WorldWideScience

Sample records for ethyl methanesulfonate toxicity

  1. Ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we provide an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells.......Here we provide an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis protocol for Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells....

  2. Brahmarasayana protects against Ethyl methanesulfonate or Methyl methanesulfonate induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruprasad Kanive

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Rasayana is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda which refers to rejuvenant therapy. It has been reported that rasayanas have immuno-modulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions, however, the genotoxic potential and modulation of DNA repair of many rasayanas have not been evaluated. Methods The present study assessed the role of Brahmarasayana (BR on Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS-and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS-induced genotoxicity and DNA repair in in vivo mouse test system. The mice were orally fed with BR (5 g or 8 mg / day for two months and 24 h later EMS or MMS was given intraperitoneally. The genotoxicity was analyzed by chromosomal aberrations, sperm count, and sperm abnormalities. Results The results have revealed that BR did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control animals (p >0.05. On the other hand, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240 mg / kg body weight or MMS (125 mg / kg body weight were significantly higher (p Conclusion The effect of BR, as it relates to antioxidant activity was not evident in liver tissue however rasayana treatment was observed to increase constitutive DNA base excision repair and reduce clastogenicity. Whilst, the molecular mechanisms of such repair need further exploration, this is the first report to demonstrate these effects and provides further evidence for the role of brahmarasayana in the possible improvement of quality of life.

  3. Molecular dosimetry of the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeland, A.A. van; Aaron, C.S.; Mohn, G.R.; Hung, C.Y.; Brockman, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Extending previous work with E. coli and mammalian cells in culture, forward-mutation frequencies induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were quantitatively compared in Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae under standardized conditions. Concomitantly, the actual dose to DNA was measured by determining the amount of radioactivity bound to DNA after treatment with tritium-labeled EMS. After exposure to EMS (2.5-50 mM), alkylation levels in N. crassa and S. cerevisiae were similar to those previously determined in E. coli and cultured mammalian cells. Consistently, there was a slightly less than proportional increase of the DNA alkylation level with the exposure concentration of the mutagen. Forward mutagenesis induced in yeast and N. crassa showed exponential kinetics with exponents of 1.5 and 2.6, respectively. These results are similar to those previously reported with E. coli, which differed from the results with cultured mammalian cells, where a linear dose-effect relationship between exposure and genetic effect was observed. These differences may reflect differences in the fate of EMS-induced adducts by cellular DNA repair systems, but are not due to initial differences in DNA alkylation levels. The fate and persistence of specific DNA adducts potentially responsible for pre-mutagenic changes are under investigation. (orig.)

  4. Description of Phaseolus vulgaris L. aborting embryos from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS mutagenized plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silué, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the embryos abortion process and the inheritance of the embryos abortion trait in Phaseolus vulgaris plants deficient in seed development. These plants were isolated within the second generation of an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS TILLING population of P. vulgaris cv. 'BAT93'. Mutant embryos show abnormalities mainly in suspensors, shoot apical meristem (SAM and cotyledons from the globular to the cotyledon stages and abort before maturity compared to those observed in wild-type samples. Mutant embryos show also hyperhydricity and contain low amount of chlorophyll. Genetic analyses of F1, F2 and F3 populations from the crosses carried out between the mutagenized plants with aborting embryos and the wild-type plants indicated that the embryo abortion phenotype is maternally inherited and controlled by a single recessive gene. These Phaseolus mutant plants with aborting embryos constitute a valuable material for plant embryogenesis studies.

  5. DNA polymerase III of Escherichia coli is required for UV and ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagensee, M.E.; Timme, T.L.; Bryan, S.K.; Moses, R.E.

    1987-06-01

    Strains of Escherichia coli possessing the pcbA1 mutation, a functional DNA polymerase I, and a temperature-sensitive mutation in DNA polymerase III can survive at the restrictive temperature (43 degrees C) for DNA polymerase III. The mutation rate of the bacterial genome of such strains after exposure to either UV light or ethyl methanesulfonate was measured by its rifampicin resistance or amino acid requirements. In addition, Weigle mutagenesis of preirradiated lambda phage was also measured. In all cases, no increase in mutagenesis was noted at the restrictive temperature for DNA polymerase III. Introduction of a cloned DNA polymerase III gene returned the mutation rate of the bacterial genome as well as the Weigle mutagenesis to normal at 43 degrees C. Using a recA-lacZ fusion, the SOS response after UV irradiation was measured and found to be normal at the restrictive and permissive temperature for DNA polymerase III, as was induction of lambda prophage. Recombination was also normal at either temperature. Our studies demonstrate that a functional DNA polymerase III is strictly required for mutagenesis at a step other than SOS induction.

  6. Effects of growth temperature and caffeine on genetic responses of Candida albicans to ethyl methanesulfonate, nitrous acid and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarachek, A.; Bish, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is more effective than either ethyl methanesulfonate or nitrous acid in inducing reverse mutation from auxotrophy to prototrophy in C. albicans. The killing effect of each of the mutagens is greater for cells grown at 37 C than at 25 C after treatment; mutation frequencies are unaffected by post-treatment growth temperatures. Though caffeine depresses survival of mutagen treated cells at both 25 C or 37 C, its effect is more pronounced at 37 C. Caffeine has no effect on mutagenesis by nitrous acid or ethyl methanesulfonate; it depresses UV mutagenesis, but only at 37 C and at high UV dosages. These findings indicate that UV mutagenesis in C. albicans is mediated by a caffeine-sensitive, recombinational system for DNA repair analogous to those known to occur in other species of yeast. The repair of C. albicans is unique in being susceptible to caffeine only at high temperature and when the number of DNA lesions to be repaired is large. The caffeine sensitive steps in repair critical to UV mutagenesis are not involved in fixing mutations induced by the chemical mutagens tested

  7. Next-Gen Sequencing-Based Mapping and Identification of Ethyl Methanesulfonate-Induced Mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Millet, Yves; Ausubel, Frederick M; Borowsky, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Forward genetic analysis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis has proven to be a powerful tool in biological research, but identification and cloning of causal mutations by conventional genetic mapping approaches is a painstaking process. Recent advances in next-gen sequencing have greatly invigorated the process of identifying EMS-induced mutations corresponding to a specific phenotype in model genetic hosts, including the plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Next-gen sequencing of bulked F2 mutant recombinants produces a wealth of high-resolution genetic data, provides enhanced delimitation of the genomic location of mutations, and greatly reduces hands-on time while maintaining high accuracy and reproducibility. In this unit, a detailed procedure to simultaneously map and identify EMS mutations in Arabidopsis is described. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Fetal anomalies produced subsequent to treatment of zygotes with ethylene oxide or ethyl methanesulfonate are not likely due to the usual genetic causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, M; Cacheiro, N L; Cornett, C V; Cain, K T; Rutledge, J C; Generoso, W M

    1989-02-01

    Earlier studies in this laboratory revealed that ethylene oxide (EtO) or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced high frequencies of midgestation and late fetal deaths, and of malformations among some of the surviving fetuses, when female mice were exposed at the time of fertilization of their eggs or during the early pronuclear stage of the zygote. Effects of the two mutagens are virtually identical. Thus, in investigating the mechanisms responsible for the dramatic effects in the early pronuclear zygotes, the two compounds were used interchangeably in the experiments. First, a reciprocal zygote-transfer study was conducted in order to determine whether the effect is directly on the zygotes or indirectly through maternal toxicity. And second, cytogenetic analyses of pronuclear metaphases, early cleavage embryos, and midgestation fetuses were carried out. The zygote transplantation experiment rules out maternal toxicity as a factor in the fetal maldevelopment. Together with the strict stage specificity observed in the earlier studies, this result points to a genetic cause for the abnormalities. However, the cytogenetic studies failed to show structural or numerical chromosome aberrations. Since intragenic base changes and deletions may also be ruled out, it appears that the lesions in question induced in zygotes by the two mutagens are different from conventional ones and, therefore, could be a novel one in experimental mammalian mutagenesis. Alternatively, the mechanism could involve a non-mutational 'imprinting' process that caused changes in gene expression.

  9. Novel ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS-induced null alleles of the Drosophila homolog of LRRK2 reveal a crucial role in endolysosomal functions and autophagy in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Dodson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in LRRK2 cause a dominantly inherited form of Parkinson’s disease (PD and are the most common known genetic determinant of PD. Inhibitor-based therapies targeting LRRK2 have emerged as a key therapeutic strategy in PD; thus, understanding the consequences of inhibiting the normal cellular functions of this protein is vital. Despite much interest, the physiological functions of LRRK2 remain unclear. Several recent studies have linked the toxicity caused by overexpression of pathogenic mutant forms of LRRK2 to defects in the endolysosomal and autophagy pathways, raising the question of whether endogenous LRRK2 might play a role in these processes. Here, we report the characterization of multiple novel ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS-induced nonsense alleles in the Drosophila LRRK2 homolog, lrrk. Using these alleles, we show that lrrk loss-of-function causes striking defects in the endolysosomal and autophagy pathways, including the accumulation of markedly enlarged lysosomes that are laden with undigested contents, consistent with a defect in lysosomal degradation. lrrk loss-of-function also results in the accumulation of autophagosomes, as well as the presence of enlarged early endosomes laden with mono-ubiquitylated cargo proteins, suggesting an additional defect in lysosomal substrate delivery. Interestingly, the lysosomal abnormalities in these lrrk mutants can be suppressed by a constitutively active form of the small GTPase rab9, which promotes retromer-dependent recycling from late endosomes to the Golgi. Collectively, our data provides compelling evidence of a vital role for lrrk in lysosomal function and endolysosomal membrane transport in vivo, and suggests a link between lrrk and retromer-mediated endosomal recycling.

  10. Novel ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced null alleles of the Drosophila homolog of LRRK2 reveal a crucial role in endolysosomal functions and autophagy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Mark W; Leung, Lok K; Lone, Mohiddin; Lizzio, Michael A; Guo, Ming

    2014-12-01

    Mutations in LRRK2 cause a dominantly inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are the most common known genetic determinant of PD. Inhibitor-based therapies targeting LRRK2 have emerged as a key therapeutic strategy in PD; thus, understanding the consequences of inhibiting the normal cellular functions of this protein is vital. Despite much interest, the physiological functions of LRRK2 remain unclear. Several recent studies have linked the toxicity caused by overexpression of pathogenic mutant forms of LRRK2 to defects in the endolysosomal and autophagy pathways, raising the question of whether endogenous LRRK2 might play a role in these processes. Here, we report the characterization of multiple novel ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced nonsense alleles in the Drosophila LRRK2 homolog, lrrk. Using these alleles, we show that lrrk loss-of-function causes striking defects in the endolysosomal and autophagy pathways, including the accumulation of markedly enlarged lysosomes that are laden with undigested contents, consistent with a defect in lysosomal degradation. lrrk loss-of-function also results in the accumulation of autophagosomes, as well as the presence of enlarged early endosomes laden with mono-ubiquitylated cargo proteins, suggesting an additional defect in lysosomal substrate delivery. Interestingly, the lysosomal abnormalities in these lrrk mutants can be suppressed by a constitutively active form of the small GTPase rab9, which promotes retromer-dependent recycling from late endosomes to the Golgi. Collectively, our data provides compelling evidence of a vital role for lrrk in lysosomal function and endolysosomal membrane transport in vivo, and suggests a link between lrrk and retromer-mediated endosomal recycling. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Chromosomal analysis in mouse eggs fertilized in vitro with sperm exposed to ultraviolet light (UV) and methyl and ethyl methanesulfonate (MMS and EMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.

    1988-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations were analyzed at the first-cleavage metaphase of mouse eggs fertilized in vitro with sperm exposed to ultraviolet light (UV) as well as to methyl and ethyl methanesulfonate (MMS and EMS). The frequencies of chromosome aberrations markedly increased with dose of UV as well as with concentration of MMS and EMS. In the UV-irradiation group, the frequency of chromosome-type aberrations was much higher than that of chromatid-type aberrations. About 90% of chromosome aberrations observed in the eggs following MMS and EMS treatment to sperm were chromosome type in which the frequency of chromosome fragments was the highest. The effects of UV on the induction of chromosome aberrations were clearly potentiated by post-treatment incubation of fertilized eggs in the presence of Ara-C or caffeine, but the effects of MMS and EMS were not pronounced by post-treatment of Ara-C or caffeine. The results indicate a possibility that UV damage induced in mouse sperm DNA is reparable in the eggs during the period between the entry of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and the first-cleavage metaphase. 35 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. Autoradiographic detection of mutation to exotoxin-A resistance in mouse fibroblasts treated with ethyl methanesulfonate, X-rays and ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiah, M.; Ronen, A.

    1989-01-01

    P. aeruginosa exotoxin-A (PE) blocks protein synthesis in mammalian cells by inactivating elongation factor 2 (EF-2). Toxin-resistant mutant cells can be detected autoradioraphically, in cultures grown on microscope coverslips in the presence of PE, and exposed to [ 3 H]leucine. The frequency of PE-resistant cells detected by the autoradiographic assay in non-mutagenized cells of the established mouse cell line LTKA is 9.7 j 0.6 x 10 -5 . Upon treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), X-rays of ultraviolet (UV) light it increases in a dose-dependent fashion. The mutational nature of the resistance detected by the assay is indicated by its clonal inheritance, and by the dose-dependent increase in the frequency of resistant cells after utagenesis. On the basis of the high frequency of PE-resistant cells detected by the autoradiographic assay, and their cross-resistance to diphteria toxin (DT), the authors suggest that the PE-resistant mutants detected by the autoradiographic assay are of class II, i.e., they are altered in the structural gene for EF-2. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. COMPARATIVE ACUTE TOXICITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS-ETHYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR OKEY

    disintegration and low toxicity to birds and mammals (Maud et ... banned in some developed countries, are still being heavily used in Africa, and particularly in Nigeria. Multinational. Corporations continue to market banned products in.

  14. Reichardt's dye and its reactions with the alkylating agents 4-chloro-1-butanol, ethyl methanesulfonate, 1-bromobutane and Fast Red B - a potentially useful reagent for the detection of genotoxic impurities in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Damion K; Whitcombe, Michael J; McCrossen, Sean; Piletsky, Sergey

    2009-04-01

    Alkylating agents are potentially genotoxic impurities that may be present in drug products. These impurities occur in pharmaceuticals as by-products from the synthetic steps involved in drug production, as impurities in starting materials or from in-situ reactions that take place in the final drug product. Currently, analysis for genotoxic impurities is typically carried out using either HPLC/MS or GC/MS. These techniques require specialist expertise, have long analysis times and often use sample clean-up procedures. Reichardt's dye is well known for its solvatochromic properties. In this paper the dye's ability to undergo alkylation is reported. The reaction between Reichardt's dye and alkylating agents such as 4-chloro-1-butanol and ethyl methanesulfonate was monitored spectrophotometrically at 618 nm in acetonitrile and 624 nm in N,N-dimethylformamide. Changes in absorption were observed using low levels of alkylating agent (5-10 parts per million). Alkylation of the dye with 4-chloro-1-butanol and ethyl methanesulfonate was confirmed. Reichardt's dye, and its changing UV absorption, was examined in the presence of paracetamol (10 and 100 mg/ml). Whilst the alkylation-induced changes in UV absorption were not as pronounced as with standard solutions, detection of alkylation was still possible. Using standard solutions and in the presence of a drug matrix, Reichardt's dye shows promise as a reagent for detection of low levels of industrially important alkylating agents.

  15. Diisopropylammonium methanesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido J. Reiss

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title molecular salt, C6H16N+·CH3SO3−, has been determined at 150 K. Two diisopropylammonium cations (dipH and two anions form N—H...O hydrogen-bonded cyclic dimers lying around centers of symmetry. Only two of the three O atoms of the methanesulfonate anion are involved in hydrogen bonding, resulting in slightly longer S—O bond lengths. The title structure represents an example of a sulfonate anion that is part of a hydrogen-bonding R44(12 graph-set motif, which is well known for related dipH acetates. Additionally, the Raman and the IR spectroscopic data for the title compound are presented.

  16. Safety evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract on irradiated tea parasite: Acute toxicity study on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of the pharmacological efficacy of tea parasite and the use of ionizing radiation for decontamination of microbes and extending shelf life have been reported, but there is no information on its safety, such as the acute toxicity. In this study, the acute toxicity of two ethyl acetate extracts from unirradiated and irradiated (irradiation dose of 10 kGy) tea parasites Scurrula atropurpurea on Swiss Webster mice have been examined. The observation was done after the treatment of a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract in various dose groups, i.e.: control (0 g/kg of mice body weight), D1 (0.625 g/kg), D2 (1.25 g/kg), D3 (2.5 g/kg) D4 (5 g/kg), D5 (10 g/kg) by observing the effect on behavioral response (pharmacological profile), the body weight gains and mortality until the day 14 th . At the last day, the observation of vital organs has also been done. The result showed that no acute toxicity was found in mice treated with a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated tea parasite and irradiated tea parasite at the dose of 10 kGy. At the dose up to 10 g/kg (equivalent to 77.6 g of extract which administered to human), the normal body weight gains were observed in mice of all dose groups, no mice deaths in any of the dose groups, and no significant change (p > 0.05) in organ weights relative to the body weight i.e.: liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, heart, testes and seminal vesicle (for male), and ovaries and uterus (for female). The approximate lethal doses for male and female mice were determined to be higher than 10 g/kg of mice body weight. It is suggested that the treatment of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated and irradiated tea parasites until dose up to 10 g/kg of mice body weight was still safe. (author)

  17. Drosophila mutations at the mei-9 and mus(2)201 loci which block excision of thymine dimers also block induction of unscheluded DNA synthesis by methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, UV light and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusenbery, R.L.; McCormick, S.C.; Smith, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    The mei-9 and mus(2)201 mutants of Drosophila melanogaster were identified as mutagen-sensitive mutants on the basis of larval hypersensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate and characterized as excision repair-deficient on the basis of a greatly reduced capacity to excise thymine dimers from cellular DNA. The high degree of larval cytotoxicity observed with a variety of other chemical and physical agents indicated that these mutants may be unable to excise other important classes of DNA adducts. We have measured the ability of the single mutants and the double mutant combination mei-9;mus(2)201 to perform the resynthesis step in excision repair by means of an autoradiographic analysis of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced in a mixed population of primary cells in culture. The 3 strains exhibit no detectable UDS activity in response to applied doses of 1.5-6.0 mM methyl methanesulfonate, 1.0-4.5 nM N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or 10-40 J/m 2 254-nm UV light, dose ranges in which control cells exhibit a strong dose-dependent UDS response. The mei-9 and mei-9;mus(2)201 mutants also have no detectable UDS response to X-ray doses of 300-1.800 rad, whereas the mus(2)201 mutant exhibits a reduced, but dose-dependent, response over this range. These data correlate well with the degree of larval hypersensitivity of the strains and suggest that mutations at both loci block the excision repair of a wide variety of DNA damage prior to the resynthesis step. (orig.)

  18. Comparative toxicity of tetra ethyl lead and lead oxide to earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswara Rao, J.; Kavitha, P.; Padmanabha Rao, A.

    2003-01-01

    Leaded gasoline contains tetra ethyl lead (TEL) as an antiknocking agent, which produces major amounts of lead oxide in automobile exhaust along with traces of TEL. To minimize the lead contamination, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is used as a substitute for producing unleaded gasoline. It has become increasingly apparent that young children are highly susceptible to the harmful effects of lead. Hence, a study was carried out to monitor lead toxicity in soil, using adult earthworms (Eisenia fetida, Savigny). Leaded gasoline (TEL) and lead oxide are 383- and 211-fold more toxic than unleaded gasoline (MTBE) in 7 days of exposure and 627- and 290-fold more toxic in 14 days, respectively. Results indicate that the presence of TEL in leaded gasoline and lead oxide has a significant effect on behavior, morphology, and histopathology of earthworms. Absorption of TEL into the tissues is comparatively less than that of lead oxide but toxic effects were severe. Rupture of the cuticle, extrusion of coelomic fluid and inflexible metameric segmentation were observed, causing desensitization of the posterior region leading to fragmentation in earthworms

  19. Acute toxicity profiling of the ethyl acetate fraction of Swietenia macrophylla seeds and in-vitro neuroprotectio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustak Sayyad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Swietenia macrophylla (SM is a medicinally important plant found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of S. macrophylla (SMEAF is reported to exhibit potent anticancer, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antifeedant activities. Till date, there have been no studies reported on the acute oral toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate fraction of the seeds of SM. The objective of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of SMEAF and evaluate the in-vitro neuroprotective activity of SMEAF using primary neuronal cell cultures. In acute oral toxicity study, the SMEAF did not produce any lethal signs of morbidity and mortality. Histo-pathological findings, support the safety of SMEAF, as there were no significant changes observed in any of the parameters studied. Based on the results obtained in MTT assay, we infer that SMEAF has a significant neuroprotective effect, as it increased the cell viability and exhibited protection to the neuronal cells against TBHP induced oxidative stress. Thus, SMEAF can be suggested for use in the development of herbal drug formulations with neuroprotective potential.

  20. Toxic Effects of Ethyl Cinnamate on the Photosynthesis and Physiological Characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Flow Cytometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Ouyang, Hui-Ling; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Yang, Bin; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2015-01-01

    The toxic effects of ethyl cinnamate on the photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris were studied based on chlorophyll fluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. Parameters, including biomass, F v/F m (maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII), ФPSII (actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light), FDA, and PI staining fluorescence, were measured. The results showed the following: (1) The inhibition on biomass increased as the exposure concentration increased. 1 mg/L ethyl cinnamate was sufficient to reduce the total biomass of C. vulgaris. The 48-h and 72-h EC50 values were 2.07 mg/L (1.94–2.20) and 1.89 mg/L (1.82–1.97). (2) After 24 h of exposure to 2–4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris almost ceased, manifesting in ФPSII being close to zero. After 72 h of exposure to 4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the F v/F m of C. vulgaris dropped to zero. (3) Ethyl cinnamate also affected the cellular physiology of C. vulgaris, but these effects resulted in the inhibition of cell yield rather than cell death. Exposure to ethyl cinnamate resulted in decreased esterase activities in C. vulgaris, increased average cell size, and altered intensities of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Overall, esterase activity was the most sensitive variable. PMID:26101784

  1. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure (R)- and (S)-2-sulfanylpropanoic acids (‘thiolactic acid’) from ethyl (S)-lactate using pig liver esterase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Robert P.; Kellogg, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    The methanesulfonates of optically pure ethyl (S)-lactate or ethyl (R)-2-chloropropanoate 5, obtained with inversion of configuration from ethyl (S)-lactate on treatment with SOCl2, can be substituted by caesium thiolates with inversion of configuration to yield (R) and (S) ethyl

  2. SYNTHESIS OF ENANTIOMERICALLY PURE (R)-2-SULFANYLPROPANOIC AND (S)-2-SULFANYLPROPANOIC ACIDS (THIOLACTIC ACID) FROM ETHYL (S)-LACTATE USING PIG-LIVER ESTERASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOF, RP; KELLOGG, RM

    1995-01-01

    The methanesulfonates of optically pure ethyl (S)-lactate or ethyl (R)-2-chloropropanoate 5, obtained with inversion of configuration from ethyl (S)-lactate on treatment with SOCl2, can be substituted by caesium thiolates with inversion of configuration to yield (R) and (S) ethyl

  3. Compound list: imatinib, methanesulfonate salt [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available imatinib, methanesulfonate salt IMA 00186 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-t...ggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/imatinib%2C_methanesulfonate_salt.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  4. Scaling-Up Ionic Liquid-Based Technologies: How Much Do We Care About Their Toxicity? Prima Facie Information on 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadjoo, Shaghayegh; Berton, Paula; Shamshina, Julia L; Rogers, Robin D

    2018-02-01

    The potential of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) to dissolve a variety of biopolymers such as cellulose and chitin, makes it an attractive candidate for scaled-up industrial utilization. In fact, the first steps towards its use at industrial scale have been taken. This increases the urgency to fill the knowledge gaps in its toxicity and environmental impact in order to predict and control its environmental fate. In this mini-review, we discuss the available literature surrounding this key IL. The literature (through the analysis of toxicity of the anion and the cation separately) suggests that [C2mim][OAc] is a relatively safe choice for industrial applications. However, because the IL should be considered as a compound, with unique properties arising from the interactions between the ions, comprehensive toxicity information for this particular IL is still required. To decide, prima facie, if this IL is toxic or not, evaluation of its influence on human health and ecotoxicity is needed prior to its large scale utilization. We chose in this mini-review to focus on toxicity surrounding this IL and evaluate what is known and what is not. Here with all the information in hand, we hope that the urgent need for [C2mim][OAc] toxicological assessment before it can be used in numerous technologies is highlighted. In the near future, we expect that the assessment of toxicity and environmental fate and impact can be integrated directly into any research into the industrial utilization of this IL and any others contemplated for industrial application. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Safety of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administered as DHA ethyl ester in a 9-month toxicity study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Irina; Beilstein, Paul; Bonnette, Kimberly; Salem, Norman

    2016-06-01

    DHA Ethyl Ester (DHA-EE) is a 90% concentrated ethyl ester of docosahexaenoic acid manufactured from the microalgal oil. The objective of the 9-month study was to evaluate safety of DHA-EE administered to beagle dogs at dose levels 150, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day by oral gavage and to determine reversibility of any findings after a 2-month recovery period. DHA-EE was well tolerated at all doses. There were observations of dry flaky skin with occasional reddened areas at doses ≥1000 mg/kg bw/day. These findings lacked any microscopic correlate and were no longer present after the recovery period. There were no toxicologically relevant findings in body weights, body weight gains, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, and ECG measurements. Test article-related changes in hematology parameters were limited to decreases in reticulocyte count in the high-dose males and considered non-adverse. In clinical chemistry parameters, dose-related decreases in cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed at all doses in males and females and attributed to the known lipid-lowering effects of DHA. There were no effects on other clinical chemistry, urinalysis or coagulation parameters. There were no abnormal histopathology findings attributed to test article. The No-Observable-Adverse-Effect Level of DHA-EE was established at 2000 mg/kg bw/day for both genders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity of ethyl acetate extract from Jatropha gossypifolia senescent leaves against Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumrungsee, N; Pluempanupat, W; Kainoh, Y; Saguanpong, U; Bullangpotin, V

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the insecticidal effects of Thai botanical, senescent leaf Jatropha gossypifolia extracts on second instar Spodoptera exigua larvae by the dipping method and topical sprayer method. The leaf crude extract was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with ethyl acetate as solvent. The leaf crude extracts showed insecticidal activity with a LC50 of 6182 ppm at 24 hours after treatment. In addition, this research was observed its toxicity to worm parasitoid, Meteorus pulchricornis by contact method. The result shows 60 percent mortality of this parasitoid species at dose up to 40,000 ppm. Thus, Jatropha gossypifolia leaf crude extracts can be as alternative IPM control tool for Spodoptera exigua which friendly to benefit insect such as Meteorus pulchricornis.

  7. Acute And Subchronic Toxicity Studies Of SNEDDS (Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems) From Ethyl Acetate Extract Of Bay Leaf (Eugenia polyantha W.) with Virgin Coconut Oil As Oil Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihapsara, F.; Alamsyah, R. I.; Widiyani, T.; Artanti, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Bay leaf (Eugenia polyantha) is widely used as an alternative therapy for diabetic and hypercholesterol. However, the administration of the extract has a low oral bioavailability, therefore it is prepared by Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SNEDDS) ethyl acetate extract of bay leaf. Therefore, acute and subchronic toxicity test is required. The toxicity test performed was an experimental study, including acute and subchronic toxicity tests. Animal experiments were used using Wistar strain rats. Acute toxicity test using 5 groups (n=5) consisted of 1 control group and 4 groups of SNEDDS dose with 48 mg/kgBW 240 mg/kg, 1200 mg/kg, and 6000 mg/kg, while for subchronic toxicity test with 1 group control and 3 groups of doses of SNEDDS with dose group variation 91.75 mg/kgBW, 183.5 mg/kg, and 367 mg/kg. Duration of observation at acute toxicity test for 14 days while for subcronic toxicity test for 28 days with continuous SNEDDS dosage. The results of the acute toxicity test showed toxic symptoms and obtained median lethal dose (LD50) values from SNEDDS from ethyl acetate extract of bay leaf 1409.30 mg/kgBW belonging to slightly toxic category. Subchronic toxicity studies show that the test drug has minor damage in liver and kidneys and moderate damage in pancreas.

  8. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE, MS-222) BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid eithyl ester methanesulfonate, tricaine, MS-222, Finquel), an anesthetic for fish, has been used extensively in aquatic toxicology to allow surgical procedures for in vivo studies and to permit in vitro preparations of isolated perfu...

  9. Phenylbutyrate inhibits homologous recombination induced by camptothecin and methyl methanesulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Gitte Schalck; Germann, Susanne Manuela; Westergaard, Tine

    2011-01-01

    (CPT) and the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is blocked by sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In particular, PBA suppresses CPT- and MMS-induced genetic recombination as well as DNA double-strand break repair during mating-type interconversion...

  10. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  11. Use of Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS222) for Euthanasia of Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, CJ; Papenfuss, T; Parker, J; Hahn, NE

    2009-01-01

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) injected into the intracoelomic cavity of reptiles was evaluated as a chemical euthanasia method. Three western fence lizards, 2 desert iguanas, 4 garter snakes, and 6 geckos were euthanized by intracoelomic injection of 250 to 500 mg/kg of 0.7% to 1% sodium-bicarbonate–buffered MS222 solution followed by intracoelomic injection of 0.1 to 1.0 ml unbuffered 50% (v/v) MS222 solution. A simple 2-stage protocol for euthanasia of reptiles by using MS222 is outlined. In addition, the conditions for safe use of MS222 are discussed. MS222 offers an alternative to sodium pentobarbital for euthanasia of reptiles. PMID:19245747

  12. endo-3,3-Dimethyl-4-oxobicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2-yl methanesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Kremer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relative configuration of the endo isomer of the title compound, C9H14O4S, has been established and the conformation of the diastereoisomer is discussed. The five-membered ring adopts an envelope conformation. The conformation of the methanesulfonate substituent is stabilized by intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The crystal packing results in alternating layers of polar methanesulfonates and stacked bicyclohexanyl rings parallel to ab.

  13. Toxicity and DNA damage in tobacco and potato plants growing on soil polluted with heavy metals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gichner, Tomáš; Patková, Zdeňka; Száková, J.; Demnerová, K.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2006), s. 420-426 ISSN 0147-6513 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/05/0500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cd * Comet assay * Cu * Ethyl methanesulfonate * Single cell gel electrophoresis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2006

  14. Phenylbutyrate inhibits homologous recombination induced by camptothecin and methyl methanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Gitte S; Germann, Susanne M; Westergaard, Tine; Lisby, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Homologous recombination is accompanied by extensive changes to chromatin organization at the site of DNA damage. Some of these changes are mediated through acetylation/deacetylation of histones. Here, we show that recombinational repair of DNA damage induced by the anti-cancer drug camptothecin (CPT) and the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) is blocked by sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In particular, PBA suppresses CPT- and MMS-induced genetic recombination as well as DNA double-strand break repair during mating-type interconversion. Treatment with PBA is accompanied by a dramatic reduction in histone H4 lysine 8 acetylation. Live cell imaging of homologous recombination proteins indicates that repair of CPT-induced DNA damage is redirected to a non-recombinogenic pathway in the presence of PBA without loss in cell viability. In contrast, the suppression of MMS-induced recombination by PBA is accompanied by a dramatic loss in cell viability. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PBA inhibits DNA damage-induced homologous recombination likely by mediating changes in chromatin acetylation. Moreover, the combination of PBA with genotoxic agents can lead to different cell fates depending on the type of DNA damage inflicted. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of bacterial blight resistance in elite Indian rice cultivars using gamma-rays and ethyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, P.K.; Gosal, S.S.; Sidhu, G.S.

    2001-01-01

    Rice is the most important cereal crop in the world feeding more than 50 percent of the human population. During the last 30 years, induced mutation breeding has played a significant role in rice breeding programmes. Rice mutants with higher yield, greater tolerance to diseases and pests and other agronomic qualities have been released for commercial cultivation in many countries. Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the second important disease in Southeast Asia. In the Basmati field sometime the yield loss is up to 100%. Moreover, there is no resistance source available. In Basmati rice, which is known for its quality and aroma. Induction of bacterial blight resistance in Basmati will help in developing high yielding Basmati type cultivars without compromising the quality

  16. 2-{N-[(2,3,4,9-Tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-3-ylmethyl]methylsulfonamido}ethyl methanesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Göçmentürk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H24N2O5S2, the indole ring system is nearly planar [maximum deviation = 0.032 (1 Å] and the cyclohexene ring has a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a chain running along the b-axis direction. Weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...π interactions are observed between the chains.

  17. Acute toxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and permethrin to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei =Toxicidade aguda de pirazossulfurom-etílico e permethrin em juvenis de camarão branco Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lemos de Mello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the LC50 (96h of two pesticides: SiriusR 250 SC herbicide of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl group, and TalcordR insecticide of the permethrin group, on juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp total hemocyte count (THC was also determined as an indication of physiological alterations caused by the pesticides. Juvenile shrimp (5.0 } 0.5 g were exposed to the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 ƒÊg L-1 SiriusR 250 SC; and 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 ƒÊg L-1 TalcordR. The TalcordR LC50 (96h was of 0.00933 ƒÊg L-1 or 9.33 ng L-1. There were no significant changes in the THC between control and test groups. No SiriusR 250 SC concentrations tested killed more than 50%of the shrimp; therefore, the herbicide was considered not toxic to the juveniles. However, the THC showed significant differences between the control and test groups, suggesting sublethal effects to L. vannamei juveniles. According to the results, the insecticide TalcordR is highly lethal for L. vannamei and the herbicide SiriusR 250 SC was not lethal in the concentrations tested but showed sublethal effects as lower THC. The results demonstrate the risks involved in farming L. vannamei shrimp near rice cultures where these pesticides are routinely used.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a CL50 (96h dos agroquimicos SiriusR 250 SC, herbicida a base de pirazossulfurom-etilico, e TalcordR, inseticida a base de permethrin, em juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei, bem como avaliar possiveis alteracoes fisiologicas por meio da contagem total de hemocitos (CTH dos camaroes. Juvenis de L. vannamei (5,0 } 0,5 g foram expostos as seguintes concentracoes dos agroquimicos: SiriusR 250 SC, 0; 0,1; 1; 10; 100 e 1.000 ƒÊg L-1, e TalcordR, 0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 1 e 10 ƒÊg L-1. A CL50 (96h do inseticida TalcordR foi de 0,00933 ƒÊg L-1 ou 9,33 ng L-1. Nao houve alteracoes significativas da CTH entre as medias dos grupos

  18. Isolation and characterization of two new methanesulfonic acid-degrading bacterial isolates from a Portuguese soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, P; Murrell, J C; Bordalo, A A; Moradas-Ferreira, P

    2000-02-01

    Two novel bacterial strains that can utilize methanesulfonic acid as a source of carbon and energy were isolated from a soil sample collected in northern Portugal. Morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular biological characterization of the two isolates indicate that strain P1 is a pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph belonging to the genus Methylobacterium, while strain P2 is a restricted methylotroph belonging to the genus Hyphomicrobium. Both strains are strictly aerobic, degrade methanesulfonate, and release small quantities of sulfite into the medium. Growth on methanesulfonate induces a specific polypeptide profile in each strain. This, together with the positive hybridization to a DNA probe that carries the msm genes of Methylosulfonomonas methylovora strain M2, strongly endorses the contention that a methanesulfonic acid monooxygenase related to that found in the previously known methanesulfonate-utilizing bacteria is present in strains P1 and P2. The isolation of bacteria containing conserved msm genes from diverse environments and geographical locations supports the hypothesis that a common enzyme may be globally responsible for the oxidation of methanesulfonate by natural methylotrophic communities.

  19. Internal structure, hydroscopic and reactive properties of mixed sodium methanesulfonate-sodium chloride particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, Y.; Minofar, Babak; Desyaterik, Y.; Dames, E.; Zhu, Z.; Cain, J. P.; Hopkins, R. J.; Gilles, M. K.; Wang, H.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Laskin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 25 (2011), s. 11846-11857 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME09062 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : sodium methanesulfonate particles * air/water interface * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  20. Induction of innate immune gene expression following methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage in sea urchins

    OpenAIRE

    Reinardy, H. C.; Chapman, J.; Bodnar, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Sea urchins are noted for the absence of neoplastic disease and represent a novel model to investigate cellular and systemic cancer protection mechanisms. Following intracoelomic injection of the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate, DNA damage was detected in sea urchin cells and tissues (coelomocytes, muscle, oesophagus, ampullae and gonad) by the alkaline unwinding, fast micromethod. Gene expression analyses of the coelomocytes indicated upregulation of innate immune markers, inclu...

  1. Inactivation of ultraviolet repair in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cells by methyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Excision repair of ultraviolet damage in the DNA of normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (Groups C, D, and variant) cells was inactivated by exposure of cells to methyl methanesulfonate immediately before irradiation independent of the presence of 0 to 10% fetal calf serum. The inactivation could be represented by a semilog relationship between the amount of repair and methyl methanesulfonate concentration up to approximately 5 mM. The inactivation can be considered to occur as the result of alkylation of a large (about 10(6) daltons) repair enzyme complex, and the dose required to reduce repair to 37% for most cells types was between 4 and 7 mM. No consistent, large difference in sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate was found in any xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group compared to normal cells, implying that reduced repair in these groups may be caused by small inherited changes in the amino acid composition (i.e., point mutations or small deletions) rather than by losses of major components of the repair enzyme complex

  2. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. 584.200 Section 584.200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS...

  3. Effects of pesticide (Chlorpyrifos Ethyl) on the fingerlings of catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity bioassay of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos ethyl on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus was evaluated to determine its effect on the survival, body morphology and the lethal concentration (LC50). Following a preliminary bioassay in mg/l concentration which showed 100% mortality, fish were ...

  4. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after...

  5. Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements, and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 µm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥84%) in submicrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea-salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.

  6. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids: A new class of organic micropollutants in the water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Daniel; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2016-09-15

    Mobile and persistent organic micropollutants may impact raw and drinking waters and are thus of concern for human health. To identify such possible substances of concern nineteen water samples from five European countries (France, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Spain and Germany) and different compartments of the water cycle (urban effluent, surface water, ground water and drinking water) were enriched with mixed-mode solid phase extraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry non-target screening of these samples led to the detection and structural elucidation of seven novel organic micropollutants. One structure could already be confirmed by a reference standard (trifluoromethanesulfonic acid) and six were tentatively identified based on experimental evidence (chloromethanesulfonic acid, dichloromethanesulfonic acid, trichloromethanesulfonic acid, bromomethanesulfonic acid, dibromomethanesulfonic acid and bromochloromethanesulfonic acid). Approximated concentrations for these substances show that trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, a chemical registered under the European Union regulation REACH with a production volume of more than 100 t/a, is able to spread along the water cycle and may be present in concentrations up to the μg/L range. Chlorinated and brominated methanesulfonic acids were predominantly detected together which indicates a common source and first experimental evidence points towards water disinfection as a potential origin. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids were detected in drinking waters and thus may be new substances of concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. First formate, acetate and methanesulfonate analyses in firn samples from Grenzgletscher (Monte Rosa, 4200 m a.s.l.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grund, A.; Schwikowski, M.; Bruetsch, S.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    In order to determine trace concentrations of acetate, formate and methanesulfonate in ice samples by ion chromatography precautions have to be taken to avoid contaminations. We investigated sources of contamination and analysed first samples from Grenzgletscher (Monte Rosa massif). (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  8. Crystallization and characterization of magnesium methanesulfonate hydrate Mg(CH3SO3)2•12H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genceli-Guner, F.E.; Lutz, M.; Sakurai, T.; Spek, A.L.; Hondoh, T.

    2010-01-01

    Records of methanesulfonate acid in ice cores play an important role in reconstruction of the past history of marine productivity, sea ice extent, and major El Ni~no event activities related to climate changes. Considering the lack of thermodynamic and crystal structure data, crystallization

  9. First formate, acetate and methanesulfonate analyses in firn samples from Grenzgletscher (Monte Rosa, 4200 m a.s.l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, A.; Schwikowski, M.; Bruetsch, S.; Gaeggeler, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    In order to determine trace concentrations of acetate, formate and methanesulfonate in ice samples by ion chromatography precautions have to be taken to avoid contaminations. We investigated sources of contamination and analysed first samples from Grenzgletscher (Monte Rosa massif). (author) 1 fig., 3 refs

  10. Ethyl diazoacetate synthesis in flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëlle M. E. Delville

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl diazoacetate is a versatile compound in organic chemistry and frequently used on lab scale. Its highly explosive nature, however, severely limits its use in industrial processes. The in-line coupling of microreactor synthesis and separation technology enables the synthesis of this compound in an inherently safe manner, thereby making it available on demand in sufficient quantities. Ethyl diazoacetate was prepared in a biphasic mixture comprising an aqueous solution of glycine ethyl ester, sodium nitrite and dichloromethane. Optimization of the reaction was focused on decreasing the residence time with the smallest amount of sodium nitrite possible. With these boundary conditions, a production yield of 20 g EDA day−1 was achieved using a microreactor with an internal volume of 100 μL. Straightforward scale-up or scale-out of microreactor technology renders this method viable for industrial application.

  11. Comparison of northern and central Greenland ice cores records of methanesulfonate covering the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsell, U.; Hansson, M. E.; Siggaard-Andersen, M-L-

    2007-01-01

    Methanesulfonate (MS-) is measured in ice cores with the objective to obtain a proxy record of marine phytoplankton production of dimethylsulfide (DMS). We present a continuous MS- record covering the last glacial period from the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) ice core and compare...... this record with the corresponding records previously presented from Greenland and, in particular, with the GISP2 ice core located 320 km south of NGRIP. Despite that the records have similar mean concentrations, their responses to climatic changes during the last glacial period are slightly different. NGRIP...... MS- concentrations were higher during the cold marine isotopic stages (MIS) 2 and 4 and lower during the warm MIS 5. This long-term trend in MS-, which is similar to the inverse of the corresponding trend in d 18O, is not detected in the GISP2 MS- record. A systematic response in MS- concentrations...

  12. Methanesulfonic acid solution as supporting electrolyte for zinc-vanadium redox battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chao; Zhou Debi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Methanesulfonic acid as supporting electrolyte for V(V)/V(IV) was discussed. ► V(V)/V(IV) concentration as high as 3 mol L −1 was obtained. ► A Zn-V battery was assembled. ► The assembled Zn-V battery has good cycle performance and high cell voltage. - Abstract: The present work was performed in order to evaluate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as electrolyte medium for V(IV)/V(V) redox couple as positive species applied in redox flow battery (RFB). V-MSA solutions containing more than 3.0 mol L −1 vanadium ions were obtained. Conductivity and viscosity of 3.0 mol L −1 V(IV)/V(V) electrolyte were determined to be 0.10 cm s −1 and 12.37 mPa s respectively. Cyclic voltammetry was conducted to investigate the electrochemical behavior of V(IV)/V(V) redox couple. The diffusion coefficients of V(IV) on Pt electrode in 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mol L −1 V(IV)/V(V) electrolytes determined were 3.606 × 10 −6 , 1.813 × 10 −6 and 0.5244 × 10 −6 cm 2 s −1 , respectively. A Zn-V battery was assembled with V(IV)/V(V)-MSA positive species and Zn/Zn(II)-MSA negative species. The cell voltage in charged state was 1.9–2.0 V and discharge voltage reached up to 1.7 V. The average coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the assembled cell were 95.85% and 63.90% respectively and it showed a good cyclic charge–discharge performance, which indicates that MSA has a promise application prospect in vanadium redox battery.

  13. Biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl by Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiong; Wang, Saige; Shi, Nan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2018-04-15

    The application of the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl has a lasting toxic effect on some succession crops. Here, a bacterium capable of utilizing chlorimuron-ethyl as the sole source of nitrogen was isolated from the contaminated soil and was identified as Enterobacter ludwigii sp. CE-1, and its detoxification and degradation of the herbicide were then examined. The biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was significantly accelerated with increasing concentration (1-10mg/l) and temperature (20-40°C). The optimal pH for the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was pH 7.0. A pathway for the biodegradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by the isolate CE-1 was proposed, in which it could be first converted into 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine and an intermediate product by the cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge and then transformed into saccharin via hydrolysis and amidation. The plant height and fresh weight of corn that had been incubated in nutrient solution containing 0.2mg/l of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly recovered to 83.9% and 83.1% compared with those in the uninoculated control, although the root growth inhibition of chlorimuron-ethyl could not be alleviated after inoculation for 14 d. The results indicate that the isolate CE-1 is a promising bacterial resource for the biodegradation and detoxification of chlorimuron-ethyl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cadmium inhibits repair of UV-, methyl methanesulfonate- and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced DNA damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatur, Tanja; Lah, Tamara T.; Filipic, Metka

    2003-01-01

    The co-genotoxic effects of cadmium are well recognized and it is assumed that most of these effects are due to the inhibition of DNA repair. We used the comet assay to analyze the effect of low, non-toxic concentrations of CdCl 2 on DNA damage and repair-induced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by UV-radiation, by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). The UV-induced DNA lesions revealed by the comet assay are single-strand breaks which are the intermediates formed during nucleotide excision repair (NER). In cells exposed to UV-irradiation alone the formation of DNA strand breaks was rapid, followed by a fast rejoining phase during the first 60 min after irradiation. In UV-irradiated cells pre-exposed to CdCl 2 , the formation of DNA strand breaks was significantly slower, indicating that cadmium inhibited DNA damage recognition and/or excision. Methyl methanesulfonate and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea directly alkylate nitrogen and oxygen atoms of DNA bases. The lesions revealed by the comet assay are mainly breaks at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and breaks formed as intermediates during base excision repair (BER). In MMS treated cells the initial level of DNA strand breaks did not change during the first hour of recovery; thereafter repair was detected. In cells pre-exposed to CdCl 2 the MMS-induced DNA strand breaks accumulated during the first 2 h of recovery, indicating that AP sites and/or DNA strand breaks were formed but that further steps of BER were blocked. In MNU treated cells the maximal level of DNA strand breaks was detected immediately after the treatment and the breaks were repaired rapidly. In CdCl 2 pre-treated cells the formation of MNU-induced DNA single-strand breaks was not affected, while the repair was slower, indicating inhibition of polymerization and/or the ligation step of BER. Cadmium thus affects the repair of UV-, MMS- and MNU-induced DNA damage, providing further evidence, that inhibition of DNA repair

  15. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  16. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and... Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether containing...

  17. 21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and... Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is a cellulose ether...

  18. Addition compounds between lanthanide (III) and yttrium (III) and methanesulfonates (MS) and 3-picoline-N-oxide (3-pic NO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinner, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of addition compounds between lanthanide methanesulfonates and 3-picoline-N-oxide of general formula Ln (MS) 3 .2(3-pic No), Ln being La, Yb and Y, were carried out. The techniques employed for characterization were: elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, infrared absorption spectroscopy, electrolytic conductance in methanol, melting ranges and emission spectrum of the Eu (III) compound. (Author) [pt

  19. Ce(III)/Ce(IV) in methanesulfonic acid as the positive half cell of a redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.K.; Ponce de Leon, C.; Low, C.T.J.; Walsh, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of the Ce(III)/Ce(IV) redox couple in methanesulfonic acid were studied at a platinum disk electrode (0.125 cm 2 ) over a wide range of electrolyte compositions and temperatures: cerium (III) methanesulfonate (0.1-1.2 mol dm -3 ), methanesulfonic acid (0.1-5.0 mol dm -3 ) and electrolyte temperatures (295-333 K). The cyclic voltammetry experiments indicated that the diffusion coefficient of Ce(III) ions was 0.5 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 and that the electrochemical kinetics for the oxidation of Ce(III) and the reduction of Ce(IV) was slow. The reversibility of the redox reaction depended on the electrolyte composition and improved at higher electrolyte temperatures. At higher methanesulfonic acid concentrations, the degree of oxygen evolution decreased by up to 50% when the acid concentration increased from 2 to 5 mol dm -3 . The oxidation of Ce(III) and reduction of Ce(IV) were also investigated during a constant current batch electrolysis in a parallel plate zinc-cerium flow cell with a 3-dimensional platinised titanium mesh electrode. The current efficiencies over 4.5 h of the process Ce(III) to Ce(IV) and 3.3 h electrolysis of the reverse reaction Ce(IV) to Ce(III) were 94.0 and 97.6%, respectively. With a 2-dimensional, planar platinised titanium electrode (9 cm 2 area), the redox reaction of the Ce(III)/Ce(IV) system was under mass-transport control, while the reaction on the 3-dimensional mesh electrode was initially under charge-transfer control but became mass-transport controlled after 2.5-3 h of electrolysis. The effect of the side reactions (hydrogen and oxygen evolution) on the current efficiencies and the conversion of Ce(III) and Ce(IV) are discussed.

  20. Inducible protective processes in animal systems XV: Hyperthermia enhances the Ethyl methanesulfonate induced adaptive response in meiotic cells of grasshopper Poecilocerus pictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Venu

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: There is a protection against EMS induced anomalies by hyperthermia in in vivo P. pictus. As far as our knowledge is concerned, this is the first report to demonstrate that hyperthermia enhances the EMS induced adaptive response in in vivo meiotic cells.

  1. Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Olivia J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Grieman, Mackenzie; Layman, Lawrence; McConnell, Joseph R.; Pasteris, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric; Sigl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of past changes in Arctic sea ice extent may be critical for understanding its future evolution. Methanesulfonate (MSA) and bromine concentrations preserved in ice cores have both been proposed as indicators of past sea ice conditions. In this study, two ice cores from central and north-eastern Greenland were analysed at sub-annual resolution for MSA (CH3SO3H) and bromine, covering the time period 1750-2010. We examine correlations between ice core MSA and the HadISST1 ICE sea ice dataset and consult back trajectories to infer the likely source regions. A strong correlation between the low-frequency MSA and bromine records during pre-industrial times indicates that both chemical species are likely linked to processes occurring on or near sea ice in the same source regions. The positive correlation between ice core MSA and bromine persists until the mid-20th century, when the acidity of Greenland ice begins to increase markedly due to increased fossil fuel emissions. After that time, MSA levels decrease as a result of declining sea ice extent but bromine levels increase. We consider several possible explanations and ultimately suggest that increased acidity, specifically nitric acid, of snow on sea ice stimulates the release of reactive Br from sea ice, resulting in increased transport and deposition on the Greenland ice sheet.

  2. Atorvastatin Downregulates In Vitro Methyl Methanesulfonate and Cyclophosphamide Alkylation-Mediated Cellular and DNA Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Araujo-Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, and this class of drugs has been studied as protective agents against DNA damages. Alkylating agents (AAs are able to induce alkylation in macromolecules, causing DNA damage, as DNA methylation. Our objective was to evaluate atorvastatin (AVA antimutagenic, cytoprotective, and antigenotoxic potentials against DNA lesions caused by AA. AVA chemopreventive ability was evaluated using antimutagenicity assays (Salmonella/microsome assay, cytotoxicity, cell cycle, and genotoxicity assays in HepG2 cells. The cells were cotreated with AVA and the AA methyl methanesulfonate (MMS or cyclophosphamide (CPA. Our datum showed that AVA reduces the alkylation-mediated DNA damage in different in vitro experimental models. Cytoprotection of AVA at low doses (0.1–1.0 μM was observed after 24 h of cotreatment with MMS or CPA at their LC50, causing an increase in HepG2 survival rates. After all, AVA at 10 μM and 25 μM had decreased effect in micronucleus formation in HepG2 cells and restored cell cycle alterations induced by MMS and CPA. This study supports the hypothesis that statins can be chemopreventive agents, acting as antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, and cytoprotective components, specifically against alkylating agents of DNA.

  3. Synergistic effect of Gentiana lutea L. on methyl methanesulfonate genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patenković, Aleksandra; Stamenković-Radak, Marina; Nikolić, Dragana; Marković, Tamara; Anđelković, Marko

    2013-03-27

    Gentiana lutea L., the yellow gentian, is herb known for its pharmacological properties, with a long tradition of use for the treatment of a variety of diseases including the use as a remedy for digestion, also in food products and in bitter beverages. The aim of the present study is to evaluate, for the first time, genotoxicity of gentian alone, and its antigenotoxicity against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The water infusion of the underground part of gentian were evaluated in vivo using the Drosophila wing spot test, at the dose commonly used in traditional medicine. For antigenotoxic study two types of treatment with gentian and MMS were performed: chronic co-treatment, as well as post-treatment with gentian after acute exposure with MMS. Water infusion of gentian alone did not exhibit genotoxicity. The results of co- and post-treatment experiments with gentian show that gentian enhanced the frequency of mutant clones over the values obtained with MMS alone, instead of reducing the genotoxicity of MMS, for 22.64% and 27.13% respectively. This result suggests a synergism of gentian with MMS, and indicates that water infusion of gentian used in traditional medicine may have particular effects with regard to genotoxicity indicating careful use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New particle formation and growth from methanesulfonic acid, trimethylamine and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihan; Ezell, Michael J; Arquero, Kristine D; Varner, Mychel E; Dawson, Matthew L; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-05-28

    New particle formation from gas-to-particle conversion represents a dominant source of atmospheric particles and affects radiative forcing, climate and human health. The species involved in new particle formation and the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Although sulfuric acid is commonly recognized as driving new particle formation, increasing evidence suggests the involvement of other species. Here we study particle formation and growth from methanesulfonic acid, trimethylamine and water at reaction times from 2.3 to 32 s where particles are 2-10 nm in diameter using a newly designed and tested flow system. The flow system has multiple inlets to facilitate changing the mixing sequence of gaseous precursors. The relative humidity and precursor concentrations, as well as the mixing sequence, are varied to explore their effects on particle formation and growth in order to provide insight into the important mechanistic steps. We show that water is involved in the formation of initial clusters, greatly enhancing their formation as well as growth into detectable size ranges. A kinetics box model is developed that quantitatively reproduces the experimental data under various conditions. Although the proposed scheme is not definitive, it suggests that incorporating such mechanisms into atmospheric models may be feasible in the near future.

  5. TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE (MS-222) SEDATION AND ANESTHESIA IN THE PURPLE-SPINED SEA URCHIN (ARBACIA PUNCTULATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Jeffrey R; Dombrowski, Daniel S; Christian, Larry Shane; Bayer, Meredith P; Harms, Craig A; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2016-12-01

    The purple-spined sea urchin ( Arbacia punctulata ) is commonly found in shallow waters of the western Atlantic Ocean from the New England area of the United States to the Caribbean. Sea urchins play a major role in ocean ecology, echinoculture, and biomedical research. Additionally, sea urchins are commonly displayed in public aquaria. Baseline parameters were developed in unanesthetized urchins for righting reflex (time to regain oral recumbency) and spine response time to tactile stimulus. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) was used to sedate and anesthetize purple-spined sea urchins and assess sedation and anesthetic parameters, including adhesion to and release from a vertical surface, times to loss of response to tactile stimulus and recovery of righting reflex, and qualitative observations of induction of spawning and position of spines and pseudopodia. Sedation and anesthetic parameters were evaluated in 11 individuals in three circumstances: unaltered aquarium water for baseline behaviors, 0.4 g/L MS-222, and 0.8 g/L MS-222. Induction was defined as the release from a vertical surface with the loss of righting reflex, sedation as loss of righting reflex with retained tactile spine response, anesthesia as loss of righting reflex and loss of tactile spine response, and recovery as voluntary return to oral recumbency. MS-222 proved to be an effective sedative and anesthetic for the purple-spined sea urchin at 0.4 and 0.8 g/L, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate used to buffer MS-222 had no measurable sedative effects when used alone. Anesthesia was quickly reversed with transfer of each individual to anesthesia-free seawater, and no anesthetic-related mortality occurred. The parameters assessed in this study provide a baseline for sea urchin anesthesia and may provide helpful comparisons to similar species and populations that are in need of anesthesia for surgical procedures or research.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) in healthy Chinese subjects after single and multiple intravenous doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Miao; Wu, Xiao-Jie; Fan, Ya-Xin; Zhang, Ying-Yuan; Guo, Bei-Ning; Yu, Ji-Cheng; Cao, Guo-Ying; Chen, Yuan-Cheng; Wu, Ju-Fang; Shi, Yao-Guo; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    The high prevalence of extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens has forced clinicians to use colistin as a last-line therapy. Knowledge on the pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), an inactive prodrug, and colistin has increased substantially; however, the pharmacokinetics in the Chinese population is still unknown due to lack of a CMS product in China. This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a new CMS product developed in China in order to optimise dosing regimens. A total of 24 healthy subjects (12 female, 12 male) were enrolled in single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. Concentrations of CMS and formed colistin in plasma and urine were measured, and PK analysis was conducted using a non-compartmental approach. Following a single CMS dose [2.36 mg colistin base activity (CBA) per kg, 1 h infusion], peak concentrations (C max ) of CMS and formed colistin were 18.0 mg/L and 0.661 mg/L, respectively. The estimated half-life (t 1/2 ) of CMS and colistin were 1.38 h and 4.49 h, respectively. Approximately 62.5% of the CMS dose was excreted via urine within 24 h after dosing, whilst only 1.28% was present in the form of colistin. Following multiple CMS doses, colistin reached steady-state within 24 h; there was no accumulation of CMS, but colistin accumulated slightly (R AUC  = 1.33). This study provides the first PK data in the Chinese population and is essential for designing CMS dosing regimens for use in Chinese hospitals. The urinary PK data strongly support the use of intravenous CMS for serious urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  7. Feedback regulation of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 via ATM/Chk2 pathway contributes to the resistance of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Juan; Qian, Ying; Ni, Xiaoyan; Xu, Xiuping; Dong, Xuejun

    2017-03-01

    The methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 protein is a structure-specific nuclease that plays important roles in DNA replication and repair. Knockdown of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 has been found to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. We found that methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 was upregulated and the ATM/Chk2 pathway was activated at the same time when MCF-7 cells were treated with cisplatin. By using lentivirus targeting methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 gene, we showed that knockdown of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 enhanced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells under cisplatin treatment. Abrogation of ATM/Chk2 pathway inhibited cell viability in MCF-7 cells in response to cisplatin. Importantly, we revealed that ATM/Chk2 was required for the upregulation of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81, and knockdown of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 resulted in inactivation of ATM/Chk2 pathway in response to cisplatin. Meanwhile, knockdown of methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 activated the p53/Bcl-2 pathway in response to cisplatin. These data suggest that the ATM/Chk2 may promote the repair of DNA damage caused by cisplatin by sustaining methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81, and the double-strand breaks generated by methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 may activate the ATM/Chk2 pathway in turn, which provide a novel mechanism of how methyl methanesulfonate and ultraviolet-sensitive gene clone 81 modulates DNA damage response and repair.

  8. Characterization of ethyl cellulose polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnaj, Tazin; Ahmed, Salah U; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose (EC) polymer was characterized for its property before considering the interactions with the plasicizer. Ethocel Std.10 FP Premium from Dow chemical company USA was tested for its solubility, morphology and thermal properties. Seven percentage of EC solution in ethanol was found to be the right viscosity used to prepare the film. The EC polymer and EC film without any plasticizers showed almost identical thermal behavior, but in X-ray diffraction showed different arrangements of crystallites and amorphous region. Dynamic mechanical analysis of film showed that without a plasticizer, EC film was not flexible and had very low elongation with high applied force. The aim of the work was to avoid using the commercially available EC dispersions Surelease® and Aquacoat®; both already have additives on it. Instead, Ethocel EC polymer (powder) was characterized in our laboratory in order to find out the properties of polymer before considering the interactions of the polymer with various plasticizers.

  9. Zinc deposition and dissolution in methanesulfonic acid onto a carbon composite electrode as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.K.; Ponce-de-Leon, C.; Low, C.T.J.; Walsh, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use methanesulfonic acid to avoid dendrite formation during a long (>4 h) zinc electrodeposition. → Electrochemical characterization of Zn(II) deposition and its morphology using methanesulfonic acid solutions. → Use of additives to improve the efficiency of zinc deposition and dissolution as the half cell reaction of a redox flow battery. - Abstract: Electrodeposition and dissolution of zinc in methanesulfonic acid were studied as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery. Cyclic voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode was used to characterize the electrochemistry and the effect of process conditions on the deposition and dissolution rate of zinc in aqueous methanesulfonic acid. At a sufficiently high current density, the deposition process became a mass transport controlled reaction. The diffusion coefficient of Zn 2+ ions was 7.5 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 . The performance of the zinc negative electrode in a parallel plate flow cell was also studied as a function of Zn 2+ ion concentration, methanesulfonic acid concentration, current density, electrolyte flow rate, operating temperature and the addition of electrolytic additives, including potassium sodium tartarate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, and indium oxide. The current-, voltage- and energy efficiencies of the zinc-half cell reaction and the morphologies of the zinc deposits are also discussed. The energy efficiency improved from 62% in the absence of additives to 73% upon the addition of 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 of indium oxide as a hydrogen suppressant. In aqueous methanesulfonic acid with or without additives, there was no significant dendrite formation after zinc electrodeposition for 4 h at 50 mA cm -2 .

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl in aqueous solution using titania nanoparticulate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Kumar, J. Praveen; Srivastava, A.R.; Singh, Beer

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl (o,o-diethyl o-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate), a well known surrogate of chemical warfare agents, in aqueous solution was studied by using titania nanoparticulate film. Reaction followed pseudo first order behaviour. Photolytic degradation reaction of paraoxon-ethyl demonstrated relatively low rate with a value of rate constant of 2.5 × 10 −3 min −1 . Whereas, degradation reaction in the presence of titania nanoparticulate film and UV light displayed enhanced rate with a value of rate constant of 6.9 × 10 −3 min −1 due to photocatalysis. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis showed the formation of p-nitrophenol, o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, o-ethyl, diphosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, dimerized product of o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, acetaldehyde, and carbon dioxide due to photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl. It indicates that, photocatalytic degradation reaction begins with destruction of P–O–C bonds. Subsequently, P, C atoms were found to be oxidized gradually, and contributed to its photocatalytic degradation. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of titania nanoparticles by sol–gel method. ► Fabrication of titania nanoparticulate film by dip coating. ► Paraoxon ethyl degradation reactions followed pseudo first order behaviour. ► Paraoxon-ethyl degraded to non toxic compounds like CO 2 , acetaldehyde, and nitrophenol.

  11. Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl in aqueous solution using titania nanoparticulate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Kumar, J. Praveen; Srivastava, A.R.; Singh, Beer

    2012-06-30

    Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl (o,o-diethyl o-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate), a well known surrogate of chemical warfare agents, in aqueous solution was studied by using titania nanoparticulate film. Reaction followed pseudo first order behaviour. Photolytic degradation reaction of paraoxon-ethyl demonstrated relatively low rate with a value of rate constant of 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1}. Whereas, degradation reaction in the presence of titania nanoparticulate film and UV light displayed enhanced rate with a value of rate constant of 6.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} due to photocatalysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the formation of p-nitrophenol, o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, o-ethyl, diphosphonic acid, phosphoric acid, dimerized product of o,o-diethyl phosphonic acid, acetaldehyde, and carbon dioxide due to photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl. It indicates that, photocatalytic degradation reaction begins with destruction of P-O-C bonds. Subsequently, P, C atoms were found to be oxidized gradually, and contributed to its photocatalytic degradation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of titania nanoparticles by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of titania nanoparticulate film by dip coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraoxon ethyl degradation reactions followed pseudo first order behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paraoxon-ethyl degraded to non toxic compounds like CO{sub 2}, acetaldehyde, and nitrophenol.

  12. A Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Colistin and Colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchene, Salim; Marchand, Sandrine; Couet, William; Friberg, Lena E; Gobin, Patrice; Lamarche, Isabelle; Grégoire, Nicolas; Björkman, Sven; Karlsson, Mats O

    2018-04-17

    Colistin is a polymyxin antibiotic used to treat patients infected with multidrug-resistant Gram negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). The objective of this work was to develop a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model to predict tissue distribution of colistin in rat. The distribution of a drug in a tissue is commonly characterized by its tissue-to-plasma partition coefficient, K p . Colistin and its prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) K p priors were measured experimentally from rat tissue homogenates or predicted in silico. The PK parameters of both compounds were estimated fitting in vivo their plasma concentration-time profiles from six rats receiving an i.v. bolus of CMS. The variability in the data was quantified by applying a non-linear mixed effect (NLME) modelling approach. A WB-PBPK model was developed assuming a well-stirred and perfusion-limited distribution in tissue compartments. Prior information on tissue distribution of colistin and CMS was investigated following three scenarios: K p were estimated using in silico K p priors (I) or K p were estimated using experimental K p priors (II) or K p were fixed to the experimental values (III). The WB-PBPK model best described colistun and CMS plasma concentration-time profiles in scenario II. Colistin predicted concentrations in kidneys in scenario II were higher than in other tissues, which was consistent with its large experimental K p prior. This might be explained by a high affinity of colistin for renal parenchyma and active reabsorption into the proximal tubular cells. In contrast, renal accumulation of colistin was not predicted in scenario I. Colistin and CMS clearance estimates were in agreement with published values. The developed model suggests using experimental priors over in silico K p priors for kidneys to provide a better prediction of colistin renal distribution. Such models might serve in drug development for interspecies scaling and investigating the impact of

  13. Synergy of imipenem/colistin methanesulfonate combinations against imipenem-nonsusceptible multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Hsieh-Shong; Ye, Jung-Jr; Lee, Ming-Hsun; Su, Lin-Hui; Huang, Po-Yen; Wu, Tsu-Lan; Huang, Ching-Tai

    2014-10-01

    The optimal combination ratio of imipenem to colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) against imipenem-nonsusceptible multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (INS-MDRAB) has not been determined in previous studies. To provide an alternative therapeutic option for clinical INS-MDRAB isolates, we investigated whether clinically achievable serum concentrations of CMS in combination with imipenem enhance the in vitro activity of imipenem against the INS-MDRAB isolates. Fifty-nine INS-MDRAB isolates with imipenem minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of ≥8 mg/L were selected randomly from the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory at a university-affiliated medical center between July 1998 and May 2005. The in vitro activity of imipenem among these 59 clinical isolates was explored via serial two-fold dilutions containing a range of imipenem concentration from 0.125 mg/L to 256 mg/L, in combination with two fixed CMS concentrations at 0.5 mg/L and 1 mg/L. Genotype classification was performed using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method and infrequent-restriction-site polymerase chain reaction. A significant reversal of imipenem resistance (i.e., MICs ≤ 4 mg/L) was observed in 34 (57.6%) isolates and 44 (74.6%) isolates with the tests of CMS concentrations at 0.5 mg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively (p = 0.041). Genotype 1 was predominant (43 isolates, 72.9%) with imipenem resistance reversal rates of 51.2% and 79.1% (p = 0.004) in the tests of CMS at 0.5 mg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. The synergy of imipenem/CMS against INS-MDRAB was significantly better for the CMS concentration at 1 mg/L than that at 0.5 mg/L, especially in our predominant clone. Our results provided insightful information for treating INS-MDRAB infections in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) migration in polar ice: data synthesis and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Matthew; Das, Sarah B.; Marchal, Olivier; Evans, Matthew J.

    2017-11-01

    Methanesulfonic acid (MSA; CH3SO3H) in polar ice is a unique proxy of marine primary productivity, synoptic atmospheric transport, and regional sea-ice behavior. However, MSA can be mobile within the firn and ice matrix, a post-depositional process that is well known but poorly understood and documented, leading to uncertainties in the integrity of the MSA paleoclimatic signal. Here, we use a compilation of 22 ice core MSA records from Greenland and Antarctica and a model of soluble impurity transport in order to comprehensively investigate the vertical migration of MSA from summer layers, where MSA is originally deposited, to adjacent winter layers in polar ice. We find that the shallowest depth of MSA migration in our compilation varies over a wide range (˜ 2 to 400 m) and is positively correlated with snow accumulation rate and negatively correlated with ice concentration of Na+ (typically the most abundant marine cation). Although the considered soluble impurity transport model provides a useful mechanistic framework for studying MSA migration, it remains limited by inadequate constraints on key physico-chemical parameters - most notably, the diffusion coefficient of MSA in cold ice (DMS). We derive a simplified version of the model, which includes DMS as the sole parameter, in order to illuminate aspects of the migration process. Using this model, we show that the progressive phase alignment of MSA and Na+ concentration peaks observed along a high-resolution West Antarctic core is most consistent with 10-12 m2 s-1 values previously estimated from laboratory studies. More generally, our data synthesis and model results suggest that (i) MSA migration may be fairly ubiquitous, particularly at coastal and (or) high-accumulation regions across Greenland and Antarctica; and (ii) can significantly change annual and multiyear MSA concentration averages. Thus, in most cases, caution should be exercised when interpreting polar ice core MSA records, although records

  15. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  16. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  17. Methanesulfonic acid-assisted synthesis of N/S co-doped hierarchically porous carbon for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Silu; Liu, Mingquan; Wu, Linlin; Liu, Mingjie; Xu, Min; Ni, Wei; Yan, Yi-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbons are considered as electrode materials for high performance supercapacitors, while their further development is still limited by complicated synthesis procedure, unsatisfied structure and low energy density. Developing a simple synthetic strategy to obtain rationally structured carbon materials and high supercapacitor performance is remaining a grand challenge. Herein, we describe the synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped hierarchical porous carbons as high performance supercapacitors electrode by a methanesulfonic acid-assisted one-step carbonization and activation of the freeze-dried precursors mixture. The as-prepared carbon material not only exhibits ideally hierarchical pores, but also realizes uniform nitrogen and sulfur co-doping. In 6.0 M KOH electrolyte, the material can achieve a high specific capacitance of 272 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 and a promising rate performance retaining 172 F g-1 even at 100 A g-1. Moreover, a fabricated symmetric supercapacitor based on as-prepared nitrogen and sulfur co-doped hierarchical porous carbon delivers high energy densities of 12.4 W h kg-1 and 8.0 W h kg-1 in 6.0 M KOH liquid and KOH/PVA solid-state electrolytes, respectively. This work presents a simple and effective methanesulfonic acid-assisted approach for mass production of heteroatomic doping hierarchical porous carbons for future energy storage applications.

  18. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  19. Direct Conversion of Cellulose into Ethyl Lactate in Supercritical Ethanol-Water Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lisha; Yang, Xiaokun; Tian, Elli; Lin, Hongfei

    2016-01-08

    Biomass-derived ethyl lactate is a green solvent with a growing market as the replacement for petroleum-derived toxic organic solvents. Here we report, for the first time, the production of ethyl lactate directly from cellulose with the mesoporous Zr-SBA-15 silicate catalyst in a supercritical mixture of ethanol and water. The relatively strong Lewis and weak Brønsted acid sites on the catalyst, as well as the surface hydrophobicity, were beneficial to the reaction and led to synergy during consecutive reactions, such as depolymerization, retro-aldol condensation, and esterification. Under the optimum reaction conditions, ∼33 % yield of ethyl lactate was produced from cellulose with the Zr-SBA-15 catalyst at 260 °C in supercritical 95:5 (w/w) ethanol/water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a wave of global protein hyperacetylation: Implications in cancer cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Myoung-Ae; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Park, Joo-In; Kwak, Jong-Young; Chung, Jay H.; Yun, Jeanho

    2007-01-01

    Protein acetylation modification has been implicated in many cellular processes but the direct evidence for the involvement of protein acetylation in signal transduction is very limited. In the present study, we found that an alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a robust and reversible hyperacetylation of both cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins during the early phase of the cellular response to MMS. Notably, the acetylation level upon MMS treatment was strongly correlated with the susceptibility of cancer cells, and the enhancement of MMS-induced acetylation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors was shown to increase the cellular susceptibility. These results suggest protein acetylation is important for the cell death signal transduction pathway and indicate that the use of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of cancer is relevant

  1. Solid acid catalysed formation of ethyl levulinate and ethyl glucopyranoside from mono- and disaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonic acid functionalised SBA-15 (SO3H-SBA-15), sulfated zirconia and beta, Y, ZSM-5 and mordenite zeolite catalysts have been applied for the dehydration of sugars to ethyl levulinate and ethyl-D-glucopyranoside (EDGP) using ethanol as solvent and reactant. The SO3H-SBA-15 catalyst showed...

  2. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled ethyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanski, R.

    1976-01-01

    A new efficient method of synthesis of ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C), based on the Ba 14 CO 3 and dry hydrogen chloride as starting materials has been developed and described. Addition of the hydrogen chloride to ethylene (1,2- 14 C), obtained from Ba 14 CO 3 , has been carried out in the presence of the AlCl 3 as catalyst. The outlined method leads to ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C) of high specific activity. The radiochemical yield of the reaction based on the activity of barium carbonate used was 72%. (author)

  3. Evaluation Lactogenic Activity of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R. M.; Kustiyah, L.; Hanafi, M.; Iwansyah, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the lactogenic property of ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) leaves and to identify the compounds that responsibility as ‘milk booster’ using LC- MS approach. Lactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with commercial milk booster (AF), ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves (EA), water extraction of torbangun (AQ) and kaempferol (KP). The feed was given orally every two days and starting from Day 2 after giving birth until Day 28. The performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. The level of prolactin serum was determined by ELISA methods. Histopathological analysis of mammary gland, liver, intestines and kidney tissues was carried out. Moreover, in order to profiling and identification of compounds of ethyl acetate fraction, ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-ESI-MS) in the positive-ion mode was performed. The ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves (EA) was induced milk production about 17%, and AF 22% and KP 51% compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the EA was not significantly stimulate the synthesis of serum prolactin at Day 14 and Day 28 (p>0.05). Administration of EA did not cause any signs or symptoms of toxicity. In addition, a total of ten compounds was identified by UPLC-QTOF-ESI/MS in the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves of C. amboinicus, mostly phenolic compounds, flavonols and some of their glycoside derivatives, such as: digiprolatone, and kaempferol-3-7-O-di-rhamnopyranoside. The present study reveals the ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves and its bioactive compounds has the potency as a remedy for stimulating and improving milk production.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...

  5. Effect of ethyl methanesulphonate and X-irradiation on the spermatocyte chromosomes of the grasshopper, Gesonula punctifrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Mita; Majumdar, K.C.; Duttagupta, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Present investigation was performed to find out the effect of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and X-irradiation on the meiotic cells of the grasshopper Gesonula punctifrons. Adult male grasshoppers were administered EMS (intraperitoneal injection) with one of the following concentration : 0.05%, 0.05% + 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%. Only 0.002 ml of required concentration were injected/animal and irradiated with 200R of X-ray in one acute dose/animal as per experimental schedule. Controls were injected with distilled water with a quantity 0.002 ml/animal. Treated and control animals were sacrificed 24 hours and 48 hours after treatment and the dividing spermatocytes were analysed for chromosomal aberrations. It was shown that EMS had stage spcificity as compared to the 200R of X-ray on the production of chromosome aberrations. Combined treatment of X-ray and EMS showed an additive effect compared to the individual effect of X-irradiation or EMS. (author)

  6. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials, containers...

  8. Electrospun water-stable zein/ethyl cellulose composite nanofiber and its drug release properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hangyi; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Guohui [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China); Qiu, Yuyu [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China); Laboratory of Natural Medicine, Wuxi Medical School, Jiangnan University (China); Wei, Qufu, E-mail: qfwei@jiangnan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China)

    2017-05-01

    A simple and cost-effective way to prepare water-stable zein-based nanofibers for potential drug delivery was presented in this article. Corn protein zein was co-electrospun with hydrophobic ethyl cellulose. Indomethacin, as a model drug, was incorporated in situ into the composite nanofibers. Scanning electron microscopy and element mapping revealed the morphologies of drug-loaded nanofibers and drug distribution, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the physical blending among the components. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction demonstrated the physical state of drug and polymers in the nanofiber matrix. The composite nanofibers showed a sustained diffusion-controlled release according to the results of in vitro dissolution tests. - Highlights: • A simple, non-toxic and cost-effective way to improve water stability of zein nanofibers was proposed. • Electrospun zein/ethyl cellulose nanofibers with improved water stability and mechanical strength were prepared. • Indomethacin was homogeneously distributed in the zein/ethyl cellulose nanofibers with no aggregation or cluster. • The zein/ethyl cellulose nanofibers presented a sustained drug release profile, following Fickican diffusion mechanism.

  9. Identification of the principal biliary metabolite of 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, D.D.; Cysyk, R.L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Bhat, H.B.; Malspeis, L.

    1982-01-01

    m-AMSA [4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide] labeled in either the acridine or anilino portion was used to investigate the disposition of this antitumor agent in rats. The principal biliary metabolite, which accounts for approximately 80% of the total biliary radioactivity for 90 min after administration and greater than 50% of the administered dose by 180 min after administration, had both the acridine and the anilino portions intact. Isolation and purification of the principal metabolite was achieved by preparative thin-layer chromatography on silica gel and column chromatography on Amberlite XAD-2 resin. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the CID salt in D 2 O showed that the metabolite is the m-AMSA-glutathione conjugate in which the thioether linkage occurs at the 5'-position of the anilino ring. Synthesis of the metabolite was achieved by oxidizing m-AMSA with active MnO 2 to -methanesulfonyl - - (9-acridinyl)-3'-methoxy - 2',5' - cyclohexadiene-1',4'-diimine (m-AQDI) followed by reaction of m-AQDI with glutathione. The 1 H-NMR spectrum of the synthetic product proved identical with that of the isolated metabolite. The demonstration that the principal biliary metabolite on m-AMSA involves glutathione bound to the 9-anilino ring suggests that m-AMSA may be bioactivated in vivo to the quinoidal diimine, m-AQDI

  10. Effect of mode of administration of methyl methanesulfonate and triethylenemelamine on induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in mouse germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, C.W.; Sega, G.A.; Owens, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of route of administration on induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mouse germ cells in vivo was studied using two germ cell mutagens, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and triethylenemelamine (TEM). The chemicals were administered to male mice (C3Hf x 101)F 1 by IP injection or gavage using acute or 5-day subacute regimens. After completion of dosing, methyl-[ 3 H]thymidine ([ 3 H]TdR) was injected into the testes, and spermatozoa were collected 16 days later. The sperm heads were isolated, and UDS was determined by the amount of [ 3 H]TdR incorporated. Acute administration of MMS (2-100 mg/kg) induced a strong, dose-related UDS response. The response was slightly higher with IP injection than with gavage. Acute administration of TEM (0.05-4.0 mg/kg) by IP injection or gavage induced weak and variable responses. The study showed that gavage, as well as IP injection, can be used for the administration of test chemicals and that the subacute 5-day regimen induced a higher UDS response than the acute regimen. Furthermore, the testicular route may enhance the detection of weak UDS inducers

  11. Differential action on cancer and normal tissue by adrenochrome monoaminoguanidine methanesulfonate and cytochrome C combined with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsugawa, S.; Sugahara, T.

    1994-01-01

    The possibility that radioprotective effects on potent natural killer (NK) cells by adrenochrome monoaminoguanidine methanesulfonate (AMM) + cytochrome C during radiotherapy (RT) for lung cancer might result in the radiosensitization of human lung cancer cells in vivo is examined. Human lung cancer xenografts in the right hind legs of KSN mice (10 weeks old) were locally irradiated with 20 Gy of X ray. AMM (10 mg/kg/day) and/or cytochrome C (CCC) (5 mg/kg/day) were given intraperitoneally immediately before or after RT, followed by daily administration for 4 days. Natural killer activities of host splenocytes were also tested with the standard 51 Cr releasing assay with YAC-1 cells as target cells. In a clinical study, 65 patients with lung cancer were treated with more than 50 Gy of RT with or without combination with AMM + CCC, OK-432 or AMM + CCC + OK-432. Before and after RT, lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood were examined with dichromatic analysis using an Ortho Spectrum IIIFCM system and fluorescent MABs. In this study, the change in the absolute number of each subset was investigated. AMM + cytochrome C augumented NK activity in KSN nude mice, protected potent NK cells in patients with lung cancer against RT and sensitized the human lung cancer xenografts to RT. AMM + cytochrome C may have potential as a differential modulator of radiosensitivity of normal tissues and of tumors. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Effects of Using Tricaine Methanesulfonate and Metomidate before Euthanasia on the Contractile Properties of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jordan C; Syme, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Because many anesthetics work through depressing cell excitability, unanesthetized euthanasia has become common for research involving excitable tissues (for example muscle and nerve) to avoid these depressive effects. However, anesthetic use during euthanasia may be indicated for studies involving isolated tissues if the potential depressive effects of brief anesthetic exposure dissipate after subsequent tissue isolation, washout, and saline perfusion. We explore this here by measuring whether, when applied prior to euthanasia, standard immersion doses of 2 fish anesthetics, tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS; 100 mg/L, n = 6) and methyl 1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (metomidate, 10 mg/L, n = 6), have residual effects on the contractile properties (force and work output) of isolated and saline-perfused ventricular compact myocardium from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results suggest that direct exposure of muscle to immersion doses of TMS-but not metomidate-impairs muscle contractile performance. However, brief exposure (2 to 3 min) to either anesthetic during euthanasia only-providing that the agent is washed out prior to tissue experimentation-does not have an effect on the contractile properties of the myocardium. Therefore, the use of TMS, metomidate, and perhaps other anesthetics that depress cell excitability during euthanasia may be indicated when conducting research on isolated and rinsed tissues.

  13. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  14. Metagenomic survey of methanesulfonic acid (MSA catabolic genes in an Atlantic Ocean surface water sample and in a partial enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Henriques

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanesulfonic acid (MSA is a relevant intermediate of the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur and environmental microorganisms assume an important role in the mineralization of this compound. Several methylotrophic bacterial strains able to grow on MSA have been isolated from soil or marine water and two conserved operons, msmABCD coding for MSA monooxygenase and msmEFGH coding for a transport system, have been repeatedly encountered in most of these strains. Homologous sequences have also been amplified directly from the environment or observed in marine metagenomic data, but these showed a base composition (G + C content very different from their counterparts from cultivated bacteria. The aim of this study was to understand which microorganisms within the coastal surface oceanic microflora responded to MSA as a nutrient and how the community evolved in the early phases of an enrichment by means of metagenome and gene-targeted amplicon sequencing. From the phylogenetic point of view, the community shifted significantly with the disappearance of all signals related to the Archaea, the Pelagibacteraceae and phylum SAR406, and the increase in methylotroph-harboring taxa, accompanied by other groups so far not known to comprise methylotrophs such as the Hyphomonadaceae. At the functional level, the abundance of several genes related to sulfur metabolism and methylotrophy increased during the enrichment and the allelic distribution of gene msmA diagnostic for MSA monooxygenase altered considerably. Even more dramatic was the disappearance of MSA import-related gene msmE, which suggests that alternative transporters must be present in the enriched community and illustrate the inadequacy of msmE as an ecofunctional marker for MSA degradation at sea.

  15. Analyzing the dose-dependence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae global transcriptional response to methyl methanesulfonate and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Michael G; Somasundaram, Swetha; Glasner, Jeremy D; Palecek, Sean P

    2006-12-01

    One of the most crucial tasks for a cell to ensure its long term survival is preserving the integrity of its genetic heritage via maintenance of DNA structure and sequence. While the DNA damage response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model eukaryotic organism, has been extensively studied, much remains to be elucidated about how the organism senses and responds to different types and doses of DNA damage. We have measured the global transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae to multiple doses of two representative DNA damaging agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and gamma radiation. Hierarchical clustering of genes with a statistically significant change in transcription illustrated the differences in the cellular responses to MMS and gamma radiation. Overall, MMS produced a larger transcriptional response than gamma radiation, and many of the genes modulated in response to MMS are involved in protein and translational regulation. Several clusters of coregulated genes whose responses varied with DNA damaging agent dose were identified. Perhaps the most interesting cluster contained four genes exhibiting biphasic induction in response to MMS dose. All of the genes (DUN1, RNR2, RNR4, and HUG1) are involved in the Mec1p kinase pathway known to respond to MMS, presumably due to stalled DNA replication forks. The biphasic responses of these genes suggest that the pathway is induced at lower levels as MMS dose increases. The genes in this cluster with a threefold or greater transcriptional response to gamma radiation all showed an increased induction with increasing gamma radiation dosage. Analyzing genome-wide transcriptional changes to multiple doses of external stresses enabled the identification of cellular responses that are modulated by magnitude of the stress, providing insights into how a cell deals with genotoxicity.

  16. Efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 as an anesthetic agent for blocking sensory-motor responses in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlana Ramlochansingh

    Full Text Available Anesthetics are drugs that reversibly relieve pain, decrease body movements and suppress neuronal activity. Most drugs only cover one of these effects; for instance, analgesics relieve pain but fail to block primary fiber responses to noxious stimuli. Alternately, paralytic drugs block synaptic transmission at neuromuscular junctions, thereby effectively paralyzing skeletal muscles. Thus, both analgesics and paralytics each accomplish one effect, but fail to singularly account for all three. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222 is structurally similar to benzocaine, a typical anesthetic for anamniote vertebrates, but contains a sulfate moiety rendering this drug more hydrophilic. MS-222 is used as anesthetic in poikilothermic animals such as fish and amphibians. However, it is often argued that MS-222 is only a hypnotic drug and its ability to block neural activity has been questioned. This prompted us to evaluate the potency and dynamics of MS-222-induced effects on neuronal firing of sensory and motor nerves alongside a defined motor behavior in semi-intact in vitro preparations of Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Electrophysiological recordings of extraocular motor discharge and both spontaneous and evoked mechanosensory nerve activity were measured before, during and after administration of MS-222, then compared to benzocaine and a known paralytic, pancuronium. Both MS-222 and benzocaine, but not pancuronium caused a dose-dependent, reversible blockade of extraocular motor and sensory nerve activity. These results indicate that MS-222 as benzocaine blocks the activity of both sensory and motor nerves compatible with the mechanistic action of effective anesthetics, indicating that both caine-derivates are effective as single-drug anesthetics for surgical interventions in anamniotes.

  17. Analyzing the dose-dependence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae global transcriptional response to methyl methanesulfonate and ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glasner Jeremy D

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most crucial tasks for a cell to ensure its long term survival is preserving the integrity of its genetic heritage via maintenance of DNA structure and sequence. While the DNA damage response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model eukaryotic organism, has been extensively studied, much remains to be elucidated about how the organism senses and responds to different types and doses of DNA damage. We have measured the global transcriptional response of S. cerevisiae to multiple doses of two representative DNA damaging agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS and gamma radiation. Results Hierarchical clustering of genes with a statistically significant change in transcription illustrated the differences in the cellular responses to MMS and gamma radiation. Overall, MMS produced a larger transcriptional response than gamma radiation, and many of the genes modulated in response to MMS are involved in protein and translational regulation. Several clusters of coregulated genes whose responses varied with DNA damaging agent dose were identified. Perhaps the most interesting cluster contained four genes exhibiting biphasic induction in response to MMS dose. All of the genes (DUN1, RNR2, RNR4, and HUG1 are involved in the Mec1p kinase pathway known to respond to MMS, presumably due to stalled DNA replication forks. The biphasic responses of these genes suggest that the pathway is induced at lower levels as MMS dose increases. The genes in this cluster with a threefold or greater transcriptional response to gamma radiation all showed an increased induction with increasing gamma radiation dosage. Conclusion Analyzing genome-wide transcriptional changes to multiple doses of external stresses enabled the identification of cellular responses that are modulated by magnitude of the stress, providing insights into how a cell deals with genotoxicity.

  18. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Werlang

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%, Desmodium tortuosum (100%, Bidens pilosa (99%, Eleusine indica (96%, Digitaria horizontalis (100% e Commelina benghalensis (93% aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamente controlou eficazmente C. benghalensis. As misturas de glyphosate nas doses de 252 e 720 g ha-1 com carfentrazone-ethyl nas doses de 15 e 30 g ha¹ demonstraram efeito aditivo no controle de A. hybridus, D. tortuosum e Bidens pilosa, à exceção das misturas de glyphosate na dose de 252 g ha-1 com as doses de 15 e 30 g ha-1 de carfentrazone-ethyl, que proporcionam efeito sinergístico no controle de D. tortuosum. A adição das duas doses de carfentrazone-ethyl antagonizou o efeito de glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 no controle de E. indica, apresentando, no entanto, efeito aditivo com o glyphosate na maior dose (720 g ha-1. Já para D. horizontalis, as misturas de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate na menor dose (252 g ha-1 apresentaram efeito sinergístico no controle dessa espécie, demonstrando, ainda, efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate na dose de 720 g ha-1. A mistura de carfentrazone-ethyl com glyphosate proporcionou efeito aditivo no controle de C. benghalensis, independentemente das combinações de doses avaliadas. Os resultados deste experimento indicam que carfentrazone-ethyl apresenta comportamento diferenciado quanto à interação com glyphosate, dependendo da espécie de planta daninha e da dose dos herbicidas utilizados na mistura em tanque, sendo complementar na mistura em tanque com glyphosate, pois demonstrou efeito antagônico em poucas das combinações estudadas, prevalecendo seu efeito aditivo na mistura com glyphosate, no

  19. [Intravenous ethyl alcohol in metabolic resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolini, G; Lipartiti, T; Zaffiri, O; Musso, L; Belloni, G P

    1980-11-01

    Intravenously administered ethyl alcohol may be effective as analgesic and hypotensive peripheric vasoactive drug. In the Intensive Care Departments parenteral ethanol administration is infrequent because no "sure dosage" can be suggested in adults and children. Liver, kidney and C.N.S. diseases can worsen; foetopathy can follow. Drug-ethanol interaction may be particularly important for some patients admitted in Intensive Care Departments. Often the potential caloric support cannot be fully utilized ("empty" calories) and seldom hyperventilation, hyperlactacidemia and impaired protein synthesis can follow.

  20. in Binary Liquid Mixtures of Ethyl benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Babu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity is measured at 2MHz frequency in the binary mixtures of Ethyl Benzoate with 1-Propanol, 1-Butanol, 1-Pentanol and theoretical values of ultrasonic velocity have been evaluated at 303K using Nomoto's relation, Impedance relation, Ideal mixture relation, Junjie's method and free length theory. Theoretical values are compared with the experimental values and the validity of the theories is checked by applying the chi-square test for goodness of fit and by calculating the average percentage error (APE. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocity.

  1. Biotransformation and Production from Hansenula Anomala to Natural Ethyl Phenylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl phenylacetate can be widely applied in many industries, such as food, medicines, cosmetics and medicinal herbs. At the moment, the production of natural ethyl phenylacetate is very limited. However, the biotransformation production of natural ethyl phenylacetate has an very extensive application prospect. This paper is written by taking the phenylacetic acid tolerance and the esterifying enzyme activity as the two indexes for screening the HA14 strain of hansenula anomala mutagenic which is regarded as the microorganism of ethyl phenylacetate production through biotransformation. By optimizing the production condition of phenylacetic acid and the esterification condition of ethyl phenylacetate, the production of ethyl phenylacetate accomplished through biotransformation within 72 hours can reach 864mg/L which is 171% of that of the initial bacterial strain.

  2. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  3. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the number...

  4. Ethyl alcohol: high risk toxin for human healt socially accepted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Téllez Mosquera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most widely used drugs in World wide so it is in Colombia too. The United Nations Organization (UN report on substance abuse 2004, esteem that 2.6000 millions of persons used alcohol occasional, habitual, abuse or addictive way. In Colombia, RUMBOS, the presidential office for drugs addictions esteem that 89.7 % of the students in universities were habitual consumer of alcohol. Alcohol is the first psicoactivas substances use for people than after use illegal substances. When ethyl alcohol is used in permanent and frequent way produced acute and chronic adverses effect on the health. The long run alcohol abusers has adverse effect in the nutricions, neurological, hepatic and teratogenic. The neurological, gastrointestinal, endocrine and acid-base equilibrium area affected in acute ways principally. The social aspects in quite important too alcohol has been related to interfamiliar violence, traffic accidents and violence in general. The high incidence in use and consumption, its toxic effect over human health, its negative social effect and the fact that it´s a legal and social accept substance made alcohol and real public health problem. Its necessary to say "be careful with alcohol in general"

  5. Going the distance with ethyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairston, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    If all had gone according to plan, ethyl alcohol would be in the driver's seat now, cruising down the highway and getting ready to speed into high gear. Instead, this renewable fuel, chemical reagent and solvent is navigating a complex obstacle course, watching warily for sharp turns and mixed signals. Globally, the supply and demand for all grades of ethyl alcohol is awry. Production of industrial-grade material is running at full throttle and prices are going up. Much of the upheaval over ethanol can be traced to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) of the Clean Air Act. Under ROS, 15% of oxygenates used in gasoline sold this year was to be derived from a renewable source. Next month, that percentage was to have been doubled to 30%. Enticed by projections of upwards of 2 billion gal/yr of fermentation alcohol to comply with ROS, producers rushed to expand capacity. But to the producers' dismay, EPA was forced to backpedal on ROS. When representatives of the petroleum industry filed suit and won a stay, EPA rescinded its ROS regulation and ethanol producers were left in the lurch. High prices for corn is also putting the squeeze on inventories of industrial alcohol. Synthetic ethanol production, from ethylene for example, is booming, however. This paper discusses the ethanol market factors

  6. The combustion kinetics of the lignocellulosic biofuel, ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Manik Kumer; Howard, Mí cheá l Sé amus; Zhang, Yingjia; Djebbi, Khalil; Capriolo, Gianluca; Farooq, Aamir; Curran, Henry J.; Dooley, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Ethyl levulinate (Ethyl 4-oxopentanoate) is a liquid molecule at ambient temperature, comprising of ketone and ethyl ester functionalities and is one of the prominent liquid fuel candidates that may be easily obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. The combustion kinetics of ethyl levulinate have been investigated. Shock tube and rapid compression machine apparatuses are utilised to acquire gas phase ignition delay measurements of 0.5% ethyl levulinate/O2 mixtures at ϕ = 1.0 and ϕ = 0.5 at ∼ 10 atm over the temperature range 1000–1400 K. Ethyl levulinate is observed not to ignite at temperatures lower than ∼1040 K in the rapid compression machine. The shock tube and rapid compression machine data are closely consistent and show ethyl levulinate ignition delay to exhibit an Arrhenius dependence to temperature. These measurements are explained by the construction and analysis of a detailed chemical kinetic model. The kinetic model is completed by establishing thermochemical-kinetic analogies to 2-butanone, for the ethyl levulinate ketone functionality, and to ethyl propanoate for the ethyl ester functionality. The so constructed model is observed to describe the shock tube data very accurately, but computes the rapid compression machine data set to a lesser but still applicable fidelity. Analysis of the model suggests the autooxidation mechanism of ethyl levulinate to be entirely dominated by the propensity for the ethyl ester functionality to unimolecularly decompose to form levulinic acid and ethylene. The subsequent reaction kinetics of these species is shown to dictate the overall rate of the global combustion reaction. This model is then use to estimate the Research and Motored Octane Numbers of ethyl levulinate to be ≥97.7 and ≥ 93, respectively. With this analysis ethyl levulinate would be best suited as a gasoline fuel component, rather than as a diesel fuel as suggested in the literature. Indeed it may be considered to be useful as an

  7. The combustion kinetics of the lignocellulosic biofuel, ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Manik Kumer

    2018-04-04

    Ethyl levulinate (Ethyl 4-oxopentanoate) is a liquid molecule at ambient temperature, comprising of ketone and ethyl ester functionalities and is one of the prominent liquid fuel candidates that may be easily obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. The combustion kinetics of ethyl levulinate have been investigated. Shock tube and rapid compression machine apparatuses are utilised to acquire gas phase ignition delay measurements of 0.5% ethyl levulinate/O2 mixtures at ϕ = 1.0 and ϕ = 0.5 at ∼ 10 atm over the temperature range 1000–1400 K. Ethyl levulinate is observed not to ignite at temperatures lower than ∼1040 K in the rapid compression machine. The shock tube and rapid compression machine data are closely consistent and show ethyl levulinate ignition delay to exhibit an Arrhenius dependence to temperature. These measurements are explained by the construction and analysis of a detailed chemical kinetic model. The kinetic model is completed by establishing thermochemical-kinetic analogies to 2-butanone, for the ethyl levulinate ketone functionality, and to ethyl propanoate for the ethyl ester functionality. The so constructed model is observed to describe the shock tube data very accurately, but computes the rapid compression machine data set to a lesser but still applicable fidelity. Analysis of the model suggests the autooxidation mechanism of ethyl levulinate to be entirely dominated by the propensity for the ethyl ester functionality to unimolecularly decompose to form levulinic acid and ethylene. The subsequent reaction kinetics of these species is shown to dictate the overall rate of the global combustion reaction. This model is then use to estimate the Research and Motored Octane Numbers of ethyl levulinate to be ≥97.7 and ≥ 93, respectively. With this analysis ethyl levulinate would be best suited as a gasoline fuel component, rather than as a diesel fuel as suggested in the literature. Indeed it may be considered to be useful as an

  8. The total body mass of fatty acid ethyl esters in skeletal muscles following ethanol exposure greatly exceeds that found in the liver and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Raneem O; Laposata, Michael; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E; Preedy, Victor R

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal muscle appears to be susceptible to chronic and acute excess alcohol intake, giving rise to alcoholic myopathy, a common disease among alcoholics. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol, have been shown to be toxic to cells in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that accumulation of FAEE in skeletal muscle could contribute to the development of alcoholic myopathy. Male wistar rats were treated either with 75 mmol ethanol/kg body weight or saline, in the fed state or starved for 1 or 2 days before administration. Rats were thus divided into the following groups: fed-saline (n = 8); fed-ethanol (n = 8); starved 1 day, saline (n = 8); starved 1 day, ethanol (n = 9); starved 2 days, saline (n = 7); and starved 2 days, ethanol (n = 8). At the end of the incubation, skeletal muscles (abdominal and gastrocnemius), liver, and heart were isolated and processed for FAEE isolation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total mass of FAEE in the muscles was much greater than that found in the liver and the heart. In general, the animals that were fasted for 1 day and received ethanol had the highest FAEE levels among the three groups of animals. The major ethyl ester species in all cases were ethyl 16:0, ethyl 18:0, ethyl 18:1 n-9, and ethyl 18:2 n-6. Ethyl 20:4 n-6 and ethyl 22:6 n-3 were also present, except in the fasted 1-day group, where ethyl 22:6 disappeared, though it reappeared in the fasted 2-day group. These findings demonstrate that skeletal muscles contain high levels of FAEE that are synthesized in the body after ethanol exposure. The concentration of FAEE in skeletal muscle in this study was very similar to FAEE concentration in the liver. This differs from previous studies suggesting a low concentration of skeletal muscle FAEE with ethanol exposure.

  9. Colistin Population Pharmacokinetics after Application of a Loading Dose of 9 MU Colistin Methanesulfonate in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaiskos, Ilias; Friberg, Lena E; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Tsagkari, Vasiliki; Galani, Lamprini; Kostakou, Eirini; Baziaka, Fotini; Paskalis, Charalambos; Koutsoukou, Antonia; Giamarellou, Helen

    2015-12-01

    Colistin has been revived, in the era of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative infections, as the last-resort treatment in critically ill patients. Recent studies focusing on the optimal dosing strategy of colistin have demonstrated the necessity of a loading dose at treatment initiation (D. Plachouras, M. Karvanen, L. E. Friberg, E. Papadomichelakis, A. Antoniadou, I. Tsangaris, I. Karaiskos, G. Poulakou, F. Kontopidou, A. Armaganidis, O. Cars, and H. Giamarellou, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:3430-3436, 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01361-08; A. F. Mohamed, I. Karaiskos, D. Plachouras, M. Karvanen, K. Pontikis, B. Jansson, E. Papadomichelakis, A. Antoniadou, H. Giamarellou, A. Armaganidis, O. Cars, and L. E. Friberg, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:4241- 4249, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.06426-11; S. M. Garonzik, J. Li, V. Thamlikitkul, D. L. Paterson, S. Shoham, J. Jacob, F. P. Silveira, A. Forrest, and R. L. Nation, Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3284-3294, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01733-10). In 19 critically ill patients with suspected or microbiologically documented infections caused by XDR Gram-negative strains, a loading dose of 9 MU colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) (∼ 270 mg colistin base activity) was administered with a maintenance dose of 4.5 MU every 12 h, commenced after 24 h. Patients on renal replacement were excluded. CMS infusion was given over 30 min or 1 h. Repeated blood sampling was performed after the loading dose and after the 5th or 6th dose. Colistin concentrations and measured CMS, determined after hydrolization to colistin and including the partially sulfomethylated derivatives, were determined with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted in NONMEM with the new data combined with data from previous studies. Measured colistimethate concentrations were described by 4 compartments for distribution and removal of sulfomethyl groups, while

  10. Capillary ion chromatography with on-column focusing for ultra-trace analysis of methanesulfonate and inorganic anions in limited volume Antarctic ice core samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Estrella Sanz; Poynter, Sam; Curran, Mark; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2015-08-28

    Preservation of ionic species within Antarctic ice yields a unique proxy record of the Earth's climate history. Studies have been focused until now on two proxies: the ionic components of sea salt aerosol and methanesulfonic acid. Measurement of the all of the major ionic species in ice core samples is typically carried out by ion chromatography. Former methods, whilst providing suitable detection limits, have been based upon off-column preconcentration techniques, requiring larger sample volumes, with potential for sample contamination and/or carryover. Here, a new capillary ion chromatography based analytical method has been developed for quantitative analysis of limited volume Antarctic ice core samples. The developed analytical protocol applies capillary ion chromatography (with suppressed conductivity detection) and direct on-column sample injection and focusing, thus eliminating the requirement for off-column sample preconcentration. This limits the total sample volume needed to 300μL per analysis, allowing for triplicate sample analysis with Application to composite ice-core samples is demonstrated, with coupling of the capillary ion chromatograph to high resolution mass spectrometry used to confirm the presence and purity of the observed methanesulfonate peak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue. PMID:24689059

  12. Study of the Transformation of the Oil of Used Soya in Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sarracent-López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of vegetable oils in food processing brings harmful health effects and on the other hand needs a complex treatment to discard without affecting the environment. Transformed into methyl or ethyl esters of fatty acids and glycerin by transesterification with the corresponding alcohol, can be a suitable method for treatment. It was investigated residual soybean oil from a producer of fried foods and ethanol. It is known that with this spirit the transformation process presents difficulties not listed with methanol, but at the same time does not bring the drawbacks of the latter, for toxicity and acquisition, and that since it is a derivative of the domestic sugar industry does not constitute a raw material import. We experimented with ethanol 80 %, 85 % and 90 % purity and worked 35 ºC and 50 ºC. Final yields of ethyl esters, are low compared with those obtained for similar processes with methanol, 85 % being the highest yield obtained under the conditions of the process. An assessment of costs was conducted to produce 1L of ethyl esters in the laboratory, the expenses of 0,56 pesos/L.

  13. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noshabah Tabassum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue.

  14. 2,6-Bis(9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Asiri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 2,6-bis(ethyl-9-ethyl-9H-carbazolylmethylenecyclohexanone has been synthesized by condensation of 9-ethylcarbazole-3-aldehyde and cyclohexanone in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  15. Cyclohexenones Through Addition of Ethyl Acetoacetate to 3-Aryl-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chalcone derivatives 3a–i containing a thiophene ring were prepared by the condensation of 1-(thiophen-3-yl)ethanone with aromatic aldehydes in excellent yields. The Michael addition of ethyl acetoacetate 4 to chalcone derivatives 3a–i resulted in the formation of nine novel ethyl 6-aryl ...

  16. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from chicken fat waste using ZnO/SiO fatty acid ethyl ester ... obtained in the range of 56−88%and a second order quadratic polynomial regression model that established the ... Transesterification is a chemical.

  17. Ethylic or methylic route to soybean biodiesel? Tracking environmental answers through life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejos Altamirano, Carlos Alberto; Yokoyama, Lídia; Medeiros, José Luiz de; Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia de

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle of biodiesel using alternative transesterification routes is analyzed. • Bioethanol can potentially decrease CO_2 emissions of methanol biodiesel. • Contrarily, equivalent CO_2 emissions are retained and renewability is reduced. • Water footprint increases from 37.12 (methanol) to 44.88 m"3/GJ biodiesel (ethanol). • Energy efficiency is reduced from 79.37% (methanol) to 75.19 (ethanol %). - Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable fuel produced by transesterification of triacylglicerides (TAG) contained in vegetable oils and animal fats, to yield alkyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerin. Methanol is the main transesterification agent employed resulting in FAME (fatty acid methyl esters), which is primarily obtained from natural gas reforming (fossil source). Substitution of methanol by ethanol produces FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) and has the potential to render biodiesel a fully renewable fuel. Although renewability is a significant driving force for the proposed alcohol replacement, environmental performance of the alternative transesterification is questioned. The answer is herein sought through a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the two production chains. The study tracks CO_2 emissions, energy efficiency, water and resources consumption, and environmental impacts (Acidification Potential – AP, Global Warming Potential – GWP, Eutrophication Potential – EP, and Human Toxicity Potential – TP). The boundaries of the biodiesel production chains extend from the extraction of raw-materials to its final use as transportation fuel in buses, applied to the Brazilian scenario. Results show that substitution of the methylic route with the ethylic route does not attribute significant environmental benefits. Furthermore, the ethylic route presents competitive advantages only in the category of GWP, and exhibits inferior performance in the remaining evaluated impact categories. Finally, a greater consumption of water and energy

  18. Photoisomerization of ethyl ferulate: A solution phase transient absorption study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbury, Michael D.; Baker, Lewis A.; Rodrigues, Natércia D. N.; Quan, Wen-Dong; Stavros, Vasilios G.

    2017-04-01

    Ethyl ferulate (ethyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate) is currently used as a sunscreening agent in commercial sunscreen blends. Recent time-resolved gas-phase measurements have demonstrated that it possesses long-lived (>ns) electronic excited states, counterintuitive to what one might anticipate for an effective sunscreening agent. In the present work, the photodynamics of ethyl ferulate in cyclohexane, are explored using time-resolved transient electronic absorption spectroscopy, upon photoexcitation to the 11ππ∗ and 21ππ∗ states. We demonstrate that ethyl ferulate undergoes efficient non-radiative decay to repopulate the electronic ground state, mediated by trans-cis isomerization. These results strongly suggest that even mild perturbations induced by a non-polar solvent, as may be found in a closer-to-market sunscreen blend, may contribute to our understanding of ethyl ferulate's role as a sunscreening agent.

  19. Introducing Toxics

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-01-01

    With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present ...

  20. Activity of the Brassinosteroid Transcription Factors BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 and BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ETHYL METHANESULFONATE-SUPPRESSOR1/BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT2 Blocks Developmental Reprogramming in Response to Low Phosphate Availability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, A.P.; Fridman, Y.; Friedlander-Shani, L.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Savaldi-Goldstein, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 2 (2014), s. 678-688 ISSN 0032-0889 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Transcription * Brassinosteroid * Arabidopsis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.841, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25136063

  1. Investigations into the chemistry, toxicology, metabolism and possible mode of action of O-ethyl S-methyl ethylphosphonothioate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical and metabolic oxidation of O-ethyl S-methyl ethylphosphonthioate (1) as a model compound was studied. This compound has the following toxicological properties: LD 50 (rat) 4.6 mg/kg, LD 50 (HF) 14.0 ug/g; k i (BAChE) = 303, k i (HFAChE) = 623. 13 C- and 31 P-NMR were mainly used in this study. The chemical oxidation of 1 with m-CPBA in CDCl 3 resulted in the formation of O-ethyl ethylphosphonic acid (2), O-ethyl ethylphosphinyloxymethylsulfonate (3) and O-ethyl ethylphosphonic acid anhydride (4). However, oxidation reaction of the model compound 1 with MPPA in D 2 O gave 2 and methylsulfonic acid. 1 was incubated in vitro with rat liver microsomal oxidase, and 2 and methylsulfenic acid were observed along with 1. For the in vivo study, a number of houseflies were treated with 14ug/g (LD 50 level) of 1. Analysis of the extracts of metabolic products provided evidence of the formation of 2. The existence of 1 S-oxide was demonstrated by use of a trapping method and the observation of oxidation products. The S-oxide has been proposed as a possible active intermediate responsible for the high toxicity of 1 to animals. However, owing to its instability it is unlikely that the S-oxide intermediate would persist in an aqueous biological environment long enough to attack the target enzyme. 4 was shown to have high toxicity to the rat and housefly and was also a potent anticholinesterase against BAChE and HFAChE . The presence of 4 was observed directly by the monitoring experiments during the chemical oxidation in aqueous conditions. This provided evidence that this metabolite is stable enough to attack the target site in biological systems. The anhydride 4 is proposed as the active metabolite in in vivo systems, responsible for high toxicity of 1

  2. Ethyl pyruvate protects colonic anastomosis from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, B; Karabeyoglu, M; Huner, T; Canbay, E; Eroglu, A; Yildirim, O; Dolapci, M; Bilgihan, A; Cengiz, O

    2009-03-01

    Ethyl pyruvate is a simple derivative in Ca(+2)- and K(+)-containing balanced salt solution of pyruvate to avoid the problems associated with the instability of pyruvate in solution. It has been shown to ameliorate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in many organs. It has also been shown that I/R injury delays the healing of colonic anastomosis. In this study, the effect of ethyl pyruvate on the healing of colon anastomosis and anastomotic strength after I/R injury was investigated. Anastomosis of the colon was performed in 32 adult male Wistar albino rats divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals: (1) sham-operated control group (group 1); (2) 30 minutes of intestinal I/R by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (group 2); (3) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 3), ethyl pyruvate was administered as a 50-mg/kg/d single dose; and (4) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 4), ethyl pyruvate administration was repeatedly (every 6 hours) at the same dose (50 mg/kg). On the fifth postoperative day, animals were killed. Perianastomotic tissue hydroxyproline contents and anastomotic bursting pressures were measured in all groups. When the anastomotic bursting pressures and tissue hydroxyproline contents were compared, it was found that they were decreased in group 2 when compared with groups 1, 3, and 4 (P .05). Ethyl pyruvate significantly prevents the delaying effect of I/R injury on anastomotic strength and healing independent from doses of administration.

  3. Deviation from additivity in mixture toxicity: relevance of nonlinear dose-response relationships and cell line differences in genotoxicity assays with combinations of chemical mutagens and gamma-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Werner K; Vamvakas, Spyros; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Schlatter, Josef; Stopper, Helga

    2002-12-01

    Sublinear dose-response relationships are often seen in toxicity testing, particularly with bioassays for carcinogenicity. This is the result of a superimposition of various effects that modulate and contribute to the process of cancer formation. Examples are saturation of detoxification pathways or DNA repair with increasing dose, or regenerative hyperplasia and indirect DNA damage as a consequence of high-dose cytotoxicity and cell death. The response to a combination treatment can appear to be supra-additive, although it is in fact dose-additive along a sublinear dose-response curve for the single agents. Because environmental exposure of humans is usually in a low-dose range and deviation from linearity is less likely at the low-dose end, combination effects should be tested at the lowest observable effect levels (LOEL) of the components. This principle has been applied to combinations of genotoxic agents in various cellular models. For statistical analysis, all experiments were analyzed for deviation from additivity with an n-factor analysis of variance with an interaction term, n being the number of components tested in combination. Benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and dibenz[a,c]anthracene were tested at the LOEL, separately and in combination, for the induction of revertants in the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and rat liver S9 fraction. Combined treatment produced no deviation from additivity. The induction of micronuclei in vitro was investigated with ionizing radiation from a 137Cs source and ethyl methanesulfonate. Mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells revealed a significant 40% supra-additive combination effect in an experiment based on three independent replicates for controls and single and combination treatments. On the other hand, two human lymphoblastoid cell lines (TK6 and WTK1) as well as a pilot study with human primary fibroblasts from fetal lung did not show deviation from additivity. Data derived from one cell line should therefore

  4. Developed a needle trap device with PDMS sorbent for microextraction of toluene and methyl ethyl ketone from aquatic samples using dynamic headspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Karimi Zeverdegani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the widespread use of toxic chemicals in most workplaces that can lead to toxic effects on human, various chemical extraction technique have been defined for analysis these toxic substances in air, water and biological samples. The purpose of this research is extraction of  toluene and methyl ethyl ketone from aquatic samples with needle trap device and  one commercial sorbent. Methods: In this research, needle trap device was used to extraction of  toluene and methyl ethyl ketone in aquatic samples, so needles(size 20 were packed with PDMS and extraction was done with dynamic headspace needle trap device. Gas chromatography with - flame ionization detector was used to analysis and optimized extraction of two substances were obtained. Results: Results show that the optimum temperature and time extraction was similar for toluene and methyl ethyl ketone (30 ° C, 30 min, but the reproducibility of results and calibration curve that obtained for toluene was better than methyl ethyl ketone. Conclusion: Needle trap technique is inexpensive, sensitive and portable also this method has good recovery to extract small amounts of  toluene and methyl ethyketon from aquatic samples with polydimethylsiloxane.

  5. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  6. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether: a toxicological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Douglas

    2007-05-01

    A number of oxygenated compounds (oxygenates) are available for use in gasoline to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions, reduce the aromatic compound content, and avoid the use of organo-lead compounds, while maintaining high octane numbers. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is one such compound. The current use of ETBE in gasoline or petrol is modest but increasing, with consequently similar trends in the potential for human exposure. Inhalation is the most likely mode of exposure, with about 30% of inhaled ETBE being retained by the lungs and distributed around the body. Following cessation of exposure, the blood concentration of ETBE falls rapidly, largely as a result of its metabolism to tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) and acetaldehyde. TBA may be further metabolized, first to 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and then to 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, the two dominant metabolites found in urine of volunteers and rats. The rapid oxidation of acetaldehyde suggests that its blood concentration is unlikely to rise above normal as a result of human exposure to sources of ETBE. Single-dose toxicity tests show that ETBE has low toxicity and is essentially nonirritant to eyes and skin; it did not cause sensitization in a maximization test in guinea pigs. Neurological effects have been observed only at very high exposure concentrations. There is evidence for an effect of ETBE on the kidney of rats. Increases in kidney weight were seen in both sexes, but protein droplet accumulation (with alpha(2u)-globulin involvement) and sustained increases in cell proliferation occurred only in males. In liver, centrilobular necrosis was induced in mice, but not rats, after exposure by inhalation, although this lesion was reported in some rats exposed to very high oral doses of ETBE. The proportion of liver cells engaged in S-phase DNA synthesis was increased in mice of both sexes exposed by inhalation. ETBE has no specific effects on reproduction, development, or genetic material. Carcinogenicity studies

  7. Migration of toxicants from plastics into drinking water during storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, migration of toxicants, such as, manufacturing additives and previously adsorbed materials into drinking water stored inside plastic containers was investigated. The study considered virgin containers as well as those previously used to store sulphuric acid, calcium hypochlorite, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and ...

  8. Impact of two ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate, on Saccharomyces cerevisiae: metabolic, physiologic, and morphological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Nasir; Husson, Eric; Jacquard, Cédric; Wewetzer, Sandra; Büchs, Jochen; Sarazin, Catherine; Gosselin, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered as suitable candidates for lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment prior enzymatic saccharification and, obviously, for second-generation bioethanol production. However, several reports showed toxic or inhibitory effects of residual ILs on microorganisms, plants, and animal cells which could affect a subsequent enzymatic saccharification and fermentation process. In this context, the impact of two hydrophilic imidazolium-based ILs already used in lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment was investigated: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylphosphonate [Emim][MeO(H)PO2]. Their effects were assessed on the model yeast for ethanolic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grown in a culture medium containing glucose as carbon source and various IL concentrations. Classical fermentation parameters were followed: growth, glucose consumption and ethanol production, and two original factors: the respiratory status with the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) and carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR) of yeasts which were monitored online by respiratory activity monitoring systems (RAMOS). In addition, yeast morphology was characterized by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The addition of ILs to the growth medium inhibited the OTR and switched the metabolism from respiration (conversion of glucose into biomass) to fermentation (conversion of glucose to ethanol). This behavior could be observed at low IL concentrations (≤5% IL) while above there is no significant growth or ethanol production. The presence of IL in the growth medium also induced changes of yeast morphology, which exhibited wrinkled, softened, and holed shapes. Both ILs showed the same effects, but [Emim][MeO(H)PO2] was more biocompatible than [Emim][OAc] and could be better tolerated by S. cerevisiae. These two imidazolium-derived ILs were appropriate candidates for useful pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in the

  9. Influence of prohexadione-calcium, trinexapac-ethyl and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethyl (TNE) and hexaconazole (HX) on lodging and gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway of rice cultivar, Hwayeongbyeo. It was observed that these novel synthetic growth retardants suppressed lodging of rice under field conditions through ...

  10. Novel recombinant ethyl ferulate esterase from Burkholderia multivorans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rashamuse, KJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and identification of bacterial isolates with specific ferulic acid (FA) esterase activity and cloning of a gene encoding activity. A micro-organism with ethyl ferulate hydrolysing (EFH) activity was isolated by culture enrichment...

  11. Substoichiometric determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Polaiah, B.; Rangamannar, B.

    1989-01-01

    A substoichiometric radiochemical method was developed for the determination of selenium with potassium ethyl xanthate. The selenium ethyl xanthate complex formed was extracted into chloroform from borate buffer at pH 5. The effect of foreign ions on the extraction was studied. Microgram quantities of selenium could be conveniently determined with a fair degree of accuracy. The method was successfully applied for the determination of selenium content in food stuffs such as 'Jaggery' and 'Wheat powder'. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Extraction, Separation, and Purification of Blueberry Anthocyanin Using Ethyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry contains many substances that are important to the human body and can prevent cardiovascular diseases, protect the retina, and soften blood vessels. Anthocyanin, which is extracted from blueberry, can activate the retina, strengthen vision, reduce serum cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein, and protect cell nucleus tissues from radical oxidation; hence, blueberry is of importance to scientists from different countries. In this study, anthocyanin was extracted and separated from blueberry using ethyl alcohol to investigate the effects of factors, such as ethyl alcohol volume ratio on anthocyanin extraction and separation technologies. The extracting solution was then purified using the macroreticular resin purification method to investigate the effects of ethyl alcohol concentration and eluent dosage on anthocyanin extraction during purification. The research results demonstrated that 60 % ethyl alcohol volume fraction, 1 : 10 mass ratio of solid to liquid, and 60 °C ultrasonic temperature were the best conditions for anthocyanin extraction. The best purification conditions were 95 % ethyl alcohol, which had been acidized by 0.3 % hydrochloric acid and 70 ml of eluent. This work provides a reference for the application of ethyl alcohol in anthocyanin extraction.

  13. Icosapent ethyl: a review of its use in severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther S; McCormack, Paul L

    2014-12-01

    Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa®) is a high-purity ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that is de-esterified to EPA following oral administration. Both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that have been associated with triglyceride (TG)-lowering. However, DHA has been associated with increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Icosapent ethyl contains ≥96 % of the EPA ethyl ester, does not contain DHA, and is approved in the USA for use as an adjunct to diet to lower TG levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL [≥5.65 mmol/L]) hypertriglyceridemia. In a pivotal phase III trial, oral icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly decreased the placebo-corrected median TG levels by 33.1 %. It did not increase LDL-C, had favorable effects on other lipid parameters, and had a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo. Therefore, icosapent ethyl is an effective and well-tolerated agent for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia in adults.

  14. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  15. Ethyl Pyruvate Emerges as a Safe and Fast Acting Agent against Trypanosoma brucei by Targeting Pyruvate Kinase Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet Worku

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT also called sleeping sickness is an infectious disease in humans caused by an extracellular protozoan parasite. The disease, if left untreated, results in 100% mortality. Currently available drugs are full of severe drawbacks and fail to escape the fast development of trypanosoma resistance. Due to similarities in cell metabolism between cancerous tumors and trypanosoma cells, some of the current registered drugs against HAT have also been tested in cancer chemotherapy. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the simple ester, ethyl pyruvate, comprises such properties.The current study covers the efficacy and corresponding target evaluation of ethyl pyruvate on T. brucei cell lines using a combination of biochemical techniques including cell proliferation assays, enzyme kinetics, phasecontrast microscopic video imaging and ex vivo toxicity tests. We have shown that ethyl pyruvate effectively kills trypanosomes most probably by net ATP depletion through inhibition of pyruvate kinase (Ki = 3.0±0.29 mM. The potential of ethyl pyruvate as a trypanocidal compound is also strengthened by its fast acting property, killing cells within three hours post exposure. This has been demonstrated using video imaging of live cells as well as concentration and time dependency experiments. Most importantly, ethyl pyruvate produces minimal side effects in human red cells and is known to easily cross the blood-brain-barrier. This makes it a promising candidate for effective treatment of the two clinical stages of sleeping sickness. Trypanosome drug-resistance tests indicate irreversible cell death and a low incidence of resistance development under experimental conditions.Our results present ethyl pyruvate as a safe and fast acting trypanocidal compound and show that it inhibits the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Competitive inhibition of this enzyme was found to cause ATP depletion and cell death. Due to its ability to easily cross

  16. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  17. Experimental study of the density and viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Stephan, M.; Safarov, J.; Kul, I.; Nocke, J.; Abdulagatov, I.M.; Hassel, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Density of the ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. ► Viscosity of the ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. ► Thermodynamic properties of ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. ► Equation of state of ionic liquid [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. - Abstract: Density and viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate [EMIM][EtSO 4 ] have been measured over the temperature range from (283.15 to 413.15) K and at pressures up to 140 MPa and in the temperature range from (283.15 to 373.15) K at 0.1 MPa, respectively. The expanded uncertainty of the density, pressure, temperature, and viscosity measurements at the 95% confidence level with a coverage factor of k = 2 is estimated to be (0.01 to 0.08)%, 0.1%, 15 mK, and 0.35%, respectively. The measurements were carried out with an Anton–Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter and a fully automated SVM 3000 Anton–Paar rotational Stabinger viscometer. The vibration-tube densimeter was calibrated using various reference fluids, double-distilled water, methanol, toluene, and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empiric equation of state for [EMIM][EtSO 4 ] has been developed using the measured (p, ρ, T) data. This equation was used to calculate the various thermodynamic properties of the IL and for compare with measured properties (speed of sound and enthalpy). Theoretically based Arrhenius–Andrade and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher type equations were use to describe of the temperature dependence of measured viscosities for [EMIM][EtSO 4 ]. All measured properties were detailed compared with the reported data by other author.

  18. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  19. Supercritical antisolvent co-precipitation of rifampicin and ethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerafi, Rania; Swanepoel, Andri; Crampon, Christelle; Kalombo, Lonji; Labuschagne, Philip; Badens, Elisabeth; Masmoudi, Yasmine

    2017-05-01

    Rifampicin-loaded submicron-sized particles were prepared through supercritical anti-solvent process using ethyl cellulose as polymeric encapsulating excipient. Ethyl acetate and a mixture of ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (70/30 and 85/15) were used as solvents for both drug and polymeric excipient. When ethyl acetate was used, rifampicin was crystallized separately without being embedded within the ethyl cellulose matrix while by using the ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide mixture, reduced crystallinity of the active ingredient was observed and a simultaneous precipitation of ethyl cellulose and drug was achieved. The effect of solvent/CO 2 molar ratio and polymer/drug mass ratio on the co-precipitates morphology and drug loading was investigated. Using the solvent mixture, co-precipitates with particle sizes ranging between 190 and 230nm were obtained with drug loading and drug precipitation yield from respectively 8.5 to 38.5 and 42.4 to 77.2% when decreasing the ethyl cellulose/rifampicin ratio. Results show that the solvent nature and the initial drug concentrations affect morphology and drug precipitation yield of the formulations. In vitro dissolution studies revealed that the release profile of rifampicin was sustained when co-precipitation was carried out with the solvent mixture. It was demonstrated that the drug to polymer ratio influenced amorphous content of the SAS co-precipitates. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms and infrared spectra revealed that there is neither interaction between rifampicin and the polymer nor degradation of rifampicin during co-precipitation. In addition, stability stress tests on SAS co-precipitates were carried out at 75% relative humidity and room temperature in order to evaluate their physical stability. SAS co-precipitates were X-ray amorphous and remained stable after 6months of storage. The SAS co-precipitation process using a mixture of ethyl acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide demonstrates that this strategy can

  20. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  1. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  2. Density, viscosity, and saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zhixian; Jiang, Haiming; Li, Ling; Wang, Hongxing; Qiu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Density of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and its thermal expansion coefficient was determined. • Viscosity of ethyl trifluoroacetate was measured and fitted to the Andrade equation. • Saturated vapor pressure of ethyl trifluoroacetate was reported. • The Clausius–Clapeyron equation was used to calculate the molar evaporation enthalpy of ethyl trifluoroacetate. - Abstract: The properties of ethyl trifluoroacetate (CF 3 COOCH 2 CH 3 ) were measured as a function of temperature: density (278.08 to 322.50) K, viscosity (293.45 to 334.32) K, saturated vapor pressure (293.35 to 335.65) K. The density data were fitted to a quadratic polynomial equation, and the viscosity data were regressed to the Andrade equation. The correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of equations for density and viscosity are 0.9997 and 0.9999, respectively. The correlation between saturated vapor pressures and temperatures was achieved with a maximum absolute relative deviation of 0.142%. In addition, the molar evaporation enthalpy in the range of T = (293.35 to 335.65) K was estimated by the Clausius–Clapeyron equation

  3. Gaseous (DMS, MSA, SO2, H2SO4 and DMSO and particulate (sulfate and methanesulfonate sulfur species over the northeastern coast of Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bardouki

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the levels, the temporal and diurnal variability of the main compounds involved in the biogenic sulfur cycle was carried out in Crete (Eastern Mediterranean during the Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study (MINOS field experiment in July-August 2001. Intensive measurements of gaseous dimethylsulfide (DMS, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, sulfur dioxide (SO2, sulfuric (H2SO4 and methanesulfonic acids (MSA and particulate sulfate (SO42- and methanesulfonate (MS- have been performed during the campaign. Dimethylsulfide (DMS levels ranged from 2.9 to 136 pmol·mol-1 (mean value of 21.7 pmol·mol-1 and showed a clear diurnal variation with daytime maximum. During nighttime DMS levels fall close or below the detection limit of 2 pmol·mol-1. Concurrent measurements of OH and NO3 radicals during the campaign indicate that NO3 levels can explain most of the observed diurnal variation of DMS. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO ranged between 0.02 and 10.1 pmol·mol-1 (mean value of 1.7 pmol·mol-1 and presents a diurnal variation similar to that of DMS. SO2 levels ranged from 220 to 2970 pmol·mol-1 (mean value of 1030 pmol·mol-1, while nss-SO42- and MS- ranged from 330 to 7100 pmol·mol-1, (mean value of 1440 pmol·mol-1 and 1.1 to 37.5 pmol·mol-1 (mean value of 11.5 pmol·mol-1 respectively. Of particular interest are the measurements of gaseous MSA and H2SO4. MSA ranged from below the detection limit (3x104 to 3.7x107 molecules cm-3, whereas H2SO4 ranged between 1x105 and 9.0x107 molecules cm-3. The measured H2SO4 maxima are among the highest reported in literature and can be attributed to high insolation, absence of precipitation and increased SO2 levels in the area. From the concurrent SO2, OH, and H2SO4 measurements a sticking coefficient of 0.52±0.28 was calculated for H2SO4. From the concurrent MSA, OH, and DMS measurements the yield of gaseous MSA from the OH-initiated oxidation of DMS was calculated to range between 0.1-0.4%. This low MSA

  4. Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch. Milne-Redh (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njateng Guy SS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml. Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v and gentamycin (reference drug eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL and triglycerides were significantly (p Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections.

  5. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and ∼30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Spectroscopic characterization of the ethyl radical-water complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Finney, Brian A; Laufer, Allan H; Anglada, Josep M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2016-10-14

    An ab initio investigation has been employed to determine the structural and spectroscopic parameters, such as rotational constants, vibrational frequencies, vertical excitation energies, and the stability of the ethyl-water complex. The ethyl-water complex has a binding energy of 1.15 kcal⋅mol -1 . The interaction takes place between the hydrogen of water and the unpaired electron of the radical. This interaction is found to produce a red shift in the OH stretching bands of water of ca. 84 cm -1 , and a shift of all UV absorption bands to higher energies.

  8. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  9. Attraction of Mosquitoes to Diethyl Methylbenzamide and Ethyl Hexanediol

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    tant to the biting midges Culicoides pulicaris that 8% ethyl acetate was attractant to the Linn. and Culicoides puncticoUis Becker (Cera- vinegar fly...Drosoph- finding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culcidae): a review. ila melanogaster Meigen to the products of ferment - Bull. Entomol. Res. 70:525-532. ing banana

  10. Supercritical antisolvent co-precipitation of rifampicin and ethyl cellulose

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Djerafi, R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available . Using the solvent mixture, co-precipitates with particle sizes ranging between 190 and 230 nm were obtained with drug loading and drug precipitation yield from respectively 8.5 to 38.5 and 42.4 to 77.2% when decreasing the ethyl cellulose...

  11. Effects of ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Vitex simplicifolia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia on vitamins A, E and C, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid profile levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated. The study was conducted with 30 Wistar rats, assigned into six groups of five rats each, and daily ...

  12. Hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parts of Persea americana Mill are used for various ethnomedicinal purposes. The aqueous seed extract is used locally by herbalists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this study, our objective was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the methanolic seed extract on olive oil- ...

  13. Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis in Human Leukemia U937 Cells by Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species. C-H Kang, S-H Kang, S-H Boo, S-Y Park, D-O Moon, G-Y Kim ...

  14. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  15. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod; Alabbad, Mohammed; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored

  16. short communication reaction of ethyl acetoacetate and 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    starting materials. Thus, we describe in this paper a facile procedure for the synthesis of 9- phenyl-6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-ones involving the reaction of ethyl acetoacetate and chalcones derived from the condensation of salicylaldehyde and acetophenone derivatives. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS. The conditions for the ...

  17. Effects of Piliostigma thonningii ethyl acetate leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent research findings extol the medicinal significance of the different parts of Piliostigma thonningii. The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of its ethyl acetate leaf extract against AlCl3-induced hepatocellular derangement in mature male rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (mean weight, 207 ± 11.01g) were ...

  18. Catalytic Synthesis of Ethyl Ester From Some Common Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalytic conversion of ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) was carried out by homogeneous and heterogeneous transesterification of melon seed, shea butter and neem seed oils using NaOH, KOH and 5wt%CaO/Al2O3 catalyst systems respectively. Oil content of the seeds from n-hexane or hot water extract ranged ...

  19. Ethyl ester purpurine-18 from Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; Giulietti, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    The phaeophorbide ethyl ester named Purpurine-18 and the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were obtained by chromatographic procedures from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Gossypium mustelinum. The structure of these compound was determined by NMR, IR and mass spectra data analysis. This is the first occurrence of this compound in Angiosperm. (author)

  20. Ethyl Alcohol Extract of Hizikia fusiforme Induces Caspase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    In this study, the role of the ethyl alcohol extract of H. fusiforme (EAHF) in the induction of apoptosis in ... closely related to the induction of apoptosis via the downregulation of IAP family members such as IAP-. 1, IAP-2 ... induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells through ... Total cell extracts were prepared using PRO-.

  1. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and ...

  2. Radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate on nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Clinical Laboratory, The 5th People's Hospital of Ji'nan, Ji'nan ... Purpose: To investigate the radio-sensitizing effect of ethyl caffeate (ETF) on naso-pharyngeal ... malignant solid tumors of head and neck which ... Excess irradiation could result in severe side .... protein bands were probed with corresponding.

  3. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  4. Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Eugenia uniflora on Proteins Global Expression during Morphogenesis in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison P; de Azevedo, Matheus F; Ferreira, Magda R A; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Milan, Eveline P; Soares, Luiz A L; Rocha, Keyla B F; Uchôa, Adriana F; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J S; Fusco Almeida, Ana M; Chaves, Guilherme M

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is able to switch from yeast to hyphal growth and this is an essential step for tissue invasion and establishment of infection. Due to the limited drug arsenal used to treat fungal infections and the constant emergence of resistant strains, it is important to search for new therapeutic candidates. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate by proteomic analysis the role of a natural product ( Eugenia uniflora ) in impairing hypha formation in C. albicans . We also tested the potential action of E. uniflora to prevent and treat oral candidiasis induced in a murine model of oral infection and the ability of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to phagocytize C. albicans cells treated with the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract. We found that this fraction greatly reduced hypha formation after morphogenesis induction in the presence of serum. Besides, several proteins were differentially expressed in cells treated with the fraction. Surprisingly, the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced phagocytosis in C. albicans (Mean 120.36 ± 36.71 yeasts/100 PMNs vs. 44.68 ± 19.84 yeasts/100 PMNs). Oral candidiasis was attenuated when C. albicans cells were either pre-incubated in the presence of E. uniflora or when the fraction was applied to the surface of the oral cavity after infection. These results were consistent with the reduction in CFU counts (2.36 vs. 1.85 Log10 CFU/ml) and attenuation of tissue damage observed with histopathological analysis of animals belonging to treated group. We also observed shorter true hyphae by direct examination and histopathological analysis, when cells were treated with the referred natural product. The E. uniflora ethyl acetate fraction was non-toxic to human cells. E. uniflora may act on essential proteins mainly related to cellular structure, reducing the capacity of filamentation and attenuating infection in a murine model, without causing any toxic effect on human cells, suggesting that it may be a future

  5. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes. 10.99 Section 10.99 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Provisions Ethyl Alcohol § 10.99 Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes. (a) If claim is made...

  6. Mulberry Fruit Extract Affords Protection against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl carbamate (EC is a food and environmental toxicant and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Several studies indicated that EC-induced toxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Mulberry fruits are reported to have a wide range of bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the protective property of mulberry fruit extract (MFE on EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Chemical composition analysis showed that total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in MFE were 502.43 ± 5.10 and 219.12 ± 4.45 mg QE/100 g FW. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were the major anthocyanins in MFE. In vitro antioxidant studies (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays jointly exhibited the potent antioxidant capacity of MFE. Further study indicated that MFE protected human liver HepG2 cells from EC-induced cytotoxicity by scavenging overproduced cellular ROS. EC treatment promoted intracellular glutathione (GSH depletion and caused mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP collapse, as well as mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation, whereas MFE pretreatment significantly inhibited GSH depletion and restored the mitochondrial membrane function. Overall, our study suggested that polyphenolic-rich MFE could afford a potent protection against EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  7. Comparison of intrapulmonary and systemic pharmacokinetics of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) and colistin after aerosol delivery and intravenous administration of CMS in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Matthieu; Jacobs, Matthieu; Grégoire, Nicolas; Gobin, Patrice; Marchand, Sandrine; Couet, William; Mimoz, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Colistin is an old antibiotic that has recently gained a considerable renewal of interest for the treatment of pulmonary infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Nebulization seems to be a promising form of administration, but colistin is administered as an inactive prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS); however, differences between the intrapulmonary concentrations of the active moiety as a function of the route of administration in critically ill patients have not been precisely documented. In this study, CMS and colistin concentrations were measured on two separate occasions within the plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of critically ill patients (n = 12) who had received 2 million international units (MIU) of CMS by aerosol delivery and then intravenous administration. The pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using a population approach and completed by pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling and simulations. The ELF colistin concentrations varied considerably (9.53 to 1,137 mg/liter), but they were much higher than those in plasma (0.15 to 0.73 mg/liter) after aerosol delivery but not after intravenous administration of CMS. Following CMS aerosol delivery, typically, 9% of the CMS dose reached the ELF, and only 1.4% was presystemically converted into colistin. PK-PD analysis concluded that there was much higher antimicrobial efficacy after CMS aerosol delivery than after intravenous administration. These new data seem to support the use of aerosol delivery of CMS for the treatment of pulmonary infections in critical care patients. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Application of a loading dose of colistin methanesulfonate in critically ill patients: population pharmacokinetics, protein binding, and prediction of bacterial kill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ami F; Karaiskos, Ilias; Plachouras, Diamantis; Karvanen, Matti; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Jansson, Britt; Papadomichelakis, Evangelos; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Giamarellou, Helen; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Cars, Otto; Friberg, Lena E

    2012-08-01

    A previous pharmacokinetic study on dosing of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) at 240 mg (3 million units [MU]) every 8 h indicated that colistin has a long half-life, resulting in insufficient concentrations for the first 12 to 48 h after initiation of treatment. A loading dose would therefore be beneficial. The aim of this study was to evaluate CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics following a 480-mg (6-MU) loading dose in critically ill patients and to explore the bacterial kill following the use of different dosing regimens obtained by predictions from a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model developed from an in vitro study on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The unbound fractions of colistin A and colistin B were determined using equilibrium dialysis and considered in the predictions. Ten critically ill patients (6 males; mean age, 54 years; mean creatinine clearance, 82 ml/min) with infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria were enrolled in the study. The pharmacokinetic data collected after the first and eighth doses were analyzed simultaneously with the data from the previous study (total, 28 patients) in the NONMEM program. For CMS, a two-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics, and the half-lives of the two phases were estimated to be 0.026 and 2.2 h, respectively. For colistin, a one-compartment model was sufficient and the estimated half-life was 18.5 h. The unbound fractions of colistin in the patients were 26 to 41% at clinical concentrations. Colistin A, but not colistin B, had a concentration-dependent binding. The predictions suggested that the time to 3-log-unit bacterial kill for a 480-mg loading dose was reduced to half of that for the dose of 240 mg.

  9. Synergistic effects of methyl methanesulfonate and X rays in inducing somatic mutations in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clones, KU 27 and BNL 4430

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Sadao; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Okumura, Mikiko

    1993-01-01

    Young influorescences of Tradescantia clones KU 27 and BNL 4430, the both of which are blue/pink heterozygotes and have been demonstrated to be highly sensitive to alkylating agents, were exposed either to aqueous solutions of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) for 16 hr alone (at 0.005 to 0.02% for KU 27 and at 0.005% for BNL 4430) or to acute 150 kVp X rays alone (161 to 531 mGy for Ku 27 and 501 to 976 mGy for BNL 4430), or in combinations (134 to 448 mGy for KU 27 and 458 to 865 mGy for BNL 4430 after the 0.005% MMS treatment). The induced somatic pink mutation frequencies per hair-cell division were studied and compared, and clone BNL 4430 was found to be nearly two times more sensitive to MMS than clone KU 27, while the X-ray-induced mutation frequencies in the latter was about 1.5 times higher than those in the former. The lower sensitivity to MMS of clone KU 27 (as compared with BNL 4430) was nevertheless about 5.6 times higher as compared with the responses of clone BNL 02 to MMS reported earlier, proving the high sensitivities of the two clones used in the present study. Clear synergistic effects of MMS and X rays were observed in the both clones, indicating that the mechanisms of inducing mutations are common at least in part between MMS and X rays. (author)

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Streptococcus sanguis DNase necessary for repair of DNA damage induced by UV light and methyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindler, L.E.; Macrina, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    We developed a method for cloning cellular nucleases from streptococci. Recombinant lambda gt11 bacteriophage containing streptococcal nuclease determinants were identified by the production of pink plaques on toluidine blue O DNase plates. We used this technique to clone a 3.2-kilobase-pair EcoRI fragment with DNase activity from the chromosome of Streptococcus sanguis. The locus was designated don (DNase one) and could be subcloned and stably maintained on plasmid vectors in Escherichia coli. Minicell analyses of various subclones of the don locus allowed us to determine the coding region and size of the Don nuclease in E. coli. The don gene product had an apparent molecular mass of 34 kilodaltons and degraded native DNA most efficiently, with lesser activity against denatured DNA and no detectable activity against RNA. S. sanguis don deletion mutants were constructed by transformation of competent cells with in vitro-prepared plasmid constructs. S. sanguis don deletion mutants retained normal transformation frequencies for exogenously added donor DNA. However, when compared with Don+ wild-type cells, these mutants were hypersensitive to DNA damage induced by UV light and methyl methanesulfonate. An S. sanguis don-specific DNA probe detected homology to chromosomal DNA isolated from Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans Bratthall serogroups d and g. Our results suggested that the don locus was the S. sanguis allele of the previously described S. pneumoniae major exonuclease and was involved in repair of DNA damage. Furthermore, hybridization studies suggested that the don locus was conserved among species of oral streptococci

  11. Temperature influence on the reaction kinetics of V(IV)/V(V) in methanesulfonic acid for all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiuhong; Daoud, Walid A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of V(IV) and V(V) in MSA at different temperatures are studied. • Carbon-based and metal electrodes are investigated under the same experimental condition at high temperature. • The influence of temperature on reaction kinetics is more significant on carbon-based electrode than metal electrode. • Gold electrode shows inefficient performance in MSA solution. - Abstract: In this study, methanesulfonic acid has been investigated as the supporting electrolyte for vanadium solutions due to the improvement of mass transfer rate and reaction kinetics. Here, we applied different temperatures (0–55 °C) for electrochemical experiments of 0.1 M vanadium ions in 1.0 M MSA electrolyte on gold, platinum and glassy carbon electrodes separately to study the temperature-related kinetics. Considering that electron transfer is the control path for the whole reduction potential window, the rotating disc electrode approach was utilized for the oxidation of V(IV) ions, while the reduction of V(V) ions was studied by cyclic voltammetry. The influence of temperature on charge-transfer resistance and mass transport for both V(IV) and V(V) solutions was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on glassy carbon electrode. The results showed that the diffusion coefficients in both redox reactions on all electrodes increased with temperature, and most were in the order of 10 −6 cm 2 s −1 . The positive influence of temperature was also observed on the standard rate constants for all conditions in this study, most significantly on the glassy carbon electrode. Comparison between glassy carbon electrode and metal electrodes indicates a promising potential of carbon-based material as electrode for redox flow battery.

  12. Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) associated with placental alterations in pregnant rats treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) at the peri-implantation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Ryohei; Hayashi, Morimichi; Tamura, Toru; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Ono, Tamao

    2008-12-01

    Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are induced by exposure of rodents to xenobiotic agents during the pregastrulation period of development. We examined the time course of the effects of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent, on conceptus development in order to clarify the relative roles of the embryo and the placenta in their induction. Pregnant rats were treated orally with a single dose of MMS (200 mg/kg) in the morning of gestation day (GD) 6 (peri-implantation stage). Embryonic mortality was increased on GD12 and thereafter by MMS treatment, with newly dead embryos showing placental hypoplasia at GD12. Embryo or fetal weight was also smaller for MMS-treated dams than for control dams from GD14 to GD20. The labyrinth zone and junctional zone (JZ) of the placenta were thinner in MMS-treated rats from GD12 to GD17 and from GD12 to GD20 (except for GD17), respectively. Furthermore, MMS-treated dams showed a smaller number of glycogen cells in the JZ on GD14. In contrast, the placental glycogen concentration was higher and the expression of glucose transporter 1 in the JZ remained at GD20. These results indicate that exposure of pregnant rats to MMS at the peri-implantation stage of embryogenesis affects placental development and growth. The placental impairment induced by MMS was likely responsible for the embryonic death observed 6 days after exposure of dams to this agent as well as for the IUGR of surviving embryos or fetuses throughout the gestation period.

  13. Behavioural Effects of the Commonly Used Fish Anaesthetic Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS-222) on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Its Relevance for the Acetic Acid Pain Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgreen, Janicke; Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Janczak, Andrew M.; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2014-01-01

    The pros and cons of using anaesthesia when handling fish in connection with experiments are debated. A widely adopted practice is to wait thirty minutes after anaesthesia before behavioural observations are initiated, but information about immediate effects of a treatment is then lost. This is pertinent for responses to acute stressors, such as acid injection in the acetic acid pain test. However, omission of anaesthetics in order to obtain data on immediate responses will compromise the welfare of fish and contribute to experimental noise due to stress. We therefore tested the effect of tricaine methanesulfonate on the behaviour of zebrafish. We predicted that tricaine (MS 222) would decrease swimming velocity and that the control fish would show an increased level of anxiety- and stress-related behaviours compared to the tricaine group. Following acclimatization to the test tank, baseline behaviour was recorded before immersion in either tricaine (168 mg l−1, treatment group, N = 8) or tank water (control group, N = 7). Latencies to lose equilibrium and to lose response to touch were registered. The fish was then returned to the test tank, and the latency to regain equilibrium was registered in anaesthetized fish. When equilibrium was regained, and at five, thirty and sixty minutes after the fish had been returned to the test tank, behaviour was recorded. The tricaine fish showed the following responses (mean ± sd): latency to lose equilibrium 22.6 s±3.9; latency to lose response to touch 101.9 s±26.8; latency to regain equilibrium 92.0 s±54.4. Contrary to our predictions, neither treatment caused a change in any of the behaviours registered. This indicates that tricaine has no effect on several commonly used behavioural parameters, and that it may be unnecessary to postpone behavioural observations to 30 min after anaesthesia. PMID:24658262

  14. Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on mice sperm parameters in phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Ali Akbar; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Ahmadi, Abbas; Malekinjad, Hassan; Mardani, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on sperm quality parameters, testosterone level and malondialdehyde (MDA) in phenylhydrazine (PHZ) treated mice. For this purpose, 32 NMRI mice with the age range of 8 to 10 weeks, weight average 26.0 ± 2.0 g, were randomly divided into four equal groups. The control group (1) received normal saline (0. 1 mL per day) by intraperitoneal injection (IP). Group 2 (PHZ group) was treated with initial dose of PHZ (8 mg 100 g(-1), IP) followed by 6 mg 100 g(-1) , IP every 48 hr. Group 3, (Group PHZ+EP) received PHZ (according to the previous prescription) with EP (40 mg kg(-1), daily, IP). Ethyl pyruvate group (4) received only EP (40 mg kg(-1), daily, IP). Treatment period was 35 days. After euthanasia, sperms from caudal region of epididymis were collected and the total mean sperm count, sperm viability, motility and morphology were determined. Testis tissue MDA and serum testosterone levels of all experimental groups were also evaluated. A considerable reduction in mean percentage of number, natural morphology of sperm, sperm motility and viability and serum testosterone concentration besides DNA injury increment among mice treating with PHZ in comparison with control group were observed. However, in PHZ+EP group the above mentioned parameters were improved. This study showed that PHZ caused induction of toxicity on sperm parameters and reduction of testosterone as well as the increment of MDA level and EP as an antioxidant could reduce destructive effects of PHZ on sperm parameters, testosterone level and lipid peroxidation.

  15. Incineration of oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Experimental study and kinetic modeling of the oxidation of methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol in methane flames; Incineration de composes organiques volatils oxygenes. Etude experimentale et modelisation cinetique de l'oxydation de la methyl ethyl cetone, de l'acetate d'ethyle et du butan-2-ol dans des flammes de methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decottignies, V

    2000-12-01

    This work deals with the low pressure (0.05 atm) degradation of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs): methyl-ethyl-ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol, in premixed stoichiometric laminar methane flames seeded with 1 to 3% of each VOC. Molar fraction profiles of species have been obtained using microprobe sampling coupled with a gas chromatography and a mass spectroscopy analysis. Temperature profiles have been obtained using the covered thermocouple technique in the presence of the microprobe. The addition of a VOC in the initial reagents mixture leads to an increase of the quantity of intermediate hydrocarbon compounds and in particular of some soot precursor species. The degradation of VOCs leads to the formation of oxygenated intermediates like methanol, dimethyl-ether, acetaldehyde, propanal, acetone and vinyl acetate, the type of VOC having an effect on the quantities produced. The degradation of a VOC can lead to the formation of more toxic or polluting compounds (methyl vinyl ketone, acetic acid and acrolein) than the VOC itself. In the conditions of the study, the intermediate compounds are totally destructed inside the reactional area of the flame front and are no more present in the burnt gases. Sub-mechanisms of VOC oxidation have been developed using experimental observations and the most recent recommendations of the literature. These sub-mechanisms comprise 49 species involved in 241 elementary reactions. Their validation has been performed by comparing the experiment with the kinetic modeling on the molar fraction profiles of the detected species. Experimental data are well reproduced by the model for most species. The addition of a VOC inside the initial reagents mixture creates an important reactivity increase, in particular in the case of butan-2-ol seeded flames. The analysis of reactional ways has permitted to draw out the main reactions responsible for the degradation of the 3 VOCs and the ways of formation and consumption of the

  16. Micellar phase boundaries under the influence of ethyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, Denis E.

    2016-01-01

    The Compton spectrum quenching technique is used to monitor the effect of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) additions on phase boundaries in two systems. In toluenic solutions of the nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, EtOH shifts the boundary separating the first clear phase from the first turbid phase to higher water:surfactant ratios. In a commonly used scintillant, Ultima Gold AB, the critical micelle concentration is not shifted. The molecular interactions behind the observations and implications for liquid scintillation counting are discussed. - Highlights: • Compton spectrum quenching technique applied to find micellar phase boundaries. • Toluenic Triton X-100 and Ultima Gold AB investigated. • Ethyl alcohol affects phase boundaries in Triton X-100, not in Ultima Gold AB. • Phase boundary observations discussed in terms of relevant molecular interactions.

  17. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH 3 CH 2 SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH 3 CH 2 SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH 3 SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL

  18. Contact dermatitis to ethyl-cyanoacrylate-containing glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsito, D V

    1987-10-01

    3 patients with contact dermatitis to an ethyl cyanoacrylate glue are presented. Although reactions to cyanoacrylate glues are considered rare, more widespread use of these products by nail salons is likely to be associated with an increased incidence of positive reactions. All 3 of our patients came into contact with the glue during "nail wrapping". In this process, ethyl cyanoacrylate or another "instant glue" is used to adhere glue-impregnated silk or linen to the nail plate which is then filed to shape the nail. This procedure creates fine acrylic-containing dust which may facilitate an allergic response. Fine particulate matter may be transferred to other distant cutaneous sites, such as the eyelids, resulting in more widespread cutaneous eruptions. Dermatologists in areas where nail wrapping is becoming more fashionable are advised to be alert to potential cyanoacrylate glue allergies which present as periungual eczema which may be associated with eyelid dermatitis and features of nummular dermatitis particularly over the dorsal hand.

  19. SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND DETECTION OF ETHYL MERCAPTAN IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Daly, A. M. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopía y Bioespectroscopía, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología CAB, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Gordon, B. P.; Shipman, S. T., E-mail: lucie.kolesnikova@uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es, E-mail: adammichael.daly@uva.es, E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: brittany.gordon@ncf.edu, E-mail: shipman@ncf.edu [Division of Natural Sciences, New College of Florida, Sarasota, FL 34243 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    New laboratory data of ethyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH, in the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave domains (up to 880 GHz) provided very precise values of the spectroscopic constants that allowed the detection of gauche-CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}SH toward Orion KL. This identification is supported by 77 unblended or slightly blended lines plus no missing transitions in the range 80-280 GHz. A detection of methyl mercaptan, CH{sub 3}SH, in the spectral survey of Orion KL is reported as well. Our column density results indicate that methyl mercaptan is ≅ 5 times more abundant than ethyl mercaptan in the hot core of Orion KL.

  20. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  1. 3-Chloro-2-ethyl-6-nitro-2H-indazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mokhtar Mohamed Abdelahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H8ClN3O2, the orientation of the ethyl substituent is partly determined by an intramolecular C—H...Cl hydrogen bond. The indazole moiety is slightly folded with an angle of 0.70 (8° between the five- and six-membered rings. In the crystal, molecules pack in layers parallel to [100] through C—H...π(ring and N...;O...π(ring interactions.

  2. Synthesis of new radiotracers based of Ethyl Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, Donia

    2008-01-01

    The in vivo study of a biochemical or physiological process requires the synthesis of specific radiotracers but also the targeting of these compounds so that they can reach their target tissue. Methodologies original synthesis associated with radioisotopes used, the quantities and chemical forms often have to be available developed. The chemistry of metal complexes booming, we were able to use the ethyl ester combined with technetium, forming a stable radiotracer. Finally, a counting of radioactivity in different rat's organs completed our study. (Author)

  3. Chemical study of ethyl Acetate fraction of Picrasma Javanica Bl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hainil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available N-1 main compound from ethyl acetate fraction of kayu pahit bark (Picrasma Javanica B1 has been isolated and characterized with colom chromatography and continued with preparative chromatography. According to analized from spectrum data used ultraviolet (UV spectroscopy, infra red (IR, 1H RMI (Resonansi Magnet Inti, 13 C RMI, Massa , COSY (Correlated Spectroscopy, HSQC (Heteronuclear Single Quantum Correlation, HMBC ( Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Correlation and literature study showed that the compound of isolation was javanicin A.

  4. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    all chemicals and impact pathways characterizes the contribution of each factor to the total variation of 10–12 orders of magnitude in impacts per kg across all chemicals. This large variation between characterisation factors for different chemicals as well as the 3 orders of magnitude uncertainty....... As a whole, the assessment of toxicity in LCA has progressed on a very sharp learning curve during the past 20 years. This rapid progression is expected to continue in the coming years, focusing more on direct exposure of workers to chemicals during manufacturing and of consumers during product use...

  5. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  6. Analysis and interpretation of specific ethanol metabolites, ethyl sulfate, and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent for the quantitative measurement of regional alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm J; Langford, Katherine H; Mørland, Jørg; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-09-01

    The quantitative measurement of urinary metabolites in sewage streams and the subsequent estimation of consumption rates of the parent compounds have previously been demonstrated for pharmaceuticals and narcotics. Ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide are excreted in urine following the ingestion of alcohol, and are useful biomarkers for the identification of acute alcohol consumption. This study reports a novel ion-exchange-mediated chromatographic method for the quantitative measurement of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide in sewage effluent, and presents a novel calculation method for the purposes of relating the resulting sewage concentrations with rates of alcohol consumption in the region. A total of 100 sewage samples covering a 25-day period were collected from a treatment plant servicing approximately 500,000 people, and analyzed for levels of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide. The resulting data were then used to estimate combined alcohol consumption rates for the region, and the results were compared with alcohol related sales statistics for the same region. Ethyl glucuronide was found to be unstable in sewage effluent. Ethyl sulfate was stable and measurable in all samples at concentrations ranging from 16 to 246 nM. The highest concentrations of the alcohol biomarker were observed during weekend periods. Sixty one percent of the total mass of ethyl sulfate in sewage effluent corresponds to alcohol consumption on Friday and Saturday. Sales statistics for alcohol show that consumption in the region is approximately 6,750 kg/d. The quantity of ethyl sulfate passing through the sewage system is consistent with consumption of 4,900 to 7,800 kg/d.   Sewage epidemiology assessments of ethyl sulfate can provide accurate estimates of community alcohol consumption, and detailed examination of the kinetics of this biomarker in sewage streams can also identify time-dependent trends in alcohol consumption patterns. 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Phase diagram measurements by Heat-flux DSC and thermodynamic calculations of the mixture of the Esters Ethyl undecanoate (C13H26O2) and Ethyl tridecanoate (C15H30O2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaftenaar, H.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this report a phase diagram is determined by heat flux DSC of the binary mixture Ethyl undecanoate and Ethyl tridecanoate. Our hypothesis for equilibrium phase behaviour is that the components Ethyl undecanoate and Ethyl tridecanoate do have the same crystal form and they have restricted

  8. In-vitro cytotoxic activities of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline-based amphiphilic block copolymers prepared by CuAAC click chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gulyuz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of well-defined amphiphilic block copolymers containing poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline as hydrophilic block and poly(ε-caprolactone or poly(L-lactide as hydrophobic block is achieved by copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC click chemistry. The clickable precursors, α-alkyne-functionalized poly(ε-caprolactone and poly(L-lactide and ω-azido-functionalized poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline are simply prepared and joined using copper sulfate/ascorbic acid catalyst system at room temperature. The structures of precursors and amphiphilic block copolymers are characterized by spectroscopic, chromatographic and thermal analyses. The cytotoxic activities of resulting amphiphilic block copolymers and their precursors are investigated in the prostate epithelial and cancer cells under in-vitro conditions. The treatment of the healthy prostate epithelial cell line PNT1A reveals that no significant cytotoxicity, whereas some significant toxic effects on the prostate cancer cell lines are observed.

  9. Lysophospholipase inhibition by organophosphorus toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quistad, Gary B.; Casida, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) are a large family of enzymes for removing lysophospholipids from cell membranes. Potent inhibitors are needed to define the importance of LysoPLAs as targets for toxicants and potential therapeutics. This study considers organophosphorus (OP) inhibitors with emphasis on mouse brain total LysoPLA activity relative to the mipafox-sensitive neuropathy target esterase (NTE)-LysoPLA recently established as 17% of the total activity and important in the action of OP delayed toxicants. The most potent inhibitors of total LysoPLA in mouse brain are isopropyl dodecylphosphonofluoridate (also for LysoPLA of Vibrio bacteria), ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF), and two alkyl-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxides (BDPOs)[(S)-octyl and dodecyl] (IC50 2-8 nM). OP inhibitors acting in vitro and in vivo differentiate a more sensitive portion but not a distinct NTE-LysoPLA compared with total LysoPLA activity. For 10 active inhibitors, NTE-LysoPLA is 17-fold more sensitive than total LysoPLA, but structure-activity comparisons give a good correlation (r 2 = 0.94) of IC50 values, suggesting active site structural similarity or identity. In mice 4 h after intraperitoneal treatment with discriminating doses, EOPF, tribufos (a plant defoliant), and dodecanesulfonyl fluoride inhibit 41-57% of the total brain LysoPLA and 85-99% of the NTE-LysoPLA activity. Total LysoPLA as well as NTE-LysoPLA is decreased in activity in Nte +/- -haploinsufficient mice compared to their Nte +/+ littermates. The lysolecithin level of spinal cord but not brain is elevated significantly following EOPF treatment (3 mg/kg), thereby focusing attention on localized rather than general alterations in lysophospholipid metabolism in OP-induced hyperactivity and toxicity

  10. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  11. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (MS222) ON LIVER BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfonate; MS222) is a widely used fish anaesthetic. While there have been several studies addressing the impact of its use on subsequently measured biotransformation rates, the measured influence on normal functio...

  12. MMT promises: how the Ethyl Corporation beat the federal ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiderman, S.

    1999-01-01

    The manganese-based MMT has been blended in gasoline fuel sold in Canada for almost 20 years. Invoking environmental health and consumer protection grounds, the federal government moved to prohibit the importation and inter-provincial trade of MMT in June 1997. Ethyl Corporation of Richmond, Virginia, the sole producers of MMT, claimed discriminatory treatment under NAFTA and sought $ 250 million in damages as compensation for alleged 'expropriation' of the company's investment interests. A stunning reversal of the Canadian government's decision occurred one year later. Canada agreed to pay Ethyl Corporation $ 13 million (representing legal fees and lost profits) and agreed to rescind the legislation and admit publicly that the use of MMT poses no environmental risk. The reversal was the result of the little-known Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT), a federal-provincial government agreement, intended to reduce 'non-tariff' barriers to inter-provincial trade and create greater economic union. The AIT is modelled on NAFTA and the Uruguay-round GATT, and treats relations between the Canadian provinces as if they were relations among sovereign states. In cases of conflict, provinces are entitled to seek resolution of complaints before dispute resolution panels. Some of the provinces voiced objection to the MMT legislation and Alberta, supported by three other provinces, filed an AIT complaint against the federal government for prohibiting the inter-provincial trade of MMT. The AIT dispute panel upheld Alberta's complaint. The decision was hailed as a 'triumph of principle over bad science'. It was an unmitigated success for Ethyl Corporation, and a humiliating defeat for the federal government. In this author's view, the MMT story is a clear example of yet another instrument by which corporate power can limit the capacity of democratically elected governments to act on behalf of the public good

  13. Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity.

  14. Degradation of ethyl alcohol on niobium hydraxide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'eva, M.A.; Maslova, E.S.; Artem'ev, Yu.M.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of niobium hydroxide were prepared from niobium(5) chloride solutions in anhydrous ethanol. Niobium hydroxide groups were applied on the surface of dispersed silica-airsilogel. Pulse microcatalytic method was used to reveal, that synthesized hydroxide catalysed ethanol decomposition at 573 K only along the direction of dehydration with formation of ethylene. Ethylene was also the main product of alcohol degradation on applied samples, and procedure of dehydration reactions was noticeable. Spectra of temperature programmed surface reactions demonstrate the similarity of acidic surface properties of these two types of samples. Hydroxide compounds of niobium and bismuth were tested for correlation. They were active during ethyl alcohol dehydrogenation

  15. Acute Toxicity of Organophosphorus Compounds in Guinea Pigs Is Sex- and Age-Dependent and Cannot Be Solely Accounted for by Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Fawcett, William P.; Aracava, Yasco; Adler, Michael; Pereira, Edna F. R.; Albuquerque, Edson X.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the acute toxicity of the nerve agents S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman), and O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin) in guinea pigs is age- and sex-dependent and cannot be fully accounted for by the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The subcutaneous doses of nerve agents needed to decrease 24-h survival of guine...

  16. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S., E-mail: sparimyur@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV–Vis–NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV–Vis–NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV–Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  17. On the high-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed; Giri, Binod; Szőri, Milá n; Farooq, Aamir

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis of ethyl levulinate (EL) was studied behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1015-1325K and pressures of 750-1650Torr. The reaction progress was followed by measuring ethylene mole fraction using CO2 gas laser absorption near 10.532 μm. The rate coefficients for the unimolecular dissociation of EL were extracted from the initial slope method and further ascertained by using a complete kinetic model. Our data exhibited no discernible pressure dependence under the current experimental conditions. To rationalize our results further, high-level quantum chemical and master equation calculations were employed to calculate the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that unimolecular dissociation of EL involves simultaneous 1,5-hydrogen shift of the β-hydrogen to the carbonyl group, rupture of the O-C ester bond and formation of the π-bond (C α -C β ). Our results present evidences that the C2H4 elimination from EL occurs in a concerted manner. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental and theoretical study of the thermal unimolecular dissociation of ethyl levulinate. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  18. On the high-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl levulinate

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed

    2016-09-20

    The pyrolysis of ethyl levulinate (EL) was studied behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 1015-1325K and pressures of 750-1650Torr. The reaction progress was followed by measuring ethylene mole fraction using CO2 gas laser absorption near 10.532 μm. The rate coefficients for the unimolecular dissociation of EL were extracted from the initial slope method and further ascertained by using a complete kinetic model. Our data exhibited no discernible pressure dependence under the current experimental conditions. To rationalize our results further, high-level quantum chemical and master equation calculations were employed to calculate the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that unimolecular dissociation of EL involves simultaneous 1,5-hydrogen shift of the β-hydrogen to the carbonyl group, rupture of the O-C ester bond and formation of the π-bond (C α -C β ). Our results present evidences that the C2H4 elimination from EL occurs in a concerted manner. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental and theoretical study of the thermal unimolecular dissociation of ethyl levulinate. © 2016 The Combustion Institute.

  19. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. [[Page 82321

  20. Binding of ethyl pyruvate to bovine serum albumin: Calorimetric, spectroscopic and molecular docking studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Mallika [Department of Chemistry, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India); Mishra, Rashmi; Agarwala, Paban K. [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Ojha, Himanshu, E-mail: himanshu.drdo@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Singh, Bhawna [Department of Radiation Genetics and Epigenetics, Division of Radioprotective Drug Development Research, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054 (India); Singh, Anju; Kukreti, Shrikant [Nucleic Acid Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India)

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • ITC study showed binding of ethyl pyruvate with BSA with high binding affinity. • Ethyl pyruvate binding caused conformation alteration of BSA. • Fluorescence quenching mechanism is static in nature. • Electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces involved in binding. • Docking confirmed role of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic forces. - Abstract: Various in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential role of ethyl pyruvate. Bio-distribution of drugs is significantly influenced by the drug-serum protein binding. Therefore, the binding mechanism of the ethyl pyruvate with bovine serum albumin was investigated using UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking techniques. Absorption and fluorescence quenching studies indicated the binding of ethyl pyruvate with protein. Circular dichroism spectra of bovine serum albumin confirmed significant change in the conformation of protein upon binding. Thermodynamic data confirmed that ethyl pyruvate binds to bovine serum albumin at the two different sites with high affinity. Binding of ethyl pyruvate to bovine serum albumin involves hydrogen bonding, van der Waal and hydrophobic interactions. Further, docking studies indicated that ethyl pyruvate could bind significantly at the three binding sites. The results will definitely contribute to the development of ethyl pyruvate as drug.

  1. Depletion of glutathione by the radioprotective agent S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid (WR2721)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schor, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    S-2-(3-Aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid (WR2721) is a free radical scavenger currently in limited clinical use as an adjunct in cancer radio- and chemotherapy. We have previously determined the pharmacokinetics and protein binding characteristics of WR2721 in rabbits and in humans. We have also shown that WR2721 is an effective mucolytic agent in patients with cystic fibrosis. In vivo, WR2721 is converted to its free thiol analogue, N-2-mercaptoethyl-1,3-diaminopropane (MDP), and, as such, reacts with disulfide bonds in the mucin molecule, altering its rheology. In the course of experiments designed to examine the spectrum of its activity as a free radical scavenger, we have observed that WR2721 exacerbates the toxicity of those free radical-generating agents, such as acetaminophen and 6-hydroxydopamine, which depend upon glutathione for their detoxication. For this reason, we examined the glutathione content of the livers of mice treated with WR2721. (author)

  2. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  3. Heterometal cubane-type MFe(3)S(4) clusters (M = Mo, V) trigonally symmetrized with hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate(1-) and tris(pyrazolyl)methanesulfonate(1-) capping ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomitchev, Dmitry V; McLauchlan, Craig C; Holm, R H

    2002-02-25

    previously reported double cubanes of higher charge. Trigonally symmetric single cubanes eliminate isomers in the formation of double cubanes and other cluster structures, and may be of considerable value in the preparation of new types of M-Fe-S clusters. (Tpms = tris(pyrazolyl)methanesulfonate(1-); Tp = hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate(1-).)

  4. The absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of a single oral dose of O-ethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phenylphosphonothioate in hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Donia, M.B.; Reichert, B.L.; Ashry, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The disposition and metabolism of a single oral 10 mg/kg (LD50) of uniformly phenyl-labeled [ 14 C]EPN (O-ethyl O-4-nitrophenyl [ 14 C]phenylphosphonothioate) were studied in adult hens. The birds were protected from acute toxicity with atropine sulfate. Three treated hens were killed at each time interval (days): 0.5, 2, 4, 8, 12. Radioactivity was adsorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed in all tissues. Most of the dose was excreted in the combined urinary-fecal excreta (74%). Only traces of the radioactivity (0.2%) were detected in expired CO 2 . Most of the excreted radioactive materials were identified as phenylphosphonic acid (PPA), O-ethyl phenylphosphonic acid (EPPA), and O-ethyl phenylphosphonothioc acid (EPPTA). Radioactivity in tissues reached a peak of 11.8% in 12 days. The highest concentration of radioactivity was present in the liver followed by bile, kidney, adipose tissue, and muscle. EPN was the major compound identified in brain, spinal cord, sciatic nerve, kidney, and plasma. Most of the radioactivity in the liver was identified as EPPA followed by EPPTA and PPA. Kinetic studies showed that EPN disappeared exponentially from tissues. The half-life of the elimination of EPN from plasma was 16.5 days corresponding to a constant rate value of 0.04 day-1. Relative residence (RR) of EPN relative to plasma was shortest in liver and longest in adipose tissue followed by sciatic nerve and spinal cord

  5. Effect of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Eugenia uniflora on Proteins Global Expression during Morphogenesis in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicyranison P. Silva-Rocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is able to switch from yeast to hyphal growth and this is an essential step for tissue invasion and establishment of infection. Due to the limited drug arsenal used to treat fungal infections and the constant emergence of resistant strains, it is important to search for new therapeutic candidates. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate by proteomic analysis the role of a natural product (Eugenia uniflora in impairing hypha formation in C. albicans. We also tested the potential action of E. uniflora to prevent and treat oral candidiasis induced in a murine model of oral infection and the ability of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to phagocytize C. albicans cells treated with the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract. We found that this fraction greatly reduced hypha formation after morphogenesis induction in the presence of serum. Besides, several proteins were differentially expressed in cells treated with the fraction. Surprisingly, the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced phagocytosis in C. albicans (Mean 120.36 ± 36.71 yeasts/100 PMNs vs. 44.68 ± 19.84 yeasts/100 PMNs. Oral candidiasis was attenuated when C. albicans cells were either pre-incubated in the presence of E. uniflora or when the fraction was applied to the surface of the oral cavity after infection. These results were consistent with the reduction in CFU counts (2.36 vs. 1.85 Log10 CFU/ml and attenuation of tissue damage observed with histopathological analysis of animals belonging to treated group. We also observed shorter true hyphae by direct examination and histopathological analysis, when cells were treated with the referred natural product. The E. uniflora ethyl acetate fraction was non-toxic to human cells. E. uniflora may act on essential proteins mainly related to cellular structure, reducing the capacity of filamentation and attenuating infection in a murine model, without causing any toxic effect on human cells, suggesting that it may be a

  6. Investigations with beagles about toxicity and radioprotective effect of the chemical radioprotection substance WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.; Sedlmeier, H.; Wustrow, T.; Messerschmidt, O.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of the chemical radioprotection substance WR 2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl-thiophosphate) was examined in 25 beagles. The study showed that the toxicity of the substance increases as the dose gets higher. Between the doses 200 and 250 mg/kg of body weight, the increase of toxicity was significantly greater than could be expected on the basis of the dose difference. Until a dose of 200 mg/kg, the authors found no side effects which would have disturbed vital functions, but higher doses led to marked symptoms of intoxication. (orig.) [de

  7. 78 FR 13257 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    .... months). No dermal or systemic toxicity was seen at the limit dose (1,000 mg/kg/day). [[Page 13260... enforcement methodology (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)) is available to enforce the tolerance...

  8. Development of 68Ga ethyl cysteinate dimer for PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alireza Mirzaei; Jalilian, A.R.; Gholamali Shabani; Ashraf Fakhari; Mehdi Akhlaghi; Davood Beiki

    2016-01-01

    In this work development of 68 Ga-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 68 Ga-ECD) a 68 Ga tracer for possible cerebral blood flow based on 99m Tc ECD homolog is reported. 68 Ga-ECD was prepared using generator-based 68 GaCl 3 and ECD at optimized conditions. Quality control, stability, partition co-efficient and the biodistribution of the tracer (by tissue counting and PET/CT in rats) was studied. Significant metabolism of the lipophilic tracer into water soluble metabolite(s) led to urinary excretion of the tracer, un-comparable to that of homologous 99m Tc-compound. Cardiac uptake of the complex suggests formation of a possible lipophil cationic complex and/or metabolite. (author)

  9. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  10. Reactions of ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by methylrhenium trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Espenson, H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-03

    Methylrhenium trioxide (CH{sub 3}ReO{sub 3} or MTO) has found wise use in catalysis, including the epoxidation and metathesis of olefins, aldehyde olefination, and oxygen transfer. Extensive reports have now appeared in the area of MTO-catalyzed substrate oxidations with hydrogen peroxide. Certain catalytic applications of MTO for organic reactions that do not utilize peroxide have now been realized. In particular, a catalytic amount of MTO with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) will convert aromatic imines to aziridines and convert aldehydes and ketones to epoxides. The aziridine preparation proceeds in high yields under anaerobic conditions more conveniently than with existing methods. Compounds with a three-membered heterocyclic ring can be obtained with the EDA/MTO catalytic system. Aromatic imines undergo cycloaddition reactions to give aziridines under mild conditions.

  11. High-temperature unimolecular decomposition of ethyl propionate

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod

    2016-10-09

    This work reports rate coefficients of the thermal unimolecular decomposition reaction of ethyl propionate (EP) behind reflected shock waves over the temperature range of 976–1300 K and pressures of 825–1875 Torr. The reaction progress was monitored by detecting CH near 10.532 μm using CO gas laser absorption. In addition, G3//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ and master equation calculations were performed to assess the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the reaction. Our calculations revealed that CH elimination occurs via a six-centered retro-ene transition state. Our measured rate data are close to the high-pressure limit and showed no discernable temperature fall off.

  12. Correlation and prediction of mixing thermodynamic properties of ester-containing systems: Ester + alkane and ester + ester binary systems and the ternary dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Noelia; Fernández, Luís; Ortega, Juan; Toledo, Francisco J.; Wisniak, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Excess enthalpies and volumes were measured for ester–ester–alkane. ► Mixing behaviour for ester–ester, ester–alkane and ester–ester–alkane are analyzed. ► Correlations with a new polynomial model reproduce well the mixing properties. ► UNIFAC predictions for h E result acceptable excluding the ester–ester mixtures. - Abstract: Excess thermodynamic properties V m E and H m E , have been measured for the ternary mixture dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate and for the corresponding binaries dodecane + ethyl pentanoate, dodecane + ethyl ethanoate, ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate at 298.15 K. All mixtures show endothermic and expansive effects. Experimental results are correlated with a suitable equation whose final form for the excess ternary quantity M E contains the particular contributions of the three binaries (i–j) and a last term corresponding to the ternary, all of them obtained considering fourth-order interactions. The fit goodness for all mixtures is good and comparable to others equations taken from the literature. In this work the dissolution model for the binaries and ternary is analyzed with a special attention to ester–ester binaries whose behaviour is discussed. The application of the UNIFAC group contribution model to estimate the H m E yields acceptable results for the binaries (with the exception of ester–ester) and for the ternary mixture.

  13. Synthesis, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of 3- Ethyl-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4(3H)-ones and evaluate them for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The compounds, 3-ethyl-2-substituted amino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones, were synthesized by reacting the amino group of 3-ethyl-2-hydrazino ...

  14. Differential susceptibility of rats and guinea pigs to the ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Ravensberg, L.C.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the ototoxic effects of volatile ethyl benzene in guinea pigs and rats. Rats showed deteriorated auditory thresholds in the mid-frequency range, based on electrocochleography, after 550-ppm ethyl benzene (8 h/day, 5 days). Outer hair cell (OHC) loss was

  15. Simultaneous exposure to ethyl benzene and noise : synergistic effects on outer hair cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    The effects on hearing of simultaneous exposure to the ototoxic organic solvent ethyl benzene and broad-band noise were evaluated in rats. The effects of three ethyl benzene concentrations (0, 300 or 400 ppm) and three noise levels (95 or 105 dBlin SPL or background noise at 65 dBlin SPL) and all

  16. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J-C

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH 3 CH 2 OCH 3 , through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 10 15 cm -2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 10 15 cm -2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH 3 OCOH, CH 3 CH 2 OCOH, CH 3 OCH 3 , CH 3 OH, and CH 3 CH 2 OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N (CH 3 OCH 3 )/ N (tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion.

  18. Icosapent ethyl for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Fares,1 Carl J Lavie,2,3 James J DiNicolantonio,4 James H O'Keefe,5 Richard V Milani2 1Department of Hospital Medicine, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, 2Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA, 4Mid America Heart Institute at Saint Luke's Hospital, Kansas City, MO, 5Mid America Heart Institute, University of Missouri–Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA Abstract: Hypertriglyceridemia is a highly prevalent lipid abnormality and it is associated with atherosclerosis, with a growing body of evidence linking elevated triglycerides (TGs with cardiovascular disease. The current major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA combination, lowers serum TGs while often increasing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Icosapent ethyl is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with a 96% pure ethyl ester of EPA that has been recently approved for lowering TG levels in patients with very high TGs (≥500 mg/dL, and it does so without significantly affecting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acid therapy for dyslipidemias will be discussed, including the potential pros and cons of EPA alone versus the more common and readily available EPA/DHA combination therapy. Keywords: triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  19. Evaluation of methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene and 5-fluorouracil: Part of the Japanese center for the validation of alternative methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Junker-Walker, Ursula; Martus, Hans-Joerg

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), we examined methyl methanesulfonate, 2,6-diaminotoluene, and 5-fluorouracil under coded test conditions. Rats were treated orally with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and two additional descending doses of the respective compounds. In the MMS treated groups liver and stomach showed significantly elevated DNA damage at each dose level and a significant dose-response relationship. 2,6-diaminotoluene induced significantly elevated DNA damage in the liver at each dose and a statistically significant dose-response relationship whereas no DNA damage was obtained in the stomach. 5-fluorouracil did not induce DNA damage in either liver or stomach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxic potential of extracts and triterpenes isolated from Maytenus imbricata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Vanessa G.; Duarte, Lucienir P.; Silva, Gracia D.F.; Silva, Fernando C.; Goes, Jefferson V.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.; Pimenta, Lucia P.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Vieira Filho, Sidney A., E-mail: vanessa.greg@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Farmacia. Dept. de Farmacia

    2012-07-01

    The phyto chemical study of hexane/ethyl ether (1:1) extract of the roots of M. imbricata, Celastraceae, resulted in the isolation and characterization of six known triterpenes: 11{alpha}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, previously isolated from this species besides, 3{beta},11{alpha}-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, 3,7-dioxofriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol. The chemical structures of these triterpenes were established by spectrometric data (IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR) and through comparison with literature data. The hexane/ethyl ether (1:1), ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and 11{alpha}-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol, showed antimicrobial properties on in vitro assays. All extracts and triterpenes, except 3{beta},11{alpha}-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, presented toxicity demonstrated by the larvicidal effect test using Artemia salina. (author)

  1. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxic potential of extracts and triterpenes isolated from Maytenus imbricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa G. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of hexane/ethyl ether (1:1 extract of the roots of M. imbricata, Celastraceae, resulted in the isolation and characterization of six known triterpenes: 11α-hydroxylup-20(29-en-3-one, previously isolated from this species besides, 3β,11α-di-hydroxylup-20(29-ene, 3,7-dioxofriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol. The chemical structures of these triterpenes were established by spectrometric data (IR, ¹H and 13C NMR and through comparison with literature data. The hexane/ethyl ether (1:1, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and 11α-hydroxylup-20(29-en-3-one, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol, showed antimicrobial properties on in vitro assays. All extracts and triterpenes, except 3β,11α-di-hydroxylup-20(29-ene, presented toxicity demonstrated by the larvicidal effect test using Artemia salina.

  2. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and toxic potential of extracts and triterpenes isolated from Maytenus imbricata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Vanessa G.; Duarte, Lucienir P.; Silva, Gracia D.F.; Silva, Fernando C.; Goes, Jefferson V.; Takahashi, Jacqueline A.; Pimenta, Lucia P.S.; Vieira Filho, Sidney A.

    2012-01-01

    The phyto chemical study of hexane/ethyl ether (1:1) extract of the roots of M. imbricata, Celastraceae, resulted in the isolation and characterization of six known triterpenes: 11α-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, previously isolated from this species besides, 3β,11α-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, 3,7-dioxofriedelane, 3-oxo-29-hydroxyfriedelane, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol. The chemical structures of these triterpenes were established by spectrometric data (IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR) and through comparison with literature data. The hexane/ethyl ether (1:1), ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, and 11α-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one, tingenone and 6-oxo-tingenol, showed antimicrobial properties on in vitro assays. All extracts and triterpenes, except 3β,11α-di-hydroxylup-20(29)-ene, presented toxicity demonstrated by the larvicidal effect test using Artemia salina. (author)

  3. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, R.A.; Zhang, X.; Marshall, E.A.; Reese, D.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Moeller, G.

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO 2 and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD 5 and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population

  4. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after sustained exposure to an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Crews, Bridgit O; Pesce, Amadeo J; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-03-01

    To assess the degree of ethanol absorption and subsequent formation of urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) following sustained application of hand sanitizer, 11 volunteers cleansed their hands with Purell(™) hand sanitizer (62% ethanol) every 5 min for 10 h on three consecutive days. Urine specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each day of the study, and on the morning of the fourth day. Urinary creatinine, ethanol, EtG, and EtS concentrations were measured. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (73 and 37 ng/mL). None of the pre-study specimens had detectable ethanol. The maximum EtG and EtS concentrations over the course of the study were 2001 and 84 ng/mL, respectively, and nearly all EtG- and EtS-positive urine specimens were collected at the conclusion of the individual study days. Only two specimens had detectable EtG at the beginning of any study day (96 and 139 ng/mL), and only one specimen had detectable EtS at the beginning of a study day (64 ng/mL), in addition to the two with detectable EtS prior to the study. Creatinine-adjusted maximum EtG and EtS concentrations were 1998 and 94 μg/g creatinine, respectively. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG concentrations, currently accepted EtG cutoffs do not distinguish between ethanol consumption and incidental exposures, particularly when urine specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanolcontaining hand sanitizer. Our data suggest that EtS may be an important complementary biomarker in distinguishing ethanol consumption from dermal exposure.

  5. Pharmacokinetic drivers of toxicity for basic molecules: Strategy to lower pKa results in decreased tissue exposure and toxicity for a small molecule Met inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Dolores; Ford, Kevin A.; Hartley, Dylan P.; Harstad, Eric B.; Cain, Gary R.; Achilles-Poon, Kirsten; Nguyen, Trung; Peng, Jing; Zheng, Zhong; Merchant, Mark; Sutherlin, Daniel P.; Gaudino, John J.; Kaus, Robert; Lewin-Koh, Sock C.; Choo, Edna F.; Liederer, Bianca M.; Dambach, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Several toxicities are clearly driven by free drug concentrations in plasma, such as toxicities related to on-target exaggerated pharmacology or off-target pharmacological activity associated with receptors, enzymes or ion channels. However, there are examples in which organ toxicities appear to correlate better with total drug concentrations in the target tissues, rather than with free drug concentrations in plasma. Here we present a case study in which a small molecule Met inhibitor, GEN-203, with significant liver and bone marrow toxicity in preclinical species was modified with the intention of increasing the safety margin. GEN-203 is a lipophilic weak base as demonstrated by its physicochemical and structural properties: high LogD (distribution coefficient) (4.3) and high measured pKa (7.45) due to the basic amine (N-ethyl-3-fluoro-4-aminopiperidine). The physicochemical properties of GEN-203 were hypothesized to drive the high distribution of this compound to tissues as evidenced by a moderately-high volume of distribution (Vd > 3 l/kg) in mouse and subsequent toxicities of the compound. Specifically, the basicity of GEN-203 was decreased through addition of a second fluorine in the 3-position of the aminopiperidine to yield GEN-890 (N-ethyl-3,3-difluoro-4-aminopiperidine), which decreased the volume of distribution of the compound in mouse (Vd = 1.0 l/kg), decreased its tissue drug concentrations and led to decreased toxicity in mice. This strategy suggests that when toxicity is driven by tissue drug concentrations, optimization of the physicochemical parameters that drive tissue distribution can result in decreased drug concentrations in tissues, resulting in lower toxicity and improved safety margins. -- Highlights: ► Lower pKa for a small molecule: reduced tissue drug levels and toxicity. ► New analysis tools to assess electrostatic effects and ionization are presented. ► Chemical and PK drivers of toxicity can be leveraged to improve safety.

  6. 9-Hydroxyfurodysinin-O-ethyl Lactone: A New Sesquiterpene Isolated from the Tropical Marine Sponge Dysidea arenaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Karuso

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A new sesquiterpene, 9-hydroxyfurodysinin-O-ethyl lactone, has been isolated from a New Caledonian Dysidea arenaria, along with three known compounds. The possible incorporation of the ethyl ether from the extraction solvent is discussed.

  7. Phytochemical, sub-acute toxicity, and antibacterial evaluation of Cordia sebestena leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osho, Adeleke; Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Adeosun, Charles B; Oluwagbemi, Tolu; Atolani, Olubunmi

    2016-03-01

    In Nigeria, Cordia sebestena (Boraginaceae), an understudied medicinal plant, is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, antibacterial potential, and sub-acute toxicity of C. sebestena leaves. Ethyl acetate extracts were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The antibacterial potential of the extracts was tested against five standard bacteria, namely Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinical observations and blood parameters were used to evaluate the possible toxicity of C. sebestena. The TLC profile yielded 39 fractions, which were pooled to nine combined sub-fractions (A-I). The FTIR spectrum of sub-fraction H indicated the presence of aliphatic C-H stretching vibration at 2922 and 2850 cm-1, C=O stretch at 1734 and 1708 cm-1, and C=C stretch of aromatics and aliphatics at 1464 and (shoulder) 1618 cm-1, respectively. The fractions of the C. sebestena ethyl acetate leaf extract showed antibacterial potential across board, but fraction H had the highest antibacterial activity against B. cereus and S. aureus. The study also indicated the relatively low toxicity profile of the ethyl acetate leaf extract of C. sebestena in the liver of rats. The study showed that C. sebestena leaves have strong antibacterial potential and low toxicity, thereby underlying the scientific basis for their folkloric use in the management of microbial infections and its associated complications.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  9. Sustained drug release and electrochemical performance of ethyl cellulose-magnesium hydrogen phosphate composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad, Faruq, E-mail: fmohammad@ksu.edu.sa [Surfactant Research chair, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Arfin, Tanvir, E-mail: t_arfin@neeri.res.in [Environmental Materials Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India); Al-Lohedan, Hamad A. [Surfactant Research chair, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-02-01

    cell viability and proliferation studies tested against two different cell cultures of BRL-3A rat liver and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts indicated the non-toxic nature and safer applicability of the EC-MgHPO{sub 4} (25–500 μg/mL, 24 h). Overall, the results of the study confirm for the safer applicability of the composite towards biosensor, drug delivery, scaffolding, and bioanalytical (quality control) applications. - Highlights: • Porous nature of ethyl cellulose and the crystal structure of MgHPO{sub 4} after the composite formation were investigated. • Conductivity studies proved that the composite is electrically conductive and the conductivity is strongly influenced by the electrolyte type as see the conductivity order to be K{sup +} > Na{sup +}. • Composite can take up to 80% of Proguanil used for loading and can release up to 87% from it under neutral conditions in just over a 90 min period. • Due to the absence of toxicity on in vitro cell culture systems, the composite can be applied for sustainable drug delivery and biosensor related applications.

  10. Sustained drug release and electrochemical performance of ethyl cellulose-magnesium hydrogen phosphate composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Faruq; Arfin, Tanvir; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A.

    2017-01-01

    proliferation studies tested against two different cell cultures of BRL-3A rat liver and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts indicated the non-toxic nature and safer applicability of the EC-MgHPO 4 (25–500 μg/mL, 24 h). Overall, the results of the study confirm for the safer applicability of the composite towards biosensor, drug delivery, scaffolding, and bioanalytical (quality control) applications. - Highlights: • Porous nature of ethyl cellulose and the crystal structure of MgHPO 4 after the composite formation were investigated. • Conductivity studies proved that the composite is electrically conductive and the conductivity is strongly influenced by the electrolyte type as see the conductivity order to be K + > Na + . • Composite can take up to 80% of Proguanil used for loading and can release up to 87% from it under neutral conditions in just over a 90 min period. • Due to the absence of toxicity on in vitro cell culture systems, the composite can be applied for sustainable drug delivery and biosensor related applications.

  11. Comparing the environmental impacts of ethyl biodiesel production from soybean oil and beef tallow through lca for brazilian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves Esteves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sought compare the environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of biodiesel production obtained from the two raw materials most used in Brazil (soybean oil and beef tallow through the process ethyl transesterification in an alkaline medium. The reference flow adopted for the work was the generation of power supplied 1GJ from the produced biodiesel. The data used in the inventory life cycle were calculated based on similar scientific papers. The method of assessment of environmental impacts chosen was the CML 2001 modified. Altogether, it were analyzed nine categories of environmental impacts for both processes (abiotic depletion (kg Sb eq, land use (m2a, global warming (kg CO2 eq, ozone layer depletion (kg CFC-11 eq, human toxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, freshwater ecotoxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, terrestrial ecotoxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, acidification (kg SO2 eq and eutrophication (kg PO43- eq. The results of evaluation of environmental impacts show that the biodiesel production process from soybean oil presents major environmental damage in seven categories of analyzed impacts (destruction of abiotic resources, destruction of the ozone layer, human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. The production process of biodiesel from tallow presents major environmental damage in two categories of impacts analyzed (land use and global warming. However, the results show that the absolute values of environmental damage caused by impacts of the production process using beef tallow are much more aggressive.

  12. Joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.-E; Zhou, Q.-X.

    2006-01-01

    Biochemical responses to joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium (Cd) in wheat Triticum aestivum were examined. The joint action of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd weakened the inhibition of Cd or chlorimuron-ethyl on the formation of chlorophyll. It was deduced that wheat plants had the capability to protect themselves by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) with the exposure time. The joint effect of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves was additive, while the joint effect on the SOD activity in roots was determined by the interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd in wheat. It was also concluded that the change of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in wheat might not be a good biomarker in the oxidative damage by chlorimuron-ethyl, while a decrease in the soluble protein content and POD activity in roots could be considered as a biomarker in the damage of wheat by chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd. - Soluble protein content and peroxidase activity in seedlings were the biomarkers indicating joint stress of chemicals

  13. Carbon dioxide laser absorption spectra of toxic industrial compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loper, G.L.; Sasaki, G.R.; Stamps, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    CO 2 laser absorption cross-section data are reported for acrolein, styrene, ethyl acrylate, trichloroethylene, vinyl bromide, and vinylidene chloride. These data indicate that sub parts per billion level, interference-free detection limits should be possible for these compounds by the CO 2 laser photoacoustic technique. Photoacoustic detectabilities below 40 ppb should be possible for these compounds in the presence of ambient air concentrations of water vapor and other anticipated interferences. These compounds are also found not to be important inerference in the detection of toxic hydrazine-based rocket fuels by CO 2 laser spectroscopic techniques

  14. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, D.; Retallack, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  15. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, María Jesús; Otero, José Luís; Míguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana María; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vectorization by nanoparticles decreases the overall toxicity of airborne pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Rodolphe; Platel, Anne; Maiz-Gregores, Helena; Nesslany, Fabrice; Betbeder, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution is mainly composed of volatile pollutants and particulate matter that strongly interact. However, their specific roles in the induction of cellular toxicity, in particular the impact of the vectorization of atmospheric pollutants by ultrafine particles, remains to be fully elucidated. For this purpose, non-toxic poly-lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were synthesized and three pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate) were adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles in order to evaluate the toxicity (cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and ROS induction) of these complexes to a human airway epithelial cell line. The adsorption of the pollutants onto the nanoparticles was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity assays (MTT, LDH and CellTox Green) clearly demonstrated that the vectorization by nanoparticles decreases the toxicity of the adsorbed pollutants. Genotoxicity was assessed by the micronucleus test and the comet assay and showed no increase in primary DNA damage or in chromosomal aberrations of nanoparticle vectorized pollutants. Neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity was correlated with ROS induction. To conclude, our results indicate that the vectorization of pollutants by nanoparticles does not potentiate the toxicity of the pollutants studied and that, on the contrary, adsorption onto nanoparticles could protect cells against pollutants' toxicity.

  17. Vectorization by nanoparticles decreases the overall toxicity of airborne pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe Carpentier

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution is mainly composed of volatile pollutants and particulate matter that strongly interact. However, their specific roles in the induction of cellular toxicity, in particular the impact of the vectorization of atmospheric pollutants by ultrafine particles, remains to be fully elucidated. For this purpose, non-toxic poly-lactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles were synthesized and three pollutants (benzo(apyrene, naphthalene and di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate were adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles in order to evaluate the toxicity (cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and ROS induction of these complexes to a human airway epithelial cell line. The adsorption of the pollutants onto the nanoparticles was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Interestingly, the cytotoxicity assays (MTT, LDH and CellTox Green clearly demonstrated that the vectorization by nanoparticles decreases the toxicity of the adsorbed pollutants. Genotoxicity was assessed by the micronucleus test and the comet assay and showed no increase in primary DNA damage or in chromosomal aberrations of nanoparticle vectorized pollutants. Neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity was correlated with ROS induction. To conclude, our results indicate that the vectorization of pollutants by nanoparticles does not potentiate the toxicity of the pollutants studied and that, on the contrary, adsorption onto nanoparticles could protect cells against pollutants' toxicity.

  18. 77 FR 26456 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... observed in the form of decreased body-weight gains, increased liver weights, liver and bile duct.../organs identified are the blood and liver and the most sensitive species was the rat. Subchronic toxicity... urinary porphyrin excretion, increased liver weights, and liver histopathology findings consisting of...

  19. Toxic substances handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  20. Infrared laser transient absorption spectroscopy of the ethyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, T.J.; Johnson, P.M.; Jin, P.; Oatis, S.

    1996-01-01

    The observation and analysis of the high resolution spectrum of the CH 2 rocking fundamental of the ethyl radical, C 2 H 5 , at wavelengths close to 18.9 μm is reported. The band origin is found to be at 528.1 cm -1 . The spectrum shows evidence for a very low barrier to internal rotation, or torsion, in this species. A simple model Hamiltonian, based on an assumed structure with G 12 symmetry, qualitatively reproduces the observations and implies a torsional barrier of approximately 20 cm -1 in both the zero point and excited vibrational states. The Hamiltonian cannot reproduce the observations to the level of the experimental accuracy and the importance of several neglected terms is tested and discussed. The observed torsional splittings imply that, within the confines of the model, the a-inertial and internal rotation axes in the molecule are coincident to within 1 degree. In addition to their intrinsic interest, the spectra will be useful for future state resolved studies of the kinetics of chemical reactions involving the radical. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Membrane Separation of 2-Ethyl Hexyl Amine/1-Decene

    KAUST Repository

    Bawareth, Bander

    2012-12-01

    1-Decene is a valuable product in linear alpha olefins plants that is contaminated with 2-EHA (2-ethyl hexyl amine). Using organic solvent nanofiltration membranes for this separation is quite challengeable. A membrane has to be a chemically stable in this environment with reasonable and stable separation factor. This paper shows that Teflon AF 2400 and cellulose acetate produced interesting results in 1-decene/2-EHA separation. The separation factor of Teflon AF 2400 is 3 with a stable permeance of 1.1x10-2 L/(m2·h·bar). Likewise, cellulose acetate gave 2-EHA/1-decene separation factor of 2 with a lower permeance of 3.67x10-3 L/(m2·h·bar). A series of hydrophilic membranes were tested but they did not give any separation due to high degree of swelling of 2-EHA with these polymers. The large swelling causes the membrane to lose its diffusivity selectivity because of an increase in the polymer\\'s chain mobility.

  2. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  3. Determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, D.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water samples were developed. Concentrations in the milligram-per-liter range were determined by injecting an aqueous sample into the analysis system through an injection port, trapping the organics on Tenax-GC at room temperature, and thermally desorbing the organics into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector for analysis. Concentrations in the microgram-per-liter range were determined by sweeping the headspace vapors over a water sample at 50C, trapping on Tenax-GC, and thermally desorbing the organics into the gas chromatograph. The precision for two operators of the milligram-per-liter concentration procedure, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was generally less than 2 percent for concentrations ranging from 16 to 160 milligrams per liter. The precision from two operators of the microgram-per-liter concentration procedure was between 2 and 4 percent for concentrations of 20 and 60 micrograms per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Protection against mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus using a novel insect repellent, ethyl anthranilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Johirul; Zaman, Kamaruz; Tyagi, Varun; Duarah, Sanjukta; Dhiman, Sunil; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2017-10-01

    Growing concern on the application of synthetic mosquito repellents in the recent years has instigated the identification and development of better alternatives to control different mosquito-borne diseases. In view of above, present investigation evaluates the repellent activity of ethyl anthranilate (EA), a non-toxic, FDA approved volatile food additive against three known mosquito vectors namely, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions following standard protocols. Three concentration levels (2%, 5% and 10% w/v) of EA were tested against all the three selected mosquito species employing K & D module and arm-in-cage method to determine the effective dose (ED 50 ) and complete protection time (CPT), respectively. The repellent activity of EA was further investigated by modified arm-in-cage method to determine the protection over extended spatial ranges against all mosquito species. All behavioural situations were compared with the well-documented repellent N,N-diethylphenyl acetamide (DEPA) as a positive control. The findings demonstrated that EA exhibited significant repellent activity against all the three mosquitoes species. The ED 50 values of EA, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were found to be 0.96%, 5.4% and 3.6% w/v, respectively. At the concentration of 10% w/v, it provided CPTs of 60, 60 and 30min, respectively, against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Again in spatial repellency evaluation, EA was found to be extremely effective in repelling all the three tested species of mosquitoes. Ethyl anthranilate provided comparable results to standard repellent DEPA during the study. Results have concluded that the currently evaluated chemical, EA has potential repellent activity against some well established mosquito vectors. The study emphasizes that repellent activity of EA could be exploited for developing effective, eco

  5. Incineration of oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Experimental study and kinetic modeling of the oxidation of methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol in methane flames; Incineration de composes organiques volatils oxygenes. Etude experimentale et modelisation cinetique de l'oxydation de la methyl ethyl cetone, de l'acetate d'ethyle et du butan-2-ol dans des flammes de methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decottignies, V.

    2000-12-01

    This work deals with the low pressure (0.05 atm) degradation of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs): methyl-ethyl-ketone, ethyl acetate and butan-2-ol, in premixed stoichiometric laminar methane flames seeded with 1 to 3% of each VOC. Molar fraction profiles of species have been obtained using microprobe sampling coupled with a gas chromatography and a mass spectroscopy analysis. Temperature profiles have been obtained using the covered thermocouple technique in the presence of the microprobe. The addition of a VOC in the initial reagents mixture leads to an increase of the quantity of intermediate hydrocarbon compounds and in particular of some soot precursor species. The degradation of VOCs leads to the formation of oxygenated intermediates like methanol, dimethyl-ether, acetaldehyde, propanal, acetone and vinyl acetate, the type of VOC having an effect on the quantities produced. The degradation of a VOC can lead to the formation of more toxic or polluting compounds (methyl vinyl ketone, acetic acid and acrolein) than the VOC itself. In the conditions of the study, the intermediate compounds are totally destructed inside the reactional area of the flame front and are no more present in the burnt gases. Sub-mechanisms of VOC oxidation have been developed using experimental observations and the most recent recommendations of the literature. These sub-mechanisms comprise 49 species involved in 241 elementary reactions. Their validation has been performed by comparing the experiment with the kinetic modeling on the molar fraction profiles of the detected species. Experimental data are well reproduced by the model for most species. The addition of a VOC inside the initial reagents mixture creates an important reactivity increase, in particular in the case of butan-2-ol seeded flames. The analysis of reactional ways has permitted to draw out the main reactions responsible for the degradation of the 3 VOCs and the ways of formation and consumption of the

  6. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship

  7. Alkylation of deoxyribonucleic acid by carcinogens dimethyl sulphate, ethyl methanesulphonate, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D.H.; Lawley, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    The ethyl phosphotriester of thymidylyl(3'-5')thymidine, dTp((Et) dT, was identified as a product from the reaction of DNA with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. Enzymic degradation to yield alkyl phosphotriesters from DNA alkylated by this carcinogen, and by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dimethyl sulphate and ethyl methanesulphonate was studied quantitatively, and the relative yields of the triesters dTp(Alk)dT were determined. The relative reactivity of the phosphodiester group dTpdT to each of the four carcinogens was thus obtained, and compared with that of DNA overall, or with that of the N-7 atom of guanine in DNA. The results are related to steric factors, and the electrophilic character of each carcinogen. (author)

  8. Protection against 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) - induced cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes by an inducer of the glutathione detoxification pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, Erika L.; Bubel, Jennifer D.; Simper, Melissa S.; Powell, Leslie; McClellan, S. Alex; Andreeff, Michael; MacLeod, Michael C.; DiGiovanni, John

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM or mustard gas) was first used as a chemical warfare agent almost 100 years ago. Due to its toxic effects on the eyes, lungs, and skin, and the relative ease with which it may be synthesized, mustard gas remains a potential chemical threat to the present day. SM exposed skin develops fluid filled bullae resulting from potent cytotoxicity of cells lining the basement membrane of the epidermis. Currently, there are no antidotes for SM exposure; therefore, chemopreventive measures for first responders following an SM attack are needed. Glutathione (GSH) is known to have a protective effect against SM toxicity, and detoxification of SM is believed to occur, in part, via GSH conjugation. Therefore, we screened 6 potential chemopreventive agents for ability to induce GSH synthesis and protect cultured human keratinocytes against the SM analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Using NCTC2544 human keratinocytes, we found that both sulforaphane and methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me) stimulated nuclear localization of Nrf2 and induced expression of the GSH synthesis gene, GCLM. Additionally, we found that treatment with CDDO-Me elevated reduced GSH content of NCTC2544 cells and preserved their viability by ∼ 3-fold following exposure to CEES. Our data also suggested that CDDO-Me may act additively with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a nucleophilic scavenging agent, to increase the viability of keratinocytes exposed to CEES. These results suggest that CDDO-Me is a promising chemopreventive agent for SM toxicity in the skin. - Highlights: → CDDO-Me treatment increased intracellular GSH in human keratinocytes. → CDDO-Me increased cell viability following exposure to the half-mustard, CEES. → The cytoprotective effect of CDDO-Me was likely due to scavenging with endogenous GSH.

  9. Vapour pressures and osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate with alcohols at T = 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvar, Noelia; Gonzalez, Begona; Dominguez, Angeles; Macedo, Eugenia A.

    2009-01-01

    Osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) and the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate were determined at T = 323.15 K. Vapour pressure and activity coefficients of the studied systems were calculated from experimental data. The extended Pitzer model modified by Archer, and the modified NRTL model (MNRTL) were used to correlate the experimental data, obtaining standard deviations lower than 0.012 and 0.031, respectively. The mean molal activity coefficients and the excess Gibbs free energy of the studied binary mixtures were calculated from the parameters obtained with the extended Pitzer model of Archer.

  10. Synthesis and Fungicidal activity of some sulphide derivatives of O-Ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeokparia, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Monosulphides of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur dichloride, while the corresponding disulphides were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur monochloride. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier-transform infrared, and /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. In vitro fungicidal assay of these sulphides against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer showed that they had Greater fungicidal activity than their parent carbamates. The synthesized sulphides were more active towards A. Niger and A. flavus. Unlike the parent carbamates, the type of substituents attached to the aromatic nucleus of these sulphides had little or no effect on their fungicidal activity as there was insignificant variation in the fungicidal activity of the monosulphide and the disulphide derivatives of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates. (author)

  11. Hydrogen Production via Steam Reforming of Ethyl Alcohol over Palladium/Indium Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Umegaki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synergetic effect between palladium and indium oxide on hydrogen production in the steam reforming reaction of ethyl alcohol. The palladium/indium oxide catalyst shows higher hydrogen production rate than indium oxide and palladium. Palladium/indium oxide affords ketonization of ethyl alcohol with negligible by-product carbon monoxide, while indium oxide mainly affords dehydration of ethyl alcohol, and palladium affords decomposition of ethyl alcohol with large amount of by-product carbon monoxide. The catalytic feature of palladium/indium oxide can be ascribed to the formation of palladium-indium intermetallic component during the reaction as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements.

  12. The synthesis of 5-[1-11C]ethyl barbiturates from labelled malonic esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, A.; Laangstroem, B.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of [ 11 C]phenobarbital, [ 11 C]pentobarbital and[ 11 C]amobarbital labelled in the 5-[1- 11 C]ethyl position is reported. The malonic esters R- CH(CO 2 Et) 2 [R phenyl-, 1-methylbutyl-, and 3- methylbutyl- were alkylated with [1- 11 C]ethyl iodide prepared from [ 11 C]carbon dioxide. Ring closure of the 2-[1- 11 C]ethyl-labelled malonic esters with urea afforded 5-[1- 11 C]ethyl-phenobarbital,-phenobarbital, -pentobarbital and -amobarbital synthesis times of 42-47 min, counted from [ 11 C] carbon dioxide. In typical syntheses starting with 3 GBq pentobarbitol and (81 mCi) [ 11 C]carbon dioxide, 150-215 MBq (4-6 mCi) were produced in 25-30% decay corrected -amobarbital radiochemical yields with radiochemical purities greater than 98%. (author)

  13. A Theoretical Analysis of the Reaction Between Ethyl and Molecular Oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, James A; Klippenstein, Stephen J; Robertson, Struan H

    2000-01-01

    Using a combination of electronic-structure theory, variational transition-state theory, and solutions to the time-dependent master equation, we have studied the kinetics of the reaction between ethyl...

  14. Solid–liquid phase equilibrium and dissolution properties of ethyl vanillin in pure solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Jingkang; Zhou, Yanan; Guo, Nannan; Liu, Qi; Zong, Shuyi; Bao, Ying; Hao, Hongxun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of ethyl vanillin in eight pure solvents were determined by a static analytical method. • The experimental solubility data of ethyl vanillin were correlated and analyzed by four thermodynamic models. • Dissolution thermodynamic properties of ethyl vanillin were calculated and discussed. - Abstract: The solubility of ethyl vanillin (EVA) in eight pure solvents were determined in different temperature ranges from (273.15 to 318.15) K by a static analytical method. In the temperature ranges investigated, it was found that the solubility of EVA in all the selected solvents increased with the rising of temperature. Furthermore, four thermodynamic models were used to correlate the experimental solubility data and the calculation results showed that selected models can be used to correlate the solubility data with satisfactory accuracy. Finally, the dissolution thermodynamic properties, including dissolution Gibbs energy, dissolution enthalpy and dissolution entropy of EVA in the eight selected solvents were calculated.

  15. Characterization of [8-ethyl]-chlorophyll c3 from Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Susana; Zapata, Manuel; Garrido, José L; Vaz, Belén

    2012-06-04

    We report herein the isolation and complete characterization of a member of the chlorophyll c family, designated as [8-ethyl]-chlorophyll c(3) ([8-ethyl]-chl c(3)). Structural elucidation of this pigment rested on the analysis of mono- and bidimensional NMR, UV-VIS spectroscopy and ESI-MS data, and the configuration at the 13(2) position on chiral HPLC analysis.

  16. Biofiltration of high loads of ethyl acetate in the presence of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshusses, M; Johnson, C T; Leson, G

    1999-08-01

    To date, biofilters have been used primarily to control dilute, usually odorous, off-gases with relatively low volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations (elimination capacities for ethyl acetate were typically in the range of 200 g m-3 hr-1. Despite the presence of toluene degraders, the removal of toluene was inhibited by high loads of ethyl acetate. Several byproducts, particularly ethanol, were formed. Short-term dry-out and temperature excursions resulted in reduced performance.

  17. Hydrocracking of ethyl laurate on bifunctional micro-/mesoporous composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, M.; Busse, O.; Reschetilowski, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Industrial Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Hydrocracking of ethyl laurate (dodecanoic acid ethyl ester) as a representative model compound of vegetable oil has been investigated in a fixed bed reactor under integral conditions. A synthesized micro-/mesoporous composite support material Al-MCM-41/ZSM-5 modified by different metal loadings (NiMo, NiW, PtNiW) was used as catalyst system. It could be demonstrated that the metal loading and reducibility influence product selectivity as well as deactivation behavior of catalyst samples. (orig.)

  18. ETHYL CYANIDE ON TITAN: SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION AND MAPPING USING ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Serigano, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen’s Road, Bristol, BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Kisiel, Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikøw 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L. [National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.-S., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-10

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CNH{sup +}. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at >3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222–241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN. Radiative transfer models show that C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}.

  19. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES FOR 1-ETHYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM n-ALKYL SULFATES: POSSIBLE EVIDENCE OF GROTTHUSS MECHANISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Garabal, S.; Vila, J.; Rilo, E.; Domínguez-Pérez, M.; Segade, L.; Tojo, E.; Verdía, P.; Varela, L.M.; Cabeza, O.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of the temperature and the lengthening of the linear alkyl chain of the anion in the transport physical properties of the pure ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium n-alkyl sulphate (being n = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8). Density, viscosity and electrical conductivities were measured at atmospheric pressure in a wide temperature range. In the bibliography, data existed for these magnitudes for all ionic liquids studied but none of these had information about the electrical conductivity of 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium n-alkyl sulfate whith n = 0, 4, 6 and 8. The experimental results show clearly 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulphate cannot be considered part of the 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium n-alkyl sulphate family because of its hydrogen bonding ability. Results of density and viscosity behave as expected. However, in the case of the electrical conductivity due to the lack of alkyl chain in the hydrogen sulfate we expected to get extreme values but in practise, we obtained intermediate values between 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium butyl sulphate and 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium hexyl sulphate. This suggests that a Grotthus mechanism exists as result of a protonic current in addition to ionic conductivity, being Waldeńs plot consistent with this idea.

  20. Behaviour of solid phase ethyl cyanide in simulated conditions of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier-Tamburelli, I.; Toumi, A.; Piétri, N.; Chiavassa, T.

    2018-01-01

    In order to simulate different altitudes in the atmosphere of Titan, we investigated using infrared spectrometry and mass spectrometry the photochemistry of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) ices at different temperatures. Heating experiments of the solid phase until complete desorption showed up three phase transitions with a first one appearing to be approximately at the temperature of Titan's surface (94 K), measured by the Huygens probe. Ethyl cyanide, whose presence has been suggested in solid phase in Titan, can be considered as another nitrile for photochemical models of the Titan atmosphere after our first study (Toumi et al., 2016) concerning vinyl cyanide (CH2CHCN). The desorption energy of ethyl cyanide has been calculated to be 36.75 ( ± 0.55) kJ mol-1 using IRTF and mass spectroscopical techniques. High energetic photolysis (λ > 120 nm) have been performed and we identified ethyl isocyanide, vinyl cyanide, cyanoacetylene, ethylene, acetylene, cyanhydric acid and a methylketenimine form as photoproducts from ethyl cyanide. The branching ratios of the primary products were determined at characteristic temperatures of Titan thanks to the value of the νCN stretching band strength of ethyl cyanide that has been calculated to be 4.12 × 10-18 cm molecule-1. We also report here for the first time the values of the photodissociation cross sections of C2H5CN for different temperatures.

  1. Topical ethyl chloride fine spray. Does it have any antimicrobial activity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burney, K.; Bowker, K.; Reynolds, R.; Bradley, M

    2006-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether ethyl chloride fine spray (Cryogesic[reg]) has antimicrobial activity. Material and methods: Blood agar plates supplemented with 5% horse blood were inoculated with five different organisms, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The plates were assessed for growth inhibition at 24 and 48 h by the microbiologist and compared with the non-sprayed control plates. Results: The model showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in bacterial count for the plates treated with fine ethyl chloride spray. The estimate of the percentage of bacteria remaining after spraying with ethyl chloride was 42.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of 35.9-50.9%. There was no evidence that the effect of ethyl chloride fine spray was different for the different organisms (p = 0.49). Conclusion: The use of ethyl chloride shows bacterial count reduction but the clinical implication of this needs to be determined. The authors postulate that any statistically significant reduction can only be helpful in reducing the infection rates. This coupled with the already proven local anaesthetic effects of ethyl chloride will make it an important tool for procedures like arthrocentesis and venepunctures.

  2. Topical ethyl chloride fine spray. Does it have any antimicrobial activity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, K.; Bowker, K.; Reynolds, R.; Bradley, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether ethyl chloride fine spray (Cryogesic[reg]) has antimicrobial activity. Material and methods: Blood agar plates supplemented with 5% horse blood were inoculated with five different organisms, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The plates were assessed for growth inhibition at 24 and 48 h by the microbiologist and compared with the non-sprayed control plates. Results: The model showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in bacterial count for the plates treated with fine ethyl chloride spray. The estimate of the percentage of bacteria remaining after spraying with ethyl chloride was 42.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of 35.9-50.9%. There was no evidence that the effect of ethyl chloride fine spray was different for the different organisms (p = 0.49). Conclusion: The use of ethyl chloride shows bacterial count reduction but the clinical implication of this needs to be determined. The authors postulate that any statistically significant reduction can only be helpful in reducing the infection rates. This coupled with the already proven local anaesthetic effects of ethyl chloride will make it an important tool for procedures like arthrocentesis and venepunctures

  3. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  4. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulware, Stephen; Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L.; Vasquez, Karen M.; MacLeod, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ► 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ► This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ► 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  5. Toxic substances alert program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  6. Diabetic therapeutic effects of ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Musa paradisiaca and seeds of Eugenia jambolana in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, D K; Ghosh, Debidas; Bhat, B; Talwar, S K; Jaggi, M; Mukherjee, R

    2009-11-01

    The folklore medicine of primitive people has been greatly appreciated for centuries. Many researchers study the curative efficiency and mode of action of various medicinal plants. Serum glucose level, lipid profile, glucose tolerance, hepatic and muscle glycogen contents as well as the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase recovered significantly after oral administration of ethyl acetate fractions of Eugenia jambolana (E. jambolana) or Musa paradisiaca (M. paradisiaca) in separate (E. jambolana L.: 200 mg/kg of body weight and M. paradisiaca: 100 mg/kg of body weight) or combined form for 90 days (twice a day through gavage) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The loss in body weight of diabetic animals was reversed and serum levels of insulin as well as C-peptide, which were found to be reduced in diabetic rats, increased significantly after oral administration of the fractions. A histological study of the rats' pancreas revealed that after 90 days of oral treatment with the plant fractions in separate or combined form, the size and volume of pancreatic islets in diabetic treated rats increased significantly compared with the diabetic control group. Treatment of diabetic rats with the combined dose (300 mg/kg of body weight) of plant fractions (200 mg E. jambolana and 100 mg M. paradisiaca) was found to be more effective than treatment with the individual fraction. The doses of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca selected for this study are the optimum antihyperglycemic doses of the plant fractions, which were determined after conducting a dose-dependent study at various dose levels (50-500 mg/kg) in our pilot experiments. The plant fractions were found to be free from metabolic toxicity. Through HPTLC finger printing, three different compounds were noted in the ethyl acetate fraction of E. jambolana L. and eight different compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction of M. paradisiaca L. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All

  7. Genotoxicity studies of organically grown broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and its interactions with urethane, methyl methanesulfonate and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide genotoxicity in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres-Pulido, María Eugenia; Dueñas-García, Irma; Castañeda-Partida, Laura; Santos-Cruz, Luis Felipe; Vega-Contreras, Viridiana; Rebollar-Vega, Rosa; Gómez-Luna, Juan Carlos; Durán-Díaz, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) has been defined as a cancer preventive food. Nevertheless, broccoli contains potentially genotoxic compounds as well. We performed the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster in treatments with organically grown broccoli (OGB) and co-treatments with the promutagen urethane (URE), the direct alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) in the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses with inducible and high levels of cytochrome P450s (CYPs), respectively. Larvae of both crosses were chronically fed with OGB or fresh market broccoli (FMB) as a non-organically grown control, added with solvents or mutagens solutions. In both crosses, the OGB added with Tween-ethanol yielded the expected reduction in the genotoxicity spontaneous rate. OGB co-treatments did not affect the URE effect, MMS showed synergy and 4-NQO damage was modulated in both crosses. In contrast, FMB controls produced damage increase; co-treatments modulated URE genotoxicity, diminished MMS damage, and did not change the 4-NQO damage. The high dietary consumption of both types of broccoli and its protective effects in D. melanogaster are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Intrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is a pivotal clinical problem occurring in many clinical conditions such as transplantation, trauma, and hepatic failure after hemorrhagic shock. Apoptosis and autophagy have been shown to contribute to cell death in hepatic I/R injury. Ethyl pyruvate, a stable and simple lipophilic ester, has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, the purpose is to explore both the effect of ethyl pyruvate on hepatic I/R injury and regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy. Methods. Three doses of ethyl pyruvate (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg were administered 1 h before a model of segmental (70% hepatic warm ischemia was established in Balb/c mice. All serum and liver tissues were obtained at three different time points (4 h, 8 h, and 16 h. Results. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and pathological features were significantly ameliorated by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Beclin-1, and LC3, which play an important role in the regulation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, was also obviously decreased by ethyl pyruvate (80 mg/kg. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate inhibited the HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusion. Our results showed that ethyl pyruvate might attenuate to hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy, mediated partly through downregulation of HMGB1/TLR4/ NF-κb axis and the competitive interaction with Beclin-1 of HMGB1.

  9. Comparison of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutation and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster V79 cells with forty chemical and physical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Y.; Hasegawa, M.M.; Taketomi, M.; Ohkawa, Y.; Inui, N.

    1984-01-01

    The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and mutation at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus and toxicities of 40 different chemical and physical agents were examined on Chinese hamster V79 cells. These agents included mono-, di-, tri-, and polyfunctional alkylating agents, intercalators, gamma-rays, and UV light irradiation. Mutation was measured as resistance to 6-thioguanine and toxicity as loss of cell-plating efficiency. SCE were examined 29 hr after treatment. With the agents examined, a highly positive correlation existed between SCE-inducing and mutagenic potencies, when expressed as increase in the number per a unit dose over the control values. But the great difference of the ratios of mutagenic potencies versus SCE-inducing potencies among agents was observed, the maximal difference in the ratios being about 200-fold. The agents that showed the higher values of the ratio (agents producing more mutations than SCE) were bleomycin, cobalt-60 gamma-rays, all ethylating agents (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, N-ethyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethyl methanesulfonate, and diethylsulfate), N-propyl-N-nitrosourea, N-butyl-N-nitrosourea, isopropyl methanesulfonate, intercalating acridine compounds (2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-[3-(ethyl-2-chloroethyl)aminopropylamino]-acridine X 2HCl and 2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-[3-(chloroethyl)-aminopropylamino]acridine 2HCl) and UV light at 254 nm

  10. Laboratory evaluation of ethyl acetate and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v extract of Swietenia mahagoni leaf against Japanese Encephalitis vector Culex vishuni group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Adhikari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the larvicidal activity of a furniture tree Swietenia mahagoni L. (S. mahagoni against mosquito Culex Vishnui group. Methods: Different concentrations of crude, chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v and ethyl acetate solvent extracts of S. mahagoni mature leaves were treated against Cx. vishnui group larvae. Results: Five graded concentrations (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.20%, 0.30% and 0.40% of crude extract of mature leaves and five graded concentrations (10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm, 40 ppm and 50 ppm of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v and ethyl acetate solvent extracts showed significant (P<0.05 larval mortalities. LC50, LC90 values were calculated at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of exposures. Adult Cx. vishnui group mosquitoes exposed to burning coils prepared from S. mahagoni mature leaves showed smoke repellency and toxicity up to 4 h. Conclusions: This study was a pioneer attempt to establish S. mahagoni as an effective mosquito larvicide.

  11. Effectiveness and reaction networks of H2O2 vapor with NH3 gas for decontamination of the toxic warfare nerve agent, VX on a solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon Ryu, Sam; Wan Lee, Hae

    2015-01-01

    The nerve agent, O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) must be promptly eliminated following its release into the environment because it is extremely toxic, can cause death within a few minutes after exposure, acts through direct skin contact as well as inhalation, and persists in the environment for several weeks after release. A mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas was examined as a decontaminant for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature, and the reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). All the VX on glass wool filter disks was found to be eliminated after 2 h of exposure to the decontaminant mixtures, and the primary decomposition product was determined to be non-toxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA); no toxic S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (EA-2192), which is usually produced in traditional basic hydrolysis systems, was found to be formed. However, other by-products, such as toxic O-ethyl S-vinyl methylphosphonothioate and (2-diisopropylaminoethyl) vinyl disulfide, were detected up to 150 min of exposure to the decontaminant mixture; these by-products disappeared after 3 h. The two detected vinyl byproducts were identified first in this study with the decontamination system of liquid VX on solid surfaces using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas. The detailed decontamination reaction networks of VX on solid surfaces produced by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas were suggested based on the reaction products. These findings suggest that the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas investigated in this study is an efficient decontaminant mixture for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature despite the formation of a toxic by-product in the reaction process.

  12. Copper(II) catalysis in cyanide conversion into ethyl carbamate in spirits and relevant reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, M; Boscolo, M; Franco, D W

    2001-06-01

    The role of copper(II) species in the oxidation of inorganic cyanide to cyanate and in the conversion of cyanate or urea into ethyl carbamate was investigated. The oxidation process has been shown to be independent from the dissolved oxygen. Elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy have shown the formation of a mixed copper carbonate/hydroxide in the process of oxidation of cyanide to cyanate in water/ethanol. The complexation to Cu(II) of cyanate formed upon cyanide oxidation makes the former more susceptible to nucleophilic attack from ethanol, with conversion into ethyl carbamate. Comparatively, urea has a minor role with respect to cyanide in the formation of ethyl carbamate. Therefore, the urea present in some samples of Brazilian sugar cane spirit (cachaça) has been shown to have almost no influence on the ethyl carbamate content of cachaças, which comes essentially from cyanide. Fe(II,III) affords results similar to those found with Cu(II). Some suggestions are presented to avoid ethyl carbamate formation in spirits during distillation.

  13. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction.

  14. Assessment of Ethyl Carbamate Contamination in Cachaça (Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M. Bortoletto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cachaça is a sugar cane spirit produced in Brazil. Ethyl carbamate (EC, a potential carcinogenic compound, may be present in cachaça above the limit established by law. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of ethyl carbamate in cachaças recently produced in Brazil in order to verify their compliance with the law. The concentration of ethyl carbamate was determined in 376 samples of cachaça through gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS. The mean value of ethyl carbamate in the cachaças analyzed was 145 µg/L, and 24% of them were not in compliancy with the law (EC < 210 µg/L. However, compared to previous studies, advances have been observed regarding the adjustment of cachaças to the legal limit. Cachaças produced in large distilleries through continuous column distillation presented a mean value of 200 µg/L of ethyl carbamate. Cachaças produced in small distilleries using pot still distillation presented a mean content of 74 µg/L. Small producers have been more engaged in using good manufacturing practices to guarantee the quality of cachaças.

  15. Hydrogenation of ethyl acetate on Re/γ-A12O3 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minachev, K.M.; Avaev, V.I.; Ryashentseva, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the catalytic properties of 5% Re/gamma-A1 2 O 3 contact in the hydrogenation reaction of ethyl acetate (EA). To clarify the paths of formation of the by products, experiments were also carried out with ethanol under the conditions of hydrogenation of EA. It is shown that the main product of the hydrogenation of EA is ethanol. In addition, Et 2 O, water, and traces of acetaldehyde were found in the catalyzate. In the range of conditions studied, the maximal conversion of ethyl acetate into ethanol is 49%. Increase in the temperature and molar ratio, and also decrease in pressure leads to a decrease in the selectivity of hydrogenation of ethyl acetate into ethanol. Byproducts of the hydrogenation of ethyl acetate - diethyl ether and hydrocarbons - are formed not only as a result of dehydration of ethanol on gamma-A1 2 O 3 , but also directly from ethyl acetate (diethyl ether) and also by the hydrogenolysis of the C-O bond in ethanol on rhenium (hydrocarbons)

  16. Effect of Potent Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum suaveolens Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens in streptozotocin-(STZ- induced diabetic rats by acute and subacute models. In this paper, various fractions of ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens were prepared and their effects on blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats were studied after a single oral administration (200?mg/kg. Administration of the ethyl acetate fraction at 200?mg/kg once daily for 14 days to STZ-induced diabetic rats was also carried out. The parameters such as the fasting blood glucose, hepatic glycogen content, and pancreatic antioxidant levels were monitored. In the acute study, the ethyl acetate fraction is the most potent in reducing the fasting serum glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The 14-day repeated oral administration of the ethyl acetate fraction significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose and pancreatic TBARS level and significantly increased the liver glycogen, pancreatic superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities as well as reduced glutathione levels. The histopathological studies during the subacute treatment have been shown to ameliorate the STZ-induced histological damage of pancreas. This paper concludes that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of Stereospermum suaveolens possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, thereby substantiating the use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine.

  17. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    labeled as toxic, can he or she be rehabilitated?; Are there leadership styles that can be promoted to combat toxic leadership?; and Are the senior...examines leadership styles that are favorable for female leaders, and offers Transformational/Adaptive leadership as a style promising rehabilitative tools

  18. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair: a promising way for retrospective detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz; Yegles, Michel

    2008-04-01

    The retrospective detection of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is an important part of the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome. A promising way to solve this problem can be the determination of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) or/and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair of the mothers. In this article, the present state in analytical determination and interpretation of FAEE and EtG concentrations in hair are reviewed. Both FAEE and EtG are minor metabolites of ethanol and as direct alcohol markers very specific for alcohol. They are durably deposited in hair, which enables taking advantage of the long diagnostic time window of this sample material. In the last years, specific and sensitive methods for determination of both alcohol markers in hair were developed. Headspace solid phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy after hair extraction with an n-heptane/dimethylsulfoxide mixture proved to be a favorable technique for determination of four characteristic FAEE (ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate). EtG is extracted from hair by water and analyzed either by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with negative chemical ionization after cleanup with solid phase extraction and derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride or by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy-mass spectroscopy. The detection limits of the single FAEE as well as of EtG are in the range of 1 to 10 pg/mg. FAEE as well as EtG were determined in a larger number of hair samples of teetotalers, social drinkers, patients in alcohol withdrawal treatment, and death cases with previous known heavy drinking. From the results, the following criteria were derived: strict abstinence is excluded or improbable at C FAEE >0.2 ng/mg or C EtG >7 pg/mg. Moderate social drinkers should have C FAEE alcohol abuse is probable. Until now, there has been no evaluation in context of FAS diagnosis; however, a successful application for this purpose

  19. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  20. Novel one-pot process for the synthesis of ethyl 2-imino-4-methyl-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyzaei Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile one-pot two-step process for the synthesis of ethyl 2-imino-4-methyl-2,3-dihydrothiazole-5-carboxylates via the cyclocondensation of ethyl 2-thiocyanatoacetoacetate with a variety of hydrazine and hydrazide derivatives has been developed. Ethyl 2-thiocyanatoacetoacetate itself has been synthesized as intermediate from the reaction of ethyl 2-chloroacetoacetate with potassium thiocyanate (KSCN. The molecular structures of these newly synthesized compounds were elucidated on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral data.

  1. Anticancer Effects of 1,3-Dihydroxy-2-Methylanthraquinone and the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Hedyotis Diffusa Willd against HepG2 Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Lan Li

    Full Text Available Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, is a treatment for various diseases including cancer, owing to its mild effectiveness and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to identify the main anticancer components in Hedyotis Diffusa Willd, and explore mechanisms underlying their activity. Hedyotis Diffusa Willd was extracted and fractionated using ethyl acetate to obtain the H-Ethyl acetate fraction, which showed higher anticancer activity than the other fractions obtained against HepG2 cells with sulforhodamine B assays. The active component of the H-Ethyl acetate fraction was identified to be 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (DMQ with much high inhibitory rate up to 48.9 ± 3.3% and selectivity rate up to 9.4 ± 4.5 folds (p<0.01 at 125 μmol/L. HepG2 cells treated with the fraction and DMQ visualized morphologically using light and fluorescence microscopy. Annexin V--fluorescein isothiocyanate / propidium iodide staining flow cytometry, DNA ladder and cell cycle distribution assays. Mechanistic studies showed up-regulation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 proteases activities (p<0.001, indicating involvement of mitochondrial apoptotic and death receptor pathways. Further studies revealed that reactive oxygen species in DMQ and the fraction treated HepG2 cells increased (p<0.01 while mitochondrial membrane potential reduced significantly (p<0.001 compared to the control by flow cytometry assays. Western blot analysis showed that Bax, p53, Fas, FasL, p21 and cytoplasmic cytochrome C were up-regulated (p<0.01, while Bcl-2, mitochondrial cytochrome C, cyclin E and CDK 2 were down-regulated dose-dependently (p<0.01. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed that mRNA expressions of p53 and Bax increased (p<0.001 while that of Bcl-2 decreased (p<0.001. Pre-treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, or caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, attenuated the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of DMQ and the

  2. Solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Jie-Ping; Yang, Dan; Xu, Xiao-Kang; Guo, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solubilities of daidzin were measured in various solvents. • The solubility data were correlated by three models. • The thermodynamic properties of the dissolution process were also determined. - Abstract: The solubility of daidzin in different organic solvents and (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method from T = (283.2 to 323.2) K at atmosphere pressure. The results show that at higher temperature more daidzin dissolves, and moreover, the solubility increases with the ethyl alcohol mole fraction increase in the (ethyl alcohol + water) mixed solvents. The experimental solubility values were correlated by a simplified thermodynamic equation, λh equation and modified Apelblat equation. Based on the solubility of daidzin, the enthalpy and entropy of solution were also evaluated by van’t Hoff equation. The results illustrated that the dissolution process of daidzin is endothermic and entropy driven

  3. Microalgae wet extraction using N-ethyl butylamine for fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Du

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are considered a promising feedstock for the production of food ingredients, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and biofuels. The energy intensity of drying and cell breaking of algae and solvent recovery afterwards hindered the route of algae biorefinery. In this work the influences of freeze drying and cell breaking to the extraction efficiency of crude lipid yield and fatty acid yield were investigated. Results showed that drying and cell breaking are not necessary for N-ethyl butylamine extraction, because good yields were obtained without. Crude lipid yield and fatty acid yield using N-ethyl butylamine were comparable with Bligh & Dyer extraction, making N-ethyl butylamine a candidate for further development of an energy efficient lipid extraction technology for non-broken microalgae. Keywords: Microalgae, Lipids, Extraction, Switchable solvent, Secondary amine

  4. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of soybean oil into ethyl esters. The process resulted in a maximum yield of 91.8% after 30 minutes of reaction. The process variables alcohol to oil ratio and catalyst to oil ratio were statistically significant regarding the yield of ethyl esters. The optimal operating condition was obtained applying an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 10.2 and a catalyst to oil weight ratio of 0.0035.

  5. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO. By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM.

  6. Crystal structure of the tetragonal polymorph of bis(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrabromidocadmate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Đorđević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Both unique Cd atoms in the tetragonal polymorph of bis(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrabromidocadmate, (C6H11N22[CdBr4], occupy special positions (site symmetry -4. The crystal structure consists of isolated tetrahedral [CdBr4]2− anions which are surrounded by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. The methyl and ethyl side chains of the cations show positional disorder in a 0.590 (11:0.410 (11 ratio. In the crystal, (C6H11N2+ cations display three weak C—H...Br hydrogen-bond interactions through the imidazolium ring H atoms with the Br− ligands of the surrounding complex anions. The alkyl groups of the side chains are not involved in hydrogen bonding.

  7. Efeitos do trinexapac-ethyl sobre o crescimento e florescimento da grama-batatais Effects of trinexapac-ethyl on the growth and flowering of the bahiagrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.L. Freitas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de doses do trinexapac-ethyl, bem como dos intervalos de aplicação após o corte no crescimento vegetativo e florescimento da grama-batatais (Paspalum notatum, na redução de cortes e na melhoria da qualidade do gramado. O ensaio foi conduzido no campus da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, em Viçosa-MG, entre os meses de dezembro de 1998 e março de 1999, em gramado estabelecido. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 13 tratamentos e quatro repetições, distribuídos em esquema fatorial (6 x 2 + 1, com seis doses de trinexapac-ethyl (0,00; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; e 1,25 kg ha-1, aplicadas aos dois e cinco dias após o corte do gramado, e uma testemunha com cortes a cada três semanas. Foram efetuadas avaliações a três, seis, nove e doze semanas após o corte, para produção de biomassa seca total, altura e número de inflorescências. Verificou-se, para todas as características avaliadas, relação direta entre o aumento da dose do regulador de crescimento trinexapac-ethyl e o período de controle do crescimento vegetativo e do florescimento, evitando-se, com isso, cortes no gramado pelo período de até 12 semanas com a aplicação de 0,75 kg ha-1. Não se constatou efeito da época de aplicação e também de doses do trinexapac-ethyl sobre a coloração do gramado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of doses and application intervals of trinexapac-ethyl on the vegetative growth and flowering of bahiagrass, to reduce clips and improve lawn quality. The experiment was conducted on the campus of the Federal University of Viçosa, in Viçosa-MG - Brazil, from December 1998 to March 1999, in an established lawn. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design, with 13 treatments and four repetitions, distributed in a factorial scheme (6 x 2 + 1, with six doses of trinexapac-ethyl (0.00; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75; 1.00 and 1.25 kg ha-1

  8. Extraction of lanthanides and actinides (III) by DI-2 ethyl dithiophosphoric acid and DI-2 ethyl hexyl monothiophosphoric acid. Structure of the complexes in the organic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattee, D.; Musikas, C.; Faure, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1986-09-01

    To operate a trivalent actinide-lanthanide (III) group chemical separation from low pH nitric solutions we studied the extractive properties of the di-2 ethyl hexyl dithiophosphoric acid (HDEHDTP); this bidentate ligand which possesses a sulfur donor atom is a good extractant of soft acids. We so expect a better selectivity for the actinides (III) extraction. We also have investigated extractive properties of di-2 ethyl hexyl monothiophosphoric acid (HDEHTP) for trivalent actinides and lanthanides; HDEHDTP is a bidentate ligand with one oxygen donor atom and so is a better extractant for hard acids like actinides and lanthanides (III); but its selectivity is weak. The addition of TBP (tri-n butyl phosphate) to HDEHDTP deals to strong synergistic organic complexes with a great selectivity for Am(III). We explicited this phenomenon. When the metal is macroconcentrated the organic complexes aggregate and form inverted micelles

  9. Randomized controlled trial of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in Huntington disease: the TREND-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (ethyl-EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid, improves the motor features of Huntington disease. Six-month multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by a 6-month open-label phase without disclosing initial treatment assignments. Forty-one research sites in the United States and Canada. Three hundred sixteen adults with Huntington disease, enriched for a population with shorter trinucleotide (cytosine-adenine-guanine) repeat length expansions. Random assignment to placebo or ethyl-EPA, 1 g twice a day, followed by open-label treatment with ethyl-EPA. Six-month change in the Total Motor Score 4 component of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale analyzed for all research participants and those with shorter cytosine-adenine-guanine repeat length expansions (<45). At 6 months, the Total Motor Score 4 point change for patients receiving ethyl-EPA did not differ from that for those receiving placebo. No differences were found in measures of function, cognition, or global impression. Before public disclosure of the 6-month placebo-controlled results, 192 individuals completed the open-label phase. The Total Motor Score 4 change did not worsen for those who received active treatment for 12 continuous months compared with those who received active treatment for only 6 months (2.0-point worsening; P=.02). Ethyl-EPA was not beneficial in patients with Huntington disease during 6 months of placebo-controlled evaluation. Clinical Trial Registry clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00146211.

  10. Fast detoxication of 2-chloro ethyl ethyl sulfide by p-type Ag_2O semiconductor nanoparticle-loaded Al_2O_3-based supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Meng-Wei; Kuo, Dong-Hau

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Detoxication of CWA surrogate of 2-chloro ethyl ethyl sulfide is investigated. • A small amount of Ag_2O on Al_2O_3-base support is sufficient to degrade 2-CEES. • Detoxication conversion >82% in 15 min is achieved for >2.5% Ag_2O/Na_2SiO_3/Al_2O_3. • Na_2SiO_3 modified Al_2O_3 to have the valley-like line pattern for depositing Ag_2O. • 2-CEES oxidation is initiated from the dominant electronic holes in p-type Ag_2O. - Abstract: p-type Ag_2O semiconductor nanoparticle-loaded Al_2O_3 or Na_2SiO_3/Al_2O_3 powders used for detoxicating the surrogate of sulfur mustard of 2-chloro ethyl ethyl sulfide (C_2H_5SCH_2CH_2Cl, 2-CEES) were investigated. Different amounts of Ag_2O and Na_2SiO_3 on catalyst supports were evaluated. Gas chromatography with a pulsed flame photometric detector (GC–PFPD) and gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) were used to monitor and identify the catalytic reactions, together with reaction products analysis. The GC analyses showed that the decontamination of 2-CEES in isopropanol solvent for 15 min was above 82% efficiency for the 0.5% Na_2SiO_3/Al_2O_3 support deposited with a Ag_2O content above 2.5%. 2-(ethylthio)ethanol and 2-(ethylthio)ethanoic acid were identified as the major products after catalytic reactions. The electronic holes dominating in p-type Ag_2O is proposed to provide the key component and to initiate the catalytic reactions. The electronic hole-based detoxication mechanism is proposed.

  11. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  12. Conducting polymers of octanoic acid 2-thiophen-3-yl-ethyl ester and their electrochromic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurlu, Pinar; Cirpan, Ali; Toppare, Levent

    2005-01-01

    Octanoic acid 2-thiophen-3-yl-ethyl ester was synthesized via the reaction of 3-thiophene ethanol with octanoyl chloride. The resulting monomer was electrochemically homopolymerized in the presence of tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate as the supporting electrolyte, in the acetonitrile/borontrifluoride ethyl ether solvent system. The resulting polymer was characterized using various experimental techniques. Spectroelectrochemistry analysis of the homopolymer reflects electronic transitions at 434, ∼800 and ∼1100 nm, revealing π-π* transition, polaron and bipolaron band formation, respectively, leading to esthetically pleasing color changes between transmissive yellow and blue, with reasonable switching times

  13. Microstructural characterization of a novel methyl acrylate-ethyl acrylate copolymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, M.; Castano, V.M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 1-1010, Queretaro, Mexico (Mexico); Molina, J.P.; Vazquez, F. [Facultad de Quimica UAEMex, Paseo Tollocan esq. Paseo Colon, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A number of different compositions of a novel methyl acrylate-ethyl acrylate copolymer were prepared by emulsion polymerization with potassium persulfate as initiator. The compositions synthesized were: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 on weight of methyl acrylate/ethyl acrylate at different temperatures and concentrations of initiators. The effect of other conditions were also studied. The samples were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. It was found that the size of aggregates and dispersion on sizes are controlled by the synthesis conditions, result partially supported by light scattering. (Author)

  14. Microstructural characterization of a novel methyl acrylate-ethyl acrylate copolymer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, M.; Castano, V.M.; Molina, J.P.; Vazquez, F.

    1998-01-01

    A number of different compositions of a novel methyl acrylate-ethyl acrylate copolymer were prepared by emulsion polymerization with potassium persulfate as initiator. The compositions synthesized were: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 on weight of methyl acrylate/ethyl acrylate at different temperatures and concentrations of initiators. The effect of other conditions were also studied. The samples were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. It was found that the size of aggregates and dispersion on sizes are controlled by the synthesis conditions, result partially supported by light scattering. (Author)

  15. (Z-Ethyl 3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyano-3-(2,6-difluorobenzamidoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoyan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C19H13ClF2N2O3, was prepared by the reaction of (Z-ethyl 3-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl-2-cyanoacrylate and 2,6-difluorobenzoyl chloride. The dihedral angle between the chlorobenzene and fluorobenzene rings is 37.0 (1°. The ethyl group is disordered over two positions [occupancies = 0.52 (2:0.48 (2]. In addition to intramolecular N—H...O and N—H...F hydrogen bonds, the crystal packing shows the molecules to be connected by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...N hydrogen bonds.

  16. A New Phenyl Ethyl Glycoside from the Twigs of Acer tegmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seonju; Lee, Hwa Young; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Nanyoung; Cho, Seung Hun; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2015-07-01

    One new phenyl ethyl glycoside, 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 --> 6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoide (1) and 11 known compounds (2-12) were isolated from the twigs of Acer tegmentosum. Compound 6 showed potent anti-neuroinflammatory activity against the LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells with tNO production of 25.0 ± 2.5 μM and TNF-α concentration of 617.6 ± 47.1 pg/mL at 30 μM.

  17. Ethyl 4-chloro-2′-fluoro-3-hydroxy-5-methylbiphenyl-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adeel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C16H14ClFO3, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two benzene rings is 71.50 (5°. Due to an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond between the hydroxy group and the carbonyl O atom of the ethyl ester group, the ethyl ester group lies within the ring plane. The crystal structure is consolidated by intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...F interactions.

  18. Ethyl carbamate levels in wine and spirits from markets in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y P; Dong, B; Qin, Z S; Yang, N J; Lu, Y; Yang, L X; Chang, F Q; Wu, Y N

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) in wine, grain spirits and wine sauce (145 samples) was analysed using solid-phase extraction and stable isotope dilution GC/MS. Samples were obtained from markets in eight areas (Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Qinhuangdao, Langfang, Zhangjiakou, Xingtai and Cangzhou) of Hebei Province, China. The method had a limit of detection of 2 µg kg⁻¹, with recoveries varying from 95.7 to 102% and RSD ranging 2.3-5.6%. The average concentrations of ethyl carbamate in wines, grain spirits and wine sauce were 14.7 (wines.

  19. Comparative substoichiometric extraction of cadmium with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Rangamannar, B.

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of the extractability of cadmium with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates into chloroform and a mixture of 1:4 pyridine and ethyl acetate from pH 1-7 buffers and sodium formate media, respectively, has been carried out employing an accurate and highly sensitive substoichiometric radiochemical method. The effect of foreign ions on the extractability was studied. The method developed was utilized for the determination of cadmium content in standard as well as in geological water samples. (author) 4 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  1. Toxicity assessment of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motorcycle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-T.; Chen, B.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the toxicity of various pollutant species from motorcycle exhaust via dose-response analysis and margin of safety using Escherichia coli DH5α. The toxicity evaluation of the major components of motorcycle exhaust volatile organic compounds (VOCs), collected with impinger, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), collected with filter and XAD-2, is essential to determine emission standards for motorcycles. The toxicity of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E) and xylene (X) was selected for comparison as standard VOCs emitted from motorcycles. In addition, three types of reformulated gasoline (high oxygenate and high benzene content (No. 1), low oxygen and high benzene (No. 2), and low oxygen and low benzene (No. 3) were prepared to reveal combined toxicity of individual compositions. Motorcycle exhaust is significantly more toxic than BTEX due to the highly toxic VOCs generated from incomplete combustion. Overall toxicity evaluation showed that the toxicity, indicated as EC 50 , was approximately as follows: PAHs > two-stroke engines > four-stroke engines > BTEX

  2. Toxicity assessment of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motorcycle exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2008-05-30

    This study investigates the toxicity of various pollutant species from motorcycle exhaust via dose-response analysis and margin of safety using Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. The toxicity evaluation of the major components of motorcycle exhaust volatile organic compounds (VOCs), collected with impinger, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), collected with filter and XAD-2, is essential to determine emission standards for motorcycles. The toxicity of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethyl benzene (E) and xylene (X) was selected for comparison as standard VOCs emitted from motorcycles. In addition, three types of reformulated gasoline (high oxygenate and high benzene content (No. 1), low oxygen and high benzene (No. 2), and low oxygen and low benzene (No. 3) were prepared to reveal combined toxicity of individual compositions. Motorcycle exhaust is significantly more toxic than BTEX due to the highly toxic VOCs generated from incomplete combustion. Overall toxicity evaluation showed that the toxicity, indicated as EC50, was approximately as follows: PAHs>two-stroke engines>four-stroke engines>BTEX.

  3. Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST) was developed to allow users to easily estimate the toxicity of chemicals using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) methodologies. QSARs are mathematical models used to predict measures of toxicity from the physical c...

  4. Potential neuroleptic agents. 4. Chemistry, behavioral pharmacology, and inhibition of [3H]spiperone binding of 3,5-disubstituted N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-6-methoxysalicylamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paulis, T; Kumar, Y; Johansson, L; Rämsby, S; Hall, H; Sällemark, M; Angeby-Möller, K; Ogren, S O

    1986-01-01

    A series of 3,5-disubstituted N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-6-methoxysalicylamides was synthesized, starting from the 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acids, by boron tribromide demethylation of the corresponding 3,5-disubstituted 2,6-dimethoxybenzamides and separation of the two positional isomers. The correct structure assignments were based on selective decoupling studies on their 13C NMR spectra. The salicylamide derivatives were tested for antidopamine activity in vivo by their ability to inhibit the apomorphine syndrome in the rat and in vitro by their ability to displace [3H]spiperone from striatal preparations of the rat brain. The activity seems to reside exclusively in the S enantiomer. Several compounds were considerably more potent than haloperidol, particularly those having an ethyl group in the 3-position and a halogen atom in the 5-position of the aromatic ring. The corresponding 5-alkyl-3-halogen-substituted compounds were much less active. A low acute toxicity was found for the most potent compounds. Some of the salicylamides displayed a 10-20-fold separation between the dose which blocks apomorphine-induced hyperactivity and that which blocks apomorphine-induced stereotypy. One compound, S-(-)-3,5-dichloro-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-6-methoxysalicylamide (raclopride, FLA 870) (13) had a stereotypy--hyperactivity separation more than twice that of sulpiride while being 100 times more potent in blocking the apomorphine effects. On this basis, 13 was selected for clinical trials against schizophrenia.

  5. The effect of dietary folic acid deficiency on the cytotoxic and mutagenic responses to methyl methanesulfonate in wild-type and in 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase-deficient Aag null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branda, Richard F; O'Neill, J Patrick; Brooks, Elice M; Powden, Cheryl; Naud, Shelly J; Nicklas, Janice A

    2007-02-03

    Folic acid deficiency (FA-) augments DNA damage caused by alkylating agents. The role of DNA repair in modulating this damage was investigated in mice. Weanling wild-type or 3-methyladenine glycosylase (Aag) null mice were maintained on a FA- diet or the same diet supplemented with folic acid (FA+) for 4 weeks. They were then treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), 100mg/kg i.p. Six weeks later, spleen cells were collected for assays of non-selected and 6-thioguanine (TG) selected cloning efficiency to measure the mutant frequency at the Hprt locus. In wild-type mice, there was no significant effect of either MMS treatment or folate dietary content on splenocyte non-selected cloning efficiency. In contrast, non-selected cloning efficiency was significantly higher in MMS-treated Aag null mice than in saline treated controls (diet-gene interaction variable, p=0.04). The non-selected cloning efficiency was significantly higher in the FA+ diet than in the FA- diet group after MMS treatment of Aag null mice. Mutant frequency after MMS treatment was significantly higher in FA- wild-type and Aag null mice and in FA+ Aag null mice, but not in FA+ wild-type mice. For the Aag null mice, mutant frequency was higher in the FA+ mice than in the FA- mice after either saline or MMS treatment. These studies indicate that in wild-type mice treated with MMS, dietary folate content (FA+ or FA-) had no effect on cytotoxicity, but FA- diet increased DNA mutation frequency compared to FA+ diet. In Aag null mice, FA- diet increased the cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents but decreased the risk of DNA mutation.

  6. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  7. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  8. The sources, fate, and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, N B; Talmage, S S; Griffin, G D; Waters, L C; Watson, A P; King, J F; Hauschild, V

    1999-01-01

    We include in this review an assessment of the formation, environmental fate, and mammalian and ecotoxicity of CW agent degradation products relevant to environmental and occupational health. These parent CW agents include several vesicants: sulfur mustards [undistilled sulfur mustard (H), sulfur mustard (HD), and an HD/agent T mixture (HT)]; nitrogen mustards [ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN1), methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN2), tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3)], and Lewisite; four nerve agents (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), and soman (GD)); and the blood agent cyanogen chloride. The degradation processes considered here include hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, and photolysis. We also briefly address decontamination but not combustion processes. Because CW agents are generally not considered very persistent, certain degradation products of significant persistence, even those that are not particularly toxic, may indicate previous CW agent presence or that degradation has occurred. Of those products for which there are data on both environmental fate and toxicity, only a few are both environmentally persistent and highly toxic. Major degradation products estimated to be of significant persistence (weeks to years) include thiodiglycol for HD; Lewisite oxide for Lewisite; and ethyl methyl phosphonic acid, methyl phosphonic acid, and possibly S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (EA 2192) for VX. Methyl phosphonic acid is also the ultimate hydrolysis product of both GB and GD. The GB product, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, and a closely related contaminant of GB, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, are also persistent. Of all of these compounds, only Lewisite oxide and EA 2192 possess high mammalian toxicity. Unlike other CW agents, sulfur mustard agents (e.g., HD) are somewhat persistent; therefore, sites or conditions involving potential HD contamination should include an

  9. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. 63.61 Section 63.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Designations, Source Category List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air...

  10. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  11. 21 CFR 176.160 - Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N... § 176.160 Chromium (Cr III) complex of N-ethyl-N-heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonyl glycine. The chromium... by weight of the chromium (Cr III) complex of heptadecylfluoro-octane sulfonic acid may be safely...

  12. Multicomponent Synthesis of a N-Protected Alpha-Amino Ester: Ethyl 2-((4-Methoxyphenyl)Amino)-3-Phenylpropanoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Erwan; Pignon, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    This laboratory experiment describes the preparation of a N-protected phenylalanine ethyl ester by a zinc-mediated Mannich-like multicomponent reaction between benzyl bromide, "p"-anisidine, and ethyl glyoxylate. The one-step reaction involves the in situ metallation of benzyl bromide into a benzylzinc reagent and its addition onto imine (Barbier…

  13. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the...

  14. Microbial community dynamics during the bioremediation process of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil by Hansschlegelia sp. strain CHL1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Yang

    Full Text Available Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ.

  15. Microbial Community Dynamics during the Bioremediation Process of Chlorimuron-Ethyl-Contaminated Soil by Hansschlegelia sp. Strain CHL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiang; Li, Xinyu; Li, Xu; Su, Zhencheng; Zhang, Chenggang; Zhang, Huiwen

    2015-01-01

    Long-term and excessive application of chlorimuron-ethyl has led to a series of environmental problems. Strain Hansschlegelia sp. CHL1, a highly efficient chlorimuron-ethyl degrading bacterium isolated in our previous study, was employed in the current soil bioremediation study. The residues of chlorimuron-ethyl in soils were detected, and the changes of soil microbial communities were investigated by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. The results showed that strain CHL1 exhibited significant chlorimuron-ethyl degradation ability at wide range of concentrations between 10μg kg-1 and 1000μg kg-1. High concentrations of chlorimuron-ethyl significantly decreased the total concentration of PLFAs and the Shannon-Wiener indices and increased the stress level of microbes in soils. The inoculation with strain CHL1, however, reduced the inhibition on soil microbes caused by chlorimuron-ethyl. The results demonstrated that strain CHL1 is effective in the remediation of chlorimuron-ethyl-contaminated soil, and has the potential to remediate chlorimuron-ethyl contaminated soils in situ. PMID:25689050

  16. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...... were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Markedly higher levels of ethyl paraben compared to butyl paraben were found in all fluids and tissues. Both ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal plasma, livers, and whole-body tissues from fetus seemed to be saturated after dosing...

  17. Primary study of ethyl cellulose nanofiber for oxygen-enrichment membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl cellulose is widely used for oxygen-enrichment membrane, however, its nanofiber membrane was rarely developed though it behaves more excellent performance. This paper gives a preliminary study to produce oxygen-enrichment membrane by bubbfil spinning.

  18. Alcohol consumption and synthesis of ethyl esters of fatty acids in adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björntorp, P; Depergola, G; Sjöberg, C; Pettersson-Kymmer, U.; Hallgren, P; Boström, K; Helander, K G; Seidell, J

    1990-01-01

    Ethyl esters of fatty acids (EEFA) have been found to be formed during ethanol metabolism. Human adipose tissue contains high concentrations of free fatty acids, the substrate for EEFA synthesis, and might therefore be a tissue with great potential for EEFA formation. In order to explore their

  19. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Mumammad Aliyu

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy.

  20. Thermodynamic properties of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, Andrey V.; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kabo, Gennady J.; Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Voitkevich, Olga V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Heat capacities and phase transition enthalpies for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were measured. • Enthalpy of formation for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole was determined. • Vapor pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were found from Knudsen measurements. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity and the parameters of phase transitions of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (1ET) were studied between 5 and 370 K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. Thermodynamic properties of the 1ET in the condensed state were obtained over the range of 0–370 K. Saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 1ET in the temperature ranges from 313 to 344 K and its enthalpy of sublimation were measured by the Knudsen effusion method. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 1ET at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 1ET was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in excellent agreement with the experimental value

  1. Thermodynamic properties of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhin, Andrey V., E-mail: blokhin@bsu.by; Kohut, Sviataslau V.; Kabo, Gennady J.; Stepurko, Elena N.; Paulechka, Yauheni U.; Voitkevich, Olga V.

    2013-08-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Heat capacities and phase transition enthalpies for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were measured. • Enthalpy of formation for 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole was determined. • Vapor pressure and enthalpy of sublimation of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole were found from Knudsen measurements. - Abstract: Temperature dependence of the heat capacity and the parameters of phase transitions of 1-ethyl-4-nitro-1,2,3-triazole (1ET) were studied between 5 and 370 K in a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. Thermodynamic properties of the 1ET in the condensed state were obtained over the range of 0–370 K. Saturated vapor pressure for crystalline 1ET in the temperature ranges from 313 to 344 K and its enthalpy of sublimation were measured by the Knudsen effusion method. The standard enthalpy of formation for crystalline 1ET at 298.15 K was determined in a static bomb combustion calorimeter. From these data, the standard enthalpy of formation for gaseous 1ET was evaluated. The enthalpy of formation calculated using quantum chemical methods is in excellent agreement with the experimental value.

  2. Comparative Study Between Ethylbenzene Disproportionation Reaction and its Ethylation Reaction with Ethanol over ZSM-5

    KAUST Repository

    Tukur, N. M.

    2009-06-23

    Ethylation of ethylbenzene with ethanol has been studied over ZSM-5 catalyst in a riser simulator that mimics the operation of a fluidized-bed reactor. The feed molar ratio of ethylbenzene:ethanol is 1:1. The study was carried out at 350, 400, 450, and 500°C for reaction times of 3, 5, 7, 10, 13, and 15 s. Comparisons are made between the results of the ethylbenzene ethylation reaction with that of ethylbenzene disproportionation reaction earlier reported. The effect of reaction conditions on ethylbenzene reactivity, p-diethylbenzene selectivity, total diethylbenzene (DEB) isomers selectivity, p-DEB-to-m-DEB ratio, benzene-to-DEB molar ratio, and benzene selectivity, are reported. Benzene selectivity is about 10 times more in the EB disproportion reaction as compared to its ethylation reaction with ethanol at 350°C. In addition, the results showed a p-DEB/m-DEB ratio for the EB ethylation reaction varying between 1.2-1.7, which is greater than the equilibrium values. Increase in temperature shifts the alkylation/dealkylation equilibrium towards dealkylation, thereby decreasing conversion and selectivity to DEB. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.

  3. 77 FR 75859 - Pyraflufen-Ethyl; Extension of Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... residues of pyraflufen-ethyl in or on cattle, meat byproducts; goat, meat byproducts; horse, meat... on: Cattle, meat byproducts; goat, meat byproducts; horse, meat byproducts; sheep, meat byproducts..., goat, horse and sheep meat byproducts, and milk are ``safe'' and can be extended. V. Conclusion...

  4. Evaluating the ethyl-acetate fraction of crude methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ointment formulations of the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude methanol leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum was in this study evaluated for wound healing activities in rat using the excision wound model. The air-dried and pulversied leaves were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus to obtain the ...

  5. Solubility of carbon dioxide in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuluth, M.A.M.; Mota Martinez, M.T.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the use of ionic liquids (ILs) for gas separation processes has attracted much attention because of the high solubility of different gaseous species in ILs. This contribution presents new experimental measurements of the carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility in the IL 1-ethyl-3 methylimidazolium

  6. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel 3-[1-(3-nitrophenyl)-ethyl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syntheses of novel 3-[1-(3-nitrophenyl)-ethyl]-1-(indole-1-yl) substituted aryl/alkyl phosphinoyl/thiophosphinoyl/selenophosphinoyl-1H-indole derivatives were accomplished in two steps. The synthetic route involves the cyclisation of equimolar quantities of 3-[1H-3-indolyl(3-nitrophenyl)methyl]-1H-indole with dichlorophenyl ...

  7. The synthesis of 5-(1- sup 11 C)ethyl barbiturates from labelled malonic esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, A.; Laangstroem, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of ({sup 11}C)phenobarbital, ({sup 11}C)pentobarbital and({sup 11}C)amobarbital labelled in the 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl position is reported. The malonic esters R- CH(CO{sub 2}Et){sub 2} R phenyl-, 1-methylbutyl-, and 3- methylbutyl- were alkylated with (1-{sup 11}C)ethyl iodide prepared from ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide. Ring closure of the 2-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-labelled malonic esters with urea afforded 5-(1-{sup 11}C)ethyl-phenobarbital,-phenobarbital, -pentobarbital and -amobarbital synthesis times of 42-47 min, counted from ({sup 11}C) carbon dioxide. In typical syntheses starting with 3 GBq pentobarbitol and (81 mCi) ({sup 11}C)carbon dioxide, 150-215 MBq (4-6 mCi) were produced in 25-30% decay corrected -amobarbital radiochemical yields with radiochemical purities greater than 98%. (author).

  8. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

  9. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... the statutory requirement that the Commission make such determinations. Section 423(c) of the Tax...

  10. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of determination. SUMMARY: Section 423(c) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, as amended (19 U.S.C...

  11. Optimisation of the enantioselective biocatalytic hydrolysis of naproxen ethyl ester using ChiroCLEC-CR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2004-03-04

    Full Text Available In a biocatalytic reaction the immobilized lipase ChiroCLEC-CR enantioselectively hydrolysed a naproxen ethyl ester racemate, yielding (S)-naproxen with an enantiomeric excess of more than 98%, an enantiomeric ratio (E) of more than 100...

  12. A new method for the extraction of Au(III) with ethyl thioacetoacetate into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.Z.; Turel, Z.R.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed for rapid and selective extraction of Au(III) with ethyl thioacetoacetate (HETAcAc) into chloroform at pH 4. The effect of various parameters on the extraction coefficient values were studied. The substoichiometry of the extracted species of 1:3 was obtained by slope ratio and substoichiometric extraction method, respectively. (author)

  13. A Study of the Hepatic Tolerance of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: In this study, the effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of the extract of Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redhead (Rubiaceae) on the tissue and metabolic integrity of rabbit liver was evaluated. Methods: Thirty rabbits (divided equally between male and female) were randomly distributed into five (5) groups of six (6) ...

  14. ENZYMATIC PRODUCTION OF ETHYL OLEATE ESTER USING A LIPASE FROM CANDIDA ANTARCTICA B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sampaio Neta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are biocatalysts of great importance in different areas, being able to catalyze reactions in aqueous or organic media. Furthermore, these enzymes are capable of using several substrates being stable in a wide range of pH and temperatures. Lipases promote the esterification between fatty acids and ethanol producing oleate esters. The aim of this work is to produce ethyl oleate ester by enzymatic esterification of oleic acid with ethanol. A lipase from Candida antarctica type B was used at a temperature of 55 °C. The reaction was conducted using oleic acid, sodium sulfate anhydrous, lipase and ethanol, with a ratio of oleic acid (0.03 mol or 10 ml, lipase (0.1 mol or 0.01 g, sodium sulfate anhydrous (5 g and ethanol 99 % (100 ml. Several reaction times were studied, namely 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H and 13C and Infrared spectra confirmed the production of ethyl oleate ester for the studied conditions. The highest ethyl oleate production yield was obtained for 96 hours reaction time. Ethyl oleate esters have been reported to possess interesting applications in several industrial fields, such as food, aromatics, cosmetics, detergents, flavors and pharmaceuticals.

  15. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivapragasam Gothai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera is an herb used as traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves extract are completely unknown. Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml of ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: The present study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  16. Ethyl benzene-induced ototoxicity in rats : a dose-dependent mild-frequency hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Baretta, A.B.; Muijser, H.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2000-01-01

    Rats were exposed to ethyl benzene at 0, 300, 400 and 550 ppm for 8 hours/day for 5 consecutive days. Three to six weeks after the exposure, auditory function was tested by measuring compound action potentials (CAP) in the frequency range of 1-24 kHz and 2f1-f2 distortion product otoacoustic

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) was released for external peer review in June 2017. EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the ETB...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (Public Comment Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) released the draft Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). Consistent with the 2013 IRIS Enhancements, draft IRIS assessments are released prior to e...

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (External Review Draft, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  20. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2016, EPA released the draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) for public comment and discussion. The draft assessment was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent ...

  1. Preparation of Methacrylate End-functionalized Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) Macromonomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, C.; Becer, C.R.; Baumgaertel, A.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    Three methods for the functionalization of 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx) oligomers with a methacrylate or methacrylamide unit are compared to identify the best suitable route to obtain such macromolecules. In the first method, a functional initiator, namely methacryloyl chloride, was used for the

  2. Iron modified titanium–hafnium binary oxides as catalysts in total oxidation of ethyl acetate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsoncheva, T.; Ivanova, R.; Henych, Jiří; Velinov, N.; Kormunda, M.; Dimitrov, M.; Paneva, D.; Slušná, Michaela; Mitov, I.; Štengl, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, JUN (2016), s. 14-19 ISSN 1566-7367 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Titania–hafnia binary oxide s * Iron modifications * Support effect * Ethyl acetate oxydation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.330, year: 2016

  3. The direct transformation of ethanol to ethyl acetate over Cu/SiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cu/SiO2 catalysts that contain copper phyllosilicate, were successfully ... of attention because both components are simple, non- .... bate on a Micromeritics ASAP 2010 system at liquid- ... The reactor was. Page 3. Direct transformation of ethanol to ethyl acetate. 1015 connected to gas chromatography using a six-port high.

  4. Liver damage caused by hepatitis C viral infection and ethyl alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV is a complex disease, most commonly chronicle (80-85%. The aim of this research was to determinate the level of the liver damage in the patients cansed by HCV in conjunction with consuming ethyl alcohol. Methods. The research included 15 patients with chronic HCV infection supported by the misuse of ethyl alcohol, as well. The diagnosis of C infection hepatitis was proved using the ELISA test and PCR method. Results. The results of the study showed the liver damage by both HCV infection and ethyl alcohol, which was verified by the presence of biochemical changes and patohystological processing of the patients (liver biopsy and prosection. Patohystological changes were at the level of liver cirrhosis and carcinoma (2 patients. There was a signficant difference between the two subgroups (p < 0.001 regarding the examined values γ-GT, PLT and PTV. The basic therapeutic procedure was to introduce this category of patients into alcohol abstinence, and, in a few patients, to apply the antivirus therapy, as well. Conclusion. Based on the number of the examined patients (n = 15, we could conclude that a prolonged ethyl alcohol misuse with the presence of HCV infection was in a correlation with the liver disease progression.

  5. Kombinasi Calcitriol dan Ethynil Ethyl Estradiol Meningkatkan Ekskresi Kalsium Urin dan Risiko Urolitiasis pada Tikus Ovariektomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiningsih Hartiningsih

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high excretion of calcium (Ca in the urine can trigger the formation of urolith. Estrogen and calcitriol decrease urinary Ca excretion. This study aims to examine the combination of calcitriol and ethinyl ethyl estradiol against Ca urinary excretion and urolithiasis risk of ovariectomized rats. Twentyfive female Wistar rats eight weeks old were divided into five groups: i normal control (NK; ii ovariectomized control (OVK; iii ovariectomized + calcitriol (OVD; iv ovariectomized + ethinyl ethyl estradiol (OVE; and v ovariectomized + combination calcitriol and ethinyl ethyl estradiol (OVDE. Seven weeks post-ovariectomy, each rat was put in an individual metabolic cage for the study of Ca balance. At day 4 to 7 of the study, residual feed, urine, and feces were collected daily for Ca analysis. At day 8, the rats were euthanized, the left kidney were collected for histopathological examination. The results showed that combination of calcitriol and ethinyl ethyl estradiol in OVDE rats caused Ca intake and Ca intestinal absorption significantly higher, and urinary Ca excretion tended to be higher although not significantly different compared to OVK rats. Calcium excretion in OVK rat urine was higher compared to the NK rats. The kidney histopathological changes of OVK rats were not different from the NK rats. Histopathological examination of the OVDE group kidney showed protein deposition in the capsular of Bowman’s capsule and proximal tubules, atrophy of the proximal tubules, and necrosis, respectively. It is concluded that the combination of calcitriol with ethinyl ethyl estradiol in ovariectomized rats increased urinary Ca excretion and increased the risk of urolithiasis. ABSTRAK Tingginya ekskresi kalsium (Ca dalam urin dapat menjadi pemicu terbentuknya urolit. Estrogen dan calcitriol menurunkan ekskresi Ca urin. Penelitian ini dilakukan bertujuan untuk mengkaji kombinasi calcitriol dan ethynil ethyl estradiol terhadap ekskresi Ca dalam urin

  6. Transesterification of Vegetable Oils with Ethanol and Characterization of the Key Fuel Properties of Ethyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamoulis Stournas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification reactions of four different vegetable oils (sunflower, rapeseed, olive oil and used frying oil with ethanol, using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, were studied. The ester preparation involved a two-step transesterification reaction, followed by purification. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (0.25 – 1.5%, the molar ratio of ethanol to oil (6:1 – 12:1, and the reaction temperature (35 – 90 °C were studied for the conversion of sunflower oil to optimize the reaction conditions in both stages. The rest of the vegetable oils were converted to ethyl esters under optimum reaction parameters. The optimal conditions for first stage transesterification were an ethanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, NaOH amount (1% wt/wt, and 80 °C temperature, whereas the maximum yield of ethyl esters reached 81.4% wt/wt. In the second stage, the yield of ethyl esters was improved by 16% in relation with the one-stage transesterification, which was obtained under the following optimal conditions: catalyst concentration 0.75% and ethanol/oil molar ratio 6:1. The fuel properties of the esters were measured according to EN test methods. Based on the experimental results one can see that the ethyl esters do not differ significantly from methyl esters. Moreover, the results showed that the values of density, viscosity, and higher heating value of ethyl esters were similar to those of automotive and heavy duty engine diesel fuel. However, the CFPP values were higher, which may contribute to potential difficulties in cold starts. On the other hand, the flash points, which were higher than those of diesel fuel constituted a safety guarantee from the point of view of handling and storage.

  7. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of Ethyl Levulinate Oxidation in a Jet-Stirred Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jui-Yang

    2017-06-01

    A jet-stirred reactor was designed and constructed in the Clean Combustion Research Center (CCRC) at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST); was validated with n-heptane, iso-octane oxidation and cyclohexene pyrolysis. Different configurations of the setup have been tested to achieve good agreement with results from the literature. Test results of the reactor indicated that installation of a pumping system at the downstream side in the experimental apparatus was necessary to avoid the reoccurrence of reactions in the sampling probe. Experiments in ethyl levulinate oxidation were conducted in the reactor under several equivalence ratios, from 600 to 1000 K, 1 bar and 2 s residence time. Oxygenated species detected included methyl vinyl ketone, levulinic acid and ethyl acrylate. Ethylene, methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide were further quantified with a gas chromatography, coupled with a flame ionization detector and a thermal conductivity detector. The ethyl levulinate chemical kinetic model was first developed by Dr. Stephen Dooley, Trinity College Dublin, and simulated under the same conditions, using the Perfect-Stirred Reactor code in Chemkin software. In comparing the simulation results with experimental data, some discrepancies were noted; predictions of ethylene production were not well matched. The kinetic model was improved by updating several classes of reactions: unimolecular decomposition, H-abstraction, C-C and C-O beta-scissions of fuel radicals. The updated model was then compared again with experimental results and good agreement was achieved, proving that the concerted eliminated reaction is crucial for the kinetic mechanism formulation of ethyl levulinate. In addition, primary reaction pathways and sensitivity analysis were performed to describe the role of molecular structure in combustion (800 and 1000 K for ethyl levulinate oxidation in the jet-stirred reactor).

  8. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, John C; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    The haloacetonitriles (HANs) exist in drinking water exclusively as byproducts of disinfection. HANs are found in drinking water more often, and in higher concentrations, when surface water is treated by chloramination. Human exposure occurs through consumption of finished drinking water; oral and dermal contact also occurs, and results from showering, swimming and other activities. HANs are reactive and are toxic to gastrointestinal tissues following oral administration. Such toxicity is characterized by GSH depletion, increased lipid peroxidation, and covalent binding of HAN-associated radioactivity to gut tissues. The presence of GSH in cells is an important protective mechanism against HAN toxicity; depletion of cellular GSH results in increased toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated an apparently synergistic effect between ROS and HAN administration, that may help explain effects observed in GI tissues. ROS are produced in gut tissues, and in vitro evidence indicates that ROS may contribute to the degradation and formation of reactive intermediates from HANs. The rationale for ROS involvement may involve HAN-induced depletion of GSH and the role of GSH in scavenging ROS. In addition to effects on GI tissues, studies show that HAN-derived radiolabel is found covalently bound to proteins and DNA in several organs and tissues. The addition of antioxidants to biologic systems protects against HAN-induced DNA damage. The protection offered by antioxidants supports the role of oxidative stress and the potential for a threshold in han-induced toxicity. However, additional data are needed to substantiate evidence for such a threshold. HANs are readily absorbed from the GI tract and are extensively metabolized. Elimination occurs primarily in urine, as unconjugated one-carbon metabolites. Evidence supports the involvement of mixed function oxidases, the cytochrome P450 enzyme family and GST, in HAN metabolism. Metabolism represents either a detoxification or

  9. Synthesis, SAR and biological evaluation of a novel series of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-3-(2-(3-oxobenzoelenazol-2(3H)-yl)ethyl) urea: Organoselenium compounds for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S; Zheng, X; Hu, T; Zeng, H

    2016-06-30

    Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is an important potential anticancer drug target and closely related to both carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Ethaselen (BBSKE), a novel organoselenium compound inhibiting TrxR1 with selective antitumor effect, while its symmetrical structure results in poor solubility. Carmustine (BCNU), a DNA cross-link agent and also a deactivator of TrxR, is with high toxicity and low selectivity which limit its clinical application to some extents. Herein, a novel compound, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-3-(2-(3-oxobenzoelenazol-2(3H)-yl)ethyl)urea(4a-1), which was designed through the combination of Ethaselen and Carmustine, showed good solubility, good tagetability, low toxicity and excellent antitumor activity by synergism. Using the structure of 4a-1 as a key active scaffold, a series of novel 1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-3-(2-(3-oxobenzoelenazol-2(3H)-yl)ethyl)urea was designed, synthesized and evaluated to explore the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of these inhibitors and to improve their antitumor activities. Notably, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(2-(6-fluoro-3-oxobenzoselenazol-2(3H)-yl)ethyl)-1-nitrosourea(4b-1) was found to exhibit more potent antitumor activities comparable to 4a-1 against all the four cancer cell lines, including Mia PaCa-2, PANC-1, RKO, LoVo. These results have highlighted compound 4b-1 as a new potential lead candidate for future development of novel potent broad-spectrum antitumor agents. In addition, a SAR model was established to conduct further structural modification.

  10. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Shipments of plutonium occasionally pass around the Cape coastal waters on its way to Japan from Europe. This invariably leads to a great deal of speculation of the dangers involved and of the extreme toxicity of plutonium, with the media and environmental groups claiming that (a) plutonium is the most toxic substance known to man, and that (b) a few kilograms of plutonium ground finely and dispersed in the atmosphere could kill every human being on earth. Comparisons with other poisons are drawn, e.g. common inorganic chemicals and biological agents. The original scare around the extraordinary toxicity of Pu seems to have started in 1974 with the claims of Tamplin and Cochran's hot particle theory about plutonium lodging in the sensitive portions of the lungs in small concentrated aggregates where they are much more effective in producing cancers. This theory, however, is regarded as thoroughly discredited by the experts in the field of radiotoxicity. 8 refs

  11. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  12. Toxicity of nickel to soil microbial community with and without the presence of its mineral collectors-a calorimetric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bararunyeretse, Prudence; Ji, Hongbing; Yao, Jun

    2017-06-01

    The toxicity of nickel and three of its main collectors, sodium isopropyl xanthate (SIPX), sodium ethyl xanthate (SEX), and potassium ethyl xanthate (PEX) to soil microbial activity, was analyzed, individually and as a binary combination of nickel and each of the collectors. The investigation was performed through the microcalorimetric analysis method. For the single chemicals, all power-time curves exhibited lag, exponential, stationary, and death phases of microbial growth. Different parameters exhibited a significant adverse effect of the analyzed chemicals on soil microbial activity, with a positive relationship between the inhibitory ratio and the chemical dose (p soil in the case of Ni while for the mineral collectors, only 5 μg g -1 soil and 50 μg g -1 soil induced a peak power reduction level of over 35 and 50%, respectively, in general. The inhibitory ratio ranged in the following order: PEX > SEX > SIPX > Ni. Similar behavior was observed with the mixture toxicity whose inhibitory ratio substantially decreased (maximum decrease of 38.35%) and slightly increased (maximum increase of 15.34%), in comparison with the single toxicity of mineral collectors and nickel, respectively. The inhibitory ratio of the mixture toxicity was positively correlated (p toxic effects are those of mixtures containing SIPX and PEX, respectively.

  13. Ethyl cellulose nanoparticles as a platform to decrease ulcerogenic potential of piroxicam: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Habashy, Salma E; Allam, Ahmed N; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have long gained significant interest for their use in various drug formulations in order to increase bioavailability, prolong drug release, and decrease side effects of highly toxic drugs. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the potential of ethyl cellulose-based NPs (EC-NPs) to modulate the release and reduce ulcerogenicity of piroxicam (PX) after oral administration. PX-loaded EC-NPs were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using different stabilizers at three concentration levels. Morphological examination of selected formulas confirmed the formation of spherical NPs with slightly porous surface. Formulation containing poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs (P188/0.2), having a particle size of 240.26±29.24 nm, polydispersity index of 0.562±0.030, entrapment efficiency of 85.29%±1.57%, and modulated release of PX (88% after 12 hours), was selected as the optimum formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated the presence of PX in an amorphous form in the NPs. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the possible formation of hydrogen bond and the absence of chemical interaction. In vivo study, evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, evaluation of gastric irritation potential, and histological examination were conducted after administration of the selected formulation. Time to reach maximum plasma concentration, t max, of poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs was significantly higher than that of Feldene(®) 20 mg capsules (P≤0.001). Encapsulation of the acidic, gastric offender PX into NPs managed to significantly suppress gastric ulceration potential in rats (P≤0.05) as compared to that of PX suspension. A reduction of 66% in mean ulcer index was observed. In conclusion, poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs (P188/0.2) had a significant potential of offsetting deleterious side effects common in PX use.

  14. Effect of Trinexapac-Ethyl and Traffic Stress on Physiological and Morphological Characteristics of Wheat Grass(Agropyron desertorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Sheikh Mohamadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of trinexapac ethyl concentrations (0, 250 and 500 g/h and traffic stress (traffic and non traffic treatments on wheat grass physiological and morphological traits, an experiment was conducted on research farm of Isfahan University of Technology in 2011 - 2012 as factorial in completely randomized designs with three replications. The studied traits involved plant height and plant density, shoot dry weight and fresh weights, tillering, chlorophyll level, roots and shoot dissolved carbohydrates. Results showed that Trinexapac ethyl reduced plant height, fresh weight and dry weight of cut parts significantly. Application of 250 and 500 g/h Trinexapac ethyl decreased plant height by 21.23 percent and 31.85 percent respectively. Application of Trinexapac ethyl improved plant height, tillering and chlorophyll level. In contrast, chlorophyll level was decreased substantially under traffic treatment and this treatment did not affect wheat grass density and tillering significantly. Under 500 g/h Trinexapac ethyl treatment, tillering was increased by 36 percent compared with under control condition one. Results showed that Trinexapac ethyl application and traffic increased dissolved carbohydrates of root and shoot significantly. As a result, it was found that wheat grass is a traffic resistant plant and it seems that the use of Trinexapac ethyl increases plant resistance to traffic stress

  15. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G P; Karthikeyan, M; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  16. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Anders, Nico [RWTH Aachen University, Aachener Verfahrenstechnik — Enzyme Process Technology, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Klankermayer, Jürgen [RWTH Aachen University, Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Schaeffer, Andreas [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hollert, Henner, E-mail: Henner.Hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Environmental Research, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Chongqing University, College of Resources and Environmental Science, Chongqing 400715 (China); Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tongji University, College of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC{sub 50}: 83 mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC{sub 50}: 2980 mg/L), 2-MF (LC{sub 50}: 405 mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC{sub 50}: 244 mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. - Highlights: • The demand for biofuels increases but their (eco)toxicological effects are unknown. • Acute fish embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of potential biofuels were evaluated. • Ethyl levulinate induced a higher acute toxicity compared to WAFs of gasoline. • Ethyl levulinate caused

  17. Antileishmanial, toxicity, and phytochemical evaluation of medicinal plants collected from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Nadhman, Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50 = 10.9 ± 1.1 μ g/mL) in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea "ethyl acetate fraction" was more active (IC50 = 5.3 ± 0.2 μ g/mL) against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0 ± 0.1 μ g/mL). All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 > 100) in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.

  18. Antileishmanial, Toxicity, and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Collected from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseer Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50=10.9±1.1 μg/mL in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea “ethyl acetate fraction” was more active (IC50=5.3±0.2 μg/mL against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0±0.1 μg/mL. All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 >100 in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.

  19. External radiation toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    The section contains summaries of research on neutron and gamma-ray toxicity in rodents, late effects of low-dose rate, whole-body, protracted exposure to 60 Co gamma rays on young adult beagles, and the effects of protracted, low-dose rate exposure to 60 Co gamma rays on preclinical leukemic phase-related changes in the granulopoietic system of beagles

  20. Local anaesthetic toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local anaesthetic toxicity has been known since the introduction of local anaesthetic drugs into anaesthetic practice more than a hundred ... was the first to think of cocaine as a narcotic. ..... anaesthetics act as Na+ channel-blocking agents, they slow down .... all neurons, leading to global CNS depression, slowing and.

  1. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  2. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, F.; Renaud-Salis, V.; Flury-Herard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation

  3. How toxic is ibogaine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litjens, Ruud P. W.; Brunt, Tibor M.

    2016-01-01

    Ibogaine is a psychoactive indole alkaloid found in the African rainforest shrub Tabernanthe Iboga. It is unlicensed but used in the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction. However, reports of ibogaine's toxicity are cause for concern. To review ibogaine's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics,

  4. Monosodium Glutamate Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The brain is reportedly sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) toxicity via oxidative stress. Sida acuta leaf ethanolic .... wherein the right hemisphere, was preserved for histology and fixed in 10% ... Biochemical Assays: The left hemisphere of the brain samples was ...... development in male and female rats. Exp Physiol.

  5. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  6. Toxic Hazards in Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Pasteur, Lillm,FRANCE. (2) CONISH H.H., EARTH M.L.& IANNi F.L, "Comparative Toxicology of Platics during Thar-modecoqiorition Intsw-re8posium on...Pyrolysnis and Combustion of Materials" Firm and Materials (1976).1, 29-35 (8) ALAAIE Y."Toxicity of Platic dacomposition ProductsŖd Annu~al Progress

  7. Two new Ni(II) supramolecular complexes based on ethyl isonicotinate and ethyl nicotinate for removal of acid blue 92 dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaiw, Safaa El-din H.; Marie, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    Two new luminescent supramolecular complexes (SC); [Ni(EIN)4(NCS)2] SC1 and [Ni2(EN)8(NCS)4] SC2, (EIN = ethyl isonicotinate, EN = ethyl nicotinate), have been synthesized by self-assembly method and structurally characterized by X-ray single crystal, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra, PXRD, elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Both SC1 and SC2 are monoclinic crystals however, they have different asymmetric units. Ni(II) atoms in both SC are isostructural and have similar hexa-coordinate environment. The structures of SC1 and SC2 consist of parallel polymeric 1D-chains, extended in two and three dimensional supramolecular frameworks by intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. SC1 and SC2 are luminescent materials which can be used in applications as molecular sensing systems. SC1 and SC2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts for degradation of acid blue 92 (AB-92) under sun light irradiation. The fluorescence measurements of terephthalic acid technique as a probe molecule were used to determine the •OH radicals. Also the radicals trapping experiments using isopropanol alcohol (IPA) as radical scavenger were discussed. In addition a mechanism of degradation was proposed and discussed.

  8. Diabetes induced testicular dysfunction amelioration by ethyl acetate fraction of hydromethanolic extract of root of Musa paradisiaca L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausik Chatterjee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the diabetic therapeutic potentiality and antioxidative efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanol (40:60 extract of root of Musa paradisiaca Lam. (Musaceae in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic state was confirmed by decreased serum insulin level and carbohydrate metabolomics i.e. increased fasting blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin level and diminished glycogen contents in liver and skeletal muscle. Reproductive homeostasis alteration in diabetes was evaluated by reproductive organo-somatic indices, sperm count, motility and histological analysis of testicular seminiferous tubule along with levels of serum testosterone, testicular cholesterol and seminal vesicular fructose assessment. Oxidative stress in primary and accessory sex organs, and in sperm pellet was assessed by measuring antioxidant enzyme activities along with quantification of free radicals products. Testicular pro-apoptotic Bax-毩 mRNA expression pattern was studied semi-quantitatively by PCR technique. Reverse phase HPLC fingerprinting was performed using methanol and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Results: Oral administration of ethyl acetate fraction at a dose of 20 mg/0.5 mL of distilled water/100 gm body weight twice daily to the diabetic rats for 28 days significantly recovered organo-somatic indices, protected reproductive activities, corrected oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic mRNA expression pattern, which were deviated in diabetes mellitus from control level without any type of toxicity. HPLC fingerprinting shows five completely resolved peaks at 毸 max 254 nm and 342 nm. Conclusions: It has a promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidative activity for curing diabetes induced reproductive disorders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

  9. Atypical growth, abonormal mitosis and polyploidy induced by ethyl-mercury-chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostoff, D

    1940-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the effect of ethyl mercury chloride upon the atypical growths of plants. Seeds of peas, flax, rye, and wheat were treated with 2% ethyl mercury chloride. The fungicide suppressed the development of the seedlings. Cytological studies revealed that the fungicide had also significantly affected the procedure of mitosis in most of the treated seedlings. The chromosomes did not become arranged into a proper equatorial plate when the nucleus membrane and the nucleolei disappeared, but occupied a position similar to that which they had during the prophase. The chromosomes split, then the centromeres divided so that from each one chromosome, two chromosomes originated, situated side by side without polar separation, chiefly due to the absence of normal achromatic figures. Thus, chromosome division without cell division takes place.

  10. Genome-wide comparison of ultraviolet and ethyl methanesulphonate mutagenesis methods for the brown alga Ectocarpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Olivier; Peters, Akira F; Coelho, Susana M; Cock, J Mark

    2015-12-01

    Ectocarpus has emerged as a model organism for the brown algae and a broad range of genetic and genomic resources are being generated for this species. The aim of the work presented here was to evaluate two mutagenesis protocols based on ultraviolet irradiation and ethyl methanesulphonate treatment using genome resequencing to measure the number, type and distribution of mutations generated by the two methods. Ultraviolet irradiation generated a greater number of genetic lesions than ethyl methanesulphonate treatment, with more than 400 mutations being detected in the genome of the mutagenised individual. This study therefore confirms that the ultraviolet mutagenesis protocol is suitable for approaches that require a high density of mutations, such as saturation mutagenesis or Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental redetermination of the gas-phase enthalpy of formation of ethyl 2-thiophenecarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The condensed phase standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of ethyl-2-thiophenecarboxylate was derived from the remeasured standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry and the standard molar enthalpy of vaporization, at T = 298.15 K, remeasured by Calvet microcalorimetry. Combining these two values, the following enthalpy of formation in the gas phase, at T = 298.15 K, was then derived for ethyl-2-thiophenecarboxylate: −(277.7 ± 2.9) kJ · mol −1 . The calculated gas-phase enthalpy of formation of the title compound, through the G3(MP2)//B3LYP approach was found to be 278.9 kJ · mol −1 , in excellent agreement with the experimental measured value

  12. Hyperfine interactions of a muoniated ethyl radical in supercritical CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormier, Philip; Taylor, Becky [Department of Chemistry, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, E4L 1G8 (Canada); Ghandi, Khashayar, E-mail: kghandi@mta.c [Department of Chemistry, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick, E4L 1G8 (Canada)

    2009-04-15

    A muoniated ethyl radical was studied in supercritical carbon dioxide. The muon and the proton hyperfine coupling constants were measured over temperatures ranging from 305 to 475 K, and a density range from 0.2 to 0.7 (g cm{sup -3}). A decrease was found in the muon hyperfine coupling constants as a function of the density, which can be attributed to the interaction between the CO{sub 2} molecule and the p-orbital of the ethyl radical. The changes to the alpha-proton and beta-proton hyperfine coupling constants with density are attributed to changes in the overall geometry in the formed radical. This system was modeled using quantum calculations.

  13. Hyperfine interactions of a muoniated ethyl radical in supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, Philip; Taylor, Becky; Ghandi, Khashayar

    2009-01-01

    A muoniated ethyl radical was studied in supercritical carbon dioxide. The muon and the proton hyperfine coupling constants were measured over temperatures ranging from 305 to 475 K, and a density range from 0.2 to 0.7 (g cm -3 ). A decrease was found in the muon hyperfine coupling constants as a function of the density, which can be attributed to the interaction between the CO 2 molecule and the p-orbital of the ethyl radical. The changes to the α-proton and β-proton hyperfine coupling constants with density are attributed to changes in the overall geometry in the formed radical. This system was modeled using quantum calculations.

  14. Effects of Ultrasound Irradiation on the Preparation of Ethyl Cellulose Nanocapsules Containing Spirooxazine Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Volmajer Valh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the influence of low frequency, high intensity ultrasonic irradiation on the characteristics (average size, polydispersity index of ethyl cellulose nanocapsules encapsulating a photochromic dye. Photochromic nanocapsules were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The acoustic densities entering the system were systematically studied with respect to their abilities to modify and reduce the average sizes and polydispersity indexes of the nanocapsules. Scanning electron microscope, confocal laser microscope, and dynamic light scattering were utilised to characterise the structure, shape, size, and polydispersity of ethyl cellulose photochromic nanocapsules. We were able to tailor the size of the photochromic nanocapsules simply by varying the acoustic densities entering the system. At an acoustic density of 1.5 W/mL and 60 s of continuous irradiation, we were able to prepare an almost monodispersed population of the nanocapsules with an average size of 193 nm.

  15. Ibuprofen Release from Poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate Nanoparticles Prepared by Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Balleño

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen-loaded poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles were prepared by semicontinuous heterophase polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate in the presence of ibuprofen; different surfactant concentration, pH, and temperature were used. Particle size was measured by quasi-light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, while the amount of drug released was determined by UV spectroscopy. Nanoparticles with diameters between 10 and 58 nm, loaded with ibuprofen, were obtained. The smallest particles and the higher drug loading were obtained at the highest pH tested. The analysis of the release data showed that the drug release profiles correspond to the Weibull model. Moreover, it was found that most of the ibuprofen is released within the first 80–120 min; initially the release rate is slow, but then it increases to finally decrease. This behavior contrasts with the reported burst of drug concentration in the plasma after oral administration of IB.

  16. Estimation of toxicity using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tens of thousands of chemicals are currently in commerce, and hundreds more are introduced every year. Since experimental measurements of toxicity are extremely time consuming and expensive, it is imperative that alternative methods to estimate toxicity are developed.

  17. Optimization of Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME for Monitoring Occupational Exposure to Ethyl Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: Analytical methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs in different samples need extraction of compounds, by applying hazardous solvents. Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME is a solvent-free equilibrium extraction method, in which proper calibration can allow quantitative determinations of VOCs at a very good sensitivity without the use of any organic solvent. VOCs are generally present in urine only at trace levels, therefore, a sensitive procedure is needed for their trace determinations. Throughout this study, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME was followed by GC-FID for ethyl benzene in spiked urine was optimized.Methods: In this study, the parameters influencing SPME and gas chromatography of ethyl benzene, including extraction time, temperature, desorption temperature, desorption time, salt addition, sample pH, sample volume and sample agitation were investigated. Results: Extraction procedure was performed at 30°C for 6 min, using 0.2 gml-1 of NaCl in the sample solution. The sample volume and sample pH were optimized at 5 ml and 7 (neutral pH, respectively. Desorption of the ethyl benzene was carried out for 60 sec. at 250°C. The method was also validated with three different spiked urine samples and illustrated an appropriate reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. During this investigation, parameters of accuracy, linearity, and detection limits of the procedure were also evaluated.Conclusion: The developed method of HS- SPME-GC-FID proved to be a simple, convenient, and practical procedure, and was successfully used for measuring of ethyl benzene in spiked urine.

  18. Optimization of the production of ethyl esters by ultrasound assisted reaction of soybean oil and ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,S.; Mazzone,L. C. A.; Santos,F. F. P.; Cruz,M. G. A.; Fernandes,F. A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable liquid fuel that can be produced by a transesterification reaction between a vegetable oil and an alcohol. This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel) from soybean oil and ethanol. The reaction was carried out by applying ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration on the yield of conversion of so...

  19. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Ethyl-Linked Anthocyanin-Flavanol Pigments from Model Wine Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxi; Zhang, Minna; Zhang, Shuting; Cui, Yan; Sun, Baoshan

    2018-05-03

    Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers), are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study. In this study, anthocyanins (i.e., malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside) and (⁻)-epicatechin were first isolated at a preparative scale by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (⁻)-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(⁻)-epicatechin/acetaldehyde), and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins.

  20. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Ethyl-Linked Anthocyanin-Flavanol Pigments from Model Wine Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, formed during red wine fermentation and storage by condensation reactions between anthocyanins and flavanols (monomers, oligomers, and polymers, are one of the major groups of polyphenols in aged red wine. However, knowledge of their biological activities is lacking. This is probably due to the structural diversity and complexity of these molecules, which makes the large-scale separation and isolation of the individual compounds very difficult, thus restricting their further study. In this study, anthocyanins (i.e., malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside and (–-epicatechin were first isolated at a preparative scale by high-speed counter-current chromatography. The condensation reaction between each of the isolated anthocyanins and (–-epicatechin, mediated by acetaldehyde, was conducted in model wine solutions to obtain ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. The effects of pH, molar ratio, and temperature on the reaction rate were investigated, and the reaction conditions of pH 1.7, molar ratio 1:6:10 (anthocyanin/(–-epicatechin/acetaldehyde, and reaction temperature of 35 °C were identified as optimal for conversion of anthocyanins to ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments. Six ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments were isolated in larger quantities and collected under optimal reaction conditions, and their chemical structures were identified by HPLC-QTOF-MS and ECD analyses. Furthermore, DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays indicate that ethyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments show stronger antioxidant activities than their precursor anthocyanins.

  1. 9-Ethyl-2,3-dihydro-9H-carbazol-4(1H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sriman Narayanan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C28H30N2O2, the cyclohexene ring system adopts a sofa conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H...O interactions between methyl H atoms of the ethyl substituents and the O atoms of carbonyl groups of adjacent molecules, and by an intermolecular carbonyl–carbonyl interactions [3.207 (2 Å

  2. Conformational properties of biocompatible poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)s in phosphate buffered saline

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gubarev, A. S.; Monnery, B. D.; Lezov, A. A.; Sedláček, Ondřej; Tsvetkov, N. V.; Hoogenboom, R.; Filippov, Sergey K.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 17 (2018), s. 2232-2237 ISSN 1759-9954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00973S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) FWO-17-05 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : equilibrium rigidity * poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) * thermosensitivity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 5.375, year: 2016

  3. Overmodulation Control in the Optimization of a H-PDLC Device with Ethyl Eosin as Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortuño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of a H-PDLC device is improved by means of a two-step method. First, component optimization—initiator system, crosslinker, and cosolvent—enables the diffraction efficiency of the hologram to be maximized. Second, the use of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in combination with N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone prevents the overmodulation in photopolymers containing ethyl eosin.

  4. Titania and zirconia binary oxides as catalysts for total oxidation of ethyl acetate and methanol decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsoncheva, T.; Mileva, A.; Issa, G.; Dimitrov, M.; Kovacheva, D.; Henych, Jiří; Kormunda, M.; Scotti, N.; Slušná, Michaela; Tolasz, Jakub; Štengl, Václav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2018), s. 2540-2550 ISSN 2213-3437 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) BAS-17-13 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Effect of preparation procedure * Ethyl acetate oxidation * Methanol decomposition * Titania-zirconia binary oxides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry

  5. An Expeditious Stereoselective Synthesis of (−)-Pinidinone from Ethyl Acetoacetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damodar, Kongara; Jun, Jong-Gab

    2016-01-01

    An expeditious stereoselective synthesis of a naturally occurring 2,6-disubstituted piperidine alkaloid, (−)-pinidinone, has been accomplished with an overall yield of 31% in total eight steps. The synthesis involves ethyl acetoacetate as the starting material and the stereoselective α-aminoallylation of aldehyde with (S)-tert-butanesulfinamide, allyl bromide, and indium and Grubbs' olefin cross-metathesis as the pivotal steps.

  6. Ethyl cellulose microcapsules for protecting and controlled release of folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertmanakit, Satit; Praphairaksit, Nalena; Chiangthong, Worawadee; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose microcapsules were developed for use as a drug-delivery device for protecting folic acid from release and degradation in the undesirable environmental conditions of the stomach, whilst allowing its release in the intestinal tract to make it available for absorption. The controlled release folic acid-loaded ethyl cellulose microcapsules were prepared by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation using a mixed solvent system, consisting of a 9:1 (v/v) ratio of acetone:methanol and light liquid paraffin as the dispersed and continuous phase. Span 80 was used as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microcapsules had a spherical shape. However, the particulate properties and in vitro release profile depended on the concentrations of the ethyl cellulose, Span 80 emulsifier, sucrose (pore inducer), and folic acid. The average diameter of the microcapsules increased from 300 to 448 microm, whilst the folic acid release rate decreased from 52% to 40%, as the ethyl cellulose concentration was increased from 2.5% to 7.5% (w/v). Increasing the Span 80 concentration from 1% to 4% (v/v) decreased the average diameter of microcapsules from 300 to 141 microm and increased the folic acid release rate from 52% to 79%. The addition of 2.5-7.5% (w/v) of sucrose improved the folic acid release from the microcapsules. The entrapment efficiency was improved from 64% to 88% when the initial folic acid concentration was increased from 1 to 3 mg/ml.

  7. Synthesis, Structural and Antioxidant Studies of Some Novel N-Ethyl Phthalimide Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraju, Siddegowda; Win, Yip-Foo; Tan, Weng Kang; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    A series of N-ethyl phthalimide esters 4(a-n) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Further, the molecular structure of majority of compounds were analysed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray analysis revealed the importance of substituents on the crystal stability and molecular packing. All the synthesized compounds were tested for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging, FRAP and CUPRAC methods. Few of them have shown good antioxidant activity. PMID:25742494

  8. Accurate spectroscopic characterization of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide isotopologues: a route toward their astrophysical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzzarini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica, " Giacomo Ciamician," Università diBologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Senent, M. L. [Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, Institsuto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Domínguez-Gómez, R. [Doctora Vinculada IEM-CSIC, Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Cátedra de Química, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Carvajal, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Unidad Asociada IEM-CSIC-U.Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Hochlaf, M. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Al-Mogren, M. Mogren, E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it, E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: rosa.dominguez@upm.es, E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: majdi.hochlaf@u-pem.fr, E-mail: mmogren@ksu.edu.sa [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-11-20

    Using state-of-the-art computational methodologies, we predict a set of reliable rotational and torsional parameters for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide monosubstituted isotopologues. This includes rotational, quartic, and sextic centrifugal-distortion constants, torsional levels, and torsional splittings. The accuracy of the present data was assessed from a comparison to the available experimental data. Generally, our computed parameters should help in the characterization and the identification of these organo-sulfur molecules in laboratory settings and in the interstellar medium.

  9. Effects of lactate and acetate on the determination of serum ethyl glucuronide by CZE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázková, Michaela; Caslavska, J.; Thormann, W.; Křivánková, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 23 (2006), s. 4772-4778 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2106; GA AV ČR IAA4031401; GA AV ČR IAA400310609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : acetate * CZE * ethyl glucuronide Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.101, year: 2006

  10. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Substituted Ethyl 2-(Quinolin-4-yl-propanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Substituted 4-hydroxyquinolines were synthesized from anilines and diethyl 2-(ethoxymethylenemalonate by the Gould-Jacobs reaction via cyclization of the intermediate anilinomethylenemalonate followed by hydrolysis and decarboxylation. The 4-hydroxyquinolines reacted with phosphorous oxychloride to form 4-chloroquinolines, which reacted on heating with diethyl sodiomethylmalonate in DMF to yield moderate yields of substituted ethyl 2-(quinolin-4-ylpropanoates, many of which showed potent antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori.

  11. Preparation of N(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidyl-methyl)2-methoxy-4-iodo-125I-5-ethyl sulfonyl benzamide: a radioligand for the radioimmunoassay of sulpiride-related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, M.T.; Pradelles, P.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of 125 I labelling with a higher specific radioactivity of N(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidyl-methyl)2-methoxy-5-ethyl sulfonyl benzamide, a potent biological analogue for sulpiride is described. The incorporation of iodine in the molecule was achieved by the substitution of aromatic amino groups via the diazo compound. Binding and immunological parameters of iodinated and tritiated tracers were compared. (author)

  12. Biodegradation of ethyl acetate in radioactive liquid organic waste by bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Sakata, Solange K.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria H.; Marumo, Julio T.; Dutra, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab -scale hot cell, known as CELESTE located at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's and part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored at the Waste Management Laboratory. Among various types of radioactive waste generated, the organic liquid represents a major problem for its management, because it can not be directly solidified with cement. The objective of this work is to develop a pretreatment methodology to degrade the ethyl acetate present in organic liquid waste so that it can subsequently be immobilized in cement. This work was divided into two parts: selection and adaptation of three bacterial communities for growth in medium containing ethyl acetate and degradation experiments of ethyl acetate present in radioactive organic liquid waste. The results showed that from bacterial communities the highest biodegradation level observed was 77%. (author)

  13. Synthesis of sulfur-containing lubricant additives on the basis of fatty acid ethyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii S. Bodachivskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals an energy-, resource- and eco-friendly method for preparation of sulfur-containing lubricant additives via interaction of fatty acid ethyl esters of rapeseed oil with elemental sulfur. The structure of synthesized compounds under various reactants ratio (5–50 wt.% of sulfur, duration (30–240 min and temperature of the process (160–215°С was investigated using various analytical techniques. According to the established data, aside from addition to double bonds, the side reaction of hydrogen substitution at α-methylene groups near these bonds occurs and induces the formation of conjugated systems and chromophoric sulfur-rich derivatives. Also, we found that increase of process duration evokes growth of polysulfane chains, in contrast to the raise of temperature, which leads to the formation of sulfur-containing heterocycles and hydrogen sulfide, as a result of elimination. Influence of accelerators on sulfurization of fatty acid ethyl esters was also examined. The most effective among them are mixtures of zinc dibutyldithiocarbamate with zinc oxide or stearic acid, which soften synthesis conditions and doubly decrease duration of the high-temperature stage. In addition, sulfur-containing compositions of ethyl esters and α-olefins, vulcanized esters by benzoyl peroxide, nonylphenols and zinc dinonylphenyldithiophosphate were designed. The study identified that lithium lubricant with sulfurized vulcanized esters provides improved tribological properties, in comparison with base lubricant or lubricant with the non-modified product.

  14. Biofiltration of odours - industrial pilot to treat methyl ethyl ketone and toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, L.; Elsie, K.

    2002-01-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone and toluene in the off-gases of a plant producing polyvinyl chloride sheeting for the automotive industry and swimming pools caused frequent odour complaints from the neighbourhood. A pilot project was developed to investigate the removal of the compounds under actual operating conditions by passing part of the exhaust through a compost-based, three-stage biofilter. It was determined over the 156 days of operation that the removal efficiencies of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene averaged 73% and 49%, respectively. It was also shown that shutdowns and disruptions of the laminating process for short and extended periods did not affect the biofilter performance. Addition of 100g/L solution of KNO 3 as a nitrogen source did not improve the performance. Carbon dioxide concentration data and the presence of an average microbial population of 52 million colony forming units per gram provided evidence that biological degradation played a significant role in the reduction of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene in the off-gases of the laminator. (author)

  15. ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF UNRIPE PULP OF CARICA PAPAYA IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Rocha Magareth Athayde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unripe Carica papaya fruits were extracted with methanol in Soxhlet apparatus and later with a liquid-liquid extraction with the aim of identifying and quantifying secondary metabolite fraction of this plant. Quercetin and β-sitosterol have been isolated from the fruit and the quantities detected were 120.2±0.16 mg/g (dry fruit and 279.1±0.09mg/g respectively. In addition, the extracts were evaluated in vivo for their effects on activities of some antioxidant enzymes which includes Glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Glutathione reductase (GR, Glutathione transferase (GST, Catalase (CAT and metabolizing enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH in mice treated orally with a daily dose of extracts (100mg/kg for 7 days. Results showed that ethyl acetate fraction caused significant increase(p<0.05 in the activities of GR, GPx, GST, and G6PDH. Significant decrease (p<0.05 in GPx activity was observed in kidney following administration of ethyl acetate fraction. It is likely that quercetin and β-sitosterol may be responsible for the antioxidant potential demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction from unripe fruit.

  16. Vasodilatory effects and underlying mechanisms of the ethyl acetate extracts from Gastrodia elata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rong; Wang, Ting; Si, Xiaoqin; Jia, Yuanyuan; Wang, Lili; Yuan, Yan; Lin, Qing; Yang, Cui

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ethyl acetate extracts of Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB) on vascular tone and the mechanisms involved. GEB was extracted with 95% EtOH followed by a further extraction with ethyl acetate. The effects of GEB and its ingredients on the isometric tensions of the aortic rings from rats were measured. The ethyl acetate extract of GEB induced a vasodilatory effect on rat aorta, which was partially dependent on endothelium. Four chemical compounds isolated from GEB were identified as 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DB), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (HB), 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (MA), and 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenyl methane (DM), respectively. All of these compounds induced vasodilatations, which were dependent on the endothelium to different degrees. After pretreatment with N ω -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, or methylene blue, the vasodilatations induced by DB, HB, and MA were significantly decreased. In addition, the contractions of the rat aortic rings due to Ca 2+ influx and intracellular Ca 2+ release were also inhibited by DM. Furthermore, the administration of DB significantly enhanced the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and the activities of the endothelial NO synthase in aorta and in endothelial cells. Thus, GEB may play an important role in the amelioration of hypertension by modulating vascular tones.

  17. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  18. In vitro toxicity, antiplatelet and acetylcholinesterase inhibition of Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlke, Janaína Dorneles; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Machado, Michel Mansur; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting in impaired memory and behaviour of remarkable socio-economic impact. A decrease in cholinergic activity is a key event in the biochemical of AD. Buddleja thyrsoides is a plant widely distributed in Southern parts of South America. In Brazilian traditional medicine, the infusion of its leaves and flowers is used for the treatment of bronchitis and cough. Crude ethanolic (70%) extract and fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic) were investigated regarding their toxicities in vitro and antiplatelet action. The enzyme acetylcholinesterase inhibition was evaluated to study the crude extract. The crude extract and fractions were evaluated by means of Brine Shrimp Lethality test and they showed low activities with LC(50) values 1698, 2818, 2187 and 3672 µg mL(-1) for dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic fractions and crude extract, respectively. Buddleja thyrsoides presented great antiplatelet action. The IC(50) values obtained for crude extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic fractions were 361.29, 354.23, 368.75 and 344.30, respectively, while the IC(50) for the standard AAS was 257.01 µg mL(-1). The crude extract showed an inhibition of 22.8% of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in 24 h.

  19. Biological control of toxic cyanobacteri

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlela, Luyanda L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available . Ecotoxicity studies: is toxicity reduced? (Testing on daphnids, fish and human cell lines) Resulting impacts on cyanotoxins (Toxin conformation changes, ELISA detection) Competition assays against toxic cyanobacteria (Can Bacillus etc. outcompete...

  20. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  1. 21 CFR 529.2503 - Tricaine methanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fish and in cold-blooded animals, the drug should be limited to hatchery or laboratory use. [40 FR...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.2503 Tricaine... 051212 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) It is used for the temporary...

  2. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  3. Lipid Effects of Icosapent Ethyl in Women with Diabetes Mellitus and Persistent High Triglycerides on Statin Treatment: ANCHOR Trial Subanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Eliot A; Ballantyne, Christie M; Guyton, John R; Philip, Sephy; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A; Mosca, Lori

    2018-03-27

    High triglycerides (TG) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) are stronger predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women than in men, but few randomized, controlled clinical trials have investigated lipid-lowering interventions in women and none have reported results specifically in women with high TG and DM2. Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa) is pure prescription eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester approved at 4 g/day as an adjunct to diet to reduce TG ≥500 mg/dL. The 12-week ANCHOR trial randomized 702 statin-treated patients (73% with DM; 39% women) at increased CVD risk with TG 200-499 mg/dL despite controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 40-99 mg/dL) to receive icosapent ethyl 2 g/day, 4 g/day, or placebo. This post hoc analysis included 146 women with DM2 (97% white, mean age 62 years) randomized to icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (n = 74) or placebo (n = 72). Icosapent ethyl significantly reduced TG (-21.5%; p women with DM2 at high CVD risk with persistently high TG on statins, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day reduced potentially atherogenic parameters with safety and tolerability comparable to placebo. Potential CVD benefits of icosapent ethyl are being tested in ∼8000 men and women at high CVD risk with high TG on statins in the ongoing Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl - Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) cardiovascular (CV) outcome trial.

  4. A facile synthesis of sodium 3-[1-[sup 14]C]-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi [Kotobuki Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Nagano (Japan). Research Labs.; Okazaki, Mitsuo [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Applied Biology

    1994-01-01

    Sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate 1, a new therapeutic agent for stomatitis, pharyngitis and ophthalmia was labelled with carbon-14 in the ethyl group attached to the azulene ring for use in metabolic studies. [sup 14]C-labelled 1 with a specific activity of 1.98 GBq/mmol was prepared in four steps in 39.3% overall chemical yield from [1-[sup 14]C]acetic acid sodium salt. (Author).

  5. Portable, accurate toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.; Hinds, A.A.; Vieaux, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations, severe penalties for non-compliance, and expensive remediation costs have stimulated development of methods to detect and measure toxins. Most of these methods are bioassays that must be performed in the laboratory; none previously devised has been truly portable. The US Army, through the Small Business Innovative Research program, has developed a hand-held, field deployable unit for testing toxicity of battlefield water supplies. This patented system employs the measurable quenching, in the presence of toxins, of the natural bioluminescence produced by the marine dinoflagellate alga Pyrocystis lunula. The procedure's inventor used it for years to measure toxicity concentrations of chemical warfare agents actually, their simulants, primarily in the form of pesticides and herbicides plus assorted toxic reagents, waterbottom samples, drilling fluids, even blood. While the procedure is more precise, cheaper, and faster than most bioassays, until recently it was immobile. Now it is deployable in the field. The laboratory apparatus has been proven to be sensitive to toxins in concentrations as low as a few parts per billion, repeatable within a variation of 10% or less, and unlike some other bioassays effective in turbid or colored media. The laboratory apparatus and the hand-held tester have been calibrated with the EPA protocol that uses the shrimplike Mysidopsis bahia. The test organism tolerates transportation well, but must be rested a few hours at the test site for regeneration of its light-producing powers. Toxicity now can be measured confidently in soils, water columns, discharge points, and many other media in situ. Most significant to the oil industry is that drilling fluids can be monitored continuously on the rig

  6. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  7. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  8. Kombucha--toxicity alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Kombucha mushroom, also known as Manchurian mushroom, is a mail-order product touted to lower blood pressure and raise T-cell counts. No controlled trials have been conducted to test these claims. Aspergillus, a mold that may grow on the Kombucha mushroom, attacks the brain and may be fatal to persons with weakened immune systems. Reported toxicity reactions have included stomach problems and yeast infections. Taking Kombucha in combination with other drugs may affect the drugs potency.

  9. Toxicity of nitrogen pentoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diggle, W M; Gage, J C

    1954-01-01

    Two ppM N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ for 4 h or 1 ppM, 4 h/day for 12 days produced acute pulmonary edema in rats. Ten daily 4-h exposures to 0.5 ppM produced no edema but respiratory distress. NO/sub 2/ produced no edema (some hemorrhage) at 80 mg/m/sup 3/. Nitric acid vapor (63 mg/m/sup 3/) had no obvious toxic effect.

  10. Sequence distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along duplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Brock; Guza, Rebecca; Zhao, Jianwei; Li, Zhong-ze; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2007-10-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the major metabolite of ethanol and may be responsible for an increased gastrointestinal cancer risk associated with alcohol beverage consumption. Furthermore, AA is one of the most abundant carcinogens in tobacco smoke and induces tumors of the respiratory tract in laboratory animals. AA binding to DNA induces Schiff base adducts at the exocyclic amino group of dG, N2-ethylidene-dG, which are reversible on the nucleoside level but can be stabilized by reduction to N2-ethyl-dG. Mutagenesis studies in the HPRT reporter gene and in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have revealed the ability of AA to induce G-->A transitions and A-->T transversions, as well as frameshift and splice mutations. AA-induced point mutations are most prominent at 5'-AGG-3' trinucleotides, possibly a result of sequence specific adduct formation, mispairing, and/or repair. However, DNA sequence preferences for the formation of acetaldehyde adducts have not been previously examined. In the present work, we employed a stable isotope labeling-HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS approach developed in our laboratory to analyze the distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides representing two prominent lung cancer mutational "hotspots" and their surrounding DNA sequences. 1,7,NH 2-(15)N-2-(13)C-dG was placed at defined positions within DNA duplexes derived from the K-ras protooncogene and the p53 tumor suppressor gene, followed by AA treatment and NaBH 3CN reduction to convert N2-ethylidene-dG to N2-ethyl-dG. Capillary HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS was used to quantify N2-ethyl-dG adducts originating from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled guanine nucleobases and to map adduct formation along DNA duplexes. We found that the formation of N2-ethyl-dG adducts was only weakly affected by the local sequence context and was slightly increased in the presence of 5-methylcytosine within CG dinucleotides. These results are in contrast with sequence

  11. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R.

    1996-01-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects

  12. Possible interferences of mercury sulfur compounds with ethylated and methylated mercury species using HPLC-ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilken, R.D.; Nitschke, F.; Falter, R.

    2003-01-01

    The HPLC-ICP-MS coupling technique is able to separate and detect methyl, ethyl and inorganic mercury isotopes specifically. An identification of ethyl mercury(+) is not possible when the widely used sodium tetraethylborate derivatisation method in combination with GC-AFS/AAS or ICP-MS techniques is performed because it contains ethyl groups. An unidentified compound with the same retention time as ethyl mercury was found in the HPLC chromatograms of industrial sewage samples and humic-rich soils of microcosm experiments after applying water vapour distillation. We also observed such unidentified peaks in samples of heavily contaminated sites in Eastern Germany, separated by HPLC fractionation only. In the experiments described, different mercury sulfur adducts were synthesised and tested for their retention times in the HPLC-ICP-MS system. It was found that the compound CH 3 -S-Hg + showed the same retention time as the ethyl mercury standard. It is therefore possible that ethyl mercury detected in chromatography by comparison of the retention time could also be due to an adduct of a sulfur compound and a mercury species. CH 3 -S-Hg + should be tested in other chromatographic mercury speciation methods for this effect. This work can also be regarded as a contribution to the discussion of artificially occurring methyl mercury in sediments during sample preparation. (orig.)

  13. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  14. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  15. Purification and properties of a novel quizalofop-p-ethyl-hydrolyzing esterase involved in quizalofop-p-ethyl degradation by Pseudomonas sp. J-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Mengya; Li, Jie; Wang, Guangli; Liu, Yuan

    2017-05-10

    Quizalofop-p-ethyl (QPE) is a post-emergence herbicide that effectively controls grass weeds and is often detected in the environment. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of QPE degradation in the environment remains unclear. In this study, a highly effective QPE-degrading bacterial strain J-2 was isolated from acclimated activated sludge and identified as a Pseudomonas sp., containing the QPE breakdown metabolite quizalofop acid (QA) identified by Liquid Chromatography-Ion Trap-Mass Spectrometry (LC-IT-MS n ) analysis. A novel QPE hydrolase esterase-encoding gene qpeH was cloned from strain J-2 and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The specific activity of recombinant QpeH was 198.9 ± 2.7 U mg -1 for QPE with K m and K cat values of 41.3 ± 3.6 μM and 127.3 ± 4.5 s -1 . The optimal pH and temperature for the recombinant QpeH were 8.0 and 30 °C, respectively and the enzyme was activated by Ca 2+ , Cd 2+ , Li + , Fe 3+ and Co 2+ and inhibited by Ni 2+ , Fe 2+ , Ag + , DEPC, SDS, Tween 80, Triton X, β-mercaptoethanol, PMSF, and pCMB. In addition, the catalytic efficiency of QpeH toward different AOPP herbicides in descending order was as follows: fenoxaprop-P-ethyl > quizalofop-P-tefuryl > QPE > haloxyfop-P-methyl > cyhalofopbutyl > clodinafop-propargyl. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment, the identified enzyme QpeH, was clustered with esterase family V, suggesting a new member of this family because of its low similarity of amino acid sequence with esterases reported previously.

  16. Commercial Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) Testing is Not Vulnerable to Incidental Alcohol Exposure in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondersma, Steven J; Beatty, Jessica R; Rosano, Thomas G; Strickler, Ronald C; Graham, Amy E; Sokol, Robert J

    2016-01-02

    Ethyl Glucoronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) have shown promise as biomarkers for alcohol and may be sensitive enough for use with pregnant women in whom even low-level alcohol use is important. However, there have been reports of over-sensitivity of EtG and EtS to incidental exposure to sources such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Further, few studies have evaluated these biomarkers among pregnant women, in whom the dynamics of these metabolites may differ. This study evaluated whether commercial EtG-EtS testing was vulnerable to high levels of environmental exposure to alcohol in pregnant women. Two separate samples of five nurses-one pregnant and the other postpartum, all of whom reported high levels of alcohol-based hand sanitizer use-provided urine samples before and 4-8 hours after rinsing with alcohol-based mouthwash and using hand sanitizer. The five pregnant nurses provided urine samples before, during, and after an 8-hour nursing shift, during which they repeatedly cleansed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer (mean 33.8 uses). The five postpartum nurses used hand sanitizer repeatedly between baseline and follow-up urine samples. No urine samples were positive for EtG-EtS at baseline or follow-up, despite use of mouthwash and-in the pregnant sample-heavy use of hand sanitizer (mean of 33.8 uses) throughout the 8-hour shift. Current, commercially available EtG-EtS testing does not appear vulnerable to even heavy exposure to incidental sources of alcohol among pregnant and postpartum women.

  17. Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana-28 Mycelial Extracts on Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandhan, Perumal; Kavitha, Thangaraj; Karthi, Sengodan; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Shivakumar, Muthugoundar Subramanian

    2018-03-03

    Microbial-based pest control is an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study sought to evaluate the toxicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana -28 ethyl acetate extracts on different larval stages and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate mycelial extracts produced mosquitocidal activity against larvae and pupae which was comparable to that of the commercial insecticide B. bassiana -22 extract. The LC 50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae) values of B. bassiana -28 extracts for 1st to 4th instar larvae and pupae were 11.538, 6.953, 5.841, 3.581 and 9.041 mg/L respectively. Our results show that B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate mycelial extract has strong insecticidal activity against larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus . Fourier transform infrared spectrum study of B. bassiana -28 extract shows peaks at 3226.91; 2927.94; 1593.13; 1404.18; 1224.18; 1247.94; 1078.21; 1018.41; 229.69; and 871.82 cm -1 . Major spectral peaks were observed at 3226.91 cm -1, assigned to N-H stretching, 2927.94 cm -1 assigned to C-H bonding and 1595.13 cm -1 assigned to C-O stretching. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry studies of B. bassiana -28 ethyl acetate crude extract showed presence of six major compounds viz. N -hexadecanoic acids (13.6040%); Z,Z -9,12 octadecadienic acid (33.74%); 9-eicosyne (10.832%); heptacosane (5.148%); tetrateracontane (5.801%); and 7 hexyleicosane (5.723%). Histology of mosquito midgut tissue shows tissue lysis as a result of B.bassiana -28 extract exposure. The study shows that bioactive molecules obtained from B. bassiana -28 mycelial extract has insecticidal properties and can be used as alternative for mosquito control.

  18. Toxicity of Beauveria bassiana-28 Mycelial Extracts on Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Vivekanandhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-based pest control is an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides. The present study sought to evaluate the toxicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana-28 ethyl acetate extracts on different larval stages and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extracts produced mosquitocidal activity against larvae and pupae which was comparable to that of the commercial insecticide B. bassiana-22 extract. The LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae values of B. bassiana-28 extracts for 1st to 4th instar larvae and pupae were 11.538, 6.953, 5.841, 3.581 and 9.041 mg/L respectively. Our results show that B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate mycelial extract has strong insecticidal activity against larval and pupal stages of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Fourier transform infrared spectrum study of B. bassiana-28 extract shows peaks at 3226.91; 2927.94; 1593.13; 1404.18; 1224.18; 1247.94; 1078.21; 1018.41; 229.69; and 871.82 cm−1. Major spectral peaks were observed at 3226.91 cm−1, assigned to N–H stretching, 2927.94 cm−1 assigned to C–H bonding and 1595.13 cm−1 assigned to C–O stretching. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry studies of B. bassiana-28 ethyl acetate crude extract showed presence of six major compounds viz. N-hexadecanoic acids (13.6040%; Z,Z-9,12 octadecadienic acid (33.74%; 9-eicosyne (10.832%; heptacosane (5.148%; tetrateracontane (5.801%; and 7 hexyleicosane (5.723%. Histology of mosquito midgut tissue shows tissue lysis as a result of B.bassiana-28 extract exposure. The study shows that bioactive molecules obtained from B. bassiana-28 mycelial extract has insecticidal properties and can be used as alternative for mosquito control.

  19. Phase equilibrium measurements and thermodynamic modelling for the system (CO2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaschi, Priscilla S.; Mafra, Marcos R.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ethyl palmitate and biodiesel comparison in a pressure–composition diagram for the systems (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + biodiesel), at different temperatures. Highlights: ► We measured VLE, LLE, and VLLE for the system (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate + ethanol). ► The saturation pressures were obtained using a variable-volume view cell. ► Phase envelope of (CO 2 + ethyl palmitate) is different that (CO 2 + soybean oil biodiesel). ► The experimental data were modeled using PR-vdW2 and PR–WS equations of state. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium measurements for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} and ternary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} systems at high pressures. There is currently great interest in biodiesel production processes involving supercritical and/or pressurized solvents, such as non-catalytic supercritical biodiesel production and enzyme-catalysed biodiesel production. Also, supercritical CO 2 can offer an interesting alternative for glycerol separation in the biodiesel purification step in a water-free process. In this context, the main goal of this work was to investigate the phase behaviour of binary and ternary systems involving CO 2 , a pure constituent of biodiesel ethyl palmitate and ethanol. Experiments were carried out in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell with operating temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15) K and pressures up to 21 MPa. The CO 2 mole fraction ranged from 0.5033 to 0.9913 for the binary {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2)} system and from 0.4436 to 0.9712 for ternary system {CO 2 (1) + ethyl palmitate(2) + ethanol(3)} system with ethyl ester to ethanol molar ratios of (1:6), (1:3), and (1:1). For the systems investigated, vapour–liquid (VL), liquid–liquid (LL) and vapour–liquid–liquid (VLL) phase transitions were observed. The experimental data sets were successfully modeled using the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals

  20. Is LSD toxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David E; Grob, Charles S

    2018-03-01

    LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was discovered almost 75 years ago, and has been the object of episodic controversy since then. While initially explored as an adjunctive psychiatric treatment, its recreational use by the general public has persisted and on occasion has been associated with adverse outcomes, particularly when the drug is taken under suboptimal conditions. LSD's potential to cause psychological disturbance (bad trips) has been long understood, and has rarely been associated with accidental deaths and suicide. From a physiological perspective, however, LSD is known to be non-toxic and medically safe when taken at standard dosages (50-200μg). The scientific literature, along with recent media reports, have unfortunately implicated "LSD toxicity" in five cases of sudden death. On close examination, however, two of these fatalities were associated with ingestion of massive overdoses, two were evidently in individuals with psychological agitation after taking standard doses of LSD who were then placed in maximal physical restraint positions (hogtied) by police, following which they suffered fatal cardiovascular collapse, and one case of extreme hyperthermia leading to death that was likely caused by a drug substituted for LSD with strong effects on central nervous system temperature regulation (e.g. 25i-NBOMe). Given the renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of LSD and other psychedelic drugs, it is important that an accurate understanding be established of the true causes of such fatalities that had been erroneously attributed to LSD toxicity, including massive overdoses, excessive physical restraints, and psychoactive drugs other than LSD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxic potential of palytoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patocka, Jiří; Gupta, Ramesh C; Wu, Qing-hua; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-10-01

    This review briefly describes the origin, chemistry, molecular mechanism of action, pharmacology, toxicology, and ecotoxicology of palytoxin and its analogues. Palytoxin and its analogues are produced by marine dinoflagellates. Palytoxin is also produced by Zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), and Cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Palytoxin is a very large, non-proteinaceous molecule with a complex chemical structure having both lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties. Palytoxin is one of the most potent marine toxins with an LD50 of 150 ng/kg body weight in mice exposed intravenously. Pharmacological and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that palytoxin acts as a hemolysin and alters the function of excitable cells through multiple mechanisms of action. Palytoxin selectively binds to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with a Kd of 20 pM and transforms the pump into a channel permeable to monovalent cations with a single-channel conductance of 10 pS. This mechanism of action could have multiple effects on cells. Evaluation of palytoxin toxicity using various animal models revealed that palytoxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin following an intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous or intratracheal route of exposure. Palytoxin also causes non-lethal, yet serious toxic effects following dermal or ocular exposure. Most incidents of palytoxin poisoning have manifested after oral intake of contaminated seafood. Poisonings in humans have also been noted after inhalation, cutaneous/systemic exposures with direct contact of aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and/or through maintaining aquaria containing Cnidarian zoanthids. Palytoxin has a strong potential for toxicity in humans and animals, and currently this toxin is of great concern worldwide.

  2. Metal metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Whelton, B.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Peterson, D.P.; Oldham, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This research focuses on the role of pregnancy and lactation in susceptibility to the toxic effects of cadmium and lead. Responses under investigation include lead-induced changes in pathways for vitamin D and calcium metabolism and cadmium-induced alterations in kidney function and skeletal structure. The second area focuses on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements. Studies currently being conducted in nonhuman primates to develop a procedure to determine GI absorption values of uranium and plutonium that does not require sacrifice of the animal. 6 refs

  3. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  4. Toxicity of phosphor esters: Willy Lange (1900-1976) and Gerda von Krueger (1907-after 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroianu, G A

    2010-10-01

    In 1851 Williamson serendipitously discovered a new and efficient way to produce ethers using ethyl iodide and potassium salts. Based on this new synthetic approach, the Frenchman Philippe de Clermont and the Muscovite Wladimir Moschnin, both élèves of Adolphe Wurtz in his Paris School of Chemistry, achieved the synthesis of the first ester of pyrophosphoric acid (TEPP). de Clermont "tasted" the new compound and although TEPP is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor he failed to recognize its toxicity. Almost a century later, in 1932, Willy Lange (1900-1976) and his graduate student Gerda v. Krueger (1907-after 1970) described the toxicity of organophosphonates. While the classic paper of the two "Uber Ester der Monofluorphosphorsäure." is cited by almost everybody working in the field, little is known about Lange and almost nothing about v. Krueger. This brief communication attempts to shed some light on the life of both.

  5. The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of ethanol and ethyl ecetate extracts of Candi Banana (Musa paradisiaca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeliocattleya, R. A.; Estiasih, T.; Griselda, G.; Muchlisyiyah, J.

    2018-03-01

    Banana has various benefits for health. One local variety of banana is candi banana (Musa paradisiaca). The aim of this research was to study the content of the bioactive compounds of phenolics, flavonoids, tannin, carotenoids and the antioxidant activity of extract ethanol and ethyl acetate of candi banana. Powdered candi banana was extracted using ethanol and ethyl acetate in an ultrasonic bath. The results showed that the content of phenolics, flavonoids, tannin and carotenoids in ethanol extract were 58.76 ± 3.19 mg/kg, 416.08 ± 18.79 mg/kg, 209.83 ± 15.87 mg/kg and 74.55 ± 4.31 mg/kg, respectively. The content of phenolics, flavonoids, tannin and carotenoids in ethyl acetate extract were 0.83 ± 0.12 mg/kg, 4.31 ± 0.66 mg/kg, 49.97 ± 2.43 mg/kg and 304.40 ± 16.62 mg/kg. While the antioxidant activity (IC50) of ethanol extract and ethyl acetate were 3374.13 ± 123.46 ppm and 40318.19 ± 1014.90 ppm. This research showed that type of solvents of ethanol and ethyl acetate affected the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of candi banana. The antioxidant activity of ethanol extract was higher than that of ethyl acetate extract. It showed that ethanol was a better solvent than ethyl acetate to extract bioactive compounds in candi banana.

  6. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalaiswamy Balasubramanian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg produced a significant (P<0.001 fall in fasting blood glucose level, TBARS, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  7. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate from Kaempferia galanga inhibits angiogenesis through tyrosine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Ekowati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Many tumors express on their receptor tyrosine kinases vascular endothelial growth factor activity associated with angiogenesis. Inhibition of angiogenesis through reduction of tyrosine kinase activity is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. The present study aimed to determine the mechanism and potency of ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC isolated from Kaempferia galanga as angiogenesis inhibitor. Methods A laboratory experimental study was conducted using chorio-allantoic membranes (CAMs of nine-day old chicken eggs induced by 60ng basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC potency was determined at dosages of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg and compared with celecoxib 60 mg as reference drug and one negative bFGF-induced control group. Neovascularization and endothelial cell count in CAM blood vessels were evaluated. To predict the antiangiogenic mechanism of EPMC, a docking study was performed with the Molegro Virtual Docker program on tyrosine kinase as receptor (PDB 1XKK. Results Angiogenesis stimulation by bFGF was prevented significantly (p<0.05 by EPMC at dosages of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg and this activity was dose dependent. Molecular docking showed interaction between EPMC functional groups and tyrosine kinase amino acids at Met766, Met793, Thr854, Thr790, Gln791 and Ala743. There was an association between EPMC antiangiogenic activity and docking study results. Conclusions Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate is a potential new angiogenesis inhibitor through interaction with tyrosine kinase. EPMC could be a promising therapeutic agent for treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases.

  8. Sample preparation method for the combined extraction of ethyl glucuronide and drugs of abuse in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ulf; Briellmann, Thomas; Scheurer, Eva; Dussy, Franz

    2018-04-01

    Often in hair analysis, a small hair sample is available while the analysis of a multitude of structurally diverse substances with different concentration ranges is demanded. The analysis of the different substances often requires different sample preparation methods, increasing the amount of required hair sample. When segmental hair analysis is necessary, the amount of hair sample needed is further increased. Therefore, the required sample amount for a full analysis can quickly exceed what is available. To combat this problem, a method for the combined hair sample preparation using a single extraction procedure for analysis of ethyl glucuronide with liquid chromatography-multistage fragmentation mass spectrometry/multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MS 3 /MRM) and common drugs of abuse with LC-MRM was developed. The combined sample preparation is achieved by separating ethyl glucuronide from the drugs of abuse into separate extracts by fractionation in the solid-phase extraction step during sample clean-up. A full validation for all substances for the parameters selectivity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and recovery was successfully completed. The following drugs of abuse were included in the method: Amphetamine; methamphetamine; 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA); 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDE); morphine; 6-monoacetylmorphine; codeine; acetylcodeine; cocaine; benzoylecgonine; norcocaine; cocaethylene; methadone; 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) and methylphenidate. In conclusion, as only 1 sample preparation is needed with 1 aliquot of hair, the presented sample preparation allows an optimal analysis of both ethyl glucuronide and of the drugs of abuse, even when the sample amount is a limiting factor. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Decaffeination process characteristic of Robusta coffee in single column reactor using ethyl acetate solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumers drink coffee not as nutrition source, but as refreshment drink. For coffee consumers who have high tolerance for caffeine, coffee may warm up and refresh their bodies. High caffeine content in coffee beans may cause several complaints to consumers who are susceptible to caffeine. One of the efforts, for coffee market expansion is product diversification to decaffeinated coffee. Decaffeination process is one of process to reduce caffeine content from agricultural products. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in collaboration with Bogor Agricultural University has developed a single column reactor for coffee beans decaffeination. The aim of this research is to study process characteristic of coffee decaffeination in single column reactor using ethyl acetate (C4H8O2 solvent. Treatments applicated in the research were time and temperature process. Temperature treatment were 50—60OC, 60—70OC, 70—80OC, 80—90OC and 90—100OC. Time treatment were 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h, and 12 h Size of Robusta coffee beans used were less than 5.5 mm (A4, between 5.5 mm and 6.5 mm (A3, between 6.5 mm and 7.5 mm (A2, and more than 7.5 mm (A1. The result showed that decaffeination process with ethyl acetate solvent will be faster when its temperature was higher and smaller bean size. For bean size less than 5,5 mm, decaffeination process by 10% ethyl acetat can be done 8—10 hours in 90—100OC solvent temperature or 12 hours in 60—70OC solvent temperature for 0.3% caffein content. Organoleptic test showed that 90—100OC temperature solvent treatment decreased coffee flavor, which aroma, bitterness and body values were 1.9 each . Key words : Coffee, caffeine, decaffeination, quality, single column.

  10. Quizalofop-p-ethyl-induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Lemna minor and Lemna gibba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganlar, Zeynep B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the herbicide, quizalofop-p-ethyl, on pigment contents (total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid), antioxidant enzyme [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (POD)] activities, lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde: MDA) and DNA profiles were investigated in Lemna gibba and Lemna minor. Laboratory-acclimatized plants were treated with quizalofop-p-ethyl at 31.375, 62.75, 125 and 250 mg L(-1) for 24 and 96 h. It was determined that quizalofop-p-ethyl affected both the physiological status and the DNA profiles of L. gibba and L. minor. The photosynthetic pigments of L. gibba were more sensitive to the herbicide than were those of L. minor at both treatment times. SOD and POD activities were elevated in both plants at 24 h. However at 96 h, SOD activity decreased in L. minor and had irregular changes in L. gibba.. Significant increases in the amounts of MDA were observed in L. gibba, whereas the levels of this compound decreased in L. minor at 24 and 96 h. Polymorphism in DNA profiles was determined using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Four primers were used for scoring (appearance and disappearance of DNA polymorphic bands), and equally weighted maximum parsimony analyses were performed. Fewer differences were observed at 24 h, and more new bands were observed at 96 h in L. gibba. The RAPD profiles of L. minor produced by all of the primers were slightly less affected by the herbicide treatment than were those of L. gibba.

  11. Toxicity of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Among radionuclides of importance in atomic energy, 3 H has relatively low toxicity. The main health and environmental worry is the possibility that significant biological effects may follow from protracted exposure to low concentrations in water. To examine this possible hazard and measure toxicity at low tritium concentrations, chronic exposure studies were done on mice and monkeys. During vulnerable developmental periods animals were exposed to 3 HOH, and mice were exposed also to 60 Co gamma irradiation and energy-related chemical agents. The biological endpoint measured was the irreversible loss of female germ cells. Effects from tritium were observed at surprisingly low concentrations where 3 H was found more damaging than previously thought. Comparisons between tritium and gamma radiation showed the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to be greater than 1 and to reach approximately 3 at very low exposures. For perspective, other comparisons were made: between radiation and chemical agents, which revealed parallels in action on germ cells, and between pre- and postnatal exposure, which warn of possible special hazard to the fetus from both classes of energy-related byproducts

  12. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Thallium toxicity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko, Petra; Cvjetko, Ivan; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-03-01

    Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element, widely distributed in the earth's crust, but at very low concentrations. It does not have a known biological use and does not appear to be an essential element for life. It has been considered one of the most toxic heavy metals.Occasionally, there are reports on thallium poisoning as results of suicide or murder attempt or accident. The main threat to humans is through occupational exposure, environmental contamination, and accumulation in food, mainly in vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Increasing use in emerging new technologies and demanding high-tech industry constantly raise concern about exposure risk to all living organisms. Thallium is considered a cumulative poison that can cause adverse health effects and degenerative changes in many organs. The effects are the most severe in the nervous system. The exact mechanism of thallium toxicity still remains unknown, although impaired glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and disruption of potassium-regulated homeostasis may play a role. The lack of data about mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic effects of thallium compounds in humans calls for further research.

  14. Molecular toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Xing, Gengmei

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid developments in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnlogy, more and more nanomaterials and their based consumer products have been used into our daily life. The safety concerns of nanomaterials have been well recognized by the scientific community and the public. Molecular mechanism of interactions between nanomaterials and biosystems is the most essential topic and final core of the biosafety. In the last two decades, nanotoxicology developed very fast and toxicity phenomena of nanomaterials have been reported. To achieve better understanding and detoxication of nanomaterials, thorough studies of nanotoxicity at molecular level are important. The interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules have been widely investigated as the first step toward the molecular nanotoxicology. The consequences of such interactions have been discussed in the literature. Besides this, the chemical mechanism of nanotoxicology is gaining more attention, which would lead to a better design of nontoxic nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on the molecular nanotoxicology and explore the toxicity of nanomaterials at molecular level. The molecular level studies of nanotoxicology are summarized and the published nanotoxicological data are revisited.

  15. Amino acids and glycine ethyl ester as new crystallization reagents for lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, amino acids and amino-acid derivatives have been applied in various fields of protein chemistry. The potential use of amino acids and their derivatives as new precipitating agents is described. Several amino acids and their derivatives are prominent additives in the field of protein chemistry. This study reports the use of charged amino acids and glycine ethyl ester as precipitants in protein crystallization, using hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model. A discussion of the crystallization of HEWL using these reagents as precipitating agents is given

  16. Ethyl malonate amides: a diketo acid offspring fragment for HIV integrase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Katarzyna; Mazur, Pawel; Bak, Andrzej; Laine, Elodie; Tchertanov, Luba; Mouscadet, Jean-François; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2011-08-15

    While searching for new HIV integrase inhibitors we discovered that some ethyl malonate amides (EMA) are active against this enzyme. Surprisingly, the main function can only very rarely be found among the reported drug candidates. We synthesised a series of compounds in order to establish and analyse the structure-activity relationship. The similarity to the important classes of HIV integrase inhibitors as well as the synthetic availability of the different targets including this pharmacophore makes EMA compounds an interesting object of investigations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Temperature influence on mixing properties of {ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) + gasoline additives}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Olmos, R.; Iglesias, M.

    2007-01-01

    The densities and ultrasonic velocity of {ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) + (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, isooctane, tert-butyl alcohol, and ethanol)} over the temperature range (288.15 to 323.15) K and atmospheric pressure, have been measured over the whole concentration range. The experimental excess volumes and deviation of isentropic compressibilities data have been analysed in terms of different theoretical models. The gathered data improve open literature related to gasoline additives, and help to understand the ETBE volumetric and acoustic trend into different chemical environment

  18. Synchrotron Photoionization Investigation of the Oxidation of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfough, Matthew; Yao, Rong; Ng, Martin; Catani, Katherine; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-02-23

    The oxidation of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), a widely used fuel oxygenated additive, is investigated using Cl atoms as initiators in the presence of oxygen. The reaction is carried out at 293, 550, and 700 K. Reaction products are probed by a multiplexed chemical kinetics photoionization mass spectrometer coupled with the synchrotron radiation produced at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Products are identified on the basis of mass-to-charge ratio, ionization energies, and shape of photoionization spectra. Reaction pathways are proposed together with detected primary products.

  19. Optimization of Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME for Monitoring Occupational Exposure to Ethyl Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heidari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Analytical methods for volatile organic compounds (VOCs in different samples need extraction of compounds, by applying hazardous solvents. Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME is a solvent-free equilibrium extraction method, in which proper calibration can allow quantitative determinations of VOCs at a very good sensitivity without the use of any organic solvent. VOCs are generally present in urine only at trace levels, therefore, a sensitive procedure is needed for their trace determinations. Throughout this study, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME was followed by GC-FID for ethyl benzene in spiked urine was optimized.

    Methods: In this study, the parameters influencing SPME and gas chromatography of ethyl benzene, including extraction time, temperature, desorption temperature, desorption time, salt addition, sample pH, sample volume and sample agitation were investigated.

    Results: Extraction procedure was performed at 30°C for 6 min, using 0.2 gml-1 of NaCl in the sample solution. The sample volume and sample pH were optimized at 5 ml and 7 (neutral pH, respectively. Desorption of the ethyl benzene was carried out for 60 sec. at 250°C. The method was also validated with three different spiked urine samples and illustrated an appropriate reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. During this investigation, parameters of accuracy, linearity, and detection limits of the procedure were also evaluated.

    Conclusion: The developed method of HS- SPME-GC-FID proved to be a simple, convenient, and practical procedure, and was successfully used for measuring of ethyl benzene in spiked urine.

  20. Determination of Partial Molar Volumes of EPA and DHA Ethyl Esters in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The use of supercritical-fluid chromatography for determining partial molar volumes of ethyl esters of cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and cis -4,7,10,13,16,19- docosa-hexaenoic acid (DHA) in supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and discussed. Partial molar volumes of EPA and DHA esters are obtained from the variation of the retention properties with the density of mobile phase at 313.15 K, 323.15 K, 333.15 K and in the pressure range from 9 MPa to 21 MPa.

  1. Deptermination of Partial Molar Volumes of EPA and DHA Ethyl Esters in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MeiHUANG; XianDaWANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    The use of supercritical-fluid shromatogrphy for determining partial molar volumes of ethyl esters of cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosa-hexaenoic acid(DHA) in supercritical carbon dioxide is presented and discussed. Partial molar volumes of EPA and DHA esters are obtained from the variation of the retention properties with the density of mobile phase at 313.15K,323.15K,333.15K and in the pressure range from 9 MPa to 21 MPa.

  2. Meiotic anomalies induced by γ-rays and ethyl methanesulphonate treatments in pearl millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxmi, V.; Singh, R.B.; Singh, B.D.; Singh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Seven inbreds, viz. Tif-23A, 23D 2 A, Tif-238, 23D 2 B, K560, Bil3B and J104 and 3 commercial hybrids, viz. HB1, HB3 and HB5, of pearl millet were treated with γ-rays (10,20, 30kr) and/or ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6%). PMC's of plants from mutagen treated populations showed chromatin bridges, laggards, fragments, cytomixis, tripolar division, inversion, micronuclei and unequal chromosome distributions were more fragment than other anomalies. γ-Rays were more effective than EMS or the combination treatments in inducing cytological anomalies. (author)

  3. Use of ethyl-α-isonitrosoacetoacetate in the rapid estimation and radiochemical separation of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, A.D.; Haldar, B.C.

    1978-01-01

    The use of ethyl-α-isonitrosoacetoacetate in the rapid estimation and radiochemical separation of gold is reported. As low as 5.00 mg of Au can be estimated with an accuracy better than 1%. Decontamination values against platinum metals and other metals usually associated with Au are greater than 10 5 . Isotopes and results are tabulated. The time required for radiochemical separation is around 20 min and the recovery of Au is better than 80%. γ-activities were measured with a single channel analyser and NaI(Tl) detector. β-activities were counted on a thin end-window type GM counter. (T.I.)

  4. Polymorphic ethyl alcohol as a model system for the quantitative study of glassy behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H E; Schober, H; Gonzalez, M A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Bermejo, F J; Fayos, R; Dawidowski, J [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Ramos, M A; Vieira, S [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The nearly universal transport and dynamical properties of amorphous materials or glasses are investigated. Reasonably successful phenomenological models have been developed to account for these properties as well as the behaviour near the glass-transition, but quantitative microscopic models have had limited success. One hindrance to these investigations has been the lack of a material which exhibits glass-like properties in more than one phase at a given temperature. This report presents results of neutron-scattering experiments for one such material ordinary ethyl alcohol, which promises to be a model system for future investigations of glassy behaviour. (author). 8 refs.

  5. Extraction and separation studies of uranium(VI) with tris-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaramurthi, N.M.; Desai, G.S.; Shinde, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    A solvent extraction method is proposed for the extraction and separation of uranium from salicylate media using tris-(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphate dissolved in xylene as an extractant. The optimum conditions were evaluated from a critical study of pH, salicylate concentration, extractant concentration, period of equilibration and diluent. The method permits the separation of uranium from thorium, cerium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, copper, vanadium and chromium from binary mixtures and is applicable to the analysis of uranium in synthetic samples. The method is precise, accurate, fast and selective. (author) 5 refs.; 2 tabs

  6. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  7. Evaluation and Characterization of Biodiesels Obtained Through Ethylic or Methylic Transesterification of Tryacylglicerides in Corn Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Queiroz Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was devoted to the transesterification of corn oil either with methyl or ethyl alcohol and to the characterization of the biodiesels (composed by FAME—fatty acid methyl esters—or FAEE—fatty acid ethyl esters, respectively produced. As an initial hypothesis, it was argued whether or not the two alcohols, both with short molecular chains, would impart significant differences to the chemical characteristics of the two biodiesels from corn oil. The most common properties of the biodiesels were evaluated by determining corresponding parameters for acid value, peroxide value, water content, oxidative stability, free and total glycerin, kinematic viscosity at 40 ℃ and density at 20 ℃, for both chemical routes, FAME and FAEE. In general, values were found to be well within the recommended limits for commercial biodiesel, in accordance with the Brazilian, European and American standard recommendations, except only for the oxidative stability. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.08 mg KOH/g; peroxide index, 23.77 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 3.10 h; water content, 297.1 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.092 %; free glycerin, 0.009 %; viscosity, 4.05 mm2/s and density, 878.7 kg/m. The methyl biodiesel presented acidity of 0.11 mg/ KOH; peroxide index, 22.39 meq/kg; oxidation stability, 2.13 h; water content, 264.8 mg/kg; total glycerin, 0.25 %; free glycerin, 0.02 %; viscosity, 4.37 mm2/s and density, 874.0 kg/m. From a direct inspection of chemical data for the two products prepared via the two chemical routes, it can be drawn that values of the physical and chemical parameters for both, methyl and ethyl biodiesels, are essentially similar, except for the oxidative stability. However, the oxidative stability can be suitably adjusted by adding an anti-oxidizing agent to the ethyl biodiesel medium. The two biodiesels are thus promising alternatives to fully replace or to be admixed to the mineral diesel. Relatively to the pure petrol

  8. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and ethyl methanesulhonate in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Basudeo

    1986-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by unit dose of a mutagen while mutagenic efficiency gives the proportion of mutations in relation to other associated undesirable biological effects such as gross chromosomal aberrations, lethality and sterility induced by the mutagen in question (Konzak, et al., 1965). The usefulness of any mutagen in plant breeding depends not only on its mutagenic effectiveness but also on its mutagenic efficiency. The efficiency and effectiveness of ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) in relation to gamma rays in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss] was studied. (author)

  9. 2{sup -}Ethyl-furanoflavone derivatives from the stems of Cassia fistula and their cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue-Mei, Gao; Xiang-Zhong, Huang; Li-Ying, Yang; Li-Dan, Shu; Gan-Peng, Li, E-mail: ganpeng_li@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources, State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Yunnan University of Nationalities, Yunnan (China); Yan-Qiong, Shen; Qiu-Fen, Hu, E-mail: huqiufena@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemistry in Ethnic Medicinal Resources, State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Yunnan University of Nationalities, Yunnan (China); Key Laboratory of Tobacco Chemistry of Yunnan Province, Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science, Yunnan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Two new 2{sup -}ethyl-furanoflavones named fistulaflavones A and B together with six known furanoflavones were isolated from the stems of Cassia fistula. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 1D, 2D NMR and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) techniques, and comparison with literature data. All the compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines. One of the compounds showed potent cytotoxicity against SHSY5Y and MCF7 cells with IC{sub 50} values of 2.7 and 2.6 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -1}, respectively (author)

  10. Possible Using of Tetra Bromo Phenolphthalein Ethyl Ester as a Liquid Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, A.M.; Faheem, E.; Moniem, Sh.A.; El Ahdal, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous Solution of pH indicator Tetrabromo phenolphthalein ethyl ester (TBPE) containing of chloral hydrate was studied for using as a liquid dosimeter. The useful measuring range was found to be of (0.5-2 kGy) depending on concentration of both dye and chloral hydrate added. The dosimeter has good stability before and after irradiation under different storage conditions. Comparison study between direct irradiation of TBPE containing chloral hydrate and back titration of TBPE through irradiation of chloral hydrate was investigated.

  11. Comparative substoichiometric extraction of zinc with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Rangamannar, P.

    1995-01-01

    The comparative extractability of zinc with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, and benzyl xanthates from the pH range of 3.5-9.0 into chloroform has been studied, employing a sensitive and rapid substoichiometric radiochemical method. The extent of reproducibility was tested in each case. The effect of associated ions on the extraction was studied. The amount of zinc present in the standard solutions was determined employing each xanthate separately. The zinc content present in geological water samples in and around Tirupati was determined by the method developed and compared with the values obtained by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. Photoprotective effect and acute oral systemic toxicity evaluation of the novel heterocyclic compound LQFM048.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Daniela C; de Ávila, Renato Ivan; Vieira, Marcelo S; Luzin, Rangel M; Quintino, Michelle P; Nunes, Liliane M; Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Chaves; de Camargo, Henrique Santiago; Pinto, Angelo C; Dos Santos Júnior, Helvécio M; Chiari, Bruna G; Isaac, Vera; Valadares, Marize C; Martins, Tatiana Duque; Lião, Luciano M; de S Gil, Eric; Menegatti, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    The new heterocyclic derivative LQFM048 (3) (2,4,6-tris ((E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate)-1,3,5-triazine) was originally designed through the molecular hybridization strategy from Uvinul® T 150 (1) and (E)-ethyl 2-cyano-3-(4hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylate (2) sunscreens, using green chemistry approach. This compound was obtained in global yields (80%) and showed an interesting redox potential. In addition, it is thermally stable up to temperatures around 250°C. It was observed that LQFM048 (3) showed a low degradation after 150min of sunlight exposure at 39°C, whereas the extreme radiation conditions induced a considerable photodegradation of the LQFM048 (3), especially when irradiated by VIS and VIS+UVA. During the determination of sun protection factor, LQFM048 (3) showed interesting results, specially as in association with other photoprotective compounds and commercial sunscreen. Additionally, the compound (3) did not promote cytotoxicity for 3T3 fibroblasts. Moreover, it was not able to trigger acute oral systemic toxicity in mice, being classified as a compound with low acute toxicity hazard (2.000mg/kg>LD50compound synthesized using green chemistry approach is promising showing potential to development of a new sunscreen product with advantage of presenting redox potential, indicating antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethyl cellulose nanoparticles as a platform to decrease ulcerogenic potential of piroxicam: formulation and in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Habashy SE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salma E El-Habashy, Ahmed N Allam, Amal H El-Kamel Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs have long gained significant interest for their use in various drug formulations in order to increase bioavailability, prolong drug release, and decrease side effects of highly toxic drugs. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the potential of ethyl cellulose-based NPs (EC-NPs to modulate the release and reduce ulcerogenicity of piroxicam (PX after oral administration. PX-loaded EC-NPs were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using different stabilizers at three concentration levels. Morphological examination of selected formulas confirmed the formation of spherical NPs with slightly porous surface. Formulation containing poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs (P188/0.2, having a particle size of 240.26±29.24 nm, polydispersity index of 0.562±0.030, entrapment efficiency of 85.29%±1.57%, and modulated release of PX (88% after 12 hours, was selected as the optimum formulation. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated the presence of PX in an amorphous form in the NPs. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the possible formation of hydrogen bond and the absence of chemical interaction. In vivo study, evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, evaluation of gastric irritation potential, and histological examination were conducted after administration of the selected formulation. Time to reach maximum plasma concentration, tmax, of poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs was significantly higher than that of Feldene® 20 mg capsules (P≤0.001. Encapsulation of the acidic, gastric offender PX into NPs managed to significantly suppress gastric ulceration potential in rats (P≤0.05 as compared to that of PX suspension. A reduction of 66% in mean ulcer index was observed. In conclusion, poloxamer-stabilized EC-NPs (P188/0.2 had a significant potential of

  14. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from

  15. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity...

  16. Antinociceptive activities of crude methanolic extract and phases, n-butanolic, chloroformic and ethyl acetate from Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton T. Souza

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to identify the possible antinociceptive actions of n-butanolic phase, chloroformic phase, ethyl acetate phase and crude methanolic extract obtained from Caulerpa racemosa. This seaweed is cosmopolitan in world, mainly in tropical regions. The n-butanolic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate phases and crude methanolic extract, all administered orally in the concentration of 100 mg/kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid by 47.39%, 70.51%, 76.11% and 72.24%, respectively. In the hotplate test the chloroformic and ethyl acetate phase were activite in this models. In the neurogenic phase on formalin test, were observed that crude methanolic extract (51.77%, n-butanolic phase (35.12%, chloroformic phase (32.70% and indomethacin (32.06% were effective in inhibit the nociceptive response. In the inflammatory phase, only the ethyl acetate phase (75.43% and indomethacin (47.83% inhibited significantly the nociceptive response. Based on these data, we can infer that the ethyl acetate phase shows a significant anti-inflammatory profile, whose power has not yet been determined. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa.

  17. The safe operation zone of the spark ignition engine working with dual renewable supplemented fuels (hydrogen+ethyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher Abdul-Resul Sadiq [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2001-04-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NOx emission while increasing the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. An equation has been derived from experimental data to specify the least quantity of ethyl alcohol blended with gasoline and satisfying constant NOx emission when hydrogen is added. A chart limiting the safe operation zone of the engine fueled with dual renewable supplemented fuel, (hydrogen and ethyl alcohol) has been produced. The safe zone provides lower NOx and CO emission, lower s.f.c. and higher brake power compared to an equivalent gasoline engine. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both brake power and efficiency. (Author)

  18. GC-MS and FI-IR analysis of the bio-oil with addition of ethyl acetate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le eZhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different mass fractions (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% of ethyl acetate were added to bio-oil for improving its storage stability during storage at 40℃ for 35d. For different bio-oils during storage, physical properties were characterized and chemical components were determined by GC-MS and FT-IR. The results of properties characterization showed that, addition of ethyl acetate could instantly lower bio-oil viscosity, water content, and dramatically decrease the rate of aging. pH value of bio-oil can be instantly improved by adding ethyl acetate. GC-MS results revealed that addition of various content of ethyl acetate into bio-oil and its storage at 40℃ for 35d could both lead to disappearance of previous compounds and generation of new compounds. FT-IR results showed that addition of various content of ethyl acetate into bio-oils and its storage at 40℃ for 35d could slightly change the wavenumbers of substantial functional groups in bio-oils.

  19. Induction of 6-thioguanine-resistant lymphocytes in Fischer 344 rats following in vivo exposure to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidoo, A.; Lyn-Cook, L.E.; Mittelstaedt, R.A.; Heflich, R.H.; Casciano, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have developed a limiting dilution clonal assay for determining the frequency of 6-thioguanine-resistant (TG r ) lymphocytes produced in rats by in vivo exposure to genotoxic agents. Lymphocyte cloning efficiencies (CEs) were highest in plates containing both irradiated TK6 cells and irradiated autologous feeder cells. To measure the effects of chemical mutagens on the frequency of TG r lymphocytes, rats were given a single i.p. injection of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), a direct-acting alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide (CP), an indirect acting alkylating agent. Lymphocytes were isolated, primed, and cloned at 4 weeks after CP treatment and at 1,2,4 and 6 weeks after ENU treatment. CE in these cultures ranged from 12% to 27%. Cultures were also established for measuring CE in the presence of 6-thioguanine (TG). The dose-dependent responses obtained with both ENU and CP treatments suggest that rat lymphocytes are sensitive to direct- and indirect-acting alkylating agents administered in vivo and that the rat lymphocyte assay is a useful complement to the in vivo/in vitro mouse assay for determining the mutagenicity of environmental toxicants

  20. Effects of a thirteen-week inhalation exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether on fischer-344 rats and CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Wolf, D C; Cattley, R C; Wong, B; Janszen, D B; Farris, G M; Wright, G A; Bond, J A

    1999-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that oxygenates be added to automotive fuels to reduce emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. One potential oxygenate is the aliphatic ether ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). Our objective was to provide data on the potential toxic effects of ETBE. Male and female Fisher 344 rats and CD-1 mice were exposed to 0 (control), 500, 1750, or 5000 ppm of ETBE for 6 h/day and 5 days/wk over a 13-week period. ETBE exposure had no effect on mortality and body weight with the exception of an increase in body weights of the female rats in the 5000-ppm group. No major changes in clinical pathology parameters were noted for either rats or mice exposed to ETBE for 6 (rats only) or 13 weeks. Liver weights increased with increasing ETBE-exposure concentration for both sexes of rats and mice. Increases in kidney, adrenal, and heart (females only) weights were noted in rats. Degenerative changes in testicular seminiferous tubules were observed in male rats exposed to 1750 and 5000 ppm but were not seen in mice. This testicular lesion has not been reported previously for aliphatic ethers. Increases in the incidence of regenerative foci, rates of renal cell proliferation, and alpha2u-globulin containing protein droplets were noted in the kidneys of all treated male rats. These lesions are associated with the male rat-specific syndrome of alpha2u-globulin nephropathy. Increases in the incidence of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and rates of hepatocyte cell proliferation were seen in the livers of male and female mice in the 5000-ppm group, consistent with a mitogenic response to ETBE. These two target organs for ETBE toxicity, mouse liver and male rat kidney, have also been reported for methyl tertiary butyl ether and unleaded gasoline.

  1. Cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Macler, L.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Unlike radiation effects, pulmonary toxicity following drug treatments may develop soon after exposure. The dose-response relationship between Cyclophosphamide and lung toxicity was investigated using increased breathing frequency assays used successfully for radiation induced injury. The data indicate that release of protein into the alveolus may play a significant role in Cy induced pulmonary toxicity. Although the mechanism responsible for the increased alveolar protein is as yet not identified, the present findings suggest that therapeutic intervention to inhibit protein release may be an approach to protect the lungs from toxic effects. (UK)

  2. Colorimetric determination of uranium using ammonium thiocyanate in a medium of ethyl acetate, acetone and water; Dosage colorimetrique de l'uranium par le thiocyanate d'ammonium en milieu acetate d'ethyle-acetone-eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucleux, M; Dessapt, P

    1959-04-01

    The method consists of colorimetrically analyzing uranium using ammonium sulfo-cyanide in the solvent phase. The optimum conditions for extracting uranium by ethyl acetate have been studied. A precise colorimetric method was established which depends on the extracted phase and on the behavior of the ethyl acetate-acetone medium. (author) [French] La methode consiste a doser l'uranium par colorimetrie au sulfocyanure d'ammonium en phase solvant. Les meilleures conditions d'extraction de l'uranium par l'acetate d'ethyle ont ete etudiees. Une colorimetrie precise a ete mise au point en fonction de l'acidite de la phase extraite et du comportement du milieu acetate d'ethyleacetone. (auteur)

  3. (Vapor + liquid) equilibrium for the binary systems {l_brace}water + glycerol{r_brace} and {l_brace}ethanol + glycerol, ethyl stearate, and ethyl palmitate{r_brace} at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Renata; Santos, Priscilla G. dos; Mafra, Marcos R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cardozo-Filho, Lucio [Department of Chemical Engineering, Maringa State University (UEM), Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Corazza, Marcos L., E-mail: corazza@ufpr.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Parana, CEP 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measured VLE for the binary system {l_brace}ethyl stearate and palmitate + ethanol{r_brace}. > The boiling temperatures were obtained using Othmer-type ebuliometer. > The experimental data were modeled using NRTL, UNIQUAC, and UNIFAC models. - Abstract: This work reports the experimental measurements {l_brace}(vapor + liquid) equilibrium{r_brace} for the systems {l_brace}water(1) + glycerol(2){r_brace}, {l_brace}ethanol(1) + glycerol(2){r_brace}, {l_brace}ethanol(1) + ethyl stearate(2){r_brace}, and {l_brace}ethanol(1) + ethyl palmitate(2){r_brace}. Boiling temperatures were measured using an Othmer-type ebulliometer over a pressure range of 14 kPa to 96 kPa. The experimental data were well correlated using the NRTL and UNIQUAC models. The performance of the UNIFAC-Dortmund model in relation to predicting the phase equilibrium of the systems was also studied.

  4. E-Cigarette Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegin, Gulay; Mekala, Hema Madhuri; Sarai, Simrat Kaur; Lippmann, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. In just a few short years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular, especially for younger individuals. Many people believe that e-cigarettes are safe. The inhaled aerosols of e-cigarettes contain numerous potential toxicities, some of which could be dangerous for health with long-term use. The safety of prolonged aerosol exposure is not known. The use of e-cigarettes as a harm-reduction tool at stopping tobacco smoking is not uniformly successful. E-cigarettes may be safer than tobacco products, but repeated prolonged exposure to their aerosols has its own considerable potential risk. The long-term health consequences of their use remain to be established. Physicians should vigorously discourage the use of e-cigarettes and tobacco products, with special emphasis on abstinence for younger people and during pregnancy or lactation.

  5. Nonaqueous gel for the transdermal delivery of a DTPA penta-ethyl ester prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Sueda, Katsuhiko; Yang, Yu-Tsai; Pacyniak, Erik K; Kagel, John R; Braun, Brenda A; Zamboni, William C; Mumper, Russell J; Jay, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid penta-ethyl ester, designated as C2E5, was successfully incorporated into a nonaqueous gel for transdermal delivery. The thermal and rheological properties of a formulation containing 40% C2E5, 20% ethyl cellulose, and 40% Miglyol 840® prepared using the solvent evaporation method demonstrated that the gel had acceptable content uniformity and flow properties. In vitro studies showed that C2E5 was steadily released from the gel at a rate suitable for transdermal delivery. Topical application of the gel at a 200 mg C2E5/kg dose level in rats achieved significantly higher plasma exposures of several active metabolites compared with neat C2E5 oil at the same dose level. The results suggest that transdermal delivery of a chelator prodrug is an effective radionuclide decorporation strategy by delivering chelators to the circulation with a pharmacokinetic profile that is more consistent with the biokinetic profile of transuranic elements in contaminated individuals.

  6. A comparative study of the chemical kinetics of methyl and ethyl propanoate

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir

    2014-10-01

    High temperature pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH3) and ethyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH2CH3) was studied behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1250-1750 K and pressure of 1.5 atm. Species time-histories were recorded for CO, CO2, C2H4, and H2O using laser absorption methods over a test time of 1 ms. Pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (MP) appears to be faster than that of ethyl propanoate (EP) under the present experimental conditions, where CO and CO 2 reach their plateau values faster for MP at a specific temperature and fuel concentration. Higher plateau values are reached for CO in case of MP while the CO2 levels are similar for the two ester fuels. Ethylene production is larger for EP due to the presence of six-centered ring elimination reaction that produces ethylene and propanoic acid. Very little H2O is produced during MP pyrolysis in contrast with appreciable H2O production from EP. Sensitivity and rate-of-production analyses were carried out to identify key reactions that affect the measured species profiles. Previous kinetic mechanisms of Yang et al. (2011) [1,2] and Metcalf et al. (2009, 2007) [3,4] were used as base models and then refined to propose a new MP/EP pyrolysis mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimum conditions of the synthesis of zeolite A by the direct hydrolysis of ethyl orthosilicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, R; Toki, K

    1975-11-01

    Synthesis of various types of zeolites has been reported using as a starting material silica sols, gels, silicates or silicate minerals, all of which are polymers of silicic acid. In this study Zeolite A was synthesized from ethyl orthosilicate which was probably a monomer at the beginning of hydrolysis. Optimum conditions of synthesis and factors which influence the formation of Zeolite A were examined. Ethyl orthosilicate was directly hydrolyzed by sodium aluminate solution in the presence of excess sodium hydroxide. After ultrasonic and mechanical stirring for an hour at 70/sup 0/C, the solution was kept in the air bath at 70/sup 0/C under atmospheric pressure for 48 approximately 120 hours. Zeolite A with high purity and crystallinity was obtained in a good yield from the starting mixture with the composition of 2 approximately 4.5 Na/sub 2/O . Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ . 0.5 approximately 2 SiO/sub 2/ . 200 approximately 400 H/sub 2/O. Present method was effective for the synthesis of Zeolite A in the lower molar ratios of SiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as compared with the ordinary methods using silica or silicates. The species formed were also investigated by the optical, x-ray diffraction, DTA, TGA, IR and chemical methods.

  8. Submillimeter wave spectroscopy of ethyl isocyanide and its searches in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Tercero, B.; Guillemin, J. C.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Cernicharo, J.

    2018-02-01

    Context. About 40 cyanide compounds have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only 3 examples of organic isocyanide compounds were observed in this medium. Ethyl isocyanide is one of the best candidates for possible detection. Aim. To date, measurements of rotational spectra are limited to 40 GHz. The extrapolation of the prediction in the millimeter wave domain is inaccurate and does not permit an unambiguous detection. Methods: The rotational spectra were reinvestigated from 0.15 to 1 THz. Using the new prediction, we searched for the compound ethyl isocyanide in Orion KL and Sgr B2. Results: We newly assigned 2906 transitions and fitted these new data with those from previous studies, reaching quantum numbers up to J = 103 and Ka = 30. The asymmetric top Hamiltonian proposed by Watson in the Ir representation was used for the analysis, and both reductions A and S were tested. The search for CH3CH2NC in Sgr B2 (IRAM 30m) and Orion KL (IRAM 30m, ALMA Science Verification) result in a non-detection; upper limits to the column density were derived. Tables S1-S4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A44

  9. Theoretical Study of the Kinetics of the Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction of Ethyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Ajibade Adejoro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The products of the gas-phase elimination of ethyl chloride are hydrogen chloride and ethane. Using AM1, MNDO and PM3 Hamiltonians of quantum mechanical computer code called MOPAC, a procedure for the kinetics and computation of the Arrhenius parameters for the pyrolytic elimination reaction of ethyl chloride was devised in order to evaluate the predictive ability of the three Hamiltonians used. The first-order rate coefficient for the three Hamiltonians are 1.15x10-8s-1, 4.55x10-15s-1 and 5.36x10-4s-1 for AM1, MNDO and PM3 respectively. The results obtained showed that the rate constant for the computed Arrhenius parameters compare well with the experimental values in the literature, thus showing that the computational procedure adequately simulates experimental results; also the semi-empirical AMI calculation has the best predictive ability with experiment followed by PM3 while MNDO has the least.

  10. Exploration of ethyl anthranilate-loaded monolithic matrix-type prophylactic polymeric patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johirul Islam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Compromised stability of pharmaceutical formulations loaded with volatiles is a serious problem associated with devices designed to deliver volatile compounds. The present study has been focused to evaluate the stability potential of matrix-type polymeric patches composed of volatile ethyl anthranilate for prophylaxis against vector-borne diseases. Ethyl anthranilate-loaded matrix-type polymeric patches were fabricated by solvent evaporation method on an impermeable backing membrane and attached to temporary release liners. Stability testing of the polymeric patches was performed as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines for 6 months under accelerated conditions. In addition, the quantification of residual solvents was also performed as per the ICH guidelines. After conducting the stability studies for 6 months, the optimized patches showed the best possible results with respect to uniformity of drug content, physical appearance, and other analytical parameters. Furthermore, the amount of residual solvent was found well below the accepted limit. Thus, the present report outlined the analytical parameters to be evaluated to ensure the stability of a certain devices consisting of volatile compounds.

  11. Effects on wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  12. Effects of wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California USA rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  13. Spectroscopic Investigations and DFT Calculations on 3-(Diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Sert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and experimental vibrational frequencies of 3-(diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (2 were investigated. The experimental Laser-Raman spectrum (4000–100 cm−1 and FT-IR spectrum (4000–400 cm−1 of the newly synthesized compound were recorded in the solid phase. Both the theoretical vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters such as bond lengths and bond angles have for the first time been calculated using density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP and DFT/M06-2X quantum chemical methods with the 6-311++G(d,p basis set using Gaussian 03 software. The vibrational frequencies were assigned with the help of potential energy distribution (PED analysis using VEDA 4 software. The calculated vibrational frequencies and the optimized geometric parameters were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding reported experimental data. Also, the energies of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, and other related molecular energies for 3-(diacetylamino-2-ethyl-3H-quinazolin-4-one (2 have been investigated using the same computational methods.

  14. Thermal decomposition synthesis of nanorods bismuth sulphide from bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, Nurul Hidayah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Silong, Sidik; Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed; Tan, Kar-Ban; Chang, Sook-Keng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate was used as single source precursor. • No surfactant was used in the preparation of Bi_2S_3 nanorods. • Pure phase orthorhombic Bi_2S_3 is obtained. • Bismuth sulphide with an average atomic ratio of Bi:S close to 2:3 is obtained. - Abstract: Nanorods of bismuth sulphide were prepared by thermal decomposition of bismuth N-ethyl cyclohexyl dithiocarbamate at different calcination duration. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that at 400 °C, the precursor was fully decomposed to orthorhombic bismuth sulphide after 2 h of calcination. Besides, calcination duration does not affect the existence of Bi_2S_3 phase. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses reveal that Bi_2S_3 nanorods with an average width ranging from 29–36 nm were obtained. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the atomic ratio of Bi and S close to 2:3, giving a possible composition of Bi_2S_3. Direct band gap energy of Bi_2S_3 decreases from 1.83 eV to 1.54 eV as calcination time increases.

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Littorina littorea and Galatea paradoxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Sheringham Borquaye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment is a vital resource for bioprospecting pharmacologically important natural products. Molluscs are known to harbour compounds with antimicrobial, antitumor and antioxidant activities. This study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of ethyl acetate and methanol tissue extracts of two molluscs, Littorina littorea (L. littorea and Galatea paradoxa (G. paradoxa. Agar diffusion and broth dilution assays were used to test for antimicrobial activity against nine microbes. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method was used to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts. Extracts of both molluscs showed significant activity against all the bacteria strains tested but were inactive towards the fungus. The best antibacterial activity was recorded by methanol extract of L. littorea towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In comparison to ethyl acetate extracts, methanol extracts were more efficient in scavenging the DPPH radical. Methanol extracts of L. littorea had an IC50 of 0.37 mg/mL which was closer to that of the standard ascorbic acid drug (0.0048 mg/mL than any of the other extracts. The findings of this work indicate that the tissue extracts of L. littorea and G. paradoxa are promising sources of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents that can be utilized for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  16. The influence of temperature on the polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate from the vapor phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Algaier, Dana [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    The polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate fumes from surface bound initiators is an important step in many novel and mature technologies. Understanding the effect of temperature on the rate of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) (PECA) growth and its molecular weight during its polymerization from the vapor phase from surface bound initiators provides insight into the important mechanistic aspects that impact the polymerizations success. In these studies, it is shown that the amount of PECA formed during the polymerization of ECA from a latent fingerprint increases with decreasing temperature, while the polymer molecular weight varies little. This is interpreted to be the result of the loosening of the ion pair that initiates the polymer chain growth and resides on the end of the growing polymer chain with decreasing temperature. Comparison of temperature effects and counter-ion studies show that in both cases loosening the ion pair results in the formation of more polymer with similar molecular weight, verifying this interpretation. These results further suggest that lowering the temperature may be an effective method to optimize anionic vapor phase polymerizations, including the improvement of the quality of aged latent prints and preliminary results are presented that substantiate this prediction.

  17. CARBON CRYOGEL MICROSPHERE FOR ETHYL LEVULINATE PRODUCTION: EFFECT OF CARBONIZATION TEMPERATURE AND TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUZAKKIR M. ZAINOL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The side products of biomass and bio-fuel industry have shown potential in producing carbon catalyst. The carbon cryogel was synthesized from ligninfurfural mixture based on the following details: 1.0 of lignin to furfural (L/F ratio, 1.0 of lignin to water (L/W ratio, and 8M of acid concentration. The lignin-furfural sol-gel mixture, initially prepared via polycondensation reaction at 90 °C for 30 min, was followed by freeze drying and carbonization process. Effects of carbonization temperature and time were investigated on the total acidity and surface area of the carbon cryogel. Furthermore, the effects of these parameters were studied on the ethyl levulinate yield through esterification reaction of levulinic acid in ethanol. The esterification reaction was conducted at reflux temperature, 10 h of reaction time, 19 molar ratio of ethanol to levulinic acid, and 15.0 wt.% carbon cryogel loading. Based on the carbonization temperature and time studies, the carbon cryogel carbonized at 500 °C and 4 h exhibited good performance as solid acid catalyst. Large total surface area and acidity significantly influenced the catalytic activity of carbon cryogel with 80.0 wt.% yield of ethyl levulinate. Thus, carbon cryogel is highly potential as acid catalyst for the esterification of levulinic acid with ethanol.

  18. Electron spin resonance study on γ-ray-induced ethyl radical in ethane hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeya, Kei; Nango, Kouhei; Sugahara, Takeshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari; Tani, Atsushi; Ito, Hironori; Okada, Michio; Kasai, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies have been performed to investigate radicals induced in ethane hydrate irradiated by γ-rays at 77K. Two ESR spectra are observed and identified as the induced ethyl radical (g=2.0031±0.0005, A α sub(perpendicular)=2.2±0.1mT, A α sub(parallel)=2.5±0.1mT, A β =2.7±0.1mT) and induced atomic hydrogen (g=2.0026±0.0005, A=50.5±0.1mT). From the results of ESR analysis and gas mass spectroscopy, it is concluded that the ethyl radical decays into butane by dimerization in the first-order reaction in the temperature region of 250-265K. The activation energy of the decay reaction is 73.1±6.3kJ/mol, which is near the dissociation enthalpy change of ethane hydrate to liquid water and gaseous ethane. This finding implies that ethane hydrate does not dissociate into ice but supercooled water in the present temperature region, similar to the dissociation of methane hydrate in our previous study. (author)

  19. [Study on chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of Myricaria bracteata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yuan, Yi; Cui, Baosong; Li, Shuai

    2011-04-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the ethyl acetate extract of Myricaria bracteata. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by chromatographic techniques, and their structures were identified by physical characters and spectroscopic analysis. Sixteen compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate portion of the 95% ethanolic extract of Myricaria bracteata, and identified as myricarin (1), myricarin B (2), 3alpha-hydroxytaraxer-14-en-28-oic acid (3), myricadiol (4), trans-ferulic acid 22-hydroxydocosanoic acid ester (5), docosyl-3, 4-dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate (6), dillenetin (7), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (8), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-7, 3'-dimethoxyflavone (9), methyl 3, 5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (10), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxy cinnamic acid (11), sinapaldehyde (12), vanillin (13), syringaldehyde (14), 3, 3', 4'-trimethoxyellagic acid (15), methyl p-hyroxybenzoate (16). Compounds 5, 6, 12-16 were isolated from the genus Myricaria for the fist time, all of the compounds were isolated from this plant for the fist time, except for 8 and 9.

  20. How 'ground-picked' olive fruits affect virgin olive oil ethanol content, ethyl esters and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. A comparative study of the chemical kinetics of methyl and ethyl propanoate

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Aamir; Davidson, D.F.; Hanson, R.K.; Westbrook, C.K.

    2014-01-01

    High temperature pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH3) and ethyl propanoate (CH3CH 2C(O)OCH2CH3) was studied behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1250-1750 K and pressure of 1.5 atm. Species time-histories were recorded for CO, CO2, C2H4, and H2O using laser absorption methods over a test time of 1 ms. Pyrolysis of methyl propanoate (MP) appears to be faster than that of ethyl propanoate (EP) under the present experimental conditions, where CO and CO 2 reach their plateau values faster for MP at a specific temperature and fuel concentration. Higher plateau values are reached for CO in case of MP while the CO2 levels are similar for the two ester fuels. Ethylene production is larger for EP due to the presence of six-centered ring elimination reaction that produces ethylene and propanoic acid. Very little H2O is produced during MP pyrolysis in contrast with appreciable H2O production from EP. Sensitivity and rate-of-production analyses were carried out to identify key reactions that affect the measured species profiles. Previous kinetic mechanisms of Yang et al. (2011) [1,2] and Metcalf et al. (2009, 2007) [3,4] were used as base models and then refined to propose a new MP/EP pyrolysis mechanism. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LABORATORY CHARACTERIZATION AND ASTROPHYSICAL DETECTION OF VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED STATES OF ETHYL CYANIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, A. M.; Bermudez, C.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Area de Quimica-Fisica, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada del CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, A.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Pearson, J. C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Padadena, CA 91109 (United States); Marcelino, N., E-mail: adammichael.daly@uva.es, E-mail: cbermu@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: John.C.Pearson@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: nmarceli@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Ethyl cyanide, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, is an important interstellar molecule with a very dense rotational-vibrational spectrum. On the basis of new laboratory data in the range of 17-605 GHz and ab initio calculations, two new vibrational states, {nu}{sub 12} and {nu}{sub 20}, have been detected in molecular clouds of Orion. Laboratory data consist of Stark spectroscopy (17-110 GHz) and frequency-modulated spectrometers (GEM laboratory in Valladolid: 17-170, 270-360 GHz; Toyama: 26-200 GHz; Emory: 200-240 GHz; Ohio State: 258-368 GHz; and JPL: 270-318, 395-605 GHz). More than 700 distinct lines of each species were measured in J up to 71 and in K{sub a} up to 25. The states were fitted with Watson's S-reduction Hamiltonian. The two new states have been identified in the interstellar medium toward the Orion Nebula (Orion KL). The ground state, the isotopologues of CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CN, and the vibrationally excited states have been fitted to obtain column densities and to derive vibrational temperatures. All together, ethyl cyanide is responsible for more than 2000 lines in the observed frequency range of 80-280 GHz.

  3. Kinetic α secondary deuterium isotope effects for O-ethyl S-phenyl benzaldehyde acetal hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, J.P.; Cordes, E.H.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of hydrolysis of O-ethyl S-phenyl benzaldehyde acetal at 25 0 C in 20% dioxane--80% water is independent of pH over the range pH6-12; k/sub obsd/ = 1.9 x 10 -7 s -1 . Under more acidic conditions, the rate increases linearly with the activity of the hydrated proton; k 2 = 2.95 x 10 -2 M -1 s -1 . The kinetic α secondary deuterium isotope effect for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of O-ethyl S-phenyl benzaldehyde acetal, measured at 25 0 C in 20% aqueous dioxane containing 0.05 M HCl, is k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.038 +- 0.008, a value consistent with a transition state in which the C--S bond is stretched rather little. In contrast, the corresponding isotope effect for the pH-independent hydrolysis of this substrate, measured at 42.5 0 C in 20% dioxane, is 1.13 +- 0.02, a value consistent with complete C--S bond cleavage in the transition state and rate-determining diffusion apart of the ion-pair formed as the initial intermediate, in accord with the suggestion of Jensen and Jencks. 1 figure, 4 tables

  4. Determination of mole fractions of ethyl-cellulose-containing monomers by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-05

    Three samples of ethyl cellulose (EC) with different degrees of substitution (DS)-0.51, 1.41, and 2.28-were prepared by a slurry method using ethyl bromide as the etherification reagent. 1 H- 13 C HSQC and HSQC-TOCSY NMR spectral analysis allowed for complete assignment of the 1 H and 13 C chemical shifts, respectively, of eight anhydroglucose units (AGUs) comprising EC chains-un-, 2-mono-, 3-mono-, 6-mono-, 2,3-di-, 2,6-di-, 3,6-di-, and 2,3,6-tri-substituted AGUs. In addition, the lineshape of the quantitative 13 C NMR spectra of the three EC samples provided change in the mole fractions of these AGUs against DS, making it possible to estimate the reaction mechanism for the production of EC, elucidating reactivities of the hydroxyl groups at the 2, 3, and 6 positions of cellulose and interactions between the substituent groups within the same AGU and vicinal AGUs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced bioreduction synthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroybutanoate by alkalic salt pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ganggang; Di, Junhua; Ma, Cuiluan; Wang, Dajing; Wang, Chu; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Pengqi; Zhu, Jun; He, Yucai

    2018-08-01

    In this study, biomass-hydrolysate was used for enhancing the bioreduction of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE). Firstly, dilute alkalic salt pretreatment was attempted to pretreat bamboo shoot shell (BSS). It was found that enzymatic in situ hydrolysis of 20-50 g/L BSS pretreated with dilute alkalic salts (0.4% Na 2 CO 3 , 0.032% Na 2 S) at 7.5% sulfidity by autoclaving at 110 °C for 40 min gave sugar yields at 59.9%-73.5%. Moreover, linear relationships were corrected on solid recovery-total delignification-sugar yield. In BSS-hydrolysates, xylose and glucose could promote the reductase activity of recombinant E. coli CCZU-A13. Compared with glucose, hydrolysate could increase the reductase activity by 1.35-folds. Furthermore, the cyclohexane-hydrolysate (10:90, v/v) biphasic media containing ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, 40 mM) and l-glutamine (150 mM) was built for the effective biosynthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(R)-CHBE] (94.6% yield) from 500 mM COBE. In conclusion, this strategy has high potential for the effective biosynthesis of (R)-CHBE (>99% e.e.). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Heat release and engine performance effects of soybean oil ethyl ester blending into diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Andre Valente; Velasquez, Jose Antonio; Milanez, Luiz Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The engine performance impact of soybean oil ethyl ester blending into diesel fuel was analyzed employing heat release analysis, in-cylinder exergy balances and dynamometric tests. Blends with concentrations of up to 30% of soybean oil ethyl ester in volume were used in steady-state experiments conducted in a high speed turbocharged direct injection engine. Modifications in fuel heat value, fuel-air equivalence ratio and combustion temperature were found to govern the impact resulting from the addition of biodiesel on engine performance. For the analyzed fuels, the 20% biodiesel blend presented the best results of brake thermal efficiency, while the 10% biodiesel blend presented the best results of brake power and sfc (specific fuel consumption). In relation to mineral diesel and in full load conditions, an average increase of 4.16% was observed in brake thermal efficiency with B20 blend. In the same conditions, an average gain of 1.15% in brake power and a reduction of 1.73% in sfc was observed with B10 blend.

  7. Degradation of ethyl mercaptan and its major intermediate diethyl disulfide by Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangqian; Wu, Chao; Liu, Nan; Li, Sujing; Li, Wei; Chen, Jianmeng; Chen, Dongzhi

    2015-04-01

    A Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2 that is able to efficiently metabolize ethyl mercaptan (EM) into diethyl disulfide (DEDS) through enzymatic oxidation was isolated from the activated sludge of a pharmaceutical wastewater plant. One hundred percent removal of 113.5 mg L(-1) EM and 110.3 mg L(-1) DEDS were obtained within 14 and 32 h, respectively. A putative EM degradation pathway that involved the catabolism via DEDS was proposed, which indicated DEDS were further mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2), bacterial cells, and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) through the transformation of element sulfur and ethyl aldehyde. Degradation kinetics for EM and DEDS with different initial concentrations by strain WL2 were evaluated using Haldane-Andrews model with maximum specific degradation rates of 3.13 and 1.33 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, and maximum degradation rate constants of 0.522 and 0.175 h(-1) using pseudo-first-order kinetic model were obtained. Results obtained that aerobic degradation of EM by strain WL2 was more efficient than those from previous studies. Substrate range studies of strain WL2 demonstrated its ability to degrade several mercaptans, disulfides, aldehydes, and methanol. All the results obtained highlight the potential of strain WL2 for the use in the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs).

  8. Study of the rearrangement of N-alkylaniline to p-aminoalkylbencene. I. N-ethyl-l-14C-aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molera, M. J.; Gamboa, J. M.; Val Cob, M. del

    1961-01-01

    The rearrangement of N-ethylaniline to p-aminoethylbenzene has been studied over the temperature range 200-300 degree centigrade using different catalysts: Cl 2 Co, Cl 2 Zn, Cl 2 Ni, Cl 3 Al, Cl 2 Cd and Br H.N-ethyl-1- 1 4C-aniline has been synthesized from ethyl-1- 1 4C-iodide and aniline and its rearrangement to p-aminoethyl-benzene proves that the ethyl group does not rearrange itself during the reaction. A scheme for the degradation of both the N-ethyl-1- 1 4C aniline and the p-aminoethylbenzene produces is described. (Author) 14 refs

  9. A tacrolimus-related immunosuppressant with reduced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, F J; Koprak, S; Staruch, M J; Talento, A; Koo, G; DaSilva, C; Sinclair, P J; Wong, F; Woods, J; Barker, J; Pivnichny, J; Singer, I; Sigal, N H; Williamson, A R; Parsons, W H; Wyvratt, M

    1998-01-15

    Tacrolimus (FK506) has potent immunosuppressive properties reflecting its ability to block the transcription of lymphokine genes in activated T cells through formation of a complex with FK506 binding protein-12, which inhibits the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. The clinical usefulness of tacrolimus is limited, however, by severe adverse effects, including neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Although this toxicity, like immunosuppression, appears mechanistically related to the calcineurin inhibitory action of the drug, a large chemistry effort has been devoted to search for tacrolimus analogs with reduced toxicity but preserved immunosuppressive activity that might have enhanced therapeutic utility. Here, we report on the identification of such an analog, which was synthetically derived from ascomycin (ASC), the C21 ethyl analog of tacrolimus, by introducing an indole group at the C32 position. The profile of biological activity of indolyl-ASC was characterized in rodent models of immunosuppression and toxicity. Indolyl-ASC was found to exhibit an immunosuppressive potency equivalent to that of tacrolimus in T-cell activation in vitro and in murine transplant models, even though indolyl-ASC bound about 10 times less to intracellular FK506 binding protein-12 than tacrolimus or ASC. Further evaluation of indolyl-ASC revealed that it is threefold less potent than tacrolimus in inducing hypothermia, a response that may reflect neurotoxicity, and in causing gastrointestinal transit alterations in mice. Moreover, indolyl-ASC was at least twofold less nephrotoxic than tacrolimus upon 3-week oral treatment in rats. Altogether, these data indicate a modest but definite improvement in the therapeutic index for indolyl-ASC compared with tacrolimus in rodent models.

  10. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  11. Hydroxycut-induced Liver Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jan-Feb 2014 | Vol 4 ... supplements can be responsible for documented or undocumented adverse drug effects. The ... Keywords: Hydroxycut, Liver toxicity, Nutritional supplements ... Caffeine anhydrous: 200 mg* ... series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss.

  12. One Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Health and toxic cyanobacteria Blooms of toxic freshwater blue-green algae or cyanobacteria (HABs) have been in the news after HABs associated with human and animal health problems have been reported in Florida, California and Utah during 2016. HABs occur in warm, slow moving...

  13. Toxic Leadership in Educational Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James E.

    2014-01-01

    While research on the traits and skills of effective leaders is plentiful, only recently has the phenomenon of toxic leadership begun to be investigated. This research report focuses on toxic leadership in educational organizations--its prevalence, as well as the characteristics and early indicators. Using mixed methods, the study found four…

  14. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-04-03

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity. This report is the result of a consensus working group developing a plan to create an ontology for developmental toxicity that spans multiple levels of biological organization. This report provide a description of some of the challenges in building a developmental toxicity ontology and outlines a proposed methodology to meet those challenges. As the ontology is built on currently available web-based resources, a review of these resources is provided. Case studies on one of the most well-understood morphogens and developmental toxicants, retinoic acid, are presented as examples of how such an ontology might be developed. This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  16. Termination of DNA synthesis in vitro at apurinic sites but not at ethyl adducts of the template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockhart, M.L.; Deutsch, J.F.; Yamaura, I.; Cavalieri, L.F.; Rosenberg, B.H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of DNA lesions produced by the carcinogenic alkylating agents ethylnitrosourea and diethylsulfate on the extent of DNA synthesis have been studied in a system utilizing circular single-stranded phi X174 DNA as template and a 392-base restriction fragment as primer with E. coli polymerase I (Klenow fragment). Apurinic sites produced by loss of unstable ethylated bases from the template terminate DNA synthesis at the first such site encountered, but ethyl adducts at most, if not all, locations permit readthrough. 22 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Conformationally superarmed S-ethyl glycosyl donors as effective building blocks for chemoselective oligosaccharide synthesis in one pot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandara, Mithila D.; Yasomanee, Jagodige P.; Rath, Nigam P.

    2017-01-01

    A new series of superarmed glycosyl donors has been investigated. It was demonstrated that the S-ethyl leaving group allows for high reactivity, which is much higher than that of equally equipped S-phenyl glycosyl donors that were previously investigated by our groups. The superarmed S......-ethyl glycosyl donors equipped with a 2-O-benzoyl group gave complete β-stereoselectivity. Utility of the new glycosyl donors has been demonstrated in a one-pot one-addition oligosaccharide synthesis with all of the reaction components present from the beginning...

  18. Extremely decreased release of prostaglandin E-like activity from chopped lung of ethyl linolenate-supplemented rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Fjalland, B.

    1983-01-01

    Three groups of weanling male rats were reared on a fat-free diet for 13 weeks. One group received only the fat-free diet (FF rats), the other 2 groups received the fat-free diet and a daily supplement of 2 energy% ethyl linoleate ([n-6] rats), or 2 energy% ethyl linolenate ([n-3] rats). The chop......). The chopped lung preparation was used to illustrate an in vitro prostaglandin formation. PGE-like activity was quantified on rat stomach strip. The release of PGE-like activity expressed as ng PGE-equivalent per g lung tissue (mean±SD) was 23±7,...

  19. Synthesis of high specific activity [ethyl-1,2-3H]-labeled chlorpyrifos oxon and diazoxon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nanjing; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Casida, John E

    2000-01-01

    [Ethyl-1,2-3H] Chlorpyrifos oxon and [ethyl-1,2-3H] diazoxon were synthesized at a specific activity of 79 and 58 Ci/mmol, respectively, by catalytic tritiation of the corresponding monovinyl analogs over Pd/C. Direct evidence is provided that the high specific activity results from isotope exchange of the terminal vinylic protons prior to saturation of the double bond. This radiosynthesis procedure is applicable to the toxicologically-important oxon metabolites of many commercial O-O-diethyl phosphorothioate pesticides

  20. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC......Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...