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Sample records for ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers

  1. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of articles...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2...

  3. Nanocomposite photoactuators based on an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer filled with carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czaniková, K.; Torras, N.; Esteve, J.; Krupa, I.; Kasák, P.; Pavlova, Ewa; Račko, D.; Chodák, I.; Omastová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 186, September (2013), s. 701-710 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : actuator * carbon nanotubes * ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2013

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  5. Highly filled biocomposites based on ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelenkov, P. G.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Popov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, there is a great interest in the world to biodegradable materials based on synthetic polymers in a composition with natural fillers. Highly filled polymer composite materials based on various grades of synthetic block copolymer of ethylene vinyl acetate with wood flour were under investigation. Five grades of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer differing in the content of vinyl acetate groups and a melt flow index were used in this work in order to find the best one for highly filled biocomposites. Wood flour content in biocomposites was 50, 60, 70 weight %. The rheological and physico-mechanical characteristics of the resulting biocomposites were studied.

  6. Assessment of ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer samples exposed to γ-rays via linearity analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lucas N. de; Nascimento, Eriberto O. do; Schimidt, Fernando [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Goiás (IFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Antonio, Patrícia L.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Materials with the potential to become dosimeters are of interest in radiation physics. In this research, the materials were analyzed and compared in relation to their linearity ranges. Samples of ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer (EVA) were irradiated with doses from 10 Gy to 10 kGy using a {sup 60}Co Gamma-Cell system 220 and evaluated with the FTIR technique. The linearity analyses were applied through two methodologies, searching for linear regions in their response. The results show that both applied analyses indicate linear regions in defined dose interval. The radiation detectors EVA can be useful for radiation dosimetry in intermediate and high doses. (author)

  7. Novel antibacterial mouthguard material manufactured using silver-nanoparticleembedded ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer masterbatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuriko; Churei, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Wada, Takahiro; Uo, Motohiro; Izumi, Yuichi; Ueno, Toshiaki

    2018-01-26

    The purpose of the present study was to develop an antibacterial mouthguard (MG) material using a masterbatch of silvernanoparticle-embedded ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers. In order to verify that the testing material was clinically applicable as an antibacterial MG material, we conducted an antibacterial test, a shock absorption test, and analysis of in vitro silver release. The colony-forming activity of Streptococcus sobrinus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Escherichia coli were significantly inhibited on the testing materials compared with the commercial EVA sheet (p<0.05). The shock absorption capability of the testing material was not significantly different from that of the commercial EVA sheet. Cumulative silver release (in pure water) from the testing materials were infinitesimal after soaking for 20 days, which implied that there could be no harm in wearing the MG during exercise. These results showed that this testing material could be clinically applicable as an antibacterial MG material.

  8. Aging Characteristics and Effect of Gamma Radiation on Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alya, S.S.; Hegazy, E.A.; Senb, M.; El-Oker, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Artificial aging of Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA-13% vinyl acetate content) exposed to thermal aging at 80 degree C, to UV irradiation with wavelength close to 259 nm and to gamma radiation up to 377 kGy, in the presence of air, has been studied. FTIR measurements were performed to follow the chemical changes, which may occur in the samples during aging. The IR study indicated that, some chemical changes took place during thermal, UV aging and gamma irradiation. The formation of Ketone and Lactone groups at 1715 and 1780 cm-1, respectively, were observed for all samples. DSC thermo grams of thermally aged samples revealed a shift to higher temperature of the melting point and the crystallinity increased with increasing aging time for all the thermally treated and cooled samples at different conditions. For gamma-irradiated samples, a slight decrease in the melting point was observed and the degree of crystallinity increased almost linearly up to 200 kGy

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Carbon Nanofiller Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  10. A comparative study of thermal and mechanical stabilities of gamma irradiated ethylene-ethyl acrylate and ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, M.; Gueven, O.

    1995-01-01

    Ethylene-ethyl acrylate and Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers were irradiated in ambient conditions with γ-rays. The influence of the chain scission, crosslinking and relative changes in crystallinity on the thermal and mechanical properties were investigated and a correlation has been tried to find between the thermal and mechanical stabilities of copolymers. For the two copolymers, among various mechanical properties evaluated, the best correlation was found between the toughness (energy to break point) and the time required for 10% weight loss. (Author)

  11. Functionalization of layered double hydroxides by intumescent flame retardant: Preparation, characterization, and application in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guobo; Fei Zhengdong; Chen Xiaoying; Qiu Fangli; Wang Xu; Gao Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► LDHs were modified with compound PAHPA. ► EVA/PAHPA-LDHs nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending. ► PAHPA-LDHs improved the flame retardancy of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: A phosphorus-nitrogen containing compound, N-(2-(5,5-dimethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphinyl-2-ylamino)-hexylacetamide-2-propyl acid (PAHPA), is synthesized and characterized. A novel flame retardant, namely layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with PAHPA (PAHPA-LDHs), is prepared by ion-exchange of LDHs with PAHPA. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis with a high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscope show that PAHPA intercalated LDHs. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that PAHPA-LDHs achieve well dispersion in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) matrix and the EVA/PAHPA-LDHs nanocomposites (i.e. EVA filled with 5 wt% PAHPA-LDHs) are formed by polymer melt intercalation. Thermal stability and flammability properties are investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimeter tests. The results show that the addition of PAHPA-LDHs improves thermal stability and reduces obviously the flammability of EVA resin. Compared with pure EVA resin, the peak heat release rate of the EVA/PAHPA-LDHs nanocomposites is reduced by about 43%. The results of scanning electron microscopy and TEM indicate that a compact and dense intumescent char is formed for the EVA/PAHPA-LDHs nanocomposites after combustion.

  12. Process of irradiating an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer to produce low melt index copolymers, and products of said process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Application of ionizing radiation in a dose between 0.5 and 1.5 megareps to copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate lowers the melt index and increases the toughness and flexibility of the copolymers without substantially decreasing solubility or thermoplasticity. The increased toughness and flexibility carries over into blends with wax or polyethylene. (author)

  13. Thermogravimetric kinetic model of the pyrolysis and combustion of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angela N. Garcia; Rafael Font [Universidad de Alicante, Alicante (Spain). Faculty of Sciences

    2004-06-01

    A kinetic study of the pyrolysis as well as the combustion of EVA copolymer refuse originating from the footwear industry was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. Different runs were performed at heating rates between 5-20{sup o}C min{sup -1} and atmospheres with different percentages of oxygen: 0, 10 and 20% (v/v). Pyrolysis and combustion processes can be simulated by two series reactions. The results obtained indicate that the second reaction begins when the first one is almost finished which implies that a good correlation is also obtained by simulation of the thermal decomposition of two independent fractions. 32 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Effect of dynamic crosslinking on phase morphology and mechanical properties of polyamide 6,12/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bondan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic crosslinking of polyamide 6,12 and ethylene vinyl acetate (PA6,12/EVA blends in the mixing chamber of a torque rheometer was investigated. EVA was selectively crosslinked within the PA6,12 phase through free radical reactions using dycumil peroxide. The degree of EVA crosslinking in the PA12,6/EVA materials was estimated based on the gel content (insoluble EVA fraction. The PA6,12/EVA phase morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were investigated by determining the tensile strength and hardness. The half-life time ( for homolytic scission of the dcumil peroxide (DCP was ~6s, and this time is longer than the dispersion time of the DCP in the blends. The addition of DCP resulted in increased torque values due to specific crosslinking in the EVA phase. For the pure EVA and its blends with PA6,12 the stabilized torque values increased proportionally with the amount of DCP in the system, due to a higher degree of crosslinking of the elastomeric phase. The gel content of the dynamically crosslinked blends increased with the amount of DCP incorporated until 4 phr. At 1 phr the gel content value was 2.6wt.%, while at 4 phr it was 17wt.%. For the polymer blend with 8 phr of DCP a lubricating effect contributed to reducing the gel content. The dynamically crosslinked blends, regardless of the amount of DCP added, showed a reduction in the mechanical properties, which is related to the morphological features of the system due to the low mechanical fragmentation during melt processing.

  15. Assisted heterogeneous multinucleation and bubble growth in semicrystalline ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer/expanded graphite nanocomposite foams: Control of morphology and viscoelastic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yousefzade

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite foams of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA reinforced by expanded graphite (EG were prepared using supercritical nitrogen in batch foaming process. Effects of EG particle size, crosslinking of EVA chains and foaming temperature on the cell morphology and foam viscoelastic properties were investigated. EG sheet surface interestingly provide multiple heterogeneous nucleation sites for bubbles. This role is considerably intensified by incorporating lower loadings of EG with higher aspect ratio. The amorphous and non-crosslinked domains of EVA matrix constitute denser bubble areas. Higher void fraction and more uniform cell structure is achieved for non-crosslinked EVA/EG nanocomposites foamed at higher temperatures. With regard to the structural variation, the void fraction of foam samples decreases with increasing the EG content. Storage and loss moduli were analyzed to study the viscoelastic properties of nanocomposite foams. Surprisingly, the foaming process of EVA results in a drastic reduction in loss and storage moduli regardless of whether the thermoplastic matrix contains EG nanofiller or not. For the EVA/EG foams with the same composition, the nanocomposite having higher void fraction shows relatively lower loss modulus and more restricted molecular movements. The study findings have verified that the dynamics of polymer chains varies after foaming EVA matrix in the presence of EG.

  16. MANUFACTURING BIODEGRADABLE COMPOSITE MATERIALS BASED ON POLYETHYLENE AND FUNCTIONALIZED BY ALCOHOLYSIS OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Shabarin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The continuous growth of production and consumption of plastic packaging creates a serious problem of disposal of package. This problem has ecological character, because the contents of the landfills decompose for decades, emit toxic com¬pounds and pollute the environment. The work is devoted to obtaining and investigation mechanical and rheological properties of biodegradable composite materials based on polyethylene and starch. Materials and Methods. In this work the author used polyethylene grade HDPE 273- 83 (GOST 16338-85, Sevilen brand 12206-007 (TU 6-05-1636-97 and potato starch (GOST 53876-2010 as a filler. Functionalization of sevilen was carried in the 30 % ethanol solution KOH at a temperature 80 °C during 3 hours. Compounding components was carried out at the laboratory of the two rotary mixer HAAKE PolyLab Rheomix 600 OS with rotors Banbury. Formation of plates for elastic strength and rheological studies were carried out on a hydraulic press Gibitre. Elastic and strength tests were carried out on the tensile machine the UAI-7000 M. Rheology tests were carried out on the rheometer Haake MARS III. The humidity filler (starch authors determined by the thermogravimetric method on the analyzer of moisture “Evlas-2M”. Results. It is shown, that the filler should not contain more than 7% moisture. Functionalization of ethylene with vinyl acetate copolymer (sevilen has performed by the method of alkaline alcoholysis. By the method of IC – spectroscopy the authors confirmed the presence of hydroxyl groups in the polymer. Using as a compatibilizer functionalized by the method of alcoholises has greatly ( significantly improved physical, mechanical and rheological properties of composite materials. Optimal content of sevilen (F in the compound according to the results of experiments amount 10 %. Discussion and Conclusions. Using of functionalized by the method of alcoholysis ethy-lene-vinyl acetate copolymer as a

  17. Effect of electron beam irradiation and microencapsulation on the flame retardancy of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer materials during hot water ageing test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Haibo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bibo; Yu, Bin; Shi, Yongqian; Song, Lei; Kundu, Chanchal Kumar; Tao, Youji; Jie, Ganxin; Feng, Hao; Hu, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) in combination with polyester polyurethane (TPU) was used to flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The EVA composites with different irradiation doses were immersed in hot water (80 °C) to accelerate ageing process. The microencapsulation and irradiation dose ensured positive impacts on the properties of the EVA composites in terms of better dimensional stability and flame retardant performance. The microencapsulation of APP could lower its solubility in water and the higher irradiation dose led to the more MCAPP immobilized in three dimensional crosslinked structure of the EVA matrix which could jointly enhance the flame retardant and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. So, the EVA composites with 180 kGy irradiation dose exhibited better dimensional stability than the EVA composites with 120 kGy due to the higher crosslinking degree. Moreover, the higher irradiation dose lead to the more MCAPP immobilizated in crosslinked three-dimensional structure of EVA, enhancing the flame retardancy and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. After ageing test in hot water at 80 °C for 2 weeks, the EVA/TPU/MCAPP composite with 180 kGy could still maintain the UL-94 V-0 rating and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value was as high as 30%. This investigation indicated the flame retardant EVA cable containing MCAPP could achieve stable properties and lower electrical fire hazard risk during long-term hot water ageing test. - Highlights: • Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate is prepared by successive sol-gel process. • The higher irradiation dose induces the better dimensional stability for EVA system. • The higher irradiation, the more MCAPP immobilized in EVA crosslinked structure. • The higher irradiation dose enhances the flame retardancy of EVA composites. • The microencapsulated composites demonstrate stable flame retardancy in ageing test.

  18. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical and thermal properties of intumescent flame retarded ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer/organically modified montmorillonite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bibo; Song Lei; Hong Ningning; Tai Qilong; Lu Hongdian; Hu Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) flame retarded by a combination of intumescent flame retardants (IFR) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) have been crosslinked by high-energy electron beam irradiation. The structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of electron beam irradiation on the thermal, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of the irradiated EVA nanocomposites were investigated. The XRD and TEM results demonstrated that the OMMT was well dispersed in the EVA nanocomposites. The LOI and UL-94 results showed that a synergistic effect on the flame retardancy of EVA nanocomposite existed between the IFR and OMMT. With the addition of 1 wt% OMMT and 24 wt% IFR, the LOI value of EVA/IFR/OMMT nanocomposite increased from 30.5 % to 33.5 %. The mechanical properties of the irradiated EVA nanocomposite were evidently improved at 160 kGy dosage with the increase in the tensile strength to 18.5 MPa. Thermal oxidative degradation of the flame-retardant EVA/IFR/OMMT nanocomposites was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-IR) and real-time Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR). - Highlights: → The results signify a synergistic effect between OMMT and IFR in the EVA matrix. → The XRD and TEM indicate that the OMMT is well dispersed in the EVA matrix. → The Tg of EVA nanocomposites increase with the increase in the irradiation dose. → The GS peak of EVA composites decrease with the increase in the irradiation dose.

  19. Preparation of Thermoplastic Poly (vinyl Alcohol), Ethylene Vinyl Acetate and Vinyl Acetate Versatic Ester Blends for Exterior Masonry Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Nahas, H.H.; Gad, Y.H.; Magida, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Blend systems including ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and vinyl acetate versatic copolymer latex (VAcVe) were prepared and used as exterior coatings. Mechanical and thermal properties of the blends were investigated using a testo meter, shore hardness tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water resistance of the samples was measured. Effect of ionizing irradiation on gel content, tensile strength and surface hardness were also followed. The blend offers binder base for exterior masonry coating systems having superior water resistant and mechanical properties

  20. Radiation effect of ethylene/vinyl alcohol copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meihua; Jilin Univ., Changchun; Deng Pengyang; Sun Jiazhen; Dong Lisong; Sun Guoen; Zhang Wanxi

    2006-01-01

    The radiation effect of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), EVOH/glycerin blend was studied by solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR) methods. Samples were irradiated up to 1800 kGy at room temperature under N 2 . The results show that degradation is the main reaction in pure EVOH. Trace gel content could be found in E151 irradiated to at least 800 kGy, and only 5.9% gel content was found in the sample irradiated to 1200 kGy. While trace gel content could be found in F101 irradiated to at least 1800 kGy, the different gelation doses of E151 and F101 are due to different contents of vinyl alcohol units. Unsaturation structure can be found in the irradiated EVOH. The content increased at first, and then decreased, with the dose. The existence of double bond enhances the radiation efficiency of EVOH. For EVOH/glycerin blend, the gel content was higher than that of pure EVOH when the absorbed dose exceeds 800 kGy, and the gel content increased with the absorbed dose. But it cannot enhance radiation efficiency of EVOH as water. (authors)

  1. Effect of adding TiO{sub 2} to ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer on the latter's thermal properties and crystallinity; Efeito da adicao de TIO{sub 2} nas propriedades termicas e na cristalinidade do copolimero de etileno/acetato de vinila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, Ana Claudia S.; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno; Silva, Emerson Oliveira da, E-mail: eos@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano

    2014-04-15

    We investigated the effect of adding titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}) to ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer, containing 28% vinyl acetate groups, on the crystallinity and miscibility of the copolymer. Films of EVA/TiO{sub 2} containing 0.25%–1% TiO{sub 2}, relative to the total weight of EVA, were prepared from their solution. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, and differential scanning calorimetry. The addition of TiO{sub 2} to the EVA copolymer was proved to cause changes in the crystallinity and mobility of the polymer chains of EVA, due to new intermolecular interactions and nanostructure organization. (author)

  2. Effect of adding TiO{sub 2} to ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer on the latter's thermal properties and crystallinity; Efeito da adicao de TIO{sub 2} nas propriedades termicas e na cristalinidade do copolimero de etileno/acetato de vinila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, Ana Claudia S.; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno; Silva, Emerson Oliveira da, E-mail: eos@ima.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano

    2014-04-15

    We investigated the effect of adding titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}) to ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer, containing 28% vinyl acetate groups, on the crystallinity and miscibility of the copolymer. Films of EVA/TiO{sub 2} containing 0.25%–1% TiO{sub 2}, relative to the total weight of EVA, were prepared from their solution. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, and differential scanning calorimetry. The addition of TiO{sub 2} to the EVA copolymer was proved to cause changes in the crystallinity and mobility of the polymer chains of EVA, due to new intermolecular interactions and nanostructure organization. (author)

  3. Antioxidant Microemulsion-based Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Film Containing Mangiferin and Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonnattakorn Rungkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangiferin, a natural antioxidant additive, was incorporated into an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA containing 18% vinyl acetate (VA using the emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Sorbitan ester (Span®20 and polymeric surfactant (Pluronic®P−123 were compared. Mangiferin was finely dispersed in the suspension with the addition of surfactants studied. Span®20 was chosen as the surfactant for film preparation in the next step due to the dispersing and film forming properties. Effects of vinyl acetate (VA contents on the film properties were investigated. The EVA films with 12% VA had the highest tensile strength and oxygen barrier, followed by 18, 25 and 40% VA, respectively. Addition of Span®20 had only a slight effect on mechanical and barrier properties of the films, but markedly increased the release of mangiferin from the EVA matrices except in the 40% VA films. The maximum concentrations of mangiferin released from the 40, 25, 18 and 12% VA films into 95% ethanol were 83.30, 66.84, 51.77 and 34.57 μg·mL−11, respectively. The release concentrations from the 40 and 25% VA films was 2.4 and 1.9 folds of that from the 12% VA film, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the EVA films containing mangiferin and Span®20 was 80% radical-scavenging capacity (RSC for the 40 and 25% VA and 60% RSC for the 18 and 12% VA. The release of mangiferin from the EVA matrices may be controlled by appropriate selection of the surfactants and vinyl acetate contents.

  4. Wax inhibitor based on ethylene vinyl acetate with methyl methacrylate and diethanolamine for crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Abang, S.; Bono, A.; Krishnaiah, D.; Karali, R.; Safuan, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    Wax precipitation and deposition is one of the most significant flow assurance challenges in the production system of the crude oil. Wax inhibitors are developed as a preventive strategy to avoid an absolute wax deposition. Wax inhibitors are polymers which can be known as pour point depressants as they impede the wax crystals formation, growth, and deposition. In this study three formulations of wax inhibitors were prepared, ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl acetate co-methyl methacrylate (EVA co-MMA) and ethylene vinyl acetate co-diethanolamine (EVA co-DEA) and the comparison of their efficiencies in terms of cloud point¸ pour point, performance inhibition efficiency (%PIE) and viscosity were evaluated. The cloud point and pour point for both EVA and EVA co-MMA were similar, 15°C and 10-5°C, respectively. Whereas, the cloud point and pour point for EVA co-DEA were better, 10°C and 10-5°C respectively. In conclusion, EVA co-DEA had shown the best % PIE (28.42%) which indicates highest percentage reduction of wax deposit as compared to the other two inhibitors.

  5. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a new drug carrier for 3D printed medical drug delivery devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Hollander, Jenny; Jukarainen, Harri

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate the printability of different grades of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers as new feedstock material for fused-deposition modeling (FDM™)-based 3D printing technology in fabrication of custom-made T-shaped intrauterine systems (IUS......) and subcutaneous rods (SR). The goal was to select an EVA grade with optimal properties, namely vinyl acetate content, melting index, flexural modulus, for 3D printing of implantable prototypes with the drug incorporated within the entire matrix of the medical devices. Indomethacin was used as a model drug...... affected the drug release profiles from the filaments and printed prototype products: faster release from the prototypes over 30 days in the in vitro tests. To conclude, this study indicates that certain grades of EVA were applicable feedstock material for 3D printing to produce drug-loaded implantable...

  6. One-step preparation of long-term stable and flexible CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer composite films for white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Lv, Ying; Guo, Ziquan; Dong, Liubing; Zheng, Jianghui; Chai, Chufen; Chen, Nan; Lu, Yijun; Chen, Chao

    2018-04-19

    CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots (PQDs)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) composite films were prepared via a one-step method, based on that both supersaturated recrystallization of CsPbBr3 PQDs and dissolution of EVA were realized in toluene. The prepared films display outstanding green emitting performance with high color purity of 92% and photoluminescence quantum yield of 40.5% at appropriate CsPbBr3 PQD loading. They possess long-term stable luminescent properties in the air and in water, benefiting from the effective protection of CsPbBr3 PQDs by EVA matrix. Besides, the prepared CsPbBr3 PQDs/EVA films are flexible enough to be repeatedly bent for 1000 cycles while keeping unchanged photoluminescence intensity. Optical properties of the CsPbBr3 PQDs/EVA films in white LEDs were also studied by experiments and theoretical simulation. Overall, facile preparation process, good long-term stability and high flexibility allow our green-emitting CsPbBr3 PQDs/EVA films to be applied in lighting applications and flexible displays.

  7. Transcatheter Embolization of a Renal Artery Aneurysm Using Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, Riitta; Haapanen, Arto

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to treat a clinically silent renal artery aneurysm. The patient was a 76-year-old man with elevated prostate-specific antigen and prostata biopsies with a gradus II-III adenocarcinoma who was incidentally found to have an aneurysm in his right renal artery. We performed a successful transcatheter embolization of the aneurysm using ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). To avoid migration of the liquid material into the parent artery, a balloon was inflated in the orifice of the neck of the aneurysm while the liquid was injected. Five-month follow-up computed tomography (CT) imaging confirmed total occlusion of the aneurysm

  8. Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation Involving the Duodenum Embolized with Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco, E-mail: r.grasso@unicampus.it; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Luppi, Giacomo; Faiella, Eliodoro; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Giurazza, Francesco [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of Radiology (Italy); Borzomati, Domenico; Coppola, Roberto [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of General Surgery (Italy); Beomonte Zobel, Bruno [University ' Campus Bio-Medico of Rome' , Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the pancreas is a rare condition. Most patients are asymptomatic or alternatively may present with a wide spectrum of symptoms. Traditionally, surgery has been considered the treatment of choice; however, alternative approaches, such as transcatheter embolization (TAE), may be proposed. We report a case of a 48-year-old man with a pancreatic head AVM, presenting with upper abdominal pain and slight anemia. The patient refused surgery and underwent TAE by means of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH). At 3 months follow-up, the patient was able to eat regularly, with no residual pain and no signs of anemia.

  9. Reduction of CT beam hardening artefacts of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer by variation of the tantalum content: evaluation in a standardized aortic endoleak phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treitl, Karla M.; Scherr, Michael; Foerth, Monika; Braun, Franziska; Maxien, Daniel; Treitl, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to develop an aortic stent graft phantom to simulate endoleak treatment and to find a tantalum content (TC) of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer that causes fewer computed tomography (CT) beam hardening artefacts, but still allows for fluoroscopic visualization. Ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer specimens of different TC (10-50 %, and 100 %) were injected in an aortic phantom bearing a stent graft and endoleak cavities with simulated re-perfusion. Fluoroscopic visibility of the ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer specimens was analyzed. In addition, six radiologists analyzed endoleak visibility, and artefact intensity of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer in CT. Reduction of TC significantly decreased CT artefact intensity of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer and increased visibility of endoleak re-perfusion (p < 0.000). It also significantly decreased fluoroscopic visibility of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer (R = 0.883, p ≤ 0.01), and increased the active embolic volumes prior to visualization (Δ ≥ 40 μl). Ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer specimens with a TC of 45-50 % exhibited reasonable visibility, a low active embolic volume and a tolerable CT artefact intensity. The developed aortic stent graft phantom allows for a reproducible simulation of embolization of endoleaks. The data suggest a reduction of the TC of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer to 45 -50 % of the original, to interfere less with diagnostic imaging in follow-up CT examinations, while still allowing for fluoroscopic visualization. (orig.)

  10. Radiation cross-linking of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer functionalized with m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, K.B.; Naesman, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    An ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer was functionalized with m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate using reactive processing in a mixer. The functionalization introduces pendant unsaturation to the polymer, which allows radiation cross-linked to gel contents >70% at radiation doses below 100 kGy. Unfunctionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, on the other hand, forms no gel upon irradiation. The functionalization was completed within a few minutes of reactive mixing, which was confirmed with both FTIR and 13 C-NMR measurements. The oxygen permeability of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer increased with increasing degree of functionalization, and irradiation of the samples formed trapped radicals, which act as oxygen scavengers. Consequently no oxygen permeability was detected. However, radical activity was inhibited by annealing the samples at 110 C resulting in a 24% higher oxygen permeability value for the irradiated unfunctionalized copolymer. The oxygen permeability values of the irradiated functionalized samples were approximately 13% lower. Laminates of m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer and m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethyl benzyl isocyanate functionalized ethylene hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer acquired improved adhesive strength both at dry and wet conditions as well as at elevated temperature upon exposure to radiation

  11. Free-volume study of ethylene - vinyl alcohol copolymer evaluated through positronium lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Hong-ling Li; Ujihira, Y.; Nomura, K.; Saito, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Nishihara, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The free-volume, of size ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 nm in radius, in an ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer was estimated using positronium lifetime measurement to elucidate the dependence of oxygen permeability on the free-volume size and fraction, on the ethylene content and on the crystallinity. The permeability and the free-volume fraction with varying the ethylene content were well related and the relation was interpreted based on the free-volume theory near below and above the glass transition temperature. On the other hand, the crystallinity significantly influenced the fraction of the amorphous region, where the free-volume hole exists, along with a slight change of the free-volume size. The variation of the permeability with the crystalline degree cannot be explained from the averaged free-volume fraction estimated by the whole volume of the polymer, but the permeability correlated with the free-volume size apparently. (author)

  12. Preparation and physical properties of enhanced radiation induced crosslinking of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Pengyang; Liu Meihua; Zhang Wanxi; Sun Jiazhen

    2007-01-01

    Preparation and physical properties of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) crosslinked by enhanced radiation have been studied through various methods. It was found that the most effective agent for irradiation-crosslinking was triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) among four kinds of polyfunctional monomers. Gel content (65.6%) was formed for EVOH-44 (content of ethylene is 44 mol%) at 200 kGy with 5% TAIC, but for EVOH-32 (content of ethylene is 32 mol%), only 37.4% gel content was formed under the same conditions. This result showed that the more the content of ethylene units comprised in EVOH, the easier the chemical bonds could be formed between different molecular chains. Tensile strength and elastic modulus increased after crosslinking at high test temperature and elongation at break decreased at the same time. Hygroscopicity of EVOH showed noticeable decrease after enhancement radiation-crosslinking

  13. In situ electron microscopy of Braille microsystems: photo-actuation of ethylene vinyl acetate/carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaniková, Klaudia; Krupa, Igor; Račko, Dušan; Šmatko, Vasilij; Campo, Eva M.; Pavlova, Ewa; Omastová, Mária

    2015-02-01

    The development of new types of tactile displays based on the actuation of composite materials can aid the visually impaired. Micro/nano systems based on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymeric matrices enriched with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can produce ensembles capable of light-induced actuation. In this report, we investigate two types of commercial EVA copolymers matrices containing 28 and 50 wt% vinyl-acetate (VA). Non-covalent modification of carbon nanotubes was achieved through a compatibilization technique that appends the pyrenenyl and cholesteryl groups on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) surface. EVA/MWCNT nanocomposites were prepared by casting from a solution. These composites were shaped into Braille elements using molds. The deformation of the Braille element (BE) under light-emitting diode (LED) illumination was observed for the first time by in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The superior actuation performance promoted by the EVA/MWCNT nanocomposites indicates that these materials will be useful in the future as light-driven micro/nano system actuators.

  14. In situ electron microscopy of Braille microsystems: photo-actuation of ethylene vinyl acetate/carbon nanotube composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czaniková, Klaudia; Krupa, Igor; Račko, Dušan; Omastová, Mária; Šmatko, Vasilij; Campo, Eva M; Pavlova, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The development of new types of tactile displays based on the actuation of composite materials can aid the visually impaired. Micro/nano systems based on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymeric matrices enriched with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can produce ensembles capable of light-induced actuation. In this report, we investigate two types of commercial EVA copolymers matrices containing 28 and 50 wt% vinyl-acetate (VA). Non-covalent modification of carbon nanotubes was achieved through a compatibilization technique that appends the pyrenenyl and cholesteryl groups on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) surface. EVA/MWCNT nanocomposites were prepared by casting from a solution. These composites were shaped into Braille elements using molds. The deformation of the Braille element (BE) under light-emitting diode (LED) illumination was observed for the first time by in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The superior actuation performance promoted by the EVA/MWCNT nanocomposites indicates that these materials will be useful in the future as light-driven micro/nano system actuators. (paper)

  15. Transsinusoidal Portal Vein Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx): A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Maarten L. J., E-mail: m.l.j.smits-3@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Vanlangenhove, Peter, E-mail: peter.vanlangenhove@uzgent.be; Sturm, Emiel J. C., E-mail: ejcsturm@gmail.com [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (Belgium); Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: mbosch@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Hav, Monirath, E-mail: hav.monirath@gmail.com; Praet, Marleen, E-mail: marleen.praet@ugent.be [Ghent University Hospital, N. Goormaghtigh Institute of Pathology (Belgium); Vente, Maarten A. D., E-mail: m.vente@umcutrecht.nl [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Snaps, Frederic R., E-mail: fsnaps@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Belgium); Defreyne, Luc, E-mail: luc.defreyne@ugent.be [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Portal vein embolization is performed to increase the future liver remnant before liver surgery in patients with liver malignancies. This study assesses the feasibility of a transsinusoidal approach for portal vein embolization (PVE) with the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx. Methods: Indirect portography through contrast injection in the cranial mesenteric artery was performed in eight healthy pigs. Onyx was slowly injected through a microcatheter from a wedged position in the hepatic vein and advanced through the liver lobules into the portal system. The progression of Onyx was followed under fluoroscopy, and the extent of embolization was monitored by indirect portography. The pigs were euthanized immediately (n = 2), at 7 days (n = 4), or at 21 days postprocedure (n = 2). All pigs underwent necropsy and the ex vivo livers were grossly and histopathologically analyzed. Results: Transsinusoidal PVE was successfully performed in five of eight pigs (63%). In 14 of 21 injections (67%), a segmental portal vein could be filled completely. A mean of 1.6 liver lobes per pig was embolized (range 1-2 lobes). There were no periprocedural adverse events. Focal capsular scarring was visible on the surface of two resected livers, yet the capsules remained intact. Histopathological examination showed no signs of recanalization or abscess formation. Mild inflammatory reaction to Onyx was observed in the perivascular parenchyma. Conclusions: The porcine portal vein can be embolized through injection of Onyx from a wedged position in the hepatic vein. Possible complications of transsinusoidal PVE and the effect on contralateral hypertrophy need further study.

  16. Transarterial Embolization of Type II Endoleaks after EVAR: The Role of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller-Wille, René; Wohlgemuth, Walter A.; Heiss, Peter; Wiggermann, Philipp; Güntner, Oliver; Schreyer, Andreas G.; Hoffstetter, Patrick; Stroszczynski, Christian; Zorger, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial endoleak embolization using the liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). Methods: Over a 7-year period eleven patients (6 women, 5 men; mean age 68 years, range 37–83 years) underwent transarterial embolization of a type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using the liquid embolic agent Onyx. Two patients (18 %) had a simple type II endoleak with only one artery in communication with the aneurysm sac, whereas 9 patients (82 %) had a complex type II endoleak with multiple communicating vessels. We retrospectively analyzed the technical and clinical success of transarterial type II endoleak embolization with Onyx. Complete embolization of the nidus was defined as technical success. Embolization was considered clinically successful when volume of the aneurysm sac was stable or decreased on follow-up CT scans. Result: Mean follow-up time was 26.0 (range 6–50) months. Clinical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients (73 %). Transarterial nidus embolization with Onyx was technically successful in 6 of 11 patients (55 %). In three cases the nidus was embolized without direct catheterization from a more distal access through the network of collateral vessels. Conclusion: Onyx is a favorable embolic agent for transarterial endoleak embolization. To achieve the best clinical results, complete occlusion of the nidus is mandatory

  17. Transarterial Embolization of Type II Endoleaks after EVAR: The Role of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Wille, Rene, E-mail: rene.mueller-wille@ukr.de; Wohlgemuth, Walter A., E-mail: walter.wohlgemuth@ukr.de; Heiss, Peter, E-mail: peter.heiss@ukr.de; Wiggermann, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.wiggermann@ukr.de; Guentner, Oliver, E-mail: oliverguentner@yahoo.de; Schreyer, Andreas G., E-mail: andreas.schreyer@ukr.de; Hoffstetter, Patrick, E-mail: p.hoffstetter@asklepios.com; Stroszczynski, Christian, E-mail: christian.stros@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Zorger, Niels, E-mail: niels.zorger@barmherzige-regensburg.de [Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brueder Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial endoleak embolization using the liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). Methods: Over a 7-year period eleven patients (6 women, 5 men; mean age 68 years, range 37-83 years) underwent transarterial embolization of a type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using the liquid embolic agent Onyx. Two patients (18 %) had a simple type II endoleak with only one artery in communication with the aneurysm sac, whereas 9 patients (82 %) had a complex type II endoleak with multiple communicating vessels. We retrospectively analyzed the technical and clinical success of transarterial type II endoleak embolization with Onyx. Complete embolization of the nidus was defined as technical success. Embolization was considered clinically successful when volume of the aneurysm sac was stable or decreased on follow-up CT scans. Result: Mean follow-up time was 26.0 (range 6-50) months. Clinical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients (73 %). Transarterial nidus embolization with Onyx was technically successful in 6 of 11 patients (55 %). In three cases the nidus was embolized without direct catheterization from a more distal access through the network of collateral vessels. Conclusion: Onyx is a favorable embolic agent for transarterial endoleak embolization. To achieve the best clinical results, complete occlusion of the nidus is mandatory.

  18. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in Trauma Patients Using Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller-Wille, R.; Heiss, P.; Herold, T.; Jung, E. M.; Schreyer, A. G.; Hamer, O. W.; Rennert, J.; Hoffstetter, P.; Stroszczynski, C.; Zorger, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the feasibility and efficacy of endovascular embolization with liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) in patients with acute traumatic arterial bleeding. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 patients (9 men and 4 women; mean age 45 years) with severe trauma who underwent embolotherapy using Onyx from November 2003 to February 2009. Bleeding was located in the pelvis (5 patients), kidney (3 patients), mesenteric region (2 patients), retroperitoneal space (2 patients), neck (1 patient), and thigh (1 patient). In three cases (23.1%), Onyx was used in conjunction with coils. We evaluate the technical and clinical success, procedural and embolization time, occurrence of rebleeding, and embolotherapy-related complications, such as necrosis or migration of Onyx into nontarget vessels. Results: In all patients, embolotherapy was technically and clinically successful on the first attempt. Control of bleeding could be reached with a mean time of 19 (range, 4–63) min after correct placement of the microcatheter in the feeding artery. No recurrent bleeding was detected. No unintended necrosis or migration of Onyx into a nontarget region was observed. During the follow-up period, three patients (23.1%) died due to severe intracranial hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, and sepsis. Conclusions: Transcatheter embolization with new liquid embolic agent Onyx is technically feasible and effective in trauma patients with acute arterial hemorrhage.

  19. Development of lightweight concrete subfloor with ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) aggregates waste to reduce impact sound in flooring system

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Fernanda; Krumenauer, Marcelo; Reis de Medeiros, Daniel; Oliveira, Maria Fernanda; Fonseca Tutikian, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Comfort and habitability are requirements for housing quality, affected by underfloor system. Thus, this study aims to design lightweight concrete slabs underfloor with the use of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) aggregates, with two grain sizes of conventional aggregates replaced with EVA. The experimental counted on four unit mixes, varying the ratio between EVA coarse and fine aggregates and natural aggregates. The underfloor plates were molded with thickness of 3, 5 and 7 centimeters...

  20. Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) (EVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancher, Luiza R; Nunes, Maria Fernanda de O; Grisa, Ana Maria C; Pagnussat, Daniel T; Zeni, Mára

    2016-01-15

    This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm) with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite.

  1. Hybrids of ethylene vinyl acetate with Na-montmorillonite and titania: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrids of Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) with Na-montmorillonite and titania were formed. Montmorillonite was organically modified by two different modifiers: Pyridinium ions and 4. 4-oxydianilinium ions. X-ray diffraction results revealed that Pyridinium ions increased the .interlayer spacing by 0.33 nm and 4, 4-oxydianilinium by 0.55 nm approximately. These modified organo-clays were successfully exfoliated in EVA using melt blending. These hybrids showed improvement in mechanical and thermal properties. 4, 4-oxydianilinium ions were degraded at higher temperature due to which thermal degradation was enhanced in EVA. In addition to this, EVA/titania hybrids were also prepared using sot-gel technique and modified by triethoxy vinyl silane and (3-aminopropyI)- triethoxy silane to increase their compatibility with EVA. Some portion of unmodified titania was heat treated to 600 degree C to obtain particulate titania. The hybrid of particulate titania and modified titania improved the mechanical properties and thermal properties. Especially in case of modified titania toughness was almost doubled. (author)

  2. Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza R. Brancher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite.

  3. EFFECTS OF ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE CONTENT ON PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WOOD-PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Li,

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA contents on the performance of wood plastic composites (WPCs made from poplar wood flour (PWF and high density polyethylene (HDPE, physical properties tests, mechanical properties tests, and scanning electron microscope (SEM tests were employed. The thermal stability and functional groups of PWF treated by EVA were evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, respectively. The results showed that the hardness, water uptake, and thickness swelling of the WPCs was reduced with increasing content of EVA. The MOR and tensile strength of the WPC treated by 15% EVA content were enhanced by 17.48% and 9.97%, respectively, compared with those of the WPC without EVA. TGA results showed that the thermal stability of PWF treated by EVA was improved. FTIR analysis indicated that PWF was reacted and coated with EVA. SEM results showed that gaps and voids hardly existed in the sections of the WPCs treated by EVA. This research suggests that the flexibility and mechanical properties of WPCs could be improved by adding EVA. The best condition of EVA content could be 15%.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Copoly(ethylene vinyl acetate)/Nano-Filler Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    The development of flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) are needed to reduce weight and improve the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As a continuation of our work on the improvement of thermal conductivity (TC) of polymeric materials, nanocomposites were prepared from copoly(ethylene vinyl acetate), trade name Elvax 260TradeMark), metallized carbon nanofibers (CNFs), nickel (Ni) nanostrands, boron nitride both alone and as mixtures with aluminum powder. The nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing at various loading levels and subsequently fabricated into several material forms (i.e., ribbons, tubes, and compression molded plaques) for analysis. Ribbons and tubes were extruded to form samples in which the nanoparticles were aligned in the direction of flow. The degree of dispersion and alignment of the nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Tensile properties of the aligned samples were determined at room temperature. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash(TradeMark) technique. The TC of the samples was measured in both the direction of alignment as well as transverse. Tubing of comparable dimensions to that used in the LCVG was extruded from select compositions and the thermal conductivities of the tubes measured.

  5. Thermal Conductivity of Polymer Copoly(Ethylene Vinyl Acetate)/Nano-Filler Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    The development of flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) are needed to reduce weight and improve the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As a continuation of our work on the improvement of thermal conductivity (TC) of polymeric materials, nanocomposites were prepared from copoly(ethylene vinyl acetate), trade name Elvax 260 , metallized carbon nanofibers (CNFs), nickel (Ni) nanostrands, boron nitride both alone and as mixtures with aluminum powder. The nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing at various loading levels and subsequently fabricated into several material forms (i.e., ribbons, tubes, and compression molded plaques) for analysis. Ribbons and tubes were extruded to form samples in which the nanoparticles were aligned in the direction of flow. The degree of dispersion and alignment of the nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Tensile properties of the aligned samples were determined at room temperature. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. The TC of the samples was measured in both the direction of alignment as well as transverse. Tubing of comparable dimensions to that used in the LCVG was extruded from select compositions and the thermal conductivities of the tubes measured.

  6. Electron beam irradiation impact on surface structure and wettability of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saftawy, A. A.; Ragheb, M. S.; Zakhary, S. G.

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, electron beam (EB) is utilized to tailor the surface structure and wetting behavior of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) copolymer. The structural deformation is examined by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). The recorded patterns reveal the formation of disordered systems on the irradiated surface. Also, the surface crystallinity degree, crystallite size, and micro-strain are studied. The microstructure induced modifications of the irradiated samples are investigated by 1-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis. The recorded spectra showed that the hydroxyl group (O-H) absorption intensity, enhanced compared to that of methylene (-CH2) and methine (>C-H) groups. Likewise, the changes of the polymer surface chemistry are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and showed that the surface polarity improved after irradiation. The contact angle method is used to prove the surface wettability improvements after irradiation. Additionally, the fucoidan-coated samples exhibit great enhancements in surface wettability and have a reduced recovery effect compared to the uncoated samples. The surface free energy and bonding adhesion are studied as well. The fucoidan-coated samples are found to have a larger adhesion strength than that of the EVOH samples (pristine and irradiated). Finally, surface morphology and roughness are traced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The improvements in surface wettability and adhesion are attributed to the modified surface roughness and the increased surface polarity. To sum up, combining EB irradiation and fucoidan enhance the surface wettability of EVOH in a controlled way keeping the bulk properties unaffected.

  7. PROPRIEDADES DE ARGAMASSAS COM EVA (ETHYLENE VINYL ACETATE EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO PARCIAL AO AGREGADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleidson Carneiro Guimarães

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O setor da construção civil apresenta grande potencial para aproveitamento de vários tipos de resíduos industriais. A incorporação dos resíduos, principalmente nas argamassas e concretos, produtos com vasta aplicabilidade no setor, tem se mostrado como uma ótima alternativa na diversificação das matérias-primas e para a economia de recursos naturais. Esse trabalho avaliou as propriedades das argamassas, no estado fresco e endurecido, produzidas com substituição parcial da areia por resíduo de EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate. Para isso, foram preparadas argamassas com teores de substituição do agregado 0% (referência, 5%, 10% e 15%, em massa. A relação água/cimento, para cada traço, foi determinada empiricamente e mantida constante para as argamassas com substituição. Os resultados apontam que as argamassas produzidas com agregado de EVA apresentam menor absorção de água e também um decréscimo da resistência mecânica. Desta forma, a produção de argamassas utilizando EVA em substituição ao agregado natural é viável, todavia é necessário avaliar os parâmetros mínimos de aplicação para cada finalidade. Dessa forma, o trabalho apresenta contribuição ao servir de suporte a gestores de empresas de argamassas ou gestores de obra a tomarem decisões acerca da inserção do resíduo de EVA na produção de argamassa. ABSTRACT: The construction sector has great potential for use of various types of industrial waste. The incorporation of waste, especially in mortar and concrete products with wide applicability in the industry, has proven to be a great alternative for diversification of raw materials and the economy of natural resources. This study evaluated the properties of mortars in fresh and hardened state, made with partial replacement of sand by waste EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate. For this, mortars were prepared with substitution aggregate content 0%(reference, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight. The water

  8. Preparation of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate/Zeolite 4A Mixed Matrix Membrane for CO2/N2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Khalilinejad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A great contribution in research activities on carbon dioxide (CO2 separation, as the most important challenge in greenhouse gases control, has been made to develop new polymeric membranes. In this case, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs, comprised of rigid particles dispersed in a continuous polymeric matrix, was proposed as an effective method to improve the separation properties of polymeric membranes. In this research, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA copolymer and zeolite 4A powders were applied to prepare MMMs using solution casting/solvent evaporation method and CO2/N2 separation performance of the membranes was examined under different feed pressures (3-8 bar and operating temperatures (25-50°C. Morphological and structural characterizations of the membranes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, density and solvent-induced swelling measurements. The gas permeability measurements through the constant-volume method showed the permeability of two gases increased in the presence of zeolite 4A nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Calculation of diffusivity coefficients of gases revealed that improvement in the diffusivity of all gases into membrane matrix was the main reason for permeability enhancement. In addition, the increase in the CO2/N2 ideal selectivity with the presence of zeolite 4A nanoparticles in the polymer matrix was attributed to the increment in CO2/N2 diffusion selectivity. Under optimum condition, with the addition of 10 wt% zeolite 4A nanoparticles into the membrane matrix, the CO2 permeability increased from 20.81 to 35.24 Barrer and its related selectivity increased 20% compared to that of neat EVA membrane. Furthermore, the membrane performances increased upon feed pressure rise, while the selectivity decreased with the increase in temperature.

  9. Caracterização de resíduos de copolímeros de etileno-acetato de vinila - EVA Characterization of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir J. Zattera

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O poli[(etileno-co-(acetato de vinila] (EVA possui grande aplicação na indústria calçadista, sendo utilizado na confecção de placas expandidas para posterior corte de palmilhas e entressolas. Estudos realizados na região sul do Brasil mostraram que os resíduos gerados pela indústria calçadista foram superiores a 200 toneladas/mês em 2001, sendo o maior volume oriundo de recortes de placas expandidas. Por isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de caracterizar resíduos de EVA de chapas expandidas, visando à reciclagem mecânica desse material. Análises em MEV demonstraram que o resíduo de EVA apresenta uma morfologia microcelular que é destruída após o processo de moagem. O resíduo de EVA moído apresenta duas fases, uma reticulada (matriz e uma não-reticulada (dispersa. O resíduo de EVA apresentou teor de gel de aproximadamente 75% em massa, cerca de 20% em massa de acetato de vinila (VAc, fora processado a partir de EVA com aproximadamente 28% de VAc e possui teor de carga inorgânica de 20% em massa, segundo análises em TGA. O EVA resíduo apresentou maiores valores de módulo elástico e de dureza, e menores valores de elongação na ruptura e de resistência ao impacto Izod. O custo energético da moagem do resíduo de EVA foi calculado como sendo inferior a 5% do valor do EVA virgem.Poly[(ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate] (EVA has large application in the shoes industries, especially as expanded sheets, in order to produce insoles and innersoles. Studies carried out in the south region of Brazil in 2001 have demonstrated that the residues generated by shoes industries were higher than 200 ton/month, the major part of which is composed by EVA expanded sheets. With this in mind, the objective of this work was to characterize the residues of expanded EVA and also to analyze the milling cost in order to make the recycling possible. The EVA residues presented originally a microcellular structure, which was destroyed after milling

  10. Ethylene-vinyl acetate foam as a new lung substitute in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués, Enrique; Mancha, Pedro J

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) foam as a new lung substitute in radiotherapy and to study its physical and dosimetric characteristics. We calculated the ideal vinyl acetate (VA) content of EVA foam sheets to mimic the physical and dosimetric characteristics of the ICRU lung tissue. We also computed the water-to-medium mass collision stopping power ratios, mass attenuation coefficients, CT numbers, effective atomic numbers and electron densities for: ICRU lung tissue, the RANDO commercial phantom, scaled WATER and EVA foam sheets with varying VA contents in a range between the minimum and maximum values supplied by the manufacturer. For all these substitutes, we simulated percent depth-dose curves with EGSnrc Monte Carlo (MC PDDs) in a water-lung substitute-water slab phantom expressed as dose-to-medium and dose-to-water for 3 × 3- and 10 × 10-cm 2 field sizes. PDD for the 10 × 10-cm 2 field size was also calculated with the MultiGrid Superposition algorithm (MGS PDD) for a relative electron density to water ratio of 0.26. The latter was compared with the MC PDDs in dose-to-water for scaled WATER and EVA foam sheets with the VA content that was most similar to the calculated ideal content that is physically achievable in practice. We calculated an ideal VA content of 55%; however, the maximum physically achievable content with current manufacturing techniques is 40%. The physical characteristics of the EVA foam sheets with a VA content of 40% (EVA40) are very close to those of the ICRU lung reference. The physical densities of the EVA40 foam sheets ranged from 0.030 to 0.965 g/cm 3 , almost covering the entire physical density range of the inflated/deflated lung (0.260-1.050 g/cm 3 ). Its mass attenuation coefficient at the effective energy of a 6-MV photon beam agrees within 0.8% of the ICRU reference value, and its CT number agrees within 6 HU. The effective atomic number for EVA40 varies by less than 0.42 of the

  11. Ethylene vinyl acetate polymer as a tool for passive sampling monitoring of hydrophobic chemicals in the salmon farm industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucca, Felipe; Moya, Heriberto; Barra, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The samplers allow the detection of hydrophobic chemicals in the marine environment. • The samplers reach equilibrium quickly, with days of deployment in the field. • The samplers have low costs and easy manipulation for monitoring programs. • A way to collect chemicals in the aquatic environment without human effort. - Abstract: Current monitoring programs are focused on hydrophobic chemicals detection in aquatic systems, which require the collection of high volumes of water samples at a given time. The present study documents the preliminary use of the polymer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a passive sampler for the detection of a hydrophobic chemical used by salmon industries such as cypermethrin. Initially, an experimental calibration in laboratory was performed to determine the cypermethrin equilibrium between sampler and aquatic medium, which was reached after seven days of exposure. A logarithm of partitioning coefficient EVA–water (log K EVA–W ) of 5.6 was reported. Field deployment of EVA samplers demonstrated average concentrations of cypermethrin in water to be 2.07 ± 0.7 ng L −1 close to salmon cages, while near-shore was 4.39 ± 0.8 ng L −1 . This was a first approach for assessing EVA samplers design as a tool of monitoring in water for areas with salmon farming activity

  12. Tunable shape memory behaviors of poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) achieved by adding poly(L-lactide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi-xing; Liao, Fei; He, Zhen-zhen; Yang, Jing-hui; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Yong; Gao, Xiao-ling

    2015-01-01

    In this work, different contents of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) (20–50 wt%) were introduced into poly(ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) to prepare the samples with a tunable shape memory behavior. Morphological characterization demonstrated that with increasing PLLA content from 20 to 50 wt%, the blend morphology changed from sea-island structure to cocontinuous structure. In all the samples, PLLA was amorphous and it did not affect the crystallization of polyethylene part in the EVA component. The presence of PLLA greatly enhanced the storage modulus of samples, especially at relatively low temperatures. The shape memory behaviors of samples were systematically investigated and the results demonstrated that the EVA/PLLA blends exhibited a tunable shape memory effect. On one hand, PLLA accelerated the shape fixation and enhanced the fixity ratio of samples. On the other hand, PLLA reduced the dependence of shape fixity of samples on fixity temperatures. Specifically, for the first time, a critical recovery temperature was observed for the immiscible shape memory polymer blends. In this work, the critical recovery temperature was about 53 °C. At recovery temperature below the critical value, the blends exhibited smaller recovery ratios compared with the pure EVA, however, at recovery temperature above 53 °C, the blends exhibited higher recovery ratios. (paper)

  13. Development of new antioxidant active packaging films based on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) and green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Dicastillo, Carol; Nerin, Cristina; Alfaro, Pilar; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2011-07-27

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) films containing green tea extract were successfully produced by extrusion. The films were brown and translucent, and the addition of the extract increased the water and oxygen barrier at low relative humidity but increased the water sensitivity, the glass transition temperature, and the crystallinity of the films and improved their thermal resistance. An analysis by HPLC revealed that the antioxidant components of the extract suffered partial degradation during extrusion, reducing the content of catechin gallates and increasing the concentration of free gallic acid. Exposure of the films to various food simulants showed that the liquid simulants increased their capacity to reduce DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) radicals. The release of green tea extract components into the simulant monitored by HPLC showed that all compounds present in the green tea extract were partially released, although the extent and kinetics of release were dependent on the type of food. In aqueous food simulants, gallic acid was the main antioxidant component released with partition coefficient values ca. 200. In 95% ethanol (fatty food simulant) the K value for gallic acid decreased to 8 and there was a substantial contribution of catechins (K in the 1000 range) to a greatly increased antioxidant efficiency. Kinetically, gallic acid was released more quickly than catechins, owing to its faster diffusivity in the polymer matrix as a consequence of its smaller molecular size, although the most relevant effect is the plasticization of the matrix by alcohol, increasing the diffusion coefficient >10-fold. Therefore, the materials here developed with the combination of antioxidant substances that constitute the green tea extract could be used in the design of antioxidant active packaging for all type of foods, from aqueous to fatty products, the compounds responsible for the protection being those with the higher compatibility with the packaged product.

  14. Crystallinity changes of electron-beam irradiated ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) as a function of radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Beatriz R.; Martins, Joao F.T.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment with electron-beam radiation is a promising approach to the controllable modification of the properties of the polymeric materials, in order to adjust their properties. In recent years, electron-beam irradiation have been efficiently applied in the flexible packaging industry to promote cross-linking and scission of the polymeric chains in order to improve material mechanical properties. On the other hand, ionizing irradiation can also affect the polymeric materials itself leading to a production of free radicals. These free radicals can in turn lead to degradation and or cross-linking phenomena. In the present work the changes in thermal properties of electron-beam irradiated ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) resin were investigated. The EVOH resin was irradiated up to 500 kGy using a 1.5 MeV electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. The EVOH samples irradiated from 300 kGy presented increases in melting temperature, except for 350 kGy. The changes in properties of the EVOH resin after irradiation were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-Rays Diffraction (XRD). The correlation between the properties of EVOH non-irradiated and irradiated EVOH samples were discussed. The XRD results showed a slight shift of diffraction peaks, as well as an increase of width, DSC results also showed differences on crystallinity degree, for irradiated EVOH samples, which suggests that a decrease or an increase in degree crystallinity of EVOH will depends on radiation dose applied. These results are very important because shows a slight decrease in crystallinity of irradiated EVOH, a decrease in the crystallinity degree usually is related with an increase of the amorphous phase due to, probably, the predominance of molecular chain cross-linking of EVOH over the molecular chain scission and degradation process, caused by ionizing radiation, and a consequent improvement of their properties, such as thermal, mechanical

  15. Thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of grafted kenaf filled poly (vinyl chloride)/ethylene vinyl acetate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, Nurfatimah Abu; Chee, Ching Yern; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Ratnam, Chantara Thevy; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study on thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of PVC/EVA/PMMA grafted kenaf fiber. • PMMA grafted kenaf fiber showed good interaction with PVC/EVA blends. • Thermal stability of the composites increase upon PMMA grafting on kenaf fiber. • The crystallinity of the composites decrease upon PMMA grafting on kenaf fiber. • PMMA grafted fiber provides more reinforcement on PVC/EVA/grafted PMMA composite. - Abstract: The effects of kenaf and poly (methyl methacrylate grafted kenaf on the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride), PVC and ethylene vinyl acetate, EVA blends were investigated. The PVC/EVA/kenaf composites were prepared by mixing the grafted and ungrafted kenaf fiber and PVC/EVA blend using HAAKE Rheomixer at a temperature of 150 °C and the rotor speed at 50 rpm for 20 min. The composites were subjected to Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies. The DSC data revealed that the crystallinity of the EVA decreased with the addition of 30% grafted and ungrafted kenaf fibers. TGA and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves displayed an increase in the thermal stability of the composites upon grafting of the fiber. Studies on DMA indicate that the T g of the PVC and EVA in the PVC/EVA/kenaf composites has been shifted to higher temperature with the addition of the kenaf fiber. The presence of PMMA on the surface of grafted kenaf fiber was further confirmed by the analytical results from FTIR. The morphology of fractured surfaces of the composites, which was examined by a scanning electron microscope, showed the adhesion between the kenaf fiber and the PVC/EVA matrix was improved upon grafting of the kenaf fiber

  16. Tuning the nano/micro-structure and properties of melt-processed ternary composites of polypropylene/ethylene vinyl acetate blend and nanoclay: The influence of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mofokeng, Tladi G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the dependence of the nano/micro-structure and properties of polypropylene (PP)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/nanoclay ternary composites on the kinetics and thermodynamics of the melt-mixing process. The size of dispersed...

  17. Electrical, thermophysical and micromechanical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate elastomer composites with surface modified BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xingyi; Xie Liyuan; Jiang Pingkai; Wang Genlin; Liu Fei, E-mail: xyhuang@sjtu.edu.c, E-mail: pkjiang@sjtu.edu.c [Shanghai Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Thermal Aging, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-12-21

    In this study, we investigated the influence of the surface modified BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles on the electrical, thermophysical and micromechanical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVM) vulcanizates. Gamma-aminopropyl triethoxysilane was used as a silane coupling agent for the surface treatment of the BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. It was found that the incorporation of surface modified BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles into the EVM matrix not only increased the permittivity, thermal conductivity and the mechanical strength but also showed a comparative dielectric loss tangent with pure EVM vulcanizates. In particular, the nanocomposites exhibit relatively high dielectric strength and good ductility even at the loading level of 50 vol%. The improved properties not only originate from the homogeneous dispersion of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles but also should be ascribed to the strong interfacial interaction between the surface modified BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles and EVM matrix. We also investigated the dielectric relaxation behaviour of the BaTiO{sub 3} filled EVM nanocomposites by using Jonscher's theory of universal dielectric response.

  18. Study of montmorillonite nanoparticles and electron beam irradiation interaction of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/de-vulcanized waste rubber thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Sin, Lee Tin; Hoe, Tie Teck; Ratnam, C. T.; Bee, Soo Ling; Rahmat, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of montmorillonite (MMT) loading level and electron beam irradiation on the physical-mechanical properties and thermal stability of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)- devulcanised waste rubber blends. The addition of MMT particles has significantly increased the d-spacing and interchain separation of deflection peak (0 0 2) of MMT particles. This indicates that MMT particles have effectively intercalated in polymer matrix of EVA-devulcanised waste rubber blends. Besides, the application of electron beam irradiation dosages <150 kGy could also significantly induce the effective intercalation effect of MMT particles in polymer matrix by introducing crosslinking networks. The increasing of electron beam irradiation dosages up to 250 kGy has gradually increased the gel content of all EVA-devulcanized rubber blends by inducing the formation of crosslinking networks in polymer matrix. Also, the tensile strength of all EVA-devulcanized waste rubber blends was gradually increased when irradiated up to 150 kGy. This is due to the occurrence of crosslinking networks by irradiation could significantly provide reinforcement effect to polymer matrix by effectively transferring the stress applied on polymer matrix throughout the whole polymer matrix.

  19. Effect of fibre treatments on tensile properties of ethylene vinyl acetate/natural rubber/mengkuang leaf fibre (EVA/NR/MLF) thermoplastic elastomer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Faiezah; Ismail, Hanafi; Rusli, Arjulizan

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, a great attention has been dedicated to natural fibers as reinforcement for polymer composites. Natural fibers, compared to glass fibers, exhibit better mechanical properties, such as stiffness, impact strength, flexibility and modulus. However, certain drawbacks, such as the incompatibility between fibers and polymer matrices, the tendency to form aggregates during processing and the poor resistance to moisture, reduce the use of these natural fibers as reinforcements in polymers. Several treatments and modifications are being used to improve the adhesion between fibre and matrix. In this work, the effect of bleaching treatments using hydrogen peroxide in the Mengkuang leaf fibre (MLF) was evaluated on tensile properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)/Natural Rubber (NR)/MLF composites. Treated MLF were mixed with the EVA/NR blend in Haake internal mixer at 120 °C and rotor speed of 50 rpm for 10 minutes. Fibre morphology and the fibre/matrix interface ware further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tensile strength was increased by about 8% as compared to the composites with untreated fibers. The increased adhesion between fiber and matrix was also observed by SEM. Thus, EVA/NR/MLF composites reinforced with the treated fibres exhibited better tensile properties than untreated EVA/NR/MLF composites.

  20. Thermal Analysis and Flame-Retarded Mechanism of Composites Composed of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate and Layered Double Hydroxides Containing Transition Metals (Mn, Co, Cu, Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of transition metals on the hydrophobicity of nano–structured layered double hydroxides (LDHs and the compatibility of LDHs/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA composites have seldom been reported. NiMgAl–LDHs slightly surface–modified with stearate and doped with transition metal cations (Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ are investigated. Compared to the pure EVA, not only were the maximal degradation–rate temperatures (Tmax of the ethylene–based chains enhanced, but also the smoke production rate (SPR and the production rate of CO (COP were sharply decreased for all the composites. Most importantly, a new flame retardant mechanism was found, namely the peak heat release rate (pk-HRR time, which directly depends on the peak production rate of CO2 (pk-CO2 time for EVA and all composites by cone calorimeter test. Moreover, the Mn–doped LDH S–NiMgAl–Mn shows more uniform dispersion and better interfacial compatibility in the EVA matrix. The cone calorimetric residue of S–NiMgAl–Mn/EVA has the intumescent char layer and the compact metal oxide layer. Therefore, S–NiMgAl–Mn/EVA shows the lowest pk-HRR and the longest pk-HRR time among all the composites.

  1. Evaluation of electron beam radiation effects in the incorporation of Piassava fibers (Attalea funifera Mart.) on ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Beatriz Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the contribution of ionizing radiation in the incorporation of piassava fibers (derived from wastes from broom factories) in the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), to obtain a composite material, E VOH-Piassava , for packaging applications. The interest in this fiber is due to its inherent properties and morphology as well as being biodegradable. The EVOH composite reinforced with 5% or 10%, by weight of piassava fiber powder with a particle size equal to or less than 125 μm, untreated or treated with 1% silane, were obtained by extrusion, using a twin screw extruder. For carrying out the tensile tests and oxygen barrier of the materials obtained, films were produced from composite materials and EVOH resin was obtained using the process of flat extrusion. Samples of EVOH and the composites were irradiated using an electron accelerator, at doses from 0 to 500 kGy. The results of SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction of composites suggest a good fiber-matrix adhesion, which can be also confirmed by its higher tensile strength at break, compared to that of neat EVOH. The results showed that the incorporation of piassava fibers can promote better oxygen barrier compared to the neat EVOH, in conditions of high humidity. It was observed that, after irradiation, the EVOH film showed better oxygen barrier in high humidity condition, when compared to the non-irradiated EVOH under the same condition, indicating radiation as an effective treatment to improve oxygen barrier in the studied conditions. (author)

  2. Effect of the addition of sugar cane bagasse fibers in the composite with the copolymer vinyl ethylene-acetate (EVA) by solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; D'Almeida, Jose Roberto Moraes; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno

    1997-01-01

    Natural fibers composites obtained form sugar cane bagasse and ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer were prepared with different compositions and analysed by solid state Carbon-13 NMR aiming the observation of molecular mobility, compatibility, and chemical structure of the different obtained composites. One objective of this work was to enable the future commercial application of these materials

  3. Process for preventing discoloration in hydrolyzed ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers by exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyt, J.M.; Koch, K.; Williams, M. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A process for the hydrolysis of a solid interpolymer of an ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon and a vinyl ester of a 2 to 6 carbon atom aliphatic carboxylic acid to products having a low yellowness index involves contacting of the solid interpolymer with a substantially anhydrous hydrolyzing agent and subjecting at least one of said interpolymer and said hydrolyzing agent to radiation. (U.S.)

  4. The radiation crosslinking of ethylene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, N.M.

    1979-01-01

    The enhanced radiation crosslinking tendency of ethylene-vinyl acetate and ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers over ethylene homopolymer is proportional to the comonomer content. This is caused by an increase in the amorphous polymer content and by structure-related factors. The copolymers crosslink by a random process that for ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer involves some crosslinking through the acetoxy group of the comonomer. While knowledge of the process for the crosslinking of ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer is less certain, it is currently believed to occur primarily at the branch point on the polymer backbone. Data relating comonomer content and the molecular weight of the copolymers to the radiation crosslinking levels realized were developed to aid in resin selection by the formulator. Triallyl cyanurate cure accelerator was found to be less effective in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer than in homopolymer and to have no effect on gel development in ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer. (author)

  5. Characterization of the interaction between two food aroma components, alpha-pinene and ethyl butyrate, and ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) packaging films as a function of environmental humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carballo, Gracia; Cava, David; Lagarón, Jose M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2005-09-07

    The ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOHs) are well-known high oxygen barrier materials that are being used successfully in the design of packaging structures for oxygen-sensitive food or pharmaceutical products. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using EVOH materials to provide a high barrier to organic compounds as a means to reduce food aroma scalping. However, the barrier function of this family of materials diminishes significantly in humid environments, and it is supposed that so does the organic vapor barrier. In this work, a new sorption-based method to characterize the interaction between food aroma and polymer films for packaging as a function of relative humidity is presented and is used to determine the barrier to ethyl butyrate and alpha-pinene of EVOH at 23 degrees C. The results show that although EVOH is an excellent barrier to food aroma when dry, a property that even improves at low relative humidity (RH), the solubility and diffusivity of the compounds tested increase dramatically with humidity at medium to high water activities. However, even in the worst case (100% RH), EVOH outperforms low-density polyethylene (LDPE) as a barrier to organic vapors at least 500,000-fold.

  6. Morphology, Microstructure and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Pasargad Bitumen, Modified by Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer (EVA and Nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Ghaempour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the characteristics such as flexibility, adhesion, hydrophobicity and low price, bitumen is used in different construction and insulation industries. The major problem with the bitumen material is its restricted physico-mechanical properties, mainly high temperature rutting and low temperature cracking. The aim of this work was to modify bitumen, produced in Tabriz Pasargad Oil Company, and evaluation of its different properties to make it suitable for the weather conditions of North West of Iran. The physico-mechanical, morphological and rheological characteristics of EVA/Cloisite 15A modified bitumen were studied.Two different feeding instructions were used in the mixing of bitumen with modifiers.In the first method, EVA and Cloisite 15A nanoclay were simultaneously added into the molten bitumen and in the second method, EVA and Cloisite 15A were premixed in an internal mixer before adding the polymer/nanoclay nanocomposite into the molten bitumen. The results showed that addition of nanoclay and polymer into the bitumen, led increased softening point and a decrease in the penetration of base bitumen, in which the extent of changes, was higher for the samples prepared by masterbatch method. The rheological properties of the pre-mixed samples exhibited more improvement and these samples showed more elastic behavior. The results of optical microscopy showed that the pre-mixing of polymer and nanoclay led to a more uniform distribution of the swollen polymer phase at the base bitumen. These samples also showed higher morphology stability than those samples prepared in single step. These effects were related to the probable localization of nanoclay at the interface of the two phases.

  7. Melting and crystallization behavior of partially miscible high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (HDPE/EVA) blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yang; Zou, Huawei, E-mail: hwzou@163.com; Liang, Mei, E-mail: liangmeiww@163.com; Cao, Ya

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • HDPE/EVA blends undergo phase separation, making it an interesting topic to investigate the relationships between miscibility and crystallization. • Influences from blending on the crystallization kinetics were successfully evaluated by Friedman's and Khanna's method. • X-ray diffraction studies revealed that blending with EVA the unit length of the unit cell of the HDPE increases. • Thermal fractionation method was successfully used to characterize the co-crystallization in HDPE/EVA blends. - Abstract: Crystallization studies on HDPE/EVA blends and the individual components were performed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Influences of blending on the crystallization kinetics of each component in HDPE/EVA mixture were evaluated by Friedman's activation energy and Khanna's crystallization rate coefficient (CRC). The addition of more HDPE into the EVA matrix causes more heterogeneous nucleation while the addition of EVA would hinder the nucleation of HDPE at the beginning of cooling process. Inter-molecular interaction in the melt facilitated the crystallization of both EVA and HDPE components. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that HDPE and EVA have orthorhombic unit cell. Blending with EVA did not affect the crystalline structure of HDPE. In addition, a little shift of (1 1 0), (2 0 0) and (0 2 0) crystalline peaks toward lower 2θ values of samples indicating a little increase of unit cell parameters of the orthorhombic unit cell of polyethylene. Thermal fractionation results showed that co-crystallization took place in the HDPE/EVA blend. All those results indicated that the polymer pair we choose was partially miscible.

  8. Homogeneity characterization of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and hydrophobic silica nanocomposite by low field NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2005-01-01

    This project proposes the characterization of a polymeric matrix composite material using nanometric scale hydrophobic silica as charge element, with the ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), by using the spin-lattice relaxation time measurement applying the low field NMR

  9. The relationship between sol fraction and radiation dose in radiation crosslinking of low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/ethylenevinylacetate copolymer (EVA) blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.X.; Liu, Y.T.; Sun, J.Z.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, two different methods were used to prepare the blend of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). One of them was mechanical blending, and the other was solution blending. The relationship between sol fraction and radiation dose of different weight ratio polymer blends has been studied. The method to calculate the β b value of polymer blend system (LDPE/EVA) has been established. (author)

  10. Homogeneity characterization of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and hydrophobic silica nanocomposite by low field NMR; Caracterizacao da homogeneidade de nanocomposito do copolimero etileno acetato de vinila (EVA) e silica hidrofobica atraves de ressonancia magnetica nuclear de baixo campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geofisica (DGE); Tavares, Maria I.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    2005-07-01

    This project proposes the characterization of a polymeric matrix composite material using nanometric scale hydrophobic silica as charge element, with the ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), by using the spin-lattice relaxation time measurement applying the low field NMR.

  11. Covalent immobilization of lysozyme on ethylene vinyl alcohol films for nonmigrating antimicrobial packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel-Galet, V; Talbert, J N; Hernandez-Munoz, P; Gavara, R; Goddard, J M

    2013-07-10

    The objective of this study was to develop a new antimicrobial film, in which lysozyme was covalently attached onto two different ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH 29 and EVOH 44). The EVOH surface was modified with UV irradiation treatment to generate carboxylic acid groups, and lysozyme was covalently attached to the functionalized polymer surface. Surface characterization of control and modified films was performed using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and dye assay. The value of protein loading after attachment on the surface was 8.49 μg protein/cm(2) and 5.74 μg protein/cm(2) for EVOH 29 and EVOH 44, respectively, after 10 min UV irradiation and bioconjugation. The efficacy of the EVOH-lysozyme films was assessed using Micrococcus lysodeikticus. The antimicrobial activity of the films was tested against Listeria monocytogenes and was similar to an equivalent amount of free enzyme. The reduction was 1.08 log for EVOH 29-lysozyme, 0.95 log for EVOH 44-lysozyme, and 1.34 log for free lysozyme. This work confirmed the successful use of lysozyme immobilization on the EVOH surface for antimicrobial packaging.

  12. Dynamic mechanical and dielectric properties of ethylene vinyl acetate/carbon nanotube composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valentová, H.; Ilčíková, M.; Czaniková, K.; Špitalský, Z.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Nedbal, J.; Omastová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 496-512 ISSN 0022-2348 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbon nanotubes * dielectric relaxation spectroscopy * dynamic mechanical analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.740, year: 2014

  13. Ethylene vinyl alcohol: a review of barrier properties for packaging shelf stable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, K Khanah; Tang, Juming

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) is one of the best known flexible thermoplastic oxygen barrier materials in use today. It is especially important for refrigerated and shelf-stable foods where oxygen deteriorates the quality of packaged products and reduces their shelf life. EVOH accounts for a majority of thermoplastic barrier materials used for rigid or semi-rigid retortable food containers. However. it is of limited use in flexible packages or lid films for rigid trays used for packaging thermally processed shelf-stable low acid foods due to its moisture sensitivity. Nevertheless, current use of other oxygen barrier materials such as polyvinylidene chloride and aluminum foil creates environmental concerns. Innovations in food processing technologies provide opportunities for increased use of EVOH in food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of research on the oxygen barrier properties of EVOH from the perspective of structure-barrier property relationships and the consequences of food processing conditions.

  14. Synthesis of copolymers suitable for the storage and slow release of reactants. Cases of copper salts for intra-uterine devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, Gilbert; Duchemin-Berthet, Jeanne.

    1976-01-01

    This research has been carried out to determine whether a grafted poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) matrix could be prepared which would release useful amounts of copper salts when used in intra-uterine devices. Intra-uterine devices were prepared by grafting hydroxyethyl acrylate onto ethylene-vinylacetate copolymers (EVA). The kinetics of the grafting reaction were studied. The grafting reaction was initiated by cobalt 60 gamma rays using the simultaneous method. The conditions of copper salts absorption by the grafted copolymers were selected. The average quantity of copper salts released daily from the intra-uterine device was meaured as a function of grafting ratio and the amount of copper salt initially incorporated in the grafted polymeric matrix. In vitro experiments samples showed constant release rates during a period of 18 months

  15. Thermoplastic starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol/forsterite nanocomposite as a candidate material for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdieh, Zahra; Bagheri, Reza; Eslami, Masoud; Amiri, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Mehrjoo, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Recently, biodegradable polymers such as starch based blends have been well renowned in the biomedical field. Studies have considered them suitable for bone scaffolds, bone cements, tissue engineering scaffolds, drug delivery systems and hydrogels. The aim of this study was to synthesize nanocomposite biomaterial consisting a blend of thermoplastic starch and ethylene vinyl alcohol as the polymer matrix, and nano-structured forsterite as the ceramic reinforcing phase for bone tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, vitamin E was applied as a thermal stabilizer during melt compounding. Extrusion and injection molding were incorporated for melt blending and shaping of samples, respectively. With blending thermoplastic starch and ethylene vinyl alcohol, some properties of thermoplastic starch such as degradation rate and water absorption were modified. In addition, using nanoforsterite as the ceramic reinforcing phase resulted in the improvement of mechanical and biological traits. The addition of nanoforsterite decreased the weight loss of the thermoplastic starch and ethylene vinyl alcohol blend in simulated body fluid. Moreover, this addition modified the pH in the MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assay and stimulated the cell proliferation. Cell adhesion assays indicated a favorable interaction between cells and the biomaterial. The proposed nanocomposite has appropriate biocompatibility, as well as mechanical properties in order to be used in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A biodegradable nanocomposite is proposed for orthopedic applications. • Vitamin E is used as an antioxidant to prevent the thermomechanical degradations. • Nanoforsterite reduced the composite degradation rate in the simulated body fluid. • Nanoforsterite modified pH in MTT assay and stimulated cell proliferation.

  16. Thermoplastic starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol/forsterite nanocomposite as a candidate material for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdieh, Zahra [Polymeric Materials Research Group (PMRG), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-9466 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, Reza, E-mail: rezabagh@sharif.edu [Polymeric Materials Research Group (PMRG), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-9466 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eslami, Masoud; Amiri, Mohammad [Polymeric Materials Research Group (PMRG), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-9466 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Mehrjoo, Morteza [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Recently, biodegradable polymers such as starch based blends have been well renowned in the biomedical field. Studies have considered them suitable for bone scaffolds, bone cements, tissue engineering scaffolds, drug delivery systems and hydrogels. The aim of this study was to synthesize nanocomposite biomaterial consisting a blend of thermoplastic starch and ethylene vinyl alcohol as the polymer matrix, and nano-structured forsterite as the ceramic reinforcing phase for bone tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, vitamin E was applied as a thermal stabilizer during melt compounding. Extrusion and injection molding were incorporated for melt blending and shaping of samples, respectively. With blending thermoplastic starch and ethylene vinyl alcohol, some properties of thermoplastic starch such as degradation rate and water absorption were modified. In addition, using nanoforsterite as the ceramic reinforcing phase resulted in the improvement of mechanical and biological traits. The addition of nanoforsterite decreased the weight loss of the thermoplastic starch and ethylene vinyl alcohol blend in simulated body fluid. Moreover, this addition modified the pH in the MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assay and stimulated the cell proliferation. Cell adhesion assays indicated a favorable interaction between cells and the biomaterial. The proposed nanocomposite has appropriate biocompatibility, as well as mechanical properties in order to be used in bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A biodegradable nanocomposite is proposed for orthopedic applications. • Vitamin E is used as an antioxidant to prevent the thermomechanical degradations. • Nanoforsterite reduced the composite degradation rate in the simulated body fluid. • Nanoforsterite modified pH in MTT assay and stimulated cell proliferation.

  17. Preparation and characterization of film of poly vinyl acetate ethylene copolymer emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanhua; Gu, Jiyou; Tan, Haiyan; Shi, Junyou; Di, Mingwei; Zuo, Yingfeng; Qiu, Si

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate), the vinyl acetate and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were respectively used as monomers and protective colloid to prepare a new kind of polyvinyl acetate emulsion adhesive by continuous emulsion polymerization. The dynamic mechanics, particle distribution, glass transition temperature, polymer emulsion structure of both polymerized and copolymerized emulsion were analyzed by SEM, DMA and XPS, respectively. The results indicated that the copolymerized emulsion has the appropriate particle size and the uniform particle distribution, the glass transition temperature increased from 50 °C to 70 °C, compared with poly (vinyl acetate). It could be seen from XPS spectra of copolymerized emulsion that key characteristic peak of C=O was still existent. X-ray photoelectron spectra revealed that the addition of EVA did not generate the new bond, whereas the maximum percentage increases in ester was determined in the composite film with the introduction of EVA of 25%, which indicated that the composite film has copolymer structure. The storage modulus and water resistance of poly (vinyl acetate) were improved due to the introduction of the EVA.

  18. The preparation of highly absorbing cellulosic copolymers -the cellulose acetate/propionate-g.co-acrylic acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, V.; Guthrie, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A series of copolymers based on the cellulose acetate/propionate-g.co-acrylic acid system has been prepared under radiation-induced control. These copolymers have been assessed for their water-retention capacity both in an unmodified state and after ''decrystallization'' or ''neutralization'' treatments. The grafting of acrylic acid onto the cellulose acetate/propionate had little effect on the water retention power of the cellulose acetate/propionate. However, improvements to the water retentivity was obtained after ''decrystallization'' procedures had been carried out on the copolymers using selected alkali metal salts with methanol as the continuous medium. The water-retentivity of the copolymers increased with increase in the extent of grafting, though the effect is less pronounced at high graft levels. Neutralization of the functional groups of the grafted branches provided a route to obtaining a marked increase in the level of water retentivity. Excessive salt concentrations gave reduced levels of water retentivity. Cesium carbonate and sodium carbonate have been shown to be effective in providing marked improvements in the water-retaining capacity of the copolymers. Maxima in performance are shown with respect to the treatment conditions. (author)

  19. Embolisation of acute abdominal and thoracal bleeding with ethylene-vinyl-alcohol copolymer (Onyx {sup registered}); Embolisation akuter abdomineller und thorakaler Blutungen mit Ethylen-Vinyl-Alkohol-Kopolymer (Onyx {sup registered}). Erste Erfahrungen im arteriellen Gefaessgebiet des Koerperstamms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamus, R.; Uder, M.; Kleinschmidt, T.; Detmar, K.; Bolte, R.; Stein, H.; Loose, R.W.

    2010-10-15

    During the last years most embolizations with the liquid agent Onyx have been performed in the field of neuroradiological interventions. There is minimal experience with arterial embolizations of the body trunk. 23 patients suffering from acute abdominal or thoracic bleeding underwent 28 embolizations with Onyx (17 male, 6 female, mean age 69 years). 27 interventions were technically and clinically successful. One patient with rebleeding from a jejunal artery aneurysm underwent surgery. Onyx embolizations were performed in renal, hepatic, iliac and bronchial arteries and esophageal varices. Compared with prior embolisation agents Onyx offers advantages due to good controllability. Fast arterial occlusion improves time management of patients. In comparison with prior techniques we observed a significant reduction of fluoroscopy time. Quantitative measurements demonstrated a significant higher embolisation agent contrast. (orig.)

  20. Statistical analysis of nitrogen-containing vinyl copolymers: radiation-induced copolymerization of vinyl acetate and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peppas, N.A.; Gehr, T.W.B.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation-induced copolymerization of vinyl acetate and N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone was carried out at 5 0 C using γ-irradiation of 1450 rads/min. Copolymers prepared at conversions lower than 5% were analyzed by a saponification technique. Various linear and nonlinear statistical analysis techniques were used to determine the reactivity ratios of this system as r 1 = 0.348 and r 2 = 3.108. These data were examined and analyzed in relation to problems of elemental analysis involving nitrogen-containing copolymers and to discrepancies in the reactivity ratios obtained by previous investigators. The presence of oxygen and a higher dose rate did not affect the copolymer composition within statistical error. Hydrolyzed copolymers prepared by this method have potential applications as biocompatible materials

  1. Radiation-induced grafting from binary mixture of monomers onto cellulose acetate film and the characterization of the graft copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.N.; Maldas, D.

    1984-01-01

    Binary mixtures of styrene and acrylamide in methanol-water were grafted onto cellulose acetate films by taking recourse to preirradiation grafting technique. The extent of total grafting was determined from the measured weight increase. The percent acrylamide residue in the graft copolymer was calculated from the observed nitrogen content but the polystyrene residue in the grafted sample was determined by IR spectral studies. When the specific permeability of water vapour through the grafted films is measured, it is observed that the specific permeability increases with the increase of grafting of acrylamide in all humidities, but in case of styrene which is a nonpolar molecule the permeability is found to show a reversed order. In the case of mixed graft the permeability pattern pertains to that when both styrene and acrylamide have their effective roles to play. (author)

  2. Alanine/epr pellet dosimeter using poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer as a binder for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshir, W.B.; Ezz El-Din, H.M.; Abdel-fatth, A.A.; Ebraheem, S.

    2005-01-01

    A new alanine pellet dosimeter was developed for gamma and electron beam radiation dosimetry. Alanine powder was mixed with a new binding material, poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) copolymer. Pellets were prepared by pressing fine powder alanine with 60% copolymer binder by using hydraulic press and a specially designed pressing die. The radiation-formed stable free radicals were analysed by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The useful dose range of these pellets was found to ranges from 1 to 80 kGy. The stability of the radiation- induced response was also studied

  3. 21 CFR 178.1005 - Hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA.... Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers Complying with § 177.1350 of this chapter. Ionomeric resins Complying...

  4. Glatiramer Acetate in Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Toolbox of Random Co-Polymers for Targeting Inflammatory Mechanisms of both the Innate and Adaptive Immune System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vorup-Jensen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system, resulting in the demyelination of neurons, causing mild to severe symptoms. Several anti-inflammatory treatments now play a significant role in ameliorating the disease. Glatiramer acetate (GA is a formulation of random polypeptide copolymers for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS by limiting the frequency of attacks. While evidence suggests the influence of GA on inflammatory responses, the targeted molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we review the multiple pharmacological modes-of-actions of glatiramer acetate in treatment of multiple sclerosis. We discuss in particular a newly discovered interaction between the leukocyte-expressed integrin αMβ2 (also called Mac-1, complement receptor 3, or CD11b/CD18 and perspectives on the GA co-polymers as an influence on the function of the innate immune system.

  5. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for studying N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate copolymers and their dissolution behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Ghaffar, Abdul; Feilden, Andrew; Treacher, Kevin; Janssen, Hans-Gerd; Schoenmakers, Peter

    2011-11-14

    Knowledge on the solubility behaviour and dissolution rate of speciality and commodity polymers is very important for the use of such materials in high-tech applications. We have developed methods for the quantification and characterization of dissolved copolymers of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (VP) and vinyl acetate (VA) during dissolution in water. The methods are based on pyrolysis (Py) performed in a programmed-temperature vaporization injector with subsequent identification and quantification of the components in the pyrolysate using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By injecting large volumes and applying cryo-focussing at the top of the column, low detection limits could be achieved. The monomer ratio was found to have the greatest effect on the dissolution rate of the PVP-co-VA copolymers. The material with the highest amount of VA (50%) dissolves significantly slower than the other grades. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and Py-GC-MS were used to measure molecular weights and average chemical compositions, respectively. Combined off-line SEC//Py-GC-MS was used to determine the copolymer composition (VP/VA ratio), as a function of the molecular weight for the pure polymers. In the dissolution experiments, a constant VP/VA ratio across the dissolution curve was observed for all copolymers analysed. This suggests a random distribution of the two monomers over the molecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of surfactant and electron treatment on the electrical and thermal conductivity as well as thermal and mechanical properties of ethylene vinyl acetate/expanded graphite composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sefadi, J. S.; Lyut, A. S.; Pionteck, J.; Piana, Francesco; Gohs, U.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 32 (2015), 42396_1-42396_10 ISSN 0021-8995 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : composites * cross-linking * irradiation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.866, year: 2015

  7. Preparation, Characterization and Permeation Behavior of Poly(methyl acrylate-Poly(dimethyl siloxane-Poly(methyl acrylate Block Copolymer/Poly(vinyl acetate Blend Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Structure of polymeric materials is of the most important factors in determination of the characteristics and properties of the membranes. Various research and developments on polymeric membranes confirm the direct correlation between structure-properties of polymeric membranes. In this research, the structural outcome of poly(methyl acrylate-poly(dimethyl siloxane-poly(methyl acrylate/poly(vinyl acetate blend membranes and its relationship with gas permeation behavior of the blends were investigated. The flexible block copolymer of poly(methyl acrylate-poly(dimethyl siloxane-poly(methyl acrylate (PMA-PDMS-PMA was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization. Morphology and chemical structure of the synthesized block copolymer was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Blend membranes of PMA-PDMS-PMA and poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc were prepared by solution casting method in different compositions. By adding poly(vinyl acetate to PMA-PDMS-PMA block copolymer, the selectivity of the membranes for carbon dioxide/methane pair gases were increased by 55%. Fractional free volume (an indication of chain packing efficiency in blend membranes and dielectric constant (an indication of the molar volume and molar polarization of the blend membranes were obtained as the factors reflected the microstructural effect of PMA-PDMS-PMA and PVAc blend membranes. The efforts were directed toward expressing more precise structure-properties relationship of PMA-PDMS-PMA/PVAc blend membranes. The experimental permeability values of the blend membranes reported in this research were compared with the modified logarithmic model. The modified logarithmic model was evaluated for other blend membranes.

  8. [Prediction of Encapsulation Temperatures of Copolymer Films in Photovoltaic Cells Using Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques and Chemometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ping; Chen, Yong-ming; Yao, Zhi-lei

    2015-11-01

    A novel method of combination of the chemometrics and the hyperspectral imaging techniques was presented to detect the temperatures of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate copolymer (EVA) films in photovoltaic cells during the thermal encapsulation process. Four varieties of the EVA films which had been heated at the temperatures of 128, 132, 142 and 148 °C during the photovoltaic cells production process were used for investigation in this paper. These copolymer encapsulation films were firstly scanned by the hyperspectral imaging equipment (Spectral Imaging Ltd. Oulu, Finland). The scanning band range of hyperspectral equipemnt was set between 904.58 and 1700.01 nm. The hyperspectral dataset of copolymer films was randomly divided into two parts for the training and test purpose. Each type of the training set and test set contained 90 and 10 instances, respectively. The obtained hyperspectral images of EVA films were dealt with by using the ENVI (Exelis Visual Information Solutions, USA) software. The size of region of interest (ROI) of each obtained hyperspectral image of EVA film was set as 150 x 150 pixels. The average of reflectance hyper spectra of all the pixels in the ROI was used as the characteristic curve to represent the instance. There kinds of chemometrics methods including partial least squares regression (PLSR), multi-class support vector machine (SVM) and large margin nearest neighbor (LMNN) were used to correlate the characteristic hyper spectra with the encapsulation temperatures of of copolymer films. The plot of weighted regression coefficients illustrated that both bands of short- and long-wave near infrared hyperspectral data contributed to enhancing the prediction accuracy of the forecast model. Because the attained reflectance hyperspectral data of EVA materials displayed the strong nonlinearity, the prediction performance of linear modeling method of PLSR declined and the prediction precision only reached to 95%. The kernel-based forecast models were

  9. The reactivity of linseed and soybean oil with different epoxidation degree towards vinyl acetate and impact of the resulting copolymer on the wood durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jebrane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Linseed (LO and soybean oil (SO were in–situ epoxidized with peracetic acid to produce different degree of epoxidized LO and epoxidized SO. For comparison purpose, commercial epoxidized linseed oil (ELO® and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO® were also included in the study. The effect of epoxidation degree on the copolymerization reaction between epoxidized oils and vinyl acetate (VAc was investigated. Results showed that a copolymer can be formed between VAc and epoxidized LO with high epoxy content, while no reaction occurred between VAc and SO or its epoxidized derivatives. As the most reactive monomer among the studied oils, the epoxidized LO with highest epoxy content (i.e. ELO® was mixed with VAc and then impregnated into the wood using three different ELO®/VAc formulations either as solution or as emulsions. After curing, the impact of the resulting copolymer issued from the three tested formulations on the wood durability was evaluated. Results showed that the formulation comprising VAc, ELO®, H2O, K2S2O8 and alkaline emulsifier (Formulation 3 can significantly improve wood’s durability against white rot- (Trametes versicolor and brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana. Treated wood of 8% weight percentage gain (WPG was sufficient to ensure decay resistance against the test fungi with less than 5% mass loss.

  10. Modification of PE/PP Polymer Blend Nanocomposites with EPR and EVA Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenčić, J.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the use of polyolephinic polymers has been growing in a wide range of fields of applicability and the most widely used polymers are polyethylene and polypropylene. They can be processed separately to produce items with certain properties as well as in the form of blends, where special combinations of properties and price are intended. As it is known, polyethylene (PE and polypropylene (PP are incompatible and the weak interfacial bond strength between the phases directly linked to the blend morphology and results in poor mechanical properties. The properties of many polymer blends arise from the fine-scale structural arrangements or blend morphologies obtained during processing in addition to the proportion of each polymer type present. Compounding PE/PP blends with a single compatibilizer or their combination or some other additives as nanofiller, results in multi-component composites of great interest to research as they enable simultaneous improvement in the final properties of the blend. In addition, it is well known that the extrusion process has a significant effect on the dispersion of the filler in the blends. In this work, the mutual effect of the nanofiller silicium-dioxide (SiO2 and the compatibilizers ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPR and ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA on the properties of blends based on polyethylene and polypropylene were studied. The morphology of the samples prepared with nanofiller and compatibilizers is much finer in comparison to the virgin blend. Better dispersion of nanofiller will result in better stability of the polymer blend and decrease in polymer flammability. The addition of the nanofiller and compatibilizers produced an increase in the elasticity especially for the samples prepared in the two-stage extrusion process where the nanofiller was first extruded with PE matrix and then with other polymers of the blends. SEM micrographs confirm finer morphology of samples

  11. Poly(vinyl acetate-Based Block Copolymer/Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by In Situ Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Semsarzadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Atom transfer radical polymerization of styrene (St and methyl methacrylate (MMA was performed at 90oC in the absence and presence of nanoclay (Cloisite 30B. Trichloromethyl-terminated poly(vinyl acetate telomerand CuCl/ PMDETA were used as a macroinitiator and catalyst system, respectively. The experimental results showed that the atom transfer radical polymerization of St and MMA in the absence or presence of nanoclay proceeds via a controlled/living mode. It was observed that nanoclay significantly enhances the homopolymerization rate of MMA, which was attributed to the activated conjugated C=C bond of MMA monomer via interaction between the carbonyl group of MMA monomer and the hydroxyl moiety (Al-O-H of nanoclay as well as the effect of nanoclay on the dynamic equilibrium between the active (macro radicals and dormant species.Homopolymerization rate of St (a non-coordinative monomer with nanoclay decreased slightly in the presence of nanoclay. This could be explained by insertion of a portion of macroinitiator into the clay galleries, where no sufficient St monomer exists due to the low compatibility or interaction of St monomer with nanoclay to react with the macroinitiator. The results obtained from XRD, TEM and TGA analyses were fully in agreement with the kinetic data. Structure of the poly(vinyl acetate-bpolystyrene nanocomposite was found to be a combination of stacking layers and exfoliated structures while poly(vinyl acetate-b-poly(methyl methacryale nanocomposite had an exfoliated structure. This difference in the structure of nanocomposites was attributed to the different capability of the monomers (styrene and methyl methacrylate to react with the hydroxyl moiety (Al-O-H of nanoclay.

  12. Metal hydride electrode and nickel hydrogen storage battery; Suiso kyuzo gokin denkyoku oyobi nikkeru-suiso chikudenchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Tamagawa, H. [Shin-Kobe Electric Machinery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikawa, A.; Muranaka, R. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.

    1996-04-16

    Water soluble polymers such as cellulose derivatives and polyvinylalcohol have been used conventionally as binders for metal hydride electrode used for nickel-hydrogen storage batteries. The shortcomings of those binders, however, are low flexibility, and poor binding property for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder and the conductive supporting substrate. This invention relates to the use of ethylene-vinyl copolymer with less than -10{degree}C Tg as the binder for hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. It is desirable that the ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer is selected out of ethylene-vinyl acetate-acryl copolymer and ethylene-vinyl acetate-long chain vinyl ester copolymer, and that the addition is larger than 0.1wt% and less than 1wt% against the weight of hydrogen absorbing alloy in the electrode. The use of this binder results in strong binding of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder to the conductive supporting substrate, providing flexibility as well. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Guiding principle for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules with high tolerance to acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Hara, Yukiko

    2018-04-01

    A guiding principle for highly reliable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules, especially those with high tolerance to acetic acid generated by hydrolysis reaction between water vapor and an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant, is proposed. Degradation behavior evaluated by the damp heat test strongly depends on Ag finger electrodes and also EVA encapsulants. The acetic acid concentration in EVA on the glass side directly determines the degradation behavior. The most important factor for high tolerance is the type of Ag finger electrode materials when using an EVA encapsulant. Photovoltaic modules using newly developed crystalline Si cells with improved Ag finger electrode materials keep their maximum power of 80% of the initial value even after the damp heat test at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity for 10000 h. The pattern of dark regions in electroluminescence images is also discussed on the basis of the dynamics of acetic acid in the modules.

  14. Enhanced dissolution rate of dronedarone hydrochloride via preparation of solid dispersion using vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidone® VA 64)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyuck Jun; Kang, Myung Joo [College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Duk [Dong-A ST Rese arch Institute, Pharmaceutical Product Research Laboratories, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Solid dispersion (SD) systems have been widely used to increase the dissolution rate and oral absorption of poorly water-soluble compounds. In order to enhance the dissolution rate of dronedarone hydrochloride (DRN), a recent antiarrhythmic agent, SDs of DRN were formulated using conventional solvent evaporation method with amorphous polymers including hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), and vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (VA64). The prepared SDs were characterized in terms of drug crystallinity, morphology, and in vitro dissolution profile in aqueous medium. The physical characterization using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the active compound was molecularly dispersed in all polymeric carriers tested, in a stable amorphous form in drug to polymer ratios ranging from 1:0.5 to 1:2. The dissolution rates of DRN in all SDs were much higher than those from the corresponding physical mixture and drug powder alone. In particular, the greatest dissolution enhancement was obtained from the VA64-based SD in a drug to polymer weight ratio of 1:1, achieving almost complete drug release after 120 min at pH 1.2. Thus, VA64-based SD with higher drug dissolution rate along with a simple preparation process is suggested as an alternative for the oral formulation of the benzofuran derivative.

  15. Study on thermal properties and crystallization behavior of electron beam irradiated ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA)/waste tyre dust (WTD) blends in the presence of polyethylene graft maleic anhydride (PEgMAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Syuhada; Ahmad, S. H. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan (Malaysia); Ratnam, C. T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia); Athirah, Nurul [School of Materials and Mineral Resources, USM Engineering Campus (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The aim of this article is to show the effects of the electron beam irradiation dose and presence of a compatibiliser on the thermal properties and crystallinity of EVA/WTD blends. The purpose of applying electron beam radiation with doses range 50 to 200 kGy and adding a compatibiliser was to enhance the compatibility of the studied blends and at the same time to investigate the possibility of using this technique in the process of recycling polymeric materials. As the compatibilisers, the polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (PEgMAH) was utilized, they were added at the amounts of 1-5 phr respectively. The enhancement of thermal properties was accompanied by the following effects, discussed in this article: i) an irradiated EVA/WTD blend at 200kGy was found to improve the thermal properties of EVA, ii) the addition of PEgMAH in EVA/WTD blends and the subsequent irradiation allowed prevention of degradation mechanism. iii) the ΔH{sub f} and crystallinity percentage decrease at higher PEgMAH content.

  16. The method of polymer compositions manufacturing on the base of polypropylene[Radiation processing]; Sposob wytwarzania kompozycji polimerow na bazie polipropylenu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z; Bulhak, Z; Bojarski, J; Stachowicz, W [Warsaw (Poland); Mirkowski, K [Legionowo (Poland)

    1966-06-28

    The method of manufacturing of radiation resistant polymer composition of medical quality have been proposed. The raw material consisted of polypropylene homopolymer with propylene-ethylene copolymer, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and polystyrene suspension have been mixed and extruded during heating at 190-270{sup o}C. Then obtained mixture have been granulated. The material structure with microagglomerates is responsible for elevated radiation resistance of material being destinated for medical devices production and radiosterilization.

  17. EVA/TiO2 nanocomposite: Study of the properties thermal and crystallinity of the EVA/TiO2 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentim, Ana C.S.; Tavares, Maria I.B.; Silva, Emerson O. da

    2011-01-01

    The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the thermal properties and crystallinity of the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer containing 28% vinyl acetate were investigated. The EVA/TiO 2 nanocomposite films with TiO 2 contents of 0,10-1% relative to the total mass of EVA, were prepared via solution. The prepared films were characterized using TG, and XRD methods. (author)

  18. Irradiated multilayer film for primal meat packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustig, S.; Schuetz, J.M.; Vicik, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent deals with a heat-shrinkable, multilayer film suitable for use in fabricating bags for packaging primal and sub-primal meat cuts and processed meats. The multilayer film has a first outer layer of a first ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, a core layer of a polyvinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride copolymer containing between about 70 weight percent and about 90 weight percent vinylidene chloride as a barrier film, and a second outer layer of a second ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The multilayer film is preferably made by co-extrusion of the layers, and then it is biaxially stretched. After biaxial stretching, the entire multilayer film is substantially uniformly irradiated to a dosage level of between about 2 megarads and about 3 megarads and heat-sealed in the form of a bag. The film is not significantly discoloured by the irradiation and the bag has improved toughness properties and heat-sealing characteristics

  19. Irradiated multilayer film for primal meat packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustig, S.; Schuetz, J.M.; Vicik, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent deals with a heat-shrinkable, multilayer film suitable for use in fabricating bags for packaging primal and sub-primal meat cuts and processed meats. The multilayer film has a first outer layer of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, a core layer of a barrier film comprising vinylidene chloride-methyl acrylate copolymer, and a second outer layer of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The multilayer film is preferably made by co-extrusion of the layers, and then it is biaxially stretched. After biaxial stretching, the multilayer film is irradiated to a dosage level of between 1 megarad and 5 megarads and heat-sealed in the form of a bag. The bag has improved storage stability characteristics

  20. Composites containing acetylated wheat B-starch for agriculture applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárka, E.; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Kotek, Jiří; Růžek, L.; Voříšek, K.; Koláček, J.; Hrušková, K.; Růžková, M.; Ekrt, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 8 (2012), s. 354-359 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable plastic * polycaprolactone * ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.113, year: 2012 http://www.agriculturejournals.cz/publicFiles/71491.pdf

  1. Multiscale Modeling of Thermal Conductivity of Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Frankland, Sarah-Jane V.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation was used to estimate the interfacial thermal (Kapitza) resistance between nanoparticles and amorphous and crystalline polymer matrices. Bulk thermal conductivities of the nanocomposites were then estimated using an established effective medium approach. To study functionalization, oligomeric ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers were chemically bonded to a single wall carbon nanotube. The results, in a poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) matrix, are similar to those obtained previously for grafted linear hydrocarbon chains. To study the effect of noncovalent functionalization, two types of polyethylene matrices. -- aligned (extended-chain crystalline) vs. amorphous (random coils) were modeled. Both matrices produced the same interfacial thermal resistance values. Finally, functionalization of edges and faces of plate-like graphite nanoparticles was found to be only modestly effective in reducing the interfacial thermal resistance and improving the composite thermal conductivity

  2. Sorption of water vapor in partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.G.; Honeycutt, S.C.

    1973-01-01

    The sorption kinetics of H 2 O and D 2 O in copolymers of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) were studied and compared with the sorption kinetics of vinyl acetate--vinyl alcohol copolymers, and poly(vinyl alcohol). The special measurement problems presented by transient-state sorption studies in water vapor--polymer systems and their effects on the results are discussed

  3. Olefin–Styrene Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Nunzia Galdi; Antonio Buonerba; Leone Oliva

    2016-01-01

    In this review are reported some of the most relevant achievements in the chemistry of the ethylene–styrene copolymerization and in the characterization of the copolymer materials. Focus is put on the relationship between the structure of the catalyst and that of the obtained copolymer. On the other hand, the wide variety of copolymer architecture is related to the properties of the material and to the potential utility.

  4. Silicon containing copolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Sahar; Amiri, Sanam

    2014-01-01

    Silicones have unique properties including thermal oxidative stability, low temperature flow, high compressibility, low surface tension, hydrophobicity and electric properties. These special properties have encouraged the exploration of alternative synthetic routes of well defined controlled microstructures of silicone copolymers, the subject of this Springer Brief. The authors explore the synthesis and characterization of notable block copolymers. Recent advances in controlled radical polymerization techniques leading to the facile synthesis of well-defined silicon based thermo reversible block copolymers?are described along with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), a technique utilized to develop well-defined functional thermo reversible block copolymers. The brief also focuses on Polyrotaxanes and their great potential as stimulus-responsive materials which produce poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) based thermo reversible block copolymers.

  5. Determination of the distribution of graft yields following a radiation-induced graft copolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipschack, K.; Wagner, H.; Sawtschenko, L.

    1976-01-01

    In the radiation-induced graft copolymerization on solid initial polymers a distribution of graft yields takes place along the cross-sections of samples. Methods for determining this distribution, which are described in the literature, are reviewed. In our own investigations boards made of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers and grafted with vinyl chloride were used. Distributions of the grafted component obtained by infrared analysis of microtome cuts parallel to the surface are partly rather inhomogeneous, and are interpreted as dependent on the experimental parameters. (author)

  6. Fire retardancy and environmental assessment of rubbery blends of recycled polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Flame retarded thermoplastic polymer compounds were prepared containing recycled rubber tyres, low density polyethylene, ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer and an intumescent additive system consisting of waste polyurethane foam and ammonium polyphosphate. The effect of the additives on the combustion properties was characterised by Limiting Oxygen Index, UL 94 and mass loss calorimetric measurements. The environmental impact was estimated by determining the gas components of CO2 and CO evolving from the compounds during the burning process using a gas analyser system constructed by coupling an FTIR unit to a mass loss calorimeter. The new material forms a thermoplastic rubber of excellent processability making it suitable for application in construction industry.

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity of radiosterilized implantable materials; Ocena wplywu sterylizacji radiacyjnej na toksycznosc wybranych materialow implantacyjnych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowska-Szumiel, M.; Kudelska, D.; Mazur, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland); Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-01

    Autoclave and radiation sterilization modes of selected biomaterials and polymers were studied to evaluate the toxicity, if any, induced in the cells grown in vitro. The materials examined induced: crystalline and amorphous biocarbon, alumina, hydroxyapatite, powdered primary PP (radiation-sensitive), and PP modified with a polypropylene/ethylene or an ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer to enhance its radiation resistance. Results showed no material to be toxic toward the cell examined. The viability of the cells cultivated in the presence of materials examined was found to remain unaffected regardless of the sterilization mode. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs.

  8. Evaluation of the toxicity of radiosterilized implantable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowska-Szumiel, M.; Kudelska, D.; Mazur, M.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Autoclave and radiation sterilization modes of selected biomaterials and polymers were studied to evaluate the toxicity, if any, induced in the cells grown in vitro. The materials examined induced: crystalline and amorphous biocarbon, alumina, hydroxyapatite, powdered primary PP (radiation-sensitive), and PP modified with a polypropylene/ethylene or an ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer to enhance its radiation resistance. Results showed no material to be toxic toward the cell examined. The viability of the cells cultivated in the presence of materials examined was found to remain unaffected regardless of the sterilization mode. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  9. Thermal transfer recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Fukushima, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Shinozuka, M.; Seikohsha, K. K. Suwa

    1988-08-01

    The recording media consist of more than or one coloring layer and a layer containing a flame retardant to ensure noncombustibility and good thermal transfer. Thus, a PET film was coated on a side with a compound containing Vylon 290 (polyester resin), AFR-1021 (decabromodiphenyl oxide) 8 and Polysafe 60 (Sb oxide), and coated on the other side with a compound containing carnauba wax, HNP-9 (paraffin wax), EV-410 (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer), and Cu phthalocyanine to give a thermal transfer recording medium which showed good noncombustibility and antiblocking properties, and provided high quality images.

  10. Estudo do comportamento de materiais não convencionais utilizados como revestimento de paredes, visando à redução da carga térmica.

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Vívian Aparecida Lima

    2012-01-01

    A presente dissertação estudou o compartamento térmico, físico e mecânico das argamassas de revestimentos compostas por gesso puro, gesso/EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer) e gesso/vermiculita aplicadas nas superficies das paredes de edificação visando à redução da carga térmica relativamente às paredes convencionais constituídas de tijolos de cerâmica e argamassas de cimento-areia, tomadas como referência. O objetivo foi obter um material capaz de reduzir a carga térmica e, por conseguin...

  11. Optical and Scanning electron Microscopy as advanced analysis methods to determine the condition of synthetic geo membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano Carrillo, J.; Blanco Fernandez, M.; Garcia Calleja, M. A.; Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.; Aguilar Gonzalez, E.; Rubin de Celix, M.

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic techniques have been widely used for years in the study of inorganic materials however their use in organic materials and specifically, in synthetic geo membranes, is very limited. In this study, this innovative technology has been used with the different geo synthetic polymeric barriers with which this research team is experienced: plasticized polyvinyl chloride, polyethylenes, rubbers such as ethenyltriphenyl-diene monomer terpolymer and butyl, polyolefins, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, chlorosulfonated polyethylene and polypropylene. the influence of the extraction area and the time since their application is tested. (Author)

  12. Optical and Scanning electron Microscopy as advanced analysis methods to determine the condition of synthetic geo membranes; Las microscopias optica de reflexion y electronica de barrido como metodos avanzados de analisis para conocer el estado de las geomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano Carrillo, J.; Blanco Fernandez, M.; Garcia Calleja, M. A.; Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.; Aguilar Gonzalez, E.; Rubin de Celix, M.

    2014-02-01

    Microscopic techniques have been widely used for years in the study of inorganic materials however their use in organic materials and specifically, in synthetic geo membranes, is very limited. In this study, this innovative technology has been used with the different geo synthetic polymeric barriers with which this research team is experienced: plasticized polyvinyl chloride, polyethylenes, rubbers such as ethenyltriphenyl-diene monomer terpolymer and butyl, polyolefins, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, chlorosulfonated polyethylene and polypropylene. the influence of the extraction area and the time since their application is tested. (Author)

  13. Polyethylene organo-clay nanocomposites: the role of the interface chemistry on the extent of clay intercalation/exfoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainil, Michaël; Alexandre, Michaël; Monteverde, Fabien; Dubois, Philippe

    2006-02-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE)/clay nanocomposites have been prepared using three different functionalized polyethylene compatibilizers: an ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer, a polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride functions and a (styrene-b-ethylene/butylene-b-styrene) block copolymer. The nanocomposites were prepared via two different routes: (1) the dispersion in HDPE of a masterbatch prepared from the compatibilizer and the clay or (2) the direct melt blending of the three components. For each compatibilizer, essentially intercalated nanocomposites were formed as determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. With the ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer, a significant delamination of the intercalated clay in thin stacks was observed. This dispersion of thin intercalated stacks within the polymer matrix allowed increasing significantly the stiffness and the flame resistance of the nanocomposite. A positive effect of shear rate and blending time has also been put into evidence, especially for the process based on the masterbatch preparation, improving both the formation of thin stacks of intercalated clay and the mechanical properties and the flame resistance of the formed nanocomposites.

  14. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Lee D.; Mohamed, Mohamed H.; Berhaut, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC) were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g), CDI-X cop...

  15. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  16. Radiation induced copolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone with vinyl acetate [Paper No. RD-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, M.S.; Dhal, P.K.; Deshpande, D.D.; Babu, G.N.

    1982-01-01

    Copolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP) with vinyl acetate (VAC) was carried out using gamma-ray radiation. The compositions of the copolymers were determined from elemental analysis and the monomer reactivity ratios have been calculated using YBR method. The glass transition temperature and the intrinsic viscosities of the copolymers have been determined. All the experimental results were discussed in terms of the nature of the monomers. (author)

  17. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee D. Wilson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g, CDI-X copolymers (< 101 m2/g, and granular activated carbon (GAC ~103 m2/g. The sorption capacities for the copolymers sorbents are listed in descending order, as follows: GAC > CDI-3 copolymer ≈ MDI-3 copolymer. The sorption capacity for the aromatic adsorbates with each sorbent are listed in descending order, as follows: 2,4-dichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid > pentachlorophenol. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents with the chlorinated organics were related to the following factors: (i surface area of the sorbent; (ii CD content and accessibility; and (iii and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  18. Thermal stability of homo- and copolymers of vinyl fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raucher, D.; Levy, M.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal stability of poly(vinyl fluoride)(PVF) was studied by thermal gravimetry and mass spectrometry (TGA and TGA-MS). In low-molecular-weight polymers a two-step decomposition pattern was observed. It consisted of the dehydrofluorination to a polyene chain followed by decomposition of the resulting polyene at higher temperatures. Copolymers of vinyl fluoride-vinyl acetate (VF-VAc) and vinyl fluoride-vinyl chloride (VF-VCl) showed a simultaneous evolution of hydrofluoric acid and acetic acid and hydrofluoric acid and hydrochloric acid, respectively. This suggests that after the elimination of the weakest link a spontaneous elimination of neighboring HF molecules takes place

  19. Characterisation of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers with controllable four-monomer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Lambert, Lynette; Yuan, Zhiguo; Keller, Jurg

    2008-03-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers comprising the four monomers 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), 3-hydroxy-2-methylvalerate (3HMV) and 3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrate (3HMB) were generated using the recently discovered Defluviicoccus vanus-related glycogen accumulating organisms (DvGAOs) under anaerobic conditions without applying any nutrient limitations. The composition could be manipulated in a defined range by modifying the ratio of propionate and acetate provided in the feed stream. The PHAs produced were characterised as random copolymers (from propionate alone) or a mixture of random copolymers (from mixture of propionate and acetate) through microstructure analysis using 13C NMR spectroscopy. The sequence distribution of all eight comonomer pairs in the carbonyl region of 3HB and 3HV was identified and assigned with confidence utilising two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple bond coherence (HMBC) spectroscopy. Weight average molecular weights were in the range 390-560 kg/mol. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) traces showed that the melting temperature (Tm) varied between 70 and 161 degrees C and glass transition temperature (Tg) ranged from -8 to 0 degrees C. The incorporation of considerable amounts of 3HMV and 3HMB monomer units introduced additional "defects" into the PHBV copolymer structure and hence greatly lowered the crystallinity. The data indicate the potential of these four-monomer PHAs to be employed for practical applications, considering their favourable properties and the cost-effective production process using a mixed culture and simple carbon sources.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of important heterocyclic acrylic copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The acrylate monomer, 7-acryloyloxy-4-methyl coumarin (AMC has been synthesized by reacting 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, with acryloyl chloride in the presence of NaOH at 0–5°C. Copolymers of 7-acryloyloxy-4-methyl coumarin (AMC with vinyl acetate (VAc were synthesized in DMF (dimethyl formamide solution at 70±1°C using 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as an initiator with different monomer-to-monomer ratios in the feed. The copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy. The copolymer composition was evaluated by 1H-NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance and was further used to determine reactivity ratios. The monomer reactivity ratios for AMC (M1-VAc (M2 pair were determined by the application of conventional linearization methods such as Fineman-Ross (r1 = 0.6924; r2 = 0.6431, Kelen-Tüdõs (r1 = 0.6776; r2 = 0.6374 and extended Kelen-Tüdõs (r1 = 0.6657; r2 = 0.6256. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed that thermal decomposition of the copolymers occurred in single stage in the temperature range of 263–458°C. The molecular weights of the polymers were determined using gel permeation chromatography. The homo and copolymers were tested for their antimicrobial properties against selected microorganisms.

  1. Block coordination copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  2. Sorption of Aromatic Compounds with Copolymer Sorbent Materials Containing β-Cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lee D; Mohamed, Mohamed H; Berhaut, Christopher L

    2011-08-29

    Urethane copolymer sorbent materials that incorporate β-cyclodextrin (CD) have been prepared and their sorption properties with chlorinated aromatic compounds (i.e., pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) have been evaluated. The sorption properties of granular activated carbon (GAC) were similarly compared in aqueous solution at variable pH conditions. The sorbents displayed variable BET surface areas as follows: MDI-X copolymers (granular activated carbon (GAC ~10³ m²/g). The sorption capacities for the copolymers sorbents are listed in descending order, as follows: GAC > CDI-3 copolymer ≈ MDI-3 copolymer. The sorption capacity for the aromatic adsorbates with each sorbent are listed in descending order, as follows: 2,4-dichlorophenol > 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid > pentachlorophenol. In general, the differences in the sorption properties of the copolymer sorbents with the chlorinated organics were related to the following factors: (i) surface area of the sorbent; (ii) CD content and accessibility; and (iii) and the chemical nature of the sorbent material.

  3. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  4. Aging Studies of VCE Dismantlement Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letant, S; Alviso, C; Pearson, M; Albo, R; Small, W; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

    2011-10-17

    VCE is an ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymer binder for filled elastomers which is designed to accept high filler loadings. Filled elastomer parts consist of the binder (VCE), a curing agent (Hylene MP, diphenol-4-4{prime}-methylenebis(phenylcarbamate)), a processing aid (LS, lithium stearate), and filler particles (typically 70% fraction by weight). The curing of the filled elastomer parts occurs from the heat-activated reaction between the hydroxyl groups of VCE with the Hylene MP curing agent, resulting in a cross-linked network. The final vinyl acetate content is typically between 34.9 and 37.9%, while the vinyl alcohol content is typically between 1.27 and 1.78%. Surveillance data for this material is both scarce and scattered, complicating the assessment of any aging trends in systems. In addition, most of the initial surveillance efforts focused on mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength, and chemical information is therefore lacking. Material characterization and aging studies had been performed on previous formulations of the VCE material but the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) starting copolymer is no longer commercially available. New formulations with replacement EVA materials are currently being established and will require characterization as well as updated aging models.

  5. 76 FR 21702 - Foreign-Trade Subzone 124B; Application for Expansion; North American Shipbuilding, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... components of iron, doors, tefrotex (ethylene-vinyl acetate), floor coatings, rock wool/mineral wool, wooden... analyze the facts and information presented in the application and case record and to report findings and...

  6. Polyether/Polyester Graft Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L., Jr.; Wakelyn, N.; Stoakley, D. M.; Proctor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Higher solvent resistance achieved along with lower melting temperature. New technique provides method of preparing copolymers with polypivalolactone segments grafted onto poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide) backbone. Process makes strong materials with improved solvent resistance and crystalline, thermally-reversible crosslinks. Resulting graft copolymers easier to fabricate into useful articles, including thin films, sheets, fibers, foams, laminates, and moldings.

  7. Ulipristal acetate versus leuprolide acetate for uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques; Tomaszewski, Janusz; Vázquez, Francisco; Bouchard, Philippe; Lemieszczuk, Boguslav; Baró, Francesco; Nouri, Kazem; Selvaggi, Luigi; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and side-effect profile of ulipristal acetate as compared with those of leuprolide acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are unclear. In this double-blind noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 307 patients with symptomatic fibroids and excessive uterine bleeding to receive 3 months of daily therapy with oral ulipristal acetate (at a dose of either 5 mg or 10 mg) or once-monthly intramuscular injections of leuprolide acetate (at a dose of 3.75 mg). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with controlled bleeding at week 13, with a prespecified noninferiority margin of -20%. Uterine bleeding was controlled in 90% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, in 98% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and in 89% of those receiving leuprolide acetate, for differences (as compared with leuprolide acetate) of 1.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.3 to 11.8) for 5 mg of ulipristal acetate and 8.8 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4 to 18.3) for 10 mg of ulipristal acetate. Median times to amenorrhea were 7 days for patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 5 days for those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 21 days for those receiving leuprolide acetate. Moderate-to-severe hot flashes were reported for 11% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, for 10% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and for 40% of those receiving leuprolide acetate (P<0.001 for each dose of ulipristal acetate vs. leuprolide acetate). Both the 5-mg and 10-mg daily doses of ulipristal acetate were noninferior to once-monthly leuprolide acetate in controlling uterine bleeding and were significantly less likely to cause hot flashes. (Funded by PregLem; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00740831.).

  8. Graft polymerization of vinyl acetate onto starch. Saponification to starch-g-poly(vinyl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanta, G.F.; Burr, R.C.; Doane, W.M.; Russell, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    Graft polymerizations of vinyl acetate onto granular cornstarch were initiated by cobalt-60 irradiation of starch-monomer-water mixtures, and ungrafted poly(vinyl acetate) was separated from the graft copolymer by benzene extraction. Conversions of monomer to polymer were quantitative at a radiation dose of 1.0 Mrad. Over half of the polymer was present as ungrafted poly(vinyl acetate) (grafting efficiency less than 50%), and the graft copolymer contained only 34% grafted synthetic polymer (34% add-on). Lower irradiation doses produced lower conversions of monomer to polymer and gave graft copolymers with lower % add-on. Addition of minor amounts of acrylamide, methyl acrylate, and methacrylic acid as comonomers produced only small increases in % add-on and grafting efficency. Grafting efficiency was increased to 70% when a monomer mixture containing about 10% methyl methacrylate was used. Grafting efficiency could be increased to over 90% if the graft polymerization of vinyl acetate--methyl methacrylate was carried out near 0 0 C; although conversion of monomers to polymer was low and grafted polymer contained 40 to 50% poly(methyl methacrylate). Selected graft copolymers were treated with methanolic sodium hydroxide to convert starch-g-poly(vinyl acetate) to starch-g-poly(vinyl alcohol). The molecular weight of the poly(vinyl alcohol) moiety was about 30,000. The solubility of starch-g-poly(vinyl alcohol) in hot water was less than 50; however, solubility could be increased by substituting either acid-modified or hypochlorite-oxidized for unmodified starch in the graft polymerization reaction. Vinyl acetate was also graft polymerized onto acid-modified starch which had been dispersed and partially solubilized by heating in water. A total irradiation dose of either 1.0 or 0.5 Mrad gave starch-g-poly

  9. Acid-Labile Amphiphilic PEO-b-PPO-b-PEO Copolymers: Degradable Poloxamer Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Matthias; Kang, Biao; Dingels, Carsten; Wurm, Frederik R; Frey, Holger

    2016-05-01

    Poly ((ethylene oxide)-b-(propylene oxide)-b-(ethylene oxide)) triblock copolymers commonly known as poloxamers or Pluronics constitute an important class of nonionic, biocompatible surfactants. Here, a method is reported to incorporate two acid-labile acetal moieties in the backbone of poloxamers to generate acid-cleavable nonionic surfactants. Poly(propylene oxide) is functionalized by means of an acetate-protected vinyl ether to introduce acetal units. Three cleavable PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers (Mn,total = 6600, 8000, 9150 g·mol(-1) ; Mn,PEO = 2200, 3600, 4750 g·mol(-1) ) have been synthesized using anionic ring-opening polymerization. The amphiphilic copolymers exhibit narrow molecular weight distributions (Ð = 1.06-1.08). Surface tension measurements reveal surface-active behavior in aqueous solution comparable to established noncleavable poloxamers. Complete hydrolysis of the labile junctions after acidic treatment is verified by size exclusion chromatography. The block copolymers have been employed as surfactants in a miniemulsion polymerization to generate polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with mean diameters of ≈200 nm and narrow size distribution, as determined by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Acid-triggered precipitation facilitates removal of surfactant fragments from the nanoparticles, which simplifies purification and enables nanoparticle precipitation "on demand." © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Characterization and Some Properties of Functionalized Graft Copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy El-Sayed, A.; Kamal, H.; Mahmoud, Gh.A.; Khalifa, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The study involved the investigation and characterization of membranes prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and vinyl acetate (VAc) binary monomers onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) and isotactic polypropylene (IPP). The mutual gamma-irradiation method was used as a grafting technique. The effects of grafting and chemical treatments on the thermal properties and crystallinity of prepared graft copolymer have been investigated using DSC, TGA and XRD. IR spectra recorded before and after grafting and also for the chemically treated membranes to elucidate the structural changes occurred due to grafting and chemical treatments

  11. Melting point of polymers under high pressure Part I: Influence of the polymer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, Andreas; Freitag, Detlef; Freidel, Frank; Luft, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the melting point of various polymers including homo- and copolymers (HDPE, LDPE, PP and ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA)) was investigated under nitrogen atmosphere up to 330 MPa within a high pressure differential thermal analysis cell designed by our group. The properties of the polymers (vinylacetate content, melt flow index, molecular weight, isotactic index, crystallinity, density, and frequency of branching) have been correlated with the change of the melting point under pressure (dT m /dp). It could be shown that the melting point always increases linearly with pressure up to 330 MPa. The pressure dependence was found to be in the range of 11-17 K/(100 MPa). From these results it is possible to approximate dT m /dp using the enthalpy of fusion of the polymers at ambient pressure

  12. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer–GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties. - Highlights: ► In this study ground tire rubber was incorporated into polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. ► Compatibilizing effects of irradiation and ethylene-vinyl acetate were investigated. ► The samples were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. ► Both compatibilizing methods improved the rubber-like properties of the blends. ► This improvement was especially significant when they were applied together.

  13. Carboxylic Terminated Thermo-Responsive Copolymer Hydrogel and Improvement in Peptide Release Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Kun Rao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the release profile of peptide drugs, thermos-responsive triblock copolymer poly (ε-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone-b-poly (ethylene glycol-b-poly (ε-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone (PECP was prepared and end capped by succinic anhydride to give its carboxylic terminated derivative. Both PCEP block copolymer and its end group modified derivative showed temperature-dependent reversible sol-gel transition in water. The carboxylic end group could significantly decrease the sol-gel transition temperature by nearly 10 °C and strengthen the gel due to enhanced intermolecular force among triblock copolymer chains. Furthermore, compared with the original PECP triblock copolymer, HOOC–PECP–COOH copolymer displayed a retarded and sustained release profile for leuprorelin acetate over one month while effectively avoiding the initial burst. The controlled release was believed to be related to the formation of conjugated copolymer-peptide pair by ionic interaction and enhanced solubility of drug molecules into the hydrophobic domains of the hydrogel. Therefore, carboxyl terminated HOOC–PECP–COOH hydrogel was a promising and well-exhibited sustained release carrier for peptide drugs with the advantage of being able to develop injectable formulation by simple mixing.

  14. Metabolic modelling of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers production by mixed microbial cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Maria AM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a metabolic model describing the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA copolymers in mixed microbial cultures, using mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as carbon source material. Material and energetic balances were established on the basis of previously elucidated metabolic pathways. Equations were derived for the theoretical yields for cell growth and PHA production on mixtures of acetic and propionic acid as functions of the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, P/O ratio. The oxidative phosphorylation efficiency was estimated from rate measurements, which in turn allowed the estimation of the theoretical yield coefficients. Results The model was validated with experimental data collected in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR operated under varying feeding conditions: feeding of acetic and propionic acid separately (control experiments, and the feeding of acetic and propionic acid simultaneously. Two different feast and famine culture enrichment strategies were studied: (i either with acetate or (ii with propionate as carbon source material. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was performed for the different feeding conditions and culture enrichment strategies. Flux balance analysis (FBA was used to calculate optimal feeding scenarios for high quality PHA polymers production, where it was found that a suitable polymer would be obtained when acetate is fed in excess and the feeding rate of propionate is limited to ~0.17 C-mol/(C-mol.h. The results were compared with published pure culture metabolic studies. Conclusion Acetate was more conducive toward the enrichment of a microbial culture with higher PHA storage fluxes and yields as compared to propionate. The P/O ratio was not only influenced by the selected microbial culture, but also by the carbon substrate fed to each culture, where higher P/O ratio values were consistently observed for acetate than propionate. MFA studies suggest that when mixtures of

  15. Polyethylene-Based Tadpole Copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Alkayal, Nazeeha; Zhang, Zhen; Bilalis, Panayiotis; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Novel well-defined polyethylene-based tadpole copolymers ((c-PE)-b-PS, PE: polyethylene, PS: polystyrene) with ring PE head and linear PS tail are synthesized by combining polyhomologation, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and Glaser

  16. Williamson alkylation approach to the synthesis of poly(alkyl vinyl ether) copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, D.; Christova, D.; Velichkova, R.

    2008-01-01

    A method for synthesis of poly(alkyl vinyl ether-co-vinyl alcohol) copolymers was developed based on the Williamson's alkylation of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) with alkyl iodides. The influence of the alkylating agent and the reaction conditions on the efficiency of the modification reaction was investigated. The copolymers obtained were characterized by means of 1 H NMR and GPC. It was proved that by applying the proposed method copolymers of different composition and properties containing methyl vinyl ether, ethyl vinyl ether as well as n-butyl vinyl ether units could be prepared. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-vinyl alcohol)s of high degree of methylation exhibit sharp temperature response at 38-39 deg C in aqueous solution typical of the so-called smart polymers. (authors)

  17. Nitroxide-mediated radical ring-opening copolymerization: chain-end investigation and block copolymer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplace, Vianney; Harrisson, Simon; Tardy, Antoine; Gigmes, Didier; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Nicolas, Julien

    2014-02-01

    Well-defined, degradable copolymers are successfully prepared by nitroxide-mediated radical ring opening polymerization (NMrROP) of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) or methyl methacrylate (MMA), a small amount of acrylonitrile (AN) and cyclic ketene acetals (CKAs) of different structures. Phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance allows in-depth chain-end characterization and gives crucial insights into the nature of the copoly-mer terminal sequences and the living chain fractions. By using a small library of P(OEGMA-co-AN-co-CKA) and P(MMA-co-AN-co-CKA) as macroinitiators, chain extensions with styrene are performed to furnish (amphiphilic) block copolymers comprising a degradable segment. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Lignin poly(lactic acid) copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johan Vilhelm; Chung, Yi-Lin; Li, Russell Jingxian; Waymouth, Robert; Sattely, Elizabeth; Billington, Sarah; Frank, Curtis W.

    2017-02-14

    Provided herein are graft co-polymers of lignin and poly(lactic acid) (lignin-g-PLA copolymer), thermoset and thermoplastic polymers including them, methods of preparing these polymers, and articles of manufacture including such polymers.

  19. Process for producing a novel copolymer. [electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oiwa, M; Matsumoto, A; Tojima, M; Matsumoto, K; Sasaki, H

    1970-11-27

    Diaryl oxalate present in a polymer not only decomposes at lower temperatures, but also provides for stronger free radicals initiating polymerization than diaryl oxalate present in a monomer. A copolymer of vinyl monomers is produced by providing a diaryl oxalate polymer or a diaryl oxalate monomer-co-vinyl monomer, decomposing them to release the diaryl oxalate units by heating or irradiating with radiation thereby copolymerizing the vinyl monomer with the polymer radicals by utilizing the diaryl oxalate unit. For example, a single diaryl oxalate polymer or a copolymer containing the diaryl oxalate polymer as a constituent of the copolymer are irradiated or heated with a vinyl monomer, i.e. methyl methacrylate, acrylnitrile, vinyl acetate, styrene etc., to form a copolymer without difficulty. In one of the examples, 500 g of diaryl oxalate monomer, 1,200 ml of benzene and 0.2 mol/l of benzoil peroxide as an initiator were mixed and polymerized in nitrogen gas at 70/sup 0/C for 8 hrs. From this polymerized solution, a polymer was deposited in methanol. The produced polymer had an iodin value of 77.7 with a yield of 35%. The gel content of the produced polymer was 98.9% for 10 Mrad. This polymer was dissolved in methyl methacrylate, thereafter filled in a mold and irradiated with electron beams of 2 MeV in nitrogen gas to harden it. The advantage of this process is that the polymerization is effected with low energy radiations at room temperature without requiring any catalyst.

  20. The radiation-induced copolymerization of vinyl acetate with dibutyl maleate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Lustig, A.

    1975-01-01

    The radiation-induced copolymerization of vinyl acetate with dibutyl maleate was investigated in the temperature range from -50 0 to 90 0 . A copolymer of the unsaturated ester with vinyl acetate was obtained in which the comonomers alternate with regularity along the polymer chain over the entire range of comonomer compositions and temperature range investigated. Both the rate of copolymerization and the molecular weight of the resulting copolymer were found to depend strongly on the comonomer composition. The monomer reactivity ratios were found to be practically zero. The apparent activation energy was found to change at 5 0 with an increase in temperature from a value of 1,6 kcal/mole to a value of 4,4kcal/mole. Scavenger studies indicate that a free radical mechanism prevails over the entire temperature range investigated. (Author) [af

  1. Metallo-supramolecular block copolymer micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gohy, J.M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Supramolecular copolymers have become of increasing interest in recent years in the search for new materials with tunable properties. In particular, metallo-supramolecular block copolymers in which metal-ligand complexes are introduced in block copolymer architectures, have known important progress,

  2. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant...... physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate.......Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300...

  3. Polyethylene-Based Tadpole Copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Alkayal, Nazeeha

    2017-02-15

    Novel well-defined polyethylene-based tadpole copolymers ((c-PE)-b-PS, PE: polyethylene, PS: polystyrene) with ring PE head and linear PS tail are synthesized by combining polyhomologation, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and Glaser coupling reaction. The -OH groups of the 3-miktoarm star copolymers (PE-OH)-b-PS, synthesized by polyhomologation and ATRP, are transformed to alkyne groups by esterification with propiolic acid, followed by Glaser cyclization and removal of the unreacted linear with Merrifield\\'s resin-azide. The characterization results of intermediates and final products by high-temperature size exclusion chromatography, H NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry confirm the tadpole topology.

  4. Main-chain supramolecular block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si Kyung; Ambade, Ashootosh V; Weck, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers are key building blocks for a variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to drug delivery. The material properties of block copolymers can be tuned and potentially improved by introducing noncovalent interactions in place of covalent linkages between polymeric blocks resulting in the formation of supramolecular block copolymers. Such materials combine the microphase separation behavior inherent to block copolymers with the responsiveness of supramolecular materials thereby affording dynamic and reversible materials. This tutorial review covers recent advances in main-chain supramolecular block copolymers and describes the design principles, synthetic approaches, advantages, and potential applications.

  5. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  6. Modeling of emulsion copolymer microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doremaele, G.H.J.; Herk, van A.M.; German, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    A model is developed to describe stages II and III of batch emulsion copolymn., and its predictive capabilities are investigated by application to the system styrene-Me acrylate. The main reaction site is the monomer-swollen polymer particle. Copolymn. rate and copolymer microstructure (molar

  7. Polyether-polyester graft copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Described is a polyether graft polymer having improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The copolymer is prepared by a novel process of anionic copolymerization. These polymers exhibit good solvent resistance and are well suited for aircraft parts. Previous aromatic polyethers, also known as polyphenylene oxides, have certain deficiencies which detract from their usefulness. These commercial polymers are often soluble in common solvents including the halocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon types of paint thinners and removers. This limitation prevents the use of these polyethers in structural articles requiring frequent painting. In addition, the most popular commercially available polyether is a very high melting plastic. This makes it considerably more difficult to fabricate finished parts from this material. These problems are solved by providing an aromatic polyether graft copolymer with improved solvent resistance and crystalline thermally reversible crosslinks. The graft copolymer is formed by converting the carboxyl groups of a carboxylated polyphenylene oxide polymer to ionic carbonyl groups in a suitable solvent, reacting pivalolactone with the dissolved polymer, and adding acid to the solution to produce the graft copolymer.

  8. Thermo-responsive block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocan Cetintas, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymers (BCPs) are remarkable materials because of their self-assembly behavior into nano-sized regular structures and high tunable properties. BCPs are in used various applications such as surfactants, nanolithography, biomedicine and nanoporous membranes. In these thesis, we aimed to

  9. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  10. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, M.S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of

  11. Irradiation crosslinking and halogen-free flame retardation of EVA using hydrotalcite and red phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao Chuanmei [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang Zhengzhou [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China)]. E-mail: zwang@ustc.edu.cn; Chen Xilei [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Yu Benyi [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu Yuan [State Key Lab of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2006-05-15

    Halogen-free flame retarded ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites using Mg-Al-CO{sub 3} hydrotalcite (MALDH) and microcapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) have been prepared in a melt process. The flame retardation of the composites has been studied by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 methods, and the thermal decomposition by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes of their properties of the composites before and after the Gamma irradiation are compared. The synergistic effect in the flame retardation between MALDH and MRP in EVA has been found. The EVA/MALDH/MRP composites after the irradiation crosslinking result in a great increase in the Vicat softening point. The LOI value, the mechanical properties and thermal stability are also improved for the composites irradiated by a suitable irradiation dose.

  12. Efficacy of Nintendo Wii Training on Mechanical Leg Muscle Function and Postural Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Martin G; Laessoe, Uffe; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Older adults show increased risk of falling and major risk factors include impaired lower extremity muscle strength and postural balance. However, the potential positive effect of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training on muscle strength and postural balance in older adults is unknown....... METHODS: This randomized controlled trial examined postural balance and muscle strength in community-dwelling older adults (75±6 years) pre- and post-10 weeks of biofeedback-based Nintendo Wii training (WII, n = 28) or daily use of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer insoles (controls [CON], n = 30). Primary...... end points were maximal muscle strength (maximal voluntary contraction) and center of pressure velocity moment during bilateral static stance. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analysis with adjustment for age, sex, and baseline level showed that the WII group had higher maximal voluntary contraction...

  13. Influence of the surfactant in the shear-induced crystallization kinetics of HDPE/MMT nano composites; Influencia do tratamento superficial da montmorilonita na cinetica de cristalizacao induzida por fluxo de nanocompositos de HDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonel, A.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMA/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Beatrice, C.A.G.; Marini, J.; Bretas, R.E.S., E-mail: bretas@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) compatibilized with ethylene vinyl-acetate copolymer (EVA)r, with 5 wt% of two different organically modified montmorillonite (with polar and non-polar surfactant) were prepared by melt blending in a corrotational twin-screw extruder at 225 deg C, 100rpm and 3kg/h. Both nanocomposites were characterized by wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheological measurements. The nanoclay's lamellas were intercalated in both samples. The storage and the loss moduli of the nanocomposites, at low frequencies, showed that the particles of the nanoclay modified with a polar surfactant were well dispersed thru the HDPE matrix, while the particles of the other nanoclay were well distributed thru the matrix. The presence of a nanoclay modified with a non-polar surfactant reduced the induction times for the crystals growth, due to the strong interactions with the HDPE chains. (author)

  14. Grafting of 2 (2-hydroxy-5-vinylphenyl) 2H-benzotriazole onto polymers with aliphatic groups. Synthesis and polymerization of 2 (2-hydroxy-5-isopropenylphenyl) 2H-benzotriazole and a new synthesis of 2 (2-hydroxy-5-vinylphenyl) 2H-benzotriazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradellok, W.; Nir, Z.; Vogl, O.

    1981-01-01

    Successful grafting of 2(2-hydroxy-5-vinylphenyl)2H-benzotriazole onto saturated aliphatic C-H groups of polymers has been accomplished. When the grafting reaction was carried out in chlorobenzene at 150 C = 160 C with di-tertiarybutylperoxide as the grafting initiator, grafts as high as 20 percent - 30 percent at a grafting efficiency of 50 percent and 80 percent have readily been obtained. The grafting reaction was carried out in tubes sealed under high vacuum since trace amounts of oxygen cause complete inhibition of the grafting reaction by the phenolic monomer. On a variety of different polymers including atactic polypropylene, ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(butyl acrylate), and polycarbonate were used.

  15. Studies on organic binders with high infrared transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng-Wu, Fu; Hao-Shen, Zhou; Ming-Qing, Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that two kinds of polymers with high infrared transparency and good mechanical and physical properties have been prepared. An internal standard method is used to evaluate the infrared transparency of the binders. The physical and mechanical properties of the binders are measured according to corresponding standards. The results show the absorbance of polymer A in 8–14 μm range is 26% that of the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA), and polymer B is 9% that of the EVA correspondingly. The film of polymer A shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 2. The film of polymer B shows good flexibility of above 1 mm, a hardness of grade 1, and adhesion of grade 1. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Irradiation crosslinking and halogen-free flame retardation of EVA using hydrotalcite and red phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Chuanmei; Wang Zhengzhou; Chen Xilei; Yu Benyi; Hu Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Halogen-free flame retarded ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) composites using Mg-Al-CO 3 hydrotalcite (MALDH) and microcapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) have been prepared in a melt process. The flame retardation of the composites has been studied by the limited oxygen index (LOI) and UL-94 methods, and the thermal decomposition by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The changes of their properties of the composites before and after the Gamma irradiation are compared. The synergistic effect in the flame retardation between MALDH and MRP in EVA has been found. The EVA/MALDH/MRP composites after the irradiation crosslinking result in a great increase in the Vicat softening point. The LOI value, the mechanical properties and thermal stability are also improved for the composites irradiated by a suitable irradiation dose

  17. Quality control for electron beam processing of polymeric materials by end-point analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGraff, E.; McLaughlin, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    Properties of certain plastics, e.g. polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene, ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, can be modified selectively by ionizing radiation. One of the advantages of this treatment over chemical methods is better control of the process and the end-product properties. The most convenient method of dosimetry for monitoring quality control is post-irradiation evaluation of the plastic itself, e.g., melt index and melt point determination. It is shown that by proper calibration in terms of total dose and sufficiently reproducible radiation effects, such product test methods provide convenient and meaningful analyses. Other appropriate standardized analytical methods include stress-crack resistance, stress-strain-to-fracture testing and solubility determination. Standard routine dosimetry over the dose and dose rate ranges of interest confirm that measured product end points can be correlated with calibrated values of absorbed dose in the product within uncertainty limits of the measurements. (author)

  18. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-09-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer-GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties.

  19. Blends of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Triblock Copolymer with Random Styrene-Maleic Anhydride Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccini, Maria Teresa; Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2002-01-01

    Blends of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) with random styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers (PS-co-MA), having different MA content, were prepared in a Brabender Plastigraph mixer. The presence of polystyrene (PS) blocks in the SBS copolymer and the high styrene content (93 and 86

  20. Polyketones as alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Gennady P; Novikova, Elena V

    2004-01-01

    Characteristic features of the catalytic synthesis of alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide with various olefins, dienes, styrene and its derivatives are considered. The diversity of catalyst systems used for the copolymerisation of carbon monoxide is demonstrated and their influence on the structure and the molecular mass of the resulting copolymers is analysed. The data on the structure and physicochemical and mechanical properties of this new generation of functional copolymers are generalised and described systematically for the first time.

  1. Process for producing a new copolymer. [Patent in Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tojima, M; Matsumoto, K; Sasaki, H

    1970-12-11

    A new process for copolymerization is given by using either a diaryl oxalate single polymer or a diaryl oxalate copolymer with at least one vinyl monomer as a source of free radicals, and adding a conventional radical initiator to them when irradiated with light or particle radiations. The function of the free radicals generated from the diaryl oxalate monomer is quite different from the free radicals generated from the conventional initiators. The addition of the conventional radical initiators is to accelerate the copolymerization reaction. The advantage of this process is that low energy light at room temperature can be used like high energy radiation. In one of the examples, 500 g of diaryl oxalate monomer, 1200ml of benzene and 0.2 mol/l of benzoil peroxide were mixed and underwent a polymerization reaction in nitrogen gas at 70/sup 0/C for 8 hrs. A polymer was isolated from their methanol solution. The polymer had an iodine value of 77.7 and a yield of 35%. The polymer was dissolved in vinyl acetate, methacrylate or acrylic acid with or without benzoil peroxides. The produced viscous solutions were molded and irradiated with a 450 Watt mercury lamp. Experiments revealed that the products obtained in the presence of benzoil peroxides could reduce by as much as one half to one third the time required to harden the copolymer.

  2. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jimmy W [Knoxville, TN; Gido, Samuel P [Hadley, MA; Huang, Tianzi [Knoxville, TN; Hong, Kunlun [Knoxville, TN

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  3. Synthesis of biodegradable styrene copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Gevers, Dries; Kobben, Stephan; Junkers, Tanja; Copinet, Alain; Buntinx, Mieke; Peeters, Roos

    2017-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS), a versatile polymer with many applications (e.g. packaging) representing about 10% of the total annual polymer consumption, shows practically no biodegradability. In this study a styrene (ST) based copolymer is synthesized and examined regarding its ability to degrade in a composting test. As second monomer, to introduce biodegradable ester groups, 5,6-benzo-2-metylene-dioxepane (BMDO) has been used in radical copolymerization reactions performed in inert and stirred 10 m...

  4. In-situ Polymerization of Polyaniline/Polypyrrole Copolymer using Different Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, A. S.; Noby, H.; Elkady, M. F.; El-Shazly, A. H.

    2018-01-01

    The morphology and surface area of the poly(aniline-co-pyrrole) copolymer (PANPY) are important properties which improve the efficiency of the copolymer in various applications. In this investigation, different techniques were employed to produce PANPY in different morphologies. Aniline and pyrrole were used as monomers, and ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) was used as an oxidizer with uniform molar ratio. Rapid mixing, drop-wise mixing, and supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) polymerization techniques were appointed. The chemical structure, crystallinity, porosity, and morphology of the composite were distinguished by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. The characterization tests indicated that the polyaniline/polypyrrole copolymer was successfully prepared with different morphologies. Based on the obtained TEM, hollow nanospheres were formed using rapid mixing technique with acetic acid that have a diameter of 75 nm and thickness 26 nm approximately. Also, according to the XRD, the produced structures have a semi- crystalline structure. The synthesized copolymer with ScCO2-assisted polymerization technique showed improved surface area (38.1 m2/g) with HCl as dopant.

  5. Effect of grafting cellulose acetate and methylmethacrylate as compatibilizer onto NBR/SBR blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalf, A.I.; Nashar, D.E.El.; Maziad, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Compatibilizer is used for improving of processability, interfacial interaction and mechanical properties of polymer blends. In this study acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blends were compatibilized by a graft copolymer of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) grafted with cellulose acetate (CA) i.e. (NBR-g-CA) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) grafted with methylmethacrylate i.e. (NBR-g-MMA). Compatibilizers were prepared by gamma radiation induced grafting of NBR with cellulose acetate (CA) and methylmethacrylate (MMA) were added with different ratios to NBR/SBR (50/50) blend. The compatibilized blends were evaluated by rheometric characteristics, physico-mechanical properties, swelling behavior, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermal analysis. The results showed that, the blends with graft copolymer effect greatly on the rheological characteristics [optimum cure time (Tc 90 ), scorch time (Ts 2 ), and the cure rate index (CRI)]. The physico-mechanical properties of the investigated blends were enhanced by the incorporation of these graft copolymers, while the resistance to swelling in toluene became higher. SEM photographs confirm that, these compatibilizers improve the interfacial adhesion between NBR/SBR (50/50) blend which induce compatibilization in the immiscible blends. The efficiency of the compatibilizer was also evaluated by studying the thermogravimetric analysis.

  6. Modification of polymer blends by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuchowska, D.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    1999-01-01

    Modification of polymers, especially of polyolefin-elastomer blends (e. g. ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer, ethylene propylene copolymer, ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer etc.), by irradiation with a beam of fast electrons is discussed. Irradiation of polymer blends usually results in enhanced interactions between the constituents, caused among other things, by grafting induced at the polymer interphase. As a result, mechanical properties are affected to an extent depending on the proportion and type of constituent polymers, stabilizer content and radiation dose. Breaking strength (σ) relative elongation at break (ε) and melt flow rate (MFR), were examined for a triblock styrene/butadiene/styrene (SBS) copolymer, polypropylene (PP), and a PP-SBS blend (50:50 by wt.). In PP, the content of the crystal phase was determined. Irradiation was found to make SBS crosslink, as a result, σ rose by 25% and ε remained unaffected. PP was found to become degraded upon irradiation (MFR rose as much as 16 times), thereby σ and ε decreased considerably. In pure PP, the content of the crystal phase was found to increase. The variations of σ and ε in the irradiated PP-SBS blend follow a tendency similar to that in the SBS copolymer examined. This fact suggests the SBS copolymer to have a decisive effect on the macroscopic properties of the PP-SBS blend. (author)

  7. 21 CFR 177.2470 - Polyoxymethylene copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2470 Polyoxymethylene copolymer. Polyoxymethylene copolymer identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of articles intended for... are available from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug...

  8. Radiation resistance of ethylene-styrene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kaoru; Ikeda, Masaaki; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Kusama, Yasuo; Harashige, Masahiro; Yazaki, Fumihiko.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the radiation resistance of ethylene-styrene copolymer, a polymeric resin developed newly by the authors, is reported. Resin examined were five kinds of ethylene-styrene copolymers: three random and two graft copolymers with different styrene contents. Low-density polyethylene was used as a reference. The samples were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays to total absorbed doses up to 10 MGy. The mechanical properties of the smaples were examined. Infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray scattering techniques were used to examine the morphology of the samples. The random copolymers are soft and easy to extend, because benzene rings which exisist highly at random hinder the crystallization. As for the radiation resistance, they are highly resistant to γ-rays in the aspects of carbonyl group formation, gel formation, and elongation. Further, they show even better radiation resistance when proper additives were compounded in. The graft copolymers are hard to extend, because they consist of segregated polystyrene and polyethylene regions which are connected with each other. The tensile strength of irradiated graft copolymers does not decrease below that of unirradiated copolymers, up to a total dose of 10 MGy. As a consequence, it can be said that ethylene-styrene copolymers have good radiation resistance owing to the so-called 'sponge' effect of benzene rings. (author)

  9. Copolymers at the solid - liquid interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmans, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Copolymers consisting of both adsorbing and nonadsorbing segments can show an adsorption behaviour which is very different from that of homopolymers. We have mainly investigated the adsorption of AB diblock copolymers, which have one adsorbing block (anchor) and one nonadsorbing block

  10. Amphiphilic copolymers for fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    of the coatings [9,10,11]. This work shows the effect of an amphiphilic copolymer that induces hydrophilicity on the surface of the silicone-based fouling release coatings. The behaviour of these copolymers within the coating upon immersion and the interaction of these surface-active additives with other...

  11. Poly(ferrocenylsilane)-block-Polylactide Block Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; van Zanten, Thomas S.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    A PFS/PLA block copolymer was studied to probe the effect of strong surface interactions on pattern formation in PFS block copolymer thin films. Successful synthesis of PFS-b-PLA was demonstrated. Thin films of these polymers show phase separation to form PFS microdomains in a PLA matrix, and

  12. Copolymers of various architectures containing ethylene and 5-norbornen-2-yl derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, Steve Jon

    Polyolefins are a class of materials with enormous economic impact. Tailoring of polyolefin bulk properties by synthetic control is a major focus of many industrial and academic research groups. Polar functionalities within the hydrophobic polyolefin backbone can change important properties, such as, toughness, adhesion, solvent resistance, blend compatibility with other functional polymers, and rheological properties. Functional polyolefin materials with block or graft architectures are the most desirable structures as the pure polyolefin block maintains its intrinsic properties. Our initial work elucidated a neutral nickel based catalyst system capable of catalyzing the "quasi-living" homopolymerization of ethylene and the "quasi-living" copolymerization of ethylene with 5-norbornen-2-yl acetate (NBA), a polar comonomer. Through testing the effect of several reaction variables on the copolymerization of ethylene with NBA it was found that changing ethylene pressure causes a large change in the content of NBA in the copolymer chain. This change in NBA content, in turn, drastically affects the physical and thermal properties of these polymers. Understanding the impact of such reaction variables on copolymer properties made it possible to design more sophisticated architectures. This catalytic system has since been used to synthesize block copolymers and tapered block copolymers of ethylene and NBA. Block copolymers of ethylene and NBA have been synthesized by a method utilizing ethylene pressure variation to create two distinct copolymeric blocks that are able to order into microphase-separated structures. The block structure of these materials has been proven by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, GPC, AFM, and TEM. The synthesis, characterization, and bulk and thermal properties of tapered block copolymers containing ethylene and NBA, has also been performed. The final structure of the tapered block polymer is a polar amorphous chain (rich in NBA) on one

  13. Rapid self-assembly of block copolymers to photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R; Grubbs, Robert H; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M; Atwater, Harry A; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot; Hong, Sung Woo; Gu, Weiyin; Russell, Thomas P.

    2016-07-05

    The invention provides a class of copolymers having useful properties, including brush block copolymers, wedge-type block copolymers and hybrid wedge and polymer block copolymers. In an embodiment, for example, block copolymers of the invention incorporate chemically different blocks comprising polymer size chain groups and/or wedge groups that significantly inhibit chain entanglement, thereby enhancing molecular self-assembly processes for generating a range of supramolecular structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using copolymers, including block copolymers.

  14. Self-supported poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate)-based gel electrolyte for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.H.; Zhou, D.Y.; Rao, M.M.; Cai, Z.P.; Liang, Y. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, W.S.; Tan, C.L. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Lab of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-04-01

    Self-supported gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was prepared based on copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate) (P(MMA-AN-VAc)). The copolymer P(MMA-AN-VAc) was synthesized by emulsion polymerization and the copolymer membrane was prepared through phase inversion. The structure and the performance of the copolymer, the membrane and the GPE were characterized by FTIR, NMR, SEM, XRD, DSC/TG, LSV, CA, and EIS. It is found that the copolymer was formed through the breaking of double bond C=C in each monomer. The membrane has low crystallinity and has low glass transition temperature, 39.1 C, its thermal stability is as high as 310 C, and its mechanical strength is improved compared with P(MMA-AN). The GPE is electrochemically stable up to 5.6 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}) and its conductivity is 3.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at ambient temperature. The lithium ion transference number in the GPE is 0.51 and the conductivity model of the GPE is found to obey the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) equation. (author)

  15. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be...

  16. The Emulsion Polymerization of Each of Vinyl Acetate and Butyl Acrylate Monomers Using bis (2-ethylhexyl) Maleate for Improving the Physicomechanical Properties of Paints and Adhesive Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffei, K.A.; Moustafa, A.B.; Hamed, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Improving the water sensitivity of polyvinyl acetate PVAc films as well as pressure sensitivity, adhesion and washability of poly butyl acrylate were achieved by using bis (2-ethylhexyl) maleate (BEHM). The emulsion polymerization kinetics of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate in presence of BEHM was studied. The order of the polymerization reaction with respect to the BEHM in presence of each of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate was studied. The physicomechanical properties of the polyvinyl acetate films and vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate copolymer films were studied in presence of BEHM and the obtained results were matched with those prepared in the presence of pluronic F 108 and showed superior values. The obtained mean average molecular weights were found to be smaller in presence of BEHM assuring the presence of chain transfer reaction.

  17. The Emulsion Polymerization of Each of Vinyl Acetate and Butyl Acrylate Monomers Using bis (2-ethylhexyl Maleate for Improving the Physicomechanical Properties of Paints and Adhesive Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Shaffei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the water sensitivity of polyvinyl acetate PVAc films as well as pressure sensitivity, adhesion and washability of polybutyl acrylate were achieved by using bis (2-ethylhexyl maleate (BEHM. The emulsion polymerization kinetics of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate in presence of BEHM was studied. The order of the polymerization reaction with respect to the BEHM in presence of each of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate was studied. The physicomechanical properties of the polyvinyl acetate films and vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate copolymer films were studied in presence of BEHM and the obtained results were matched with those prepared in the presence of pluronic F 108 and showed superior values. The obtained mean average molecular weights were found to be smaller in presence of BEHM assuring the presence of chain transfer reaction.

  18. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-03-22

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  19. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  20. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charef, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1989-09-01

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  1. Distribution of short block copolymer chains in Binary Blends of Block Copolymers Having Hydrogen Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jongheon; Han, Sunghyun; Kim, Jin Kon

    2014-03-01

    A binary mixture of two block copolymers whose blocks are capable of forming the hydrogen bonding allows one to obtain various microdomains that could not be expected for neat block copolymer. For instance, the binary blend of symmetric polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and polystyrene-block-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer (PS-b-PHS) blends where the hydrogen bonding occurred between P2VP and PHS showed hexagonally packed (HEX) cylindrical and body centered cubic (BCC) spherical microdomains. To know the exact location of short block copolymer chains at the interface, we synthesized deuterated polystyrene-block-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer (dPS-b-PHS) and prepared a binary mixture with PS-b-P2VP. We investigate, via small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and neutron reflectivity (NR), the exact location of shorter dPS block chain near the interface of the microdomains.

  2. Micellization and Dynamics of a Block Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    and copolymer mixtures, and evidence in favor of a multi-equilibria unimer-micelle model will be presented. Results obtained by liquid chromatographic methods will be shown and it will be demonstrated that commercial EPE copolymers are inhomogeneous at several levels and many of their unusual properties reflect...... ratios and temperature. The micellization process with increasing temperature has been followed by a number of techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, liquid chromatography, and surface tension measurements. Different micellization models have been tested for purified copolymers...

  3. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems...... of such PEG-based block copolymers in aqueous suspensions are reviewed. Based on scattering experiments using either X-ray or neutrons, the phase behavior is characterized, showing that the thermo-reversible gelation is a result of micellar ordering into mesoscopic crystalline phases of cubic, hexagonal...

  4. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kapapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N=4 or multiple (N=6 doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P≤0.05. Results. (1 Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2 The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3 There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients.

  5. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the inf......Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal...... of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  6. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential...... functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed......, where living anionic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are combined to synthesize a polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS) triblock copolymer precursor. By using either anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, PtBA block...

  7. Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Applications in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin

    This study is focused on the synthesis and study of (block) copolymers using reversible deactivation radical polymerizations (RDRPs), including atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In particular, two primary areas of study are undertaken: (1) a proof-of-concept application of lithographic block copolymers, and (2) the mechanistic study of the deposition of titania into block copolymer templates for the production of well-ordered titania nanostructures. Block copolymers have the ability to undergo microphase separation, with an average size of each microphase ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers. As such, block copolymers have been widely considered for nanotechnological applications over the past two decades. The development of materials for various nanotechnologies has become an increasingly studied area as improvements in many applications, such as those found in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries are constantly being sought. Significant growth in developments of new synthetic methods ( i.e. RDRPs) has allowed the production of block copolymers with molecular (and sometimes atomic) definition. In turn, this has greatly expanded the use of block copolymers in nanotechnology. Herein, we describe the synthesis of statistical and block copolymers of 193 nm photolithography methacrylate and acrylate resist monomers with norbornyl and adamantyl moieties using RAFT polymerization.. For these resist (block) copolymers, the phase separation behaviors were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). End groups were removed from the polymers to avoid complications during the photolithography since RAFT end groups absorb visible light. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-block-polystyrene) (PGMA-b-PS) was synthesize by ATRP and demonstrated that this block copolymer acts as both a lithographic UV (365 nm) photoresist and a self-assembly material. The PGMA segments can undergo cationic

  8. Responsive Copolymers for Enhanced Petroleum Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    2001-02-27

    The objectives of this work was to: synthesize responsive copolymer systems; characterize molecular structure and solution behavior; measure rheological properties of aqueous fluids in fixed geometry flow profiles; and to tailor final polymer compositions for in situ rheology control under simulated conditions. This report focuses on the synthesis and characterization of novel stimuli responsive copolymers, the investigation of dilute polymer solutions in extensional flow and the design of a rheometer capable of measuring very dilute aqueous polymer solutions at low torque.

  9. Reactivity Ratios for Organotin Copolymer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Newehy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Di(tri-n-butyltin itaconate (DTBTI and monoethyl tributyltin fumarate (METBTF were synthesized as organotin monomers. The organotin monomers were copolymerized with styrene (ST and methyl methacrylate (MMA via a free radical polymerization technique. The overall conversion was kept low (£15% wt/wt for all studied samples and the copolymer composition was determined from tin analysis. The synthesized monomers and copolymers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and FTIR spectroscopy.

  10. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1979-06-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. During the past year, the technical activities emphasized the reformulation of a commercial grade of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer for use as a pottant in solar cell module manufacture. After experimenting with a variety of techniques, a vacuum-bag process was developed and found to be an excellent encapsulation method. Adhesive strengths and primers for the bonding of ethylene/vinyl acetate to superstrate and substrate materials was assessed with encouraging results. The weathering effects on ten other polymers exposed to twelve months of weathering in Arizona, Florida, and under EMMAQUA were evaluated by determination of tensile strengths, elongations, optical transmission, etc. As may be expected, the best overall retention of mechanical properties is found for the fluorocarbon polymers, especially FEP. Hard coatings containing ultraviolet absorbers were investigated for the purpose of providing a soil resistant surface and additional weathering stability to the soft EVA pottant. Corrosion studies using a standard salt spray test were used to determine the degree of protection offered to a variety of metals by encapsulation in EVA pottant. A survey of scrim materials was also conducted. These open hole weaves are intended for use as spacers between the cell and substrate to provide a mechanical barrier, improve insulation resistance and prevent migration of the pigmented pottant over the cell surface. A mechanical engineering analysis of composite structural materials for use as substrates was performed. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  11. The influence of chain stretching on the phase behavior of multiblock copolymer and comb copolymer melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angerman, HJ; ten Brinke, G

    The subject of this paper is inspired by microphase-separated copolymer melts in which a small-scale structure is present inside one of the phases of a large-scale structure. Such a situation can arise in a diblock copolymer melt, if one of the blocks of the diblock is in itself a multiblock

  12. γ radiolysis of cellulose acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.; Clay, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    The major degradative process in γ-irradiated cellulose acetate is chain scission. For the dry powder the G/sub s/ value (number of scissions per 100 eV of energy absorbed) was found to be 7.1. The water-swollen material was found to degrade at the higher rate of G/sub s/ = 9.45. Additions of ethanol and methanol to the water brought about reductions in G/sub s/, whereas dissolved nitrous oxide produced an increase in G/sub s/. The useful life of cellulose acetate reverse osmosis membranes exposed to γ radiation was estimated by observations of the water permeation rate during irradiation. Membrane breakdown occurred at 15 Mrad in pure water, but the dose to breakdown was extended to 83 Mrad in the presence of 4% methanol. 3 figures, 1 table

  13. Synthesis and characterization of copolymers from hindered amines and vinyl monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Aparecido Chinelatto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New copolymers from hindered amines and vinyl monomers were synthesized by radical chain polymerization. To obtain polymeric HALS, acrylamide-(1ATP and acrylate-(4ATP monomers, derivatives from 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine and 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol were synthesized. The radical chain polymerization of 1ATP with styrene (Sty using 1-butanethiol (BTN resulted in a copolymer with 95 units of Sty and 15 units of 1ATP. The radical chain polymerization of 1ATP and vinyl acetate (VAc has produced only 1ATP homopolymer. In the chain polymerization of 4ATP with Sty or VAc, the hydrogen atom bonded to the nitrogen of 4ATP is labile enough to originate another radical at this site. The steric hindrance imposed by methyl groups on this bonding site hampers its reaction with other propagating species and the formation of a copolymer or network structure will be dependent on the size of the pendent group in the vinyl monomer.

  14. Preparation of mixed matrix adsorber membranes for protein recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramescu, M.E.; Girones nogue, Miriam; Borneman, Zandrie; Wessling, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a generic technology allowing the incorporation of functional entities into a porous substrate. Various ion exchange particles were incorporated into an ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVAL) copolymer porous matrix by an immersion phase separation process and a heterogeneous matrix,

  15. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. One-step route to the fabrication of highly porous polyaniline nanofiber films by using PS-b-PVP diblock copolymers as templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Tian, Shengjun; Ping, Yang; Kim, Dong Ha; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2005-10-11

    We report a new method to control both the nucleation and growth of highly porous polyaniline (PANI) nanofiber films using porous poly(styrene-block-2-vinylpyridine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) films as templates. A micellar thin film composed of P2VP spheres within a PS matrix is prepared by spin coating a PS-b-P2VP micellar solution onto substrates. The P2VP domains are swollen in a selective solvent of acetic acid, which results in the formation of pores in the block copolymer film. PANI is then deposited onto the substrates modified with such a porous film using electrochemical methods. During the deposition, the nucleation and growth of PANI occur only at the pores of the block copolymer film. After the continued growth of PANI by the electrochemical deposition, a porous PANI nanofiber film is obtained.

  18. Multiblock copolymers synthesized in aqueous dispersions using multifunctional RAFT agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussels, R.; Bergman-Göttgens, C.M.; Meuldijk, J.; Koning, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Triblock copolymers were synthesized in aqueous dispersions in two polymerization steps using a low molar mass difunctional dithiocarbamate-based RAFT agent, and in merely one polymerization step using a macromolecular difunctional dithiocarbamate-based RAFT agent. Segmented block copolymers

  19. Polyamide copolymers having 2,5-furan dicarboxamide units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Bret Ja; Samanta, Satyabrata

    2017-09-19

    Polyamide copolymers, and methods of making and using polyamide copolymers, having 2,5-furan dicarboxamide units are disclosed herein. Such polymers can be useful for engineering thermoplastics having advantageous physical and/or chemical properties.

  20. Studies on the effect of nano-TiO{sub 2} on vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate latex-based surface coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suma, K.K. [Dept. of Polymer Science and Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 22, Kerala (India); Dept. of Chemistry, Maharaja' s College, Ernakulam, Kerala (India); Jacob, Sinto [Dept. of Polymer Science and Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 22, Kerala (India); Joseph, Rani, E-mail: rani@cusat.ac.i [Dept. of Polymer Science and Rubber Technology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 22, Kerala (India)

    2010-04-15

    Vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate (VAc-BuA) copolymer latex was prepared by emulsion polymerization. The polymerization conditions and the composition were optimized. The 85/15 wt.% (vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate) gave good tensile strength of the order of 15.6 MPa and a glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) value of -6.49 deg. C. This copolymer was used as a binder in the paint formulation. In this formulation nanosized TiO{sub 2} sol was used as a pigment instead of conventional rutile TiO{sub 2}. Nanosized TiO{sub 2} is prepared by wet process. These nanosized TiO{sub 2} rutile colloidal sol has improved properties such as photostability, UV shielding, dispersion stability, etc. The surface properties of paint were found to be superior compared to commercially used paint.

  1. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  2. Photo-Induced Micellization of Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kuwayama

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We found novel photo-induced micellizations through photolysis, photoelectron transfer, and photo-Claisen rearrangement. The photolysis-induced micellization was attained using poly(4-tert-butoxystyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PBSt-b-PSt. BSt-b-PSt showed no self-assembly in dichloromethane and existed as isolated copolymers. Dynamic light scattering demonstrated that the copolymer produced spherical micelles in this solvent due to irradiation with a high-pressure mercury lamp in the presence of photo-acid generators, such as bis(alkylphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate, and triphenylsulfonium triflate. The 1H NMR analysis confirmed that PBSt-b-PSt was converted into poly(4-vinylphenol-block-PSt by the irradiation, resulting in self-assembly into micelles. The irradiation in the presence of the photo-acid generator also induced the micellization of poly(4-pyridinemethoxymethylstyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PPySt-b-PSt. Micellization occurred by electron transfer from the pyridine to the photo-acid generator in their excited states and provided monodispersed spherical micelles with cores of PPySt blocks. Further, the photo-Claisen rearrangement caused the micellization of poly(4-allyloxystyrene-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer (PASt-b-PSt. Micellization was promoted in cyclohexane at room temperature without a catalyst. During micellization, the elimination of the allyl groups competitively occurred along with the photorearrangement of the 4-allyloxystyrene units into the 3-allyl-4-hydroxystyrene units.

  3. Nanoparticles based on novel amphiphilic polyaspartamide copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Teresi, Girolamo; Ognibene, Maria Chiara; Casaletto, Maria Pia; Bondi, Maria Luisa; Cavallaro, Gennara

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the synthesis of two amphiphilic polyaspartamide copolymers, useful to obtain polymeric nanoparticles without using surfactants or stabilizing agents, is described. These copolymers were obtained starting from α,β-poly-(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-dl-aspartamide (PHEA) by following a novel synthetic strategy. In particular, PHEA and its pegylated derivative (PHEA-PEG 2000 ) were functionalized with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) through 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) activation to obtain PHEA-PLA and PHEA-PEG 2000 -PLA graft copolymers, respectively. These copolymers were properly purified and characterized by 1 H-NMR, FT-IR, and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) analyses, which confirmed that derivatization reactions occurred. Nanoparticles were obtained from PHEA-PLA and PHEA-PEG 2000 -PLA graft copolymers by using the high pressure homogenization-solvent evaporation method, avoiding the use of surfactants or stabilizing agents. Polymeric nanoparticles were characterized by dimensional analysis, before and after freeze-drying process, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Zeta potential measurements and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrated the presence of PEG and/or PHEA onto the PHEA-PEG 2000 -PLA and PHEA-PLA nanoparticle surface, respectively.

  4. 21 CFR 177.1310 - Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. 177.1310 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1310 Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers. The ethylene-acrylic acid copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials, containers...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  8. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state 13 C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimaraes

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group. (author)

  9. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state 13C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Chaves Stael

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group.

  10. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dilute aqueous solutions certain amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into vesicles that enclose a small pool of water with a membrane. Such polymersomes have promising applications ranging from targeted drug-delivery devices, to biosensors, and nanoreactors. Interactions between block copolymer membranes and their surroundings are important factors that determine their potential biomedical applications. Such interactions are influenced predominantly by the membrane surface. We review methods to functionalize block copolymer vesicle surfaces by chemical means with ligands such as antibodies, adhesion moieties, enzymes, carbohydrates and fluorophores. Furthermore, surface-functionalization can be achieved by self-assembly of polymers that carry ligands at their chain ends or in their hydrophilic blocks. While this review focuses on the strategies to functionalize vesicle surfaces, the applications realized by, and envisioned for, such functional polymersomes are also highlighted.

  11. Amphiphilic block copolymers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancich, John Andrew

    Amphiphilic block copolymer self-assembly provides a versatile means to prepare nanoscale objects in solution. Control over aggregate shape is granted through manipulation of amphiphile composition and the synthesis of well-defined polymers offers the potential to produce micelles with geometries optimized for specific applications. Currently, polymer micelles are being investigated as vehicles for the delivery of therapeutics and attempts to increase efficacy has motivated efforts to incorporate bioactive ligands and stimuli-responsive character into these structures. This thesis reports the synthesis and self-assembly of biocompatible, degradable polymeric amphiphiles. Spherical, cylindrical, and bilayered vesicle structures were generated spontaneously by the direct dispersion of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(gamma-methyl-ε-caprolactone) block copolymers in water and solutions were characterized with cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The dependence of micelle structure on diblock copolymer composition was examined through the systematic variation of the hydrophobic block molecular weight. A continuous evolution of morphology was observed with coexistence of aggregate structures occurring in windows of composition intermediate to that of pure spheres, cylinders and vesicles. A number of heterobifunctional poly(ethylene oxide) polymers were synthesized for the preparation of ligand-functionalized amphiphilic diblock copolymers. The effect of ligand conjugation on block copolymer self-assembly and micelle morphology was also examined. An RGD-containing peptide sequence was efficiently conjugated to a set of well characterized poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(butadiene) copolymers. The reported aggregate morphologies of peptide-functionalized polymeric amphiphiles deviated from canonical structures and the micelle clustering, cylinder fragmentation, network formation, and multilayer vesicle generation documented with cryo-TEM was attributed to

  12. Synthesis and photostabilizing performance of a polymeric HALS based on 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine and vinyl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Aparecido Chinelatto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polymeric hindered amine light stabilizers (polymeric HALS have been extensively studied because they combine a high ability to protect the polymers against harmful effects of weathering with minimum physical loss. In this study a new polymeric N-methylated HALS was synthesized by the radical copolymerization of a cyclic tertiary amine with vinyl acetate (VAc. 4-Acryloyloxy-1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine (APP, the cyclic tertiary amine, was prepared by the initial conversion of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol derivatives via two different routes. The APP/VAc copolymer synthesized was characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR. The photostabilizing performance, particularly the induction period of polypropylene (PP films containing different concentrations of APP/VAc copolymer, when exposed to accelerated aging, was comparable to that of PP films compounded with commercial polymeric HALS.

  13. Dynamics of Block Copolymer Nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochrie, Simon G. J.

    2014-09-09

    A detailed study of the dynamics of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles suspended in polystyrene homopolymer matrices was carried out using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy for temperatures between 120 and 180 °C. For low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymers, the observed dynamics show a crossover from diffusive to hyper-diffusive behavior with decreasing temperatures. For higher molecular weight polystyrene, the nanoparticle dynamics appear hyper-diffusive at all temperatures studied. The relaxation time and characteristic velocity determined from the measured hyper-diffusive dynamics reveal that the activation energy and underlying forces determined are on the order of 2.14 × 10-19 J and 87 pN, respectively. We also carried out a detailed X-ray scattering study of the static and dynamic behavior of a styrene– isoprene diblock copolymer melt with a styrene volume fraction of 0.3468. At 115 and 120 °C, we observe splitting of the principal Bragg peak, which we attribute to phase coexistence of hexagonal cylindrical and cubic double- gyroid structure. In the disordered phase, above 130 °C, we have characterized the dynamics of composition fluctuations via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Near the peak of the static structure factor, these fluctuations show stretched-exponential relaxations, characterized by a stretching exponent of about 0.36 for a range of temperatures immediately above the MST. The corresponding characteristic relaxation times vary exponentially with temperature, changing by a factor of 2 for each 2 °C change in temperature. At low wavevectors, the measured relaxations are diffusive with relaxation times that change by a factor of 2 for each 8 °C change in temperature.

  14. Co-polymer Films for Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Jewell, April D. (Inventor); Taylor, Charles (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin S. (Inventor); Kisor, Adam (Inventor); Manatt, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor); Goddard, William A. (Inventor); Homer, Margie L. (Inventor); Shevade, Abhijit V. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Embodiments include a sensor comprising a co-polymer, the co-polymer comprising a first monomer and a second monomer. For some embodiments, the first monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridine, and the second monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridinium propylamine chloride. For some embodiments, the first monomer is polystyrene and the second monomer is poly-2-vinyl pyridinium propylamine chloride. For some embodiments, the first monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridine, and the second monomer is poly-4-vinyl pyridinium benzylamine chloride. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  15. Ordering phenomena in ABA triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynders, K.; Mischenko, N.; Kleppinger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network). The lat......Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network...

  16. Characterization and some properties of cellulose acetate-co-polyethylene oxide blends prepared by the use of gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA, polyethylene oxide (PEO copolymer blend was prepared using γ-rays as initiator. PEO as an additive was added with different concentrations (0 – 5% based on cellulose acetate. As the PEO is water soluble, some portions of them were extracted into aqueous solution. To overcome this, the PEO additives were crosslinked with N,N′Methylene bis-acrylamide (MBAAm to be stably entrapped in the CA matrix. The efficiency was calculated to be 100%. Morphological changes using scanning electron microscope (SEM and the bulk properties such as water sorption, electrical conductivity, and chemical stability were investigated. The thermal stability of the developed copolymer blend has also been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Different variations of the copolymerization were studied such as crosslinker concentration and ratio of PEO to cellulose acetate. It was observed that the addition of small amounts of PEO 3 weight % as an additive resulted in a considerable change of the thermal characteristics.

  17. Metabolic response to glatiramer acetate therapy in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia De Riccardis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone is a random copolymer of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine used for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Its mechanism of action has not been already fully elucidated, but it seems that GA has an immune-modulatory effect and neuro-protective properties. Lymphocyte mitochondrial dysfunction underlines the onset of several autoimmune disorders. In MS first diagnosis patients, CD4+, the main T cell subset involved in the pathogenesis of MS, undergo a metabolic reprogramming that consist in the up-regulation of glycolysis and in the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. Currently, no works exist about CD4+ T cell metabolism in response to GA treatment. In order to provide novel insight into the potential use of GA in MS treatment, blood samples were collected from 20 healthy controls (HCs and from 20 RR MS patients prior and every 6 months during the 12 months of GA administration. GA treated patients' CD4+ T cells were compared with those from HCs analysing their mitochondrial activity through polarographic and enzymatic methods in association with their antioxidant status, through the analysis of SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Altogether, our findings suggest that GA is able to reduce CD4+ T lymphocytes' dysfunctions by increasing mitochondrial activity and their response to oxidative stress.

  18. Metabolic response to glatiramer acetate therapy in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riccardis, Lidia; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Danieli, Antonio; Trianni, Giorgio; Zara, Vincenzo; De Robertis, Francesca; Maffia, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone) is a random copolymer of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine used for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Its mechanism of action has not been already fully elucidated, but it seems that GA has an immune-modulatory effect and neuro-protective properties. Lymphocyte mitochondrial dysfunction underlines the onset of several autoimmune disorders. In MS first diagnosis patients, CD4 + , the main T cell subset involved in the pathogenesis of MS, undergo a metabolic reprogramming that consist in the up-regulation of glycolysis and in the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. Currently, no works exist about CD4 + T cell metabolism in response to GA treatment. In order to provide novel insight into the potential use of GA in MS treatment, blood samples were collected from 20 healthy controls (HCs) and from 20 RR MS patients prior and every 6 months during the 12 months of GA administration. GA treated patients' CD4 + T cells were compared with those from HCs analysing their mitochondrial activity through polarographic and enzymatic methods in association with their antioxidant status, through the analysis of SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Altogether, our findings suggest that GA is able to reduce CD4 + T lymphocytes' dysfunctions by increasing mitochondrial activity and their response to oxidative stress.

  19. Molecular Interaction Control in Diblock Copolymer Blends and Multiblock Copolymers with Opposite Phase Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan

    2014-03-01

    Here we show how to control molecular interactions via mixing AB and AC diblock copolymers, where one copolymer exhibits upper order-disorder transition and the other does lower disorder-order transition. Linear ABC triblock copolymers possessing both barotropic and baroplastic pairs are also taken into account. A recently developed random-phase approximation (RPA) theory and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for general compressible mixtures are used to analyze stability criteria and morphologies for the given systems. It is demonstrated that the copolymer systems can yield a variety of phase behaviors in their temperature and pressure dependence upon proper mixing conditions and compositions, which is caused by the delicate force fields generated in the systems. We acknowledge the financial support from National Research Foundation of Korea and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...

  1. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, L; Brunger, M J; Zecca, A; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    Using a Beer–Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C 4 H 6 O 2 ) in the incident positron energy range 0.15–50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1–1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ∼2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect. (paper)

  2. Shear instability of a gyroid diblock copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskimergen, Rüya; Mortensen, Kell; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2005-01-01

    -induced destabilization is discussed in relation to analogous observations on shear-induced order-to-order and disorder-to-order transitions observed in related block copolymer systems and in microemulsions. It is discussed whether these phenomena originate in shear-reduced fluctuations or shear-induced dislocations....

  3. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  4. Substrate tolerant direct block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymer (BC) self-assembly constitutes a powerful platform for nanolithography. However, there is a need for a general approach to BC lithography that critically considers all the steps from substrate preparation to the final pattern transfer. We present a procedure that significantly sim...... plasma treatment enables formation of the oxidized PDMS hard mask, PS block removal and polymer or graphene substrate patterning....

  5. Micellization and Characterization of Block Copolymer Detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    and different models have been proposed. Results obtained by a range of liquid chromatographic methods will be shown and it will be demonstrated that commercial EPE copolymers are inhomogeneous at several levels and many of their unusual properties reflect the presence of impurities....

  6. Cyclic olefin copolymer-silica nanocomposites foams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pegoretti, A.; Dorigato, A.; Biani, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 8 (2016), s. 3907-3916 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cyclic olefin copolymer * nanocomposites * silica Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.599, year: 2016

  7. Research Update: Triblock copolymers as templates to synthesize inorganic nanoporous materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yunqi Li; Bishnu Prasad Bastakoti; Yusuke Yamauchi

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the application of triblock copolymers as designed templates to synthesize nanoporous materials with various compositions. Asymmetric triblock copolymers have several advantages compared with symmetric triblock copolymers and diblock copolymers, because the presence of three distinct domains can provide more functional features to direct the resultant nanoporous materials. Here we clearly describe significant contributions of asymmetric triblock copolymers, especially p...

  8. Use of EVOH for Food Packaging Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gavara, Rafael; Catalá Moragrega, Ramón; López Carballo, Gracia; Cerisuelo, Josep Pascual; Domínguez, Irene; Muriel Galet, Virginia; Hernández Muñoz, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH) are a family of thermoplastic polymers with application in many industrial sectors including packaging and, especially, food packaging. The main characteristic of EVOH copolymers for packaging applications is their outstanding barrier to gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide, …) and organic vapors (food aroma). EVOH is applied in multilayer structures for bags, trays, cups, bottles, squeezable tubes or jars to protect oxygen-sensitive products. However, the hy...

  9. Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavicić; Skrgatić, Lana; Radaković, Branko; Vrbić, Hrvoje; Canić, Tomislav

    2014-03-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception.

  10. Phase behavior of model ABC triblock copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Joon

    The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene- b-ethylene oxide) (ISO), a model ABC triblock copolymer has been studied. This class of materials exhibit self-assembly, forming a large array of ordered morphologies at length scales of 5-100 nm. The formation of stable three-dimensionally continuous network morphologies is of special interest in this study. Since these nanostructures considerably impact the material properties, fundamental knowledge for designing ABC systems have high technological importance for realizing applications in the areas of nanofabrication, nanoporous media, separation membranes, drug delivery and high surface area catalysts. A comprehensive framework was developed to describe the phase behavior of the ISO triblock copolymers at weak to intermediate segregation strengths spanning a wide range of composition. Phases were characterized through a combination of characterization techniques, including small angle x-ray scattering, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and birefringence measurements. Combined with previous investigations on ISO, six different stable ordered state symmetries have been identified: lamellae (LAM), Fddd orthorhombic network (O70), double gyroid (Q230), alternating gyroid (Q214), hexagonal (HEX), and body-centered cubic (BCC). The phase map was found to be somewhat asymmetric around the fI = fO isopleth. This work provides a guide for theoretical studies and gives insight into the intricate effects of various parameters on the self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers. Experimental SAXS data evaluated with a simple scattering intensity model show that local mixing varies continuously across the phase map between states of two- and three-domain segregation. Strategies of blending homopolymers with ISO triblock copolymer were employed for studying the swelling properties of a lamellar state. Results demonstrate that lamellar domains swell or shrink depending upon the type of homopolymer that

  11. Renewable Pentablock Copolymers Containing Bulky Natural Rosin for Tough Bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Anisur; Ganewatta, Mitra S.; Lokupitiya, Hasala N.; Liang, Yuan; Stefik, Morgan; Tang, Chuanbing

    Renewable polymers have received significant attention due to environmental concerns on petrochemical counterparts. One of the most abundant natural biomass is resin acids. However, most polymers derived from resin acids are low molecular weight and brittle because of the high chain entanglement molecular weight resulted from the bulky hydrophenanthrene pendant group. It is well established that the brittleness can be overcome by synthesizing multi-block copolymers with low entanglement molecular weight components. We investigated the effects of chain architecture and microdomain orientation on mechanical properties of both tri and pentablock copolymers. We synthesized rosin-containing A-B-A-B-A type pentablock and A-B-A type triblock copolymers to improve their mechanical properties. Pentablock copolymers showed higher strength and better toughness as compared to triblock copolymers, both superior to homopolymers. The greater toughness of pentablock copolymers is due to the presence of the rosin based midblock chains that act as bridging chains between two polynorbornene blocks.

  12. Carrier-Mediated Antiviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    diarachidoyl- phosphatidylcholine -dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DAPC-DPPG), 9: 1, were able to retain the interferon at the site of IM or SC injection...months (Beck et al.. 1980). In diabetic rats that received SC implants of insulin containing ethylene vinyl acetate polymer, the blood glucose level was

  13. Utilizing thin-film solid-phase extraction to assess the effect of organic carbon amendments on the bioavailability of DDT and dieldrin to earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved approaches are needed to rapidly and accurately assess the bioavailability of persistent, hydrophobic organic compounds in soils at contaminated sites. The performance of a thin-film solid-phase extraction (TF-SPE) assay using vials coated with ethylene vinyl acetate polymer was compared to...

  14. Preparation of microstructured hydroxyapatite microspheres using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    by using oil-in-water emulsions and solvent evaporation technique. Ethylene vinyl acetate .... Oil-in-water emulsion was obtained by dispersing the organic phase .... tent is mainly due to the higher viscosity of the dispersed phase. Due to the ...

  15. Technical feasibility study on polycarbonate solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackmann, M.M.; Meuwissen, M.H.H.; Bots, T.L.; Buijs, J.A.H.M.; Broek, K.M.; Kinderman, R.; Tanck, O.B.F.; Schuurmans, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a technical feasibility study on the application of polycarbonate (PC) plates in a superstrate photovoltaic module design. The lamination process was performed in a conventional laminator apparatus using low temperature curing (100°C) ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA) as the potting

  16. Synthesis of amphiphilic poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly( N-vinylcaprolactam) block copolymers via the combination of RAFT polymerization and click chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Paulo Henrique; Aguiar, Graziele Aparecida de Jesus; Moraes, Rodolfo Minto de; Medeiros, Simone de Fatima; Santos, Amilton Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, well-defined block copolymers composed of a hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments have gained much interest as drug carriers, because of their enhanced solubility and sustained release of the drug in controlled delivery systems [1]. The development of strategies to obtain block copolymers has attracted considerable attention, due to the possibility to combine characteristic properties of the homopolymers. A wide variety of well-defined block copolymers have been successfully synthesized by combining the efficiency and selectivity of click chemistry with the powerful RAFT polymerization mechanism. In the present work, well-defined amphiphilic, biocompatible, partially biodegradable, and thermosensitive poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PCL-b-PNVCL) block copolymers were synthesized by combining ring opening polymerization (ROP), reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and subsequent click chemistry reaction. Alkyne-terminated poly(ε-caprolactone) (alkyne-PCL) was obtained by the ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) using propargyl alcohol as initiator and stannous-2-ethylhexanoate [Sn(Oct) 2 ] as catalyst. The azide end-capped-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL-N 3 ) was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer/macromolecular design via interchange of xanthates (RAFT/MADIX) polymerization of the N-vinylcaprolactam (NVCL) mediated by a novel chain transfer agent comprising an azide function , 2-azidoethyl[(ethoxycarbonothioyl)thio](phenyl)acetate. These functionalized homopolymers, alkyne-PCL and PNVCL-N 3 , were coupled by the 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition reaction in order to obtain the corresponding block copolymers. These (co)polymers were characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR and GPC measurements. Reference: 1. RAMESH, K., SINGH, S., MITRA, K., CHATTOPADHYAY, D., MISRA, N., & RAY, B. (2015). Colloid and Polymer Science, 1-9. (author)

  17. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating an ionic liquid into one block copolymer microphase provides a platform for combining the outstanding electrochemical properties of ionic liquids with a number of favorable attributes provided by block copolymers. In particular, block copolymers thermodynamically self-assemble into well-ordered nanostructures, which can be engineered to provide a durable mechanical scaffold and template the ionic liquid into continuous ion-conducting nanochannels. Understanding how the additio...

  18. Single step synthesis and organization of gold colloids assisted by copolymer templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrazin, Aurélien; Gontier, Arthur; Plaud, Alexandre; Béal, Jérémie; Yockell-Lelièvre, Hélène; Bijeon, Jean-Louis; Plain, Jérôme; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Maurer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We report here an original single-step process for the synthesis and self-organization of gold colloids by simply incorporating gold salts into a solution prepared using polystyrene (PS)-polymethylmethacrylate copolymer and thiolated PS with propylene glycol methyl ether acetate as a solvent. The spin-coating and annealing of this solution then allows the formation of PS domains. Depending on the polymer concentration of the as-prepared solution, there can be either one or several gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) per PS domain. For high concentrations of Au NPs in PS domains, the coupling between plasmonic NPs leads to the observation of a second peak in the optical extinction spectrum. Such a collective effect could be relevant for the development of optical strain sensors in the near future. (papers)

  19. Single step synthesis and organization of gold colloids assisted by copolymer templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Aurélien; Gontier, Arthur; Plaud, Alexandre; Béal, Jérémie; Yockell-Lelièvre, Hélène; Bijeon, Jean-Louis; Plain, Jérôme; Adam, Pierre-Michel; Maurer, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    We report here an original single-step process for the synthesis and self-organization of gold colloids by simply incorporating gold salts into a solution prepared using polystyrene (PS)-polymethylmethacrylate copolymer and thiolated PS with propylene glycol methyl ether acetate as a solvent. The spin-coating and annealing of this solution then allows the formation of PS domains. Depending on the polymer concentration of the as-prepared solution, there can be either one or several gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) per PS domain. For high concentrations of Au NPs in PS domains, the coupling between plasmonic NPs leads to the observation of a second peak in the optical extinction spectrum. Such a collective effect could be relevant for the development of optical strain sensors in the near future.

  20. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  1. Rapid ordering of block copolymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Pawel W; Yager, Kevin G

    2016-01-01

    Block-copolymers self-assemble into diverse morphologies, where nanoscale order can be finely tuned via block architecture and processing conditions. However, the ultimate usage of these materials in real-world applications may be hampered by the extremely long thermal annealing times—hours or days—required to achieve good order. Here, we provide an overview of the fundamentals of block-copolymer self-assembly kinetics, and review the techniques that have been demonstrated to influence, and enhance, these ordering kinetics. We discuss the inherent tradeoffs between oven annealing, solvent annealing, microwave annealing, zone annealing, and other directed self-assembly methods; including an assessment of spatial and temporal characteristics. We also review both real-space and reciprocal-space analysis techniques for quantifying order in these systems. (topical review)

  2. Nanostructured Polysulfone-Based Block Copolymer Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate nanostructured membranes from polysulfone-based block copolymers through self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation. Block copolymers containing polysulfone are novel materials for this purpose providing better mechanical and thermal stability to membranes than polystyrene-based copolymers, which have been exclusively used now. Firstly, we synthesized a triblock copolymer, poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polsulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) through polycondensation and reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. The obtained membrane has a highly porous interconnected skin layer composed of elongated micelles with a flower-like arrangement, on top of the graded finger-like macrovoids. Membrane surface hydrolysis was carried out in a combination with metal complexation to obtain metal-chelated membranes. The copper-containing membrane showed improved antibacterial capability. Secondly, a poly(acrylic acid)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(acrylic acid) triblock copolymer obtained by hydrolyzing poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polsulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) formed a thin film with cylindrical poly(acrylic acid) microdomains in polysulfone matrix through thermal annealing. A phase inversion membrane was prepared from the same polymer via self-assembly and chelation-assisted non-solvent induced phase separation. The spherical micelles pre-formed in a selective solvent mixture packed into an ordered lattice in aid of metal-poly(acrylic acid) complexation. The space between micelles was filled with poly(acrylic acid)-metal complexes acting as potential water channels. The silver0 nanoparticle-decorated membrane was obtained by surface reduction, having three distinct layers with different particle sizes. Other amphiphilic copolymers containing polysulfone and water-soluble segments such as poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) were also synthesized through coupling reaction and copper0-mediated

  3. A Cationic Smart Copolymer for DNA Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Ribeiro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new block copolymer with a temperature-responsive block and a cationic block was prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization, with good control of its size and composition. The first block is composed by di(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA and oligo(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA, with the ratio DEGMA/OEGMA being used to choose the volume phase transition temperature of the polymer in water, tunable from ca. 25 to above 90 °C. The second block, of trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride (TMEC, is positively charged at physiological pH values and is used for DNA binding. The coacervate complexes between the block copolymer and a model single strand DNA are characterized by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The new materials offer good prospects for biomedical application, for example in controlled gene delivery.

  4. SANS study of coated block copolymer micelles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pleštil, Josef; Kříž, Jaroslav; Koňák, Čestmír; Pospíšil, Herman; Kadlec, Petr; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Grillo, I.; Cubitt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 206, č. 12 (2005), s. 1206-1215 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0600; GA AV ČR IAA1050201; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : block copolymer micelles * core-shell polymers * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2005

  5. Increased radiation degradation in methyl methacrylate copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbert, J.N; Wagner, G.E.; Caplan, P.J.; Poindexter, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of polar substituents at the quaternary carbon on degradation processes in several polymers and 10 to 20 percent copolymers of methyl methacrylate was explored. EPR was used to monitor radiation degradation products and to determine radiation G values. Irradiations were carried out at 77 0 K in a gamma irradiator at a dose rate of 0.3 Mrad/hr. (U.S.)

  6. Radiation-induced emulsion copolymerization of vinyl chloride with vinyl acetate in an engineering flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.T.; Stahel, E.P.; Stannett, V.T.

    1979-01-01

    A flow reactor system was used to study the radiation-induced emulsion copolymerization of vinyl chloride with vinyl acetate. The emulsion was recirculated from a stirred vessel through transfer lines to a tubular reactor located within a high-intensity Co-60 source. The effects of physical chemical variables such as soap concentration, phase ratio, reaction temperature and residence time distribution on the molecular weight properties were investigated. The rate of copolymerization was found to be proportional to the 0.17 power of the soap concentration. Variation of the monomer-water ratio produced no significant change in rate. The rate increased with an increase in temperature over the range 5 to 50 0 C, while the average molecular weights of the copolymer increased with decreasing polymerization temperature. The molecular weight distribution in this engineering system was found to be essentially similar to those produced in a batch system

  7. Bis(formylphenolatocobalt(II-Mediated Alternating Radical Copolymerization of tert-Butyl 2-Trifluoromethylacrylate with Vinyl Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Banerjee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP of vinyl acetate (VAc and its OMR copolymerization (OMRcoP with tert-butyl 2-trifluoromethylacrylate (MAF-TBE mediated by Co(SAL2 (SAL = 2-formylphenolato or deprotonated salicylaldehyde produced relatively well-defined PVAc and poly(VAc-alt-MAF-TBE copolymers at moderate temperature (<40 °C in bulk. The resulting alternating copolymer was characterized by 1H-, 13C- and 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies, and by size exclusion chromatography. The linear first-order kinetic plot, the linear evolutions of the molar mass with total monomer conversion, and the relatively low dispersity (Đ~1.55 of the resulting copolymers suggest that this cobalt complex provides some degree of control over the copolymerization of VAc and MAF-TBE. Compared to the previously investigated cobalt complex OMRP mediators having a fully oxygen-based first coordination sphere, this study emphasizes a few peculiarities of Co(SAL2: a lower ability to trap radical chains as compared to Co(acac2 and the absence of catalytic chain transfer reactions, which dominates polymerizations carried in the presence of 9-oxyphenalenone cobalt derivative.

  8. Luminescence properties of uranyl-acetate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Hannes; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) was applied to characterize uranium(VI)- acetate species based on their luminescence properties. In contrast to previous interpretations, no indications were detected for the existence of the 1: 3 complex.

  9. Cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibrous membrane: fabrication ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    337–343. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... 1Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81300 Johor, Malaysia ... concentrations were prepared by dissolving the polymer in a mixture of acetic acid/acetone ...

  10. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Maxwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache.We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats.Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity.Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

  11. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.

  12. Flexible shielding material sheet for radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokan, Susumu; Fukuoka, Masasuke.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a soft sheet of shielding material for radioactive rays without involving no problem such as environmental contamination, without generating intense second radioactive rays such as conventional cadmium. Structure: 100 weight parts of boron compound (boron carbide, boric acid anhydride) and 5 to 60 weight parts of low molecular-weight polyethylene resin, of which average molecular weight is less than 8000, are agitated in a mixer and during agitation are increased in temperature to a level above a softening temperature of the polyethylene resin to obtain a mixture in which the boron compound is coated with the low molecular-weight polyethylene. Next, 3 to 200 weight parts of the resultant mixture and 100 weight parts of olefin group resin (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, styrene-butadiene random copolymer) are evenly mixed within an agitator such as a tumbler to form a sheet having the desired thickness and dimension. The thus obtained shielding material generates no capture gamma radiation. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Surface morphology of PS-PDMS diblock copolymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.H.; Tougaard, S.; Larsen, N.B.

    2001-01-01

    Spin coated thin films (∼400 Å) of poly(styrene)–poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS–PDMS) diblock copolymers have been investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Surface segregation of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) blocks was studied for five diblock copolymers which ra...

  14. Rheological Behavior of Entangled Polystyrene-Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) Copolymer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Jian; Mather, Patrick T; Haddad, Timothy S; Kim, Gyeong-Man

    2006-01-01

    ...: random copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and styryl-based polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS), R7(Si8O12)(C6H4CH=CH2), with R = isobutyl (iBu). A series of styrene-styryl POSS random copolymers with 0, 6, 15, 30, 50 wt...

  15. Adsorption of charged diblock copolymers : effect on colloidal stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israels, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis we present Scheutjens-Fleer (SF) calculations on the adsorption of diblock copolymers. More specifically, we restrict ourselves to adsorption at uncharged surfaces, while the specific type of block copolymers we consider have one uncharged adsorbing "anchor" block and one

  16. Amphiphilic brushes from metallo-supramolecular block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillet, P.; Fustin, C.A.; Wouters, D.; Höppener, S.; Schubert, U.S.; Gohy, J.M.W.

    2009-01-01

    A novel strategy to control the formation of amphiphilic brushes from metallo-supramol. block copolymers is described. The investigated copolymer consists of a polystyrene block linked to a poly(ethylene oxide) one via a charged bis-terpyridine ruthenium(ii) complex (PS-[Ru]-PEO). The initial

  17. Polyether based segmented copolymers with uniform aramid units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, M.C.E.J.

    2000-01-01

    Segmented copolymers with short, glassy or crystalline hard segments and long, amorphous soft segments (multi-block copolymers) are thermoplastic elastomers (TPE’s). The hard segments form physical crosslinks for the amorphous (rubbery) soft segments. As a result, this type of materials combines

  18. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratzl, Günther, E-mail: guenther.gratzl@jku.at [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Paulik, Christian [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Chemical Technology of Organic Materials, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Hild, Sabine [Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute of Polymer Science, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian [AMiSTec GmbH and Co. KG, Leitweg 13, 6345 Kössen, Tirol (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratzl, Günther; Paulik, Christian; Hild, Sabine; Guggenbichler, Josef P.; Lackner, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has developed into a major health problem. In particular, biofilms are the main reason for hospital-acquired infections and diseases. Once formed, biofilms are difficult to remove as they have specific defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial surfaces must therefore kill or repel bacteria before they can settle to form a biofilm. In this study, we describe that poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) containing diblock copolymers can kill bacteria and prevent from biofilm formation. The PAA diblock copolymers with poly(styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) were synthesized via anionic polymerization of tert-butyl acrylate with styrene or methyl methacrylate and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester. The copolymers were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis, and acid–base titrations. Copolymer films with a variety of acrylic acid contents were produced by solvent casting, characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tested for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of the acidic diblock copolymers increased with increasing acrylic acid content, independent of the copolymer-partner, the chain length and the nanostructure. - Highlights: • Acrylic acid diblock copolymers are antimicrobially active. • The antimicrobial activity depends on the acrylic acid content in the copolymer. • No salts, metals or other antimicrobial agents are needed

  1. Radiation crosslinked block copolymer blends with improved impact resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, F.L.; Pelletier, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    Polymer blends having high impact resistance after mechanical working are produced by blending together a non-elastomeric monovinylidene aromatic polymer such as polystyrene with an elastomeric copolymer, such as a block copolymer of styrene and butadiene, in the form of crosslinked, colloidal size particles

  2. Characteristics of immobilized aminoacylase from Aspergillus oryzae on macroporous copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B L; Jiang, P; Qiu, Y B

    1990-01-01

    Aminoacylase from Aspergillus oryzae was adsorbed on functionallized macroporous copolymers where the enzyme showed excellent catalyzing activity and operation stability. Various factors which effect the activity of the immobilized aminoacylase such as temperature, pH and ionic strength were investigated. The continuous operation of the enzyme immobilized on macroporous copolymers was compared with that of the enzyme immobilized on DEAE-Sephadex.

  3. Analysis of the mechanical properties and characterization by solid state {sup 13} C NMR of recycled EVA copolymer/silica composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: stael@on.br; Rocha, Marisa Cristina Guimaraes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Menezes, Sonia Maria Cabral de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; D' Almeida, Jose Roberto Morais; Ruiz, Naira Machado da Silva [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-15

    The incorporation of micrometer sized silica particles on poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) - EVA - residues from the footwear industry was evaluated. The effects of the processing parameters - temperature and mixing ratio - on the mechanical behavior of molded plates of neat recycled EVA and EVA/silica composites were also investigated. The mechanical properties measured by the tensile test, the fractographic analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the {sup 13} C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) showed a reduced EVA to silica compatibility. Therefore, incorporation of untreated silica to recycled EVA copolymer produced a slight decrease on the mechanical performance of EVA/silica composites in respect to neat EVA copolymer. The NMR analysis also shows that the crosslinking process on recycled EVA may be occurring at the carbonyl group. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of waterborne polyurethane acrylate copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, Misbah; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Zuber, Mohammad; Barikani, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Polyurethane acrylate copolymers were synthesized by emulsion polymerization process. To reduce the environmental hazards, organic solvents were replaced by eco-friendly aqueous system. Concentration of polyurethane and acrylate monomer was varied to investigate the effect of chemical composition on performance properties of copolymers. FTIR spectroscopy was used as a key tool to record the chemical synthesis route. The synthesized copolymer emulsions were characterized by evaluating their particle size, viscosity, dry weight content, chemical and water resistance. Thermal decomposition was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscope was used to visualize the morphological structure of copolymers. The experimental results indicate better polyurethane acrylate compatibility till the ratio of 30/70. However, these copolymers exhibited synergistic effects between the two polymers and revealed a remarkable improvement in numerous coating properties

  5. Sulfomethylated graft copolymers of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, I.W.; Empey, R.A.; Racciato, J.S.

    1978-08-08

    A water-soluble anionic graft copolymer of xanthan gum and polyacrylamide is described in which at least part of the amide function of the acrylamide portion of the copolymer is sulfomethylated and the xanthan gum portion of the copolymer is unreacted with formaldehyde. The copolymer is sulfomethylated by reaction with formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite. The formaldehyde does not cause any appreciable cross-linking between hydroxyl groups of the xanthan moieties. The sulfomethylation of the acrylamido group takes place at temperatures from 35 to 70 C. The pH is 10 or higher, typically from 12 to 13. The degree of anionic character may be varied by adjusting the molar ratio of formaldehyde and sodium metabisulfite with respect to the copolymer. 10 claims.

  6. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  7. Amphiphilic block copolymers for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Monica L; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Kwon, Glen S

    2003-07-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers (ABCs) have been used extensively in pharmaceutical applications ranging from sustained-release technologies to gene delivery. The utility of ABCs for delivery of therapeutic agents results from their unique chemical composition, which is characterized by a hydrophilic block that is chemically tethered to a hydrophobic block. In aqueous solution, polymeric micelles are formed via the association of ABCs into nanoscopic core/shell structures at or above the critical micelle concentration. Upon micellization, the hydrophobic core regions serve as reservoirs for hydrophobic drugs, which may be loaded by chemical, physical, or electrostatic means, depending on the specific functionalities of the core-forming block and the solubilizate. Although the Pluronics, composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide), are the most widely studied ABC system, copolymers containing poly(L-amino acid) and poly(ester) hydrophobic blocks have also shown great promise in delivery applications. Because each ABC has unique advantages with respect to drug delivery, it may be possible to choose appropriate block copolymers for specific purposes, such as prolonging circulation time, introduction of targeting moieties, and modification of the drug-release profile. ABCs have been used for numerous pharmaceutical applications including drug solubilization/stabilization, alteration of the pharmacokinetic profile of encapsulated substances, and suppression of multidrug resistance. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a concise, yet detailed, introduction to the use of ABCs and polymeric micelles as delivery agents as well as to highlight current and past work in this area. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  8. 21 CFR 177.1570 - Poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers... resins and butene/ethylene copolymers. The poly-1-butene resins and butene/ethylene copolymers identified... the catalytic polymerization of 1-butene liquid monomer. Butene/ethylene copolymers are produced by...

  9. Efeito da compatibilização da mistura NBR/EVA sobre sua morfologia de fase co-contínua Effect of the compatibilization of NBR/EVA blends on co-continuous morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bluma G. Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a influência do poli (etileno-co-acetato de vinila funcionalizado com grupos mercaptana (EVALSH nas propriedades reológicas, morfológicas e dinamico-mecânicas de misturas envolvendo borracha nitrílica (NBR e copolímero de etileno - acetato de vinila (EVA. Experiências envolvendo extração seletiva da fase NBR associadas à análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura indicaram que estruturas do tipo co-contínuas são formadas em uma faixa de composição de 30 a 60 % em massa de EVA. A adição de EVALSH não afetou esta faixa de co-continuidade, porém deslocou o limiar de percolação para menores teores de EVA. Este comportamento foi mais pronunciado em misturas ricas em NBR. A faixa de co-continuidade também foi evidenciada a partir de análise dinamico-mecânica. Dados reológicos revelaram também que a adição de EVALSH aumentou a viscosidade do sistema para misturas ricas em NBR.The influence of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer functionalized with mercapto groups (EVALSH on rheological, morphological and dynamic mechanical properties of nitrilic rubber (NBR/ ethylene - vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA blends has been investigated. Selective extraction experiments of NBR phase and scanning electron micrography suggest that co-continuous morphologies were formed in a range of blend compositions from 30 to 60 wt% of EVA. The addition of EVALSH did not affect the co-continuous range but shifted the percolation threshold of NBR-richer blends towards lower amount of EVA. The co-continuous range was also evidenced by dynamic mechanical analysis. Rheological data also revealed that the presence of EVALSH increased the viscosity of the blends containing higher amounts of NBR.

  10. Clay intercalation and influence on crystallinity of EVA-based clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, D.S.; Prasad, R.; Gupta, R.K.; Bhattacharya, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Various polymer clay nanocomposites (PCNs) were prepared from ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) with 9, 18 and 28% vinyl acetate (VA) content filled with different wt.% (2.5, 5 and 7.5) of a Montmorillonite-based organo-modified clay (Cloisite[reg] C15A and C30B). The PCNs were prepared using melt blending techniques. Morphological information regarding intercalation and exfoliation were determined by using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). WAXS and TEM confirmed that increasing the VA content was necessary to achieve greater clay-polymer interaction as seen from the comparatively higher intercalation of clay platelets with 28% VA. The effect of addition of clay on the development and the modification of crystalline morphology in EVA matrix was also studied using WAXS and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Results are presented showing that the addition of clay platelets does not increase the matrix crystallinity but the morphology was significantly modified such that there was an increase in the 'rigid' amorphous phase. Mechanical properties were also evaluated against the respective morphological information for each specimen and there are indications that the level of clay-polymer interaction plays a significant role in such morphological modification, and in such a way that affects the final PCN mechanical properties which has wide and significant applications in the packaging industries

  11. Anomalous Micellization of Pluronic Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Amanda; Ryu, Chang Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) - poly(propylene oxide) - poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers, commercially known as Pluronics, are a unique family of amphiphilic triblock polymers, which self-assemble into micelles in aqueous solution. These copolymers have shown promise in therapeutic, biomedical, cosmetic, and nanotech applications. As-received samples of Pluronics contain low molecular weight impurities (introduced during the manufacturing and processing), that are ignored in most applications. It has been observed, however, that in semi-dilute aqueous solutions, at concentrations above 1 wt%, the temperature dependent micellization behavior of the Pluronics is altered. Anomalous behavior includes a shift of the critical micellization temperature and formation of large aggregates at intermediate temperatures before stable sized micelles form. We attribute this behavior to the low molecular weight impurities that are inherent to the Pluronics which interfere with the micellization process. Through the use of Dynamic Light Scattering and HPLC, we compared the anomalous behavior of different Pluronics of different impurity levels to their purified counterparts.

  12. Responsive linear-dendritic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Eva; Piñol, Milagros; Oriol, Luis

    2014-06-01

    The combination of dendritic and linear polymeric structures in the same macromolecule opens up new possibilities for the design of block copolymers and for applications of functional polymers that have self-assembly properties. There are three main strategies for the synthesis of linear-dendritic block copolymers (LDBCs) and, in particular, the emergence of click chemistry has made the coupling of preformed blocks one of the most efficient ways of obtaining libraries of LDBCs. In these materials, the periphery of the dendron can be precisely functionalised to obtain functional LDBCs with self-assembly properties of interest in different technological areas. The incorporation of stimuli-responsive moieties gives rise to smart materials that are generally processed as self-assemblies of amphiphilic LDBCs with a morphology that can be controlled by an external stimulus. Particular emphasis is placed on light-responsive LDBCs. Furthermore, a brief review of the biomedical or materials science applications of LDBCs is presented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride in a CSTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica N. Coraci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To find the optimal reactor volume and temperature for the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride at the lowest possible cost with a 90% conversion of acetic anhydride, a formula for the total cost of the reaction was created. Then, the first derivative was taken to find a value for the temperature. This value was then inputted into the second derivative of the equation to find the sign of the value which would indicate whether that point was a minima or maxima value. The minima value would then be the lowest total cost for the optimum reaction to take place.

  14. Bactericidal and Hemocompatible Coating via the Mixed-Charged Copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Li; Hu, Mi; Qin, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xia-Chao; Lei, Wen-Xi; Ye, Wan-Ying; Jin, Qiao; Ren, Ke-Feng; Ji, Jian

    2018-03-28

    Cationic antibacterial coating based on quaternary ammonium compounds, with an efficient and broad spectrum bactericidal property, has been widely used in various fields. However, the high density of positive charges tends to induce weak hemocompatibility, which hinders the application of the cationic antibacterial coating in blood-contacting devices and implants. It has been reported that a negatively charged surface can reduce blood coagulation, showing improved hemocompatibility. Here, we describe a strategy to combine the cationic and anionic groups by using mixed-charged copolymers. The copolymers of poly (quaternized vinyl pyridine- co- n-butyl methacrylate- co-methacrylate acid) [P(QVP- co- nBMA- co-MAA)] were synthesized through free radical copolymerization. The cationic group of QVP, the anionic group of MAA, and the hydrophobic group of nBMA were designed to provide bactericidal capability, hemocompatibility, and coating stability, respectively. Our findings show that the hydrophilicity of the copolymer coating increased, and its zeta potential decreased from positive charge to negative charge with the increase of the anionic/cationic ratio. Meanwhile, the bactericidal property of the copolymer coating was kept around a similar level compared with the pure quaternary ammonium copolymer coating. Furthermore, the coagulation time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis tests revealed that the hemocompatibility of the copolymer coating improved with the addition of the anionic group. The mixed-charged copolymer combined both bactericidal property and hemocompatibility and has a promising potential in blood-contacting antibacterial devices and implants.

  15. Characterization of acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, depending on varying acetate concentrations, in a biogas plant. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahring, B.K.

    1994-12-01

    The present report contains the results of a project concerning behaviour of acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants, collected in 1992 - 1994 period. Labelled acetates (2-C 14 -CH 3 COOH) have been used to characterize the types of methane bacteria populations in the Danish biogas plants, the optimum acetate concentration for these bacteria and acetate metabolism in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors with low acetate concentrations. 2 publications are included. (EG)

  16. A case of anaphylactoid reaction to acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Taro; Suzuki, Yumiko; Naito, Yoshitaka; Shiooka, Tempei; Isozaki, Taisuke

    2015-05-01

    A 35-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease due to chronic glomerulonephritis was admitted to our hospital to start maintenance hemodialysis (HD). One hour after starting the first session of HD, he experienced general pruritus, urticaria, and dyspnea. Signs and symptoms were resolved by discontinuing HD and administrating an antihistamine drug; HD-associated anaphylactoid reactions were therefore suspected. Over the next few HD sessions, we changed the dialysis membrane, anticoagulant, HD circuit and needle, in that order, but general pruritus and urticaria again appeared within 3 h after starting each session of HD. Finally, when we changed the dialysate from acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate to acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate, urticaria was clearly less than that seen in previous HD sessions, and subsided after discontinuation of HD. Subsequently, 20 mg of oral prednisolone (PSL) was administered 1 h before starting HD, and the patient did not experience general pruritus, urticaria, or dyspnea after starting the session. When administered acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate after oral PSL pretreatment, the patient again experienced general pruritus, urticaria and dyspnea. Few reports have been published on the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions during HD using acetate dialysate. We report a rare case of anaphylactoid reactions with acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate that were reduced with the use of acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate and oral PSL pretreatment.

  17. Incorporation of fluconazole in copolymer PMMA-g-PEG derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, B.M.; Santos, V.M.R. dos; Novack, K.M.; Lopes, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The graft copolymer PMMA-g-PEG went through chemical transformations in its chain through acetylation, halogenation, methylation and esterification followed by hydrolysis reactions. Subsequently, the copolymer PMMA-g-PEG derivatives passed through the process of emulsification and incorporation of the drug fluconazole. Derivatives copolymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after incorporation in order to evaluate their effectiveness. The efficiency of incorporation was observed and it was also verified that the complexity of polymer chain influence in the incorporated fluconazole content. (author)

  18. Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Andrea Cercan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the synthesis and characterization of the poly(vinyl acetate) using the ionizing radiation. Six polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out using three techniques of polymerization: in bulk, emulsion and solution. In the technique of solution polymerization were used two solvents, the alcohol ethyl and the methylethylketone, in two proportions 1:0.5 and 1:1 related to the monomer. The solutions were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60 Co source, with dose rate between 5.25 kGy/h and 6.26 kGy/h. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The molecular weight was analyzed by the technique of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out. The infrared spectroscopy and others results confirmed that the polymers obtained by polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk, emulsion and solution, using ionizing radiation, really correspond at poly(vinyl acetate). (author)

  19. Patchy micelles based on coassembly of block copolymer chains and block copolymer brushes on silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuzhe; Li, Zhan-Wei; Zhao, Hanying

    2015-04-14

    Patchy particles are a type of colloidal particles with one or more well-defined patches on the surfaces. The patchy particles with multiple compositions and functionalities have found wide applications from the fundamental studies to practical uses. In this research patchy micelles with thiol groups in the patches were prepared based on coassembly of free block copolymer chains and block copolymer brushes on silica particles. Thiol-terminated and cyanoisopropyl-capped polystyrene-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) block copolymers (PS-b-PNIPAM-SH and PS-b-PNIPAM-CIP) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and chemical modifications. Pyridyl disulfide-functionalized silica particles (SiO2-SS-Py) were prepared by four-step surface chemical reactions. PS-b-PNIPAM brushes on silica particles were prepared by thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between PS-b-PNIPAM-SH and SiO2-SS-Py. Surface micelles on silica particles were prepared by coassembly of PS-b-PNIPAM-CIP and block copolymer brushes. Upon cleavage of the surface micelles from silica particles, patchy micelles with thiol groups in the patches were obtained. Dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta-potential measurements demonstrate the preparation of patchy micelles. Gold nanoparticles can be anchored onto the patchy micelles through S-Au bonds, and asymmetric hybrid structures are formed. The thiol groups can be oxidized to disulfides, which results in directional assembly of the patchy micelles. The self-assembly behavior of the patchy micelles was studied experimentally and by computer simulation.

  20. Biotechnological applications of acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor, Peter; Goranovic, Dusan

    2008-01-01

    The acetic acid bacteria (AAB) have important roles in food and beverage production, as well as in the bioproduction of industrial chemicals. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding their taxonomy, molecular biology, and physiology, and in methods for their isolation and identification. AAB are obligate aerobes that oxidize sugars, sugar alcohols, and ethanol with the production of acetic acid as the major end product. This special type of metabolism differentiates them from all other bacteria. Recently, the AAB taxonomy has been strongly rearranged as new techniques using 16S rRNA sequence analysis have been introduced. Currently, the AAB are classified in ten genera in the family Acetobacteriaceae. AAB can not only play a positive role in the production of selected foods and beverages, but they can also spoil other foods and beverages. AAB occur in sugar- and alcohol-enriched environments. The difficulty of cultivation of AAB on semisolid media in the past resulted in poor knowledge of the species present in industrial processes. The first step of acetic acid production is the conversion of ethanol from a carbohydrate carried out by yeasts, and the second step is the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid carried out by AAB. Vinegar is traditionally the product of acetous fermentation of natural alcoholic substrates. Depending on the substrate, vinegars can be classified as fruit, starch, or spirit substrate vinegars. Although a variety of bacteria can produce acetic acid, mostly members of Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter are used commercially. Industrial vinegar manufacturing processes fall into three main categories: slow processes, quick processes, and submerged processes. AAB also play an important role in cocoa production, which represents a significant means of income for some countries. Microbial cellulose, produced by AAB, possesses some excellent physical properties and has potential for many applications. Other

  1. Mechanical properties of weakly segregated block copolymers : 1. Synergism on tensile properties of poly(styrene-b-n-butylmethacrylate) diblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weidisch, R.; Michler, G.H.; Fischer, H.; Arnold, M.; Hofmann, S.; Stamm, M.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical properties of poly(styrene-b-n-butylmethacrylate) diblock copolymers, PS-b-PBMA, with different lengths of the polystyrene block were investigated. The copolymers display a composition range where the tensile strength of the block copolymers exceeds the values of the corresponding

  2. Synthesis of graft copolymers onto starch and its semiconducting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Çankaya

    Full Text Available Literature review has revealed that, although there are studies about grafting on natural polymers, especially on starch, few of them are about electrical properties of graft polymers. Starch methacrylate (St.met was obtained by esterification of OH groups on natural starch polymer for this purpose. Grafting of synthesized N-cyclohexyl acrylamide (NCA and commercial methyl methacrylate (MMA monomers with St.met was done by free radical polymerization method. The graft copolymers were characterized with FT-IR spectra, thermal and elemental analysis. Thermal stabilities of the graft copolymers were determined by TGA (thermo gravimetric analysis method and thermal stability of the copolymers is decreased via grafting. The electrical conductivity of the polymers was measured as a function of temperature and it has been observed that electrical conductivity increases with increasing temperature. The absorbance and transmittance versus wavelength of the polymers have been measured. Keywords: Starch, Graft copolymer, Semiconducting, Thermal stability, Starch methacrylate

  3. HPMA and HEMA copolymer bead interactions with eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina D. Vianna-Soares

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two different hydrophilic acrylate beads were prepared via aqueous suspension polymerization. Beads produced of a hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA copolymer were obtained using a polyvinyl alcohol suspending medium. Copolymers of 2hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA, methyl methacrylate (MMA and ethyleneglycol methacrylate (EDMA beads were obtained using magnesium hydroxide as the suspending agent. Following characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen sorption analysis (NSA and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP, the beads were cultured with monkey fibroblasts (COS7 to evaluate their ability to support cell growth, attachment and adhesion. Cell growth behavior onto small HPMA/EDMA copolymer beads and large HEMA/MMA/EDMA copolymer beads is evaluated regarding their hidrophilicity/hidrophobicity and surface roughness.

  4. Controlled Synthesis of Fluorinated Copolymers with Pendant Sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Novel fluorinated copolymers of different architectures and bearing sulfopropyl groups were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of aromatic fluorinated monomers and two modification reactions performed on the polymer chain - demethylation followed by sulfopropylation. As a ...

  5. Fast & scalable pattern transfer via block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars

    2015-01-01

    A fully scalable and efficient pattern transfer process based on block copolymer (BCP) self-assembling directly on various substrates is demonstrated. PS-rich and PDMS-rich poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) copolymers are used to give monolayer sphere morphology after spin-casting of s......A fully scalable and efficient pattern transfer process based on block copolymer (BCP) self-assembling directly on various substrates is demonstrated. PS-rich and PDMS-rich poly(styrene-b-dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) copolymers are used to give monolayer sphere morphology after spin...... on long range lateral order, including fabrication of substrates for catalysis, solar cells, sensors, ultrafiltration membranes and templating of semiconductors or metals....

  6. Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenekhe, S

    1999-01-01

    ... the self-assembly of new rod-coil diblock, rod- coil-rod triblock, and coil-rod-coil triblock copolymers from solution and the resulting discrete and periodic mesostmctares with sizes in the 100...

  7. Design of block copolymer membranes using segregation strength trend lines

    KAUST Repository

    Sutisna, Burhannudin; Polymeropoulos, Georgios; Musteata, Valentina-Elena; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    composition, polymer molecular weights, casting solution concentration, and evaporation time. We propose here an effective method for designing new block copolymer membranes. The method consists of predetermining a trend line for the preparation of isoporous

  8. Opto-electronic devices from block copolymers and their oligomers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents research activities towards the development of polymer materials and devices for optoelectronics, An approach to controlling the conjugation length and transferring the luminescence properties of organic molecules to polymers through black copolymers containing well-defined

  9. Blends of caprolactam/caprolactone copolymers and chlorinated polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberda van Ekenstein, G.O.R.; Deuring, H.; ten Brinke, G.; Ellis, T.S.

    The phase behaviour of blends of chlorinated polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC with random copolymers of caprolactone and caprolactam has been investigated and the results correlated with a binary interaction model. The known miscibility of polycaprolactone in the

  10. Molecular weight and its distribution of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromasa; Okamoto, Jiro; Yamaguchi, Koichi.

    1978-04-01

    In comparison of molecular structure of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene copolymer produced by radiation and chemical initiators respectively, both were fractionated by elution method and fine structure was examined. For the fractionated sample by radiation, the relation between molecular weight anti Mn and intrinsic viscosity ( eta] is ( eta] = 3.97 x 10 -4 anti Mnsup(0.630) The result is not in agreement with that of the unfractionated sample by radiation, and similar to those of samples by chemical initiators. There is no difference, however, in the elution method of GPC between both these copolymers; the elution behavior agrees with that of standard polystyrene. Long chain branching thus exists little in the copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and propylene. To reveal the relations between reaction conditions and molecular weight and its distribution of the copolymer produced by flow apparatus, the molecular weight distribution was measured by GPC. The method of analysis could evaluate molecular weight distribution changing constantly. (auth.)

  11. Designing block copolymer architectures for targeted membrane performance

    KAUST Repository

    Dorin, Rachel Mika; Phillip, William A.; Sai, Hiroaki; Werner, Jö rg; Elimelech, Menachem; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of block copolymer self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation, isoporous ultrafiltration membranes were fabricated from four poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) triblock terpolymers with similar block volume

  12. Block copolymer/homopolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Behzad, Ali Reza; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-01-01

    We manufactured the first time block copolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes and dual layer flat sheet membranes manufactured by double solution casting and phase inversion in water. The support porous layer was based on polystyrene

  13. Fluctuations, conformational asymmetry and block copolymer phase behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, F.S.; Schulz, M.F.; Khandpur, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Phase behaviour near the order-disorder transition (ODT) of 58 model hydrocarbon diblock copolymers, representing four different systems, is summarized. Six distinct ordered-state microstructures are reported, including hexagonally modulated lamellae (HML), hexagonally perforated layers (HPL) and...

  14. Surface dynamics of micellar diblock copolymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sanghoon; Cha, Wonsuk; Kim, Hyunjung; Jiang, Zhang; Narayanan, Suresh

    2011-03-01

    We studied the structure and surface dynamics of poly(styrene)-b-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) diblock copolymer films with micellar PDMS surrounded by PS shells. By `in-situ' high resolution synchrotron x-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering, we obtained exact thickness, electron density and surface tension. A segregation layer near the top surface was appeared with increasing temperature Surface dynamics were measured as a function of film thickness and temperature by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. The best fit to relaxation time constants as a function of in-plane wavevectors were analyzed with a theory based on capillary waves with hydrodynamics with bilayer model Finally the viscosities for the top segregated layer as well as for the bottom layer are obtained at given temperatures This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (R15-2008-006-01001-0), Seoul Research and Business Development Program (10816), and Sogang University Research Grant (2010).

  15. Restructuring in block copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Zhang, Jianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been proposed for a number of nanotechnology applications, such as nanolithography and as nanotemplates, nanoporous membranes and sensors. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has emerged as a powerful technique for manipulating and controlling the structure of BCP...... thin films, e.g., by healing defects, by altering the orientation of the microdomains and by changing the morphology. Due to high time resolution and compatibility with SVA environments, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is an indispensable technique for studying the SVA process......, providing information of the BCP thin film structure both laterally and along the film normal. Especially, state-of-the-art combined GISAXS/SVA setups at synchrotron sources have facilitated in situ and real-time studies of the SVA process with a time resolution of a few seconds, giving important insight...

  16. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  17. Properties and quality verification of biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, N., E-mail: n_usta@pau.edu.t [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Aydogan, B. [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Con, A.H. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Uguzdogan, E. [Pamukkale University, Chemical Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey); Ozkal, S.G. [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, 20070 Denizli (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} High quality biodiesel fuel can be produced from tobacco seed oil. {yields} Pyrogallol was found to be effective antioxidant improving the oxidation stability. {yields} The iodine number was reduced with a biodiesel including more saturated fatty acids. {yields} Octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer was an effective cold flow improver. {yields} The appropriate amounts of the additives do not affect the properties negatively. -- Abstract: Tobacco seed oil has been evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, all properties of the biodiesel that was produced from tobacco seed oil were examined and some solutions were derived to bring all properties of the biodiesel within European Biodiesel Standard EN14214 to verify biodiesel quality. Among the properties, only oxidation stability and iodine number of the biodiesel, which mainly depend on fatty acid composition of the oil, were not within the limits of the standard. Six different antioxidants that are tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, pyrogallol, {alpha}-tocopherol and butylated hydroxyanisole were used to improve the oxidation stability. Among them, pyrogallol was found to be the most effective antioxidant. The iodine number was improved with blending the biodiesel produced from tobacco seed oil with a biodiesel that contains more saturated fatty acids. However, the blending caused increasing the cold filter plugging point. Therefore, four different cold flow improvers, which are ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer and two commercial cold flow improvers, were used to decrease cold filter plugging point of the biodiesel and the blends. Among the improvers, the best improver is said to be octadecene-1-maleic anhydride copolymer. In addition, effects of temperature on the density and the viscosity of the biodiesel were investigated.

  18. Utilização de NBR modificada com grupos 2-oxazolina em misturas de NBR/EVA Utilization of 2-oxazoline modified NBR in NBR/EVA blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio S. M. Almeida

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Misturas envolvendo borracha nitrílica e copolímeros de etileno-acetato de vinila na proporção 70:30 % em peso, foram preparadas na presença de borracha nitrílica funcionalizada com 2-oxazolina isoladamente ou combinada com EVA funcionalizado com grupos hidroxila, carboxila ou mercaptana. A reação entre os grupos funcionais foi verificada por análise de FTIR da fração insolúvel de amostras não vulcanizadas e pelo decréscimo nos valores de tan delta nos ensaios dinâmico-mecânicos. A utilização desses copolímeros funcionalizados não influenciou significativamente as propriedades mecânicas, provavelmente devido à proporção da mistura utilizada (rica em NBR o que facilita a localização da NBR funcionalizada no interior da fase elastomérica.Nitrile rubber/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (NBR/EVA blends with ratio of 70/30 wt% were prepared in the presence of functionalized NBR with 2-oxazoline groups. This functionalized copolymer was employed alone or in combination with EVA copolymer functionalized with hydroxyl, carboxyl or mercaptan groups. The reaction between the functional groups was confirmed by FTIR analysis of the unvulcanized samples insoluble fraction, and by the decrease in the tan delta values. The mechanical properties were not substantially affected by the presence of these functionalized copolymers, probably due to the proportion of blend composition (with high amount of NBR, thus forcing the location of functionalized NBR inside the elastomer phase.

  19. Thin Film Assembly of Spider Silk-like Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Shipley, N. H.; Lewis, R. V. Int. J. Biol.Macromol. 1999, 24, 271. (c) Thiel, B. L.; Guess, K. B.; Viney, C. Biopolymers 1997, 41, 703. (13) Silk ...Film Assembly of Spider Silk -like Block Copolymers Sreevidhya T. Krishnaji,†,‡ Wenwen Huang,§ Olena Rabotyagova,†,‡ Eugenia Kharlampieva, ) Ikjun Choi...Received November 26, 2010 We report the self-assembly of monolayers of spider silk -like block copolymers. Langmuir isotherms were obtained for a series of

  20. Theory of Primary Photoexcitations in Donor-Acceptor Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Aryanpour, Karan; Dutta, Tirthankar; Huynh, Uyen N. V.; Vardeny, Zeev Valy; Mazumdar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    We present a generic theory of primary photoexcitations in low band gap donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers. Because of the combined effects of strong electron correlations and broken symmetry, there is considerable mixing between a charge-transfer exciton and an energetically proximate triplet-triplet state with an overall spin singlet. The triplet-triplet state, optically forbidden in homopolymers, is allowed in donor-acceptor copolymers. For an intermediate difference in electron affiniti...

  1. Biodegradable copolymers carrying cell-adhesion peptide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proks, Vladimír; Machová, Lud'ka; Popelka, Stepán; Rypácek, Frantisek

    2003-01-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers are used to create bioactive surfaces on biodegradable polymer scaffolds for tissue engineering. Cell-selective biomaterials can be prepared using copolymers containing peptide sequences derived from extracellular-matrix proteins (ECM). Here we discuss alternative ways for preparation of amphiphilic block copolymers composed of hydrophobic polylactide (PLA) and hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blocks with cell-adhesion peptide sequences. Copolymers PLA-b-PEO were prepared by a living polymerisation of lactide in dioxane with tin(II)2-ethylhexanoate as a catalyst. The following approaches for incorporation of peptides into copolymers were elaborated. (a) First, a side-chain protected Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Gly (GRGDSG) peptide was prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and then coupled with delta-hydroxy-Z-amino-PEO in solution. In the second step, the PLA block was grafted to it via a controlled polymerisation of lactide initiated by the hydroxy end-groups of PEO in the side-chain-protected GRGDSG-PEO. Deprotection of the peptide yielded a GRGDSG-b-PEO-b-PLA copolymer, with the peptide attached through its C-end. (b) A protected GRGDSG peptide was built up on a polymer resin and coupled with Z-carboxy-PEO using a solid-phase approach. After cleavage of the delta-hydroxy-PEO-GRGDSG copolymer from the resin, polymerisation of lactide followed by deprotection of the peptide yielded a PLA-b-PEO-b-GRGDSG block copolymer, in which the peptide is linked through its N-terminus.

  2. Microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoate block copolymer by recombinant Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi Yan; Dong, Cui Ling; Wang, Shen Yu; Ye, Hai Mu; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2011-04-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis genes phaPCJ(Ac) cloned from Aeromonas caviae were transformed into Pseudomonas putida KTOY06ΔC, a mutant of P. putida KT2442, resulting in the ability of the recombinant P. putida KTOY06ΔC (phaPCJ(A.c)) to produce a short-chain-length and medium-chain-length PHA block copolymer consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) as one block and random copolymer of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) and 3-hydroxyheptanoate (3HHp) as another block. The novel block polymer was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), nuclear magnetic resonance, and rheology measurements. DSC studies showed the polymer to possess two glass transition temperatures (T(g)), one melting temperature (T(m)) and one cool crystallization temperature (T(c)). Rheology studies clearly indicated a polymer chain re-arrangement in the copolymer; these studies confirmed the polymer to be a block copolymer, with over 70 mol% homopolymer (PHB) of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) as one block and around 30 mol% random copolymers of 3HV and 3HHp as the second block. The block copolymer was shown to have the highest tensile strength and Young's modulus compared with a random copolymer with similar ratio and a blend of homopolymers PHB and PHVHHp with similar ratio. Compared with other commercially available PHA including PHB, PHBV, PHBHHx, and P3HB4HB, the short-chain- and medium-chain-length block copolymer PHB-b-PHVHHp showed differences in terms of mechanical properties and should draw more attentions from the PHA research community. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  3. Novel block, graft and random copolymers for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Tanaka, Masaru

    Despite the simple structure, poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) shows excellent blood compatibility [1]. Both the freezing-bound water (intermediate water: preventing the biocomponents from directly contacting the polymer surface) and non-freezing water on the polymer surface play important...... copolymers with MMA [4] utilizing ATRP. Here we present other block, graft and random copolymers of MEA intended for biomedical applications. These macromolecular architectures have been constructed by employing controlled radical polymerization methods such as RAFT and ATRP....

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Magnetite Nanoparticle Block Copolymer Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qian

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized and complexed with carboxylate-functionalized block copolymers, and aqueous dispersions of the complexes were investigated as functions of their chemical and morphological structures. The block copolymer dispersants possessed either poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide), or poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide) outer blocks, and all contained a polyurethane center block with pendant carboxylate functi...

  5. Electrorheological Properties of Suspensions Prepared from Polystyrene- Block- Polyisoprene Copolymer

    OpenAIRE

    YAVUZ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Considerable scientific and industrial interest is currently being focused on a class of materials known as electrorheological (ER) fluids, which display remarkable rheological behaviour, being able to convert rapidly and repeatedly from a liquid to solid when an electric field (E) is applied or removed. In this article, the synthesis, characterization, partial hydrolysis and ER properties of polystyrene- block}-polyisoprene copolymer (COP) were investigated. The block copolymer was ...

  6. Simultaneous determination of triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine hydrochloride in amorolfine liniment by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Jianjun; Shu, Wenjuan; Gao, Liqiong

    2012-04-01

    A simple, rapid, specific and precise reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine in marketed pharmaceutical liniment. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu VP-ODS C(18) column using the mixture of citric acid-hydrochloric acid-sodium hydrate buffer (pH 3.0), acetonitrile and methanol (32:30:38) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV-detection at 215 nm. The method separated the four components simultaneously in less than 10 min. The validation of the method was performed with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 35.1-81.9 μ/mL for triacetin, 431.1-1005.9 μ/mL for acetic ether, 167.0-389.7 μ/mL for butyl acetate and 151.0-352.3 μ/mL for amorolfine. The mean 100% spiked recovery for triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine is 99.43 ± 0.42, 101.5 ± 1.09, 101.4 ± 1.02 and 100.8 ± 0.69, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation values were liniment.

  7. The random co-polymer glatiramer acetate rapidly kills primary human leukocytes through sialic-acid-dependent cell membrane damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stig Hill; Zhang, Xianwei; Juul-Madsen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    in innate immunity. It shares the positive charge and amphipathic character of GA, and, as shown here, also the ability to kill human leukocyte. The cytotoxicity of both compounds depends on sialic acid in the cell membrane. The killing was associated with the generation of CD45 + debris, derived from cell...... membrane deformation. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed the formation of such debris, even at low GA concentrations. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing measurements also recorded stable alterations in T lymphocytes following such treatment. LL-37 forms oligomers through weak hydrophobic...

  8. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... acid under certain culture conditions similar to cocoa fermentation stress. However ... Keywords: Acetic acid bacteria, acetic acid production, Cocoa fermentation, culture conditions ..... American Society Microbiology Press, pp.

  9. Avalanches in Mn12-Acetate: ``Magnetic Burning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Sean; Suzuki, Y.; Graybill, D.; Sarachik, M. P.; Avraham, N.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Chakov, N. E.; Christou, G.

    2006-03-01

    From local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization in single crystals of the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate, we have shown[1] that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. This phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance. The propagation speed of the avalanche depends on the energy stored in each molecule, which can be controlled and tuned using an external magnetic field. We report studies of propagation speed with different external fields in Mn12-acetate. [1] Yoko Suzuki, M.P. Sarachik, E.M. Chudnovsky, S. McHugh, R. Gonzalez-Rubio, N. Avraham, Y. Myasoedov, H. Shtrikman, E. Zeldov, N.E. Chakov and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147201 (2005).

  10. Neutron scattering studies of Mn12-acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The S=10 magnetic molecule Mn 12 -acetate, which crystallises into a tetragonal crystal structure, has attracted substantial recent attention by virtue of its low temperature bulk magnetic properties, which give evidence for resonant quantum tunnelling of the magnetisation. We report a full neutron crystal structure including positions of all protons/deuterons, including the solvated water and acetic acid, a polarised-neutron study of the real space magnetisation, which confirms a simple magnetic-structure model for the molecule, albeit with reduced Mn moments, and inelastic neutron scattering data containing both the excitations within the 21-fold degenerate S=10 manifold, and those from S=10 to the S=9 manifolds. Both manifolds are split by uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and we report coefficients for 2nd and 4th-order terms in the magnetic Hamiltonian

  11. Acetate in Oz: Some Strategic Moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Webb

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available I would like to add my voice to the words of congratulations and thanks to the British Library for organising this forum, and for their generosity in making it possible for me to come across the world to be part of it. The issues we are discussing today have an importance extending beyond cellulose acetate, as they reflect our ability as custodians to deal with common threats to the documentary heritage we are charged with preserving. As I will argue later, we need to see this situation in the context of the full range of preservation management issues that face our institutions. While it imposes a burden and a challenge on us as preservation managers, it also presents opportunities to sort out some things that have needed attention for some time. I have been asked to talk about problems with cellulose acetate microfilm collections in Australia, and specifically the strategies – both national and local – that have been adopted or at least explored in response to those problems. In the time I have I will not be going into any of these in great detail, but I hope I can give you some sense of the situation down under, and perhaps draw out a few issues that might make this more than just an ‘us too’ session! One thing to emphasise from the start is that we have had a number of goes at dealing with acetate microfilm collections: it is not a newly discovered problem in Australia. One significant context in which we have been working is that of a national strategy for all kinds of cellulose acetate collection materials. Explaining this national strategy will form a major part of my presentation, with issues and approaches specific to microfilm discussed towards the end.

  12. Potentiometric titrations in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Port, L.

    1966-03-01

    The method used for studying anhydrous acetic acid is potentiometry with a glass electrode. We have in this way studied the titration of common inorganic acids (HClO 4 - HBr - H 2 SO 4 - HCl - HNO 3 - H 3 PO 4 ) and of some metallic salts. Furthermore we have shown that complex acids are formed between HCl and some metallic chlorides. An analysis of the titration curves for the inorganic acids against pyridinium chloride has made it possible to calculate a certain number of values for the dissociation pK of these acids and of the corresponding pyridinium salts. The titration of metallic perchlorates constitutes a method of studying the stability of acetates; we have thus been able to draw up a classification for some of these acetates. The metallic chlorides studied fall into two groups according to their behaviour in weak or strong acids. The differences have been explained on the basis of the role played by solvolysis. In the third part we have studied the acidic properties of mixtures of HCl with certain metallic chlorides. This work has demonstrated the existence, in certain cases, of acid complexes of the type (HCl) m MCl n . (author) [fr

  13. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enzymatic Systems for Cellulose Acetate Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Haske-Cornelius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA-based materials, like cigarette filters, contribute to landscape pollution challenging municipal authorities and manufacturers. This study investigates the potential of enzymes to degrade CA and to be potentially incorporated into the respective materials, enhancing biodegradation. Deacetylation studies based on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight (LC-MS-TOF, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and spectrophotometric analysis showed that the tested esterases were able to deacetylate the plasticizer triacetin (glycerol triacetate and glucose pentaacetate (cellulose acetate model compound. The most effective esterases for deacetylation belong to the enzyme family 2 (AXE55, AXE 53, GAE, they deacetylated CA with a degree of acetylation of up to 1.8. A combination of esterases and cellulases showed synergistic effects, the absolute glucose recovery for CA 1.8 was increased from 15% to 28% when an enzymatic deacetylation was performed. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO, and cellobiohydrolase were able to cleave cellulose acetates with a degree of acetylation of up to 1.4, whereas chitinase showed no activity. In general, the degree of substitution, chain length, and acetyl group distribution were found to affect CA degradation. This study shows that, for a successful enzyme-based deacetylation system, a cocktail of enzymes, which will randomly cleave and generate shorter CA fragments, is the most suitable.

  15. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose ...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  19. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  20. Addressing Cellulose Acetate Microfilm from a British Library perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about cellulose acetate microfilm from the British Library perspective. It traces how acetate microfilm became an issue for the British Library and describes cellulose acetate deterioration. This is followed by details of what has already been done about the situation and what action is planned for the future.

  1. Preparation, thermogravimetric study and infrared spectra of rare earth acetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graehlert, X.; Starke, M.

    1992-01-01

    The anhydrous and the hydrated acetates of Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu have been prepared. The compounds obtained have been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The thermal decomposition of the rare earth acetates may proceed via various steps. It depends on both the number of crystal water molecules in the acetates and the rare earth element's behaviour. (orig.)

  2. Air-oxidized linalyl acetate - an emerging fragrance allergen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagvall, Lina; Berglund, Victoria; Bråred Christensson, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Linalyl acetate is a fragrance chemical that is prone to autoxidation. Exposure to linalyl acetate occurs through cosmetic products and essential oils, but is difficult to assess, as linalyl acetate is not labelled in the EU. To investigate the frequencies of contact allergy to oxidized linalyl acetate among dermatitis patients, and to investigate the autoxidation of linalyl acetate in terms of hydroperoxide formation and sensitization potency. Hydroperoxide formation in air-exposed linalyl acetate was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The sensitization potencies of hydroperoxides were determined with the local lymph node assay. One thousand seven hundred and seventeen patients were patch tested with oxidized linalyl acetate at 6.0% in petrolatum. Of the patients, 2.2% showed positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate. Forty-three per cent of the positive patients also had positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers. Linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were detected early in the autoxidation process, and accumulated to a concentration of 37% after 42 weeks of air exposure. The linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were classified as moderate sensitizers. The frequency of positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate is comparable to that of previously studied oxidized fragrance terpenes. Oxidized linalyl acetate could thus be a common fragrance contact allergen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of composition and layer thickness of a butyl acrylate/acrylic acid copolymer on the adhesion properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghim, Deoukchen; Kim, Jung Hyeun [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives are synthesized by solution copolymerization using n-butyl acrylate and acrylic acid (AA) in ethyl acetate anhydrous. The copolymer composition is controlled for good adhesive properties by varying AA content. The monomer conversion is measured by the gravimetric method and FTIR technique. The adhesive layer thickness is measured by scanning electron microscopy, and the adhesive properties are evaluated with loop tack, 180 .deg. peel, and holding time measurements. The peel force increases with increasing the AA content up to 3 wt% and decreases at the AA content higher than 3 wt%, but the tack force decreases with increasing the AA content. The holding time increases with increasing the AA content, and it shows a similar trend with the T{sub g} of adhesives. The increase of layer thickness improves tack and peel forces, but it weakens the holding power. A tape thickness of about 20 μm shows well-balanced properties at 3 wt% AA content in the acrylic copolymer system.

  4. XRD study of intercalation in statically annealed composites of ethylene copolymers and organically modified montmorillonites. 2. One-tailed organoclays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Filippi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene copolymers with different polar comonomers, such as vinyl acetate, methyl acrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, and maleic anhydride, were used for the preparation of polymer/clay nanocomposites by statically annealing their mechanical mixtures with different commercial or home-made organically modified montmorillonites containing only one long alkyl tail. The nanostructure of the products was monitored by X-ray diffraction, and the dispersion of the silicate particles within the polymer matrix was qualitatively evaluated through microscopic analyses. The effect of the preparation conditions on the structure and the morphology of the composites was also addressed through the characterization of selected samples with similar composition prepared by melt compounding. In agreement with the findings reported in a previous paper for the composites filled with two-tailed organoclays, intercalation of the copolymer chains within the tighter galleries of the one-tailed clays occurs easily, independent of the application of a mechanical stress. However, the shear-driven break-up of the intercalated clay particles into smaller platelets (exfoliation seems more hindered. A collapse of the organoclay interlayer spacing was only observed clearly for a commercial one-tailed organoclay – Cloisite® 30B – whereas the same effect was almost negligible for a home-made organoclay with similar structure.

  5. Effects of composition and layer thickness of a butyl acrylate/acrylic acid copolymer on the adhesion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghim, Deoukchen; Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2016-01-01

    Acrylic pressure-sensitive adhesives are synthesized by solution copolymerization using n-butyl acrylate and acrylic acid (AA) in ethyl acetate anhydrous. The copolymer composition is controlled for good adhesive properties by varying AA content. The monomer conversion is measured by the gravimetric method and FTIR technique. The adhesive layer thickness is measured by scanning electron microscopy, and the adhesive properties are evaluated with loop tack, 180 .deg. peel, and holding time measurements. The peel force increases with increasing the AA content up to 3 wt% and decreases at the AA content higher than 3 wt%, but the tack force decreases with increasing the AA content. The holding time increases with increasing the AA content, and it shows a similar trend with the T g of adhesives. The increase of layer thickness improves tack and peel forces, but it weakens the holding power. A tape thickness of about 20 μm shows well-balanced properties at 3 wt% AA content in the acrylic copolymer system.

  6. Self-assembled Block Copolymer Membranes with Bioinspired Artificial Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sutisna, Burhannudin

    2018-04-01

    Nature is an excellent design that inspires scientists to develop smart systems. In the realm of separation technology, biological membranes have been an ideal model for synthetic membranes due to their ultrahigh permeability, sharp selectivity, and stimuliresponse. In this research, fabrications of bioinspired membranes from block copolymers were studied. Membranes with isoporous morphology were mainly prepared using selfassembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). An effective method that can dramatically shorten the path for designing new isoporous membranes from block copolymers via SNIPS was first proposed by predetermining a trend line computed from the solvent properties, interactions and copolymer block sizes of previously-obtained successful systems. Application of the method to new copolymer systems and fundamental studies on the block copolymer self-assembly were performed. Furthermore, the manufacture of bioinspired membranes was explored using (1) poly(styrene-b-4-hydroxystyrene-b-styrene) (PS-b-PHS-b-PS), (2) poly(styrene-bbutadiene- b-styrene) (PS-b-PB-b-PS) and (3) poly(styrene-b-γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PSb- PBLG) copolymers via SNIPS. The structure formation was investigated using smallangle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and time-resolved grazing-Incidence SAXS. The PS-b- PHS-b-PS membranes showed preferential transport for proteins, presumably due to the hydrogen bond interactions within the channels, electrostatic attraction, and suitable pore dimension. Well-defined nanochannels with pore sizes of around 4 nm based on PS-b- PB-b-PS copolymers could serve as an excellent platform to fabricate bioinspired channels due to the modifiable butadiene blocks. Photolytic addition of thioglycolic acid was demonstrated without sacrificing the self-assembled morphology, which led to a five-fold increase in water permeance compared to that of the unmodified. Membranes with a unique feather-like structure and a lamellar morphology for dialysis and

  7. Effect of co-substrate on production of poly-β- hydroxybutyrate (PHB and copolymer PHBV from newly identified mutant Rhodobacter sphaeroides U7 cultivated under aerobic-dark condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemarajt Kemavongse

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic bacterial mutant strain U7 was identified using both classical and molecular (16S rDNA techniques to be Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The glutamate-acetate (GA medium containing sodium acetate and sodium glutamate as carbon and nitrogen sources was used for production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB from R. sphaeroides U7 cultivated under aerobic-dark condition (200 rpm at 37oC. Effect of auxiliary carbon sources (propionate and valerate and concentrations (molar ratio of 40/0, 40/20, 40/40 and 40/80 on copolymer production were studied. Both combinations of acetate with valerate and acetate with propionate were found to induce the accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV within the cell. Acetate with propionate in the molar ratio of 40/40 gave the highest poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA content (77.68%, followed by acetate with valerate at the same molar ratio (77.42%. Although their polymer contents were similar, the presence of 40 mM valerate gave more than 4 times higher hydroxyvalerate (HV fraction (84.77% than in the presence of 40 mM propionate (19.12% HV fraction.

  8. Acetic acid sclerotheraphy of renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hoon Pyo; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kong, Keun Young; Kim, Eui Jong; Goo, Jang Sung

    1998-01-01

    Sclerotherapy for renal cysts was performed, using 50% acetic acid as new sclerosing agent. We report the methods and results of this procedure. Fifteen patients underwent sclerotherapy for renal cyst, using 50% acetic acid. Because four patients were lost to follow-up, only 11 of the 15 were included in this study. The renal cysts, including one infected case, were diagnosed by ultrasonograpy (n=3D10) ormagnetic resonance imaging (n=3D1). The patient group consisted of four men and seven women(mean age, 59 years; range, 23-77). At first, the cyst was completely aspirated, and 25 volume% of aspirated volume was replaced with 50% sterile acetic acid through the drainage catheter. During the follwing 20 minutes, the patient changed position, and the acetic acid was then removed from the cyst. Finally, the drainage catheter was removed, after cleaning the cyst with saline. After treatment of infection by antibiotics and catheter drainage for 7 days, sclerotherapy in the infected case followed the same procedure. In order to observe changes in the size of renal cysts and recurrence, all patients were followed up by ultrasound between 2 and 8 months. We defined response to therapy as follows:complete regression as under 5 volume%, partial regression as 5-50 volume% and no response as more than 50 volume% of initial cyst volume. No clinically significant complication occured during the procedures or follow-up periods. All cysts regressed completely during follow-up of 8 months. Complete regression occurred as follows: two cysts at 2 months, seven cysts at 4 months, two cysts at 6 months. Two cysts showed residues at the last follow-up, at 4 and 6 months, respectively. The volume of residual cysts decreased to under 5 volume% of initial volume, however. Completely regressed cysts did not recurr during follow-up. Acetic acid sclerotherapy for renal cysts showed good results, regardless of the dilution of sclerosing agent with residual cyst fluid, and no significant

  9. Enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer and antimicrobial yellow pigmentation from Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 with antibiofilm capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Iszatty; Gurusamy, Tana Poorani; Ramachandran, Hema; Al-Ashraf Amirul, Abdullah

    2017-04-21

    Antibiofilm polymers have the ability to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, which is known to occur ubiquitously in the environment and pose risks of infection. In this study, production of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer and antimicrobial yellow pigment from Cupriavidus sp. USMAHM13 are enhanced through medium optimization. Before the improvement of yellow pigment production, screening for the best additional supplement was performed resulting in high-yield yellow pigmentation using yeast extract with optimum concentration of 2 g/L. Effects of different concentrations of 1,4-butanediol, ammonium acetate, and yeast extract were studied using central composite design. Under optimal conditions, 53 wt% of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) content, 0.35 g/L of pigment concentration, and 5.87 g/L of residual biomass were achieved at 0.56 wt% C of 1,4-butanediol, 1.14 g/L of ammonium acetate, and 2 g/L of yeast extract. Antibiofilm tests revealed that the yellow pigment coated on P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer had significant effect on the inhibition of bacteria proliferation and colonization from 6 hr onward reaching 100% inhibition by 12 hr, hence effectively inhibiting the biofilm formation.

  10. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  11. A Study on Copolymer Systems of Styrene with Diethanolamine Side Group and Methyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslisah Acikses

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-Diethanolaminomethyl styrene (DEAMSt monomer was prepared by the modification of 4-chloromethyl styrene with diethanolamine. The copolymers in different combinations (0.11, 0.19, and 0.30 by mole of DEAMSt and methyl methacrylate (MMA were prepared by free radical polymerization method at 60°C in the presence of 1,4-dioxane and AIBN as initiator. The structures of DEAMSt and DEAMSt-MMA copolymer were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR. The glass transition temperature (Tg of the copolymers was measured by DSC. Thermal decomposition behavior of the copolymers was investigated by TGA. The average molecular weights of the copolymers were determined by GPC. The dye uptaking properties of the copolymers were investigated using bromocresol green. Then, the dielectric constant, dielectric loss factor, and conductivity of copolymers were investigated as a function of temperature and frequency. The activation energies (Ea of the copolymers were determined by impedance analyzer.

  12. Tuning the Optoelectronic Properties of Vinylene-Linked Donor−Acceptor Copolymers for Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Ko, Sangwon; Mondal, Rajib; Risko, Chad; Lee, Jung Kyu; Hong, Sanghyun; McGehee, Michael D.; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-01-01

    -property relationships in organic photovoltaic devices. Both alternating (P) and random copolymers (P1-P4) were prepared via Suzuki and Stille polycondensations, respectively. The cyclopentadithiophene copolymers (P2 and P4) have smaller electrochemical band gaps (1

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of the phase separation of a copolymer blend in a thin film

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhexiao

    2014-12-11

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to study the phase separation of a copolymer blend comprising an alternating copolymer and/or block copolymer in a thin film, and a phase diagram was constructed with a series of composed recipes. The effects of composition and segregation strength on phase separation were discussed in detail. The chain conformation of the block copolymer and alternating copolymer were investigated with changes of the segregation strength. Our simulations revealed that the segment distribution along the copolymer chain and the segregation strength between coarse-grained beads are two important parameters controlling phase separation and chain conformation in thin films of a copolymer blend. A well-controlled phase separation in the copolymer blend can be used to fabricate novel nanostructures.

  14. Triplet State Formation in Photovoltaic Blends of DPP-Type Copolymers and PC71BM

    KAUST Repository

    Ochsmann, Julian R.; Chandran, Deepak; Gehrig, Dominik W.; Anwar, Husna; Madathil, Pramod Kandoth; Lee, Kwang-Sup; Laquai, Fré dé ric

    2015-01-01

    The exciton dynamics in pristine films of two structurally related low-bandgap diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based donor–acceptor copolymers and the photophysical processes in bulk heterojunction solar cells using DPP copolymer:PC71BM blends

  15. CO2-Philic Thin Film Composite Membranes: Synthesis and Characterization of PAN-r-PEGMA Copolymer

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan; Kumar, Mahendra; Shevate, Rahul; Akhtar, Faheem Hassan; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2017-01-01

    amounts of PEG content was synthesized by free radical polymerization in presence of AIBN initiator and the obtained copolymers were used for the fabrication of composite membranes. The synthesized copolymers show high molecular weights in the range of 44

  16. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.

    2017-03-28

    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  17. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Incomplete copolymer degradation of in situ chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdillon, Pierre; Boissenot, Tanguy; Goldwirt, Lauriane; Nicolas, Julien; Apra, Caroline; Carpentier, Alexandre

    2018-02-17

    In situ carmustine wafers containing 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) are commonly used for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma to overcome the brain-blood barrier. In theory, this chemotherapy diffuses into the adjacent parenchyma and the excipient degrades in maximum 8 weeks but no clinical data confirms this evolution, because patients are rarely operated again. A 75-year-old patient was operated twice for recurrent glioblastoma, and a carmustine wafer was implanted during the second surgery. Eleven months later, a third surgery was performed, revealing unexpected incomplete degradation of the wafer. 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was performed to compare this wafer to pure BCNU and to an unused copolymer wafer. In the used wafer, peaks corresponding to hydrophobic units of the excipient were no longer noticeable, whereas peaks of the hydrophilic units and traces of BCNU were still present. These surprising results could be related to the formation of a hydrophobic membrane around the wafer, thus interfering with the expected diffusion and degradation processes. The clinical benefit of carmustine wafers in addition to the standard radio-chemotherapy remains limited, and in vivo behavior of this treatment is not completely elucidated yet. We found that the wafer may remain after several months. Alternative strategies to deal with the blood-brain barrier, such as drug-loaded liposomes or ultrasound-opening, must be explored to offer larger drug diffusion or allow repetitive delivery.

  19. Design of block copolymer membranes using segregation strength trend lines

    KAUST Repository

    Sutisna, Burhannudin

    2016-05-18

    Block copolymer self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation are now being combined to fabricate membranes with narrow pore size distribution and high porosity. The method has the potential to be used with a broad range of tailor-made block copolymers to control functionality and selectivity for specific separations. However, the extension of this process to any new copolymer is challenging and time consuming, due to the complex interplay of influencing parameters, such as solvent composition, polymer molecular weights, casting solution concentration, and evaporation time. We propose here an effective method for designing new block copolymer membranes. The method consists of predetermining a trend line for the preparation of isoporous membranes, obtained by computing solvent properties, interactions and copolymer block sizes for a set of successful systems and using it as a guide to select the preparation conditions for new membranes. We applied the method to membranes based on poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide) diblocks and extended it to newly synthesized poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) terpolymers. The trend line method can be generally applied to other new systems and is expected to dramatically shorten the path of isoporous membrane manufacture. The PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO membrane formation was investigated by in situ Grazing Incident Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS), which revealed a hexagonal micelle order with domain spacing clearly correlated to the membrane interpore distances.

  20. SANS and SAXS study of block copolymer/homopolymer mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Takeji; Han, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The lateral and vertical components of the radius of gyration for a single block copolymer chain and those of a single homopolymer chain in the lamellar microdomain space formed by a mixture of diblock copolymers and homopolymers were investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and the microdomain structures by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The homopolymers whose molecular weights are much smaller than that of the corresponding chains of the block copolymers were used so that the homopolymers were uniformly solubilized in the corresponding microdomains. The SANS result suggests that the homopolymer chains in the microdomain space as well as the block copolymer chains are more compressed in the direction parallel to the interface and more stretched in the direction perpendicular to the interface than the corresponding unperturbed polymer chains with the same molecular weight. On increasing the volume fraction of the homopolymers the thickness of the lamellar microdomains increases. The block copolymer chains were found to undergo an isochoric affine deformation on addition of the homopolymers or with the change of the thickness of the lamellar microdomains. (orig.)

  1. Relaxation processes in a lower disorder order transition diblock copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Alejandro; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Nogales, Aurora; Hernández, Rebeca; Sprung, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of lower disorder-order temperature diblock copolymer leading to phase separation has been observed by X ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Two different modes have been characterized. A non-diffusive mode appears at temperatures below the disorder to order transition, which can be associated to compositional fluctuations, that becomes slower as the interaction parameter increases, in a similar way to the one observed for diblock copolymers exhibiting phase separation upon cooling. At temperatures above the disorder to order transition T ODT , the dynamics becomes diffusive, indicating that after phase separation in Lower Disorder-Order Transition (LDOT) diblock copolymers, the diffusion of chain segments across the interface is the governing dynamics. As the segregation is stronger, the diffusive process becomes slower. Both observed modes have been predicted by the theory describing upper order-disorder transition systems, assuming incompressibility. However, the present results indicate that the existence of these two modes is more universal as they are present also in compressible diblock copolymers exhibiting a lower disorder-order transition. No such a theory describing the dynamics in LDOT block copolymers is available, and these experimental results may offer some hints to understanding the dynamics in these systems. The dynamics has also been studied in the ordered state, and for the present system, the non-diffusive mode disappears and only a diffusive mode is observed. This mode is related to the transport of segment in the interphase, due to the weak segregation on this system

  2. Highly conductive side chain block copolymer anion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhu; Hickner, Michael A

    2016-06-28

    Block copolymers based on poly(styrene) having pendent trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium (with four carbon ring-ionic group alkyl linkers) or benzyltrimethyl ammonium groups with a methylene bridge between the ring and ionic group were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation radical (RAFT) polymerization as anion exchange membranes (AEMs). The C4 side chain polymer showed a 17% increase in Cl(-) conductivity of 33.7 mS cm(-1) compared to the benzyltrimethyl ammonium sample (28.9 mS cm(-1)) under the same conditions (IEC = 3.20 meq. g(-1), hydration number, λ = ∼7.0, cast from DMF/1-propanol (v/v = 3 : 1), relative humidity = 95%). As confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the side chain block copolymers with tethered ammonium cations showed well-defined lamellar morphologies and a significant reduction in interdomain spacing compared to benzyltrimethyl ammonium containing block copolymers. The chemical stabilities of the block copolymers were evaluated under severe, accelerated conditions, and degradation was observed by (1)H NMR. The block copolymer with C4 side chain trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium motifs displayed slightly improved stability compared to that of a benzyltrimethyl ammonium-based AEM at 80 °C in 1 M NaOD aqueous solution for 30 days.

  3. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India E-mail: debes.phys@gmail.com (India)

    2016-05-23

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO{sub 26}PO{sub 39}EO{sub 26})] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle–surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  4. Phase behavior of UCST blends: Effects of pristine nanoclay as an effective or ineffective compatibilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hemmati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of unmodified nanoclay (natural montmorillonite on the miscibility, phase behavior and phase separation kinetics of polyethylene (PE/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA blends have been investigated. Depending on the blend composition, it was observed that the intercalated pristine nanoclay influences the biphasic morphology either as an effective compatibilizer or just as an ineffectual modifier. In spite of the presence of micrometer-sized agglomerated tactoids, natural nanoclay can play a thermodynamic role in reducing the interfacial tension of polymer components. The addition of clay nanoparticles was found to change the phase diagram slightly and diminishes the composition dependency of the binodal temperatures. Moreover, it was observed that a small amount of unmodified layered silicate slows down the phase separation process considerably and enhances the solubility of each polymer in the domains of its counterpart. The findings of this study verify that even poorly dispersed nanoclay with high surface tension can act as a conventional compatibilizer and change the immiscible PE/EVA blends to the partially miscible ones.

  5. Antifouling Thermoplastic Composites with Maleimide Encapsulated in Clay Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ye; Gong, Congcong; Wang, Wencai; Zhang, Liqun; Ivanov, Evgenii; Lvov, Yuri

    2017-09-06

    An antifouling ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) coating with halloysite clay nanotubes loaded with maleimide (TCPM) is prepared. Such antifoulant encapsulation allowed for extended release of TCPM and a long-lasting, efficient protection of the coated surface against marine microorganisms proliferation. Halloysite also induces the composite's anisotropy due to parallel alignment of the nanotubes. The maleimide loaded halloysite incorporated into the polymer matrix allowed for 12-month release of the bacterial inhibitor preventing fouling; it is much longer than the 2-3 month protection when TCPM is directly admixed into EVA. The antifouling properties of the EVA-halloysite nanocomposites were tested by monitoring surface adhesion and proliferation of marine V. natriegens bacteria with SEM. As compared to the composite directly doped with TCPM-antifoulant, there were much less bacteria accumulated on the EVA-halloysite-TCPM coating after a 2-month exposure to seawater. Field tests at South China Sea marine station further confirmed the formulation efficiency. The doping of 28 wt % TCPM loaded halloysite drastically enhanced material antifouling property, which promises wide applications for protective marine coating.

  6. Effects of agrochemicals, ultra violet stabilisers and solar radiation on the radiometric properties of greenhouse films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Vox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals, based on iron, sulphur and chlorine, generate by products that lead to a degradation of greenhouse films together with a decrease in their mechanical and physical properties. The degradation due to agrochemicals depends on their active principles, method and frequency of application, and greenhouse ventilation. The aim of the research was to evaluate how agrochemical contamination and solar radiation influence the radiometric properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer greenhouse films by means of laboratory and field tests. The films, manufactured on purpose with the addition of different light stabiliser systems, were exposed to natural outdoor weathering at the experimental farm of the University of Bari (Italy; 41° 05’ N in the period from 2006 to 2008. Each film was tested for two low tunnels: one low tunnel was sprayed from inside with the agrochemicals containing iron, chlorine and sulphur while the other one was not sprayed and served as control. Radiometric laboratory tests were carried out on the new films and on samples taken at the end of the trials. The experimental tests showed that both the natural weathering together with the agrochemicals did not modify significantly the radiometric properties of the films in the solar and in the photosynthetically active radiation wavelength range. Within six months of experimental field tests the variations in these radiometric characteristics were at most 10%. Significant variations, up to 70% of the initial value, were recorded for the stabilised films in the long-wave infrared radiation wavelength range.

  7. Preparation, Characterization and Thermo-Chromic Properties of EVA/VO2 Laminate Films for Smart Window Applications and Energy Efficiency in Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onruthai Srirodpai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermochromic films based on vanadium dioxide (VO2/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA composite were developed. The monoclinic VO2 particles was firstly prepared via hydrothermal and calcination processes. The effects of hydrothermal time and tungsten doping agent on crystal structure and morphology of the calcined metal oxides were reported. After that, 1 wt % of the prepared VO2 powder was mixed with EVA compound, using two different mixing processes. It was found that mechanical properties of the EVA/VO2 films prepared by the melt process were superior to those of which prepared by the solution process. On the other hand, percentage visible light transmittance of the solution casted EVA/VO2 film was greater than that of the melt processed composite film. This was related to the different gel content of EVA rubber and state of dispersion and distribution of VO2 within the polymer matrix phase. Thermochromic behaviors and heat reflectance of the EVA/VO2 film were also verified. In overall, this study demonstrated that it was possible to develop a thermochromic film using the polymer composite approach. In this regard, the mixing condition was found to be one of the most important factors affecting morphology and thermo-mechanical properties of the films.

  8. Investigation of wax precipitation in crude oil: Experimental and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Jafari Behbahani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of experiments were carried to investigation of rheological behavior of crude oil using waxy crude oil sample in the absence/presence of flow improver such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The rheological data covered the temperature range of 5–30 °C. The results indicated that the performance of flow improver was dependent on its molecular weight. Addition of small quantities of flow improver, can improve viscosity and pour point of crude oil. Also, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP topology has been developed to account wax appearance temperature and the amount of precipitated wax and the model was verified using experimental data given in this work and reported in the literature. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model based on Artificial Neural Network, the wax precipitation experimental data at different temperatures were predicted using solid solution model and multi-solid phase model. The results showed that the developed model based on Artificial Neural Network can predict more accurately the wax precipitation experimental data in comparison to the previous models such as solid solution and multi-solid phase model with AADs less than 0.5%. Furthermore, the number of parameters required for the Artificial Neural Network (ANN model is less than the studied thermodynamic models.

  9. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%. (author)

  10. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S.K.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Rubber Technology Center; Tikku, V.K.; Pradhan, N.K. [NICCO Corporation Ltd., (Cable Div.), Calcutta (India)

    1997-10-01

    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%. (author).

  11. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of application type novel-structure thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of static micro-concentrator solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (micro shukogata taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An acorn type concentrator is a 2-dimensional system and realizes relatively high magnification power, but it requires a special assembly process for modularization because the cells and the concentration system are quite small. Under the circumstances, studies are conducted on a prism array concentrator (PAC) which will demand a smaller burden for modularization. A PAC system is basically a 1-dimensional concentrator in terms of light collection performance. The cell to be attached to one plane in the longitudinal direction of the long triangular prism is so small as 5mm in width, yet it may be as long as 50-100mm, and the conventional flat plate assembly process may be made use of. A concentration efficiency of 82% and a conversion efficiency of 10.9% were obtained from a minimodule with a light intercepting area of 5cm times 4cm. Furthermore, a conversion efficiency of 19.7-21.4% was obtained when a small 5mm-wide cell applicable to a PAC type concentration was used. Since a prism type concentrator optical system will cost much for its molding and strengthening when it is built of glass, inexpensive EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer) was utilized as an adhesive filler. (NEDO)

  12. Effect of the ionizing radiation in polymers; Efecto de la radiacion ionizante en polimeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Carrasco A, H. [ININ, Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Benavides C, R., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.m [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo No. 140, Col. Los Pinos, 25250 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Particularly, the polymers present three main effects when are exposed to radiation: inter crossing or reticulation, degradation or breaking and tolerance. Depending on the polymer structure, of the energy quantity absorbed by mass unit (dose), the concentration and the inter crossing agent dispersion and of the irradiation conditions; inert atmosphere or air and the temperature to which the irradiation is made, some of those effects is favored. The polymers that are used as isolations of cables and electric wires for specific applications require mechanical and electric properties superiors to those of the conventional materials. So, it is desirable that an insulating subjected to the high temperature produced by an electric discharge is not melted, what is associated to an inter crossed structure. Among the years 1983 and 1984, the IAEA advised to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in diverse uses of the irradiation technology in the polymers area. Starting from then, it is began to research the effect of the gamma radiation in formulations based on polyethylene of low density/copolymer of ethylene vinyl acetate, using trimethylol-propane trimetacrilate like inter cross agent and with conventional preservatives, such as flame dilators, antioxidants, lubricants, etc., used in the cables industry and electric wires. In this chapter the result of the researches realized by the area of the ININ are given. (Author)

  13. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

    1980-07-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Technical activities during the past year have covered a number of topics and have emphasized the development of solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate, copolymer (EVA) as the pottant. These activities have included: (1) continued production of encapsulation grade EVA in sheet form to meet the needs of the photovoltaic industry; (2) investigations of three non-blocking techniques for EVA sheet; (3) performed an economic analysis of the high volume production of each pottant in order to estimate the large volume selling price (EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate); (4) initiated an experimental corrosion protection program to determine if metal components could be successfully protected by encapsulation; (5) began an investigation to determine the maximum temperature which can be tolerated by the candidate pottant material in the event of hot spot heating or other temperature override; (6) continuation of surveys of potentially useful outer cover materials; and (7) continued with the accelerated artificial weathering of candidate encapsulation materials. Study results are presented. (WHK)

  14. Evaluation of antimicrobial properties of cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Filipa; Correia, Patrícia; Silva, Susana P; Almeida-Aguiar, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Cork presents a range of diverse and versatile properties making this material suitable for several and extremely diverse industrial applications. Despite the wide uses of cork, its antimicrobial properties and potential applications have deserved little attention from industry and the scientific community. Thus, the main purpose of this work was the evaluation of the antibacterial properties of cork, by comparison with commercially available antimicrobial materials (Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate copolymer and a currently used antimicrobial commercial additive (ACA)), following the previous development and optimization of a method for such antimicrobial assay. The AATCC 100-2004 standard method, a quantitative procedure developed for the assessment of antimicrobial properties in textile materials, was used as reference and optimized to assess cork antibacterial activity. Cork displayed high antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with a bacterial reduction of almost 100% (96.93%) after 90 minutes of incubation, similar to the one obtained with ACA. A more reduced but time-constant antibacterial action was observed against Escherichia coli (36% reduction of the initial number of bacterial colonies). To complement this study, antibacterial activity was further evaluated for a water extract of cork and an MIC of 6 mg mL(-1) was obtained against the reference strain S. aureus. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A novel intumescent flame retardant-functionalized graphene: Nanocomposite synthesis, characterization, and flammability properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Guobo; Chen, Suqing; Tang, Shouwan; Gao, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    An intumescent flame retardant, poly(piperazine spirocyclic pentaerythritol bisphosphonate) (PPSPB), has been covalently grafted onto the surfaces of graphene oxide (GO) to obtain GO–PPSPB and according nanocomposites were prepared via solvent blending. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show that the chemically reduced GO–PPSPB (CRG–PPSPB) can achieve better dispersion in the ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) matrix and exfoliated EVA/CRG–PPSPB nanocomposites are formed. The results from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimeter tests indicate that CRG–PPSPB improve thermal stability and reduce obviously the flammability (including peak heat release rate (PHRR), total heat release (THR), average mass loss rate (AMLR), etc.) of EVA. Compared with pure EVA resin, the PHRR of the EVA/CRG–PPSPB nanocomposites filled with 1 wt% CRG–PPSPB is reduced by about 56%. The SEM images show that a compact, dense and uniform intumescent char is formed for EVA/CRG–PPSPB nanocomposites after combustion. The functionalization of graphene by intumescent flame retardant PPSPB can improve both the dispersion of graphene sheets in the polymer matrix and flame retardancy of the nanocomposites. -- Highlights: ► Graphene oxide were modified with intumescent flame retardant PPSPB. ► EVA/CRG–PPSPB nanocomposites were prepared via solvent blending. ► CRG–PPSPB improved the flame retardancy of EVA nanocomposites.

  16. Tuning magnetization avalanches in Mn12-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; McHugh, S.; Ma, Xiang; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2009-03-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of magnetic avalanches (abrupt magnetization reversals) in the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate using a micron-sized Hall sensor array. Measurements were taken for: (a) fixed magnetic field (constant barrier against spin reversal); and (b) fixed energy release obtained by adjusting the barrier and δM. A detailed comparison with the theory of magnetic deflagration of Garanin and Chudnovsky [1] will be presented and discussed. [1] D. A. Garanin and E. M. Chudnovsky, Phys. Rev. B 76, 054410 (2007)

  17. Polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide block copolymer membranes, methods of making, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Karunakaran, Madhavan

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) block copolymer nanoporous membranes, methods of making a PS-b-PEO block copolymer nanoporous membrane, methods of using PS-b-PEO block copolymer nanoporous membranes, and the like.

  18. 78 FR 20032 - Styrene-Ethylene-Propylene Block Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ...-Ethylene-Propylene Block Copolymer; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... for residues of styrene-ethylene-propylene block copolymer (CAS Reg. No. 108388-87-0) when used as an...-ethylene-propylene block copolymer on food or feed commodities. DATES: This regulation is effective April 3...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177.1340... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins may be safely used as articles or components of...

  20. Realization of an integrated VDF/TrFE copolymer-on-silicon pyroelectric sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiadi, D.; Setiadi, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Sarro, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated pyroelectric sensor based on a vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (VDF/TrFE) copolymer is presented. A silicon substrate that contains FET readout electronics is coated with the VDF/TrFE copolymer film using a spin-coating technique. On-chip poling of the copolymer has been applied

  1. 40 CFR 180.1162 - Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylate polymers and copolymers... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1162 Acrylate polymers and copolymers; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Acrylate polymers and copolymers are exempt from the requirement of a...

  2. Polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide block copolymer membranes, methods of making, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-04-16

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) block copolymer nanoporous membranes, methods of making a PS-b-PEO block copolymer nanoporous membrane, methods of using PS-b-PEO block copolymer nanoporous membranes, and the like.

  3. 21 CFR 177.1020 - Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile/butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. 177... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances.../butadiene/sty-rene co-polymer. Acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene copolymer identified in this section may be...

  4. A new process for fabricating nanodot arrays on selective regions with diblock copolymer thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Polymer Research Institute, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Nam-Gu, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-12

    A procedure for micropatterning a single layer of nanodot arrays in selective regions is demonstrated by using thin films of polystyrene-b-poly(t-butyl acrylate) (PS-b-PtBA) diblock copolymer. The thin-film self-assembled into hexagonally arranged PtBA nanodomains in a PS matrix on a substrate by solvent annealing with 1,4-dioxane. The PtBA nanodomains were converted into poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) having carboxylic-acid-functionalized nanodomains by exposure to hydrochloric acid vapor, or were removed by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation to generate vacant sites without any functional groups due to the elimination of PtBA domains. By sequential treatment with aqueous sodium bicarbonate and aqueous zinc acetate solution, zinc cations were selectively loaded only on the carboxylic-acid-functionalized nanodomains prepared via hydrolysis. Macroscopic patterning through a photomask via UV irradiation, hydrolysis, sequential zinc cation loading and calcination left a nanodot array of zinc oxide on a selectively UV-shaded region.

  5. Severe pulmonary oedema following therapeutic embolization with Onyx for cerebral arteriovenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, C.; Saravanan, Sundararaj; Rajkumar, John; Prasad, Jagadish; Banakal, Sanjay; Muralidhar, Kanchi [Narayana Hrudayalaya Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2008-05-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by sudden onset of respiratory distress, infiltrates on radiographs consistent with pulmonary oedema, hypoxaemia and increased work in breathing. Infiltrates on radiographs are bilateral, but may be patchy or diffuse and fluffy or dense. It is associated with absence of left heart failure and a PaO{sub 2}/FiO{sub 2} ratio of {<=}200. Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which was approved by the US FDA in July 2005, is used as an embolic agent for cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). It is a biocompatible liquid polymer that precipitates and solidifies on contact with blood, thus forming a soft and spongy embolus. We report a case of ARDS following therapeutic embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer for cerebral AVM under general anaesthesia. Experienced perioperative physicians adopted standard anaesthetic technique and monitoring for this procedure. Acute respiratory distress and hypoxaemia developed in the patient following extubation of the trachea. Infiltrates seen on postprocedural chest radiographs were consistent with pulmonary oedema. DMSO, the solvent for the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, is excreted via the lungs after administration and we postulate that DMSO was the possible cause of ARDS in this patient. Monitoring of haemodynamic parameters (invasive blood pressure, electrocardiography) and ventilatory parameters (ETCO{sub 2}, SpO{sub 2}, airway pressure monitoring) are important in the recognition of this possible event. One should be vigilant and anticipate this complication following therapeutic embolization with ethylene vinyl alcohol polymer for the treatment of cerebral AVM. (orig.)

  6. Block copolymer/homopolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We manufactured the first time block copolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes and dual layer flat sheet membranes manufactured by double solution casting and phase inversion in water. The support porous layer was based on polystyrene and the selective layer with isopores was formed by micelle assembly of polystyrene-. b-poly-4-vinyl pyridine. The dual layers had an excellent interfacial adhesion and pore interconnectivity. The dual membranes showed pH response behavior like single layer block copolymer membranes with a low flux for pH values less than 3, a fast increase between pH4 and pH6 and a constant high flux level for pH values above 7. The dry/wet spinning process was optimized to produce dual layer hollow fiber membranes with polystyrene internal support layer and a shell block copolymer selective layer.

  7. Morphologies of precise polyethylene-based acid copolymers and ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, C. Francisco

    Acid copolymers and ionomers are polymers that contain a small fraction of covalently bound acidic or ionic groups, respectively. For the specific case of polyethylene (PE), acid and ionic pendants enhance many of the physical properties such as toughness, adhesion and rheological properties. These improved properties result from microphase separated aggregates of the polar pendants in the non-polar PE matrix. Despite the widespread industrial use of these materials, rigorous chemical structure---morphology---property relationships remain elusive due to the inevitable structural heterogeneities in the historically-available acid copolymers and ionomers. Recently, precise acid copolymers and ionomers were successfully synthesized by acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization. These precise materials are linear, high molecular weight PEs with pendant acid or ionic functional groups separated by a precisely controlled number of carbon atoms. The morphologies of nine precise acid copolymers and eleven precise ionomers were investigated by X-ray scattering, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For comparison, the morphologies of linear PEs with pseudo-random placement of the pendant groups were also studied. Previous studies of precise copolymers with acrylic acid (AA) found that the microstructural precision produces a new morphology in which PE crystals drive the acid aggregates into layers perpendicular to the chain axes and presumably at the interface between crystalline and amorphous phases. In this dissertation, a second new morphology for acid copolymers is identified in which the aggregates arrange on cubic lattices. The fist report of a cubic morphology was observed at room and elevated temperatures for a copolymer functionalized with two phosphonic acid (PA) groups on every 21st carbon atom. The cubic lattice has been identified as face-centered cubic (FCC). Overall, three morphology types have been

  8. Low molecular weight block copolymers as plasticizers for polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Karsten; Nielsen, Charlotte Juel; Hvilsted, Søren

    2005-01-01

    /mol and minimum polystyrene content of 50 w/w%, which by us is predicted as the limits for solubility of polystyrene-b-alkyl in polystyrene. DSC showed polystyrene was plasticized, as seen by a reduction in glass transition temperature, by block copolymers consisting of a polystyrene block with molecular weight...... of approximately 1 kg/mol and an alkyl block with a molecular weight of approximately of 0.3 kg/mol. The efficiency of the block copolymers as plasticizers increases with decreasing molecular weight and polystyrene content. In addition, polystyrene-b-alkyl is found to be an efficient plasticizer also...... for polystyrene-b-polyisoprene-b-polystyrene (SIS) block copolymers. The end use properties of SIS plasticized with polystyrene-b-alkyl, measured as tensile strength, is higher than for SIS plasticized with dioctyl adipate. The polystyrene-b-polybutadiene-b-polystyrene and polystyrene-bpoly(propylene glycol...

  9. Water stale and structure analysis of Konjac irradiation copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Shengrong; Xia Hezhou; Chen Xueling; Ye Lixiu; Hua Yuejin

    2011-01-01

    To study the absorption performance of Konjac-AA copolymer prepared by using irradiation, the water absorption capacity, sorbent speed and water keeping ability were determined, DSC and TEM analysis were used to investigate the water content and structure characters. The results showed that the largest water absorption speed was 16 g · -1 · min -1 at room temperature, and the largest water absorption was 400 times within 60 minutes. The water absorption was affected by granularity, temperature, ion content and ion type, especially the ion type. The water keeping ability was affected by temperature and time, which was up to 35% of absorbed water when the fully water absorbed copolymer was kept under room temperature for 15 d. The free and bounder water content which could be assimilated by the plants was 99.617%. The water stale copolymer has a three-dimensional spiral structure. (authors)

  10. Thermoresponsive behavior of chitosan-g-N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recillas, Maricarmen; Silva, Luisa L; Peniche, Carlos; Goycoolea, Francisco M; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Argüelles-Monal, Waldo M

    2009-06-08

    Chitosan-g-N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) water-soluble copolymers were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopies combined with conductometric and potentiometric titrations. Their thermoresponsive, fully reversible, behavior in aqueous solutions was characterized by means of microcalorimetry and rheology. During heating of copolymer solutions there is a well-known endothermic effect, which coincides with a marked increase in G' and a moderate decrement in G'' due to the formation of a hydrophobic network at the expense of the net amount of sol fraction. It was also found that a straight dependence between the values of G' above the LCST and the enthalpies associated with the transition reflecting that the connectivity in the gel network is governed by the net number of formed enthalpic-hydrophobic driven-junctions. Both the LCST and the enthalpy change vary with the ionic strength of copolymer solutions, but no dependence was found with the neutralization of the polyelectrolyte chain.

  11. Pressure and temperature effects in homopolymer blends and diblock copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frielinghaus, H.; Schwahn, D.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal composition fluctuations in a homogeneous binary polymer blend and in a diblock copolymer were measured by small-angle neutron scattering as a function of temperature and pressure. The experimental data were analyzed with theoretical expressions, including the important effect of thermal...... fluctuations. Phase boundaries, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and the Ginzburg number were obtained. The packing of the molecules changes with pressure. Therefore, the degree of thermal fluctuation as a function of packing and temperature was studied. While in polymer blends packing leads, in some...... respects, to a universal behaviour, such behaviour is not found in diblock copolymers. It is shown that the Ginzburg number decreases with pressure sensitively in blends, while it is constant in diblock copolymers. The Ginzburg number is an estimation of the transition between the universality classes...

  12. Characterization of Lithium Polysulfide Salts in Homopolymers and Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunyang; Wujcik, Kevin; Balsara, Nitash

    Ion-conducting polymers are important for solid-state batteries due to the promise of better safety and the potential to produce higher energy density batteries. Nanostructured block copolymer electrolytes can provide high ionic conductivity and mechanical strength through microphase separation. One of the potential use of block copolymer electrolytes is in lithium-sulfur batteries, a system that has high theoretical energy density wherein the reduction of sulfur leads to the formation of lithium polysulfide intermediates. In this study we investigate the effect of block copolymer morphology on the speciation and transport properties of the polysulfides. The morphology and conductivities of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) containing lithium polysulfides were studies using small-angle X-ray scattering and ac impedance spectroscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy is being used to determine nature of the polysulfide species in poly(ethylene oxide) and SEO. Department of Energy, Soft Matter Electron Microscopy Program and Battery Materials Research Program.

  13. ABC triblock copolymer vesicles with mesh-like morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Dian; Hu, Yunxia; Grason, Gregory M; Russell, Thomas P

    2011-01-25

    Polymer vesicles made from poly(isoprene-b-styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PI-b-PS-b-P2VP) triblock copolymer confined within the nanopores of an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane are studied. It was found that these vesicles have well-defined, nanoscopic size, and complex microphase-separated hydrophobic membranes, comprised of the PS and PI blocks, while the coronas are formed by the P2VP block. Vesicle formation was tracked using both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A mesh-like morphology formed in the membrane at a well-defined composition of the three blocks that can be tuned by changing the copolymer composition. The nanoscale confinement, copolymer composition, and subtle molecular interactions contribute to the generation of these vesicles with such unusual morphologies.

  14. Modification of ethylene-norbornene copolymer by Gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kačarević-Popović Zorica M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of modifying polyethylene and many other polymers with high energy radiation has led to many useful applications. Due to their new combination of properties and the shortage of experimental data, the radiolysis of a new class of materials, cyclo-olefin copolymers (COC, polymerised from norbornene and ethylene using metallocene catalysts, is of great interest to the study of radiation chemistry and the physics of polymeric systems. Ethylenenorbornene copolymer, pristine and containing an antioxidant were subjected to gamma irradiation in the presence of air and in water. The irradiated copolymer was studied using IR and UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The radiation-induced changes in the molecular structure were correlated to changes in the glass transition temperature measured by the DSC method.

  15. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  16. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  17. Preparation and icephobic properties of polymethyltrifluoropropylsiloxane–polyacrylate block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhao, Yunhui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Hui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong Key Laboratory of Fluorine Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Yuan, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xyuan28@yahoo.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • PMTFPS–b-polyacrylate copolymers in five different compositions were synthesized. • Enrichment of PMTFPS amounts at the surface made high F/Si value. • Icing delay time was related to the surface roughness. • Ice shear strength was decreased by the synergistic effect of silicone and fluorine. - Abstract: Five polymethyltrifluoropropylsiloxane (PMTFPS)–polyacrylate block copolymers (PMTFPS–b-polyacrylate) were synthesized by free radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate and hydroxyethyl methacrylate using PMTFPS macroazoinitiator (PMTFPS-MAI) in range of 10–50 mass percentages. The morphology, surface chemical composition and wettability of the prepared copolymer films were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurement. Delayed icing time and ice shear strength of the films were also detected for the icephobic purpose. The surface morphologies of the copolymers were different from those of the bulk because of the migration of the PMTFPS segments to the air interface during the film formation. Maximal delayed icing time (186 s at −15 °C) and reduction of the ice shear strength (301 ± 10 kPa) which was significantly lower than that of polyacrylates (804 ± 37 kPa) were achieved when the content of PMTFPS-MAI was 20 wt%. The icephobicity of the copolymers was attributed primarily to the enrichment of PMTFPS on the film surface and synergistic effect of both silicone and fluorine. Thus, the results show that the PMTFPS–b-polyacrylate copolymer can be used as icephobic coating materials potentially.

  18. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1995-05-01

    The authors describe second year efforts in synthesis, characterization, and rheology to develop polymers with significantly improved efficiency in mobility control and conformance. These advanced polymer systems would maintain high viscosities or behave as virtual gels under low shear conditions and at elevated electrolyte concentrations. At high fluid shear rates, associates would deaggregate yielding low viscosity solutions, reducing problems of shear degradation or face plugging during injection. Polymeric surfactants were also developed with potential for use in higher salt, higher temperature reservoirs for mobilization of entrapped oil. Chapters include: Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride; Hydrophilic sulfobetaine copolymers of acrylamide and 3-(2-acrylamido-methylpropane-dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate; Copolymerization of maleic anhydride and N-vinylformamide; Reactivity ratio of N-vinylformamide with acrylamide, sodium acrylate, and n-butyl acrylate; Effect of the distribution of the hydrophobic cationic monomer dimethyldodecyl(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide on the solution behavior of associating acrylamide copolymers; Effect of surfactants on the solution properties of amphipathic copolymers of acrylamide and N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-N-(2-acrylamidoethyl)ammonium bromide; Associative interactions and photophysical behavior of amphiphilic terpolymers prepared by modification of maleic anhydride/ethyl vinyl ether copolymers; Copolymer compositions of high-molecular-weight functional acrylamido water-soluble polymers using direct-polarization magic-angle spinning {sup 13}C NMR; Use of factorial experimental design in static and dynamic light scattering characterization of water soluble polymers; and Porous medium elongational rheometer studies of NaAMB/AM copolymer solutions.

  19. Effect of casting solvents on the properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers studied by positron annihilation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djermouni, B.; Ache, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The positron annihilation technique was used to study the properties of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers obtained by casting them in four different solvents: toluene, carbon tetrachloride, ethyl acetate, and methyl ethyl ketone. The positron annihilation rates plotted as a function of temperature show in all films irregularities at -70 and +85 0 C which were attributed to the onset of motions in the polybutadiene and polystyrene domaines, respectively. In addition to that, two irregularities were observed at -14 and +10 0 C if a poor solvent, such as ethyl acetate or methyl ethyl ketone, was used, while films cast in a good solvent such as toluene or carbon tetrachloride show only one additional irregularity on the lambda 2 -T curves at -14 0 C. The latter results were explained in terms of the interfacial model by assuming that these irregularities correspond to the glass transition of interlayer phases between the pure polystyrene and the pure polybutadiene phases. The one which shows the irregularity at -14 0 C could be the phase in which polybutadiene is the major component, while the transition at +10 0 C can be attributed to a phase in which polystyrene is the dominating factor

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Organotin Containing Copolymers: Reactivity Ratio Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Newehy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin monomers containing dibutyltin groups – dibutyltin citraconate (DBTC as a new monomer and dibutyltin maleate (DBTM – were synthesized. Free radical copolymerizations of the organotin monomers with styrene (ST and butyl acrylate (BA were performed. The overall conversion was kept low (≤15% wt/wt for all studied samples and the copolymers composition was determined from tin analysis using the Gillman and Rosenberg method. The reactivity ratios were calculated from the copolymer composition using the Fineman-Ross (FR method. The synthesized monomers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-, 13C-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy.

  1. Thin Films of Novel Linear-Dendritic Diblock Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Jyotsna; Hammond, Paula

    1998-03-01

    A series of diblock copolymers with one linear block and one dendrimeric block have been synthesized with the objective of forming ultrathin film nanoporous membranes. Polyethyleneoxide serves as the linear hydrophilic portion of the diblock copolymer. The hyperbranched dendrimeric block consists of polyamidoamine with functional end groups. Thin films of these materials made by spin casting and the Langmuir-Blodgett techniques are being studied. The effect of the polyethylene oxide block size and the number and chemical nature of the dendrimer end group on the nature and stability of the films formed willbe discussed.

  2. Polymers and block copolymers of fluorostyrenes by ATRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Borkar, Sachin; Abildgaard, Lillian

    2002-01-01

    Fully or partly fluorinated polymers have many desirable and intriguing properties. In the framework of a larger program on design and control of new functional block copolymers we recently employed the Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) protocol on 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). We...... materials based on 2,3,5,6-tetrafiuoro-4-methoxy-styrene (TFMS). TFMS homopolymers as well as diblock copolymers with FS are produced by ATRP. Both types of novel polymers were subsequently demethylated and different side chains introduced on the resulting hydroxy sites....

  3. Chemical etching of fission tracks in ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Y.; Tsujimura, S.; Seguchi, T.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical etching of fission tracks in ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer was studied. Etched holes 3000 to 4000 A in diameter were recognized by electron microscopy for a film bombarded by fission fragments in oxygen and etched in a 12N sodium hydroxide solution at 125 0 C. The radial etching rate at 125 0 C was 6 to 8 A/hr, which is less than 17 A/hr for polyvinylidene fluoride in the same sodium hydroxide concentration at 85 0 C. The smaller rate is a reflection of the larger chemical resistivity of ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer than polyvinylidene fluoride. (author)

  4. Organisation and shape of micellar solutions of block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, J. P.; Creutz, S.; Bouchat, Ph.; Jérôme, R.; Cohen Stuart, M.

    1997-02-01

    Diblock copolymers of polymethacrylic acid sodium salt, forming the hair, and styrene derivatives have been studied in aqueous solutions by SANS and SAXS. The influence of both the chemical nature and the length of the hydrophobic bloxk on the size and shape of micelles have been investigated. The micellar core size is in agreement with the theoretical evaluation for copolymers with a short hydrophobic sequence. In contrast, in case of larger hydrophobic blocks, the measured size is incompatible with a star-like model. Various hypotheses are presented for the latter.

  5. Thermal and radiochemical degradation of some PAN copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jipa, S. [INCDIE, ICPE CA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, P.O. Box 149, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); ' Valachia' University of Targoviste, 18-22 Unirii Av., Targoviste 130082 (Romania); Zaharescu, T. [' Valachia' University of Targoviste, 18-22 Unirii Av., Targoviste 130082 (Romania)], E-mail: traian_zaharescu@yahoo.com; Setnescu, R. [INCDIE, ICPE CA, 313 Splaiul Unirii, P.O. Box 149, Bucharest 030138 (Romania); ' Valachia' University of Targoviste, 18-22 Unirii Av., Targoviste 130082 (Romania); Dragan, E.S.; Dinu, M.V. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi 700487 (Romania)

    2008-12-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and some copolymers of acrylonitrile with divinylbenzene (AN-DVB) were investigated by the characterization of their thermal and radiation stabilities. The contribution of DVB to the thermal stability of PAN by the modification in the amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon between 6 and 20% was revealed by the evaluation of oxidation induction periods and required activation energies. The exposure of these materials to the action of {gamma}-radiation points out the higher stability of copolymers (AN-DVB) in comparison to the relative stability of PAN.

  6. Nanoporous Crosslinked Polyisoprene from Polyisoprene-Polydimethylsiloxane Block Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Steffen; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Berg, Rolf Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The polyisoprene block of a polyisoprene-polydimethylsiloxane (PI-PDMS) diblock copolymer with 0.68 volume fraction of PI was tightly crosslinked with dicumylperoxide. The PDMS part of the obtained glassy material was subsequently quantitatively etched with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or tetrabut......The polyisoprene block of a polyisoprene-polydimethylsiloxane (PI-PDMS) diblock copolymer with 0.68 volume fraction of PI was tightly crosslinked with dicumylperoxide. The PDMS part of the obtained glassy material was subsequently quantitatively etched with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride...

  7. Enhancement of conductivity in polyaniline-[poly(vinylidene chloride)-co-(vinyl acetate)] blends by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodugoez-Sentuerk, Hatice; Gueven, Olgun

    2011-01-01

    In this study we have prepared conductive poly(aniline), (PANI) blends with poly(vinylidene chloride-co-vinyl acetate), [P(VDC-co-VAc)] copolymer with varying compositions using gamma radiation to induce conductivity. A number of blends with different compositions were prepared by solution casting followed by irradiation in a 60 Co gamma cell to different doses up to 800 kGy. Electrical conductivity of the blends was measured before and after irradiation using a four-probe technique. Increasing radiation dose resulted in an increase of 9 orders of magnitude in the conductivity of P(VDC-co-VAc)/(PANI) films reaching 0.1 S/cm at 500 kGy and beyond this dose a decrease was observed. Effect of film thickness on conductivity of the blends was investigated and a slight increase of an order of magnitude was observed on increasing the film thickness from 50 to 200 μm. It was also observed that PANI blends exhibited a stretch dependent small increase in conductivity. The conductivity of the irradiated films was found to be stable for up to 12 months under ambient conditions.

  8. Silver-Loaded Cellulose Acetate-g-Poly(ε-caprolactone) Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuburan, CR; Dela Rosa, LE; Reyes, LQ

    2017-06-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) was grafted with poly(ε-caprolactone) PCL oligomers via the ring-opening of ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) monomer initiated by the hydroxyl functionality of CA. The incorporation of short PCL oligomers in CA’s structure caused the transformation of it crystalline domains into amorphous phases (internal plasticization) as observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Another evidence of plasticization induced by grafting was the significant reduction of the degradation temperature and stiffness of the copolymers. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopies and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) verified success the grafting as suggested by the attachment of PCL on the glucose ring and increase in polymer molecular weights after the reaction. Due to the good films forming ability of the synthesized CA grafted with PCL (CA-g-PCL) material, it was loaded with silver nitrate (AgNO3) and the composite was observed to be have bactericidal against a gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, and a gram positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis.

  9. Radiation-induced copolymerizations of perfluorovinyl acetic acid and its methyl ester with α-olefin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, M.; Watanabe, T.; Matsuda, O.; Tabata, Y.; Machi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Homopolymerizations and copolymerizations of perfluorovinyl acetic acid (FVA) and its methyl ester (MFVA) were carried out by γ radiation at a temperature of 25 0 C, a dose rate of 1 x 10 6 rad/hr, and FVA/α-olefin and MFVA/α-olefin ratios of 10/90-90/10 in the monomer mixture. FVA and MFVA gave small quantities of brown and greasy low-molecular-weight homopolymers. The polymerization rates of both FVA and MFVA were extremely small, as shown by the maximum G value of monomer consumption of 12. FVA and MFVA reacted with α-olefin to form waxlike copolymers. The copolymerization rates of both FVA and MFVA with α-olefin were remarkably larger than those of the homopolymerizations, particularly with ethylene. The polymer compositions of FVA/ethylene or MFVA/ethylene were nearly 1/2 over a wide range of the monomer compositions. The Mayo-Lewis method gave negative r 1 (FVA) and r 1 (MFVA). The polymer composition curves could be well interpreted by introducing the penultimate model

  10. POLYCAPROLACTONE-POLY (ETHYLENE GLYCOL) BLOCK COPOLYMER Ⅲ DRUG RELEASE BEHAVIOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEI Jianzhong; WANG Zhifeng; WANG Shenguo

    1995-01-01

    The drug release behavior of degradable polymer - polycaprolactone-poly (ethylene glycol)block copolymer(PCE) in vitro was investigated by using 5-Fluoro-uracil (5-Fu) as a model drug under a condition of pH 7.4 at 37℃. It is found that the release rate of 5-Fu from PCE increased with increasing polyether content of the copolymer. The results show that the increasing polyether content of the copolymer caused increasing hydrophilicity and decreasing crystallinity of the PCE copolymer. Thus, the drug release behavior and the degradable property of the PCE can be controlled by adjusting the composition of the copolymer.

  11. STUDIES ON POLY (ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)- POLY ( TETRAMETHYLENE ETHER ) MULTIBLOCK COPOLYMER.Ⅰ. COM POSITIONAL HOMOGENEITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yongjian; YING Qicong; WU Meiyan; QIAN Renyuan

    1991-01-01

    The compositional homogeneity of a poly (ethylene terephthalate )-poly (tetramethylene ether)multiblock copolymer sample with low content of hard segment was examined by GPC, TLC, and solubility method. The copolymer sample was found to have a uniform composition as a function of elution volume over the major portion of sample from GPC method. However within one elution fraction, the copolymer chains, although having the same hydrodynamic volume, may have some difference in composition. Two fractions with different composition were obtained by precipitation in ethanol. Some low molar mass copolymers were also separated by a TLC technique from the copolymer sample.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF STYRENE-METHYL METHACRYLATE BLOCK COPOLYMER BY POLYAZOAMIDE AS INITIATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongyi; WEI Jeqing

    1996-01-01

    Polyazoamide(PAA) was used as initiator to prepare block copolymer P(MMA-b-St) by free radical polymerization. The fraction of block copolymer was about 50%. The structure of the block-copolymer was characterized by IR and the results of 1H-NMR and GPC showed that the content of the block and the molecular weight (-Mw) of the prepolymer and block copolymer could be controlled by varying the mol ratio of styrene/PAA and MMA/prepolymer. DSC and TEM results revealed that the block copolymer has two separated glass transition temperatures and phase separation within the domain structure.

  13. Research Update: Triblock copolymers as templates to synthesize inorganic nanoporous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the application of triblock copolymers as designed templates to synthesize nanoporous materials with various compositions. Asymmetric triblock copolymers have several advantages compared with symmetric triblock copolymers and diblock copolymers, because the presence of three distinct domains can provide more functional features to direct the resultant nanoporous materials. Here we clearly describe significant contributions of asymmetric triblock copolymers, especially polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine-block-poly(ethylene oxide (abbreviated as PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO.

  14. Heterotrophic utilization of acetate and glucose in Swartvlei, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robarts, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The utilization of dissolved organic compounds in Swartvlei was measured by the addition of single concentrations of 14 C-labelled acetate and glucose to water samples. The results indicated acetate uptake was greatest in the aerobic zone while glucose was predominantly utilized in the anaerobic zone. With the exception of two months, integral glucose uptake was usually greater than the uptake of acetate. In August and September 1971 acetate was indicated as being utilized predominantly by flagellates and in December 1971 by dinoflagellates. During the remainder of the study, bacteria were assumed to be responsible for the uptake of acetate. The extensive weed beds which surround the upper reaches of Swartvlei may be a major source of acetate and glucose in the pelagic water column

  15. Teratogenic effects of lead acetate on kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, R.; Tahir, M.; Waqas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Lead remains a considerable occupational and public health problem, which is known to cause a number of adverse effects in both men and women. Conflicting reports have appeared on lead induced nephrotoxicity in experimental studies in the past. There is hardly any work on its teratogenic effects on kidney. Present study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of lead acetate on developing kidney. Methods: Twelve mice were used as experimental model and were divided into two groups of six animals each; group A served as control group and B was used as an experimental group. Lead acetate (10 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.02 ml of distilled water was administered as a single daily dose orally to group B whereas weight related amount of distilled water was given to group A for the entire period of experiment. On 18 day of gestation foetuses were dissected free of uterine wall under the dissecting microscope and were sacrificed; kidneys were removed and fixed in 10% formalin, dehydrated in ascending grades of alcohol, cleared in xylene and infiltrated with filtered paraffin. The paraffin blocks were made and five micron thin sections were obtained using a rotary microtome. The sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin and, PAS; these were examined under light microscope. Results: Significant decrease in cortical thickness was observed which varied from 578.6 +- 1.4 mu m in group A to 515.6 +- 5 mu m in group B (p<0.001). Diameter of renal corpuscles varied from 57.7 +- 0.07 mu m in group A to 50.5 +- 0.07 mu m in group B (p<0.001). Moderate cortical tubular atrophy showing thickening of endothelial basement membrane in glomeruli, desquamated epithelium with degenerated nuclei in proximal and distal tubules were observed in group B in contrast to group A. Conclusion: The results of the investigation indicated that lead acetate administration to the dams produced deleterious effects on the developing kidney in mice. (author)

  16. Polimerni aditivi za poboljšanje tecivosti nafte i plinskog kondenzata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelić-Balta, J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the problem of paraffin deposition during production, transportation and processing of crude oil and gas condensate. The troublesome paraffin stands for normal hydrocarbons ranging from approximately C18-C38, mixed with small amounts of branched paraffin, monocyclic paraffin, polycyclic paraffin, and aromatics. The amount of paraffin found in crude oils as described in the literature, varies from less than 1 to more than 50 percent. The solubility of paraffin depends on chemical composition, temperature and pressure. Paraffin precipitates at an equilibrium temperature and pressure defined as the cloud point. The paraffin deposits often begin on surfaces cooler than the liquid. The viscosity is increased by the presence of paraffin crystals and if the temperature is reduced sufficiently, the crude oil/gas condensate will become very viscous(pour point. The crude oil/gas condensate viscosity behaves in a Newtonian manner until wax crystals begin to form and, after lowering the temperature, behaves in a non-Newtonian manner.Many options are available to counter the problems caused by paraffin wax deposition. These include various mechanical, thermal and chemical means (for example, steam heating, blending with lighter cutter stocks and treating with chemical additives. A preferred option would be to use wax modifier additives, commonly known as pour point depressants. Crystal modifiers are copolymers from these groups: copolymers of ethylene vinyl acetate, poly alpha-olefins, alkyl fumarate- vinyl acetate copolymers of C18-through C22 methacrylates and copolymers of maleic anhydride esters. The mechanism of paraffin deposition and prevention is described. The additives modify the size and shape of the crystal and inhibit the formation of large wax crystal lattices. With efficient additives, crude oil/gas condensate behaves in a Newtonian manner at low temperature.A section of the paper describes the influence of chemical

  17. Proton conductivity and relaxation properties of chitosan-acetate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, E.; Luna-Bárcenas, G.; González-Campos, J.B.; Kovalenko, Yu.; García-Carvajal, Z.Y.; Mota-Morales, J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of conductivity, the number of density and proton mobility in chitosan-acetate film. - Highlights: • DD, conductivity, Vogel temperature dependent on the concentration of acetic acid. • Proton conductivity of CS-acetate films interpreted using two Grotthuss mechanisms. • Transformation between two mechanisms observed at the glass transition temperature. - Abstract: The effect of aqueous acetic acid solution concentration during the preparation of chitosan-acetate (CS-acetate) films on the conductivity and relaxation properties were studied by dielectric and FTIR spectroscopies, TGA measurements and X-Ray diffraction. Analyses of the experimental results on the degree of deacetylation, water absorption, conductivity, Vogel temperature and activation energy demonstrate a strong dependence of these parameters on the concentration of the acid acetic solutions from which the films have been obtained. The proton conductivity and relaxation properties of CS-acetate films have been interpreted using two Grotthuss “structural diffusion” and “pack-acid” mechanisms. The transformation between these two mechanisms observed at temperature higher than CS-acetate glass transition temperature is due to an increase in the thermal motion of CS chains, water evaporation, hydrogen bond between water molecules and side groups of CS breaking and formation of new bonds between NH 3 + and acetate ions. Additionally, application of the Rice and Roth model allowed estimating the temperature dependence of proton number and their mobility in CS-acetate films. A systematic interpretation on the appropriate conductivity mechanism will help trigger the design of smart materials used in flexible electronic, solid polymer electrolytes for fuel cells and solid polymer batteries based on CS-acetate films.

  18. Morphology and electrical properties of electrochemically synthesized pyrrole–formyl pyrrole copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Mehrdad, E-mail: mehrdad897@um.edu.my [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 465, Marvdasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nia, Pooria Moozarm, E-mail: pooriamn@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Alias, Yatimah, E-mail: yatimah70@um.edu.my [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The (Py–co-FPy) copolymer was synthesized electrochemically. • This copolymer has 1.6 times higher surface coverage compared to polypyrrole. • This copolymer showed 2.5 times lower resistance compared to polypyrrole. • The conjugated structure between Py and FPy causes enhancement of conductivity. • This conducting copolymer has a strong potential to be used in various applications. - Abstract: A direct electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole–formyl pyrrole (Py–co-FPy) was carried out by oxidative copolymerization of formyl pyrrole and pyrrole in LiClO{sub 4} aqueous solution through galvanostatic method. The (Py–co-FPy) copolymer was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-filtering transmission electron microscope (EFTEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The FESEM images showed that the synthesized copolymer had a hollow whelk-like helixes structure, which justifies the enhancement of charge transportation through the copolymer film. Cyclic voltammetry studies revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of synthesized copolymer has improved and the surface coverage in copolymer enhanced 1.6 times compared to polypyrrole alone. Besides, (Py–co-FPy) copolymer showed 2.5 times lower electrochemical charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) value in impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, this copolymer has a strong potential to be used in several applications such as sensor applications.

  19. Anhydric maleic functionalization and polyethylene glycol grafting of lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, A.; Valle, L.; Franco, L. del [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Sarasua, J.R. [Department of Mining-Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bilbao (Spain); Estrany, F. [Departament d' Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, Barcelona E-08028 (Spain); Puiggalí, J., E-mail: Jordi.Puiggali@upc.es [Department of Mining-Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    Lactide and trimethylene carbonate copolymers were successfully grafted with polyethylene glycol via previous functionalization with maleic anhydride and using N,N′-diisopropylcarbodiimide as condensing agent. Maleinization led to moderate polymer degradation. Specifically, the weight average molecular weight decreased from 36,200 to 30,200 g/mol for the copolymer having 20 mol% of trimethylene carbonate units. Copolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. Morphology of spherulites and lamellar crystals was evaluated with optical and atomic force microscopies, respectively. The studied copolymers were able to crystallize despite the randomness caused by the trimethylene carbonate units and the lateral groups. Contact angle measurements indicated that PEG grafted copolymers were more hydrophilic than parent copolymers. This feature justified that enzymatic degradation in lipase medium and proliferation of both epithelial-like and fibroblast-like cells were enhanced. Grafted copolymers were appropriate to prepare regular drug loaded microspheres by the oil-in-water emulsion method. Triclosan release from loaded microspheres was evaluated in two media. - Highlights: • Pegylated copolymers of lactide and trimethylene carbonate have been synthesized. • Grafting with polyethylene glycol was able via maleic anhydride functionalization. • Drug-loaded microspheres could be prepared from new pegylated copolymers. • Hydrophilicity of lactide/trimethylene carbonate copolymers increased by pegylation. • New pegylated copolymers supported cell adhesion and proliferation.

  20. Inhomogeneity of block copolymers at the interface of an immiscible polymer blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Ho; Kim, YongJoo; Lee, Won Bo

    2018-04-01

    We present the effects of structure and stiffness of block copolymers on the interfacial properties of an immiscible homopolymer blend. Diblock and two-arm grafted copolymers with variation in stiffness are modeled using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to compare the compatibilization efficiency, i.e., reduction of interfacial tension. Overall, grafted copolymers are located more compactly at the interface and show better compatibilization efficiency than diblock copolymers. In addition, an increase in the stiffness for one of the blocks of the diblock copolymers causes unusual inhomogeneous interfacial coverage due to bundle formation. However, an increase in the stiffness for one of blocks of the grafted copolymers prevents the bundle formation due to the branched chain. As a result, homogeneous interfacial coverage of homopolymer blends is realized with significant reduction of interfacial tension which makes grafted copolymer a better candidate for the compatibilizer of immiscible homopolymer blend.

  1. Glatiramer Acetate-associated Refractory Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftach Sagy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of glatiramer acetate-associated refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP in a female patient with multiple sclerosis. A search of MEDLINE/PubMed did not find any connection between glatiramer acetate and thrombocytopenia, specifically ITP. The autoimmune reaction was resistant to conservative ITP treatment, and was eventually managed only by splenectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of glatiramer acetate-associated ITP. Physicians should be aware of this condition, and consider performing routine blood counts at the beginning of glatiramer acetate treatment.

  2. Omics analysis of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2017-05-01

    Acetic acid is an inhibitor in industrial processes such as wine making and bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. It causes energy depletion, inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity, growth arrest and ethanol productivity losses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the yeast responses to acetic acid stress is essential for improving acetic acid tolerance and ethanol production. Although 329 genes associated with acetic acid tolerance have been identified in the Saccharomyces genome and included in the database ( http://www.yeastgenome.org/observable/resistance_to_acetic_acid/overview ), the cellular mechanistic responses to acetic acid remain unclear in this organism. Post-genomic approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemogenomics are being applied to yeast and are providing insight into the mechanisms and interactions of genes, proteins and other components that together determine complex quantitative phenotypic traits such as acetic acid tolerance. This review focuses on these omics approaches in the response to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, several novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance have been engineered by modifying key genes, and the application of these strains and recently acquired knowledge to industrial processes is also discussed.

  3. The method of quantitative determination of iodine in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, A.B.; Kalinchenko, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Method for separate determination of J 2 and J - concentrations in acetic acid is suggested. Iodine concentration in acetic acid is determined by measuring potential of iodine-selective electrode first in the initial solution of acetic acid, where molecular iodine dissociation equals 0.5, and then in acetic acid, with alkali (NaOH) addition up to pH > 3, where molecular iodine dissociation equals 1. Determination is conducted in 5x10 -7 -5x10 -6 mol/l concentration range with relative standard deviation not more than 0.1. 1 fig

  4. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  5. Ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alan M; Thomas, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Emergency contraceptive agents play a crucial role in preventing unplanned pregnancy. These agents and devices have been studied since the 1960s and have had varied results in terms of side effects and efficacy. A new oral tablet for emergency contraception (EC), ulipristal acetate (UPA) , is a selective progesterone receptor modulator and can be used up to 120 h following unprotected intercourse, without an increase in adverse effects or a decrease in efficacy. This article reviews studies that evaluate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of UPA as an emergency contraceptive agent. UPA, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, is administered as a single 30 mg dose for EC. This agent provides a comparable, if not better, efficacy and side effect profile than seen with levonorgestrel or mifepristone. Because it has both agonistic and antagonistic effects on the progesterone receptor, ongoing clinical trials are documenting UPA's use for patients with endometriosis and as an extended use contraceptive.

  6. Ulipristal acetate: a new emergency contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jade L; Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2011-07-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a newly developed emergency contraceptive currently available in the USA and Europe. It is approved as a 30 mg one-time dose taken within 120 h (5 days) of unprotected intercourse or failed contraception. This selective progesterone receptor modulator appears to be more effective than the levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive, which must be taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. According to pharmacodynamic trials, UPA delays follicular maturation and ovulation. In addition, UPA may modulate the endometrium. Both Phase III clinical trials found that UPA does not lose efficacy within the 120-h dosing interval. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, UPA was shown to be well tolerated with only minimal adverse drug reactions, all of which are similar to competitor therapies.

  7. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena; Chouaia, Bessem; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Bourtzis, Kostas; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  8. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena

    2016-06-14

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  9. Emergency Contraception Options: Focus on Ulipristal Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon T. Cameron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulipristal acetate (UPA is a progesterone receptor modulator that is available for emergency contraception (EC and can be taken up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse. A meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing UPA with levonorgestrel (LNG for EC, demonstrated that UPA has higher efficacy than LNG. This higher efficacy is supported by biomedical studies that have demonstrated that UPA is a more potent inhibitor of ovulation, being able to delay ovulation in the immediate preovulatory period, when LNG is no longer effective. A recent study that explored risk factors for failure of EC, demonstrated that obese women were at increased risk of EC failure, with either UPA or LNG. However, failure was significantly less amongst women receiving UPA than those receiving LNG. There is growing evidence therefore, that UPA should be the preferred oral method of EC.

  10. Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Chun-Xia MengDepartment of Women’s and Children’s Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the ‘window of effect’ for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment.Keywords: emergency contraception, ulipristal acetate, levonorgestrel

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of AB-copolymers with saturating bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chertovich, A.C.; Ivanov, V.A.; Khokhlov, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Structural transitions in a single AB-copolymer chain where saturating bonds can be formed between A- and B-units are studied by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations using the bond fluctuation model. Three transitions are found, coil-globule, coil-hairpin and globule-hairpin, depending...

  12. Asymmetric block copolymers confined in a thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huinink, HP; Brokken-Zijp, JCM; van Dijk, MA; Sevink, GJA

    2000-01-01

    We have used a dynamic density functional theory (DDFT) for polymeric systems, to simulate the formation of micro phases in a melt of an asymmetric block copolymer, A(n)B(m)(f(A) = 1/3), both in the bulk and in a thin film. In the DDFT model a polymer is represented as a chain of springs and beads.

  13. Diblock Copolymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposite Thin Film Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limary, Ratchana; Green, Peter

    2000-03-01

    The stability of thin film symmetric diblock copolymers blended with layered silicate nanocomposites were examined using a combination of optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Two cases were examined PS-b-PMMA (polystyrene-b-polymethylacrylate) blended with montmorillonite stoichiometrically loaded with alkyl ammonium ions, OLS(S), and PS-b-PMMA blended with montmorillonite loaded with excess alkyl ammonium ions, OLS(E). XRD spectra show an increase in the gallery spacing of the OLSs, indicating that the copolymer chains have intercalated the layered silicates. AFM images reveal a distinct difference between the two nanocomposite thin films: regions in the vicinity of OLS(S) aggregates were depleted of material, while in the vicinity of OLS(E) aggregates, dewetting of the substrate occurred. We show that the stability of the copolymer/OLS nanocomposite films is determined by the enthalpic driving force associated with intercalation of the copolymer chains into the galleries of the modified OLS layers and by the substrate/organic modifier interactions.

  14. Functional (co)polymers from carbenes: scope, mechanism & polymer properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, N.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Polymerization of carbenes is a valuable alternative to traditional olefin polymerization with regard to the formation of high molecular-weight functional copolymers in a stereoregular way. The versatility of this reaction with respect to different carbene precursors allows the formation of a large

  15. Linear low density polyethylene/cycloolefin copolymer blends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dorigato, A.; Pegoretti, A.; Fambri, L.; Lonardi, C.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Kolařík, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2011), s. 23-37 ISSN 1788-618X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/1348 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer blends * cycloolefin copolymer * creep Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.769, year: 2011

  16. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  17. Tough, semiconducting polyethylene-poly(3-hexylthiophene) diblock copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, C.; Goffri, S.; Breiby, Dag Werner

    2007-01-01

    Semiconducting diblock copolymers of polyethylene (PE) and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are demonstrated to exhibit a rich phase behaviour, judicious use of which permitted us to fabricate field-effect transistors that show saturated charge carrier mobilities, mu(FET), as high as 2 x...

  18. Poly(bisphenol A carbonate) - poly(dimethylsiloxane) multiblock copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aert, van H.A.M.; Nelissen, L.N.I.H.; Lemstra, P.J.; Brunelle, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    A versatile technique for the synthesis of multiblock copolymers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC) is described. Specific reaction of the phenol end groups of a,¿-bis(bisphenol A)-terminated PDMS with the activated end groups of

  19. Isotropic Lifshitz behavior in block copolymer-homopolymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, F.S.; Maurer, W.; Lodge, T.P.

    1995-01-01

    A series of mixtures composed of a symmetric A-B diblock copolymer and a symmetric blend of A and B homopolymers was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. Mean-field theory predicts that a line of lamellar-disorder transitions with wave-vector instability q* > 0 will meet a line of crit...

  20. 21 CFR 175.210 - Acrylate ester copolymer coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ester copolymer coating may safely be used as a food-contact surface of articles intended for packaging..., and methacrylic acid applied in emulsion form to molded virgin fiber and heat-cured to an insoluble... application of the emulsion may include substances named in this paragraph, in an amount not to exceed that...

  1. Block copolymer-nanoparticle hybrid self-assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Hoheisel, Tobias N.; Hur, Kahyun; Wiesner, Ulrich B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Polymer-inorganic hybrid materials provide exciting opportunities as they may display favorable properties from both constituents that are desired in applications including catalysis and energy conversion and storage. For the preparation of hybrid materials with well-defined morphologies, block copolymer-directed nanoparticle hybrids present a particularly promising approach. As will be described in this review, once the fundamental characteristics for successful nanostructure formation at or close to the thermodynamic equilibrium of these nanocomposites are identified, the approach can be generalized to various materials classes. In addition to the discussion of recent materials developments based on the use of AB diblock copolymers as well as ABC triblock terpolymers, this review will therefore emphasize progress in the fundamental understanding of the underlying formation mechanisms of such hybrid materials. To this end, critical experiments for, as well as theoretical progress in the description of these nanostructured block copolymer-based hybrid materials will be discussed. Rather than providing a comprehensive overview, the review will emphasize work by the Wiesner group at Cornell University, US, on block copolymer-directed nanoparticle assemblies as well as their use in first potential application areas. The results provide powerful design criteria for wet-chemical synthesis methodologies for the generation of functional nanomaterials for applications ranging from microelectronics to catalysis to energy conversion and storage.

  2. Spectral Signatures of Polarons in Conjugated Co-polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebeler, Christian; Tautz, Raphael; Feldmann, Jochen; von Hauff, Elizabeth; Da Como, Enrico; Schumacher, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We study electronic and optical properties of the low-bandgap co-polymer PCPDT-BT (poly-cyclopentadithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole) and compare it with the corresponding homo-polymer PCPDT (poly-cyclopentadithiophene). We investigate the linear absorptivity in these systems for neutral molecules and

  3. Influence of Chirality in Ordered Block Copolymer Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ishan; Grason, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    Block copolymers are known to assemble into rich spectrum of ordered phases, with many complex phases driven by asymmetry in copolymer architecture. Despite decades of study, the influence of intrinsic chirality on equilibrium mesophase assembly of block copolymers is not well understood and largely unexplored. Self-consistent field theory has played a major role in prediction of physical properties of polymeric systems. Only recently, a polar orientational self-consistent field (oSCF) approach was adopted to model chiral BCP having a thermodynamic preference for cholesteric ordering in chiral segments. We implement oSCF theory for chiral nematic copolymers, where segment orientations are characterized by quadrupolar chiral interactions, and focus our study on the thermodynamic stability of bi-continuous network morphologies, and the transfer of molecular chirality to mesoscale chirality of networks. Unique photonic properties observed in butterfly wings have been attributed to presence of chiral single-gyroid networks, this has made it an attractive target for chiral metamaterial design.

  4. Fast assembly of ordered block copolymer nanostructures through microwave annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojiang; Harris, Kenneth D; Wu, Nathanael L Y; Murphy, Jeffrey N; Buriak, Jillian M

    2010-11-23

    Block copolymer self-assembly is an innovative technology capable of patterning technologically relevant substrates with nanoscale precision for a range of applications from integrated circuit fabrication to tissue interfacing, for example. In this article, we demonstrate a microwave-based method of rapidly inducing order in block copolymer structures. The technique involves the usage of a commercial microwave reactor to anneal block copolymer films in the presence of appropriate solvents, and we explore the effect of various parameters over the polymer assembly speed and defect density. The approach is applied to the commonly used poly(styrene)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) and poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) families of block copolymers, and it is found that the substrate resistivity, solvent environment, and anneal temperature all critically influence the self-assembly process. For selected systems, highly ordered patterns were achieved in less than 3 min. In addition, we establish the compatibility of the technique with directed assembly by graphoepitaxy.

  5. Oriented Structure of Pentablock Copolymers Induced by Solution Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tamotsu; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2002-03-01

    Highly oriented structure of a poly(styrene-co-butadiene) pentablock copolymer (Mw; 104,700 g/mol, weight percentage of polybutadiene blocks; 29 wt of concentrated solutions. The pentablock copolymer was dissolved into mixtures of toluene and heptane, and the polymer concentration ranged from 40 wt extrusion, the pentablock copolymer was solidified either by coagulation in methanol or by evaporation of the solvent. Interestingly, a highly oriented lamellar structure was confirmed through the small angle X-ray scattering over a specific range of heptane composition, which is a good solvent for polybutadiene, although the hexagonal cylinder morphology was identified for the melt sample. The transition from the oriented lamellar to highly oriented cylinder structure was observed by annealing the samples at temperatures above the glass transition temperature of polystyrene. Moreover, a transition from parallel to perpendicular orientation in the lamellar state was observed with an increase of the extrusion shear rate. A comparison between pentablock and triblock copolymers will be also discussed.

  6. Protein resistance of dextran and dextran-PEG copolymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Darby; Chen, Annie; Bax, Jacinda; Trau, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The protein resistance of dextran and dextran-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) copolymer films was examined on an organosilica particle-based assay support. Comb-branched dextran-PEG copolymer films were synthesized in a two step process using the organosilica particle as a solid synthetic support. Particles modified with increasing amounts (0.1-1.2 mg m−2) of three molecular weights (10 000, 66 900, 400 000 g mol−1) of dextran were found to form relatively poor protein-resistant films compared to dextran-PEG copolymers and previously studied PEG films. The efficacy of the antifouling polymer films was found to be dependent on the grafted amount and its composition, with PEG layers being the most efficient, followed by dextran-PEG copolymers, and dextran alone being the least efficient. Immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) adsorption decreased from ~ 5 to 0.5 mg m−2 with increasing amounts of grafted dextran, but bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption increased above monolayer coverage (to ~2 mg m−2) indicating ternary adsorption of the smaller protein within the dextran layer. PMID:21614699

  7. Nanoporous Network Channels from Self-Assembled Triblock Copolymer Supramolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Sart, Gerrit Gobius; Vukovic, Ivana; Vukovic, Zorica; Polushkin, Evgeny; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Ruokolainen, Janne; Loos, Katja; ten Brinke, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    Supramolecular complexes of a poly(tert-butoxystyrene)-block-polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) triblock copolymers and less than stoichiometric amounts of pentadecylphenol (PDP) are shown to self-assemble into a core-shell gyroid morphology with the core channels formed by the hydrogen-bonded

  8. Resonant soft x-ray GISAXS on block copolymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Araki, T.; Watts, B.; Ade, H.; Hexemer, A.; Park, S.; Russell, T. P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Stein, G. E.; Tang, C.; Kramer, E. J.

    2008-03-01

    Ordered block copolymer thin films may have important applications in modern device fabrication. Current characterization methods such as conventional GISAXS have fixed electron density contrast that can be overwhelmed by surface scattering. However, soft x-rays have longer wavelength, energy dependent contrast and tunable penetration, making resonant GISAXS a very promising tool for probing nanostructured polymer thin films. Our preliminary investigation was performed using PS-b-P2VP block copolymer films on beam-line 5-2 SSRL, and beam-line 6.3.2 at ALS, LBNL. The contrast/sensitivity of the scattering pattern varies significantly with photon energy close to the C K-edge (˜290 eV). Also, higher order peaks are readily observed, indicating hexagonal packing structure in the sample. Comparing to the hard x-ray GISAXS data of the same system, it is clear that resonant GISAXS has richer data and better resolution. Beyond the results on the A-B diblock copolymers, results on ABC block copolymers are especially interesting.

  9. Multiple ordered phases in a block copolymer melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, K.; Koppi, K.A.; Bates, F.S.

    1992-01-01

    A poly(ethylenepropylene)-poly(ethylethylene) (PEP-PEE) diblock copolymer containing 65% by volume PEP was investigated using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and rheological measurements. Four distinct phases have been identified as a function of temperature: three ordered phases at low...

  10. Copolymer adsorption and the effect on colloidal stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, H.D.

    1998-01-01

    The main aim of the work described in this thesis is to study the effect of different types of copolymers on the stability of aqueous oxide dispersions. Such dispersions are a major component in water-borne paints. In order to obtain a better insight in steric stabilisation we first investigated the

  11. Responsive copolymers for enhanced petroleum recovery. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, C.; Hester, R.

    1994-08-01

    A coordinated research program involving synthesis, characterization, and rheology has been undertaken to develop advanced polymer system which should be significantly more efficient than polymers presently used for mobility control and conformance. Unlike the relatively inefficient, traditional EOR polymers, these advanced polymer systems possess microstructural features responsive to temperature, electrolyte concentration, and shear conditions. Contents of this report include the following chapters. (1) First annual report responsive copolymers for enhanced oil recovery. (2) Copolymers of acrylamide and sodium 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate. (3) Terpolymers of NaAMB, Am, and n-decylacrylamide. (4) Synthesis and characterization of electrolyte responsive terpolymers of acrylamide, N-(4-butyl)phenylacrylamide, and sodium acrylate, sodium-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphonate or sodium-3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoate. (5) Synthesis and solution properties of associative acrylamido copolymers with pyrensulfonamide fluorescence labels. (6) Photophysical studies of the solution behavior of associative pyrenesulfonamide-labeled polyacrylamides. (7) Ampholytic copolymers of sodium 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonate with [2-(acrylamido)-2-methypropyl]trimethylammonium chloride. (8) Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphoante and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethyl-ammonium chloride and (9) Polymer solution extensional behavior in porous media.

  12. Electrochromic properties of a novel low band gap conductive copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigitsoy, Basak; Varis, Serhat; Tanyeli, Cihangir; Akhmedov, Idris M.; Toppare, Levent [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-07-10

    A copolymer of 2,5-di(thiophen-2-yl)-1-p-tolyl-1H-pyrrole (DTTP) with 3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene (EDOT) was electrochemically synthesized. The resultant copolymer P(DTTP-co-EDOT) was characterized via cyclic voltammetry, FTIR, SEM, conductivity measurements and spectroelectrochemistry. Copolymer film has distinct electrochromic properties. It has four different colors (chestnut, khaki, camouflage green, and blue). At the neutral state {lambda}{sub max} due to the {pi}-{pi}{sup *} transition was found to be 487 nm and E{sub g} was calculated as 1.65 eV. Double potential step chronoamperometry experiment shows that copolymer film has good stability, fast switching time (less than 1 s) and good optical contrast (20%). An electrochromic device based on P(DTTP-co-EDOT) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was constructed and characterized. The device showed reddish brown color at -0.6 V when the P(DTTP-co-EDOT) layer was in its reduced state; whereas blue color at 2.0 V when PEDOT was in its reduced state and P(DTTP-co-EDOT) layer was in its oxidized state. At 0.2 V intermediate green state was observed. Maximum contrast (%{delta}T) and switching time of the device were measured as 18% and 1 s at 615 nm. ECD has good environmental and redox stability. (author)

  13. Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, I.P.; Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    A report is presented on the inscription of a fibre Bragg grating into a microstructured polymer optical fibre fabricated from TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. This material offers two important advantages over poly (methyl methacrylate), which up to now has formed the basis for polymer fibre Bragg...

  14. Segmented block copolymers with monodisperse aramide end-segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araichimani, A.; Gaymans, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers were synthesized using monodisperse diaramide (TT) as hard segments and PTMO with a molecular weight of 2 900 g · mol-1 as soft segments. The aramide: PTMO segment ratio was increased from 1:1 to 2:1 thereby changing the structure from a high molecular weight multi-block

  15. Synthesis and characterization of a star shaped supramolecular block copolymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, M.A.R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    A novel 5-arm star shaped block copolymer consisting of an poly(ethylene glycol) inner block and an poly(e-caprolactone) outer block was prepd. by utilizing an 5-arm star shaped poly(ethylene glycol) macroinitiator for the controlled ring opening polymn. of e-caprolactone. Furthermore, the resulting

  16. 21 CFR 177.1830 - Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene-methyl methacrylate copolymers. 177.1830 Section 177.1830 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Us...

  17. Synthesis and photooxidation of styrene copolymer bearing camphorquinone pendant groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moszner, Norbert; Lukáč, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Summary (±)-10-Methacryloyloxycamphorquinone (MCQ) was synthesized from (±)-10-camphorsulfonic acid either by a known seven-step synthetic route or by a novel, shorter five-step synthetic route. MCQ was copolymerized with styrene (S) and the photochemical behavior of the copolymer MCQ/S was compared with that of a formerly studied copolymer of styrene with monomers containing the benzil (BZ) moiety (another 1,2-dicarbonyl). Irradiation (λ > 380 nm) of aerated films of styrene copolymers with monomers containing the BZ moiety leads to the insertion of two oxygen atoms between the carbonyl groups of BZ and to the formation of benzoyl peroxide (BP) as pendant groups on the polymer backbone. An equivalent irradiation of MCQ/S led mainly to the insertion of only one oxygen atom between the carbonyl groups of camphorquinone (CQ) and to the formation of camphoric anhydride (11) covalently bound to the polymer backbone. While the decomposition of pendant BP groups formed in irradiated films of styrene copolymers with pendant BZ groups leads to crosslinking, only small molecular-weight changes in irradiated MCQ/S were observed. PMID:22509202

  18. Styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer grafted with phosphonic acid dialkylesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMARANDA ILIESCU

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The functionalization of a crosslinked chloromethylated polystyrene 8% divinylbenzene copolymer with phosphonic ester groups is detailed. The reacton conditions were studied in order to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining only diesters. A statistical method for the calculation of the fraction of repetive units for the inited and final resin is proposed.

  19. Features of radiation chemical processes in ethylene-styrene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchenko, S.S.; Mal'tseva, A.P.; Iskakov, L.I.; Karpov, V.L.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of statistical copolymers of ethylene with styrene to determine their structure and properties and radio-chemical transformations. The styrene content of the copolymers ranged from 1 to 85 mole%. The investigation covered non-irradiated copolymers and those irradiated with doses of 1-1000Mrad at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. It is shown that styrene units present in the CES inhibited all radio-chemical processes compared with PE irradiated under similar conditions. It is suggested that the radiation resistance of CES with styrene contents up to 10 mole % increases in the course of irradiation as a result of the formation of structures with a high degree of conjugation which are more capable of scattering absorbed energy than in the case of phenyl rings by themselves. The most promising of the CES examined is the one with a styrene content of 5 mole %. The mechanical properties of this copolymer are similar to those of PE, and its radiation resistance rises under service conditions in the presence of ionizing radiation

  20. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820 Section 177.1820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use...

  1. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  2. The behaviour of tungsten electrodes in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, T.J.; Vajgand, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    Tungsten electrodes have advantageously been used for potentiometric end-point detection in perchloric acid titration of bases in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride. They have also given good results in biamperometric detection of the equivalence point in continuous coulometric titration of small quantities of bases and acids in the same solvent. Tungsten electrodes in the presence of quinhydrone behave like platinum electrodes, but in biamperometric end-point determination in the absence of quinhydrone it is better to remove the oxide layer from their surface. Some other factors affecting their behaviour have also been studied. Errors in determination do not exceed +-2% even in titration of very small quantities of substances. (author)

  3. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz; Mehl, Marco; Lokachari, Nitin; Nilsson, Elna J.K.; Konnov, Alexander A.; Wagnon, Scott W.; Pitz, William J.; Curran, Henry J.; Roberts, William L.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  4. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2017-12-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  5. The Synthesis of Cellulose Graft Copolymers Using Cu(0)-Mediated Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Jason L.

    Cellulose is the most abundant renewable polymer on the planet and there is great interest in expanding its use beyond its traditional applications. However, its hydrophilicity and insolubility in most common solvent systems are obstacles to its widespread use in advanced materials. One way to counteract this is to attach hydrophobic polymer chains to cellulose: this allows the properties of the copolymer to be tailored by the molecular weight, density, and physical properties of the grafts. Two methods were used here to synthesize the graft copolymers: a 'grafting-from' approach, where synthetic chains were grown outward from bromoester moieties on cellulose (Cell-BiB) via Cu(0)-mediated polymerization; and a 'grafting-to' approach, where fully formed synthetic chains with terminal sulfide functionality were added to cellulose acetate with methacrylate functionality (CA-MAA) via thiol-ene Michael addition. The Cell-BiB was synthesized in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and had a degree of substitution of 1.13. Polymerization from Cell-BiB proceeded at similar but slightly slower rate than an analogous non-polymeric initiator (EBiB). The average graft density of poly(methyl acrylate) chains was 0.71 chains/ring, with a maximum of 1.0 obtained. The graft density when grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) was only 0.15, and this appeared to be due to the slow initiation of BiB groups. Using EBiB to model the reaction and improve the design should allow this to be overcome. Chain extension experiments demonstrated the living behaviour of the polymer. The CA-MAA was synthesized by esterification with methacrylic acid. Reactions of CA-MAA with thiophenol and dodecanethiol resulted in quantitative addition of the thiol to the alkene. The grafts were synthesized by Cu(0)-mediated polymerization from a bifunctional initiator containing a disulfide bond, followed by reduction to sulfides. The synthetic polymers were successfully grafted to CA-MAA but the

  6. Dynamic photoinduced realignment processes in photoresponsive block copolymer films: effects of the chain length and block copolymer architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Masami; Shan, Feng; Hara, Mitsuo; Nagano, Shusaku; Shinohara, Yuya; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Seki, Takahiro

    2015-08-07

    A series of block copolymers composed of an amorphous poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) block connected with an azobenzene (Az)-containing liquid crystalline (PAz) block were synthesized by changing the chain length and polymer architecture. With these block copolymer films, the dynamic realignment process of microphase separated (MPS) cylinder arrays of PBMA in the PAz matrix induced by irradiation with linearly polarized light was studied by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, and time-resolved grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GI-SAXS) measurements using a synchrotron beam. Unexpectedly, the change in the chain length hardly affected the realignment rate. In contrast, the architecture of the AB-type diblock or the ABA-type triblock essentially altered the realignment feature. The strongly cooperative motion with an induction period before realignment was characteristic only for the diblock copolymer series, and the LPL-induced alignment change immediately started for triblock copolymers and the PAz homopolymer. Additionally, a marked acceleration in the photoinduced dynamic motions was unveiled in comparison with a thermal randomization process.

  7. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  8. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  9. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac·eptive Preparation. Basil Bloch. Abstract. Experience with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive preparation in 7 335 patients for a total of 38 714 months over a 3-year period is described. The discontinuation rate was 18.3% and the ...

  10. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo, E-mail: francisco.rodriguez.m@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA). Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Faculty of Technology. Department of Food Science and Technology. Food Packaging Laboratory. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  11. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Chitosan acetate was chemically modified with acetaldehyde and the solution was prepared with 1 % acetic acid, in which was dissolved propranolol hydrochloride, was cast as films in Petri dish and characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ...

  12. Acetalization of furfural with zeolites under benign reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubio-Caballeroa, Juan Miguel; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Maireles-Torres, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Acetalization is a viable method to protect carbonyl functionalities in organic compounds and offers apotential synthetic strategy for synthesizing derived chemicals. In this work, several families of commer-cial zeolites have been employed as solid acid catalysts in the acetalization of furfural...

  13. modelling and simulation of the batch hydrolysis of acetic ing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic. The kinetic modelling of ... integral method of analysis to determine the kinetic parameters .... Equation (5) is applied to all the components ... In common chemical engineering terminology, the degree of ..... of Physical Organic Chemistry, Vol. 25, Number ...

  14. Bioelectrochemical Ethanol Production through Mediated Acetate Reduction by Mixed Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaap, J.D.; Kampman, C.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Biological acetate reduction with hydrogen is a potential method to convert wet biomass waste into ethanol. Since the ethanol concentration and reaction rates are low, this research studies the feasibility of using an electrode, in stead of hydrogen, as an electron donor for biological acetate

  15. Controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the catalyst produced specific sequences of VAc on the chain with different thermal and microstructural properties and crystallinity. ... of (co)polymers with well-defined molecular parameters. (Mw/Mn) .... pH value was adjusted to 4·7 with.

  16. Disorder effects in Mn(12)-acetate at 83 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornia, Andrea; Fabretti, Antonio Costantino; Sessoli, Roberta; Sorace, Lorenzo; Gatteschi, Dante; Barra, Anne-Laure; Daiguebonne, Carole; Roisnel, Thierry

    2002-07-01

    The structure of hexadeca-mu-acetato-tetraaquadodeca-mu(3)-oxo-dodecamanganese bis(acetic acid) tetrahydrate, [Mn(12)O(12)(CH(3)COO)(16)(H(2)O)(4)] x 2CH(3)COOH x 4H(2)O, known as Mn(12)-acetate, has been determined at 83 (2) K by X-ray diffraction methods. The fourfold (S(4)) molecular symmetry is disrupted by a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the disordered acetic acid molecule of solvation, which displaces one of the acetate ligands in the cluster. Up to six Mn(12) isomers are potentially present in the crystal lattice, which differ in the number and arrangement of hydrogen-bonded acetic acid molecules. These results considerably improve the structural information available on this molecular nanomagnet, which was first synthesized and characterized by Lis [Acta Cryst. (1980), B36, 2042-2046].

  17. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...

  18. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  19. Hydrolyses of alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1983-01-01

    Using simultaneous coupling azo dye techniques kidney enzymes active against alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester are characterized. The enzymes show identical distribution in the section. The banding patterns in zymograms are the same after...

  20. Microsomal metabolism of trenbolone acetate metabolites ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic growth promoter widely used in animal agriculture, and its metabolites are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds in agriculturally impacted receiving waters. However, beyond the three widely recognized TBA metabolites (17-trenbolone, 17-trenbolone and trendione), little is known about other metabolites formed in vivo and subsequently discharged into the environment, with some evidence suggesting these unknown metabolites comprise a majority of the TBA mass dosed to the animal. Here, we explored the metabolism of the three known TBA metabolites using rat liver microsome studies. All TBA metabolites are transformed into a complex mixture of monohydroxylated products. Based on product characterization, the majority are more polar than the parent metabolites but maintain their characteristic trienone backbone. A minor degree of interconversion between known metabolites was also observed, as were higher order hydroxylated products with a greater extent of reaction. Notably, the distribution and yield of products were generally comparable across a series of variably induced rat liver microsomes, as well as during additional studies with human and bovine liver microsomes. Bioassays conducted with mixtures of these transformation products suggest that androgen receptor (AR) binding activity is diminished as a result of the microsomal treatment, suggesting that the transformation products are generally less potent than

  1. pH- and temperature-sensitive polymeric microspheres for drug delivery: the dissolution of copolymers modulates drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundueanu, Gheorghe; Constantin, Marieta; Stanciu, Cristina; Theodoridis, Georgios; Ascenzi, Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Most pH-/temperature-responsive polymers for controlled release of drugs are used as cross-linked hydrogels. However, the solubility properties of the linear polymers below and above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) are not exploited. Here, the preparation and characterization of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) (poly (NIPAAm-co-MA-co-MM)) and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) (poly (NIPAAm-co-AAm)), known as "smart" polymers (SP), is reported. Both poly (NIPAAm-co-MA-co-MM) and poly (NIPAAm-co-AAm) display pH- and temperature-responsive properties. Poly (NIPAAm-co-MA-co-MM) was designed to be insoluble in the gastric fluid (pH = 1.2), but soluble in the intestinal fluid (pH = 6.8 and 7.4), at the body temperature (37 degrees C). Poly (NIPAAm-co-AAm) was designed to have a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) corresponding to 37 degrees C at pH = 7.4, therefore it is not soluble above the LCST. The solubility characteristics of these copolymers were exploited to modulate the rate of release of drugs by changing pH and/or temperature. These copolymers were solubilized with hydrophobic cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and vitamin B(12) (taken as a water soluble drug model system) in an acetone/methanol mixture and dispersed in mineral oil. By a progressive evaporation of the solvent, the liquid droplets were transformed into loaded CAB/SP microspheres. Differential scanning calorimetric studies and scanning electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that the polymeric components of the microspheres precipitated separately during solvent evaporation forming small microdomains. Moreover, vitamin B(12) was found to be molecularly dispersed in both microdomains with no specific affinity for any polymeric component of microspheres. The release of vitamin B(12) was investigated as a function of temperature, pH, and the CAB/SP ratio.

  2. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anomalous Behaviors of Block Copolymers at the Interface of an Immiscible Polymer Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Ho; Lee, Won Bo

    We investigate the effects of structure and stiffness of block copolymers on the interface of an immiscible polymer blend using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulation. The diblock and grafted copolymers, which are described by Kremer and Grest bead spring model, are used to compare the compatibilization efficiency, that is, reduction of the interfacial tension. It is found that, overall, the grafted copolymers are located more compactly at the interface and show better compatibilization efficiency than diblock copolymers. In addition, it is noted that an increase in the stiffness of one block of diblock copolymer causes inhomogeneous interfacial coverage due to bundle formation among the stiff blocks and orientational constraint on bundled structures near the interface, which makes copolymers poor compatibilizers. The dependence of anomalous orientational constraint on the chain length of homopolymers is also investigated. Theoretical and Computational Soft Matters Lab.

  4. Topology and Shape Control for Assemblies of Block Copolymer Blends in Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We study binary blends of asymmetric diblock copolymers (AB/AC) in selective solvents with a mesoscale model. We investigate the morphological transitions induced by the concentration of the AC block copolymer and the difference in molecular weight between the AB and AC copolymers, when segments B and C exhibit hydrogen-bonding interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work modeling mixtures of block copolymers with large differences in molecular weight. The coassembly mechanism localizes the AC molecules at the interface of A and B domains and induces the swelling of the B-rich domains. The coil size of the large molecular weight block copolymer depends only on the concentration of the short block copolymer (AC or AB), regardless of the B–C interactions. However, the B–C interactions control the morphological transitions that occur in these blends.

  5. Microtome Sliced Block Copolymers and Nanoporous Polymers as Masks for Nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta; Schulte, Lars; Ndoni, Sokol

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Block copolymers self-assembling properties are commonly used for creation of very fine nanostructures [1]. Goal of our project is to test new methods of the block-copolymer lithography mask preparation: macroscopic pieces of block-copolymers or nanoporous polymers with cross...... PDMS can be chemically etched from the PB matrix by tetrabutylammonium fluoride in tetrahydrofuran and macroscopic nanoporous PB piece is obtained. Both block-copolymer piece and nanoporous polymer piece were sliced with cryomicrotome perpendicular to the axis of cylinder alignment and flakes...... of etching patterns appear only under the certain parts of thick flakes and are not continuous. Although flakes from block copolymer are thinner and more uniform in thickness than flakes from nanoporous polymer, quality of patterns under nanoporous flakes appeared to be better than under block copolymer...

  6. Topology and Shape Control for Assemblies of Block Copolymer Blends in Solution

    KAUST Repository

    Moreno Chaparro, Nicolas

    2015-10-27

    We study binary blends of asymmetric diblock copolymers (AB/AC) in selective solvents with a mesoscale model. We investigate the morphological transitions induced by the concentration of the AC block copolymer and the difference in molecular weight between the AB and AC copolymers, when segments B and C exhibit hydrogen-bonding interactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work modeling mixtures of block copolymers with large differences in molecular weight. The coassembly mechanism localizes the AC molecules at the interface of A and B domains and induces the swelling of the B-rich domains. The coil size of the large molecular weight block copolymer depends only on the concentration of the short block copolymer (AC or AB), regardless of the B–C interactions. However, the B–C interactions control the morphological transitions that occur in these blends.

  7. Immobilization of trichoderma REESEI (QM 9414) cells with paper covered with ionic copolymer by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhaoxin

    1992-01-01

    Cationic-hydrophobic copolymer and anionic-hydrophobic copolymer was covered onto surface of paper by radiation polymerization. The paper covered with ionic copolymer was used as carrier of immobilizing Trichoderma reesei cells. Results showed that the cells were immobilized firmly on the carriers and not dislocated from the carriers by shaking. All of FPA of the cells immobilized with the carriers covered with cationic copolymer were higher than that of un-immobilized free cells. The carriers covered with anionic copolymer showed good effect on immobilization of the cells. The weight of immobilized cells increase as increasing the component of DEAEMA in poly (DEAEMA-ATMPT) or decreasing the component of AA in poly (AA-ATMPT). It also increase with the increase of water absorption in poly (DEAEMA-ATMPT) or decrease of water absorption in poly (AA-ATMPT). It shows the static interaction play an important role in the immobilization of cells with ionic copolymer materials

  8. A rapidly equilibrating, thin film, passive water sampler for organic contaminants; characterization and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St George, Tiffany [Department of Marine Science, University of Connecticut, 1080 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, 27 Mohegan Ave., New London, CT 06320 (United States); Vlahos, Penny, E-mail: penny.vlahos@uconn.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, 55 Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Department of Marine Science, University of Connecticut, 1080 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Harner, Tom [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada); Helm, Paul [Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Rd, Toronto, Ontario M9P 3V6 (Canada); Wilford, Bryony [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Improving methods for assessing the spatial and temporal resolution of organic compound concentrations in marine environments is important to the sustainable management of our coastal systems. Here we evaluate the use of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a candidate polymer for thin-film passive sampling in waters of marine environments. Log K{sub EVA-W} partition coefficients correlate well (r{sup 2} = 0.87) with Log K{sub OW} values for selected pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) where Log K{sub EVA-W} = 1.04 Log K{sub OW} + 0.22. EVA is a suitable polymer for passive sampling due to both its high affinity for organic compounds and its ease of coating at sub-micron film thicknesses on various substrates. Twelve-day field deployments were effective in detecting target compounds with good precision making EVA a potential multi-media fugacity meter. - Research highlights: Calibration and field testing of a thin-film passive sampler in marine systems. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is effective for a wide spectrum of organic compounds. EVA performs with high precision and reproducibility. EVA is effective in marine systems at environmentally relevant concentrations. EVA is recommended as a multi-media fugacity meter for environmental applications. - An ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), thin-film passive sampler for the detection of organic compounds in marine environments is calibrated and field tested.

  9. Vapour pressures and vapour-liquid equilibria of propyl acetate and isobutyl acetate with ethanol or 2-propanol at 0.15 MPa. Binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susial Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapour pressures of propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate and 2-propanol from 0.004 to 1.6 MPa absolute pressure and VLE data for the binary systems propyl acetate+ethanol, propyl acetate+2-propanol, isobutyl acetate+ethanol and isobutyl acetate+2-propanol at 0.15 MPa have been determined. The experimental VLE data were verified with the test of van Ness and the Fredenslund criterion. The propyl acetate+ethanol or +2-propanol binary systems have an azeotropic point at 0.15 MPa. The different versions of the UNIFAC and ASOG group contribution models were applied.

  10. SYNTHESIS OF AMPHIPHILIC COMB-SHAPED COPOLYMERS USED FOR SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PVDF MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐又一

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of a novel amphiphilic comb-shaped copolymer consisting of a main chain of styrene-(N-(4- hydroxyphenyl) maleimide)(SHMI) copolymer and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate(PEGMA) side groups was achieved by atom transfer radical polymerization(ATRP).The amphiphilic copolymers were characterized by ~1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography(GPC).From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),the decomposition temperature of SHMI-g-PEGMA is low...

  11. Phase Separation and Elastic Properties of Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate)-block-poly(Ethylene Oxide) Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Piesowicz; Sandra Paszkiewicz; Anna Szymczyk

    2016-01-01

    A series of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PTT-b-PEOT) copolymers with different compositions of rigid PTT and flexible PEOT segments were synthesized via condensation in the melt. The influence of the block length and the block ratio on the micro-separated phase structure and elastic properties of the synthesized multiblock copolymers was studied. The PEOT segments in these copolymers were kept constant at 1130, 2130 or 3130 g/mol, whereas the PTT content varied...

  12. Oxidation effect on templating of metal oxide nanoparticles within block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcora, Pinar; Briber, Robert M.; Kofinas, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphilic norbornene-b-(norbornene dicarboxylic acid) diblock copolymers with different block ratios were prepared as templates for the incorporation of iron ions using an ion exchange protocol. The disordered arrangement of iron oxide particles within these copolymers was attributed to the oxidation of the iron ions and the strong interactions between iron oxide nanoparticles, particularly at high iron ion concentrations, which was found to affect the self-assembly of the block copolymer morphologies.

  13. Biosynthetic origin of acetic acid using SNIF-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffo, Elisangela Fabiana; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to describe the use of the technique Site-Specific Natural Isotopic Fractionation of hydrogen (SNIF-NMR), using 2 H and 1 H NMR spectroscopy, to investigate the biosynthetic origin of acetic acid in commercial samples of Brazilian vinegar. This method is based on the deuterium to hydrogen ratio at a specific position (methyl group) of acetic acid obtained by fermentation, through different biosynthetic mechanisms, which result in different isotopic ratios. We measured the isotopic ratio of vinegars obtained through C 3 , C 4 , and CAM biosynthetic mechanisms, blends of C 3 and C 4 (agrins) and synthetic acetic acid. (author)

  14. Ulipristal acetate versus placebo for fibroid treatment before surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques; Tatarchuk, Tetyana F; Bouchard, Philippe; Puscasiu, Lucian; Zakharenko, Nataliya F; Ivanova, Tatiana; Ugocsai, Gyula; Mara, Michal; Jilla, Manju P; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and safety of oral ulipristal acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are uncertain. We randomly assigned women with symptomatic fibroids, excessive uterine bleeding (a score of >100 on the pictorial blood-loss assessment chart [PBAC, an objective assessment of blood loss, in which monthly scores range from 0 to >500, with higher numbers indicating more bleeding]) and anemia (hemoglobin level of ≤10.2 g per deciliter) to receive treatment for up to 13 weeks with oral ulipristal acetate at a dose of 5 mg per day (96 women) or 10 mg per day (98 women) or to receive placebo (48 women). All patients received iron supplementation. The coprimary efficacy end points were control of uterine bleeding (PBAC score of <75) and reduction of fibroid volume at week 13, after which patients could undergo surgery. At 13 weeks, uterine bleeding was controlled in 91% of the women receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 92% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 19% of those receiving placebo (P<0.001 for the comparison of each dose of ulipristal acetate with placebo). The rates of amenorrhea were 73%, 82%, and 6%, respectively, with amenorrhea occurring within 10 days in the majority of patients receiving ulipristal acetate. The median changes in total fibroid volume were -21%, -12%, and +3% (P=0.002 for the comparison of 5 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo, and P=0.006 for the comparison of 10 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo). Ulipristal acetate induced benign histologic endometrial changes that had resolved by 6 months after the end of therapy. Serious adverse events occurred in one patient during treatment with 10 mg of ulipristal acetate (uterine hemorrhage) and in one patient during receipt of placebo (fibroid protruding through the cervix). Headache and breast tenderness were the most common adverse events associated with ulipristal acetate but did not occur significantly more frequently than with placebo

  15. Structural and chemical aspects of HPMA copolymers as drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Karel; Subr, Vladimír

    2010-02-17

    Synthetic strategies and chemical and structural aspects of the synthesis of HPMA copolymer conjugates with various drugs and other biologically active molecules are described and discussed in this chapter. The discussion is held from the viewpoint of design and structure of the polymer backbone and biodegradable spacer between a polymer and drug, structure and methods of attachment of the employed drugs to the carrier and structure and methods of conjugation with targeting moieties. Physicochemical properties of the water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates and polymer micelles including mechanisms of drug release are also discussed. Detailed description of biological behavior of the polymer-drug conjugates as well as application of the copolymers for surface modification and targeting of gene delivery vectors are not included, they are presented and discussed in separate chapters of this issue. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pathway-engineering for highly-aligned block copolymer arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Youngwoo; Majewski, Paweł W; Fukuto, Masafumi; Osuji, Chinedum O; Yager, Kevin G

    2017-12-21

    While the ultimate driving force in self-assembly is energy minimization and the corresponding evolution towards equilibrium, kinetic effects can also play a very strong role. These kinetic effects, such as trapping in metastable states, slow coarsening kinetics, and pathway-dependent assembly, are often viewed as complications to be overcome. Here, we instead exploit these effects to engineer a desired final nano-structure in a block copolymer thin film, by selecting a particular ordering pathway through the self-assembly energy landscape. In particular, we combine photothermal shearing with high-temperature annealing to yield hexagonal arrays of block copolymer cylinders that are aligned in a single prescribed direction over macroscopic sample dimensions. Photothermal shearing is first used to generate a highly-aligned horizontal cylinder state, with subsequent thermal processing used to reorient the morphology to the vertical cylinder state in a templated manner. Finally, we demonstrate the successful transfer of engineered morphologies into inorganic replicas.

  17. Cylindrical-confinement-induced phase behaviours of diblock copolymer melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei-Jiao, Liu; Shi-Ben, Li; Lin-Xi, Zhang; Xiang-Hong, Wang

    2010-01-01

    The phase behaviours of diblock copolymers under cylindrical confinement are studied in two-dimensional space by using the self-consistent field theory. Several phase parameters are adjusted to investigate the cylindrical-confinement-induced phase behaviours of diblock copolymers. A series of lamella-cylinder mixture phases, such as the mixture of broken-lamellae and cylinders and the mixture of square-lamellae and cylinders, are observed by varying the phase parameters, in which the behaviours of these mixture phases are discussed in the corresponding phase diagrams. Furthermore, the free energies of these mixture phases are investigated to illustrate their evolution processes. Our results are compared with the available observations from the experiments and simulations respectively, and they are in good agreement and provide an insight into the phase behaviours under cylindrical confinement. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  18. Thermosensitive Self-Assembling Block Copolymers as Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Filippo Palmieri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling block copolymers (poloxamers, PEG/PLA and PEG/PLGA diblock and triblock copolymers, PEG/polycaprolactone, polyether modified poly(Acrylic Acid with large solubility difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties have the property of forming temperature dependent micellar aggregates and, after a further temperature increase, of gellifying due to micelle aggregation or packing. This property enables drugs to be mixed in the sol state at room temperature then the solution can be injected into a target tissue, forming a gel depot in-situ at body temperature with the goal of providing drug release control. The presence of micellar structures that give rise to thermoreversible gels, characterized by low toxicity and mucomimetic properties, makes this delivery system capable of solubilizing water-insoluble or poorly soluble drugs and of protecting labile molecules such as proteins and peptide drugs.

  19. Biocompatibility of epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jen Ming; Tsai, Shih Chang

    2010-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) membrane was prepared by solution casting method and then was epoxidized with peroxyformic acid generated in situ to yield the epoxidized styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer membrane (ESBS). The structure and properties of ESBS were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, Universal Testing Machine, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The performances of contact angle, water content, protein adsorption, and water vapor transmission rate on ESBS membrane were determined. After epoxidation, the hydrophilicity of the membrane increased. The water vapor transmission rate of ESBS membrane is similar to human skin. The biocompatibility of ESBS membrane was evaluated with the cell culture of fibroblasts on the membrane. It revealed that the cells not only remained viable but also proliferated on the surface of the various ESBS membranes and the population doubling time for fibroblast culture decreased.

  20. Theory of Primary Photoexcitations in Donor-Acceptor Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, Karan; Dutta, Tirthankar; Huynh, Uyen N V; Vardeny, Zeev Valy; Mazumdar, Sumit

    2015-12-31

    We present a generic theory of primary photoexcitations in low band gap donor-acceptor conjugated copolymers. Because of the combined effects of strong electron correlations and broken symmetry, there is considerable mixing between a charge-transfer exciton and an energetically proximate triplet-triplet state with an overall spin singlet. The triplet-triplet state, optically forbidden in homopolymers, is allowed in donor-acceptor copolymers. For an intermediate difference in electron affinities of the donor and the acceptor, the triplet-triplet state can have a stronger oscillator strength than the charge-transfer exciton. We discuss the possibility of intramolecular singlet fission from the triplet-triplet state, and how such fission can be detected experimentally.

  1. Metallic nickel nanorod arrays embedded into ordered block copolymer templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifarth, O.; Krenek, R.; Tokarev, I.; Burkov, Y.; Sidorenko, A.; Minko, S.; Stamm, M.; Schmeisser, D.

    2007-01-01

    We report on metallic Nickel nanorods prepared by utilizing a mask of ordered nanostructured hollow channels in a block copolymer matrix. These polymeric templates were formed by a self organized process in block copolymer supramolecular assemblies. Nickel was filled into with two different techniques, electrodeposition and washing in. We monitor the formation process of these nanorods by means of atomic force microscopy and synchrotron radiation soft X-ray based photoelectron emission microscopy. The oxidation state of the nickelrods is evaluated with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at the Ni L edges and lateral distributions of the Ni nanorods were detected with micrometer resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The finding is that the Ni rods were metallic despite their preparation under ambient conditions, inside the particles no hints for NiO complexes were found. This indicates that the polymer protects Ni nanoparticles against oxidation

  2. Synthesis and characterization of acrylate copolymer containing fluorescein functional group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Guodong; Huang, Weiyun; Song, Yunzhao; Chen, Deben; Zhong, Anyong [Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2013-08-15

    We report a novel method to fabricate fluorescent polymer (F-CPA) based on the esterification between acrylate copolymer (CPA) and fluorescein using N, N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC)/4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as catalyst. The resulting copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, the influences of concentration, solvents, pH and metal cations (Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}) on the fluorescent behaviors of F-CPA are discussed in detail. All those observations suggest that the synthesized F-CPA is an excellent luminescent macromolecular material with simple synthesis method and excellent solubility. Moreover, its sensitive fluorescence response behaviors to solvents, pH and metal cations make it to become a polymer-based probe.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of acrylate copolymer containing fluorescein functional group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Guodong; Huang, Weiyun; Song, Yunzhao; Chen, Deben; Zhong, Anyong

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel method to fabricate fluorescent polymer (F-CPA) based on the esterification between acrylate copolymer (CPA) and fluorescein using N, N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC)/4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as catalyst. The resulting copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, the influences of concentration, solvents, pH and metal cations (Cu"2"+, Fe"3"+ and Zn"2"+) on the fluorescent behaviors of F-CPA are discussed in detail. All those observations suggest that the synthesized F-CPA is an excellent luminescent macromolecular material with simple synthesis method and excellent solubility. Moreover, its sensitive fluorescence response behaviors to solvents, pH and metal cations make it to become a polymer-based probe

  4. Barite formation in the presence of a commercial copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Cristina; Putnis, Christine; Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Putnis, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Fluid composition can significantly modify the mechanisms of mineral formation. Particularly, the presence of organic additives in the aqueous media has been shown to alter the precipitation of minerals substantially (e.g. calcium carbonate, barium carbonate and barium sulfate). Despite the numerous studies dealing with barite precipitation and the influence of organic additives (e.g. Benton et al. 1993, Qi et al., 2000, Wang and Cölfen, 2006, Mavredaki et al., 2011), the details of the mechanism of barite formation in the presence of organic additives, particularly at the early stages of this process, are yet to be fully resolved. Here, we present observations on the initial stages of barite formation from aqueous solutions, as well as the alterations induced by a commercial copolymer (maleic acid/allyl sulfonic acid copolymer with phosphonate groups), commonly used as a scale inhibitor in oil recovery. Most synthetic commercial additives contain the same functional groups (e.g. carboxylate, phosphonate and/or sulfonate groups). Thus our work may help to understand the mechanism by which copolymers modify crystallization processes and aid in the selection of the most appropriate inhibitors for hindering or controlling barite scale formation. Barite scaling is one of the main problems in many industrial processes (such as, paper-making, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, off-shore oil extraction, geothermal energy production). Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), we show that barite growth is significantly influenced by the presence of the copolymer. In its absence, barium sulfate growth occurs by 2D island nucleation and spreading. The addition of small amounts (0.1 ppm and 0.5 ppm) of the copolymer enhances 2D nucleation but blocks growth. Just 1 ppm of inhibitor is enough to block barite nucleation and growth by adsorption of a copolymer layer onto the barite surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used to gain better insights into the

  5. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S; Larson, Steven R; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W; Yager, Kevin G

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ≈2×10^{-8}. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2  μm are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  6. Water state and TEM analysis of Konjac irradiation copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Shengrong; Xia Hezhou; Chen Xueling; Ye Lixiu; Hua Yuejin

    2012-01-01

    To study the absorption performance of Konjac-AA copolymer prepared by irradiation, the water absorbent capacity, sorbent speed and water keeping ability was determined and DSC and TEM analysis were used to explore the water content and structure characters. The results showed that on room temperature the largest water absorption speed was 16 g · g -1 · min -1 at, and the largest water absorption was 400 times at 60 min. The water absorption was affected by granularity, temperature, ion content and ion type, especially the ion type, the water keeping ability was affected by temperature and time, which was up to 35% while the fully water absorbed copolymer was kept under room temperature for 15 d. The free and bounder water content which was assimilated by the plants was 99.617%. The gel stale co polymer has a three-dimensional structure of spiral, which was constituted by spherical objects of varying sizes. (authors)

  7. Radiation degradation of α-substituted acrylate polymers and copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbert, J.N.; Caplan, P.J.; Poindexter, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation degradation is observed in poly(methyl α-chloroacrylate), poly(methyl α-cyanoacrylate), and poly (α-chloroacrylonitrile) homopolymers and their respective MMA copolymers when γ-irradiated in vacuo. Polymer degradation susceptibilities are quantified in terms of G(scission radicals) and G(scission) -- G(crosslinks), measured by EPR and membrane osmometry, respectively; values by these two methods are compared. Higher G(rads) values ranging from 2 to 6 and [G(s) -- G(x)] values ranging from 2 to 11 are obtained for the substituted polymers and copolymers relative to the values for PMMA (1.6; 1.9), a standard e-beam positive resist, which suggests that these modified polymers are more sensitive e-beam resists than PMMA

  8. Room-Temperature-Cured Copolymers for Lithium Battery Gel Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Tigelaar, Dean M.

    2009-01-01

    Polyimide-PEO copolymers (PEO signifies polyethylene oxide) that have branched rod-coil molecular structures and that can be cured into film form at room temperature have been invented for use as gel electrolytes for lithium-ion electric-power cells. These copolymers offer an alternative to previously patented branched rod-coil polyimides that have been considered for use as polymer electrolytes and that must be cured at a temperature of 200 C. In order to obtain sufficient conductivity for lithium ions in practical applications at and below room temperature, it is necessary to imbibe such a polymer with a suitable carbonate solvent or ionic liquid, but the high-temperature cure makes it impossible to incorporate and retain such a liquid within the polymer molecular framework. By eliminating the high-temperature cure, the present invention makes it possible to incorporate the required liquid.

  9. Creating surfactant nanoparticles for block copolymer composites through surface chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoon J; Bang, Joona; Hawker, Craig J; Chiu, Julia J; Pine, David J; Jang, Se Gyu; Yang, Seung-Man; Kramer, Edward J

    2007-12-04

    A simple strategy to tailor the surface of nanoparticles for their specific adsorption to and localization at block copolymer interfaces was explored. Gold nanoparticles coated by a mixture of low molecular weight thiol end-functional polystyrene (PS-SH) (Mn = 1.5 and 3.4 kg/mol) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) homopolymers (P2VP-SH) (Mn = 1.5 and 3.0 kg/mol) were incorporated into a lamellar poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) (Mn = 196 kg/mol). A library of nanoparticles with varying PS and P2VP surface compositions (FPS) and high polymer ligand areal chain densities was synthesized. The location of the nanoparticles in the PS-b-P2VP block copolymer was determined by transmission electron microscopy. Sharp transitions in particle location from the PS domain to the PS/P2VP interface, and subsequently to the P2VP domain, were observed at FPS = 0.9 and 0.1, respectively. This extremely wide window of FPS values where the polymer-coated gold nanoparticles adsorb to the interface suggests a redistribution of PS and P2VP polymers on the Au surface, inducing the formation of amphiphilic nanoparticles at the PS/P2VP interface. In a second and synthetically more challenging approach, gold nanoparticles were covered with a thiol terminated random copolymer of styrene and 2-vinylpyridine synthesized by RAFT polymerization. Two different random copolymers were considered, where the molecular weight was fixed at 3.5 kg/mol and the relative incorporation of styrene and 2-vinylpyridine repeat units varied (FPS = 0.52 and 0.40). The areal chain density of these random copolymers on Au is unfortunately not high enough to preclude any contact between the P2VP block of the block copolymer and the Au surface. Interestingly, gold nanoparticles coated by the random copolymer with FPS = 0.4 were dispersed in the P2VP domain, while those with FPS = 0.52 were located at the interface. A simple calculation for the adsorption energy to the interface of the nanoparticles

  10. Dynamics of interacting edge defects in copolymer lamellae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; McGraw, Joshua D.; Rowe, Ian D. W.

    2011-03-01

    It is known that terraces at the interface of lamella forming diblock copolymers do not make discontinuous jumps in height. Rather, their profiles are smoothly varying. The width of the transition region between two lamellar heights is typically several hundreds of nanometres, resulting from a balance between surface tension, chain stretching penalties, and the enthalpy of mixing. What is less well known in these systems is what happens when two transition regions approach one another. In this study, we show that time dependent experimental data of interacting copolymer lamellar edges is consistent with a model that assumes a repulsion between adjacent edges. The range of the interaction between edge defects is consistent with the profile width of noninteracting diblock terraces. Financial support from NSERC of Canada is gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Copolymers for soft hydrophilic contact lenses: development and investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.W.

    1978-05-01

    Low esters of methacrylic acid which may be polymerized by different methods are used predominantly for producing soft hydrophilic contact lenses. Compounds of the vinyl-type often are added to improve the optical and mechanical qualities. Composition as well as possibilities of polymerization by irradiation were tested so long until copolymers were found which finally allowed the production of soft hydrophilic contact lenses. Swelling characteristics and permeability of the different elastomeres are to be investigated in order to guarantee sufficient compatibility of contact lenses. Contamination of the lens materials by microorganisms is also a point of special interest. The effects on the hydrophilic contact lens-copolymers by different substances used for cleaning and storage solutions have been investigated as well. (author)

  12. Acetate:succinate CoA-transferase in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis: Identification and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W.A. Grinsven; S. Rosnowsky (Silke); S.W.H. van Weelden (Susanne); S. Pütz (Simone); M. van der Giezen (Mark); W. Martin (William); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius); K. Henze (Katrin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcetate:succinate CoA-transferases (ASCT) are acetate-producing enzymes in hydrogenosomes, anaerobically functioning mitochondria and in the aerobically functioning mitochondria of trypanosomatids. Although acetate is produced in the hydrogenosomes of a number of anaerobic microbial

  13. Agro-industrial residues and starch for growth and co-production of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymer and α-amylase by Bacillus sp. CFR-67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Shamala

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA and α-amylase (α-1,4 glucan-4-glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1 were co-produced by Bacillus sp. CFR-67 using unhydrolysed corn starch as a substrate. Bacterial growth and polymer production were enhanced with the supplementation of hydrolysates of wheat bran (WBH or rice bran (RBH individually or in combination (5-20 g L-1, based on weight of soluble substrates-SS. In batch cultivation, a mixture of WBH and RBH (1:1, 10 g L-1 of SS along with ammonium acetate (1.75 g L-1 and corn starch (30 g L-1 produced maximum quantity of biomass (10 g L-1 and PHA (5.9 g L-1. The polymer thus produced was a copolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate of 95:5 to 90:10 mol%. Presence of WBH and corn starch (10-50 g L-1 in the medium enhanced fermentative yield of α-amylase (2-40 U mL-1 min-1. The enzyme was active in a wide range of pH (4-9 and temperature (40-60ºC. This is the first report on simultaneous production of copolymer of bacterial PHA and α-amylase from unhydrolysed corn starch and agro-industrial residues as substrates.

  14. Determination of the linear coefficient of thermal expansion in polymer films at the nanoscale: influence of the composition of EVA copolymers and the molecular weight of PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Benito, J; Castillo, E; Cruz-Caldito, J F

    2015-07-28

    Nanothermal-expansion of poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate), EVA, and poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, in the form of films was measured to finally obtain linear coefficients of thermal expansion, CTEs. The simple deflection of a cantilever in an atomic force microscope, AFM, was used to monitor thermal expansions at the nanoscale. The influences of: (a) the structure of EVA in terms of its composition (vinylacetate content) and (b) the size of PMMA chains in terms of the molecular weight were studied. To carry out this, several polymer samples were used, EVA copolymers with different weight percents of the vinylacetate comonomer (12, 18, 25 and 40%) and PMMA polymers with different weight average molecular weights (33.9, 64.8, 75.600 and 360.0 kg mol(-1)). The dependencies of the vinyl acetate weight fraction of EVA and the molecular weight of PMMA on their corresponding CTEs were analyzed to finally explain them using new, intuitive and very simple models based on the rule of mixtures. In the case of EVA copolymers a simple equation considering the weighted contributions of each comonomer was enough to estimate the final CTE above the glass transition temperature. On the other hand, when the molecular weight dependence is considered the free volume concept was used as novelty. The expansion of PMMA, at least at the nanoscale, was well and easily described by the sum of the weighted contributions of the occupied and free volumes, respectively.

  15. Investigation of some copolymers based on acrylic salts as circulation loss control agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Alsabagh

    2013-12-01

    The prepared copolymers were investigated as loss circulation control materials by measuring different filtration parameters such as; spurt loss, fluid loss and permeability plugging tester value according to the American Petroleum Institute (API standard. From the obtained data, it was found that the 0.6% from the poly[PA-co-AM](0.4:0.6 exhibited the best results of the filtration parameters among the other copolymers. At the same time all the studied copolymers enhanced the rheological properties of the drilling mud. These results were discussed on the light of the swelling capacity of the copolymers.

  16. Molecular architecture of electroactive and biodegradable copolymers composed of polylactide and carboxyl-capped aniline trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baolin; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2010-04-12

    Two-, four-, and six-armed branched copolymers with electroactive and biodegradable properties were synthesized by coupling reactions between poly(l-lactides) (PLLAs) with different architecture and carboxyl-capped aniline trimer (CCAT). The aniline oligomer CCAT was prepared from amino-capped aniline trimer and succinic anhydride. FT-IR, NMR, and SEC analyses confirmed the structure of the branched copolymers. UV-vis spectra and cyclic voltammetry of CCAT and copolymer solution showed good electroactive properties, similar to those of polyaniline. The water contact angle of the PLLAs was the highest, followed by the undoped copolymer and the doped copolymers. The values of doped four-armed copolymers were 54-63 degrees . Thermal properties of the polymers were studied by DSC and TGA. The copolymers had better thermal stability than the pure PLLAs, and the T(g) between 48-58 degrees C and T(m) between 146-177 degrees C of the copolymers were lower than those of the pure PLLA counterparts. This kind of electroactive and biodegradable copolymer has a great potential for applications in cardiovascular or neuronal tissue engineering.

  17. Infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopic studies of low-temperature radiolysis of ethylene - styrene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tseva, A.P.; Golikov, V.P.; Leshchenko, S.S.; Karpov, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    Certain features of low-temperature radiolysis of statistic ethylene-styrene copolymers have been studied by infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy. It is shown that the nature of the accumulation and decay of trans-vinylene, vinyl and vinylidene double bonds in an ethylene-styrene copolymer is essentially influenced by both the dose absorbed and copolymer composition. A suggestion is made that the ethylene-styrene copolymer is formed when structures are irradiated containing double bonds conjugated with the phenyl rings of styrene groups - which more effectively dissipate the absorbed energy than solitary phenyl rings

  18. Thermodynamics of Surfactants, Block Copolymers and Their Mixtures in Water: The Role of the Isothermal Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisi, Rosario; Milioto, Stefania; Muratore, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics of conventional surfactants, block copolymers and their mixtures in water was described to the light of the enthalpy function. The two methodologies, i.e. the van’t Hoff approach and the isothermal calorimetry, used to determine the enthalpy of micellization of pure surfactants and block copolymers were described. The van’t Hoff method was critically discussed. The aqueous copolymer+surfactant mixtures were analyzed by means of the isothermal titration calorimetry and the enthalpy of transfer of the copolymer from the water to the aqueous surfactant solutions. Thermodynamic models were presented to show the procedure to extract straightforward molecular insights from the bulk properties. PMID:19742173

  19. Functional Block Copolymers as Compatibilizers for Nanoclays in Polypropylene Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Stribeck, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of creating tough nanocomposits (NC) [1] based on polypropylene (PP) and nanoclay (NCl) in the framework of the 7th EU program NANOTOUGH we have designed amphiphilic block copolymers utilizing Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) [2]. They consist of a hydrophobic block...... crystallites) is replaced by alien-reinforcement (of the MMT). Furthermore, the results from the impact strength and cyclic test of the prepared PP nanocomposites [3] are promicing....

  20. Rapid transitions between defect configurations in a block copolymer melt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarkova, Larisa; Knoll, Armin; Magerle, Robert

    2006-07-01

    With in situ scanning force microscopy, we image the ordering of cylindrical microdomains in a thin film of a diblock copolymer melt. Tracking the evolution of individual defects reveals elementary steps of defect motion via interfacial undulations and repetitive transitions between distinct defect configurations on a time scale of tens of seconds. The velocity of these transitions suggests a cooperative movement of clusters of chains. The activation energy for the opening/closing of a connection between two cylinders is estimated.