regulated by terminal drought stress influencing seed quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasingly narrow genetic background characteristic of modern crop germplasm presents a challenge for the breeding of cultivars that require adaptation to the anticipated change in climate. Thus, high priority research aims at the identification of relevant allelic variation present both in the crop itself as well as in its progenitors. This study is based on the characterization of genetic variation in barley, with a view to enhancing its response to terminal drought stress. Results The expression patterns of drought regulated genes were monitored during plant ontogeny, mapped and the location of these genes was incorporated into a comprehensive barley SNP linkage map. Haplotypes within a set of 17 starch biosynthesis/degradation genes were defined, and a particularly high level of haplotype variation was uncovered in the genes encoding sucrose synthase (types I and II and starch synthase. The ability of a panel of 50 barley accessions to maintain grain starch content under terminal drought conditions was explored. Conclusion The linkage/expression map is an informative resource in the context of characterizing the response of barley to drought stress. The high level of haplotype variation among starch biosynthesis/degradation genes in the progenitors of cultivated barley shows that domestication and breeding have greatly eroded their allelic diversity in current elite cultivars. Prospective association analysis based on core drought-regulated genes may simplify the process of identifying favourable alleles, and help to understand the genetic basis of the response to terminal drought.

  7. Approaches to improving the nutritional quality of barley seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewry, P.R.; Bright, S.W.J.; Burgess, S.R.; Miflin, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The poor nutritional quality of barley grain is determined by the low level of lysine in the prolamin storage proteins (hordein). These account for between 35 to 50% of the total grain nitrogen, depending on the nutritional status of the plant. There is a reduced proportion of hordein in mutant high lysine lines but these also have reduced synthesis of storage carbohydrates and hence low yields. Three strategies for improvement are discussed. Increases in the lysine content of hordein may be difficult to achieve because of the presence of complex families of structural genes. It would also be necessary to insert a large number of additional lysine residues. Two more promising approaches are to increase the level of expression of genes coding for lysine-rich globulin storage proteins and to increase the pool of free lysine by selecting mutant lines with relaxed feedback regulation of lysine synthesis. (author)

  8. A change in radioresistance of barley under chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'chenko, V.A.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Fedotov, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    Mutation process and radioresistance of barley growing in an area with increased radiation background (beta radiation doss -0.6 R/day) have been analyzed. Experimental material is given with 250 kindred families where aberration level of chromosomes was analyzed in mitosis and meiosis during 4 years. It is shown that the first generations (M 1 -M 2 ) in experimental material demonstrate an increased level of structural mutations of chromosomes, while the subsequent generations (M 3 -M 4 ) demonstrate the level reduced to control. A higher radioresistance is observed in M 5 plants of chronically irradiated version as compared to nonirradiated version. It is suggested that increase in radioresistance results from the stimulation of repair systems with low doses of chronic irradiation as well as from the selection of a more radioresistant forms out of the population [ru

  9. NASA crop calendars: Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, M. R.; Anderson, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    Crop calenders used to determine when Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERTS data would provide the most accurate wheat acreage information and to minimize the amount of ground verified information needed are presented. Since barley, oats, and rye are considered 'confusion crops, i.e., hard to differentiate from wheat in ERTS imagery, specific dates are estimated for these crops in the following stages of development: (1) seed-bed operation, (2) planting or seeding, (3) intermediate growth, (4) dormancy, (5) development of crop to full ground cover, (6) heading or tasseling, and flowering, (7) harvesting, and (8) posting-harvest operations. Dormancy dates are included for fall-snow crops. A synopsis is given of each states' growing conditions, special cropping practices, and other characteristics which are helpful in identifying crops from ERTS imagery.

  10. Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

    2005-03-01

    The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

  11. Efflux of inorganic substances from young barley roots, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Kojima, Shigeru

    1977-01-01

    The root system of young barley was almost halved, and the two portions were planted in culture grounds with different composition after severing the capillary connection between both root groups. With one portion in the acid medium solution of various compositions and the other in the 22 Na-absorbing medium solution, the sodium absorbed from one root group moved to and flowed out from the other root group, and this state was observed. Also, the efflux of potassium from the root was observed. (1) The Na efflux was small in the culture ground with dilute hydrochloric acid, and larger in that with AlCl 3 or phosphate. (2) The K efflux was large under short-day condition. (3) Under short-day condition, in the culture ground with soluble Al, the K efflux was promoted by nitrogen-source addition, but the Na efflux was suppressed. (Mori, K.)

  12. A proteomics-based study of endogenous and microbial xylanases and xylanase inhibitors associated with barley grains used for liquid feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida

    the surface-associated proteins (surfome) constitutively present on barley grains of two barley cultivars were established using 2 -DE and mass spectrometry. The majority of the identified proteins was of plant origin and ascribed to play a role in defense and/or oxidative stress mechanisms. A metaproteomics....../influence the plant and/or competitors via secretion of an array of enzymes and compounds/metabolites. The occurrence of these enzyme activities both of plant and fungal origin present a great potential for improvement of grain nutritional components for feed applications. Knowledge is lacking in the variation...

  13. The germinlike protein GLP4 exhibits superoxide dismutase activity and is an important component of quantitative resistance in wheat and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bentsen; Thordal-Christensen, Hans; Zimmermann, Grit

    2004-01-01

    Germinlike proteins (GLP) are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in plant development and defense. Genes of GLP subfamily 4 of barley (HvGLP4, formerly referred to as HvOxOLP) and the wheat orthologue TaGLP4 (formerly referred to as TaGLP2a) were previously found...... overexpression of TaGLP4 and HvGLP4 enhanced resistance against B. graminis in wheat and barley, whereas transient silencing by RNA interference reduced basal resistance in both cereals. The effect of GLP4 overexpression or silencing was strongly influenced by the genotype of the plant. The data suggest...

  14. Developing a Molecular Identification Assay of Old Landraces for the Genetic Authentication of Typical Agro-Food Products: The Case Study of the Barley ‘Agordino’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Barcaccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The orzo Agordino is a very old local variety of domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. distichum L. that is native to the Agordo District, Province of Belluno, and is widespread in the Veneto Region, Italy. Seeds of this landrace are widely used for the preparation of very famous dishes of the dolomitic culinary tradition such as barley soup, bakery products and local beer. Understanding the genetic diversity and identity of the Agordino barley landrace is a key step to establish conservation and valorisation strategies of this local variety and also to provide molecular traceability tools useful to ascertain the authenticity of its derivatives. The gene pool of the Agordino barley landrace was reconstructed using 60 phenotypically representative individual plants and its genotypic relationships with commercial varieties were investigated using 21 pure lines widely cultivated in the Veneto Region. For genomic DNA analysis, following an initial screening of 14 mapped microsatellite (SSR loci, seven discriminant markers were selected on the basis of their genomic position across linkage groups and polymorphic marker alleles per locus. The genetic identity of the local barley landrace was determined by analysing all SSR markers in a single multi-locus PCR assay. Extent of genotypic variation within the Agordino barley landrace and the genotypic differentiation between the landrace individuals and the commercial varieties was determined. Then, as few as four highly informative SSR loci were selected and used to develop a molecular traceability system exploitable to verify the genetic authenticity of food products deriving from the Agordino landrace. This genetic authentication assay was validated using both DNA pools from individual Agordino barley plants and DNA samples from Agordino barley food products. On the whole, our data support the usefulness and robustness of this DNA-based diagnostic tool for the orzo Agordino identification, which

  15. A functional genomics approach to understand the control and regulation of storage protein biosynthesis in barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, É; Hansen, M; Bowra, S

    2008-01-01

    assembled in our laboratory. To identify coregulated genes, a distance matrix was constructed and we identified three clusters corresponding to the early, middle and late seed development. The gene expression pattern associated with the clusters was investigated using pathway specific analysis with specific......The aim of the study was to obtain an insight into amino acid and storage protein metabolism in the developing barley grain at the molecular level. Our strategy was to analyse the transcriptome of relevant pathways in developing grains of field grown barley using a grain specific microarray...... pathways in the barley grain. The study described here could provide a strong complement to existing knowledge assisting further  understanding of seed development and thereby provide a foundation for plant breeding towards storage protein with improved nutritional quality....

  16. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1...... with a quadrant model, the optimum N application rates for high grain yield with high nitrogen use-efficiency in malting barley could be indicated. So, the higher yields could be mainly ascribed to the higher accumulation of photoassimilates between anthesis and maturity. In order to achieve high grain yield...

  17. Evolutionary history of barley cultivation in Europe revealed by genetic analysis of extant landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Huw

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the evolution of cultivated barley is important for two reasons. First, the evolutionary relationships between different landraces might provide information on the spread and subsequent development of barley cultivation, including the adaptation of the crop to new environments and its response to human selection. Second, evolutionary information would enable landraces with similar traits but different genetic backgrounds to be identified, providing alternative strategies for the introduction of these traits into modern germplasm. Results The evolutionary relationships between 651 barley landraces were inferred from the genotypes for 24 microsatellites. The landraces could be divided into nine populations, each with a different geographical distribution. Comparisons with ear row number, caryopsis structure, seasonal growth habit and flowering time revealed a degree of association between population structure and phenotype, and analysis of climate variables indicated that the landraces are adapted, at least to some extent, to their environment. Human selection and/or environmental adaptation may therefore have played a role in the origin and/or maintenance of one or more of the barley landrace populations. There was also evidence that at least some of the population structure derived from geographical partitioning set up during the initial spread of barley cultivation into Europe, or reflected the later introduction of novel varieties. In particular, three closely-related populations were made up almost entirely of plants with the daylength nonresponsive version of the photoperiod response gene PPD-H1, conferring adaptation to the long annual growth season of northern Europe. These three populations probably originated in the eastern Fertile Crescent and entered Europe after the initial spread of agriculture. Conclusions The discovery of population structure, combined with knowledge of associated phenotypes and

  18. Study of cell-differentiation and assembly of photosynthetic proteins during greening of etiolated Zea mays leaves using confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy at liquid-nitrogen temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yutaka; Katoh, Wataru; Tahara, Yukari

    2013-04-01

    Fluorescence microspectroscopy observations were used to study the processes of cell differentiation and assemblies of photosynthesis proteins in Zea mays leaves under the greening process. The observations were done at 78K by setting the sample in a cryostat to avoid any undesired progress of the greening process during the measurements. The lateral and axial spatial resolutions of the system were 0.64μm and 4.4μm, respectively. The study revealed the spatial distributions of protochlorophyllide (PChld) in both the 632-nm-emitting and 655-nm-emitting forms within etiolated Zea mays leaves. The sizes of the fluorescence spots attributed to the former were larger than those of the latter, validating the assignment of the former and latter to the prothylakoid and prolamellar bodies, respectively. In vivo microspectroscopy observations of mature Zea mays leaves confirmed the different photosystem II (PS I)/photosystem I (PS II) ratio between the bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (MS) cells, which is specific for C4-plants. The BS cells in Zea mays leaves 1h after the initiation of the greening process tended to show fluorescence spectra at shorter wavelength side (at around 679nm) than the MS cells (at around 682nm). The 679-nm-emitting chlorophyll-a form observed mainly in the BS cells was attributed to putative precursor complexes to PS I. The BS cells under 3-h greening showed higher relative intensities of the PS I fluorescence band at around 735nm, suggesting the reduced PS II amount in the BS cells in this greening stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Response-based selection of barley cultivars and legume species for complementarity: Root morphology and exudation in relation to nutrient source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney D; Brown, Lawrie K; Adu, Michael O; Mezeli, Malika M; Sandral, Graeme A; Simpson, Richard J; Wendler, Renate; Shand, Charles A; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Darch, Tegan; Stutter, Marc I; Lumsdon, David G; Zhang, Hao; Blackwell, Martin S A; Wearing, Catherine; Cooper, Patricia; Haygarth, Philip M; George, Timothy S

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency may be improved through increased biodiversity in agroecosystems. Phenotypic variation in plants' response to nutrient deficiency may influence positive complementarity in intercropping systems. A multicomponent screening approach was used to assess the influence of P supply and N source on the phenotypic plasticity of nutrient foraging traits in barley (H. vulgare L.) and legume species. Root morphology and exudation were determined in six plant nutrient treatments. A clear divergence in the response of barley and legumes to the nutrient treatments was observed. Root morphology varied most among legumes, whereas exudate citrate and phytase activity were most variable in barley. Changes in root morphology were minimized in plants provided with ammonium in comparison to nitrate but increased under P deficiency. Exudate phytase activity and pH varied with legume species, whereas citrate efflux, specific root length, and root diameter lengths were more variable among barley cultivars. Three legume species and four barley cultivars were identified as the most responsive to P deficiency and the most contrasting of the cultivars and species tested. Phenotypic response to nutrient availability may be a promising approach for the selection of plant combinations for minimal input cropping systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  1. Detection of Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup in winter barley seed

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatov Maja; Petrović Dragana; Vujaković Milka; Taški-Ajduković Ksenija; Nikolić Zorica; Jovičić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereals grown in our agroecological conditions. The causal agent of loose smut on barley Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup occurs frequently as varieties susceptible to this pathogen are present in the production. Disease symptoms are manifested on barley head (spike). Parasite is transmitted by seed (seedborne) and stays in the embryo tissue of the infected kernel as dormant mycelium. Recommended method for detection of U. nuda is given by ISTA Rules (method ...

  2. Hormonal changes in spring barley after triazine herbicide treatment and its mixtures of regulators of polyamine biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Trebichalský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants adapt to abiotic stress by undergoing diverse biochemical and physiological changes that involve hormone-dependent signalling pathways. The effects of regulators of polyamine biosynthesis can be mimicked by exogenous chemical regulators such as herbicide safeners, which not only enhance stress tolerance but also confer hormetic benefits such as increased vigor and yield. The phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA and auxin (IAA play key roles in regulating stress responses in plants. Two years pot trials at Slovak University of agriculture Nitra were carried out with analyses of contents of plant hormones in spring barley grain of variety Kompakt: indolyl-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, after exposing of tested plants to herbicide stress, as well as the possible decrease of these stress factors with application of regulators of polyamine synthesis was evaluated. At 1st year in spring barley grain after application of solo triazine herbicide treatment in dose 0,5 L.ha-1 an increase of all analyzed plant hormones was observed and contrary, at 2nd year there was the decrease of their contents. From our work there is an obvious influence of herbicide stress induced by application of certain dose of triazine herbicide at 1st year. Expect of the variant with mixture of triazine herbicide (in amount of 0,5 L.ha-1 and 29,6 g.ha-1 DAB, at this year all by us applied regulators of polyamine synthesis reduced the level of both plant hormones. Higher affect of stress caused by enhanced content of soluble macroelements in soil where the plants of barley were grown was observed next year. Soil with increased contents of macronutrients (mg.kg-1: N30.7 + P108.3 + K261.5 + Mg604.2 had reducing effect on contents of plant hormones in barley grain at variant treated with solo triazine herbicide (in dose at 0,5 L.ha-1 in comparison to control variant. The mixtures of regulators of polyamine synthesis reduced the contents of IAA only in comparison to

  3. Caesium absorption by barley - influence of its retention by the soil - competitive action of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron-Trosseau, F.

    1964-06-01

    We have studied, in various culture media, how the absorption of caesium by barley varies with its concentration, and how this absorption can be in competition with a similar alkali cation-potassium. We have also considered the caesium distribution in the ground in particular radio-active caesium, between the soil and solution, as a function of the amount of caesium. From our work it is clear that barley behaves very differently according to whether the caesium is in a nutritive solution or is in the soil: for a nutritive solution, the fraction of caesium (radioactive and stable) absorbed by barley remains practically constant in the presence of increasing amounts (relatively small) of stable caesium; in soil, the fraction of the radio-active caesium absorbed increases as the stable caesium content (fairly low) of the soil increases, in relationship with a rapidly decreasing selectivity of the soil for Cs + . The difference between these results is thus explained by the very pronounced selectivity of the illitic soil studied for Cs + , as long as the proportion of Cs remains low, about as low as that of most natural soils. Furthermore, the K + ion is in competition with the Cs + ion, for absorption by barley in a culture medium in a nutritive solution or in soil, only when the potassium concentrations are relatively low, of the order of the nutritive maximum. This shows that the addition of potassium to a medium already rich in this element does not reduce the absorption of caesium by barley. The choice of experimental conditions close to natural conditions (nutritive media strong in calcium) and the examination of the distribution of radioactive caesium between the soil, the soil solution and the plant in the presence of very low doses of stable caesium make these results interesting from the 'atomic health' point of view; it should be expected that a definite contamination risk exists for plants cultivated on synthetic media and for plants such as rice and cress

  4. Enhanced quantitative resistance against fungal disease by combinatorial expression of different barley antifungal proteins in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jach, G; Görnhardt, B; Mundy, J

    1995-01-01

    cDNAs encoding three proteins from barley (Hordeum vulgare), a class-II chitinase (CHI), a class-II beta-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and a Type-I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) were expressed in tobacco plants under the control of the CaMV 35S-promoter. High-level expression of the transferred genes...... was detected in the transgenic plants by Northern and Western blot analysis. The leader peptides in CHI and GLU led to accumulation of these proteins in the intercellular space of tobacco leaves. RIP, which is naturally deposited in the cytosol of barley endosperm cells, was expressed either in its original...... cytosolic form or fused to a plant secretion peptide (spRIP). Fungal infection assays revealed that expression of the individual genes in each case resulted in an increased protection against the soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, which infects a range of plant species including tobacco...

  5. Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation measurement in vetch-barley mixed swards using 15 N methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Sharabi, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    Field experiment on vetch and barley grown in monoculture and in mixed culture (3:1) under rain-fed conditions was conducted in 1991-1992 and 1992-1993 growing season. Three harvests were effectuated on one treatment throughout the growing season. While, other plots were harvested once at physiological maturity stage. Our results showed the importance of mixed cropping system of vetch and barley grown under rain fed conditions in terms of dry matter production, total nitrogen content and land use efficiency expressed as land equivalent ration (L.E.R). This advantage is clear in the plants harvested once at the end of the season. Therefore, it is important to grow legumes and cereals under rain fed conditions and to be left until late stage of growth and fed by animals directly. On the other hand, only two harvests could be done in the season with no additional harvests because this may weaken the plant growth, and as a result of the last approach we will obtained poor production due to unpredicated an appropriate rain fall after the second harvest (April). Nitrogen fixation efficiency in vetch measured by sup 1 sup 5 N isotop dilution method varied with the number of harvests and the procedure adopted in culture. Comparing the results of %Ndfa of vetch between monoculture and mixed culture showed that the values in most cases were higher in mixed culture. The competition between vetch and barley in the mixed stand for soil N-uptake made the barley supplements its N requirements from soil. The poor competitiveness of vetch capability for soil N-uptake enhanced it to fix more nitrogen. On the other hand, N residual after harvest was higher in the mixed treatment than the others. Positive and high final nitrogen balance were observed with the inclusion of vetch in the mixture. We excluded, under the current experimental conditions, the possibility of N-transfer from vetch to barley due to the insignificant differences in the value of sup 1 sup 5 N atom excess for

  6. Adaptation of barley to mild winters: A role for PPDH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casao M Cristina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the adaptation of cereals to environmental conditions is one of the key areas in which plant science can contribute to tackling challenges presented by climate change. Temperature and day length are the main environmental regulators of flowering and drivers of adaptation in temperate cereals. The major genes that control flowering time in barley in response to environmental cues are VRNH1, VRNH2, VRNH3, PPDH1, and PPDH2 (candidate gene HvFT3. These genes from the vernalization and photoperiod pathways show complex interactions to promote flowering that are still not understood fully. In particular, PPDH2 function is assumed to be limited to the ability of a short photoperiod to promote flowering. Evidence from the fields of biodiversity, ecogeography, agronomy, and molecular genetics was combined to obtain a more complete overview of the potential role of PPDH2 in environmental adaptation in barley. Results The dominant PPDH2 allele is represented widely in spring barley cultivars but is found only occasionally in modern winter cultivars that have strong vernalization requirements. However, old landraces from the Iberian Peninsula, which also have a vernalization requirement, possess this allele at a much higher frequency than modern winter barley cultivars. Under field conditions in which the vernalization requirement of winter cultivars is not satisfied, the dominant PPDH2 allele promotes flowering, even under increasing photoperiods above 12 h. This hypothesis was supported by expression analysis of vernalization-responsive genotypes. When the dominant allele of PPDH2 was expressed, this was associated with enhanced levels of VRNH1 and VRNH3 expression. Expression of these two genes is needed for the induction of flowering. Therefore, both in the field and under controlled conditions, PPDH2 has an effect of promotion of flowering. Conclusions The dominant, ancestral, allele of PPDH2 is prevalent in southern

  7. Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation measurement in vetch-barley mixed swards using {sup 15} N methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdali, F; Sharabi, N E [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Radiation Agriculture

    1995-01-01

    Field experiment on vetch and barley grown in monoculture and in mixed culture (3:1) under rain-fed conditions was conducted in 1991-1992 and 1992-1993 growing season. Three harvests were effectuated on one treatment throughout the growing season. Our results showed the importance of mixed cropping system of vetch and barley grown under rain fed conditions in terms of dry matter production, total nitrogen content and land use efficiency expressed as land equivalent ration (L.E.R). This advantage is clear in the plants harvested once at the end of the season. Therefore, it is important to grow legumes and cereals under rain fed conditions and to be left until late stage of growth and fed by animals directly. On the other hand, only two harvests could be done in the season with no additional harvests because this may weaken the plant growth, and as a result of the last approach we obtained poor production due to unpredicated an appropriate rain fall after the second harvest (April). Nitrogen fixation efficiency in vetch measured by {sup 1 5} N isotope dilution method varied with the number of harvests and the procedure adopted in culture. Comparing the results of %Ndfa of vetch between monoculture and mixed culture showed that the values in most cases were higher in mixed culture. The competition between vetch and barley in the mixed stand for soil N-uptake made the barley supplements its N requirements from soil. The poor competitiveness of vetch capability for soil N-uptake enhanced it to fix more nitrogen. On the other hand, N residual after harvest was higher in the mixed treatment than the others. Positive and high final nitrogen balance were observed with the inclusion of vetch in the mixture. We excluded, under the current experimental conditions, the possibility of N-transfer from vetch to barley due to the insignificant differences in the value of {sup 1 5} N atom excess for barley between the two types of farming. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  8. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  9. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increases in both acute and chronic temperature potentiate tocotrienol concentrations in wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Lansky, Ephraim; Traber, Maret; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-09-01

    Biosynthesis of tocols (vitamin E isoforms) is linked to response to temperature in plants. 'Evolution Canyon', an ecogeographical microcosm extending over an average of 200 meters (range 100-400) wide area in the Carmel Mountains of northern Israel, has been suggested as a model for studying global warming. Both domestic (Hordeum vulgare) and wild (Hordeum spontaneum) barley compared with wheat, oat, corn, rice, and rye show high tocotrienol/tocopherol ratios. Therefore, we hypothesized that tocol distribution might change in response to global warming. α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol concentrations were measured in wild barley (H. spontaneum) seeds harvested from the xeric (African) and mesic (European) slopes of Evolution Canyon over a six-year period from 2005-2011. Additionally, we examined seeds from areas contiguous to and distant from the part of the Canyon severely burned during the Carmel Fire of December 2010. Increased α-tocotrienol (pslope in contrast to the cooler 'European' slope, and 3) to propinquity to the fire. The study illustrates the role of α-tocotrienol in both chronic and acute temperature adaptation in wild barley and suggests future research into thermoregulatory mechanisms in plants. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. Variable Levels of Tolerance to Water Stress (Drought and Associated Biochemical Markers in Tunisian Barley Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Dbira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high tolerance to abiotic stress, barley (Hordeum vulgare is cultivated in many arid areas of the world. In the present study, we evaluate the tolerance to water stress (drought in nine accessions of “Ardhaoui” barley landraces from different regions of Tunisia. The genetic diversity of the accessions is evaluated with six SSR markers. Seedlings from the nine accessions are subjected to water stress by completely stopping irrigation for three weeks. A high genetic diversity is detected among the nine accessions, with no relationships between genetic distance and geographical or ecogeographical zone. The analysis of growth parameters and biochemical markers in the water stress-treated plants in comparison to their respective controls indicated great variability among the studied accessions. Accession 2, from El May Island, displayed high tolerance to drought. Increased amounts of proline in water-stressed plants could not be correlated with a better response to drought, as the most tolerant accessions contained lower levels of this osmolyte. A good correlation was established between the reduction of growth and degradation of chlorophylls and increased levels of malondialdehyde and total phenolics. These biochemical markers may be useful for identifying drought tolerant materials in barley.

  12. Capturing pair-wise epistatic effects associated with three agronomic traits in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Wu, Yajun; Wu, Jixiang

    2018-04-01

    Genetic association mapping has been widely applied to determine genetic markers favorably associated with a trait of interest and provide information for marker-assisted selection. Many association mapping studies commonly focus on main effects due to intolerable computing intensity. This study aims to select several sets of DNA markers with potential epistasis to maximize genetic variations of some key agronomic traits in barley. By doing so, we integrated a MDR (multifactor dimensionality reduction) method with a forward variable selection approach. This integrated approach was used to determine single nucleotide polymorphism pairs with epistasis effects associated with three agronomic traits: heading date, plant height, and grain yield in barley from the barley Coordinated Agricultural Project. Our results showed that four, seven, and five SNP pairs accounted for 51.06, 45.66 and 40.42% for heading date, plant height, and grain yield, respectively with epistasis being considered, while corresponding contributions to these three traits were 45.32, 31.39, 31.31%, respectively without epistasis being included. The results suggested that epistasis model was more effective than non-epistasis model in this study and can be more preferred for other applications.

  13. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne

    2017-09-27

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  14. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne; Schilling, Rhiannon K.; Berger, Bettina; Garcia, Alexandre F.; Trittermann, Christine; Coventry, Stewart; Rabie, Huwaida; Brien, Chris; Nguyen, Martin; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart J.

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  15. Alleviating effects of calcium on cobalt toxicity in two barley genotypes differing in cobalt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwalaba, Jonas Lwalaba Wa; Zvobgo, Gerald; Fu, Liangbo; Zhang, Xuelei; Mwamba, Theodore Mulembo; Muhammad, Noor; Mundende, Robert Prince Mukobo; Zhang, Guoping

    2017-05-01

    Cobalt (Co) contamination in soils is becoming a severe issue in environment safety and crop production. Calcium (Ca) , as a macro-nutrient element, shows the antagonism with many divalent heavy metals and the capacity of alleviating oxidative stress in plants. In this study, the protective role of Ca in alleviating Co stress was hydroponically investigated using two barley genotypes differing in Co toxicity tolerance. Barley seedlings exposed to 100µM Co showed the significant reduction in growth and photosynthetic rate, and the dramatic increase in the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, with Ea52 (Co-sensitive) being much more affected than Yan66 (Co-tolerant). Addition of Ca in growth medium alleviated Co toxicity by reducing Co uptake and enhancing the antioxidant capacity. The effect of Ca in alleviating Co toxicity was much greater in Yan66 than in Ea52. The results indicate that the alleviation of Co toxicity in barley plants by Ca is attributed to the reduced Co uptake and enhanced antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of barley (hordeum vulgare l.) germplasm for high forage production under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.; Qurainy, F.A.; Akram, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    To explore high biomass producing salt tolerant cultivars of a potential forage crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), 30-day old plants of 105 different accessions from different origin were subjected to saline and non-saline (control) conditions for 45 days. Salinity stress (150 mM NaCl) markedly suppressed plant growth (shoot and/or root fresh and dry weights), chlorophyll pigments (a and b), internal CO/sub 2/ concentration, stomatal conductance, rate of transpiration and photosynthesis, while a considerable salt-induced increase was observed in all fluorescence related attributes including efficiency of photosystem-II (Fv/Fm), co-efficient of non-photochemical quenching (QN), photochemical quenching (QP), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in all 105 accessions of barley. The response of all 105 barley accessions to salt stress varied significantly for all the morpho-physiological attributes determined in the present study. Overall, on the basis of shoot and root dry weights, accessions, 4050, 4053, 4056, 4163, 4228, 4229, 4244, 4245, 4290, 4414, 4415, 4427, 4452, Mahali, Jesto, 4165, 4229, 4249, 4405, 4409, 4426, 4456, and Giza 123 were found superior while accessions, 4245, 4158, 4166, 4246, 4406, 4423, 4441, 4442 4447, 4453 and 4458 inferior under saline conditions. (author)

  17. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  18. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  19. Density and relative frequency effects on competitive interactions and resource use in pea–barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Andersen, H.K.; Jørnsgaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    or specific grain yield composition are wanted. Keywords: Competition dynamics; Grain quality; Hordeum vulgare; Intercropping; Nitrogen use; Organic farming; Pisum sativum; Weeds; Yield Abbreviations: IC, mixed intercropping; LER, land equivalent ratio; N, nitrogen; REIc, relative efficiency index; SC, sole...... not increase its reliance on atmospheric nitrogen fixation compared to the pea sole crop. With respect to soil nitrogen uptake there were no effect of plant density but a strong effect of the relative frequency of pea in the intercrop, the greater the proportion the lower the uptake. Changes in the competitive...... and tillering ability of barley are seen as likely explanations of lower weed load in the barley dominated crop treatments. This study points at the potential of employing density and relative crop frequency as "regulators" when specific intercrop objectives such as increased competitiveness towards weeds...

  20. Genetic diversity among wild and cultivated barley as revealed by RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Østergård, H.; Giese, H.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variability of cultivated and wild barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare and spontaneum, respectively, was assessed by RFLP analysis. The material consisted of 13 European varietes, single-plant offspring lines of eight land races from Ethiopia and Nepal, and five accessions of ssp. sponta...... an intermediate level. The proportion of gene diversity residing among,geographical groups (F-ST) varied from 0.19 to 0.94 (average 0.54) per RFLP pattern, indicating large diversification between geographical groups....... was estimated and the barley lines clustered into five groups reflecting geographical origin. The geographical groups of land-race lines showed less intragroup variation than the geographical groups of spontaneum lines. The group of European varieties, representing large variation in agronomic traits, showed...

  1. Radiosensitivity study of cultured barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-07-01

    For studying the radioactivity, forty seven varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with various doses (0 ∼ 400 Gy) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The results showed that the dose-effects relations of seedling growth inhibition could be fitted by an equation of F(D) = 1 - (1 - e -a 1 D ) N , and the dose-effects of cell-nucleus, the frequency of root tip cell with chromosome aberations and peroxidase isoenzyme band could be expressed by a linear regression equation Y = A + B · X. The radioactivity of naked barley was much higher than of covered barley. According to different radiosensitivities the varieties studied could be divided into five types i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive, and extreme sensitive. The results also showed that there was close relationship between the DNA content of cell-nucleus, peroxidase isoenzyme zymogram and radioactivity. The radiosensitivty was proportional to the DNA content. The volume of cell-nucleus varied inversly as D 50 of nucleus volume and no obvious correlation with the D 50 of seedling growth inhibition

  2. Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field

    KAUST Repository

    Schilling, Rhiannon K.

    2013-11-22

    Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mm NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field

    KAUST Repository

    Schilling, Rhiannon K.; Marschner, Petra; Shavrukov, Yuri N.; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart John; Plett, Darren Craig

    2013-01-01

    Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mm NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Identification and Pathogenicity of Bacteria Associated with Etiolation and Decline of Creeping Bentgrass Golf Course Putting Greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph A; Ma, Bangya; Tredway, Lane P; Ritchie, David F; Kerns, James P

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial etiolation and decline has developed into a widespread issue with creeping bentgrass (CBG) (Agrostis stolonifera) putting green turf. The condition is characterized by an abnormal elongation of turfgrass stems and leaves that in rare cases progresses into a rapid and widespread necrosis and decline. Recent reports have cited bacteria, Acidovorax avenae and Xanthomonas translucens, as causal agents; however, few cases exist where either bacterium were isolated in conjunction with turf exhibiting bacterial disease symptoms. From 2010 to 2014, turfgrass from 62 locations submitted to the NC State Turf Diagnostic Clinic exhibiting bacterial etiolation and/or decline symptoms were sampled for the presence of bacterial pathogens. Isolated bacteria were identified using rRNA sequencing of the 16S subunit and internal transcribed spacer region (16S-23S or ITS). Results showed diverse bacteria isolated from symptomatic turf and A. avenae and X. translucens were only isolated in 26% of samples. Frequently isolated bacterial species were examined for pathogenicity to 4-week-old 'G2' CBG seedlings and 8-week-old 'A-1' CBG turfgrass stands in the greenhouse. While results confirmed pathogenicity of A. avenae and X. translucens, Pantoea ananatis was also shown to infect CBG turf; although pathogenicity varied among isolated strains. These results illustrate that multiple bacteria are associated with bacterial disease and shed new light on culturable bacteria living in CBG turfgrass putting greens. Future research to evaluate additional microorganisms (i.e., bacteria and fungi) could provide new information on host-microbe interactions and possibly develop ideas for management tactics to reduce turfgrass pests.

  5. Modelo etiológico dos comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares em adolescentes brasileiros do sexo feminino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo foi construir um modelo etiológico dos comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares em adolescentes brasileiros do sexo feminino. Participaram 1.358 adolescentes de quatro cidades. Foram avaliados os comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares, insatisfação corporal, pressões midiáticas, autoestima, estado de humor, sintomas depressivos e perfeccionismo por intermédio de escalas psicométricas. Peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas foram aferidos para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC e o percentual de gordura (%G. O modelo de equação estrutural explanou 76% da variância dos comportamento de risco (F(9, 1.351 = 74,50; p = 0,001. Os achados indicaram que a insatisfação corporal mediou a relação entre as pressões midiáticas, autoestima, estado de humor, IMC, %G e os comportamentos de risco (F(9, 1.351 = 59,89; p = 0,001. Vale destacar que embora os sintomas depressivos não tenham se relacionado com a insatisfação corporal, o modelo indicou relação direta com os comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares (F(2, 1.356 = 23,98; p = 0,001. Concluiu-se que somente o perfeccionismo não aderiu ao modelo etiológico dos comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares em adolescentes brasileiras.

  6. Early maturing mutations as germplasm stocks for barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Yasuo

    1985-01-01

    A total of 102 early maturing mutations have been isolated after various treatments of seeds or plants with ionizing radiations or chemicals from a barley cultivar 'Chikurin Ibaraki 1' or its mutants. Fifty of them were evaluated as regards responses to internal physiological factors. The mutants were found to have a mutational alteration in vernalization and/or photoperiodic response. Earliness in a narrow sense was not noticeably changed. The original genotype is a winter and long-day type. By mutation four different degrees of change in vernalization requirement i.e. complete (V 1 ) and incomplete (V 2 ) spring habit and winter habit with reduced requirement to varying degrees (V 3 , V 4 ) have been produced. Photoperiodic response was also changed into at least three types i.e. complete (P 1 ) and incomplete (P 2 ) loss of sensitivity to short photoperiod and a slight reduction in critical daylength for heading. P 1 and P 2 type mutants were all characterized by marked earliness in heading time in field. Thirty seven mutants were located in seven separate loci. Allelism test of the mutated genes to spontaneous ones revealed that the genes carried by P 1 type mutants were all allelic to an earliness gene ea sub(k) on chromosome 5 and the gene involved in P 2 type mutants to ea 7 on chromosome 6. On the contrary, the gene commonly involved in all V 1 type mutants and one V 2 type mutant was not allelic to spring habit gene Sh 2 or Sh 3 . It seemed likely that the gene was not allelic to, either, but closely linked with sh on chromosome 4. The diversity in terms of genetic and physiological properties of the early maturing mutants arising from common ancestry emphasizes the importance of induced mutation in broadening of germplasm of barley breeding. (author)

  7. Meat bone meal as fertiliser for barley and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. CHEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production of mineral N and P fertilisers is unsustainable due its reliance on fossil fuels in the case of N, and on limited mineral resource stocks in the case of P. The use of alternative or complementary fertilisers that originate from organic waste materials is gaining interest. Organic farms, especially arable organic farms without livestock, need usable sources of plant nutrients. Meat bone meal (MBM, a potential organic fertiliser for agricultural crops, contains considerable amounts of nutrients (on average 8% N, 5% P, 1% K and 10% Ca. In EU countries, Commission regulation (EC No 181/2006 authorised the use of MBM as an organic fertiliser. In this study, MBM was compared to conventional mineral NPK fertiliser. Two randomised complete block split-plot field experiments were conducted: one with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare in two years; and another with oat (Avena sativa for three years, including a fourth year of testing for residual effect. Compared to mineral fertiliser (20% N, 3% P and 9% K, MBM was applied at three N levels: 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1. The grain yield of both cereal species supported by MBM, did not differ from the yield obtained with the mineral fertiliser at any N level. At 120 kg N ha-1, the grain yield level with either type was ca. 4500 kg ha-1 of barley and 5000 kg ha-1 of oat, representing fair averages for Finnish conditions. Moreover, MBM and mineral fertilisation showed no differences in quality in terms of 1000-grain weight, test-weight, protein content and protein yield. Since MBM has a low N/P ratio, P was applied in surplus to attain comparable N levels. Therefore MBM fertilisation should be fitted for crop rotation and for meeting environmental requirements.;

  8. Combinatorial Pooling Enables Selective Sequencing of the Barley Gene Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardi, Stefano; Duma, Denisa; Alpert, Matthew; Cordero, Francesca; Beccuti, Marco; Bhat, Prasanna R.; Wu, Yonghui; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Alsaihati, Burair; Ma, Yaqin; Wanamaker, Steve; Resnik, Josh; Bozdag, Serdar; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Close, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    For the vast majority of species – including many economically or ecologically important organisms, progress in biological research is hampered due to the lack of a reference genome sequence. Despite recent advances in sequencing technologies, several factors still limit the availability of such a critical resource. At the same time, many research groups and international consortia have already produced BAC libraries and physical maps and now are in a position to proceed with the development of whole-genome sequences organized around a physical map anchored to a genetic map. We propose a BAC-by-BAC sequencing protocol that combines combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach denovo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case gene-bearing minimum-tiling-path BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundred millions of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones (deconvolution) so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is very accurate, and the resulting BAC assemblies have high quality. Results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confirm that the deconvolution is accurate and the BAC assemblies have good quality. While our method cannot provide the level of completeness that one would achieve with a comprehensive whole-genome sequencing project, we show that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley, this level of sequence knowledge is sufficient to support critical end-point objectives such as map-based cloning and marker-assisted breeding. PMID:23592960

  9. Combinatorial pooling enables selective sequencing of the barley gene space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lonardi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For the vast majority of species - including many economically or ecologically important organisms, progress in biological research is hampered due to the lack of a reference genome sequence. Despite recent advances in sequencing technologies, several factors still limit the availability of such a critical resource. At the same time, many research groups and international consortia have already produced BAC libraries and physical maps and now are in a position to proceed with the development of whole-genome sequences organized around a physical map anchored to a genetic map. We propose a BAC-by-BAC sequencing protocol that combines combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach denovo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case gene-bearing minimum-tiling-path BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundred millions of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones (deconvolution so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is very accurate, and the resulting BAC assemblies have high quality. Results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confirm that the deconvolution is accurate and the BAC assemblies have good quality. While our method cannot provide the level of completeness that one would achieve with a comprehensive whole-genome sequencing project, we show that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley, this level of sequence knowledge is sufficient to support critical end-point objectives such as map-based cloning and marker-assisted breeding.

  10. Combinatorial pooling enables selective sequencing of the barley gene space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonardi, Stefano; Duma, Denisa; Alpert, Matthew; Cordero, Francesca; Beccuti, Marco; Bhat, Prasanna R; Wu, Yonghui; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Alsaihati, Burair; Ma, Yaqin; Wanamaker, Steve; Resnik, Josh; Bozdag, Serdar; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Close, Timothy J

    2013-04-01

    For the vast majority of species - including many economically or ecologically important organisms, progress in biological research is hampered due to the lack of a reference genome sequence. Despite recent advances in sequencing technologies, several factors still limit the availability of such a critical resource. At the same time, many research groups and international consortia have already produced BAC libraries and physical maps and now are in a position to proceed with the development of whole-genome sequences organized around a physical map anchored to a genetic map. We propose a BAC-by-BAC sequencing protocol that combines combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach denovo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case gene-bearing minimum-tiling-path BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundred millions of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones (deconvolution) so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is very accurate, and the resulting BAC assemblies have high quality. Results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confirm that the deconvolution is accurate and the BAC assemblies have good quality. While our method cannot provide the level of completeness that one would achieve with a comprehensive whole-genome sequencing project, we show that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley, this level of sequence knowledge is sufficient to support critical end-point objectives such as map-based cloning and marker-assisted breeding.

  11. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Asma NAJAR; Imen HAMDI; Arvind VARSANI

    2017-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan), the North-Western region (Kef) and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan) during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs) in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA) showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%), Cap Bon (14%) and Bizerte (35%), in randomly collected samples from t...

  12. Detection of nitrogen deficiency QTL in juvenile wild barley introgression lines growing in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Astrid; Maurer, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus

    2012-10-20

    In this report we studied the genetic regulation of juvenile development of wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) under two contrasting hydroponic nitrogen (N) supplies. Ten shoot and root related traits were examined among 42 S42ILs and the recurrent parent 'Scarlett'. The traits included tiller number, leaf number, plant height, leaf and root length, leaf to root length ratio, shoots and root dry weight, shoot to root weight ratio, and chlorophyll content. Our aims were (1) to test the suitability of a hydroponic system for early detection of favourable S42ILs, (2) to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control the examined traits, (3) to identify favourable wild barley alleles that improve trait performances in regard to N treatment and, finally, (4) to validate the identified QTL through comparison with previously reported QTL originating from the same parental cross. The phenotypic data were analysed in a mixed model association study to detect QTL. The post-hoc Dunnett test identified 28 S42ILs that revealed significant (P hydroponic N study corresponded to QTL that were also detected in field trials with adult plants of a similar S42IL set or of the original S42 population. For instance, S42IL-135, -136 and -137, revealed increasing Hsp effects for tiller number, leaf number, leaf length, plant height and leaf to root ratio on the long arm of chromosome 7H. These QTL correspond to QTL for ears per plant and plant height that were previously detected in field trials conducted with the same S42ILs or with the S42 population. Our results suggest that the QTL we identified under hydroponic N cultivation partly correspond to QTL detected in field experiments. Due to this finding, screening of plants in early developmental stages grown in a hydroponic system may be a fast and cost effective method for early QTL detection and marker-assisted allelic selection, potentially speeding up elite barley breeding programs.

  13. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A proteomics study of barley powdery mildew haustoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Dale; Zhang, Ziguo; Saalbach, Gerhard; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2009-06-01

    A number of fungal and oomycete plant pathogens of major economic importance feed on their hosts by means of haustoria, which they place inside living plant cells. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, partly due to difficulty in preparing haustoria. We have therefore developed a procedure for isolating haustoria from the barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Bgh). We subsequently aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms of haustoria through a study of their proteome. Extracted proteins were digested using trypsin, separated by LC, and analysed by MS/MS. Searches of a custom Bgh EST sequence database and the NCBI-NR fungal protein database, using the MS/MS data, identified 204 haustoria proteins. The majority of the proteins appear to have roles in protein metabolic pathways and biological energy production. Surprisingly, pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), involved in alcoholic fermentation and commonly abundant in fungi and plants, was absent in our Bgh proteome data set. A sequence encoding this enzyme was also absent in our EST sequence database. Significantly, BLAST searches of the recently available Bgh genome sequence data also failed to identify a sequence encoding this enzyme, strongly indicating that Bgh does not have a gene for PDC.

  15. Studies on /sup 32/P transport and yellow rust resistance in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust were used to study the influence of the infection with Puccinia striiformis West. (strain 24) on /sup 32/P transport in intact plants and isolated leaves. Close correlations exist between transport processes and resistance. For example, resistant plants seem to have a more intensive matter transport than susceptible ones. The importance of the rate of transport to the effectiveness of hypothetic inducers of resistance reactions and defence substances is discussed.

  16. Influence of yellow rust infection on /sup 32/P transport in detached barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of /sup 32/P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general.

  17. Response of germinating barley seeds to Fusarium graminearum: The first molecular insight into Fusarium seedling blight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2011-01-01

    involved in primary metabolism and detoxification whereas the majority of down-regulated proteins were plant protease inhibitors. The results suggest that there is a link between increased energy metabolism and oxidative stress in the germinating barley seeds in response to F. graminearum infection, which......Fusarium seedling blight in cereals can result in significant reductions in plant establishment but has not received much attention. The disease often starts during seed germination due to sowing of the seeds infected by Fusarium spp. including Fusarium graminearum. In order to gain the first...

  18. Protein and Carbohydrate Accumulation in Normal and High-Lysine Barley in Spike Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mather, D.E; Giese, Nanna Henriette

    1984-01-01

    Spikes of barley cv. Bomi and high-lysine mutants Riso 1508 and Riso 56 were cultured on liquid media at varying N and sucrose levels. Bomi accumulated N in response to increasing N levels in the medium and a higher level was reached than in spikes of intact plants. The distribution of N in salt......-soluble, hordein, and non-protein N fractions appeared to be normal. Endosperm dry weight and starch were lower than in intact plants and declined at higher N levels. A linear relationship was observed between starch content and the concentration of sucrose in the endosperm water. Uptake of culture medium...

  19. Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32 P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

  20. Barley yellow dwarf virus Infection Leads to Higher Chemical Defense Signals and Lower Electrophysiological Reactions in Susceptible Compared to Tolerant Barley Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmann, Maria K; Kunert, Grit; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Theis, Nina; Ludwig, Anatoli; Meichsner, Doreen; Oelmüller, Ralf; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Habekuss, Antje; Ordon, Frank; Furch, Alexandra C U; Will, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is a phloem limited virus that is persistently transmitted by aphids. Due to huge yield losses in agriculture, the virus is of high economic relevance. Since the control of the virus itself is not possible, tolerant barley genotypes are considered as the most effective approach to avoid yield losses. Although several genes and quantitative trait loci are known and used in barley breeding for virus tolerance, little is known about molecular and physiological backgrounds of this trait. Therefore, we compared the anatomy and early defense responses of a virus susceptible to those of a virus-tolerant cultivar. One of the very early defense responses is the transmission of electrophysiological reactions. Electrophysiological reactions to BYDV infection might differ between susceptible and tolerant cultivars, since BYDV causes disintegration of sieve elements in susceptible cultivars. The structure of vascular bundles, xylem vessels and sieve elements was examined using microscopy. All three were significantly decreased in size in infected susceptible plants where the virus causes disintegration of sieve elements. This could be associated with an uncontrolled ion exchange between the sieve-element lumen and apoplast. Further, a reduced electrophysiological isolation would negatively affect the propagation of electrophysiological reactions. To test the influence of BYDV infection on electrophysiological reactions, electropotential waves (EPWs) induced by leaf-tip burning were recorded using aphids as bioelectrodes. EPWs in infected susceptible plants disappeared already after 10 cm in contrast to those in healthy susceptible or infected tolerant or healthy tolerant plants. Another early plant defense reaction is an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using a fluorescent dye, we found a significant increase in ROS content in infected susceptible plants but not in infected tolerant plants. Similar results were found for the

  1. Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A

    2015-01-01

    The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with ...

  2. Revisit to Ethiopian traditional barley-based food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemal Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Barley producers in Ethiopia have given it the name gebs ye ehil nigus, which means barley is the king of crops, due to its suitability for preparing many of the known Ethiopians traditional dishes. Various barley foods and drinks play an important role in the socioeconomic and cultural life of Ethiopians, but detailed descriptions related to their preparation and their socioeconomic and cultural roles are not well-recorded and documented like most of the Ethiopian cultural foods. Foods such as ingera, kita, dabo, kolo, genfo, beso, chuko, shamet, tihlo, kinch, and shorba are the most commonly known traditional Ethiopian barley-based foods. These products are prepared from either roasted whole grain, raw and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley-based traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the consumers. For example, genfo is served to breast-feeding mothers with the belief that it enhances breast milk production and serves as a good substitute for breast milk. Beso is claimed to be a remedy for gastritis, while genfo and kinche are used to heal broken bones and fractures. Considering the Western consumers' trend on functional foods and health benefits of barley, Ethiopian traditional barley-based foods are worth studying as functional foods, which can be appealing to Western consumers.

  3. Molecular characterization of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed to select drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars through identification of stress genes responsible for drought tolerance. Several barley genotypes were tested for drought resistance using specific molecular markers, nine out of all the genotypes were chosen for this study; five out of ...

  4. Combining unmalted barley and pearling gives good quality brewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van Laura H.G.; Hageman, Jos A.; Oguz, Serhat; Noordman, Tom R.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, van der Atze Jan

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with unmalted barley can reduce the use of raw materials, thereby increasing the efficiency of the brewing process. However, unmalted barley contains several undesired components for brewing and has a low enzymatic activity. Pearling, an abrasive milling method, has been proposed as a

  5. (GPx) activity in young barley seedlings enriched with selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB_YOMI

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... E-mail: guzx@njau.edu.cn. Tel/Fax: +86. 25 84396293. have been used for animal feeds and beer malts. Recently, young barley seedlings have been used as food material for people in Asian countries such as China,. Japan, and Korea. Young barley seedlings are rich in dietary fiber, chlorophyll, carotene ...

  6. stability analysis of food barley genotypes in northern ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    interaction and stability for barley grain yield and yield related traits in the growing ... that the environments were diverse; causing most of the variation in grain yield. ... component axes IPCA1, IPCA2 and IPCA3, which explained 58.06, 27.11 and ..... AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield (t ha-1) of food barley genotypes ...

  7. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for...

  8. Detection of nitrogen deficiency QTL in juvenile wild barley introgression lines growing in a hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Astrid

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this report we studied the genetic regulation of juvenile development of wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs under two contrasting hydroponic nitrogen (N supplies. Ten shoot and root related traits were examined among 42 S42ILs and the recurrent parent ‘Scarlett’. The traits included tiller number, leaf number, plant height, leaf and root length, leaf to root length ratio, shoots and root dry weight, shoot to root weight ratio, and chlorophyll content. Our aims were (1 to test the suitability of a hydroponic system for early detection of favourable S42ILs, (2 to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the examined traits, (3 to identify favourable wild barley alleles that improve trait performances in regard to N treatment and, finally, (4 to validate the identified QTL through comparison with previously reported QTL originating from the same parental cross. Results The phenotypic data were analysed in a mixed model association study to detect QTL. The post-hoc Dunnett test identified 28 S42ILs that revealed significant (P Hsp effects for tiller number, leaf number, leaf length, plant height and leaf to root ratio on the long arm of chromosome 7H. These QTL correspond to QTL for ears per plant and plant height that were previously detected in field trials conducted with the same S42ILs or with the S42 population. Conclusion Our results suggest that the QTL we identified under hydroponic N cultivation partly correspond to QTL detected in field experiments. Due to this finding, screening of plants in early developmental stages grown in a hydroponic system may be a fast and cost effective method for early QTL detection and marker-assisted allelic selection, potentially speeding up elite barley breeding programs.

  9. Melatonin enhances cold tolerance in drought-primed wild-type and abscisic acid-deficient mutant barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangnan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is involved in multiple plant developmental processes and various stress responses. To explore the roles of melatonin played as well as its association with abscisic acid (ABA) in a process of drought priming-induced cold tolerance (DPICT), a wild-type barley and its ABA-deficient mutant Az34 counterpart were selected for comparison, in which the effects of melatonin application (either foliarly or rhizospherically) and/or drought priming on the cold tolerance of both types of barleys were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that the early drought priming induced an increase of endogenous melatonin production, which is not ABA dependent. In addition, exogenously applied melatonin resulted in higher ABA concentration in the drought-primed plants than in the nonprimed plants when exposed to cold stress, indicating that ABA responded in a drought-dependent manner. The interplay of melatonin and ABA leads to plants maintaining better water status. Drought priming-induced melatonin accumulation enhanced the antioxidant capacity in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which sustained the photosynthetic electron transport in photosynthetic apparatus of the plants under cold stress. These results suggest that the exogenous melatonin application enhances the DPICT by modulating subcellular antioxidant systems and ABA levels in barley. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. HvPap-1 C1A Protease Participates Differentially in the Barley Response to a Pathogen and an Herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolutionary processes in plant–pathogen/herbivore systems indicate that protease inhibitors have a particular value in biotic interactions. However, little is known about the defensive role of their targets, the plant proteases. C1A cysteine proteases are the most abundant enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity during different processes like germination, development and senescence in plants. To identify and characterize C1A cysteine proteases of barley with a potential role in defense, mRNA and protein expression patterns were analyzed in response to biotics stresses. A barley cysteine protease, HvPap-1, previously related to abiotic stresses and grain germination, was particularly induced by flagellin or chitosan elicitation, and biotic stresses such as the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae or the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae. To elucidate the in vivo participation of this enzyme in defense, transformed barley plants overexpressing or silencing HvPap-1 encoding gene were subjected to M. oryzae infection or T. urticae infestation. Whereas overexpressing plants were less susceptible to the fungus than silencing plants, the opposite behavior occurred to the mite. This unexpected result highlights the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a particular biotic stress.

  11. Inheritance of resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus detected by northern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorens, G.F.; Falk, B.W.; Qualset, C.O.

    1989-01-01

    Development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars tolerant to the barley yellow dwarf virus disease (BYD) has been limited by lack of precision in rating plants for response to infection, usually done by visual scoring of plant symptoms under field conditions. Other methodologies have been developed to study the host/pathogen relationship and to assess resistance or susceptibility. In this study northern dot blot analysis was used to determine barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA concentrations of six wheat cultivars that differed in visual BYD symptom expression. Plants were infected with the NYPAV (PAV) isolate of BYDV in the greenhouse. At several dates after inoculation crude plant extracts were blotted on nitrocellulose and hybridized with a 32 P-labeled probe of the pPA8 cDNA clone of BYDV. The distribution of PRC for the F 2 population was compared to the distribution of BYD visual symptom scores for 403 F 2 plants of a similar F 2 population of NS 879/4 x Seri 82 under field conditions. The results were qualitatively similar, suggesting that northern dot blot analysis to measure PRC may be useful in understanding the genetics of resistance to BYD. This technique, when incorporated into breeding programs, could be important in the development of highly tolerant wheat cultivars with reduced losses to BYD

  12. Fermented Dough Characteristics of Wheat-barley-hemp Composites. Comparison of Two Dosages of Barley and Hemp Wholemeal/Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour substitution by barley one led to shortening of fermentation and leavening times (about 14–57% and 35–83%, respectively as well as to lessening of dough volumes (about 25–75%, based on lowered protein quality (Zeleny value. Addition of barley flour affected specific bread volume; diminishing for wheat-barley blends 70:30 and 50:50 reached 30% and 43%, respectively. Volume of bread prepared from wheat-barley blend 70:30 enhanced by dehulled hemp wholemeal was the highest within the tested tri-composites set, achieving 130% of wheat-barley control; other hemp products caused the parameter decrease (from 8 to 33%. Within a group of bakery products containing 50% of barley flour, hulled hemp wholemeal partially supressed negative effect of barley flour – specific bread volumes increased about ca 15%. Commercial fine hemp flour samples demonstrated a reversal influence – its addition resulted into lower buns size than wheat-barley control (about 3–34%. Between wheat flour and both groups of flour tri-composites, PCA confirmed differences in dough and bread technological quality. Specific bread volume could be predicted according to maturograph dough elasticity, dough or bread OTG volumes.

  13. Association mapping for morphological traits relevant to registration of barley varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, Seyed H.; Mohammadi, Seyed A.; Sadeghzadeh, Behzad

    2017-07-01

    Elucidating marker-trait associations would have fruitful implications in distinctness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) tests of new varieties required for both variety registration and granting plant breeders’ rights. As the number of new varieties with narrow genetic bases increases, the necessity for deployment of molecular markers to complement morphological DUS traits gets particular attention. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and sequence related amplification polymorphisms (SRAPs) markers in association mapping of morphological traits in a collection of 143 barley landraces and advanced breeding lines. This panel represented a diverse and uniform sample in terms of both quantitative and categorical traits whilst it was structurally partitioned by number of ear rows (six- and two-rowed) and seasonal growth habit (winter and spring types) characteristics. SSRs were more powerful compared with SRAPs in separating six- and two-rowed genotypes based on both model-based Bayesian and neighbor joining clustering methods. A number of associated SSR and SRAP markers were found for 15 out of 36 DUS traits after considering Bonferroni correction through linear models (GLM and MLM) and chi-square-based tests (SA and AAT). This is also the first report of association of awn roughness and grain color with molecular markers in barley. Moreover, SSR marker BMAC0113 appeared associated with time of ear emergence (TEE), confirming previous findings. These markers could be beneficial to complement and speed up DUS testing of new varieties, as well as for improving management of barley reference collections.

  14. High voltage electric field effects on structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, J. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agrotechnology, Univ. College of Abouraihan; Aliabadi, E. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Crop Production Horticulture, Univ. College of Aburaihan; Shayegani, A.A. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Univ. College of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Electric biostimulation of seeds is a pre-sowing treatment in which an electric field is applied to seeds to increase germination of non standard seeds. This paper reported on a study that examined the effects of AC electric field and exposure time on the structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds. The objective was to determine the potential to accelerate seed germination, plant growth and root development by the electric field strength and exposure time. Makooei cultivar barley seeds were used in this study. The effect of electric field strength (at 2, 4, 9, and 14 kV/m) and exposure time (at 15, 45, 80, and 150 min) on seed germination was studied along with height of seedling, length or root, height of stem, length of leaves, earliness, dry weight and wet weight of seedling. The treated seeds were stored for a month in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C prior to the germination experiments. The initial germination percent of the seed was 81 per cent. The treatment of barley seeds in an AC electric field had a positive effect on all investigated parameters. The germination percent of the treated seed increased to 94.5 per cent . The seeds exposed for long periods of time (45 to 150 min) showed better germination than the seeds exposed to lower exposure times. Dry and wet weights of seedling increased 143.4 per cent and 45.7 per cent, respectively.

  15. Effects of ultrasonic pretreatments on quality, energy consumption and sterilization of barley grass in freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2018-01-01

    Barley grass is a plant resource for rehabilitation therapy. Its processing requires retaining nutrition well for rehabilitation cure of consumers. To meet the aim as well as low energy consumption and microbiological safety of products, ultrasonic treatments (UT) were applied to bathing materials at different power levels (10, 30, 45, 60W/L) for 10mins. After treatments, the bathed barley grass (100g) was freeze-dried under vacuum -0.09MPa with fixed power of 2W/g. Parameters of color, microbial colony, energy consumption, glass transition temperature, moisture content, water activity, taste substances, contents of flavonoid and chlorophyll were determined after drying. In contrast with no treatment case, UT (45W/L) decreased drying time by 14% and decreased energy consumption by 19%; UT (60W/L) decreased total microbial colonies by 33%. Also, UT (30W/L) yielded contents of flavonoid (9.2/kg) and chlorophyll (10.5g/kg) of dried sample; UT power (10W/L) yielded the highest L ∗ (51.5) and the lowest a ∗ (-9.3) value. Simultaneously, UT leads to a higher glass transition temperature (Tg), lower water activity and produces less sourness and bitterness of dried products. Ultra-sonication is an alternative to improve quality, flavor and energy consumption of barley grass in freeze drying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Association mapping for morphological traits relevant to registration of barley varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, Seyed H.; Mohammadi, Seyed A.; Sadeghzadeh, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating marker-trait associations would have fruitful implications in distinctness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) tests of new varieties required for both variety registration and granting plant breeders’ rights. As the number of new varieties with narrow genetic bases increases, the necessity for deployment of molecular markers to complement morphological DUS traits gets particular attention. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and sequence related amplification polymorphisms (SRAPs) markers in association mapping of morphological traits in a collection of 143 barley landraces and advanced breeding lines. This panel represented a diverse and uniform sample in terms of both quantitative and categorical traits whilst it was structurally partitioned by number of ear rows (six- and two-rowed) and seasonal growth habit (winter and spring types) characteristics. SSRs were more powerful compared with SRAPs in separating six- and two-rowed genotypes based on both model-based Bayesian and neighbor joining clustering methods. A number of associated SSR and SRAP markers were found for 15 out of 36 DUS traits after considering Bonferroni correction through linear models (GLM and MLM) and chi-square-based tests (SA and AAT). This is also the first report of association of awn roughness and grain color with molecular markers in barley. Moreover, SSR marker BMAC0113 appeared associated with time of ear emergence (TEE), confirming previous findings. These markers could be beneficial to complement and speed up DUS testing of new varieties, as well as for improving management of barley reference collections.

  17. Barley disease susceptibility factor RACB acts in epidermal cell polarity and positioning of the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Björn; Schnepf, Vera; Galgenmüller, Carolina; Ranf, Stefanie; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    RHO GTPases are regulators of cell polarity and immunity in eukaryotes. In plants, RHO-like RAC/ROP GTPases are regulators of cell shaping, hormone responses, and responses to microbial pathogens. The barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) RAC/ROP protein RACB is required for full susceptibility to penetration by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), the barley powdery mildew fungus. Disease susceptibility factors often control host immune responses. Here we show that RACB does not interfere with early microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses such as the oxidative burst or activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. RACB also supports rather than restricts expression of defence-related genes in barley. Instead, silencing of RACB expression by RNAi leads to defects in cell polarity. In particular, initiation and maintenance of root hair growth and development of stomatal subsidiary cells by asymmetric cell division is affected by silencing expression of RACB. Nucleus migration is a common factor of developmental cell polarity and cell-autonomous interaction with Bgh RACB is required for positioning of the nucleus near the site of attack from Bgh We therefore suggest that Bgh profits from RACB's function in cell polarity rather than from immunity-regulating functions of RACB. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Genomic Prediction of Seed Quality Traits Using Advanced Barley Breeding Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Jahoor, Ahmed; Jensen, Jens Due; Orabi, Jihad; Cericola, Fabio; Edriss, Vahid; Jensen, Just

    2016-01-01

    Genomic selection was recently introduced in plant breeding. The objective of this study was to develop genomic prediction for important seed quality parameters in spring barley. The aim was to predict breeding values without expensive phenotyping of large sets of lines. A total number of 309 advanced spring barley lines tested at two locations each with three replicates were phenotyped and each line was genotyped by Illumina iSelect 9Kbarley chip. The population originated from two different breeding sets, which were phenotyped in two different years. Phenotypic measurements considered were: seed size, protein content, protein yield, test weight and ergosterol content. A leave-one-out cross-validation strategy revealed high prediction accuracies ranging between 0.40 and 0.83. Prediction across breeding sets resulted in reduced accuracies compared to the leave-one-out strategy. Furthermore, predicting across full and half-sib-families resulted in reduced prediction accuracies. Additionally, predictions were performed using reduced marker sets and reduced training population sets. In conclusion, using less than 200 lines in the training set can result in low prediction accuracy, and the accuracy will then be highly dependent on the family structure of the selected training set. However, the results also indicate that relatively small training sets (200 lines) are sufficient for genomic prediction in commercial barley breeding. In addition, our results indicate a minimum marker set of 1,000 to decrease the risk of low prediction accuracy for some traits or some families. PMID:27783639

  19. Genomic Prediction of Seed Quality Traits Using Advanced Barley Breeding Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Hellum Nielsen

    Full Text Available Genomic selection was recently introduced in plant breeding. The objective of this study was to develop genomic prediction for important seed quality parameters in spring barley. The aim was to predict breeding values without expensive phenotyping of large sets of lines. A total number of 309 advanced spring barley lines tested at two locations each with three replicates were phenotyped and each line was genotyped by Illumina iSelect 9Kbarley chip. The population originated from two different breeding sets, which were phenotyped in two different years. Phenotypic measurements considered were: seed size, protein content, protein yield, test weight and ergosterol content. A leave-one-out cross-validation strategy revealed high prediction accuracies ranging between 0.40 and 0.83. Prediction across breeding sets resulted in reduced accuracies compared to the leave-one-out strategy. Furthermore, predicting across full and half-sib-families resulted in reduced prediction accuracies. Additionally, predictions were performed using reduced marker sets and reduced training population sets. In conclusion, using less than 200 lines in the training set can result in low prediction accuracy, and the accuracy will then be highly dependent on the family structure of the selected training set. However, the results also indicate that relatively small training sets (200 lines are sufficient for genomic prediction in commercial barley breeding. In addition, our results indicate a minimum marker set of 1,000 to decrease the risk of low prediction accuracy for some traits or some families.

  20. A cathepsin F-like peptidase involved in barley grain protein mobilization, HvPap-1, is modulated by its own propeptide and by cystatins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Among the C1A cysteine proteases, the plant cathepsin F-like group has been poorly studied. This paper describes the molecular and functional characterization of the HvPap-1 cathepsin F-like protein from barley. This peptidase is N-glycosylated and has to be processed to become active by its own propeptide being an important modulator of the peptidase activity. The expression pattern of its mRNA and protein suggest that it is involved in different proteolytic processes in the barley plant. HvPap-1 peptidase has been purified in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein is able to degrade different substrates, including barley grain proteins (hordeins, albumins, and globulins) stored in the barley endosperm. It has been localized in protein bodies and vesicles of the embryo and it is induced in aleurones by gibberellin treatment. These three features support the implication of HvPap-1 in storage protein mobilization during grain germination. In addition, a complex regulation exerted by the barley cystatins, which are cysteine protease inhibitors, and by its own propeptide, is also described PMID:22791822

  1. Genomic Prediction of Barley Hybrid Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Philipp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid breeding in barley ( L. offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments. The parental lines were genotyped using a 3k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array based on an Illumina Infinium assay. We implemented ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction modeling for additive and dominance effects and evaluated the prediction ability using five-fold cross validations. The prediction ability of hybrid performances based on general combining ability (GCA effects was moderate, amounting to 0.56 and 0.48 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. The potential of GCA-based hybrid prediction requires that both parental components have been evaluated in a hybrid background. This is not necessary for genomic prediction for which we also observed moderate cross-validated prediction abilities of 0.51 and 0.58 for two- and three-way hybrids, respectively. This exemplifies the potential of genomic prediction in hybrid barley. Interestingly, prediction ability using the two-way hybrids as training population and the three-way hybrids as test population or vice versa was low, presumably, because of the different genetic makeup of the parental source populations. Consequently, further research is needed to optimize genomic prediction approaches combining different source populations in barley.

  2. Effect of mungbean residue and nitrogen levels on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, A.; Muhammad, Z.; Daur, I.; Khan, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate response of barley to mungbean residue (0, 10, 20 and 30 Mg ha/sup -1/), nitrogen levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg ha/sup -1/) and their interaction. Emergence m/sup -2/ (50), plant height (109 cm), leaf area tiller-1 (106 cm/sup 2/), lodging score (5.55), termites attack (3.4%), grains spike-1 (67), biological yield (12.80 Mg ha/sup -1/) and grain yield (2.32 Mg ha/sup -1/) were significantly (p=0.05) higher for 30 Mg ha/sup -1/ mungbean residue compared to other levels. Similarly plant height (110 cm), lodging score (5.29) and biological yield (13.75 Mg ha/sup -1/) were higher at 75 kg ha/sup -1/ N compared to other levels of N. Productive tillers m/sup -2/, grains spike/sup -1/, 1000 grain weight, grain yield and harvest index were optimum at 50 kg ha-1 N as compared to 75 kg ha/sup -1/ N that encouraged lodging. Interaction between residue and nitrogen indicated that 10 Mg residue and 50 kg N ha/sup -1/ is recommended to achieve maximum net return under comparable conditions. (author)

  3. Does shoot water status limit leaf expansion of nitrogen-deprived barley?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, I C; Munns, Rana; Passioura, J B

    2002-08-01

    The role of shoot water status in mediating the decline in leaf elongation rate of nitrogen (N)-deprived barley plants was assessed. Plants were grown at two levels of N supply, with or without the application of pneumatic pressure to the roots. Applying enough pressure (balancing pressure) to keep xylem sap continuously bleeding from the cut surface of a leaf allowed the plants to remain at full turgor throughout the experiments. Plants from which N was withheld required a greater balancing pressure during both day and night. This difference in balancing pressure was greater at high (2.0 kPa) than low (1.2 kPa) atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Pressurizing the roots did not prevent the decline in leaf elongation rate induced by withholding N at either high or low VPD. Thus low shoot water status did not limit leaf growth of N-deprived plants.

  4. The adsorption of α-amylase on barley proteins affects the in vitro digestion of starch in barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenwen; Zou, Wei; Dhital, Sushil; Wu, Peng; Gidley, Michael J; Fox, Glen P; Gilbert, Robert G

    2018-02-15

    The conversion of barley starch to sugars is a complex enzymic process. Most previous work concerned the biotechnical aspect of in situ barley enzymes. However, the interactions among the macromolecular substrates and their effects on enzymic catalysis has been little examined. Here, we explore the mechanisms whereby interactions of protein and starch in barley flour affect the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in an in vitro system, using digestion rate data and structural analysis by confocal microscopy. The degradation kinetics of both uncooked barley flour and of purified starches are found to be two-step sequential processes. Barley proteins, especially the water-soluble component, are found to retard the digestion of starch degraded by α-amylase: the enzyme binds with water-insoluble protein and with starch granules, leading to reduced starch hydrolysis. These findings are of potential industrial value in both the brewing and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Replication of DNA during barley endosperm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, H.

    1992-01-01

    The incorporation of [6-H-3]-thymidine into DNA of developing barley end sperm was examined by autoradiography of cross sections of seeds and DNA analysis. The majority of nuclear divisions took place in the very young endosperm, but as late as 25 days after anthesis there was evidence for DNA...... replication. The DNA content of the endosperm increases during development and in response to nitrogen application in parallel to the storage protein synthesis profile. The hordein genes were hypersensitive to DNase I treatment throughout development....

  6. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The distances between nine loci on barley chromosome 5 have been studied in five two-point tests, three three-point tests, and one four-point test. Our previous chromosome 5 linkage map, which contained eleven loci mapped from literature data (Jensen and Jørgensen 1975), is extended with four loci......-position is fixed on the map by a locus (necl), which has a good marker gene located centrally in the linkage group. The positions of the other loci are their distances in centimorgans from the 0-position; loci in the direction of the short chromosome arm are assigned positive values and those...

  7. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Honsdorf

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r=0.98 between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars.

  8. High-throughput phenotyping to detect drought tolerance QTL in wild barley introgression lines

    KAUST Repository

    Honsdorf, Nora

    2014-05-13

    Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform "The Plant Accelerator", Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old) wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r = 0.98) between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars. © 2014 Honsdorf et al.

  9. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens C; Andersen, Birgit; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

    2017-10-03

    The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites. The isolated fungi were grown on medium containing barley flour or wheat arabinoxylan as sole carbon source. Their secretomes and xylanase activities were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and enzyme assays and were found to vary according to species and carbon source. Secretomes were dominated by cell wall degrading enzymes with xylanases and xylanolytic enzymes being the most abundant. A 2-DE-based secretome analysis of Aspergillus niger and the less-studied pathogenic fungus Fusarium poae grown on barley flour and wheat arabinoxylan resulted in identification of 82 A. niger and 31 F. poae proteins many of which were hydrolytic enzymes, including xylanases. The microorganisms that inhabit the surface of cereal grains are specialized in production of enzymes such as xylanases, which depolymerize plant cell walls. Integration of gel-based proteomics approach with activity assays is a powerful tool for analysis and characterization of fungal secretomes and xylanolytic activities which can lead to identification of new enzymes with interesting properties, as well as provide insight into plant-fungal interactions, fungal pathogenicity and adaptation. Understanding the fungal response to host niche is of importance to uncover novel targets for potential symbionts, anti-fungal agents and biotechnical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of the somaclonal and mutagen induced variability in barley by the application of protein and DNA markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanassov, A.; Todorovska, E.; Trifonova, A.; Petrova, M.; Marinova, E.; Gramatikova, M.; Valcheva, D.; Zaprianov, S.; Mersinkov, N.

    1998-01-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is one of the most important crop species for Bulgaria. The characterisation of the genetic pool is of great necessity for the Bulgarian barley breeding programme which is directed toward improving quantitative and qualitative traits. Molecular markers [protein, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)] have been applied to characterise the Bulgarian barley cultivars and their regenerants. The changes in DNA loci coding for 26S, 5.8S and 18S rRNA repeats, C hordein locus and mitochondrial DNA organisation have been investigated. The potential for ribosomal DNA length polymorphism in Bulgarian barley cultivars appear to be limited to three different repeat lengths (10.2, 9.5 and 9.0kb) and three plant rDNA phenotypes. Polymorphism was not observed in ribosomal DNA repeat units in somaclonal variants. Variation concerning C hordein electrophoretic pattern was observed in one line from cultivar Jubiley. Analysis of the HorI locus reveals RFLPs in sequences coding for C hordeins in this line. Mitochondrial molecular markers are convenient for detection of DNA polymorphisms in the variant germplasm as well as for the somaclonal variants derived from it. Two lines from Ruen revealed polymorphic bands after hybridisation with mitochondrial DNA probe. RAPD assays have been carried out by using 20 different 10-mer primers. Heritable polymorphism in several tissue culture derived (TCD) lines was observed. RAPD assay is a sensitive and representative approach to distinguish the variability created by tissue culture and mutagenesis

  11. Differential disease resistance response in the barley necrotic mutant nec1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunga Laura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although ion fluxes are considered to be an integral part of signal transduction during responses to pathogens, only a few ion channels are known to participate in the plant response to infection. CNGC4 is a disease resistance-related cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. Arabidopsis thaliana CNGC4 mutants hlm1 and dnd2 display an impaired hypersensitive response (HR, retarded growth, a constitutively active salicylic acid (SA-mediated pathogenesis-related response and elevated resistance against bacterial pathogens. Barley CNGC4 shares 67% aa identity with AtCNGC4. The barley mutant nec1 comprising of a frame-shift mutation of CNGC4 displays a necrotic phenotype and constitutively over-expresses PR-1, yet it is not known what effect the nec1 mutation has on barley resistance against different types of pathogens. Results nec1 mutant accumulated high amount of SA and hydrogen peroxide compared to parental cv. Parkland. Experiments investigating nec1 disease resistance demonstrated positive effect of nec1 mutation on non-host resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst at high inoculum density, whereas at normal Pst inoculum concentration nec1 resistance did not differ from wt. In contrast to augmented P. syringae resistance, penetration resistance against biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, the causal agent of powdery mildew, was not altered in nec1. The nec1 mutant significantly over-expressed race non-specific Bgh resistance-related genes BI-1 and MLO. Induction of BI-1 and MLO suggested putative involvement of nec1 in race non-specific Bgh resistance, therefore the effect of nec1on mlo-5-mediated Bgh resistance was assessed. The nec1/mlo-5 double mutant was as resistant to Bgh as Nec1/mlo-5 plants, suggesting that nec1 did not impair mlo-5 race non-specific Bgh resistance. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that nec1 mutation alters activation of systemic acquired resistance

  12. Responses of soil respiration and barley growth to modified supply of oxygen in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SIMOJOKI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Roots of dry-land plants are supplied with oxygen mainly by molecular diffusion from soil air. Roots may suffer from hypoxia if soil aeration is reduced by compaction and wetting. Although the mechanisms involved are well known, more research is needed to relate soil aeration status to plant growth. The effects of reduced oxygen supply on soil respiration and the growth of barley seedlings were studied in pot experiments with fine sand soil, where the soil air composition was varied by flushing the soil with gas streams containing 0%, 2%, 6%, 10% or 20% O2 independently of compactness (bulk density 1.4, 1.6 Mg m-3 and wetness (air space 0-5%, >5%. Plant growth decreased only at 0-2% O2 in the loose moist soil but as early as 20% O2 in the wet soil. Soil compaction impaired plant growth regardless of wetting and aeration. In the loose moist soil cropped with barley, the respiration rate (emission of CO2 did not decrease at 6% O2 but decreased clearly at 0-2% O2. The results compared fairly well with the critical oxygen concentrations calculated by a simple multicylindrical model, in which the water-film thickness around the roots was estimated using soil water retention data.

  13. From oil spills to barley growth - oil-degrading soil bacteria and their promoting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Reinhard, Anne; Alimbetova, Anna; Omirbekova, Anel; Pasler, Lisa; Schumann, Peter; Kabisch, Johannes; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2016-11-01

    Heavy contamination of soils by crude oil is omnipresent in areas of oil recovery and exploitation. Bioremediation by indigenous plants in cooperation with hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms is an economically and ecologically feasible means to reclaim contaminated soils. To study the effects of indigenous soil bacteria capable of utilizing oil hydrocarbons on biomass production of plants growing in oil-contaminated soils eight bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soils in Kazakhstan and characterized for their abilities to degrade oil components. Four of them, identified as species of Gordonia and Rhodococcus turned out to be effective degraders. They produced a variety of organic acids from oil components, of which 59 were identified and 7 of them are hitherto unknown acidic oil metabolites. One of them, Rhodococcus erythropolis SBUG 2054, utilized more than 140 oil components. Inoculating barley seeds together with different combinations of these bacterial strains restored normal growth of the plants on contaminated soils, demonstrating the power of this approach for bioremediation. Furthermore, we suggest that the plant promoting effect of these bacteria is not only due to the elimination of toxic oil hydrocarbons but possibly also to the accumulation of a variety of organic acids which modulate the barley's rhizosphere environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Characterization of volatile aroma compounds in different brewing barley cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Hou, Yingmin; Li, Feng; Piao, Yongzhe; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Changxin

    2015-03-30

    Beer is a popular alcoholic malt beverage resulting from fermentation of the aqueous extract of malted barley with hops. The aroma of brewing barley impacts the flavor of beer indirectly, because some flavor compounds or their precursors in beer come from the barley. The objectives of this research were to study volatile profiles and to characterize odor-active compounds of brewing barley in order to determine the variability of the aroma composition among different brewing barley cultivars. Forty-one volatiles comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds and furans were identified using solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were quantitatively in greatest abundance. Quantitative measurements performed by means of solvent extraction and calculation of odor activity values revealed that acetaldehyde, 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, cyclopentanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, 2-pentylfuran and benzeneacetaldehyde, whose concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds, could be considered as odor-active compounds of brewing barley. Principal component analysis was employed to evaluate the differences among cultivars. The results demonstrated that the volatile profile based on the concentrations of aroma compounds enabled good differentiation of most barley cultivars. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Useful mutations in Iraqi black barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important fodder crop in Iraq, with a cultivated area of about 1 392 375 ha and a total production of about 838500 t. The 2-row black barley ''LBB'' is the most desirable one in semi-arid zone in northern part of Iraq, because of its drought tolerance and high protein content. However, this cultivar is susceptible to powdery mildew, and lodges. Gamma rays and EMS were used to induce mutations in ''LBB'' and its hybrid with A rivat''. Nine mutants with improved lodging were selected during the first six generations. Five mutants INRC-BB-1, INRC-BB-3, INRC-BBR-4A, INRC-HB-552 and INRC-HB-553 were resistant to powdery mildew while 2 mutants INRC-BBH-1 and INRC-HBR-3 were moderately resistant. Two mutants INRC-BB-123 and INRC-HBR-3 were also resistant to drought under 350-400 mm rainfall. Three mutants INRC-BB-1, INRC-HBR-3 and INRC-HBR-88 exceeded their original variety in seed weight per spike and TKW. (author)

  16. Improving phenolic bioactive-linked anti-hyperglycemic functions of dark germinated barley sprouts (Hordeum vulgare L.) using seed elicitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Ramnarain; Sarkar, Dipayan; Manduri, Avani; Iyer, Shreyas Ganesan; Shetty, Kalidas

    2017-10-01

    Sprouts of cereal grains, such as barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.), are a good source of beneficial phenolic bioactives. Such health relevant phenolic bioactives of cereal sprouts can be targeted to manage chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress commonly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore improving phenolic bioactives by stimulating plant endogenous defense responses such as protective pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during sprouting has significant merit. Based on this metabolic rationale, this study aimed to enhance phenolic bioactives and associated antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic functions in dark germinated barley sprouts using exogenous elicitor treatments. Dark-germinated sprouts of two malting barley cultivars (Pinnacle and Celebration), treated with chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) and marine protein hydrolysate (GP), were evaluated. Total soluble phenolic content (TSP), phenolic acid profiles, total antioxidant activity (TA) and in vitro inhibitory activities of hyperglycemia relevant α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes of the dark germinated barley sprouts were evaluated at day 2, 4, and 6 post elicitor treatments. Overall, TSP content, TA, and α-amylase inhibitory activity of dark germinated barley sprouts decreased, while α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and gallic acid content increased from day 2 to day 6. Among barley cultivars, high phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives were observed in Celebration. Furthermore, GP and COS seed elicitor treatments in selective doses improved T2D relevant phenolic-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives of barley spouts at day 6. Therefore, such seed elicitation approach can be strategically used to develop bioactive enriched functional food ingredients from cereal sprouts targeting chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress linked to T2D.

  17. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  18. INVITRO DIGESTIBILITY OF PROTEIN FROM BARLEY AND OTHER CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method for measuring barley protein digestibility is presented. Samples were first incubated with pepsin in HCl; pancreatin was then added concomitantly with a bacteriostatic borate buffer. After TCA-precipitation, soluble nitrogen was measured. The digestion was unaffected...... by accumulated free amino acids. There were no free amino acids following pepsin treatment, but the essential ones were well liberated by pancreatin. Results for barley grown in the field or in pots, and for decortified barley fractions agreed with true digestibility values determined with rats. Of these samples...... digestibility depended on the type of enzyme and on the enzyme-to-substrate ratio....

  19. Linking waterlogging tolerance with Mn²⁺ toxicity: a case study for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X; Shabala, S; Shabala, L; Rengel, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, G; Zhou, M

    2015-01-01

    Vast agricultural areas are affected by flooding, causing up to 80% yield reduction and resulting in multibillion dollar losses. Up to now, the focus of plant breeders was predominantly on detrimental effects of anoxia, while other (potentially equally important) traits were essentially neglected; one of these is soil elemental toxicity. Excess water triggers a progressive decrease in soil redox potential, thus increasing the concentration of Mn(2+) that can be toxic to plants if above a specific threshold. This work aimed to quantify the relative contribution of Mn(2+) toxicity to waterlogging stress tolerance, using barley as a case study. Twenty barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes contrasting in waterlogging stress tolerance were studied for their ability to cope with toxic (1 mm) amounts of Mn(2+) in the root rhizosphere. Under Mn(2+) toxicity, chlorophyll content of most waterlogging-tolerant genotypes (TX9425, Yerong, CPI-71284-48 and CM72) remained above 60% of the control value, whereas sensitive genotypes (Franklin and Naso Nijo) had 35% less chlorophyll than 35% of controls. Manganese concentration in leaves was not related to visual Mn(2+) toxicity symptoms, suggesting that various Mn(2+) tolerance mechanisms might operate in different tolerant genotypes, i.e. avoidance versus tissue tolerance. The overall significant (r = 0.60) correlation between tolerance to Mn(2+) toxicity and waterlogging in barley suggests that plant breeding for tolerance to waterlogging traits may be advanced by targeting mechanisms conferring tolerance to Mn(2+) toxicity, at least in this species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. ABA pretreatment can alter the distribution of polysomes in salt-stressed barley sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szypulska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed caryopses of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Stratus. Caryopses were germinated in darkness at 20°C in three experimental setups: (a in distilled water for 24 hours, followed by 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (salinity stress, SS, (b in 100 μM of abscisic acid for the first 24 hours, followed by rinsing with distilled water to remove residual ABA, and in 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (ABA pretreatment + salinity stress, ABAS, (c in distilled water only (control, C. Changes in the content of free polysomes (FP, membrane-bound polysomes (MBP, cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (CBP and cytomatrix-bound polysomes (CMBP were examined in barley sprouts germinated in SS and ABAS treatments for 48 hours. In salt-stressed barley sprouts, the concentrations of membrane-bound and cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (MBP, CBP and CMBP decreased significantly, whereas an increase was noted only in the free polysome (FP fraction. ABA pretreatment altered the distribution of polysomes in stressed plants. The content of cytoskeletonbound polysomes (CBP and CMBP increased, FP levels decreased, whereas no changes in MBP content were observed in response to ABA treatment. Our results suggest that plants respond to salt stress by increasing the concentrations of free polysomes that are probably released from damaged cell structures, mainly membranes. Our present and previous findings indicate that ABA could inhibit the release of FP in stressed plants by enhancing polysome binding to the cytoskeleton.

  1. Resistance in barley against Drechslera teres induced by Bipolaris maydis and Septoria nodorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Lobeck, P.S.; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    1998-01-01

    1.4.31 RESISTANCE IN BARLEY AGAINST DRECHSLERA TERES INDUCED BY BIPOLARIS MAYDIS AND SEPTORIA NODORUM HJL JORGENSEN, PS LOBECK, H THORDAL-CHRISTENSEN, E de NEERGAARD and V SMEDEGAARD-PETERSEN Department of Plant Biology, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaidsensvej 40, DK-1871 Fr...

  2. Quantifying biological nitrogen fixation of different catch crops, and residual effects of roots and tops on nitrogen uptake in barley using in-situ 15N labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Sørensen, Peter; Li, F C

    2015-01-01

    –46 % in macro-roots (0–18 cm soil). Macro-roots represented 31–50 % of total plant N. LBCCs showed similar capacity for soil N extraction as non-LBCCs. After incorporation of LBCC residues, the dry matter and N yields of spring barley were comparable to the effect of 50 kg N fertilisation ha−1, whereas no extra...

  3. Interkingdom signaling: The role of homoserine lactones in early responses and resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rankl, Simone

    2017-01-01

    N-Acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced as microbial signaling compounds during bacterial intra- and inter-specific communication in the rhizosphere. Thus, plants are naturally exposed to these compounds and respond with tissue-specific reactions. In the present study the impact of AHLs on the monocot barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was investigated. The treatment with C8- and C12- homoserine lactones (HSL) resulted in root and shoot biomass gain as well as in the formation of lat...

  4. Effects of INH, DNP, 2, 4-D and CMU on the sugar content of the barley and maize leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.; Sancho, P.

    1979-01-01

    1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solution was absorbed by barley and maize roots during 24 and 48 hours in dark or light conditioners in order to determine the best conditions for the obtention of labelled sugars with high specific activity. Results show that the highest specific activity was obtained in maize plants treated with DNP for 24 hours in dark conditions. (Author) 51 refs

  5. Interspecific competition changes photosynthetic and oxidative stress response of barley and barnyard grass to elevated CO2 and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Januskaitiene; Jūratė Žaltauskaitė; Austra Dikšaitytė; Gintarė Sujetovienė; Diana Miškelytė; Giedrė Kacienė; Sandra Sakalauskienė; Jurga Miliauskienė; Romualdas Juknys

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the investigation of competition interaction between C3 crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and C4 weed barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) at 2 times higher than ambient [CO2] and +4 0C higher ambient temperature climate conditions. It was hypothesized that interspecific competition will change the response of the investigated plants to increased [CO2] and temperature. The obtained results showed that in the current climate conditions, a higher biomass and photosynth...

  6. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related Stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot

    OpenAIRE

    MCGRANN, GRAHAM R D; STEED, ANDREW; BURT, CHRISTOPHER; GODDARD, RACHEL; LACHAUX, CLEA; BANSAL, ANURADHA; CORBITT, MARGARET; GORNIAK, KALINA; NICHOLSON, PAUL; BROWN, JAMES K M

    2014-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but ha...

  7. Application of fluorescence-based semi-automated AFLP analysis in barley and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, G.; Herz, M.; Huang, X.Q.

    2000-01-01

    of semi-automated codominant analysis for hemizygous AFLP markers in an F-2 population was too low, proposing the use of dominant allele-typing defaults. Nevertheless, the efficiency of genetic mapping, especially of complex plant genomes, will be accelerated by combining the presented genotyping......Genetic mapping and the selection of closely linked molecular markers for important agronomic traits require efficient, large-scale genotyping methods. A semi-automated multifluorophore technique was applied for genotyping AFLP marker loci in barley and wheat. In comparison to conventional P-33...

  8. Golgi localized barley MTP8 proteins facilitate Mn transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedas, Pai Rosager; Schiller, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 , which encode membrane...... in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts...

  9. Effects of seed irradiation on the early development and mitochondrial RNA synthesis of 'Impala' barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baboth, E [Kerteszeti Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)

    1975-06-01

    The influence of fractionated ..gamma..-irradiation on barley seeds was investigated under outdoor and hothouse conditions. The doses were 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 rad. The resulting radiation effects were investigated from the point of view of molecular biology, i.e. studying the RNA synthesis of the mitochondria after /sup 14/C-labelling of uridine. The radiation influence on the length of the coleoptiles was another criterion. The irradiation findings are discussed in connection with the cultivation of better and more resistant plants for agriculture.

  10. HvALMT1 from barley is involved in the transport of organic anions

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Benjamin D.; Ryan, Peter R.; Richardson, Alan E.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Ramesh, Sunita; Hebb, Diane M.; Howitt, Susan M.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Members of the ALMT gene family contribute to the Al3+ resistance of several plant species by facilitating malate efflux from root cells. The first member of this family to be cloned and characterized, TaALMT1, is responsible for most of the natural variation of Al3+ resistance in wheat. The current study describes the isolation and characterization of HvALMT1, the barley gene with the greatest sequence similarity to TaALMT1. HvALMT1 is located on chromosome 2H which has not been associated w...

  11. Prediction of malting quality traits in barley based on genome-wide marker data to assess the potential of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Malthe; Kollers, Sonja; Maasberg-Prelle, Anja; Großer, Jörg; Schinkel, Burkhard; Tomerius, Alexandra; Graner, Andreas; Korzun, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    Genomic prediction of malting quality traits in barley shows the potential of applying genomic selection to improve selection for malting quality and speed up the breeding process. Genomic selection has been applied to various plant species, mostly for yield or yield-related traits such as grain dry matter yield or thousand kernel weight, and improvement of resistances against diseases. Quality traits have not been the main scope of analysis for genomic selection, but have rather been addressed by marker-assisted selection. In this study, the potential to apply genomic selection to twelve malting quality traits in two commercial breeding programs of spring and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was assessed. Phenotypic means were calculated combining multilocational field trial data from 3 or 4 years, depending on the trait investigated. Three to five locations were available in each of these years. Heritabilities for malting traits ranged between 0.50 and 0.98. Predictive abilities (PA), as derived from cross validation, ranged between 0.14 to 0.58 for spring barley and 0.40-0.80 for winter barley. Small training sets were shown to be sufficient to obtain useful PAs, possibly due to the narrow genetic base in this breeding material. Deployment of genomic selection in malting barley breeding clearly has the potential to reduce cost intensive phenotyping for quality traits, increase selection intensity and to shorten breeding cycles.

  12. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  13. Members of the barley NAC transcription factor gene family show differential co-regulation with senescence-associated genes during senescence of flag leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Michael W; Gregersen, Per L.

    2014-01-01

    -expressed with members of the NAC gene family. In conclusion, a list of up to 15 NAC genes from barley that are strong candidates for being regulatory factors of importance for senescence and biotic stress-related traits affecting the productivity of cereal crop plants has been generated. Furthermore, a list of 71...... in the NAC transcription factor family during senescence of barley flag leaves was studied. Several members of the NAC transcription factor gene family were up-regulated during senescence in a microarray experiment, together with a large range of senescence-associated genes, reflecting the coordinated...... activation of degradation processes in senescing barley leaf tissues. This picture was confirmed in a detailed quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) experiment, which also showed distinct gene expression patterns for different members of the NAC gene family, suggesting a group of ~15 out of the 47...

  14. Boron Toxicity Tolerance in Barley through Reduced Expression of the Multifunctional Aquaporin HvNIP2;11[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hrmova, Maria; Baumann, Ute; Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is a significant limitation to cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. Here we describe the cloning of a gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare), underlying the chromosome 6H B toxicity tolerance quantitative trait locus. It is the second B toxicity tolerance gene identified in barley. Previously, we identified the gene Bot1 that functions as an efflux transporter in B toxicity-tolerant barley to move B out of the plant. The gene identified in this work encodes HvNIP2;1, an aquaporin from the nodulin-26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily that was recently described as a silicon influx transporter in barley and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that a rice mutant for this gene also shows reduced B accumulation in leaf blades compared to wild type and that the mutant protein alters growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under high B. HvNIP2;1 facilitates significant transport of B when expressed in Xenopus oocytes compared to controls and to another NIP (NOD26), and also in yeast plasma membranes that appear to have relatively high B permeability. We propose that tolerance to high soil B is mediated by reduced expression of HvNIP2;1 to limit B uptake, as well as by increased expression of Bot1 to remove B from roots and sensitive tissues. Together with Bot1, the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1 is an important determinant of B toxicity tolerance in barley. PMID:20581256

  15. Long-term agricultural fertilization alters arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition and barley (Hordeum vulgare) mycorrhizal carbon and phosphorus exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Manoharan, Lokeshwaran; Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Olsson, Pål Axel; Hedlund, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural fertilization significantly affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community composition. However, the functional implications of community shifts are unknown, limiting understanding of the role of AMF in agriculture. We assessed AMF community composition at four sites managed under the same nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer regimes for 55 yr. We also established a glasshouse experiment with the same soils to investigate AMF-barley (Hordeum vulgare) nutrient exchange, using carbon ( 13 C) and 33 P isotopic labelling. N fertilization affected AMF community composition, reducing diversity; P had no effect. In the glasshouse, AMF contribution to plant P declined with P fertilization, but was unaffected by N. Barley C allocation to AMF also declined with P fertilization. As N fertilization increased, C allocation to AMF per unit of P exchanged increased. This occurred with and without P fertilization, and was concomitant with reduced barley biomass. AMF community composition showed no relationship with glasshouse experiment results. The results indicate that plants can reduce C allocation to AMF in response to P fertilization. Under N fertilization, plants allocate an increasing amount of C to AMF and receive relatively less P. This suggests an alteration in the terms of P-C exchange under N fertilization regardless of soil P status. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Structural lability of Barley stripe mosaic virus virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V Makarov

    Full Text Available Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed.

  17. The strategy of carbon utilization in uniculm barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.J.; Ryle, G.J.A.; Powell, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Following exposure of the youngest mature leaf of uniculm barley to 14 CO 2 , groups of plants were harvested over a 72 h period to determine the fate of 14 C in the photosynthesizing leaf and in growing leaves and roots. Initially, 14 C was mainly present in sucrose with a little in starch and charged compounds; transport out of the fed leaf was rapid and, by 7 and 24 h, 56 and 93% respectively of the 14 C had been translocated about equally to growing leaves and roots. Sucrose entering meristems was quickly metabolized to protein and structural carbohydrate (40 and 60% of the 14 C in these organs at 7 and 24 h respectively), while the remainder was converted to short-term storage products or intermediary metabolites. By the end of the first day c.35% of the 14 C originally assimilated had been lost in respiration. The metabolism of the leaf appeared to be organized on a diurnal basis, for it exported nearly all its carbon within 24 h of assimilation. In contrast, some of the assimilate imported into growing leaves and, to a lesser extent, roots was not immediately used for growth but persisted as temporary metabolites and was subsequently used for growth in the following days. (author)

  18. Effectiveness of rabbit manure biofertilizer in barley crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Valdez, Samira; Lucho-Constantino, Carlos A; Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa I; Gómez-Mercado, René; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A; Herrera, Juan M; Jiménez-González, Angélica

    2017-11-01

    The quality of biofertilizers is usually assessed only in terms of the amount of nutrients that they supply to the crops and their lack of viable pathogens and phytotoxicity. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a liquid biofertilizer obtained from rabbit manure in terms of presence of pathogens, phytotoxicity, and its effect on the grain yield and other agronomic traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Environmental effects of the biofertilizer were also evaluated by following its influence on selected soil parameters. We applied the biofertilizer at five combinations of doses and timings each and in two application modes (foliar or direct soil application) within a randomized complete block design with three replicates and using a chemical fertilizer as control. The agronomic traits evaluated were plant height, root length, dry weight, and number of leaves and stems at three growth stages: tillering, jointing, and flowering. The effectiveness of the biofertilizer was significantly modified by the mode of application, the growth stage of the crop, and the dose of biofertilizer applied. The results showed that the foliar application of the biofertilizer at the tillering stage produced the highest increase in grain yield (59.7 %, p biofertilizer caused significant changes in soil, particularly concerning pH, EC, Ca, Zn, Mg, and Mn. It is our view that the production and use of biofertilizers are a reliable alternative to deal with a solid waste problem while food security is increased.

  19. The impact of stubble crop on spring barley weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Wrzesińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The condition and degree of weed infestation were determined in a spring barely crop grown in a short-term monoculture after mulching the soil with plants grown as a stubble crop (the control treatment without cover crop – lacy phacelia, white mustard, sunflower. The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2013 on good rye soil complex using a split-block design in four replications. The obtained results (the mean from all years of the experiment showed that the stubble crop, especially sunflower, reduced the diversity of weed species without causing at the same time changes in weed species dominance. In all the control treatments of the experiment, Chenopodium album and Fallopia convolvulus were the dominant species. The degree of spring barley weed infestation depended on the species grown in the cover crop. White mustard and lacy phacelia slightly increased the number of weeds but their fresh matter significantly increased. However, the sunflower cover crop significantly increased the number of weeds without any substantial differentiation of their fresh mass.

  20. Diversity in boron toxicity tolerance of Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Julie E; Pallotta, Margaret; Garcia, Melissa; Öz, Mehmet Tufan; Rongala, Jay; Sutton, Tim

    2015-09-26

    Boron (B) is an important micronutrient for plant growth, but is toxic when levels are too high. This commonly occurs in environments with alkaline soils and relatively low rainfall, including many of the cereal growing regions of southern Australia. Four major genetic loci controlling tolerance to high soil B have been identified in the landrace barley, Sahara 3771. Genes underlying two of the loci encode the B transporters HvBot1 and HvNIP2;1. We investigated sequence and expression level diversity in HvBot1 and HvNIP2;1 across barley germplasm, and identified five novel coding sequence alleles for HvBot1. Lines were identified containing either single or multiple copies of the Sahara HvBot1 allele. We established that only the tandemly duplicated Sahara allele conferred B tolerance, and this duplicated allele was found only in a set of nine lines accessioned in Australian collections as Sahara 3763-3771. HvNIP2;1 coding sequences were highly conserved across barley germplasm. We identified the likely causative SNP in the 5'UTR of Sahara HvNIP2;1, and propose that the creation of a small upstream open reading frame interferes with HvNIP2;1 translation in Sahara 3771. Similar to HvBot1, the tolerant HvNIP2;1 allele was unique to the Sahara barley accessions. We identified a new source of the 2H B tolerance allele controlling leaf symptom development, in the landrace Ethiopia 756. Ethiopia 756, as well as the cultivar Sloop Vic which carries both the 2H and HvBot1 B tolerance alleles derived from Sahara 3771, may be valuable as alternative parents in breeding programs targeted to high soil B environments. There is significant diversity in B toxicity tolerance among contemporary Australian barley varieties but this is not related to variation at any of the four known B tolerance loci, indicating that novel, as yet undiscovered, sources of tolerance exist.

  1. Transfer of N and P from intact or decomposing roots of pea to barley interconnected by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, A.; Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    of growth. In half of the containers, the donor-plant shoot was removed 42 d after the start of labelling and the roots were left in the soil to decompose. The reverse transfer of N and P, from barley donor to pea receiver plants was also measured to allow calculation of the net transfer through hyphae...... by G, intraradices. The results for P transfer followed the same patterns as was observed for N, although in smaller proportions. The results indicate that arbuscular mycorrhizas may play a significant role in the flow of N and P between two plants interconnected by hyphae, when the root system of one...

  2. Biological control of fusarium seedling blight disease of wheat and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mojibur R; Fischer, Sven; Egan, Damian; Doohan, Fiona M

    2006-04-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium fungi, including F. culmorum, cause seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight diseases of cereals, resulting in yield loss. In a screen for potential disease control organisms and agents, Pseudomonas fluorescens strains MKB 100 and MKB 249, P. frederiksbergensis strain 202, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158, and chitosan all significantly reduced the extent of both wheat coleoptile growth retardation and wheat and barley seedling blight caused by F. culmorum (by 53 to 91%). Trichodiene synthase is a Fusarium enzyme necessary for trichothecene mycotoxin biosynthesis; expression of the gene encoding this enzyme in wheat was 33% lower in stem base tissue coinoculated with Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158 and F. culmorum than in wheat treated with bacterial culture medium and F. culmorum. When wheat and barley were grown in soil amended with either chitosan, P. fluorescens strain MKB 249, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158, or culture filtrates of these bacteria, the level of disease symptoms on F. culmorum-inoculated stem base tissue (at 12 days post- F. culmorum inoculation) was >/=31% less than the level on F. culmorum-inoculated plants grown in culture medium-amended soil. It seems likely that at least part of the biocontrol activity of these bacteria and chitosan may be due to the induction of systemic disease resistance in host plants. Also, in coinoculation studies, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158 induced the expression of a wheat class III plant peroxidase gene (a pathogenesis-related gene).

  3. Potassium-dependent changes in the expression of membrane-associated proteins in barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, M.; Kulpa, J.; Siddiqi, M.Y.; Glass, A.D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Halcyon) seedlings which has been grown in full strength complete inorganic nutrient media (containing 6 millimolar K + ) had high internal K + concentrations and low values of K + ( 86 Rb + ) influx when influx was measured from solutions containing 100 micromolar K + . Transfer of these plants to solutions lacking K + resulted in significant reductions of root and shoot K + concentrations and values of K + ( 86 Rb + ) influx increased by greater than 10-fold within 3 days. When plants treated in this way were returned to complete solutions, containing K + , the changes induced by K + deprivation were reversed. Parallel studies of microsomal membranes by means of SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the expression of a group of polypeptides increased or decreased in parallel with changes of K + ( 86 Rb + ) influx. Most prominent of these were 45 and 34 kilodalton polypeptides which specifically responded to K + status of the barley plants; their expression was not enhanced by N or P deprivation. The 45 kilodalton polypeptide was susceptible to degradation by a membrane associated protease when microsomes were washing in buffer containing 0.2 millimolar PMSF. This loss was prevented by increasing PMSF concentration to 2 millimolar

  4. Allele mining in barley genetic resources reveals genes of race-nonspecific powdery mildew resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eSpies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Race-nonspecific, or quantitative, pathogen resistance is of high importance to plant breeders due to its expected durability. However, it is usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL and therefore difficult to handle in practice. Knowing the genes that underlie race-nonspecific resistance would allow its exploitation in a more targeted manner. Here, we performed an association-genetic study in a customized worlwide collection of spring barley accessions for candidate genes of race-nonspecific resistance to the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh and combined data with results from QTL-mapping- as well as functional-genomics approaches. This led to the idenfication of 11 associated genes with converging evidence for an important role in race-nonspecific resistance in the presence of the Mlo-gene for basal susceptibility. Outstanding in this respect was the gene encoding the transcription factor WRKY2. The results suggest that unlocking plant genetic resources and integrating functional-genomic with genetic approaches accelerates the discovery of genes underlying race-nonspecific resistance in barley and other crop plants.

  5. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... crops and barley is a genetically very well characterized. Aiming at producing new starch qualities in the cereal system, we used RNAi and overexpression strategies to produce pure amylose and high-phosphate starch, respectively, using the barley kernel as a polymer factory. By simultaneous silencing...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  6. Effects of irradiated barley on fattening quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhelm, H.

    1999-01-01

    For the feeding experiments reported, barley grains irradiated at doses of 2, 10, and 100 kGy were used as a diet. The results obtained revealed no significant effects in the parameters analysed. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Phytochrome A, phytochrome B and HY4 are involved in hypocotyl growth responses to natural radiation in Arabidopsis: weak de-etiolation of the phyA mutant under dense canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovsky, M.J.; Casal, J.J.; Whitelam, G.C.

    1995-01-01

    The roles of phytochrome A (phyA), phytochrome B (phyB) and a putative blue-light (BL) photoreceptor (HY4) in the control of hypocotyl growth by natural radiation were investigated using phyA, phyB and hy4 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Full sunlight inhibited hypocotyl growth to a larger extent in wild-type (WT) than in phyA, phyB and, particularly, hy4 seedlings. In WT seedlings, hypocotyl growth was promoted by selectively lowering BL irradiance, lowering red-light (R) plus far-red-light (FR) irradiance or lowering the R/FR ratio (which was achieved either by increasing FR or by reducing R). The effects of lowering BL were reduced in hy4 and exaggerated in phyA seedlings. The effects of lowering R+FR were reduced in phyA and exaggerated in hy4 seedlings. Neither phyB nor hy4 mutants responded to low R/FR ratios. Neighbouring plants reflecting FR without shading caused subtle reductions of the R/FR ratio. This signal promoted hypocotyl growth in WT but not in phyA, phyB or hy4 seedlings. Intermediate canopy shade produced similar effects in all genotypes. Under deep shade, de-etiolation was severely impaired in phyA seedlings, which died prematurely. Thus, the FR ‘high-irradiance reaction’ mediated by phyA could be important for seedling survival under dense canopies. (author)

  8. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-01-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO 2 at twice the wild type rate when it was fed [ 14 C] glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO 2 concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme

  9. The Localization of Eceriferum Loci in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bodil

    1974-01-01

    Three different 3-point tests have been made for gene distances on chromosome 1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In all cases eceriferum, cer-f9, and albina, ac2, were examined with erectoides as the third gene. The erectoides, ert, genes are ert-a23, ert-d33 and ert-m40, respectively. The analyses...... have been carried through to F3. The experiments demonstrated the following sequence of the five genes: cer-f9 — ac2 — ert-d33 — ert-a23 — ert-m40 and the following distances: cer-f9 — ac2 = 2.3 %, ac2 — ert-a23 = 8.5 %, ac2 — ert-d33 = 2.5 % and ac2 — ert-m40 = 12.8 %. The cer-f9 — ac2 distance, which...

  10. Application of proteomics to investigate barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fen; Finnie, Christine; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Due to the great loss of barley grain yield and quality in addition to mycotoxins contamination caused by Fusarium head blight (FHB), it is essential to understand the molecular interaction between barley and Fusarium graminearum, one of the primary Fusarium species causing FHB, in order to control the disease. Due to the advantages of gel-based proteomics that differentially expressed proteins involved in the interaction can be directly detected by comparing protein profiles displayed on 2-D...

  11. Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs) are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell (TC) morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection (LM)-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS) pathways in ETC development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for abscisic acid and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for ETC

  12. Response of barley to grasshopper defoliation in interior Alaska: dry matter and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2005-12-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is well adapted to subarctic Alaska growing conditions, but little is known about its response to grasshopper defoliation. A field experiment was conducted to study dry matter and grain yield in response to a combination of grasshopper defoliation and weeds in 2002 and 2003 near Delta Junction, AK (63 degrees 55' N, 145 degrees 20' W). Barley plants at third to fourth leaf stage were exposed to a combination of two levels of weeds (present or absent) and four densities of grasshoppers (equivalent to 0, 25, 50, and 75 grasshoppers per m2) of third to fourth instars of Melanoplus sanguinipes (F). Dry matter accumulation by the barley plants was determined at three times during the growing seasons: approximately 10 d after introduction of the grasshoppers, shortly after anthesis, and at maturity. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield were much lower in 2003 than in 2002, probably due to very low levels of soil moisture early in the growing season of 2003. Head clipping accounted for a greater portion of yield loss in 2003 than in 2002. The percentage of reduction in harvestable yield due to grasshoppers remained fairly constant between years (1.9 and 1.4 g per grasshopper per m2 in 2002 and 2003, respectively) despite a large difference in overall yield. Examination of the yield components suggest that yields were reduced by the early season drought in 2003 primarily through fewer seeds per head, whereas grasshoppers in both years reduced average seed weight, but not numbers of seeds.

  13. Structural modeling and molecular simulation analysis of HvAP2/EREBP from barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bharati; Sharma, Pradeep; Tyagi, Chetna; Goyal, Sukriti; Grover, Abhinav; Sharma, Indu

    2016-06-01

    AP2/ERF transcription factors play a critical role in plant development and stress adaptation. This study reports the three-dimensional ab initio-based model of AP2/EREBP protein of barley and its interaction with DNA. Full-length coding sequence of HvAP2/EREBP gene isolated from two Indian barley cultivars, RD 2503 and RD 31, was used to model the protein. Of five protein models obtained, the one with lowest C-score was chosen for further analysis. The N- and C-terminal regions of HvAP2 protein were found to be highly disordered. The dynamic properties of AP2/EREBP and its interaction with DNA were investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of trajectories from simulation yielded the equilibrated conformation between 2-10ns for protein and 7-15ns for protein-DNA complex. We established relationship between DNA having GCC box and DNA-binding domain of HvAP2/EREBP was established by modeling 11-base-pair-long nucleotide sequence and HvAP2/EREBP protein using ab initio method. Analysis of protein-DNA interaction showed that a β-sheet motif constituting amino acid residues THR105, ARG100, ARG93, and ARG83 seems to play important role in stabilizing the complex as they form strong hydrogen bond interactions with the DNA motif. Taken together, this study provides first-hand comprehensive information detailing structural conformation and interactions of HvAP2/EREBP proteins in barley. The study intensifies the role of computational approaches for preliminary examination of unknown proteins in the absence of experimental information. It also provides molecular insight into protein-DNA binding for understanding and enhancing abiotic stress resistance for improving the water use efficiency in crop plants.

  14. Interchromosomal Transfer of Immune Regulation During Infection of Barley with the Powdery Mildew Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Surana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh. Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of chromosomes (Chr 2HL and 1HS. Within these regions reside diverse resistance loci derived from barley landrace H. laevigatum (MlLa and H. vulgare cv. Algerian (Mla1, which associate with the altered expression of 961 and 3296 genes during fungal penetration of the host and haustorial development, respectively. Regulatory control of transcript levels for 299 of the 961 genes is reprioritized from MlLa on 2HL to Mla1 on 1HS as infection progresses, with 292 of the 299 alternating the allele responsible for higher expression, including Adaptin Protein-2 subunit μ AP2M and Vesicle Associated Membrane Protein VAMP72 subfamily members VAMP721/722. AP2M mediates effector-triggered immunity (ETI via endocytosis of plasma membrane receptor components. VAMP721/722 and SNAP33 form a Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment Protein REceptor (SNARE complex with SYP121 (PEN1, which is engaged in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity via exocytosis. We postulate that genes regulated by alternate chromosomal positions are repurposed as part of a conserved immune complex to respond to different pathogen attack scenarios.

  15. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M L; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVR a gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVR a genes and identified AVR a1 and AVR a13 , encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVR a1 and AVR a13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVR A1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVR A1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVR A1 Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation.

  16. Interchromosomal Transfer of Immune Regulation During Infection of Barley with the Powdery Mildew Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Priyanka; Xu, Ruo; Fuerst, Gregory; Chapman, Antony V. E.; Nettleton, Dan; Wise, Roger P.

    2017-01-01

    Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh. Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of chromosomes (Chr) 2HL and 1HS. Within these regions reside diverse resistance loci derived from barley landrace H. laevigatum (MlLa) and H. vulgare cv. Algerian (Mla1), which associate with the altered expression of 961 and 3296 genes during fungal penetration of the host and haustorial development, respectively. Regulatory control of transcript levels for 299 of the 961 genes is reprioritized from MlLa on 2HL to Mla1 on 1HS as infection progresses, with 292 of the 299 alternating the allele responsible for higher expression, including Adaptin Protein-2 subunit μ AP2M and Vesicle Associated Membrane Protein VAMP72 subfamily members VAMP721/722. AP2M mediates effector-triggered immunity (ETI) via endocytosis of plasma membrane receptor components. VAMP721/722 and SNAP33 form a Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment Protein REceptor (SNARE) complex with SYP121 (PEN1), which is engaged in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity via exocytosis. We postulate that genes regulated by alternate chromosomal positions are repurposed as part of a conserved immune complex to respond to different pathogen attack scenarios. PMID:28790145

  17. HvALMT1 from barley is involved in the transport of organic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Benjamin D; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E; Tyerman, Stephen D; Ramesh, Sunita; Hebb, Diane M; Howitt, Susan M; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2010-03-01

    Members of the ALMT gene family contribute to the Al(3+) resistance of several plant species by facilitating malate efflux from root cells. The first member of this family to be cloned and characterized, TaALMT1, is responsible for most of the natural variation of Al(3+) resistance in wheat. The current study describes the isolation and characterization of HvALMT1, the barley gene with the greatest sequence similarity to TaALMT1. HvALMT1 is located on chromosome 2H which has not been associated with Al(3+) resistance in barley. The relatively low levels of HvALMT1 expression detected in root and shoot tissues were independent of external aluminium or phosphorus supply. Transgenic barley plants transformed with the HvALMT1 promoter fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) indicated that expression of HvALMT1 was relatively high in stomatal guard cells and in root tissues containing expanding cells. GFP fused to the C-terminus of the full HvALMT1 protein localized to the plasma membrane and motile vesicles within the cytoplasm. HvALMT1 conferred both inward and outward currents when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes that were bathed in a range of anions including malate. Both malate uptake and efflux were confirmed in oocyte assays using [(14)C]malate as a radiotracer. It is suggested that HvALMT1 functions as an anion channel to facilitate organic anion transport in stomatal function and expanding cells.

  18. DELLA-induced early transcriptional changes during etiolated development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gallego-Bartolomé

    Full Text Available The hormones gibberellins (GAs control a wide variety of processes in plants, including stress and developmental responses. This task largely relies on the activity of the DELLA proteins, nuclear-localized transcriptional regulators that do not seem to have DNA binding capacity. The identification of early target genes of DELLA action is key not only to understand how GAs regulate physiological responses, but also to get clues about the molecular mechanisms by which DELLAs regulate gene expression. Here, we have investigated the global, early transcriptional response triggered by the Arabidopsis DELLA protein GAI during skotomorphogenesis, a developmental program tightly regulated by GAs. Our results show that the induction of GAI activity has an almost immediate effect on gene expression. Although this transcriptional regulation is largely mediated by the PIFs and HY5 transcription factors based on target meta-analysis, additional evidence points to other transcription factors that would be directly involved in DELLA regulation of gene expression. First, we have identified cis elements recognized by Dofs and type-B ARRs among the sequences enriched in the promoters of GAI targets; and second, an enrichment in additional cis elements appeared when this analysis was extended to a dataset of early targets of the DELLA protein RGA: CArG boxes, bound by MADS-box proteins, and the E-box CACATG that links the activity of DELLAs to circadian transcriptional regulation. Finally, Gene Ontology analysis highlights the impact of DELLA regulation upon the homeostasis of the GA, auxin, and ethylene pathways, as well as upon pre-existing transcriptional networks.

  19. Do 14-3-3 proteins and plasma membrane H+-ATPases interact in the barley epidermis in response to the barley powdery mildew fungus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, C.; Andersen, C.H.; Borch, J.

    2002-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins form a family of highly conserved proteins with central roles in many eukaryotic signalling networks. In plants, they bind to and activate the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, creating a binding site for the phytotoxin fusicoccin. Barley 14-3-3 transcripts accumulate in the epidermis upon...... inoculation with the powdery mildew fungus. We have isolated a cDNA encoding a plasma membrane H+-ATPase (HvHA1), which is also induced by powdery mildew attack. The C-terminal domain of this H+-ATPase interacts with 14-3-3 proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system. Inoculation with the powdery mildew fungus......, or treatment with fusicoccin, results in an increase in fusicoccin binding ability of barley leaf membranes. Overlay assays show a fungus-induced increase in binding of digoxygenin-labelled 14-3-3 protein to several proteins including a 100 kDa membrane protein, probably the plasma membrane H...

  20. Perfil etiológico das meningites bacterianas em crianças Etiological profile of bacterial meningitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando C. Mantese

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar o perfil etiológico e alguns aspectos epidemiológicos das crianças com meningite bacteriana, internadas em um hospital público universitário. Métodos: foram seguidas, prospectivamente, as crianças internadas com meningite bacteriana, diagnosticada segundo os critérios clínicos e laboratoriais habituais. Foram excluídos os casos de meningite pós-trauma, de meningite na vigência de derivação liquórica, ou de defeitos congênitos do tubo neural, e de meningite tuberculosa. Resultados: foram analisadas 415 crianças internadas com diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana, no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, no período de 01/01/1987 a 31/01/2001. O agente etiológico foi identificado em 315 pacientes (75,9%, sendo de modo definitivo em 289 (69,3% e presuntivo, por intermédio da bacterioscopia, em outros 26 (6,6%. Os agentes mais comumente identificados foram o Haemophilus influenzae b (54,2%, o meningococo (20,6% e o pneumococo (18,1% dos 315 pacientes. O tratamento antimicrobiano prévio, detectado em 47,2% dos casos, causou uma diminuição significante no rendimento das culturas de sangue (de 50,8% para 38,7% e de liquor (71,7% para 57,6%. Houve um predomínio do acometimento de crianças com idade até 48 meses pelo Haemophilus influenzae b, particularmente em relação ao meningococo. A letalidade geral foi de 10,1%, com diferença significante entre a letalidade do pneumococo, de 17,5%, e a do meningococo, de 4,6%. Conclusões: as crianças afetadas por Haemophilus influenzae b e por pneumococo foram mais jovens que aquelas com meningite por meningococo. A hemocultura e a cultura de liquor continuam sendo importantes recursos laboratoriais para o diagnóstico etiológico da meningite bacteriana, apesar do impacto negativo causado em seu rendimento pelo tratamento antibiótico prévio. Os agentes mais comumente isolados foram o Haemophilus influenzae b, o meningococo e o pneumococo. A

  1. Possible role for abscisic acid in regulation of photosynthetic and photorespiratory carbon metabolism in barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.P.; Tsonev, T.D.; Vaklinova, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on carbon metabolism, rate of photorespiration, and the activity of the photorespiratory enzymes ribulose bisphosphate oxygenase and glycolate oxidase in 7-day-old barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Alfa) was investigated. Plants treated with ABA had enhanced incorporation of labeled carbon from 14 CO 2 into glycolic acid, glycine, and serine, while 14 C incorporation into 3-phosphoglyceric acid and sugarphosphate esters was depressed. Parallel with this effect, treated plants showed a rise in activity of RuBP oxygenase and glycolic acid oxidase. The rate of photorespiration was increased twofold by ABA treatment at IO -6 molar while the CO 2 -compensation point increased 46% and stomatal resistance increased more than twofold over control plants

  2. REDUCTION OF HERBICIDE AND WATER STRESS IN SPRING BARLEY BY REGULATORS OF POLYAMINE BIOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Trebichalský

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out under artificial light of fluorescent lamps starting with 60 % full water capacity which was afterwards decreased on 40 % and finally the plants of barley were not watered. 30 plants of this cereal after plant emergence were thinned on 22 pieces. Experiment was treated by triazine herbicide, as well as its mixtures of regulators of polyamine synthesis: γ-aminobutyric acid, 1.3-propylenediamine dihydrochloride and salicyl acid. Solo application of triazine herbicide during water stress had negative balance on formation of root and above ground biomass. Addition of regulators of polyamine synthesis had positive effects on mentioned parameters, but not in comparison to control variant. These stress factors were eliminated most significantly only the application of GABA (100 g.ha-1 in mixture with herbicide.

  3. PLANT REMAINS FROM ASIKLI-HOYUK, A PRE-POTTERY NEOLITHIC SITE IN CENTRAL ANATOLIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANZEIST, W; DEROLLER, GJ

    Cereal crop plants at Asikli Hayuk included einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum), emmer wheat (T. dicoccum), free-threshing wheat (T. cf. durum), hulled two-rowed barley (Hordeum distichum) and naked barley (H. vulgare var. nudum). As for pulses, bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia), lentil (Lens culinaris)

  4. Effects of salt on the pattern of protein synthesis in barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkman, W.J.; Tanaka, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of salt stress on the incorporation of [ 3 5 S]methionine into protein was examined in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.cv California Mariout 72). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with or without 200 millimolar NaCl. Roots of intact plants were labeled in vivo and proteins were extracted and analyzed by fluorography of two-dimensional gels. Although the protein patterns for control and salt-stressed plants were qualitatively similar, the net synthesis of a number of proteins was quantitatively changed. The most striking change was a significant increase of label in two protein pairs that had pls of approximately 6.3 and 6.5. Each pair consisted of proteins of approximately 26 and 27 kilodaltons (kD). In roots of control plants, the 27-kD proteins were more heavily labeled in the microsomal fraction relative to the 26-kD proteins, whereas the 26-kD proteins were enriched in the post 178,000g supernatant fraction; in roots of salt treated plants, the 26- and 27-kD proteins were more intensely labeled in both fractions. Labeling of the 26- and 27-kD proteins returned to control levels when salt-stressed plants were transferred to nutrient solution without NaCl. No cross-reaction was detected between the antibody to the 26-kD protein from salt-adapted tobacco cells and the 26- and 27-kD proteins of barley

  5. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) circadian clock genes can respond rapidly to temperature in an EARLY FLOWERING 3-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett; Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Oliver, Sandra; Boden, Scott; Hemming, Megan; Trevaskis, Ben

    2016-01-01

    An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops. This study examines the relationship between temperature, the circadian clock, and the expression of flowering-time genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a crop model for temperate cereals. Transcript levels of barley core circadian clock genes were assayed over a range of temperatures. Transcript levels of core clock genes CCA1, GI, PRR59, PRR73, PRR95, and LUX are increased at higher temperatures. CCA1 and PRR73 respond rapidly to a decrease in temperature whereas GI and PRR59 respond rapidly to an increase in temperature. The response of GI and the PRR genes to changes in temperature is lost in the elf3 mutant indicating that their response to temperature may be dependent on a functional ELF3 gene. PMID:27580625

  6. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Interspecific competition changes photosynthetic and oxidative stress response of barley and barnyard grass to elevated CO2 and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Januskaitiene

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the investigation of competition interaction between C3 crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and C4 weed barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L. at 2 times higher than ambient [CO2] and +4 0C higher ambient temperature climate conditions. It was hypothesized that interspecific competition will change the response of the investigated plants to increased [CO2] and temperature. The obtained results showed that in the current climate conditions, a higher biomass and photosynthetic rate and a lower antioxidant activity were detected for barley grown under interspecific competition effect. While in the warmed climate and under competition conditions opposite results were detected: a higher water use efficiency, a higher photosynthetic performance, a lower dissipated energy flux and a lower antioxidant enzymes activity were detected for barnyard grass plants. This study highlights that in the future climate conditions, barnyard grass will become more efficient in performance of the photosynthetic apparatus and it will suffer from lower oxidative stress caused by interspecific competition as compared to barley.

  8. Effects of Single and Multifactor Treatments with Elevated Temperature, CO2 and Ozone on Oilseed Rape and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature on plant productivity and if these climate factors interacted with each other in multifactor treatments. The climate effects were studied in 14 different cultivars/lines of European spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Seven genotypes of each species were cultivated in six single- and multifactor treatments with ambient or elevated CO2 (385 ppm and 700 ppm), O3 (20 ppb and 60 ppb) and temperature (12/19 °C and 17/24 °C). Growth and production parameters were measured. Elevated CO2 increased....... A significantly decreased yield and thousand grain weight was also seen in barley due to elevated O3. The multifactor combination of elevated CO2, O3 and temperature showed a decrease in growth and production in the two species, though not statistically significant for all parameters. This trend suggests...

  9. Localization of introduced genes on the chromosomes of transgenic barley, wheat and triticale by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Zimny, J.; Becker, D.

    1997-01-01

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we localized introduced genes on metaphase chromosomes of barley, wheat, and triticale transformed by microprojectile bombardment of microspores and scutellar tissue with the pDB1 plasmid containing the uidA and bar genes. Thirteen integration sites...... of single-copy integrations. There was a slight tendency towards the localization of transgenes in distal chromosome regions. Using the GAA-satellite sequence for chromosome banding, the chromosomes containing the inserted genes were identified in most cases. Two barley lines derived from the same...... transformant showed a totally different integration pattern. Southern analysis confirmed that the inserted genes were segregating independently, resulting in different integration patterns among the progeny lines. The application of the FISH technique for the analysis of transgenic plants is discussed....

  10. Genome-wide association study of production and stability traits in barley cultivated under future climate scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Backes, Gunter; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    Future barley cultivars will have to produce under the constraints of higher temperature in combination with increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone as a consequence of climate change. A diverse set of 167 spring barley genotypes was cultivated under elevated levels...... to identify markers for increased primary production under climate change conditions and reveal possible genes of interest. Phenotyped traits included grain yield, number of grains, number of ears per plant, aboveground vegetative biomass, harvest index and stability of the production parameters over the five...... applied treatments. The GWAS encompassed 7864 SNP markers (Illumina iselect), a compressed mixed linear model with the GAPIT package, and conservative validation of markers. A total of 60 marker-trait associations [−log10(P value) 2.97–5.58] were identified, e.g. grain yield under elevated temperature...

  11. Free and Bound Phenolic Compound Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Cultivated Blue Highland Barley Varieties from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-Juan; Dang, Bin; Fan, Ming-Tao

    2018-04-11

    In this study, the polyphenols composition and antioxidant properties of 12 blue highland barley varieties planted on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area were measured. The contents of the free, bound and total phenolic acids varied between 166.20-237.60, 170.10-240.75 and 336.29-453.94 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry weight (DW) blue highland barley grains, while the free and bound phenolic acids accounted for 50.09% and 49.91% of the total phenolic acids, respectively. The contents of the free, bound and total flavones varied among 20.61-25.59, 14.91-22.38 and 37.91-47.98 mg of catechin equivalents per 100 g of dry weight (DW) of blue highland barley grains, while the free and bound flavones accounted for 55.90% and 44.10% of the total flavones, respectively. The prominent phenolic compounds in the blue hulless barley grains were gallic acid, benzoic acid, syringic acid, 4-coumaric acid, naringenin, hesperidin, rutin, (+)-catechin and quercetin. Among these, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin were the major phenolic compounds in the free phenolics extract. The most abundant bound phenolics were gallic acid, benzoic acid, syringic acid, 4-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, dimethoxybenzoic acid, naringenin, hesperidin, quercetin and rutin. The average contribution of the bound phenolic extract to the DPPH • free radical scavenging capacity was higher than 86%, that of free phenolic extract to the ABTS •+ free radical scavenging capacity was higher than 79%, and that of free phenolic (53%) to the FRAP antioxidant activity was equivalent to that of the bound phenol extract (47%). In addition, the planting environment exerts a very important influence on the polyphenol composition, content and antioxidant activity of blue highland barley. The correlation analysis showed that 2,4-hydroxybenzoic acid and protocatechuic acid were the main contributors to the DPPH • and ABTS •+ free radical scavenging capacity in the free phenolic extract

  12. Dissecting molecular interactions involved in recognition of target disulfides by the barley thioredoxin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Maeda, Kenji; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds, thus regulating activities of target proteins in various biological systems, e.g., inactivation of inhibitors of starch hydrolases and proteases in germinating plant seeds. In the three-dimensional structure of a complex with barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibi......Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds, thus regulating activities of target proteins in various biological systems, e.g., inactivation of inhibitors of starch hydrolases and proteases in germinating plant seeds. In the three-dimensional structure of a complex with barley α...... thioredoxin reductase. HvTrxh2 M88G and M88A adjacent to the invariant cis-proline lost efficiency in both BASI disulfide reduction and recycling by thioredoxin reductase. These effects were further pronounced in M88P lacking a backbone NH group. Remarkably, HvTrxh2 E86R in the same loop displayed overall...... retained catalytic properties, with the exception of a 3-fold increased activity toward BASI. From the 104VGA106 loop, a backbone hydrogen bond donated by A106 appears to be important for target disulfide recognition as A106P lost 90% activity toward BASI but was efficiently recycled by thioredoxin...

  13. Uptake and distribution of /sup 232/U in peas and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R G; Cline, J F [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA)

    1980-03-01

    The uptake of /sup 232/U from soil and its distribution in peas and barley were examined under conditions which isolated root uptake from deposition on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground plant parts were harvested at maturity and analyzed for /sup 232/U content by alpha-energy-analysis. The ratio of concentration (CR) of /sup 232/U in the dry barley seeds to dry soil was 1.6 x 10/sup -4/ while the CR values of the stem/leaf to dry soil fraction was 3.6 x 10/sup -3/. The Cr values for the pea seed, stem/pod and leaf components were 5.4 x 10/sup -4/, 3.3 x 10/sup -3/ and 1.7 x 10/sup -2/, respectively. This indicates that the CR values used in certain radiological dose-assessment models may be high by about a factor of 100 when evaluating the consumption of seeds of legumes or cereal grains by man.

  14. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  15. Some Root Traits of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. as Affected by Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bayani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal symbiosis on the colonization, root and leaf phosphorous content, root and leaf phosphatase activity, root volume and area as well as shoot dry weight of a variety of hulless barley were evaluated using a completely randomized experimental design (CRD with 3 replications. Treatments were three levels of drought stress of 30, 60 and 90% field capacity and two levels of mycorrhizal with and without inoculation. According to the results, the highest value of leaf phosphorous (1.54 mg/g was observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis against severe drought treatment. Root phosphatase activity was highest (297.9 OD min -1 FW-1 at severe drought stress with mycorrhizal symbiosis which in comparison with mild stress in the presence of mycorrhiza showed 16.6 fold increasing. The control and non-mycorrhizal symbiosis treatments had highest root dry weight (0.091 g. The lowest root volume (0.016 cm2 observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis × severe drought treatment. Generally, Inoculation of barley seed with mycorrhiza at severe water stress could transport more phosphorous to shoot, especially leaf via inducing of leaf and root phosphatase activity. Also, in addition to supply of nutrient sources especially phosphorous for plant, mycorrhizal symbiosis could play an important role in withstanding water stress in plant via increasing of root dry weight and area.

  16. Auxin as a player in the biocontrol of Fusarium head blight disease of barley and its potential as a disease control agent

    OpenAIRE

    Petti, Carloalberto; Reiber, Kathrin; Ali, Shahin S; Berney, Margaret; Doohan, Fiona M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Mechanisms involved in the biological control of plant diseases are varied and complex. Hormones, including the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), are essential regulators of a multitude of biological functions, including plant responses to biotic and abiotic stressors. This study set out to determine what hormones might play a role in Pseudomonas fluorescens –mediated control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of barley and to determine if biocontr...

  17. The soil acidity as restrictive factor of the use of nitrogen fertilizer by spring barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejnak, V.; Lippold, H.

    1999-01-01

    In two - year micro - plot trials was studied the effect of soil pH value (pH > 6,5 and pH 15 N in first year and no enriched in second year, rates of 0, 85, 170 and 255 mg N per pot, i.e. 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N.ha -1 ) on the spring barley productivity and on the use of nitrogen fertilizer by plants in the application year of 15 N and in the following year. The productivity of spring barley is significantly higher in neutral soil than in acid soil. The gradated rates of nitrogen fertilization increased this difference. The total nitrogen uptake by plants was higher in neutral soil. The share of the nitrogen from 'the old soil's supply' in the total uptake by the harvest ranges from 95 to 82 % and is practically identical in studied soils. 'Priming effect' was higher in soil with better fertility (153 - 186 mg N per pot) than in acid soil (to 49 mg N per pot only). The gradated rates of ammonium sulphate increased the uptake nitrogen from fertilizer by harvest of spring barley in the application year of 15 N from 39 mg N to 107 mg N per pot in neutral soil and from 26 mg N to 83 mg N per pot in acid soil and in the following year from 3,05 mg N to 8,15 mg N per pot in neutral soil and from 1,76 mg N to 3,37 mg N per pot in acid soil. The total balance of fertilizer nitrogen ( 15 N) in soil - crop system in two years from application showed that in neutral soil 46 % used by spring barley (42 % in the application year and 4 % in the following year), 16 % rested in soil and loss was 38 % and in acid soil 35 % used by harvest (33 % in first year and 2 % second year), 12 % rested in soil and loss was 53 %. Refs. 5 (author)

  18. The wheat resistance gene Lr34 results in the constitutive induction of multiple defense pathways in transgenic barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Harsh; Boni, Rainer; Bucher, Rahel; Kuhn, Benjamin; Buchmann, Gabriele; Sucher, Justine; Selter, Liselotte L; Hensel, Goetz; Kumlehn, Jochen; Bigler, Laurent; Glauser, Gaëtan; Wicker, Thomas; Krattinger, Simon G; Keller, Beat

    2015-10-01

    The wheat gene Lr34 encodes an ABCG-type transporter which provides durable resistance against multiple pathogens. Lr34 is functional as a transgene in barley, but its mode of action has remained largely unknown both in wheat and barley. Here we studied gene expression in uninfected barley lines transgenic for Lr34. Genes from multiple defense pathways contributing to basal and inducible disease resistance were constitutively active in seedlings and mature leaves. In addition, the hormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were induced to high levels, and increased levels of lignin as well as hordatines were observed. These results demonstrate a strong, constitutive re-programming of metabolism by Lr34. The resistant Lr34 allele (Lr34res) encodes a protein that differs by two amino acid polymorphisms from the susceptible Lr34sus allele. The deletion of a single phenylalanine residue in Lr34sus was sufficient to induce the characteristic Lr34-based responses. Combination of Lr34res and Lr34sus in the same plant resulted in a reduction of Lr34res expression by 8- to 20-fold when the low-expressing Lr34res line BG8 was used as a parent. Crosses with the high-expressing Lr34res line BG9 resulted in an increase of Lr34sus expression by 13- to 16-fold in progenies that inherited both alleles. These results indicate an interaction of the two Lr34 alleles on the transcriptional level. Reduction of Lr34res expression in BG8 crosses reduced the negative pleiotropic effects of Lr34res on barley growth and vigor without compromising disease resistance, suggesting that transgenic combination of Lr34res and Lr34sus can result in agronomically useful resistance. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  20. Response of Agronomic Traits of Wheat and Barley to Sources and Different Rates of Selenium in Rainfed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A Sajedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Environmental stresses affect growth, metabolism and crops yield. Drought is an important stress and it decreases crop productivity. Drought stress symptoms vary, depending on intensity and duration of drought and growth stage of the plant. The first response of plant to drought stress is producing the active oxygen species (ROS in cell that these cause injury to membranes and proteins. Selenium (Se application could have beneficial effect on growth and stress tolerance of plants by increasing their activity of antioxidants and reduce the reactive oxygen species over production. Selenium is essential for growth and activities of human and animals. Absorption and accumulation of selenium in plant depend on chemical compound and concentration of selenium in soil. Recent studies have demonstrated that Se increases resistance and antioxidant capacity of plants to various stress. It is reported that selenium application in barley plant no changes the amounts of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide under water deficit stress. The current paper studies the response of agronomic traits of wheat and barley to sources and different rates of selenium in rain fed condition. Materials and Methods In order to investigate response of agronomic traits of wheat and barley to sources and different rates of selenium in rainfed condition, an experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, during 2014-2015. Experimental factors were included selenium sources at two levels, Sodium selenate and Selenite, Selenium rates at three levels of zero, 18 and 36 g ha-1 and two crop plants of wheat and barley. The wheat rain fed seed Azar 2 cultivar and Barley cultivar Abidar were hand planted at 15 cm spacing in 6 m rows, with one meter borders between the plots. Foliar application of Se was performed at rate of 18 and 36 g ha-1 at appearance

  1. Direct selection of expressed sequences on a YAC clone revealed proline-rich-like genes and BARE-1 sequences physically linked to the complex ¤Mla¤ powdery mildew resistance locus of barley (¤Hordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, G.; Michalek, W.; Jahoor, A.

    2002-01-01

    homology to the copia-like retroelement BA REI of barley, putatively involved in evolution of disease resistance loci. The high degree of clones representing barley rRNA sequences or false positives is a major disadvantage of direct selection of cDNAs in barley. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All...... gene. Of 22 selected cDNA clones, six were re-located on the YAC by southern analysis. Two of these clones are predicted to encode members of the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein and proline-rich protein gene families which have been implicated in plant defense response. Four sequences showed high...

  2. The knottin-like Blufensin family regulates genes involved in nuclear import and the secretory pathway in barley-powdery mildew interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihui; Meng, Yan; Surana, Priyanka; Fuerst, Greg; Nettleton, Dan; Wise, Roger P.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved complex regulatory mechanisms to control a multi-layered defense response to microbial attack. Both temporal and spatial gene expression are tightly regulated in response to pathogen ingress, modulating both positive and negative control of defense. BLUFENSINs, small knottin-like peptides in barley, wheat, and rice, are highly induced by attack from fungal pathogens, in particular, the obligate biotrophic fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causal agent of barley powdery mildew. Previous research indicated that Blufensin1 (Bln1) functions as a negative regulator of basal defense mechanisms. In the current report, we show that BLN1 and BLN2 can both be secreted to the apoplast and Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-mediated overexpression of Bln2 increases susceptibility of barley to Bgh. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays signify that BLN1 and BLN2 can interact with each other, and with calmodulin. We then used BSMV-induced gene silencing to knock down Bln1, followed by Barley1 GeneChip transcriptome analysis, to identify additional host genes influenced by Bln1. Analysis of differential expression revealed a gene set enriched for those encoding proteins annotated to nuclear import and the secretory pathway, particularly Importin α1-b and Sec61 γ subunits. Further functional analysis of these two affected genes showed that when silenced, they also reduced susceptibility to Bgh. Taken together, we postulate that Bln1 is co-opted by Bgh to facilitate transport of disease-related host proteins or effectors, influencing the establishment of Bgh compatibility on its barley host. PMID:26089830

  3. The Allosterically Unregulated Isoform of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Barley Endosperm Is the Most Likely Source of ADP-Glucose Incorporated into Endosperm Starch1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Danny N.P.; Rudi, Heidi; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of studies of an unmodified version of the recombinant major barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophoshorylase (AGPase) expressed in insect cells, which corroborate previous data that this isoform of the enzyme acts independently of the allosteric regulators 3-phosphoglycerate and inorganic phosphate. We also present a characterization of the individual subunits expressed separately in insect cells, showing that the SS AGPase is active in the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate and is inhibited by inorganic phosphate. As a step toward the elucidation of the role of the two AGPase isoforms in barley, the temporal and spatial expression profile of the four barley AGPase transcripts encoding these isoforms were studied. The results show that the steady-state level of beps and bepl, the transcripts encoding the major endosperm isoform, correlated positively with the rate of endosperm starch accumulation. In contrast, blps and blpl, the transcripts encoding the major leaf isoform, were constitutively expressed at a very low steady-state level throughout the barley plant. The implications of these findings for the evolution of plant AGPases are discussed. PMID:10557246

  4. The Allosterically Unregulated Isoform of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Barley Endosperm Is the Most Likely Source of ADP-Glucose Incorporated into Endosperm Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan; Rudi; Olsen

    1999-11-01

    We present the results of studies of an unmodified version of the recombinant major barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophoshorylase (AGPase) expressed in insect cells, which corroborate previous data that this isoform of the enzyme acts independently of the allosteric regulators 3-phosphoglycerate and inorganic phosphate. We also present a characterization of the individual subunits expressed separately in insect cells, showing that the SS AGPase is active in the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate and is inhibited by inorganic phosphate. As a step toward the elucidation of the role of the two AGPase isoforms in barley, the temporal and spatial expression profile of the four barley AGPase transcripts encoding these isoforms were studied. The results show that the steady-state level of beps and bepl, the transcripts encoding the major endosperm isoform, correlated positively with the rate of endosperm starch accumulation. In contrast, blps and blpl, the transcripts encoding the major leaf isoform, were constitutively expressed at a very low steady-state level throughout the barley plant. The implications of these findings for the evolution of plant AGPases are discussed.

  5. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Hyun Shin; Eun-Jo Seo; Jae-Seong Choi; JungKwan Lee; Jong-Chul Park; Chun-Sik Kang

    2013-01-01

    Barley kernel discoloration (KD) leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations o...

  6. Utilization of Gamma Irradiation for Improving Salinity Tolerance of Two Exotic Hull-less Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The development of hull-less (naked) barley genotypes with the ability to grow under stressed environmental conditions becomes essential to increase the national production of the crop to supplement wheat production for bread making , which in turn will decrease our imports of wheat grains and flour. Thus, a selection breeding program was conducted to enhancement salt tolerance of the two local hull-less barley varieties Giza 129 and Giza 131. Grains of the both genotypes were exposed to gamma rays at doses of 0.0, 250 Gy and 350 Gy aiming to create genetic variability and selection within the induced variation. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between yield and its components for M2 populations indicated the possibility of using number of spikes/plant, biological yield/plant and harvest index as a selection criterion to pick out high yielding variants with improving tolerance to salt stress. On this basis, a considerable number of plants were selected and carried forward to the next generation to raise M3 progenies. The obtained results indicated that means of grain yield/plant for Giza 129 progenies derived from 250 and 350 Gy mutagenic treatments located between 10.37 gram and 13.90 gram for the former treatment and between 9.81 gram to 13.84 gram for the latter one compared to 8.01 gram for the average of the superior control populations. On the other hand, Averages of grain yield for Giza 131 progenies ranged from 11.10 gram to 14.17 gram (250 Gy treatment) and from 11.32 gram to 13.50 gram (350 Gy treatment) vs.8.92 gram for the better untreated control plants. Results also revealed that 250 Gy mutagenic treatment was superior to 350 Gy for improving yield potentiality of the materials at hand under salinity stressed conditions

  7. Characterization of a Thermo-Inducible Chlorophyll-Deficient Mutant in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leaf color is an important trait for not only controlling crop yield but also monitoring plant status under temperature stress. In this study, a thermo-inducible chlorophyll-deficient mutant, named V-V-Y, was identified from a gamma-radiated population of the barley variety Vlamingh. The leaves of the mutant were green under normal growing temperature but turned yellowish under high temperature in the glasshouse experiment. The ratio of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in the mutant declined much faster in the first 7–9 days under heat treatment. The leaves of V-V-Y turned yellowish but took longer to senesce under heat stress in the field experiment. Genetic analysis indicated that a single nuclear gene controlled the mutant trait. The mutant gene (vvy was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 4H between SNP markers 1_0269 and 1_1531 with a genetic distance of 2.2 cM and a physical interval of 9.85 Mb. A QTL for grain yield was mapped to the same interval and explained 10.4% of the yield variation with a LOD score of 4. This QTL is coincident with the vvy gene interval that is responsible for the thermo-inducible chlorophyll-deficient trait. Fine mapping, based on the barley reference genome sequence, further narrowed the vvy gene to a physical interval of 0.428 Mb with 11 annotated genes. This is the first report of fine mapping a thermo-inducible chlorophyll-deficient gene in barley.

  8. Population structure of barley landrace populations and gene-flow with modern varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bellucci

    Full Text Available Landraces are heterogeneous plant varieties that are reproduced by farmers as populations that are subject to both artificial and natural selection. Landraces are distinguished by farmers due to their specific traits, and different farmers often grow different populations of the same landrace. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs to analyse 12 barley landrace populations from Sardinia from two collections spanning 10 years. We analysed the population structure, and compared the population diversity of the landraces that were collected at field level (population. We used a representative pool of barley varieties for diversity comparisons and to analyse the effects of gene flow from modern varieties. We found that the Sardinian landraces are a distinct gene pool from those of both two-row and six-row barley varieties. There is also a low, but significant, mean level and population-dependent level of introgression from the modern varieties into the Sardinian landraces. Moreover, we show that the Sardinian landraces have the same level of gene diversity as the representative sample of modern commercial varieties grown in Italy in the last decades, even within population level. Thus, these populations represent crucial sources of germplasm that will be useful for crop improvement and for population genomics studies and association mapping, to identify genes, loci and genome regions responsible for adaptive variations. Our data also suggest that landraces are a source of valuable germplasm for sustainable agriculture in the context of future climate change, and that in-situ conservation strategies based on farmer use can preserve the genetic identity of landraces while allowing adaptation to local environments.

  9. Comparative transcriptome profiling of two Tibetan wild barley genotypes in responses to low potassium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Zeng

    Full Text Available Potassium (K deficiency is one of the major factors affecting crop growth and productivity. Development of low-K tolerant crops is an effective approach to solve the nutritional deficiency in agricultural production. Tibetan annual wild barley is rich in genetic diversity and can grow normally under poor soils, including low-K supply. However, the molecular mechanism about low K tolerance is still poorly understood. In this study, Illumina RNA-Sequencing was performed using two Tibetan wild barley genotypes differing in low K tolerance (XZ153, tolerant and XZ141, sensitive, to determine the genotypic difference in transcriptome profiling. We identified a total of 692 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in two genotypes at 6 h and 48 h after low-K treatment, including transcription factors, transporters and kinases, oxidative stress and hormone signaling related genes. Meanwhile, 294 low-K tolerant associated DEGs were assigned to transporter and antioxidant activities, stimulus response, and other gene ontology (GO, which were mainly involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, lipid metabolism and ethylene biosynthesis. Finally, a hypothetical model of low-K tolerance mechanism in XZ153 was presented. It may be concluded that wild barley accession XZ153 has a higher capability of K absorption and use efficiency than XZ141 under low K stress. A rapid response to low K stress in XZ153 is attributed to its more K uptake and accumulation in plants, resulting in higher low K tolerance. The ethylene response pathway may account for the genotypic difference in low-K tolerance.

  10. No Time to Waste: Transcriptome Study Reveals that Drought Tolerance in Barley May Be Attributed to Stressed-Like Expression Patterns that Exist before the Occurrence of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak, Agnieszka; Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Sowa, Marta; Gajek, Katarzyna; Żmuda, Katarzyna; Kościelniak, Janusz; Szarejko, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    Plant survival in adverse environmental conditions requires a substantial change in the metabolism, which is reflected by the extensive transcriptome rebuilding upon the occurrence of the stress. Therefore, transcriptomic studies offer an insight into the mechanisms of plant stress responses. Here, we present the results of global gene expression profiling of roots and leaves of two barley genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with drought stress. Our analysis suggests that drought tolerance results from a certain level of transcription of stress-influenced genes that is present even before the onset of drought. Genes that predispose the plant to better drought survival play a role in the regulatory network of gene expression, including several transcription factors, translation regulators and structural components of ribosomes. An important group of genes is involved in signaling mechanisms, with significant contribution of hormone signaling pathways and an interplay between ABA, auxin, ethylene and brassinosteroid homeostasis. Signal transduction in a drought tolerant genotype may be more efficient through the expression of genes required for environmental sensing that are active already during normal water availability and are related to actin filaments and LIM domain proteins, which may function as osmotic biosensors. Better survival of drought may also be attributed to more effective processes of energy generation and more efficient chloroplasts biogenesis. Interestingly, our data suggest that several genes involved in a photosynthesis process are required for the establishment of effective drought response not only in leaves, but also in roots of barley. Thus, we propose a hypothesis that root plastids may turn into the anti-oxidative centers protecting root macromolecules from oxidative damage during drought stress. Specific genes and their potential role in building up a drought-tolerant barley phenotype is extensively discussed with special emphasis

  11. No Time to Waste: Transcriptome Study Reveals that Drought Tolerance in Barley May Be Attributed to Stressed-Like Expression Patterns that Exist before the Occurrence of Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant survival in adverse environmental conditions requires a substantial change in the metabolism, which is reflected by the extensive transcriptome rebuilding upon the occurrence of the stress. Therefore, transcriptomic studies offer an insight into the mechanisms of plant stress responses. Here, we present the results of global gene expression profiling of roots and leaves of two barley genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with drought stress. Our analysis suggests that drought tolerance results from a certain level of transcription of stress-influenced genes that is present even before the onset of drought. Genes that predispose the plant to better drought survival play a role in the regulatory network of gene expression, including several transcription factors, translation regulators and structural components of ribosomes. An important group of genes is involved in signaling mechanisms, with significant contribution of hormone signaling pathways and an interplay between ABA, auxin, ethylene and brassinosteroid homeostasis. Signal transduction in a drought tolerant genotype may be more efficient through the expression of genes required for environmental sensing that are active already during normal water availability and are related to actin filaments and LIM domain proteins, which may function as osmotic biosensors. Better survival of drought may also be attributed to more effective processes of energy generation and more efficient chloroplasts biogenesis. Interestingly, our data suggest that several genes involved in a photosynthesis process are required for the establishment of effective drought response not only in leaves, but also in roots of barley. Thus, we propose a hypothesis that root plastids may turn into the anti-oxidative centers protecting root macromolecules from oxidative damage during drought stress. Specific genes and their potential role in building up a drought-tolerant barley phenotype is extensively discussed

  12. Fusarium infection and trichothecenes in barley and its comparison with wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Esmee; Liu, C.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Barley is a small-grain cereal that can be infected by Fusarium spp. resulting in reduced quality and safety of harvested barley (products). Barley and other small-grain cereals are commonly studied together for Fusarium infection and related mycotoxin contamination, since the infection and its

  13. Interaction between powdery mildew and barley with ¤mlo5¤ mildew resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkjær, M.F.; Østergård, Hanne

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew infection of barley with the mlo5 barley powdery mildew resistance gene was examined, using near-isogenic barley lines, with and without mlo5 resistance, and two near-isogenic powdery mildew isolates, HL3/5 and GE3 with high (virulent) or low (avirulent) penetration efficiency...

  14. Transgressive segregation for very low and high levels of basal resistance to powdery mildew in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew is a quantitatively inherited trait that limits the growth and sporulation of barley powdery mildew pathogen by a non-hypersensitive mechanism of defense. Two experimental barley lines were developed with a very high (ErBgh) and low (EsBgh) level of basal

  15. Long-term reconstitution of dry barley increased phosphorus digestibility in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    of reconstitution compared to dry stored barley on phosphorus (P) digestibility in pigs. Materials and Methods: Dry barley (13% moisture; phytate P, 1.7 g/kg DM) was rolled and stored directly or reconstituted with water to produce rolled barley with 35% moisture that was stored in air-tight conditions. After 49...

  16. Effects of Net Blotch ( Pyrenophora teres ) on Malt Barley Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production is constrained by diseases such as net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechsl. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of net blotch disease on malt barley yield and grain quality under natural infection. Four malt barley varieties (Beka, HB 120, HB 52 and Holker), ...

  17. Water uptake in barley grain: Physiology; genetics and industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cu, Suong; Collins, Helen M; Betts, Natalie S; March, Timothy J; Janusz, Agnieszka; Stewart, Doug C; Skadhauge, Birgitte; Eglinton, Jason; Kyriacou, Bianca; Little, Alan; Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Water uptake by mature barley grains initiates germination and is the first stage in the malting process. Here we have investigated the effects of starchy endosperm cell wall thickness on water uptake, together with the effects of varying amounts of the wall polysaccharide, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan. In the latter case, we examined mutant barley lines from a mutant library and transgenic barley lines in which the (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthase gene, HvCslF6, was down-regulated by RNA interference. Neither cell wall thickness nor the levels of grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan were significantly correlated with water uptake but are likely to influence modification during malting. However, when a barley mapping population was phenotyped for rate of water uptake into grain, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified specific regions of chromosomes 4H, 5H and 7H that accounted for approximately 17%, 18% and 11%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation. These data indicate that variation in water uptake rates by elite malting cultivars of barley is genetically controlled and a number of candidate genes that might control the trait were identified under the QTL. The genomics data raise the possibility that the genetic variation in water uptake rates might be exploited by breeders for the benefit of the malting and brewing industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of Ustilago nuda (Jensen Rostrup in winter barley seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatov Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereals grown in our agroecological conditions. The causal agent of loose smut on barley Ustilago nuda (Jensen Rostrup occurs frequently as varieties susceptible to this pathogen are present in the production. Disease symptoms are manifested on barley head (spike. Parasite is transmitted by seed (seedborne and stays in the embryo tissue of the infected kernel as dormant mycelium. Recommended method for detection of U. nuda is given by ISTA Rules (method 7-013. In tests, nine samples (weighing 120 g each of naturally infected barley seed (about 1000 seeds, depending on the absolute mass of seed were examined, observed and described using a Zeiss microscope with sub stage illumination with magnification range x 40 or higher. Mycelium of the fungus approximately 3 μ thick, golden brown in colour was detected and visible without a stain. The percentage of infected embryos in the examined samples of barley seeds ranged from 0.8% to 5.2%.

  19. Aggressiveness of powdery mildew on 'ml-o'- resistant barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Lars

    1990-01-01

    The ml-o genes in barley are important sources in breeding for resistance against the barley powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis). The resistance mechanism is a rapid formation of a large callose containing cell wall apposition at the site of the pathogen's infection attempt. This reduces the chances of infection to almost nil in all epidermal cells, except in the small subsidiary cells, in which appositions are rarely formed. Small mildew colonies from infections in subsidiary cells may be seen on the otherwise resistant leaf. This is described by the infection type 0/(4). Mildew isolate HL 3 selected by SCHWARZBACH has increased aggressiveness. No ml-o-virulent isolates are known. However, ml-o-resistant varieties when grown extensively in Europe, will introduce field selection for mildew pathotypes with aggressiveness or virulence to ml-o resistance. Studies on increased aggressiveness require new methods. The material comprises two powdery mildew isolates: GE 3 without ml-o aggressiveness and the aggressive HL 3/5; and two near-isogenic barley lines in Carlsberg II: Riso 5678(R) with the recessive mutant resistance gene ml-o5 and Riso 5678(S) with the wild-type gene for susceptibility. Latent period and disease efficiency show no significant differences between the two isolates on the susceptible barley line (S) but the isolates differ from each other on the resistant barley line

  20. Simultaneous Detection of Barley Virus Diseases in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Choon Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV, Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV have been identified as an important causative agents for an economically important disease of winter barley in Korea. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR method was used for the simultaneous detection. Three sets of virus-specific primers targeted to the capsid protein coding genes of BaMMV, BaYMV and BYDV were used to amplify fragments that were 594 bp, 461 bp, and 290 bp, respectively. Several sets of primers for each target virus were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity by multiplex RT-PCR. The optimum primer concentrations and RT-PCR conditions were determined for the multiplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR assay was found to be a better and rapid virus diagnostic tool of specific barley diseases and potential for investigating the epidemiology of these viral diseases.

  1. The project of mutation breeding in barley (first report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Barley is a second main crop with the production of 7 million tons per year and 3,5 million hectare cultivation area in Turkey. Because of wateer deficiency, cereals cultivated in Central Anatolian region. Barley is well adapted to dry farming system besides it is basic food for animal husbandry and main raw material for brewery industry. the main problems in barley production are drought disease epidemic and increasing salinity gradually. Main purposes of our project is to increase resistance and tolerence to this stress factors. In order to reach to our aim we have been using mutation breeding techniques and conventional breeding methods. This Project has been started with irradiation of barley seeds with different gamma ray doses. After that resistant and tolerant mutant has been selected most of these mutanys have resistance and tolerance to different disease and stress conditions. During the selection procedure, hydroponics and tissue culture techniques have been applied to improve the selection efficiency. Up to now, promising barley mutant lines 71 that have earliness (30 days) than parents and because of that reason that escape from drought period. Disease tests of our mutant lines have been conducted under controlled conditions and tolerant lines have been determined under the high the high epidemic conditions. Salt tolerance studies have been applied under hydroponics conditions and salt tolerant mutant have been determined under 180-200mMolNaCl concentration. All mutant lines are carried out to preliminary yield trials for their evaluation

  2. Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains. PMID:21533044

  3. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  4. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... play important role in substrate binding at subsites at −3 through −5. Although mutation increases the transglycosylation activity of enzymes, in the presence of acceptors the difference between wild type and mutants is not so significant. Oligomer transfer reactions of AMY1 wild type and its mutants...... as donor. 4-Methylumbelliferyl-α-d-maltoside, -maltotrioside, -maltotetraoside and -maltopentaoside have been synthesized. Products were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that AMY1 V47F preserved the stereo- and regioselectivity. The produced MU-α-d-MOSs of degree of polymerization...

  5. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hassan, S.W.; Abid, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  6. Yield and competition in barley variety mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Jokinen

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition between spring barley varieties and yield performance of two-, three and four-variety mixtures were studied in two replacement series field experiments. In the first experiment, repeated in three successive years (1983 —85 the components were the six-row varieties Agneta, Arra, Hja-673 and Porno. In the second experiment (1984, including two nitrogen doses (50 and 100 kgN/ha, both six-row (Agneta, Pomo and two-row (Ida, Kustaa varieties were used. Arra in the first and Agneta in the second experiment were the most competitive varieties. The results suggested that the fast growth of Arra at the beginning promoted its competitive ability. Increase in available nitrogen usually strengthened the competitiveness of Agneta. The observed competitive differences between varieties were not related to the earliness of a variety, neither to the morphological characters (two- and six-row varieties nor to the grain yield of a variety grown alone. The competitive ability was not always a stable character, the dominant suppression relationship varying from one environment to another (e.g. growing season, nitrogen dose. The observed overyielding was not statistically significant. The ratio of actual to expected yield and the relative yield total of several mixtures exceeded slightly one. As a conclusion, the yield advantage of mixtures was marginal. As a rule, the mixtures were not more stable than monocultures as determined by the coefficient of variation. However, the yield of some mixtures varied less than the yield of the most stable monoculture.

  7. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma NAJAR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan, the North-Western region (Kef and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%, Cap Bon (14% and Bizerte (35%, in randomly collected samples from these three locations.Among the different BYDVs identified, BYDV-PAV (64% was the most common followed by BYDV-MAV (16% and CYDV-RPV (3%. The coat protein gene sequences of six isolates collected from different regions shared >98% pairwise similarity. In comparisons with other BYDV sequences from around the world, the Tunisian sequences shared greatest homology with isolates 109 and ASL1 from the United States of America and Germany (≈97%, and <90% with all other isolate sequences available in public databases.

  8. A role for barley calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK2a in the response to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Cieśla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the drought tolerance of crops is one of the most challenging goals in plant breeding. To improve crop productivity during periods of water deficit, it is essential to understand the complex regulatory pathways that adapt plant metabolism to environmental conditions. Among various plant hormones and second messengers, calcium ions are known to be involved in drought stress perception and signaling. Plants have developed specific calcium-dependent protein kinases that convert calcium signals into phosphorylation events. In this study we attempted to elucidate the role of a calcium-dependent protein kinase in the drought stress response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., one of the most economically important crops worldwide. The ongoing barley genome project has provided useful information about genes potentially involved in the drought stress response, but information on the role of calcium-dependent kinases is still limited. We found that the gene encoding the calcium-dependent protein kinase HvCPK2a was significantly upregulated in response to drought. To better understand the role of HvCPK2a in drought stress signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed the corresponding coding sequence. Overexpressing lines displayed drought sensitivity, reduced nitrogen balance index, an increase in total chlorophyll content and decreased relative water content. In addition, in vitro kinase assay experiments combined with mass spectrometry allowed HvCPK2a autophosphorylation sites to be identified. Our results suggest that HvCPK2a is a dual-specificity calcium-dependent protein kinase that functions as a negative regulator of the drought stress response in barley.

  9. Radioprotective effects of ascorbic acid in barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, B V

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the radioprotective effects of a naturally occurring reducing agent, ascorbic acid, on seeds (caryopses) of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. emend Lam. Seeds were soaked either before or after ..gamma.. or fission neutron irradiation in distilled water or ascorbic acid solutions ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 1.00 M. Results are reported as percentage germination, seedling height, seedling growth reduction, and (in one experiment) percent of cells with chromosome aberrations. As evidenced by both reduced germination and seedling growth, ascorbic acid was toxic when seeds were soaked for 1 hr at ambient temperature prior to irradiation and then planted immediately. When seeds were soaked in ascorbic acid before irradiation and soaked after irradiation in air-bubbled water at 0/sup 0/C for 18 hr, the toxicity disappeared, and a protective effect (which increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration) was observed for ..gamma.. and, to a lesser extent, for neutron irradiation. Additional studies suggested that the protective effect was related to reduced hydration of the embryos of seeds soaked in ascorbic acid. Also, no radioprotective effect was observed when seeds were presoaked for 2 or 16 hr in 0.01 M ascorbic acid solutions buffered at pH 3 or pH 7. A protective effect was observed for seeds of 1.5 percent water content soaked after irradiation in an oxygen-bubbled ascorbic acid solution of 0.5 M but was not observed for seeds soaked in nitrogen-bubbled ascorbic acid. The protective effect against oxygen-dependent damage may be a result of interaction of ascorbic acid with radiation-induced free radicals.

  10. Heat Stress Affects Pi-related Genes Expression and Inorganic Phosphate Deposition/Accumulation in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Barciszewska-Pacak, Maria; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in plants is taken from soil as an inorganic phosphate (Pi) and is one of the most important macroelements in growth and development. Plants actively react to Pi starvation by the induced expression of Pi transporters, MIR399, MIR827, and miR399 molecular sponge - IPS1 genes...... and by the decreased expression of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (PHOSPHATE2 - PHO2) and Pi sensing and transport SPX-MFS genes. The PHO2 protein is involved in the degradation of Pi transporters PHT1;1 (from soil to roots) and PHO1 (from roots to shoots). The decreased expression of PHO2 leads to Pi....... In shoots, the PHO2 mRNA level is decreased, leading to an increased Pi level. We concluded that Pi homeostasis in barley during heat stress is maintained by dynamic changes in Pi-related genes expression....

  11. Technology proposal for the energy use of the shake bagasse barley from Hatuey brewery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Lafargue, Telvia; López Ríos, Leanet

    2015-01-01

    It is of great importance for the protection of the environment the use of biogas plants. This work has as objective the presentation of an alternative for the energy use of the trash of malted barley. He/she is carried out a characterization of the process of obtaining of beer Hatuey, identifying the different ones residual generated and the use of the trash of malt with energy ends. Inside the aspects of technological importance they were the possible uses of the bi ogás as well as the use of the resulting biomass of the digestion like fertilizer or animal food. Based on the characteristics of the industry, he/she intends a polyethylene biodigestor for the fermentation of the bran. He/she is carried out an economic analysis of the proposed plant. (author)

  12. Influence of Both Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Growth and Productivity of Barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khawaga, A.A.H.; Farag, I.A.A.; Eliwa, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Influences of gamma irradiation doses (zero, 10, 20 and 30 Gy) as well as nitrogen fertilizer levels (zero, 50, 70 and 90 kg N/fad) on growth, yield and yield components of barley cultivar Giza 123 were studied during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons. The study was conducted in an extension field at Belbees District, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Irradiation with the lowest gamma does gave the highest value for each of emergence/m 2 , plant height at heading (cm), flag leaf area at heading (cm 2 ), spike length (cm), number of grains/spike and weight of grains/spike. Nitrogen application significantly increased emergence/m 2 , plant height, flag leaf area (cm 2 ), number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2 as well as grain, straw and biological yields (kg/fad). Accepted September 2013.

  13. The β-Ketoacyl-CoA Synthase HvKCS1, Encoded by Cer-zh, Plays a Key Role in Synthesis of Barley Leaf Wax and Germination of Barley Powdery Mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Haslam, Tegan M; Krüger, Anna; Schneider, Lizette M; Mishina, Kohei; Samuels, Lacey; Yang, Hongxing; Kunst, Ljerka; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Nawrath, Christiane; Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny

    2018-04-01

    The cuticle coats the primary aerial surfaces of land plants. It consists of cutin and waxes, which provide protection against desiccation, pathogens and herbivores. Acyl cuticular waxes are synthesized via elongase complexes that extend fatty acyl precursors up to 38 carbons for downstream modification pathways. The leaves of 21 barley eceriferum (cer) mutants appear to have less or no epicuticular wax crystals, making these mutants excellent tools for identifying elongase and modification pathway biosynthetic genes. Positional cloning of the gene mutated in cer-zh identified an elongase component, β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (CER-ZH/HvKCS1) that is one of 34 homologous KCSs encoded by the barley genome. The biochemical function of CER-ZH was deduced from wax and cutin analyses and by heterologous expression in yeast. Combined, these experiments revealed that CER-ZH/HvKCS1 has a substrate specificity for C16-C20, especially unsaturated, acyl chains, thus playing a major role in total acyl chain elongation for wax biosynthesis. The contribution of CER-ZH to water barrier properties of the cuticle and its influence on the germination of barley powdery mildew fungus were also assessed.

  14. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species

  15. Occurrence of barley leaf disease and control strategies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Ørum, Jens Erik; Heick, Thies Marten

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the major crops in Denmark and of special importance for malting and for pig feed. In 2016, the crop was grown covering a total area of 700,000 ha; approximately 25% of arable area in Denmark. To ensure high yield of around 60 dt ha-1, disease-tolerant cultivars...... have proven to be quite effective against all leaf diseases, aside from brown rust and mildew. Denmark has a national record system for pesticide usages. All farmers upload their fungicide use by crop, creating a good basis for assessing the differences in use pattern across different regions...... and fungicide treatments are required. Each year, barley cultivars are assessed for susceptibility towards leaf diseases in national observation plots. The most predominant fungal leaf diseases in Denmark are barley scald (Rhynchosporium secalis), net blotch (Pyrenophora teres), brown rust (Puccinia hordei...

  16. Changes of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Root/Shoot Ratio of Durum Wheat and Barley in Relation to Nitrogen Availability and Mercury Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Angelino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, on whole plant level and during all the plant cycle, the hypothesis that nitrogen deficiency reduces root hydraulic conductivity through the water channels (aquaporins activity, and that the plant reacts by changing root/shoot ratio. Root hydraulic conductivity, plant growth, root/shoot ratio and plant water status were assessed for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L., as influenced by nitrogen availability and HgCl2 treatment. On both species during the plant cycle, nitrogen deficiency induced lower root hydraulic conductivity (-49 and -66% respectively for barley and wheat and lower plant growth. On wheat was also observed cycle delay, lower plant nitrogen content, but not lower leaf turgor pressure and epidermic cell dimension. The lower plant growth was due to lower plant dimension and lower tillering. Root /shoot ratio was always higher for nitrogen stressed plants, whether on dry matter or on surface basis. This was due to lower effect of nitrogen stress on root growth than on shoot growth. On wheat HgCl2 treatment determined lower plant growth, and more than nitrogen stress, cycle delay and higher root/shoot ratio. The mercury, also, induced leaf rolling, lower turgor pressure, lower NAR, higher root cell wall lignification and lower epidermic cell number per surface unity. In nitrogen fertilized plants root hydraulic conductivity was always reduced by HgCl2 treatment (-61 and 38%, respectively for wheat and barley, but in nitrogen unfertilized plants this effect was observed only during the first plant stages. This effect was higher during shooting and caryopsis formation, lower during tillering. It is concluded that barley and durum wheat react to nitrogen deficiency and HgCl2 treatment by increasing the root/shoot ratio, to compensate water stress due to lower water root conductivity probably induced by lower aquaporin synthesis or inactivation. However, this

  17. Changes of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Root/Shoot Ratio of Durum Wheat and Barley in Relation to Nitrogen Availability and Mercury Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Ruggiero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, on whole plant level and during all the plant cycle, the hypothesis that nitrogen deficiency reduces root hydraulic conductivity through the water channels (aquaporins activity, and that the plant reacts by changing root/shoot ratio. Root hydraulic conductivity, plant growth, root/shoot ratio and plant water status were assessed for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L., as influenced by nitrogen availability and HgCl2 treatment. On both species during the plant cycle, nitrogen deficiency induced lower root hydraulic conductivity (-49 and -66% respectively for barley and wheat and lower plant growth. On wheat was also observed cycle delay, lower plant nitrogen content, but not lower leaf turgor pressure and epidermic cell dimension. The lower plant growth was due to lower plant dimension and lower tillering. Root /shoot ratio was always higher for nitrogen stressed plants, whether on dry matter or on surface basis. This was due to lower effect of nitrogen stress on root growth than on shoot growth. On wheat HgCl2 treatment determined lower plant growth, and more than nitrogen stress, cycle delay and higher root/shoot ratio. The mercury, also, induced leaf rolling, lower turgor pressure, lower NAR, higher root cell wall lignification and lower epidermic cell number per surface unity. In nitrogen fertilized plants root hydraulic conductivity was always reduced by HgCl2 treatment (-61 and 38%, respectively for wheat and barley, but in nitrogen unfertilized plants this effect was observed only during the first plant stages. This effect was higher during shooting and caryopsis formation, lower during tillering. It is concluded that barley and durum wheat react to nitrogen deficiency and HgCl2 treatment by increasing the root/shoot ratio, to compensate water stress due to lower water root conductivity probably induced by lower aquaporin synthesis or inactivation. However, this

  18. Improving barley culm robustness for secured crop yield in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockter, Christoph; Hansson, Mats

    2015-06-01

    The Green Revolution combined advancements in breeding and agricultural practice, and provided food security to millions of people. Daily food supply is still a major issue in many parts of the world and is further challenged by future climate change. Fortunately, life science research is currently making huge progress, and the development of future crop plants will be explored. Today, plant breeding typically follows one gene per trait. However, new scientific achievements have revealed that many of these traits depend on different genes and complex interactions of proteins reacting to various external stimuli. These findings open up new possibilities for breeding where variations in several genes can be combined to enhance productivity and quality. In this review we present an overview of genes determining plant architecture in barley, with a special focus on culm length. Many genes are currently known only through their mutant phenotypes, but emerging genomic sequence information will accelerate their identification. More than 1000 different short-culm barley mutants have been isolated and classified in different phenotypic groups according to culm length and additional pleiotropic characters. Some mutants have been connected to deficiencies in biosynthesis and reception of brassinosteroids and gibberellic acids. Still other mutants are unlikely to be connected to these hormones. The genes and corresponding mutations are of potential interest for development of stiff-straw crop plants tolerant to lodging, which occurs in extreme weather conditions with strong winds and heavy precipitation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Supplementary Material for: Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  20. QTL underlying some agronomic traits in barley detected by SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jibin; Sun, Genlou; Ren, Xifeng; Li, Chengdao; Liu, Lipan; Wang, Qifei; Du, Binbin; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-07-07

    Increasing the yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a main breeding goal in developing barley cultivars. A high density genetic linkage map containing 1894 SNP and 68 SSR markers covering 1375.8 cM was constructed and used for mapping quantitative traits. A late-generation double haploid population (DH) derived from the Huaai 11 × Huadamai 6 cross was used to identify QTLs and QTL × environment interactions for ten traits affecting grain yield including length of main spike (MSL), spikelet number on main spike (SMS), spikelet number per plant (SLP), grain number per plant (GP), grain weight per plant (GWP), grain number per spike (GS), thousand grain weight (TGW), grain weight per spike (GWS), spike density (SPD) and spike number per plant (SP). In single environment analysis using composite interval mapping (CIM), a total of 221 QTLs underlying the ten traits were detected in five consecutive years (2009-2013). The QTLs detected in each year were 50, 48, 41, 41 and 41 for the year 2009 to 2013. The QTLs associated with these traits were generally clustered on chromosome 2H, 4H and 7H. In multi-environment analysis, a total of 111 significant QTLs including 18 for MSL, 16 for SMS, 15 for SPD, 5 for SP, 4 for SLP, 14 for TGW, 5 for GP, 11 for GS, 8 for GWP, and 15 for GWS were detected in the five years. Most QTLs showed significant QTL × environment interactions (QEI), nine QTLs (qIMSL3-1, qIMSL4-1, qIMSL4-2, qIMSL6-1, qISMS7-1, qISPD2-7, qISPD7-1, qITGW3-1 and qIGWS4-3) were detected with minimal QEI effects and stable in different years. Among 111 QTLs,71 (63.40 %) QTLs were detected in both single and multiple environments. Three main QTL cluster regions associated with the 10 agronomic traits on chromosome 2H, 4H and 7H were detected. The QTLs for SMS, SLP, GP and GWP were located in the region near Vrs1 on chromosome 2H. The QTLs underlying SMS, SPD and SLP were clustered on chromosome 4H. On the terminal of chromosome 7H, there was a QTL

  1. Correlation-maximizing surrogate gene space for visual mining of gene expression patterns in developing barley endosperm tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usadel Björn

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro- and macroarray technologies help acquire thousands of gene expression patterns covering important biological processes during plant ontogeny. Particularly, faithful visualization methods are beneficial for revealing interesting gene expression patterns and functional relationships of coexpressed genes. Such screening helps to gain deeper insights into regulatory behavior and cellular responses, as will be discussed for expression data of developing barley endosperm tissue. For that purpose, high-throughput multidimensional scaling (HiT-MDS, a recent method for similarity-preserving data embedding, is substantially refined and used for (a assessing the quality and reliability of centroid gene expression patterns, and for (b derivation of functional relationships of coexpressed genes of endosperm tissue during barley grain development (0–26 days after flowering. Results Temporal expression profiles of 4824 genes at 14 time points are faithfully embedded into two-dimensional displays. Thereby, similar shapes of coexpressed genes get closely grouped by a correlation-based similarity measure. As a main result, by using power transformation of correlation terms, a characteristic cloud of points with bipolar sandglass shape is obtained that is inherently connected to expression patterns of pre-storage, intermediate and storage phase of endosperm development. Conclusion The new HiT-MDS-2 method helps to create global views of expression patterns and to validate centroids obtained from clustering programs. Furthermore, functional gene annotation for developing endosperm barley tissue is successfully mapped to the visualization, making easy localization of major centroids of enriched functional categories possible.

  2. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  3. Development of DArT-based PCR markers for selecting drought-tolerant spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiust, Anna; Rapacz, Marcin; Wójcik-Jagła, Magdalena; Tyrka, Mirosław

    2015-08-01

    The tolerance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to spring drought is an important agronomic trait affecting crop yield and quality in Poland. Therefore, breeders require new molecular markers to select plants with lower spring drought susceptibility. With the advent of genomic selection technology, simple molecular tools may still be applicable to screen material for markers of the most important traits and in-depth genome scanning. In previous studies, diversity arrays technology (DArT)-based genetic maps were constructed for F2 populations of Polish fodder and malt barley elite breeding lines, and 15 and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to spring drought tolerance were identified, respectively. In this paper, we show the results of a conversion of 30 DArT markers corresponding to 11 QTLs into simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers. Twenty-two polymorphic markers were obtained, including 13 DArT-based SSRs. Additionally, 31 SSR markers, located in close proximity to the DArT markers, were selected from the GrainGenes database and tested. Further analyses of 24 advanced breeding lines with different drought tolerances confirmed that five out of the 30 converted markers, as well as three out of the 31 additional SSR markers, were effective in marker-assisted selection for drought tolerance. The possible function of clones related to these markers in drought tolerance is discussed.

  4. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

  5. Sulfur dioxide alleviates programmed cell death in barley aleurone by acting as an antioxidant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Wang

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2, a gaseous signaling molecule in animal cells, has recently been found to play a physiological role in plants. Here we studied the role of SO2 in gibberellic acid (GA3-induced programmed cell death (PCD in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. aleurone layers. The application of the SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3, 1:3 M/M effectively alleviated PCD in barley aleurone layers in a dose-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 50 μM. Further investigations showed that SO2 reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide anion (⋅O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA in aleurone layers. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione reductase (GR and guaiacol peroxidase (POD were enhanced by SO2 donor treatment. Meanwhile, lipoxygenase (LOX activity was attenuated by SO2 donor treatment. Furthermore, an induction of endogenous H2S and NO were also observed in SO2-treated aleurone layers, suggesting interactions of SO2 with other well-known signaling molecules. Taken together, we show that SO2 negatively regulated PCD by acting as an antioxidant to scavenge excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS generated during PCD.

  6. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic wheat and sorghum events expressing the barley alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Dweikat, Ismail M; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom

    2017-12-01

    The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements. Plants harboring the transgenic HvAlaAT alleles displayed increased alanine aminotransferase (alt) activity. The enhanced alt activity impacted height, tillering and significantly boosted vegetative biomass relative to controls in wheat evaluated under hydroponic conditions, where the phenotypic outcome across these parameters varied relative to time of year study was conducted. Constitutive expression of HvAlaAT translated to elevation in wheat grain yield under field conditions. In sorghum, expression of HvAlaAT enhanced enzymatic activity, but no changes in phenotypic outcomes were observed. Taken together these results suggest that positive agronomic outcomes can be achieved through enhanced alt activity in a C3 crop, wheat. However, the variability observed across experiments under greenhouse conditions implies the phenotypic outcomes imparted by the HvAlaAT allele in wheat may be impacted by environment.

  7. Phytotoxicity of water-soluble substances from alfalfa and barley soil extracts on four crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J J; Jensen, E H

    1989-02-01

    Problems associated with continuously planting alfalfa (Medicago saliva L.) or seeding to thicken depleted alfalfa stands may be due to autotoxicity, an intraspecific form of allelopathy. A bioassay approach was utilized to characterize the specificity and chemical nature of phytotoxins in extracts of alfalfa soils as compared to fallow soil or soil where a cereal was the previous crop. In germination chamber experiments, water-soluble substances present in methanol extracts of soil cropped to alfalfa or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) decreased seedling root length of alfalfa L-720, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Nugaines) and radish (Raphanus sativa L. Crimson Giant). Five days after germination, seedling dry weights of alfalfa and radish in alfalfa soil extracts were lower compared to wheat or red clover (Trifolium pralense L. Kenland). Growth of red clover was not significantly reduced by soil extracts from cropped soil. Extracts of crop residue screened from soil cropped to alfalfa or barley significantly reduced seedling root length; extracts of alfalfa residue caused a greater inhibition of seedling dry weight than extracts of barely residue. A phytotoxic, unidentified substance present in extracts of crop residue screened from alfalfa soil, which inhibited seedling root length of alfalfa, was isolated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Residues from a soil cropped continuously to alfalfa for 10 years had the greatest phytotoxic activity.

  8. Bioethanol production using genetically modified and mutant wheat and barley straws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Engineering; East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (CN). State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering; Liu, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (US). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering; Chen, S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (US). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Zemetra, R.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (US). Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences

    2011-01-15

    To improve the performance of wheat and barley straws as feedstocks for ethanol biorefining, the genetic modifications of down regulating Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and low phytic acid mutation have been introduced into wheat and barley respectively. In this study, total 252 straw samples with different genetic background and location were collected from the field experiment based on a randomized complete block design. The fiber analysis (neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) indicated that there were no significant differences between modified and wild type straw lines in terms of straw compositions. However, the difference did exist among straw lines on fiber utilization. 16 straw samples were further selected to conduct diluted acid pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The data indicated that the phytic acid mutant and transgenic straws have changed the fiber structure, which significantly influences their hydrolysibility. These results may lead to a possible solution of mutant or genetic modified plant species that is capable to increase the hydrolysibility of biomass without changing their compositions and sacrificing their agronomy performance. (author)

  9. Analysis of Pregerminated Barley Using Hyperspectral Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger

    2011-01-01

    imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel’s lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis...... is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised...

  10. Effect of irradiation on the malting quality of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avtar, S.; Tejinder, S.; Bains, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Two six-row barley cultivars, DL 70 and C164 were subjected to Co 60 gamma irradiation in the range of 0 to 250 Krad and malted with and without gibberellic acid treatment. Barley irradiated with doses up to 75 Krad produced normal malts when compared to the controls. Irradiation doses of 125 and 250 Krad significantly increased the malt yields but considerably decreased the α-amylase activity. Gibberellic acid significantly increased the enzyme activity and degree of modification of the irradiated and the control malts. (author)

  11. The experience of induction of mutation on barley in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Loli, M.; Pozo Cardenas, M.; Gomez Pando, L.

    1984-01-01

    Work on induced mutation of barley was started in 1978 under the Programme of Cereal Improvement. Barley was irradiated with gamma radiation at doses of 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 Krad. Radiation doses of 18 and 21 Krad gave the highest frequency of albino and cloroticos mutants. Induced mutation is being carried out in different parts of the country to develop mutants having early germination property. These mutants will play an important role in the late cultivation in the mountain areas of Peru

  12. On the influence of abiotic stress conditions on growth of barley and bean and their predisposition for pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerke, E.C.; Schoenbeck, F.

    1986-01-01

    Shorttime changes of environmental conditions stressed barley and bean and affected plant growth and their predisposition for various pathogens. Moderate stress intensities as low or high temperatures, water or light deficits, increased the susceptibility to Erysiphe graminis var. hordei or Uromyces phaseoli and reduced disease level of spot blotch caused by Cochliobolus sativus, respectively. There was only little effect on plant growth in that case. Intensive stress as a result of combinations of unfavorable environmental conditions or longtime continuance of moderate stress reduced the plant growth and turned the predisposing effect to the opposite: after the treatment, plants were more resistent to diseases caused by biotrophic fungi, whereas there was increased susceptibility to the perthotrophic fungus. High intensities of fertilization acted as an additional stress and intensified the plant reaction to environmental alterations. The variation of the predisposition is discussed in relation to stress intensity.

  13. Behaviour Of Saline Irrigation Water Components In Pakistani Barley And Calcareous Soil Under Scheduling Irrigation Using Neutron Scattering Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIZK, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of cation uptake by Pakistani barley (genotype PK-30163) as affected by saline irrigation water, as well as cation distribution within the soil profile. This experiment was carried out at Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The soil was transferred from Wadi Sudr (South Sinai, Egypt). It is salted affected soil (calcareous soil, EC = 4.3 dS/m) and was irrigated using ground water irrigation (12.5 dS/m). Nine used lysimeters were irrigated with three artificial saline water (0.3, 4 and 8 dS/m) using drip irrigation system. The irrigation schedule was carried out using neutron scattering technique according to the hydro physical properties of the soil. Pakistani barley (halophytic plant) was used to remove salts from the soil especially sodium cations. The cation uptake and cation distribution (Na, K, Ca, Mg) within the soil profile were studied.The data indicated that roots of barley collected within 0-15 cm layer showed high cation uptake that made the salt concentrations in this layer low. Sodium uptake ratio was 43, 37 and 47% from total cation uptake by using fresh water (0.3 dS/m), 4 and 8 dS/m, respectively. The maximum uptake for Na, K, Ca and Mg was 20.51, 19.13, 3.98 and 12.81 g/lys at 5.69, 3.05, 6.56 and 4.15 dS/m, respectively. It was found that Pakistani barley preferred Mg uptake rather than Ca uptake.

  14. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  15. Effects of INH, DNP, 2,4-D and CMU on the photosynthetic activity of barley and maize plants; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 4-D y CMU) sobre la actividad fotosintetica de plantular de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J; Prieto, M P

    1979-07-01

    Determinations of the rate of photosynthesis were made in barley and maize leaves treated with INH, DNP, 2,4-D or CMU. 1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solutions was absorbed by roots during 24 or 48 hours in both dark and light conditions. After this period, photosynthetic activity, compensation point and 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilation were determined. Results show that INH increases the rate of photosynthesis, DNP and 2,4-D do not alter it sensibly and CMU acts as a strong inhibitor of photosynthesis. Some possible applications for ths obtention of labelled compounds by biosynthesis are discussed. (Author) 87 refs.

  16. Low-Resolution Structure of the Full-Length Barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 Protein in Solution, Obtained Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Michał; Pieńkowska, Joanna R.; Jarmołowski, Artur; Kozak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    SGT1 is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein involved in many important cellular processes. In plants, SGT1 is involved in resistance to disease. In a low ionic strength environment, the SGT1 protein tends to form dimers. The protein consists of three structurally independent domains (the tetratricopeptide repeats domain (TPR), the CHORD- and SGT1-containing domain (CS), and the SGT1-specific domain (SGS)), and two less conserved variable regions (VR1 and VR2). In the present study, we provide the low-resolution structure of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 protein in solution and its dimer/monomer equilibrium using small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, ab-initio modeling and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The multivariate curve resolution least-square method (MCR-ALS) was applied to separate the scattering data of the monomeric and dimeric species from a complex mixture. The models of the barley SGT1 dimer and monomer were formulated using rigid body modeling with ab-initio structure prediction. Both oligomeric forms of barley SGT1 have elongated shapes with unfolded inter-domain regions. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the barley SGT1 protein had a modular architecture, with an α-helical TPR domain, a β-sheet sandwich CS domain, and a disordered SGS domain separated by VR1 and VR2 regions. Using molecular docking and ab-initio protein structure prediction, a model of dimerization of the TPR domains was proposed. PMID:24714665

  17. HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Wendt

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv. Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield.

  18. Diagnóstico etiológico das pneumonias: uma visão crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Joaquim Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar a literatura quanto ao diagnóstico etiológico das pneumonias agudas na faixa etária pediátrica. Fonte dos dados: revisão sistemática das citações do Medline e do Lilacs. Síntese dos dados: a utilização dos novos métodos diagnósticos, particularmente as técnicas imunológicas e a reação em cadeia da polimerase, de uso ainda incipiente no Brasil, tem se mostrado importante para a investigação epidemiológica e para a melhora no diagnóstico específico em termos de sensibilidade, especificidade e rapidez de resultados, com finalidade de orientação terapêutica adequada. A revisão dos estudos epidemiológicos das pneumonias agudas adquiridas na comunidade mostrou que o Streptococcus pneumoniae continua sendo o agente bacteriano mais importante, em todas as faixas etárias, tanto nos países desenvolvidos quanto nos em desenvolvimento. A resistência desse agente à penicilina e às cefalosporinas tem aumentado progressivamente em todos os continentes e tem-se constituído em um fator de preocupação. Os agentes de pneumonias atípicas, Mycoplasma pneumoniae e Chlamydia pneumoniae mostram-se, atualmente, como agentes importantes de pneumonias agudas adquiridas na comunidade, particularmente em crianças acima de 4 a 5 anos de idade, correspondendo, em países desenvolvidos, a cerca de até um terço dos casos. No entanto, ainda não está definida a sua importância epidemiológica nos países em desenvolvimento. O vírus respiratório sincicial é um agente freqüente de PAC, pode determinar quadros mais graves, particularmente nos lactentes e crianças menores, sendo muito importante a sua investigação em crianças hospitalizadas por doença do trato respiratório inferior. A utilização das novas vacinas conjugadas contra Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae tipo b tiveram um impacto importante na morbidade e mortalidade das infecções causadas por esse agentes. Conclusões: a monitoriza

  19. Residual transpiration as a component of salinity stress tolerance mechanism: a case study for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Md; Davies, Noel W; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Brodribb, Tim J; Shabala, Sergey

    2017-06-19

    While most water loss from leaf surfaces occurs via stomata, part of this loss also occurs through the leaf cuticle, even when the stomata are fully closed. This component, termed residual transpiration, dominates during the night and also becomes critical under stress conditions such as drought or salinity. Reducing residual transpiration might therefore be a potentially useful mechanism for improving plant performance when water availability is reduced (e.g. under saline or drought stress conditions). One way of reducing residual transpiration may be via increased accumulation of waxes on the surface of leaf. Residual transpiration and wax constituents may vary with leaf age and position as well as between genotypes. This study used barley genotypes contrasting in salinity stress tolerance to evaluate the contribution of residual transpiration to the overall salt tolerance, and also investigated what role cuticular waxes play in this process. Leaves of three different positions (old, intermediate and young) were used. Our results show that residual transpiration was higher in old leaves than the young flag leaves, correlated negatively with the osmolality, and was positively associated with the osmotic and leaf water potentials. Salt tolerant varieties transpired more water than the sensitive variety under normal growth conditions. Cuticular waxes on barley leaves were dominated by primary alcohols (84.7-86.9%) and also included aldehydes (8.90-10.1%), n-alkanes (1.31-1.77%), benzoate esters (0.44-0.52%), phytol related compounds (0.22-0.53%), fatty acid methyl esters (0.14-0.33%), β-diketones (0.07-0.23%) and alkylresorcinols (1.65-3.58%). A significant negative correlation was found between residual transpiration and total wax content, and residual transpiration correlated significantly with the amount of primary alcohols. Both leaf osmolality and the amount of total cuticular wax are involved in controlling cuticular water loss from barley leaves under well

  20. Functional characterisation of an intron retaining K+ transporter of barley reveals intron-mediated alternate splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, K.

    2015-01-01

    Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5 and 3 splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K+ transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably retained introns from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and transcript profiling in yeast and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is presented. Expression of intron-retaining HvHKT2;1 cDNA (HvHKT2;1-i) in trk1, trk2 yeast strain defective in K+ uptake restored growth in medium containing hygromycin in the presence of different concentrations of K+ and mediated hypersensitivity to Na+. HvHKT2;1-i produces multiple transcripts via alternate splicing of two regular introns and three exons in different compositions. HKT isoforms with retained introns and exon skipping variants were detected in relative expression analysis of (i) HvHKT2;1-i in barley under native conditions, (ii) in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing HvHKT2;1-i, and (iii) in trk1, trk2 yeast expressing HvHKT2;1-i under control of an inducible promoter. Mixed proportions of three HKT transcripts: HvHKT2;1-e (first exon region), HvHKT2;1-i1 (first intron) and HvHKT2;1-i2 (second intron) were observed. The variation in transcript accumulation in response to changing K+ and Na+ concentrations was observed in both heterologous and plant systems. These findings suggest a link between intron-retaining transcripts and different splice variants to ion homeostasis, and their possible role in salt stress.